WorldWideScience

Sample records for law information agent

  1. Teaching Information Technology Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in particular…

  2. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  3. Information Warfare and International Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Lawrence T; Goodman, Seymour E; Soo Hoo, Kevin J

    1998-01-01

    .... Some legal constraints will certainly apply to information warfare, either because the constraints explicitly regulate particular actions, or because more general principles of international law...

  4. Informational laws of genome structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnici, Vincenzo; Manca, Vincenzo

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, the analysis of genomes by means of strings of length k occurring in the genomes, called k-mers, has provided important insights into the basic mechanisms and design principles of genome structures. In the present study, we focus on the proper choice of the value of k for applying information theoretic concepts that express intrinsic aspects of genomes. The value k = lg2(n), where n is the genome length, is determined to be the best choice in the definition of some genomic informational indexes that are studied and computed for seventy genomes. These indexes, which are based on information entropies and on suitable comparisons with random genomes, suggest five informational laws, to which all of the considered genomes obey. Moreover, an informational genome complexity measure is proposed, which is a generalized logistic map that balances entropic and anti-entropic components of genomes and is related to their evolutionary dynamics. Finally, applications to computational synthetic biology are briefly outlined.

  5. Design of Collaborative Information Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Klusch, M.; Treur, J.; Klusch, M.; Kerschberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    Effective development of nontrivial systems of collaborative information agents requires that an in-depth analysis is made resulting in (1) specification of requirements at different levels of the system, (2) specification of design structures, and (3) a systematic verification. To support a

  6. THE EMERGENCE OF A DISCIPLINE: INFORMATION LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai-Ştefan DINU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to emphasize the fact that in the context of information society, regulations and laws governing information and data as well as information systems activities, must be prevalent. In this regard, we believe that at least on the educational and academic level the discipline of information law must be developed in accordance with the new challenges and threats to security, synchronized with the transformed paradigm of national and international security.

  7. Informal administrative acts in public economic law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, H.

    1987-01-01

    The article deals with agreements between the administration and citizens, which play a considerable part in public commercial law and in atomic energy law. The legal basis can be the doctrine of administrative legal relationship, which clarifies the reciprocity and multilaterality of the legal relationship. In the future informal administrative acts will have an increasing meaning. (CW) [de

  8. Supply and demand law under limited information

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    We present a model for the supply-demand law with quality and limited information capability. We postulate that imperfect information permeates in almost all economic transactions to varying degrees. Through a simple model we outline a research agenda that re-examines many standard issues in economics. Our analysis shows that whereas imperfect information can be improved, it leads to new uncertainties so that the perfect information limit can never be reached. As a corollary neoclassical perf...

  9. Dynamic coordinated control laws in multiple agent models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, David S.; Schwartz, Ira B.

    2005-01-01

    We present an active control scheme of a kinetic model of swarming. It has been shown previously that the global control scheme for the model, presented in [Systems Control Lett. 52 (2004) 25], gives rise to spontaneous collective organization of agents into a unified coherent swarm, via steering controls and utilizing long-range attractive and short-range repulsive interactions. We extend these results by presenting control laws whereby a single swarm is broken into independently functioning subswarm clusters. The transition between one coordinated swarm and multiple clustered subswarms is managed simply with a homotopy parameter. Additionally, we present as an alternate formulation, a local control law for the same model, which implements dynamic barrier avoidance behavior, and in which swarm coherence emerges spontaneously

  10. NEA, Nuclear law and information processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyners, P.

    1977-01-01

    NEA has for many years now been collating information on, and analysing, laws and regulations on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and this work has resulted in a series of publications. However, as seen by the multiplication of computer-based legal information centres, both at national and international level, conventional information systems are no longer adequate to deal with the increasing volume of information and with users' needs. In view of the particular aspects of nuclear law and of its own availabilities, NEA has endeavoured to make the best possible use of existing structures by opting for participation in the IAEA International Nuclear Information System rather than by creating a specialised centre. Before becoming operational, the arrangements concluded between NEA and IAEA required that the INIS rules be altered somewhat to take account of the specific problems raised by treatment of legal literature and also to improve the quality of information provided to users. (auth.) [fr

  11. Cooperative information agents and communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verharen, E.; Dignum, F.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    Research in Information Systems has switched its focus from data to communication. The communication between different autonomous Information Systems requires a certain amount of intelligence of each system. The system should be able to know which queries it can/may handle and also be able to

  12. Multi-Agent Information Classification Using Dynamic Acquaintance Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Peng, Shengquan; Raje, Rajeev; Palakal, Mathew; Mostafa, Javed

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of automated information services focuses on information classification and collaborative agents, i.e. intelligent computer programs. Highlights include multi-agent systems; distributed artificial intelligence; thesauri; document representation and classification; agent modeling; acquaintances, or remote agents discovered through…

  13. Fusing Intelligence With Law Enforcement Information: An Analytic Imperative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thornlow, Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    ... and Law Enforcement Communities to fuse and analyze foreign threat intelligence with domestic law enforcement information in a timely fashion to provide adequate indications and warning of such an...

  14. Collaborative Information Agents on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James R.; Mathe, Nathalie; Wolfe, Shawn; Koga, Dennis J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative information agents which help users access, collect, organize, and exchange information on the World Wide Web. Personal agents provide their owners dynamic displays of well organized information collections, as well as friendly information management utilities. Personal agents exchange information with one another. They also work with other types of information agents such as matchmakers and knowledge experts to facilitate collaboration and communication.

  15. Proof and Information about Foreign Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung

    2014-01-01

    This report concerns the application and ascertainment of foreign law before Danish judicial and non-judicial authorities and in certain other instances, including arbitration and mediation. The overall structure of the report follows the questionnaire prepared by Professor Nishitani, Japan, for ......, for the XIXth International Congress of Comparative Law in Vienna 2014.......This report concerns the application and ascertainment of foreign law before Danish judicial and non-judicial authorities and in certain other instances, including arbitration and mediation. The overall structure of the report follows the questionnaire prepared by Professor Nishitani, Japan...

  16. Teaching Indian Law and Creating Agents of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Native students who take courses in Indian law at tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) generally gain insight and knowledge of the subject matter not available at mainstream institutions. The unique relationship between the Native students and the Native instructor allows for a better understanding of the emotional and sometimes traumatic study…

  17. Information and Knowledge Management at South African Law Firms

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In legal practice, information management technologies, for example intranets, ... document and content management systems, case and project management ... knowledge management, law firms, legal practice, information technology, legal ...

  18. Second Law, Landauer's Principle and Autonomous Information ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    law dates back to nearly 150 years, when Maxwell proposed his famous thought ... ure 1), the demon allows it pass to the right side by opening the door, while the demon closes ..... stored in a piece of paper or a hard-disk, etc. Landauer shed ...

  19. Reasons for deficiencies in health information laws in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasi, Hamid; Hosseini, Azamol-sadat; Sajjadi, Samad; Nikookalam, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Laws, regulations, and guidelines are necessary external stimuli that influence the management of health data. They serve as external mechanisms for the reinforcement and quality improvement of health information. Despite their inevitable significance, such laws have not yet been sufficiently formulated in Iran. The current study explores reasons for inadequacies in the health information laws. In this descriptive study, health-related laws and regulations from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Iran were first collected, using a review of the literature and available data. Then, bearing in mind the significant deficiencies in health information laws in Iran, the researchers asked a group of managers and policy makers in the healthcare field to complete a questionnaire to explore the reasons for such deficiencies. A test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. Descriptive statistics and tables were then used to analyze the data. Experts' opinion on reasons for deficiencies in health information laws and regulations in Iran are divided into four principal groups: cultural conditions of the community, the status of the health information system, characteristics of managers and policy makers in the healthcare field, and awareness level among public beneficiaries about laws. The health departments or ministries in developed countries have brought about suitable changes in their affiliated organizations by developing external data enhancement mechanisms such as information-related laws and standards, and accreditation of healthcare organizations. At the same time, healthcare organizations, under obligations imposed by the external forces, try to elevate the quality of information. Therefore, this study suggests that raising healthcare managers' awareness of the importance of passing health information laws, as an effective external mechanism, is essential.

  20. Federal Information Security and Data Breach Notification Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-29

    The following report describes information security and data breach notification requirements included in the Privacy Act, the Federal Information...information for unauthorized purposes. Data breach notification laws typically require covered entities to implement a breach notification policy, and...Feinstein), S. 495 (Leahy), and S. 1178 (Inouye)--were reported favorably out of Senate committees. Those bills include information security and data

  1. Does It Matter Whom an Agent Serves? Evidence from Recent Changes in Real Estate Agency Law.

    OpenAIRE

    Curran, Christopher; Schrag, Joel

    2000-01-01

    Recent changes in real estate law hastened the shift from a seller's agency regime, in which real estate agents serve the interests of sellers, to a buyer's agency regime, in which agents serve the interests of buyers. Using data from the Atlanta real estate market, we show that the shift to buyer's agency led to a significant decline in real estate prices in the market for relatively expensive houses, while real estate prices did not significantly change in the market for relatively inexpens...

  2. Sharing Law Enforcement and Intelligence Information: The Congressional Role

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Best Jr., Richard A

    2007-01-01

    Almost all assessments of the attacks of September 11, 2001, have concluded that U.S. intelligence and law enforcement agencies had failed to share information that might have provided advance warning of the plot...

  3. Survey of agent for intelligent information retrieval; Chiteki kensaku no tame no agent no chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazawa, T [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Development of agent systems has been surveyed, to classify and arrange characteristic functions of the agents, and to grasp the realization situation of these agents in their development. In addition, prospective functions of information retrieval systems using the agents at maximum and functions to be developed among these in the future are clarified. The agents are characterized by the expression function, communication function, planning function, adaptive function, and learning function. The agents are desired to be classified into interface agents whose works are to respond to individual workers, coordinator agents which conduct works with high pervasion, such as assignment of works and their control, and task agents which conduct specialized works for individual examples. Thus, design and configuration of the agent system, and improvement and expansion of system functions can be effectively and easily conducted. 52 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Information and Knowledge Management at South African Law Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T du Plessis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Global and national law firms alike operate in a challenging business environment and managing the firm's information and knowledge assets is increasingly viewed as a key factor in efficient legal service delivery. In legal practice, information management technologies, for example intranets, portals, workflow management systems, document and content management systems, case and project management systems and online dispute resolution systems are becoming important means of legal service delivery. The reason for applying information management technologies and implementing knowledge management strategies in law firms is not only to satisfy clients' growing need for a trusted online platform to interact with legal service providers, but for law firms to capitalise on their intellectual assets, to continuously modernise legal practice management, to empower lawyers, to increase productivity, to use time efficiently, to transfer skills and knowledge from senior to junior professionals, to improve service delivery and to gain competitive advantage. This article firstly reviews the role of information and knowledge management in providing an effective legal service to clients and compares foreign and South African law firms' information management related contexts, challenges and benefits. Secondly, it presents the findings of a survey conducted at South African law firms based on their knowledge management practices. The aim of the article is to provide insights into law firm knowledge management and its effect on providing legal services in an online business environment.

  5. Applying Maxi-adjustment to Adaptive Information Filtering Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Raymond; ter Hofstede, Arthur H. M.; Bruza, Peter D.

    2000-01-01

    Learning and adaptation is a fundamental property of intelligent agents. In the context of adaptive information filtering, a filtering agent's beliefs about a user's information needs have to be revised regularly with reference to the user's most current information preferences. This learning and adaptation process is essential for maintaining the agent's filtering performance. The AGM belief revision paradigm provides a rigorous foundation for modelling rational and minimal changes to an age...

  6. Agents of Law: Psychoanalytic Perspective on Parenthood Practices as Socially Accepted Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of parental authority from the vantage point of parental subjecthood, using a roughly Lacanian formulation of what it means to take a (parental) subject position. For Freud, the parental role involves the acceptance of social rules that may, at times, involve a socially acceptable degree of violence. Nevertheless, psychoanalytic discussions have disregarded the parents' subjective experience as agents of the Law and purveyors of threatening authority. The authors elaborate on Freud's and Lacan's ideas and delineate several prime types of parental identifications as agents of Law. The Lacanian theoretical constructs expanded in this discussion include two basic parental positions of authority, termed the Symbolic Father and the Imaginary Father, and one derivative position, called the Perverse Father, which are demonstrated through the story of Dr. Moritz Schreber. The paper discusses how these theoretical constructs bear upon the philosophical conceptualizations of law, violence, and legitimacy.

  7. Criminal investigation in the light of Law 9,034 / 95: the role of undercover agents and their criminal consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayme José de Souza FIlho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Law 9034 of May 3, 1995 provides for the use of means operacionaispara prevention and prosecution of actions taken by organizations criminosas.Sofreu amendment by Law 10,217 of April 11, 2001, which entered the Brazilian legal noordenamento agents infiltration technique comoinstrumento to combat such organizations. It provides that police officers or deinteligência in any criminal prosecution phase, since autorizadosjudicialmente, can enter into criminal groups acting dissimuladamentecomo part thereof, to obtain information and evidence to reach oseu dismantling. the owners acting as agenteinfiltrado is unacceptable. It is silent on legislation about the limits and succinct with aosrequisitos relationship that should be imposed for the exercise of this method investigativo.Silenciou is still about the criminal liability of the undercover agent noexercício of its activities, thus any responsibility should serresolvidas in the field of Theory of Crime, contained in the general section of the Code Penal.Difere the undercover agent provocateur, where the first ageconstantemente passively collecting data, while the second agede actively, prompting the target (suspect to commit crimes. The evidence obtained by the undercover agent and testimony are legitimate to instruct inquiry policiale competent prosecution.

  8. Managing Information in Law Firms: Changes and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nina; Price, James

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Data, information and knowledge together constitute a vital business asset for every organization that enables every business activity, every business process and every business decision. The global legal industry is facing unprecedented change, which inevitably creates challenges for individual law firms. These global changes affect…

  9. Conceptual Modeling of Events as Information Objects and Change Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    as a totality of an information object and a change agent. When an event is modeled as an information object it is comparable to an entity that exists only at a specific point in time. It has attributes and can be used for querying and specification of constraints. When an event is modeled as a change agent...... it is comparable to an executable transaction schema. Finally, we briefly compare our approach to object-oriented approaches based on encapsulated objects....

  10. The Agent of extracting Internet Information with Lead Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zan; Huang, Chuliang; Liu, Aijun

    In order to carry out e-commerce better, advanced technologies to access business information are in need urgently. An agent is described to deal with the problems of extracting internet information that caused by the non-standard and skimble-scamble structure of Chinese websites. The agent designed includes three modules which respond to the process of extracting information separately. A method of HTTP tree and a kind of Lead algorithm is proposed to generate a lead order, with which the required web can be retrieved easily. How to transform the extracted information structuralized with natural language is also discussed.

  11. Wealth distribution, Pareto law, and stretched exponential decay of money: Computer simulations analysis of agent-based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydiner, Ekrem; Cherstvy, Andrey G.; Metzler, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    We study by Monte Carlo simulations a kinetic exchange trading model for both fixed and distributed saving propensities of the agents and rationalize the person and wealth distributions. We show that the newly introduced wealth distribution - that may be more amenable in certain situations - features a different power-law exponent, particularly for distributed saving propensities of the agents. For open agent-based systems, we analyze the person and wealth distributions and find that the presence of trap agents alters their amplitude, leaving however the scaling exponents nearly unaffected. For an open system, we show that the total wealth - for different trap agent densities and saving propensities of the agents - decreases in time according to the classical Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts stretched exponential law. Interestingly, this decay does not depend on the trap agent density, but rather on saving propensities. The system relaxation for fixed and distributed saving schemes are found to be different.

  12. Information Security for Compliance with Select Agent Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nick; Campbell, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a significant rise in research on high-consequence human and animal pathogens, many now known as “select agents.” While physical security around these agents is tightly regulated, information security standards are still lagging. The understanding of the threats unique to the academic and research environment is still evolving, in part due to poor communication between the various stakeholders. Perhaps as a result, information security guidelines published by select agent regulators lack the critical details and directives needed to achieve even the lowest security level of the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). While only government agencies are currently required to abide by the provisions of FISMA (unless specified as preconditions for obtaining government grants or contracts—still a relatively rare or narrowly scoped occurrence), the same strategies were recently recommended by executive order for others. We propose that information security guidelines for select agent research be updated to promulgate and detail FISMA standards and processes and that the latter be ultimately incorporated into select agent regulations. We also suggest that information security in academic and research institutions would greatly benefit from active efforts to improve communication among the biosecurity, security, and information technology communities, and from a secure venue for exchange of timely information on emerging threats and solutions in the research environment. PMID:26042864

  13. Information security for compliance with select agent regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nick; Campbell, Mark J; Baskin, Carole R

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has seen a significant rise in research on high-consequence human and animal pathogens, many now known as "select agents." While physical security around these agents is tightly regulated, information security standards are still lagging. The understanding of the threats unique to the academic and research environment is still evolving, in part due to poor communication between the various stakeholders. Perhaps as a result, information security guidelines published by select agent regulators lack the critical details and directives needed to achieve even the lowest security level of the Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA). While only government agencies are currently required to abide by the provisions of FISMA (unless specified as preconditions for obtaining government grants or contracts--still a relatively rare or narrowly scoped occurrence), the same strategies were recently recommended by executive order for others. We propose that information security guidelines for select agent research be updated to promulgate and detail FISMA standards and processes and that the latter be ultimately incorporated into select agent regulations. We also suggest that information security in academic and research institutions would greatly benefit from active efforts to improve communication among the biosecurity, security, and information technology communities, and from a secure venue for exchange of timely information on emerging threats and solutions in the research environment.

  14. Agent-based method for distributed clustering of textual information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potok, Thomas E [Oak Ridge, TN; Reed, Joel W [Knoxville, TN; Elmore, Mark T [Oak Ridge, TN; Treadwell, Jim N [Louisville, TN

    2010-09-28

    A computer method and system for storing, retrieving and displaying information has a multiplexing agent (20) that calculates a new document vector (25) for a new document (21) to be added to the system and transmits the new document vector (25) to master cluster agents (22) and cluster agents (23) for evaluation. These agents (22, 23) perform the evaluation and return values upstream to the multiplexing agent (20) based on the similarity of the document to documents stored under their control. The multiplexing agent (20) then sends the document (21) and the document vector (25) to the master cluster agent (22), which then forwards it to a cluster agent (23) or creates a new cluster agent (23) to manage the document (21). The system also searches for stored documents according to a search query having at least one term and identifying the documents found in the search, and displays the documents in a clustering display (80) of similarity so as to indicate similarity of the documents to each other.

  15. DAIDS: a Distributed, Agent-based Information Dissemination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pete Haglich

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Distributed Agent-Based Information Dissemination System (DAIDS concept was motivated by the need to share information among the members of a military tactical team in an atmosphere of extremely limited or intermittent bandwidth. The DAIDS approach recognizes that in many cases communications limitations will preclude the complete sharing of all tactical information between the members of the tactical team. Communications may be limited by obstructions to the line of sight between platforms; electronic warfare; or environmental conditions, or just contention from other users of that bandwidth. Since it may not be possible to achieve a complete information exchange, it is important to prioritize transmissions so the most critical information from the standpoint of the recipient is disseminated first. The challenge is to be able to determine which elements of information are the most important to each teammate. The key innovation of the DAIDS concept is the use of software proxy agents to represent the information needs of the recipient of the information. The DAIDS approach uses these proxy agents to evaluate the content of a message in accordance with the context and information needs of the recipient platform (the agent's principal and prioritize the message for dissemination. In our research we implemented this approach and demonstrated that it provides nearly a reduction in transmission times for critical tactical reports by up to a factor of 30 under severe bandwidth limitations.

  16. The Influence of Natural User Experience on Information Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Švedaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the main cause of user experience on development methods and laws, including Fitt’s Law, Hick-Hyman Law, Accot’s Law, Gestalt Law, proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, figure and ground, simplicity, symmetry and experience.Article in Lithuanian

  17. The Geographic Information Grid System Based on Mobile Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the deficiencies of current application systems, and discuss the key requirements of distributed Geographic Information service (GIS). We construct the distributed GIS on grid platform. Considering the flexibility and efficiency, we integrate the mobile agent technology into the system. We propose a new prototype system, the Geographic Information Grid System (GIGS) based on mobile agent. This system has flexible services and high performance, and improves the sharing of distributed resources. The service strategy of the system and the examples are also presented.

  18. Informed consent and the law--an English legal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Majid

    2008-01-01

    'Informed consent' is a widely used term, but its application in a legal perspective can be varied. American and Commonwealth jurisdictions have developed a 'patient-based' true informed consent approach, whereas in the English legal system a 'doctor-based' approach has traditionally been applied in relation to disclosure of risk. This article will seek to compare these approaches and give a brief overview of some of the key legal rulings which have shaped the requirement of consent. The decision in the English case of Chester vs. Afshar is considered as showing the significance the court attached to the principle of autonomy and using ethical and policy considerations to depart from established principles of English law relating to consent to treatment and disclosure of risk. This review is intended as general information and not as legal advice which should be sought from defence organisation and specialist health care lawyers. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Agents of the Father's law in a society of brothers: A philosophic and psychoanalytic perspective on legitimate use of violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even-Tzur, Efrat; Hadar, Uri

    This paper explores subjective processes of "Agents of Law" - individuals who the state grants the authority to use violence - and the dissonance stemming from the contradictory demands posed on them as legitimate users of violence despite the societal taboo against violence. A conceptual model will be offered based on two theoretical legs, Lacanian psychoanalysis and political theories of legitimacy. Specifically, psychoanalytic ideas would serve to examine unconscious processes, subject position and various identifications related to the question of "self-legitimacy" of Agents of Law. A central link between psychoanalysis and political thought is found in the image of the father and in the triad ruler-God-Father, which calls for an oedipal analysis. A psychoanalytic reading of two philosophical schools that elaborated on the question of legitimacy will be presented, and yield two analytic poles of a model for the understanding of possible subject positions of agents of Law: identification with a "Living Father" vs. identification with a "Dead Father". The psychoanalytic reading will shed light on the limitations of the philosophical perspectives in reflecting on the various (im)possible psychological positions of agents of Law. Finally, then, it will be shown how psychoanalysis helps finding words to characterize different nuances in the coping of agents of Law with the contradictory demands posed on them in an age in which God is dead, the father was murdered and the king was beheaded. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. HAKIM AGUNG SEBAGAI AGENT OF CHANGE MENUJU LAW AND LEGAL REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Wahidin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Supreme Court as the nation institution in nation power was the legislative power keeper. The performance in law enforcement had always to adapt the increase of society law. Here, justice was enforced based on society justice feeling. Supreme Court institution was occupied by a person, namely Supreme Judge or judge of the Supreme Court. Supreme Judge as ?God Representative? in the world had to dig and accommodate the justice value in society. In upholding the law and justice, it had to be realized that it was a simultaneous and continuous effort by integrating various components with Supreme Court and supreme judge as the concrete agent. Various components in law enforcement had to integrate in realizing the law goal which processed with space and time. Space gave a chance toward the law action, both one which fitted law and that which broke it.The processing time gave a chance to people to be creative and innovative.In another perspective, integration did not only mean to build power, especially against law violation. The effort which had to be done continuously was to keep renewing the legal source, so the component in realizing the law goal could be renewed, not merely in the meaning as the spirit and all the implications but more than that, up to date renewing had to be done continuously. It became a demand that had to be fulfilled all the time. There was no word ?finish? and there was no term ?final. Process was the form of the finalization itself. ?Mahkamah Agung sebagai lembaga negara dalam sistem kekuasaan negara adalah penjaga kekuasaan legislatif. Kinerjanya dalam penegakan hukum harus senantiasa menyesuaikan dengan perkembangan hukum masyarakat. Di sini keadilan ditegakkan berdasarkan rasa keadilan masyarakat. Kelembagaan Mahkamah Agung diisi oleh person, yaitu Hakim Agung. Hakim Agung sebagai ?wakil Tuhan? di muka bumi, harus senantiasa menggali dan mengakomodasikan nilai keadilan dalam masyarakat. Dalam menegakkan hukum dan keadilan

  1. Information processing and dynamics in minimally cognitive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Randall D; Williams, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we separately analyze the operation of this agent using the mathematical tools of information theory and dynamical systems theory. Information-theoretic analysis reveals how task-relevant information flows through the system to be combined into a categorization decision. Dynamical analysis reveals the key geometrical and temporal interrelationships underlying the categorization decision. Finally, we propose a framework for directly relating these two different styles of explanation and discuss the possible implications of our analysis for some of the ongoing debates in cognitive science. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. Information Processing and Dynamics in Minimally Cognitive Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Randall D.; Williams, Paul L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in the literature about the relative merits of information processing versus dynamical approaches to understanding cognitive processes. In this article, we explore the relationship between these two styles of explanation using a model agent evolved to solve a relational categorization task. Specifically, we…

  3. 28 CFR 513.20 - Release of information to law enforcement agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of information to law enforcement agencies. 513.20 Section 513.20 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GENERAL MANAGEMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ACCESS TO RECORDS Release of Information to Law Enforcement Agencies § 513.20 Release of information to law...

  4. Information Sharing Mechanism among Mobile Agents In Ad-hoc Network Environment and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Umetsuji

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Mobile agents are programs that can move from one site to another in a network with their data and states. Mobile agents are expected to be an essential tool in pervasive computing. In multi platform environment, it is important to communicate with mobile agents only using their universal or logical name not using their physical locations. More, in an ad-hoc network environment, an agent can migrate autonomously and communicate with other agents on demand. It is difficult that mobile agent grasps the position information on other agents correctly each other, because mobile agent processes a task while moving a network successively. In order to realize on-demand mutual communication among mobile agents without any centralized servers, we propose a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. In this paper, we present a new information sharing mechanism within mobile agents. The method is a complete peer based and requires no agent servers to manage mobile agent locations. Therefore, a mobile agent can get another mobile agent, communicate with it and shares information stored in the agent without any knowledge of the location of the target mobile agent. The basic idea of the mechanism is an introduction of Agent Ring, Agent Chain and Shadow Agent. With this mechanism, each agent can communicate with other agents in a server-less environment, which is suitable for ad-hoc agent network and an agent system can manage agents search and communications efficiently.

  5. Application of Agent Methodology in Healthcare Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem Abdalla

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study to describe the features and the phases of the two agent methodologies. The Gaia methodology for agent oriented analysis and design, Tropos is a detailed agent oriented software engineering methodology to explore each methodology's ability to present solutions for small problems. Also we provide an attempt to discover whether the methodology is in fact understandable and usable. In addition we were collecting and taking notes of the advantages and weaknesses of these methodologies during the study analysis for each methodology and the relationships among their models. The Guardian Angle: Patient-Centered Health Information System (GA: PCHIS is the personal system to help track, manage, and interpret the subject's health history, and give advice to both patient and provider is used as the case study throughout the paper.

  6. New nontoxic double information magnetic and fluorescent MRI agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kublickas, Augustinas; Rastenien, Loreta; Bloznelytė-Plėšnienė, Laima; Karalius, Nerijus; Franckevinius, Marius; Loudos, George; Fahmi, Amir; Vaisnoras, Rimas

    2015-01-01

    Today sensitivity of the MRI is not enough compared to the nuclear methods, such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. Challenging its extension to the nanometre scale could provide a powerful new tool for the nanosciences and nanomedicine. To achieve this potential, innovative new detection strategies are required to overcome the severe sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection techniques. In this regard, we perform embodiment of nanodiamonds in dendrimer matrix as additional fluorescent optical and magnetic (together with Gd (III)) imaging modalities of the MRI. New hybrid system composed of dendrimer-gadolinium Gd (III) - nanodiamond as a new contrast agent for MRI was studied. Poly(propilene-imine) PPI and poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with fixed size of nanocavities will be used as host material to protect organism against the toxicity and also to increase relaxivity of contrast agent (resulting in the increases MRI resolution). Nanodiamond as biocompatible platform to functionalize the contrast agent will be used. This bimodal hybrid system enables to use smaller amount of the contrast agent and could permit the decrease of the lateral toxicity. This bimodal hybrid system as MRI agent is providing double information (magnetic and fluorescent) about the damaged cell.

  7. New nontoxic double information magnetic and fluorescent MRI agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kublickas, Augustinas; Rastenien, Loreta; Bloznelytė-Plėšnienė, Laima; Karalius, Nerijus [Liquid Crystals Laboratory, Institute of Science and Technology, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (Lithuania); Franckevinius, Marius [Institute of Physics, Center for Physical Sciences and Technology (Lithuania); Loudos, George [Technological Educational Institute of Athens (Greece); Fahmi, Amir [Materials Science, Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences (Germany); Vaisnoras, Rimas [Liquid Crystals Laboratory, Institute of Science and Technology, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences (Lithuania)

    2015-05-18

    Today sensitivity of the MRI is not enough compared to the nuclear methods, such as positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography. Challenging its extension to the nanometre scale could provide a powerful new tool for the nanosciences and nanomedicine. To achieve this potential, innovative new detection strategies are required to overcome the severe sensitivity limitations of conventional inductive detection techniques. In this regard, we perform embodiment of nanodiamonds in dendrimer matrix as additional fluorescent optical and magnetic (together with Gd (III)) imaging modalities of the MRI. New hybrid system composed of dendrimer-gadolinium Gd (III) - nanodiamond as a new contrast agent for MRI was studied. Poly(propilene-imine) PPI and poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with fixed size of nanocavities will be used as host material to protect organism against the toxicity and also to increase relaxivity of contrast agent (resulting in the increases MRI resolution). Nanodiamond as biocompatible platform to functionalize the contrast agent will be used. This bimodal hybrid system enables to use smaller amount of the contrast agent and could permit the decrease of the lateral toxicity. This bimodal hybrid system as MRI agent is providing double information (magnetic and fluorescent) about the damaged cell.

  8. On the Character of Quantum Law: Complementarity, Entanglement, and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2017-08-01

    This article considers the relationships between the character of physical law in quantum theory and Bohr's concept of complementarity, under the assumption of the unrepresentable and possibly inconceivable nature of quantum objects and processes, an assumption that may be seen as the most radical departure from realism currently available. Complementarity, the article argues, is a reflection of the fact that, as against classical physics or relativity, the behavior of quantum objects of the same type, say, all electrons, is not governed by the same physical law in all contexts, specifically in complementary contexts. On the other hand, the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics offers correct probabilistic or statistical predictions (no other predictions are possible on experimental grounds) in all contexts, here, again, under the assumption that quantum objects themselves and their behavior are beyond representation or even conception. Bohr, in this connection, spoke of "an entirely new situation as regards the description of physical phenomena that, the notion of complementarity aims at characterizing." The article also considers the relationships among complementarity, entanglement, and quantum information, by basing these relationships on this understanding of complementarity.

  9. Power laws in the information production process Lotkaian informetrics

    CERN Document Server

    Egghe, Leo

    2005-01-01

    Explains many informetric regularities, only based on a decreasing power law as size-frequency function, that is Lotka''s law. This book revives the historical formulation of Alfred Lotka and shows the power of this power law, both in classical aspects of informetrics as well as in applications such as social networks and others.

  10. Information technology law and health systems in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossialos, Elias; Thomson, Sarah; Ter Linden, Annemarie

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of European Union (EU) law relating to information technology (IT) on health systems. The study identifies EU directives relating to IT, analyzes them in terms of their impact on the use of IT in health systems, and outlines their implications for health technology assessment (HTA). Analysis is based on a review of literature identified through relevant databases and Internet searches. Developments in IT have serious implications for EU health systems, presenting policy makers with new challenges. The European Commission has adopted a range of legal measures to protect consumers in the "information society" However, as few of them are health-specific, it is not evident that they have implications for health, health systems, or HTA, and they may not be effective in protecting consumers in the health sector. In light of the growing importance of IT in the health sector, legal and nonlegal measures need to be further developed at EU and international level. Where possible, future initiatives should pay attention to the particular characteristics of health goods and services and health systems. Although definitions of HTA usually recognize the importance of evaluating both the indirect, unintended consequences of health technologies and the legal aspects of their application, it seems that, in practice, HTA often overlooks or underestimates legislative matters. Those involved in HTA should be aware of the legal implications of using IT to provide health goods and services and compile, store, transfer, and disseminate health information electronically.

  11. Identification of specific requirements for a NASA aerospace law information system and identification of the acquisition requirements for an aerospace law collection for the NASA law library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morenoff, J.; Roth, D. L.; Singleton, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The study to develop, implement, and maintain a space law library and information system is summarized. The survey plan; major interviews with individuals representative of potential sources, users and producers of information related to aerospace law; and system trade-off analyses are discussed along with the NASA/RECON system capability. The NASA publications of STAR and IAA are described, and the NASA legal micro-thesaurus is included.

  12. 32 CFR 635.15 - Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Release of law enforcement information furnished by foreign governments or international organizations. 635.15 Section 635.15 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS LAW ENFORCEMENT REPORTING Release of...

  13. 21 CFR 20.64 - Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. 20.64 Section 20.64 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PUBLIC INFORMATION Exemptions § 20.64 Records or information compiled for law enforcement purposes. (a) Records or...

  14. SOCIAL CONDITIONALITY OF INFORMATION SECURITY PROTECTION BY CRIMINAL LAW IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    OpenAIRE

    EFREMOVA MARINA ALEKSANDROVNA

    2016-01-01

    Information security is one of the components of the national security in the Russian Federation. The role of the information component in the national security has become significantly more important. The criminal law needs to be updated in order to enhance its effectiveness with regard to criminal law protection of information security.

  15. 49 CFR 40.331 - To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... service agents release information? 40.331 Section 40.331 Transportation Office of the Secretary of... Release of Information § 40.331 To what additional parties must employers and service agents release information? As an employer or service agent you must release information under the following circumstances...

  16. Agents Based e-Commerce and Securing Exchanged Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jaljouli, Raja; Abawajy, Jemal

    Mobile agents have been implemented in e-Commerce to search and filter information of interest from electronic markets. When the information is very sensitive and critical, it is important to develop a novel security protocol that can efficiently protect the information from malicious tampering as well as unauthorized disclosure or at least detect any malicious act of intruders. In this chapter, we describe robust security techniques that ensure a sound security of information gathered throughout agent’s itinerary against various security attacks, as well as truncation attacks. A sound security protocol is described, which implements the various security techniques that would jointly prevent or at least detect any malicious act of intruders. We reason about the soundness of the protocol usingSymbolic Trace Analyzer (STA), a formal verification tool that is based on symbolic techniques. We analyze the protocol in key configurations and show that it is free of flaws. We also show that the protocol fulfils the various security requirements of exchanged information in MAS, including data-integrity, data-confidentiality, data-authenticity, origin confidentiality and data non-repudiability.

  17. Synthetic Cannabinoid and Mitragynine Exposure of Law Enforcement Agents During the Raid of an Illegal Laboratory - Nevada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Loren; Ramsey, Jessica G; Wen, Anita; Gerona, Roy

    2017-12-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), commonly known by the street name "Spice," are designer drugs of abuse that mimic the psychoactive effects of marijuana. Intentional SC use has resulted in multiple toxicities (1,2), but little is known about occupational SC exposure. After a federal agency's law enforcement personnel in Nevada reported irritability and feeling "high" after raiding illegal SC laboratories and processing seized SCs, a request for a health hazard evaluation was made by the agency to CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in 2014 to evaluate agents' occupational SC exposures. After making the request for a health hazard evaluation, federal agents conducted a raid of an illegal SC laboratory, with assistance from local law enforcement and Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) personnel and with NIOSH investigators observing from a distance. After the raid, agents collected and processed material evidence. NIOSH investigators tested agents' urine for SC levels before and after the raid and measured SCs in the air and on surfaces after the raid. DEA determined that AB-PINACA (an SC compound) and mitragynine (a plant material with opium-like effects, also known as "kratom") were present in the illegal laboratory. AB-PINACA, its metabolites, and mitragynine were not detected in agents' urine before the raid; however, one or more of these substances was found in the urine of six of nine agents after the raid and processing of the SC evidence. AB-PINACA was detected in one surface wipe sample from the SC laboratory; none was detected in the air in the laboratory or in the offices of the law enforcement agency where the materials were processed after the raid. No policies were in place regarding work practices and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during raids and evidence processing. To protect agents from SC exposures, NIOSH recommended that the agency require agents to wear a minimum level of PPE (e.g., protective gloves

  18. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, B.; Sparwasser, R.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental law is discussed exhaustively in this book. Legal and scientific fundamentals are taken into account, a systematic orientation is given, and hints for further information are presented. The book covers general environmental law, plan approval procedures, protection against nuisances, atomic law and radiation protection law, water protection law, waste management law, laws on chemical substances, conservation law. (HSCH) [de

  19. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  20. Terrorism and information sharing between the intelligence and law enforcement communities in the US and the Netherlands: emergency criminal law?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. E. Vervaele

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence sharing between intelligence and police services with a view to preventing and combating terrorism is high on the political agenda in Brussels and The Hague. The Netherlands is one of the few countries in the EU where this topic is subject of political scrutiny. It also led to controversial case law. Recently, Justice Minister Donner has used an expedited procedure to submit a legislative proposal concerning shielded witnesses. This Bill raises many questions, that concern, amongst others, the discretion of intelligence services to determine which information will be provided for use in criminal proceedings and the relationship between this discretionary power and the connected legal duty of secrecy on the one hand and the rights of the defence to test and question that information on the other. Furthermore, questions raise regarding the evidentiary quality of this information. The proposed rules also influence the legitimacy of criminal law and the position of the criminal courts. What effect does the paradigm of security-orientated thinking have on the historical connection between criminal law and the rule of law? This issue is also addressed in this article.

  1. Towards a sound pedagogy in law: a constitutionally informed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A compulsory dissertation module as capstone course, which embodies the pedagogical approach of transformative legal education, should be included in the revised curriculum of all law schools in South Africa. This dissertation module should demand that students engage critically with the principles of transformative ...

  2. Agent-Based Model of Information Security System: Architecture and Formal Framework for Coordinated Intelligent Agents Behavior Specification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorodetski, Vladimir

    2001-01-01

    The contractor will research and further develop the technology supporting an agent-based architecture for an information security system and a formal framework to specify a model of distributed knowledge...

  3. Market Research on Law School Student Aid Award Letters and Shopping Sheet Information. NASFAA Consumer Information & Law Student Indebtedness Task Force Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Market Research on Law School Student Aid Award Letters and Shopping Sheet Information" set out to identify through consumer testing what information on the financial aid award letter and U.S. Department of Education's (ED) Shopping Sheet could be modified to create a document that better assists students applying to, or currently…

  4. Information Sources on U. S. Radio Regulations in the Law Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, James D.

    An annotated bibliography gives the radio regulations in the U.S., using sources available in the University of Michigan Law Library as well as the University of Michigan Libraries. Information is applicable to other law, university and public libraries. Relevant material on television regulations is included. Listings cover federal agencies, card…

  5. An Informational-Theoretical Formulation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a formulation of the second law of thermodynamics couched in terms of Shannon's measure of information. This formulation has an advantage over other formulations of the second law. First, it shows explicitly what is the thing that changes in a spontaneous process in an isolated system, which is traditionally referred to as the…

  6. Dialogue and Decision Games for Information Exchanging Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebbink, Henk-Jan

    2006-01-01

    Our aim is to model the decision-making and communication of software agents, such that justifications of their beliefs are preserved. To model this, we address the following issues. We provide a use-semantics for epistemic statements such that we can express what it means for an agent to believe

  7. Privacy of genetic information: a review of the laws in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, B; Ip, M

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the privacy of genetic information and the laws in the United States designed to protect genetic privacy. While all 50 states have laws protecting the privacy of health information, there are many states that have additional laws that carve out additional protections specifically for genetic information. The majority of the individual states have enacted legislation to protect individuals from discrimination on the basis of genetic information, and most of this legislation also has provisions to protect the privacy of genetic information. On the Federal level, there has been no antidiscrimination or genetic privacy legislation. Secretary Donna Shalala of the Department of Health and Human Services has issued proposed regulations to protect the privacy of individually identifiable health information. These regulations encompass individually identifiable health information and do not make specific provisions for genetic information. The variety of laws regarding genetic privacy, some found in statutes to protect health information and some found in statutes to prevent genetic discrimination, presents challenges to those charged with administering and executing these laws.

  8. On the deployment of agents by binary information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Cao, Ming; Ceragioli, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    We study the problem of deploying on a line a group of N agents with kinematic continuous-time model x˙i = ui , i = 1,...,N , (1) with xi ,ui ∈ R. The agents are connected through an undirected chain graph G = (V ,E ), with V = {1,2,...,N} and E = {(1,2),...,(i,i + 1),...,(N − 1,N)}. Moreover, we

  9. A Cognitive Agent for Spectrum Monitoring and Informed Spectrum Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    sensing, analysis, learning, short - and long - term memory , problem solving, decision making, and focus of attention. The goal of the cognitive agent was to...Level 2: Analyzing 2 3.3 DOK Level 3: Learning and Short - and Long - Term Memories 5 3.4 DOK Level 4: Focus of Attention, Problem Solving, and... short - and long - term memory , problem solving, decision making, and focus of attention.1 The goal of the cognitive agent was to mimic intelligent

  10. 76 FR 62312 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... interested individuals to obtain specific regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety and biosecurity issues related to the Federal Select Agent Program. CDC, APHIS, and CJIS...

  11. Patterns of Information Seeking Behaviour of Law Students in Digital Environment: A Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the enormous growth of modern information communication technologies and its massive use have influenced information users all over the world. Such a digital environment has drastically changed the information seeking patterns of information users of every community. These also tend law students to use various legal information sources and services in digital environments while seeking information. But there have been few empirical user studies on the aspect of digital information seeking behaviours of law students in either law or library and information science literatures. This paper aims to draw out patterns of information seeking behavior of students of law in digital environments at the University of Dhaka. A stratified random sample survey was conducted for this study. The results show that students prefer the electronic format of information rather than printed format. Major e-resources used by them and the influential factors of use were also identified in this study. This study also identified some crucial problems for seeking information and provides suggestions for the development of electronic legal information systems.

  12. One step forward, two steps back? The GMC, the common law and 'informed' consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fovargue, Sara; Miola, José

    2010-08-01

    Until 2008, if doctors followed the General Medical Council's (GMC's) guidance on providing information prior to obtaining a patient's consent to treatment, they would be going beyond what was technically required by the law. It was hoped that the common law would catch up with this guidance and encourage respect for patients' autonomy by facilitating informed decision-making. Regrettably, this has not occurred. For once, the law's inability to keep up with changing medical practice and standards is not the problem. The authors argue that while the common law has moved forward and started to recognise the importance of patient autonomy and informed decision-making, the GMC has taken a step back in their 2008 guidance on consent. Indeed, doctors are now required to tell their patients less than they were in 1998 when the last guidance was produced. This is an unfortunate development and the authors urge the GMC to revisit their guidance.

  13. A Distributed Multi-Agent System for Collaborative Information Management and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James R.; Wolfe, Shawn R.; Wragg, Stephen D.; Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we present DIAMS, a system of distributed, collaborative agents to help users access, manage, share and exchange information. A DIAMS personal agent helps its owner find information most relevant to current needs. It provides tools and utilities for users to manage their information repositories with dynamic organization and virtual views. Flexible hierarchical display is integrated with indexed query search-to support effective information access. Automatic indexing methods are employed to support user queries and communication between agents. Contents of a repository are kept in object-oriented storage to facilitate information sharing. Collaboration between users is aided by easy sharing utilities as well as automated information exchange. Matchmaker agents are designed to establish connections between users with similar interests and expertise. DIAMS agents provide needed services for users to share and learn information from one another on the World Wide Web.

  14. Information and Intertemporal Choices in Multi-Agent Decision Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Mariagrazia Olivieri; Massimo Squillante; Viviana Ventre

    2016-01-01

    Psychological evidences of impulsivity and false consensus effect lead results far from rationality. It is shown that impulsivitymodifies the discount function of each individual, and false consensus effect increases the degree of consensus in a multi-agent decision problem. Analyzing them together we note that in strategic interactions these two human factors involve choices which change equilibriums expected by rational individuals.

  15. Towards a multi-agent system for regulated information exchange in crime investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieter; Prakken, H.; Vey Mestdagh, C.N.J. de

    2005-01-01

    This paper outlines a multi-agent architecture for regulated information exchange of crime investigation data between police forces. Interactions between police officers about information exchange are analysed as negotiation dialogues with embedded persuasion dialogues. An architecture is then

  16. 49 CFR 40.17 - Is an employer responsible for obtaining information from its service agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Is an employer responsible for obtaining... Responsibilities § 40.17 Is an employer responsible for obtaining information from its service agents? Yes, as an employer, you are responsible for obtaining information required by this part from your service agents...

  17. Multi-dimensional information diffusion and balancing market supply: an agent-based approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, S.A.; Kramer, M.R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This agent-based information management model is designed to explore how multi-dimensional information, spreading through a population of agents (for example farmers) affects market supply. Farmers make quality decisions that must be aligned with available markets. Markets distinguish themselves by

  18. Evolution of natural agents: preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information

    OpenAIRE

    Sharov, Alexei A.

    2016-01-01

    Biological evolution is often viewed narrowly as a change of morphology or allele frequency in a sequence of generations. Here I pursue an alternative informational concept of evolution, as preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information in natural agents. Functional information is a network of signs (e.g., memory, transient messengers, and external signs) that are used by agents to preserve and regulate their functions. Functional information is preserved in evolution via comp...

  19. Fisher Information, Entropy, and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    We propose Fisher Information as a new calculable thermodynamic property that can be shown to follow the Second and the Third Laws of Thermodynamics. Fisher Information is, however, qualitatively different from entropy and potentially possessing a great deal more structure. Hence...

  20. Trade Secret Law and Information Systems: Can Your Students Keep a Secret?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Lorrie; Ford, Janet C.; White, Barbara Jo; Clapper, Danial L.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of intellectual property (IP) law on information systems (IS) professionals in business cannot be overstated. The IS 2010 model curriculum guidelines for undergraduate IS programs stress the importance of information security and knowledge about IP. While copyright and patents are the most well-known types of IP, another, trade secrets,…

  1. An Information Needs Profile of Israeli Older Adults, regarding the Law and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Irith; Weissman, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Based on Nicholas' framework for assessing information needs, this research aims to construct a profile of both Israeli older adults and their information needs regarding laws and social services. Data were collected by questionnaires answered by 200 older adults, born in Europe, Asia and Africa, who attended social clubs for older adults. The…

  2. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  3. Power-law ansatz in complex systems: Excessive loss of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Chang, Chin-De; Chang, Ching-Hao; Tsai, Meng-Xue; Hsu, Nan-Jung; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2015-12-01

    The ubiquity of power-law relations in empirical data displays physicists' love of simple laws and uncovering common causes among seemingly unrelated phenomena. However, many reported power laws lack statistical support and mechanistic backings, not to mention discrepancies with real data are often explained away as corrections due to finite size or other variables. We propose a simple experiment and rigorous statistical procedures to look into these issues. Making use of the fact that the occurrence rate and pulse intensity of crumple sound obey a power law with an exponent that varies with material, we simulate a complex system with two driving mechanisms by crumpling two different sheets together. The probability function of the crumple sound is found to transit from two power-law terms to a bona fide power law as compaction increases. In addition to showing the vicinity of these two distributions in the phase space, this observation nicely demonstrates the effect of interactions to bring about a subtle change in macroscopic behavior and more information may be retrieved if the data are subject to sorting. Our analyses are based on the Akaike information criterion that is a direct measurement of information loss and emphasizes the need to strike a balance between model simplicity and goodness of fit. As a show of force, the Akaike information criterion also found the Gutenberg-Richter law for earthquakes and the scale-free model for a brain functional network, a two-dimensional sandpile, and solar flare intensity to suffer an excessive loss of information. They resemble more the crumpled-together ball at low compactions in that there appear to be two driving mechanisms that take turns occurring.

  4. Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) 1999 National Conference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lytle, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Law Enforcement Support Office (LESO) national conference was a three-day forum to inform and update federal, state and local law enforcement agents, of the DoD role supporting the National Drug Control Strategy...

  5. Levels of Information Processing in a Fitts law task (LIPFitts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, K. L.; Hart, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    State-of-the-art flight technology has restructured the task of human operators, decreasing the need for physical and sensory resources, and increasing the quantity of cognitive effort required, changing it qualitatively. Recent technological advances have the most potential for impacting a pilot in two areas: performance and mental workload. In an environment in which timing is critical, additional cognitive processing can cause performance decrements, and increase a pilot's perception of the mental workload involved. The effects of stimulus processing demands on motor response performance and subjective mental workload are examined, using different combinations of response selection and target acquisition tasks. The information processing demands of the response selection were varied (e.g., Sternberg memory set tasks, math equations, pattern matching), as was the difficulty of the response execution. Response latency as well as subjective workload ratings varied in accordance with the cognitive complexity of the task. Movement times varied according to the difficulty of the response execution task. Implications in terms of real-world flight situations are discussed.

  6. The commercialization of human genetic information and related circumstances within Turkish law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiş, Tekin

    2011-01-01

    Today, human genetic information is used for commercial purposes as well. This means, based on the case, the direct or indirect commercialization of genetic information. In this study, this specific issue is analyzed in light of the new legal regulations as to the subject in the Turkish Law. Specifically, this study focuses on the issue of whether the commercialization of genetic information is allowed under the Turkish Law. This study also attempts to clarify the issue of whether there is any limitations for the commercialization of genetic information in the Turkish Law provided that the commercialization of genetic information is permitted. Prior to this legal analysis, the problems of the legal ownership for genetic information and of whether genetic information should be considered as an organ of human body is discussed. Accordingly, relevant Turkish laws and regulations are individually analyzed within this context. In the mean time legal regulations of some countries in this respect are taken into account with a comparative approach. In the end a general evaluation and suggestions are provided to the reader.

  7. Obligation of information and nuclear medicine after the law of march 4. 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, L.

    2002-01-01

    The default of the obligation of information, which should only be a deontological fault, had begun to intrude on the area of responsibility, whether it be criminal or indeed civil. 'Ethical' responsibility took over a 'technical' responsibility limited by the primacy of fault. The law of March 4, 2002 prepared the ground for a return of this sword of Damocles towards its natural area, that is to say deontological fault which comes within ordinal jurisdictions. Thus the main contribution of this law is to be found in the definition of medical responsibility which, by limiting responsibility to a technical fault, seems to rule out the default of the obligation of information. The law of March 4, 2002 has not stirred up the content of the obligation of information for all that. The question of the information on exceptional risks is the only one to have noticeably evolved, since information now concerns only predictable risks. Therefore, the law of March 4, 2002, in no way leads to the death of the obligation of information, quite the reverse: the quality requirements in the information of the patient are even reinforced in some of their aspects, but in compensation for these requirements, there is no exacerbated responsibility anymore. (author)

  8. Agent paradigm and services technology for distributed Information Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakima Mellah

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of information is issued from interacting information sources (IS, and could be better exploited with respect to relevance of information. In distributed IS system, relevant information has a content that is in connection with other contents in information network, and is used for a certain purpose. The highlighting point of the proposed model is to contribute to information system agility according to a three-dimensional view involving the content, the use and the structure. This reflects the relevance of information complexity and effective methodologies through self organized principle to manage the complexity. This contribution is primarily focused on presenting some factors that lead and trigger for self organization in a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA and how it can be possible to integrate self organization mechanism in the same.

  9. Integrating Information Extraction Agents into a Tourism Recommender System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparcia, Sergio; Sánchez-Anguix, Víctor; Argente, Estefanía; García-Fornes, Ana; Julián, Vicente

    Recommender systems face some problems. On the one hand information needs to be maintained updated, which can result in a costly task if it is not performed automatically. On the other hand, it may be interesting to include third party services in the recommendation since they improve its quality. In this paper, we present an add-on for the Social-Net Tourism Recommender System that uses information extraction and natural language processing techniques in order to automatically extract and classify information from the Web. Its goal is to maintain the system updated and obtain information about third party services that are not offered by service providers inside the system.

  10. Retrieval of Legal Information Through Discovery Layers: A Case Study Related to Indian Law Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushwah, Shivpal Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate discovery layer search tools for retrieval of legal information in Indian law libraries. This paper covers current practices in legal information retrieval with special reference to Indian academic law libraries, and analyses its importance in the domain of law.Design/Methodology/Approach. A web survey and observational study method are used to collect the data. Data related to the discovery tools were collected using email and further discussion held with the discovery layer/ tool /product developers and their representatives.Findings. Results show that most of the Indian law libraries are subscribing to bundles of legal information resources such as Hein Online, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Manupatra, Westlaw India, SCC web, AIR Online (CDROM, and so on. International legal and academic resources are compatible with discovery tools because they support various standards related to online publishing and dissemination such as OAI/PMH, Open URL, MARC21, and Z39.50, but Indian legal resources such as Manupatra, Air, and SCC are not compatible with the discovery layers. The central index is one of the important components in a discovery search interface, and discovery layer services/tools could be useful for Indian law libraries also if they can include multiple legal and academic resources in their central index. But present practices and observations reveal that discovery layers are not providing facility to cover legal information resources. Therefore, in the present form, discovery tools are not very useful; they are an incomplete and half solution for Indian libraries because all available Indian legal resources available in the law libraries are not covered.Originality/Value. Very limited research or published literature is available in the area of discovery layers and their compatibility with legal information resources.

  11. Lotka’s Law and the Literature of Library and Information Science in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Yılmaz

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to test the applicability of Lotka’s Law for the literature of library and information science in Turkey. The database of the study is 1399 papers published in The Bibliography of Articles in Turkish Periodicals between 1952 and 2000, by 604 researchers in the field of library and information scien­ce. The results of the study present the distribution of productivity of Lotka’s in­verse square law does not fit the distribution of the data constituted by the rese­archers in the field of library and information science in Turkey. In other words it was determined that Lotka’s inverse square law does not apply the literature of library and information science in Turkey. Furthermore it was determined that Lotka’s inverse power law fits the value of n (2,1128 calculated for the literatu­re of library and information science in Turkey.

  12. EU Criminal Law and the Regulation of Information and Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Summers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities afforded by the global information space give rise to the potential for the commission of new crimes –crimes such as hacking or denial of service attacks– and for existing crimes, such as speech offences or fraud, to be committed in new ways and with potentially larger consequences. One of the biggest challenges for the regulation of information and communications technology is that the global information space does not respect national boundaries. In order to be successful, any regulatory approach will call for some degree of cooperation between countries. This poses an obvious problem for those seeking to develop a regulatory structure. This challenge is particularly relevant in the criminal law context, as the criminal law has traditionally been considered to be the product and responsibility of national law. This article considers the EU’s regulatory approach in this area. The aim here is not to offer a critique of the EU’s regulatory structure in the context of cybercrime, but rather to use the situation in the EU to illustrate various issues arising in the context of the criminal law regulation of information and communications technology. This article examines some of the issues which have arisen in the context of the regulation of cyber activity at the EU level as a result of this tension between national sovereignty and broader overarching EU regulation and assesses the relevance of these issues in the context of criminal law regulation more broadly. Consideration of the processes of criminalisation and harmonisation provides the basis for an analysis of the manner in which the EU seeks to justify its involvement in criminal law in this field.

  13. Falling short: how state laws can address health information exchange barriers and enablers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmit, Cason D; Wetter, Sarah A; Kash, Bita A

    2018-06-01

    Research on the implementation of health information exchange (HIE) organizations has identified both positive and negative effects of laws relating to governance, incentives, mandates, sustainability, stakeholder participation, patient engagement, privacy, confidentiality, and security. We fill a substantial research gap by describing whether comprehensive state and territorial HIE legal frameworks address identified legal facilitators and barriers. We used the Westlaw database to identify state and territorial laws relating to HIEs in effect on June 7, 2016 (53 jurisdictions). We blind-coded all laws and addressed coding discrepancies in peer-review meetings. We recorded a consensus code for each law in a master database. We compared 20 HIE legal attributes with identified barriers to and enablers of HIE activity in the literature. Forty-two states, the District of Columbia, and 2 territories have laws relating to HIEs. On average, jurisdictions address 8.32 of the 20 criteria selected in statutes and regulations. Twenty jurisdictions unambiguously address ≤5 criteria in statutes and regulations. None of the significant legal criteria are unambiguously addressed in >60% of the 53 jurisdictions. Laws can be barriers to or enablers of HIEs. However, jurisdictions are not addressing many significant issues identified by researchers. Consequently, there is a substantial risk that existing legal frameworks are not adequately supporting HIEs. The current evidence base is insufficient for comparative assessments or impact rankings of the various factors. However, the detailed Centers for Disease Control and Prevention dataset of HIE laws could enable investigations into the types of laws that promote or impede HIEs.

  14. The Generalization of Mutual Information as the Information between a Set of Variables: The Information Correlation Function Hierarchy and the Information Structure of Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David R.

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this paper is a hierarchy of information-like functions, here named the information correlation functions, where each function of the hierarchy may be thought of as the information between the variables it depends upon. The information correlation functions are particularly suited to the description of the emergence of complex behaviors due to many- body or many-agent processes. They are particularly well suited to the quantification of the decomposition of the information carried among a set of variables or agents, and its subsets. In more graphical language, they provide the information theoretic basis for understanding the synergistic and non-synergistic components of a system, and as such should serve as a forceful toolkit for the analysis of the complexity structure of complex many agent systems. The information correlation functions are the natural generalization to an arbitrary number of sets of variables of the sequence starting with the entropy function (one set of variables) and the mutual information function (two sets). We start by describing the traditional measures of information (entropy) and mutual information.

  15. Application of Research-Informed Teaching in the Taught-Postgraduate Education of Maritime Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ling; Pan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Despite numerous studies of the research-teaching nexus, applying research-informed teaching (RiT) to taught-postgraduate education has been largely overlooked. This knowledge gap is particularly significant in the maritime law discipline given the fast-growing business of international shipping and logistics. This paper aims to examine the impact…

  16. 31 CFR 103.100 - Information sharing between Federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist... money laundering—(1) In general. A law enforcement agency investigating terrorist activity or money... suspected based on credible evidence of engaging in, terrorist activity or money laundering; include enough...

  17. 36 CFR 1256.58 - Information related to law enforcement investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information related to law enforcement investigations. 1256.58 Section 1256.58 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION PUBLIC AVAILABILITY AND USE ACCESS TO RECORDS AND DONATED HISTORICAL MATERIALS General Restrictions § 1256.58...

  18. ACCOUNTING INFORMATION SYSTEMS: AN APPROACH FOCUSED ON OBJECTS WITH INTELLIGENT AGENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Botelho da Costa Moraes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Accounting aims at the treatment of information related to economic events within organizations. In order to do so, the double entry method is used (debt and credit accounting, which only considers monetary variations. With the development of information technologies, accounting information systems are born. In the 1980’s, the REA model (economic Resources, economic Events and economic Agents is created, which focuses on accounting information records, based on the association of economic resources, economic events and economic agents. The objective of this work is to demonstrate an object-oriented modeling with intelligent agents use, for information development and analysis focused on users. The proposed model is also analyzed according to accounting information quality, necessary for accounting information users, capable to comply with the needs of different user groups, with advantages in applications.

  19. 76 FR 70470 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Law Enforcement Officer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ...This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number 1652-0034, abstracted below to OMB for review and approval of an extension of the currently approved collection under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments, of the following collection of information on August 10, 2011, 76 FR 49504. The collection involves TSA gathering information from Territorial, Tribal, Federal, municipal, county, state, and authorized railroad law enforcement agencies who have requested the Law Enforcement Officer (LEO) Flying Armed training course.

  20. 77 FR 56845 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ... regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety, biosecurity and incident response... Laboratory Registration for Possession, Use, and Transfer of Select Agents and Toxins (APHIS/CDC Form 1...

  1. Social influence, agent heterogeneity and the emergence of the urban informal sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Díaz, César; Moreno-Monroy, Ana I.

    2012-02-01

    We develop an agent-based computational model in which the urban informal sector acts as a buffer where rural migrants can earn some income while queuing for higher paying modern-sector jobs. In the model, the informal sector emerges as a result of rural-urban migration decisions of heterogeneous agents subject to social influence in the form of neighboring effects of varying strengths. Besides using a multinomial logit choice model that allows for agent idiosyncrasy, explicit agent heterogeneity is introduced in the form of socio-demographic characteristics preferred by modern-sector employers. We find that different combinations of the strength of social influence and the socio-economic composition of the workforce lead to very different urbanization and urban informal sector shares. In particular, moderate levels of social influence and a large proportion of rural inhabitants with preferred socio-demographic characteristics are conducive to a higher urbanization rate and a larger informal sector.

  2. Cost recovery in geographic information systems and conflicts with copyright law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jon L.

    1993-10-01

    The ability to recover cost by the sale of geographic information is dependent upon the ownership of the copyright in and to that information. The ownership of the copyright turns upon whether one entity is an employee of the other or whether the copyrightable work falls within certain statutorily defined categories in the copyright law. Absent the specific requirements being fulfilled the ownership of the data may not be exactly as the parties expect.

  3. Ask Alice: an Artificial Retrieval of Information Agent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valstar, M.; Baur, T.; Cafaro, A.; Ghitulescu, A.; Potard, B.; Wagner, J.; Andre, E.; Durieu, L.; Aylett, M.; Dermouche, P.; Pelachaud, C.; Coutinho, E.; Schuller, B.; Zhang, Yue; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Theune, Mariet; van Waterschoot, Jelte Barachia

    2016-01-01

    We present a demonstration of the ARIA framework, a modular approach for rapid development of virtual humans for information retrieval that have linguistic, emotional, and social skills and a strong personality. We demonstrate the capabilities of our framework in a scenario where a popular book from

  4. A Public-key based Information Management Model for Mobile Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Diego; Sobrado, Igor

    2000-01-01

    Mobile code based computing requires development of protection schemes that allow digital signature and encryption of data collected by the agents in untrusted hosts. These algorithms could not rely on carrying encryption keys if these keys could be stolen or used to counterfeit data by hostile hosts and agents. As a consequence, both information and keys must be protected in a way that only authorized hosts, that is the host that provides information and the server that has sent the mobile a...

  5. A general information theoretical proof for the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiren

    2008-01-01

    We show that the conservation and the non-additivity of information, together with the additivity of entropy makes entropy increase in an isolated system. The collapse of the entangled quantum state offers an example of the information non-additivity. Nevertheless, the later is also true in other fields, in which the interaction information is important. Examples are classical statistical mechanics, social statistics and financial processes. The second law of thermodynamics is thus proven in its most general form. It is exactly true, not only in quantum and classical physics but also in other processes in which the information is conservative and non-additive. (author)

  6. Evolution of natural agents: preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharov, Alexei A

    2016-04-01

    Biological evolution is often viewed narrowly as a change of morphology or allele frequency in a sequence of generations. Here I pursue an alternative informational concept of evolution, as preservation, advance, and emergence of functional information in natural agents. Functional information is a network of signs (e.g., memory, transient messengers, and external signs) that are used by agents to preserve and regulate their functions. Functional information is preserved in evolution via complex interplay of copying and construction processes: the digital components are copied, whereas interpreting subagents together with scaffolds, tools, and resources, are constructed. Some of these processes are simple and invariant, whereas others are complex and contextual. Advance of functional information includes improvement and modification of already existing functions. Although the genome information may change passively and randomly, the interpretation is active and guided by the logic of agent behavior and embryonic development. Emergence of new functions is based on the reinterpretation of already existing information, when old tools, resources, and control algorithms are adopted for novel functions. Evolution of functional information progressed from protosemiosis, where signs correspond directly to actions, to eusemiosis, where agents associate signs with objects. Language is the most advanced form of eusemiosis, where the knowledge of objects and models is communicated between agents.

  7. [Pitfalls in informed consent: a statistical analysis of malpractice law suits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echigo, Junko

    2014-05-01

    In medical malpractice law suits, the notion of informed consent is often relevant in assessing whether negligence can be attributed to the medical practitioner who has caused injury to a patient. Furthermore, it is not rare that courts award damages for a lack of appropriate informed consent alone. In this study, two results were arrived at from a statistical analysis of medical malpractice law suits. One, unexpectedly, was that the severity of a patient's illness made no significant difference to whether damages were awarded. The other was that cases of typical medical treatment that national medical insurance does not cover were involved significantly more often than insured treatment cases. In cases where damages were awarded, the courts required more disclosure and written documents of information by medical practitioners, especially about complications and adverse effects that the patient might suffer.

  8. Research and Development for an Operational Information Ecology: The User-System Interface Agent Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sadanand; deLamadrid, James

    1998-01-01

    The User System Interface Agent (USIA) is a special type of software agent which acts as the "middle man" between a human user and an information processing environment. USIA consists of a group of cooperating agents which are responsible for assisting users in obtaining information processing services intuitively and efficiently. Some of the main features of USIA include: (1) multiple interaction modes and (2) user-specific and stereotype modeling and adaptation. This prototype system provides us with a development platform towards the realization of an operational information ecology. In the first phase of this project we focus on the design and implementation of prototype system of the User-System Interface Agent (USIA). The second face of USIA allows user interaction via a restricted query language as well as through a taxonomy of windows. In third phase the USIA system architecture was revised.

  9. Assault in medical law: revisiting the boundaries of informed consent to medical treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maria C I

    2009-05-01

    This article focuses on assault as a cause of action in medical law, with particular emphasis on the requirements for informed consent, both under common law and under the National Health Act 2003 (Sth Africa). In particular, the test for consent, adopted in Castell v De Greef 1994 (4) SA 408 (C), is analysed in detail. It is noted that the wording of this test for informed consent mirrors the wording of the test for negligence laid down in the Australian case of Rogers v Whitaker (1992) 175 CLR 479. Further, the relationship between the delictual elements of wrongfulness and fault in assault is discussed. It is argued that in South African law a valid consent to medical treatment requires knowledge not only of the general nature of medical treatment but also of the consequences of the treatment and, in determining which consequences should be disclosed to a patient, the constitutional rights to equality and self-determination support the application of a subjective patient-centred test for informed consent. However, it is also proposed that the broad right of a patient to information is reined in at the fault element of assault, so that a limited requirement of consciousness of wrongfulness on the part of the defendant negates liability for delictual assault.

  10. 76 FR 80387 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Law and Order on Indian Reservations-Marriage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... Law and Order on Indian Reservations--Marriage & Dissolution Applications; Request for Comments... ``Law and Order on Indian Reservations--Marriage & Dissolution Applications.'' The information... personal information necessary for a Court of Indian Offenses to issue a marriage license or dissolve a...

  11. Fusion of multiagent preference orderings with information on agent's importance being incomplete certain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianqiang

    2007-01-01

    The problem of fusing multiagent preference orderings, with information on agent's importance being incomplete certain with respect to a set of possible courses of action, is described. The approach is developed for dealing with the fusion problem described in the following sections and requires that each agent provides a preference ordering over the different alternatives completely independent of the other agents, and the information on agent's importance is incomplete certain. In this approach, the ternary comparison matrix of the alternatives is constructed, the eigenvector associated with the maximum eigenvalue of the ternary comparison matrix is attained so as to normalize priority vector of the alternatives. The interval number of the alternatives is then obtained by solving two sorts of linear programming problems. By comparing the interval numbers of the alternatives, the ranking of alternatives can be generated. Finally, some examples are given to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  12. Optimization Models for Reaction Networks: Information Divergence, Quadratic Programming and Kirchhoff’s Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Michael Stern

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a simple derivation of optimization models for reaction networks leading to a generalized form of the mass-action law, and compares the formal structure of Minimum Information Divergence, Quadratic Programming and Kirchhoff type network models. These optimization models are used in related articles to develop and illustrate the operation of ontology alignment algorithms and to discuss closely connected issues concerning the epistemological and statistical significance of sharp or precise hypotheses in empirical science.

  13. Russian and Foreign Experience of Integration of Agent-Based Models and Geographic Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Anatol’evich Gulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of the mechanisms of integration of agent-based models and GIS technology developed by Russian and foreign researchers. The basic framework of the article is based on critical analysis of domestic and foreign literature (monographs, scientific articles. The study is based on the application of universal scientific research methods: system approach, analysis and synthesis, classification, systematization and grouping, generalization and comparison. The article presents theoretical and methodological bases of integration of agent-based models and geographic information systems. The concept and essence of agent-based models are explained; their main advantages (compared to other modeling methods are identified. The paper characterizes the operating environment of agents as a key concept in the theory of agent-based modeling. It is shown that geographic information systems have a wide range of information resources for calculations, searching, modeling of the real world in various aspects, acting as an effective tool for displaying the agents’ operating environment and allowing to bring the model as close as possible to the real conditions. The authors also focus on a wide range of possibilities for various researches in different spatial and temporal contexts. Comparative analysis of platforms supporting the integration of agent-based models and geographic information systems has been carried out. The authors give examples of complex socio-economic models: the model of a creative city, humanitarian assistance model. In the absence of standards for research results description, the authors focus on the models’ elements such as the characteristics of the agents and their operation environment, agents’ behavior, rules of interaction between the agents and the external environment. The paper describes the possibilities and prospects of implementing these models

  14. Research of using mobile agents for information discovery in P2P networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Yan; Yao Qing

    2003-01-01

    The technology of P2P is a new network-computing model that has great value of commerce and technology. After analyzing the current information discovery technology in P2P network, a new solution that is based on mobile agent is proposed. The mobile agent solution can reduce the need of bandwidth, be adapt to the dynamic of P2P network, and be asynchronous and be very fault tolerant. (authors)

  15. OntoTrader: An Ontological Web Trading Agent Approach for Environmental Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Iribarne

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Web-based Information Systems (WIS are becoming increasingly necessary to provide support for users who are in different places with different types of information, by facilitating their access to the information, decision making, workgroups, and so forth. Design of these systems requires the use of standardized methods and techniques that enable a common vocabulary to be defined to represent the underlying knowledge. Thus, mediation elements such as traders enrich the interoperability of web components in open distributed systems. These traders must operate with other third-party traders and/or agents in the system, which must also use a common vocabulary for communication between them. This paper presents the OntoTrader architecture, an Ontological Web Trading agent based on the OMG ODP trading standard. It also presents the ontology needed by some system agents to communicate with the trading agent and the behavioral framework for the SOLERES OntoTrader agent, an Environmental Management Information System (EMIS. This framework implements a “Query-Searching/Recovering-Response” information retrieval model using a trading service, SPARQL notation, and the JADE platform. The paper also presents reflection, delegation and, federation mediation models and describes formalization, an experimental testing environment in three scenarios, and a tool which allows our proposal to be evaluated and validated.

  16. Duty to Inform and Informed Consent in Diagnostic Radiology: How Ethics and Law can Better Guide Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doudenkova, Victoria; Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe

    2016-03-01

    Although there is consensus on the fact that ionizing radiation used in radiological examinations can affect health, the stochastic (random) nature of risk makes it difficult to anticipate and assess specific health implications for patients. The issue of radiation protection is peculiar as any dosage received in life is cumulative, the sensitivity to radiation is highly variable from one person to another, and between 20 % and 50 % of radiological examinations appear not to be necessary. In this context, one might reasonably assume that information and patient consent would play an important role in regulating radiological practice. However, there is to date no clear consensus regarding the nature and content of-or even need for-consent by patients exposed to ionizing radiation. While law and ethics support the same principles for respecting the dignity of the person (inviolability and integrity), in the context of radiology practice, they do not provide a consistent message to guide clinical decision-making. This article analyzes the issue of healthcare professionals' duty to inform and obtain patient consent for radiological examinations. Considering that both law and ethics have as one of their aims to protect vulnerable populations, it is important that they begin to give greater attention to issues raised by the use of ionizing radiation in medicine. While the situation in Canada serves as a backdrop for a reflective analysis of the problem, the conclusions are pertinent for professional practice in other jurisdictions because the principles underlying health law and jurisprudence are fairly general.

  17. TRUST MODEL FOR INFORMATION SECURITY OF MULTI-AGENT ROBOTIC SYSTEMS WITH A DECENTRALIZED MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zikratov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues on protection of multi-agent robotic systems against attacks by robots-saboteurs. The operation analysis of such systems with decentralized control is carried out. Concept of harmful information impact (attack from a robot-saboteur to the multi-agent robotic system is given. The class of attacks is considered using interception of messages, formation and transfer of misinformation to group of robots, and also carrying out other actions with vulnerabilities of multiagent algorithms without obviously identified signs of invasion of robots-saboteurs. The model of information security is developed, in which robots-agents work out trust levels to each other analyzing the events occurring in the system. The idea of trust model consists in the analysis of transferred information by each robot and the executed actions of other members in a group, comparison of chosen decision on iteration step k with objective function of the group. Distinctive feature of the trust model in comparison with the closest analogue - Buddy Security Model in which the exchange between the agents security tokens is done — is involvement of the time factor during which agents have to "prove" by their actions the usefulness in achievement of a common goal to members of the group. Variants of this model realization and ways of an assessment of trust levels for agents in view of the security policy accepted in the group are proposed.

  18. Citizen Participation, Access to Environmental Information and Education in Uruguayan Environmental Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Iglesias Rossini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our country has followed a clear trend towards the recognition of various mechanisms of citizen participation and access to public information regarding environmental issues A few years ago, if, for instance, a person or group of people, concerned about the potential environmental impact caused by the establishment of a factory in their neighborhood, requested information from the Authorities, such request would have most likely been rejected. At present, there is a clear law-making policy towards acknowledging the possibility for a diversity of social players to be involved at different levels. In a State structured under a social rule of law, both community participation and civil society access to information in possession of the State, regarding issues that may affect the environment, are fundamental rights. Both concepts, information and participation, must go hand in hand, as the first operates as a condition to exercise the second. Civil society involvement in an environmental issue could never occur if, for instance, information held by the Government is not made available. In addition to protecting fundamental human rights, these concepts are enshrined in participatory democracy. They also enable civil society to be involved in environmental pollution issues. This paper is intended to provide a detailed research on the different instruments enshrining citizen participation and access to public information about environmental issues.

  19. Truncation of power law behavior in 'scale-free' network models due to information filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossa, Stefano; Barthelemy, Marc; Eugene Stanley, H.; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2002-01-01

    We formulate a general model for the growth of scale-free networks under filtering information conditions--that is, when the nodes can process information about only a subset of the existing nodes in the network. We find that the distribution of the number of incoming links to a node follows a universal scaling form, i.e., that it decays as a power law with an exponential truncation controlled not only by the system size but also by a feature not previously considered, the subset of the network 'accessible' to the node. We test our model with empirical data for the World Wide Web and find agreement

  20. Design and Application of an Intelligent Agent for Web Information Discovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵君; 冯珊; 唐超; 许立达

    2003-01-01

    With the propagation of applications on the internet, the internet has become a great information source which supplies users with valuable information. But it is hard for users to quickly acquire the right information on the web. This paper an intelligent agent for internet applications to retrieve and extract web information under user's guidance. The intelligent agent is made up of a retrieval script to identify web sources, an extraction script based on the document object model to express extraction process, a data translator to export the extracted information into knowledge bases with frame structures, and a data reasoning to reply users' questions. A GUI tool named Script Writer helps to generate the extraction script visually, and knowledge rule databases help to extract wanted information and to generate the answer to questions.

  1. 49 CFR 40.329 - What information must laboratories, MROs, and other service agents release to employees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... other service agents release to employees? 40.329 Section 40.329 Transportation Office of the Secretary... Confidentiality and Release of Information § 40.329 What information must laboratories, MROs, and other service agents release to employees? (a) As an MRO or service agent you must provide, within 10 business days of...

  2. Behaviour Guides and Law. Research Perspectives on the (InFormal and its Currently Shifting Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Harrasser / Elisabeth Timm

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The juridification of social life in the modern bourgeois world was long understood as a triumph of rationality over particular interests, as the “civilisation” of physical violence. For some time now, this grand narrative of the modern world has been criticized as a specific historical case, as Eurocentric and bourgeois. Additionally, the concept and practice of modern, national sovereign statehood is being challenged in many ways. Individuals are also experiencing an unbounding of their “sovereignty”. The article sums up different disciplines’ research into the fields of behaviour guides and law. In doing so, it sketches out research perspectives intended to transcend the either-or dichotomy of the previous debates (ethics / particular / informal / personal / emotional-cultural vs. law / universal / formal / institutional and envisions new analytical assessments of these two poles.

  3. Law status of journalists and bloggers in the newest information legislation of Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapustina Anna Georgievna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The author carries out a comparative analysis of Russian national rights and responsibilities of journalists and bloggers, distinguishes fundamental differences in the legal status of the subject of information relations, determines the trend of development of the Russian legislation activity regulation of participants of information relations in the Russian segment of the Internet. On August 1, 2014 the Law on bloggers entered into force that, on the one hand fixed the differences between journalism as a profession and the blogosphere as a kind of social activity. On the other hand, at the legislative level it has solved the problem of the responsible attitude to bloggers - often influential and popular sources of information - to the broadcasting of messages. It is obvious that in Russian Federation it is being actively formed a system of legal regulation of information relations on the Internet, existed for many years legal gaps in this area are gradually disappearing.

  4. Modelling financial markets with agents competing on different time scales and with different amount of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlmuth, Johannes; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    2006-05-01

    We use agent-based models to study the competition among investors who use trading strategies with different amount of information and with different time scales. We find that mixing agents that trade on the same time scale but with different amount of information has a stabilizing impact on the large and extreme fluctuations of the market. Traders with the most information are found to be more likely to arbitrage traders who use less information in the decision making. On the other hand, introducing investors who act on two different time scales has a destabilizing effect on the large and extreme price movements, increasing the volatility of the market. Closeness in time scale used in the decision making is found to facilitate the creation of local trends. The larger the overlap in commonly shared information the more the traders in a mixed system with different time scales are found to profit from the presence of traders acting at another time scale than themselves.

  5. Using and Disclosing Confidential Patient Information and The English Common Law: What are the Information Requirements of a Valid Consent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Victoria; Taylor, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    The National Health Service in England and Wales is dependent upon the flow of confidential patient data. In the context of consent to the use of patient health data, insistence on the requirements of an 'informed' consent that are difficult to achieve will drive reliance on alternatives to consent. Here we argue that one can obtain a valid consent to the disclosure of confidential patient data, such that this disclosure would not amount to a breach of the common law duty of confidentiality, having provided less information than would typically be associated with an 'informed consent'. This position protects consent as a practicable legal basis for disclosure from debilitating uncertainty or impracticability and, perhaps counter-intuitively, promotes patient autonomy.

  6. 76 FR 17617 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... assessments, biosafety requirements, and security measures. DATES: The meeting will be held on May 10, 2011...) and other interested individuals to obtain specific regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety and biosecurity issues related to the Federal Select Agent Program. CDC, APHIS, and FBI...

  7. Agent-oriented Architecture for Task-based Information Search System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aroyo, Lora; de Bra, Paul M.E.; De Bra, P.; Hardman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The topic of the reported research discusses an agent-oriented architecture of an educational information search system AIMS - a task-based learner support system. It is implemented within the context of 'Courseware Engineering' on-line course at the Faculty of Educational Science and Technology,

  8. What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purzycki, Benjamin G.; Finkel, Daniel N.; Shaver, John; Wales, Nathan; Cohen, Adam B.; Sosis, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about…

  9. Multi-agent systems: effective approach for cancer care information management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Niloofar; Safdari, Reza; Rahimi, Azin

    2013-01-01

    Physicians, in order to study the causes of cancer, detect cancer earlier, prevent or determine the effectiveness of treatment, and specify the reasons for the treatment ineffectiveness, need to access accurate, comprehensive, and timely cancer data. The cancer care environment has become more complex because of the need for coordination and communication among health care professionals with different skills in a variety of roles and the existence of large amounts of data with various formats. The goals of health care systems in such a complex environment are correct health data management, providing appropriate information needs of users to enhance the integrity and quality of health care, timely access to accurate information and reducing medical errors. These roles in new systems with use of agents efficiently perform well. Because of the potential capability of agent systems to solve complex and dynamic health problems, health care system, in order to gain full advantage of E- health, steps must be taken to make use of this technology. Multi-agent systems have effective roles in health service quality improvement especially in telemedicine, emergency situations and management of chronic diseases such as cancer. In the design and implementation of agent based systems, planning items such as information confidentiality and privacy, architecture, communication standards, ethical and legal aspects, identification opportunities and barriers should be considered. It should be noted that usage of agent systems only with a technical view is associated with many problems such as lack of user acceptance. The aim of this commentary is to survey applications, opportunities and barriers of this new artificial intelligence tool for cancer care information as an approach to improve cancer care management.

  10. Information Seeking and Students Studying for Professional Careers: The Cases of Engineering and Law Students in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerins, Gillian; Madden, Ronan; Fulton, Crystal

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports the results of two empirical studies which explored the information seeking behaviour of engineering and law students in Ireland. Findings reveal similar patterns in the information seeking behaviour between students studying to become professionals and information seeking patterns of these groups identified in the Leckie et al.…

  11. Social adaptation in multi-agent model of linguistic categorization is affected by network information flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubek, Julian; Denkiewicz, Michał; Barański, Juliusz; Wróblewski, Przemysław; Rączaszek-Leonardi, Joanna; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores how information flow properties of a network affect the formation of categories shared between individuals, who are communicating through that network. Our work is based on the established multi-agent model of the emergence of linguistic categories grounded in external environment. We study how network information propagation efficiency and the direction of information flow affect categorization by performing simulations with idealized network topologies optimizing certain network centrality measures. We measure dynamic social adaptation when either network topology or environment is subject to change during the experiment, and the system has to adapt to new conditions. We find that both decentralized network topology efficient in information propagation and the presence of central authority (information flow from the center to peripheries) are beneficial for the formation of global agreement between agents. Systems with central authority cope well with network topology change, but are less robust in the case of environment change. These findings help to understand which network properties affect processes of social adaptation. They are important to inform the debate on the advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems.

  12. Information driving force and its application in agent-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Bo; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2018-04-01

    Exploring the scientific impact of online big-data has attracted much attention of researchers from different fields in recent years. Complex financial systems are typical open systems profoundly influenced by the external information. Based on the large-scale data in the public media and stock markets, we first define an information driving force, and analyze how it affects the complex financial system. The information driving force is observed to be asymmetric in the bull and bear market states. As an application, we then propose an agent-based model driven by the information driving force. Especially, all the key parameters are determined from the empirical analysis rather than from statistical fitting of the simulation results. With our model, both the stationary properties and non-stationary dynamic behaviors are simulated. Considering the mean-field effect of the external information, we also propose a few-body model to simulate the financial market in the laboratory.

  13. Copyright law and academic radiology: rights of authors and copyright owners and reproduction of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, E J; Westenberg, L

    1995-05-01

    Desktop computer hardware and software provide many new and accessible avenues for increased academic productivity, but some activities may have legal implications. The advent of technologies such as scanners, the ever-increasing number of electronic bulletin boards, and the development of the "information superhighway" affect the concept of copyright and require authors and publishers to reconsider their legal rights and obligations when they create or publish new works or modify existing ones. For example, with desktop scanners, almost any image, published or otherwise, can be copied, enhanced, and manipulated. Moreover, many radiologists have access to copyrighted digital radiologic teaching file images, such as those from the University of Iowa or the University of Washington, which are available (and "downloadable") on the Internet. Because "downloading" (or "uploading") a document or image is essentially making a copy of that document or image, copyright laws and the rights that they afford authors are involved.

  14. The right to information in criminal proceedings in the light of proposed changes of the Criminal Law Codification Commission

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzejewska, Marzena

    2013-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the right to information from the point of view of the participants of criminal proceedings. The execution of the right contributes to the principle of equality between the parties, secure execution of the adversarial principle, transparency and to creating the image of law-abidingness and transparent jurisdiction in the mindset of society. Particular attention has been paid to the draft amendment to the Criminal Procedure Code, prepared by the Criminal Law ...

  15. Immunization Information Systems: A Decade of Progress in Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel W.; Lowery, N. Elaine; Brand, Bill; Gold, Rebecca; Horlick, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study of laws, regulations, and policies governing Immunization Information Systems (IIS, also known as “immunization registries”) in states and selected urban areas of the United States. The study included a search of relevant statutes, administrative codes and published attorney general opinions/findings, an online questionnaire completed by immunization program managers and/or their staff, and follow-up telephone interviews. The legal/regulatory framework for IIS has changed considerably since 2000, largely in ways that improve IIS’ ability to perform their public health functions while continuing to maintain strict confidentiality and privacy controls. Nevertheless, the exchange of immunization data and other health information between care providers and public health and between entities in different jurisdictions remains difficult due in part to ongoing regulatory diversity. To continue to be leaders in health information exchange and facilitate immunization of children and adults, IIS will need to address the challenges presented by the interplay of federal and state legislation, regulations, and policies and continue to move toward standardized data collection and sharing necessary for interoperable systems. PMID:24402434

  16. Ontological Model-Based Transparent Access To Information In A Medical Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia GÎZĂ-BELCIUG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Getting the full electronic medical record of a patient is an important step in providing a quality medical service. But the degree of heterogeneity of data from health unit informational systems is very high, because each unit can have a different model for storing patients’ medical data. In order to achieve the interoperability and integration of data from various medical units that store partial patient medical information, this paper proposes a multi-agent systems and ontology based approach. Therefore, we present an ontological model for describing the particular structure of the data integration process. The system is to be used for centralizing the information from a patient’s partial medical records. The main advantage of the proposed model is the low ratio between the complexity of the model and the amount of information that can be retrieved in order to generate the complete medical history of a patient.

  17. Information seeking and students studying for professional careers: the cases of engineering and law students in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Kerins

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of two empirical studies which explored the information seeking behaviour of engineering and law students in Ireland. Findings reveal similar patterns in the information seeking behaviour between students studying to become professionals and information seeking patterns of these groups identified in Leckie et al.'s model. Students learned their information seeking strategies, including effective and less effective approaches, from educators and continuing mis-perceptions of libraries and information professionals. The studies suggest that engineering and law students in Ireland could benefit from greater information literacy training and awareness, enabling them to acquire the information skills they need to function effectively and efficiently in their future professional work lives.

  18. Multi-agent control system with information fusion based comfort model for smart buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhu; Wang, Lingfeng; Dounis, Anastasios I.; Yang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposed a model to manage indoor energy and comfort for smart buildings. ► Developed a control system to maximize comfort with minimum energy consumption. ► Information fusion with ordered weighted averaging aggregation is used. ► Multi-agent technology and heuristic intelligent optimization are deployed in developing the control system. -- Abstract: From the perspective of system control, a smart and green building is a large-scale dynamic system with high complexity and a huge amount of information. Proper combination of the available information and effective control of the overall building system turns out to be a big challenge. In this study, we proposed a building indoor energy and comfort management model based on information fusion using ordered weighted averaging (OWA) aggregation. A multi-agent control system with heuristic intelligent optimization is developed to achieve a high level of comfort with the minimum power consumption. Case studies and simulation results are presented and discussed in this paper.

  19. Use of mutual information to decrease entropy: Implications for the second law of thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, S.

    1989-01-01

    Several theorems on the mechanics of gathering information are proved, and the possibility of violating the second law of thermodynamics by obtaining information is discussed in light of these theorems. Maxwell's demon can lower the entropy of his surroundings by an amount equal to the difference between the maximum entropy of his recording device and its initial entropy, without generating a compensating entropy increase. A demon with human-scale recording devices can reduce the entropy of a gas by a negligible amount only, but the proof of the demon's impracticability leaves open the possibility that systems highly correlated with their environment can reduce the environment's entropy by a substantial amount without increasing entropy elsewhere. In the event that a boundary condition for the universe requires it to be in a state of low entropy when small, the correlations induced between different particle modes during the expansion phase allow the modes to behave like Maxwell's demons during the contracting phase, reducing the entropy of the universe to a low value

  20. Obligation of information and nuclear medicine after the law of march 4. 2002; Obligation d'information en medecine nucleaire apres la loi du 4 mars 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloch, L. [Universite Montesquieu, ATER, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2002-06-01

    The default of the obligation of information, which should only be a deontological fault, had begun to intrude on the area of responsibility, whether it be criminal or indeed civil. 'Ethical' responsibility took over a 'technical' responsibility limited by the primacy of fault. The law of March 4, 2002 prepared the ground for a return of this sword of Damocles towards its natural area, that is to say deontological fault which comes within ordinal jurisdictions. Thus the main contribution of this law is to be found in the definition of medical responsibility which, by limiting responsibility to a technical fault, seems to rule out the default of the obligation of information. The law of March 4, 2002 has not stirred up the content of the obligation of information for all that. The question of the information on exceptional risks is the only one to have noticeably evolved, since information now concerns only predictable risks. Therefore, the law of March 4, 2002, in no way leads to the death of the obligation of information, quite the reverse: the quality requirements in the information of the patient are even reinforced in some of their aspects, but in compensation for these requirements, there is no exacerbated responsibility anymore. (author)

  1. Using information technology to help business students learn about contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Edwards

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Almost all business students study law. However, business students have a different perspective on law from that of law students. A common problem, therefore, in legal courses for business students is how to provide a sufficiently wide-ranging, practically relevant programme without the sacrifice of intellectual depth. At Aston Business School, one approach adopted has been to supplement lectures with role-play exercises, rather than conventional tutorials.

  2. You told me, Right? - Free and Informed Consent in European Patent Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Hellstadius, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    rules should be understood in the light of the development in health law and fundamental rights law where FIC has long been a central concept which is e.g. recognized in the EU’s Charter on Fundamental Rights. Against that basis, we suggest that patent law and patent practices have so far not fully......-compliance would amount to not only a violation of legal rules but also amount to a serious violation of principles of ordre public or morality in line with current patent law standards....

  3. MA-IS: Design of Information System in a Multi-Agents Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Paiano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the information systems has recently had a remarkable increase, mostly thanks to the enormous impact that it has had in the multi-agent system (MAS area; hence the need to integrate two systems and obtain an IS that takes advantage of the potentialities of the MAS. To this purpose, a methodology to analyze and design a multi-agent system is needed. In order to define such a methodology, which should take into account all the aspects of the MAS, first we need to establish not only a conceptual model of the system but also a communication level model. In this paper we propose the use of DDS framework for the communication level and the use of the BWW ontology for representation and design of the domain knowledge base. The idea of the above-mentioned methodology was conceived in the SISTDE project, which uses the ontology for the description of the domain, so as to provide the agents with a knowledge base that concurs to define their behaviour according to external events. In addition to this, the experience we have matured in the IS modelling using the BWW ontology is a key-point of our approach.

  4. One Hand Washes Another : Informal Ties Between Organized Criminal Groups and Law-Enforcement Agencies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Konnov

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the forms, contents and peculiarities of the existing informal ties between members of organized criminal groups and representatives of law-enforcement agencies in the Tatarstan Republic of Russia. Particular attention is paid to the origins of informal ties; ways how these relations are established, maintained, and utilized by both parts; causes of corruption in the law-enforcement agencies and the possibilities to understand it. The main conclusions are based on the results of ninety-six in-depth interviews with the law-enforcement officers, businessmen, members of organized criminal groups, and journalists conducted in main cities and towns of the Tatarstan Republic under support of the Transnational Crime and Corruption Centre at American University.

  5. Agent-Oriented Privacy-Based Information Brokering Architecture for Healthcare Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmutalib Masaud-Wahaishi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels—locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc. that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE.

  6. Agent-oriented privacy-based information brokering architecture for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaud-Wahaishi, Abdulmutalib; Ghenniwa, Hamada

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels-locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc.) that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE.

  7. An Agent-Based Framework for E-Commerce Information Retrieval Management Using Genetic Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floarea NASTASE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of improving retrieval performance management for retrieval from document collections that exist on the Internet. It also comes with a solution that uses the benefits of the agent technology and genetic algorithms in the process of the information retrieving management. The most important paradigms of information retrieval are mentioned having the goal to make more evident the advantages of using the genetic algorithms based one. Within the paper, also a genetic algorithm that can be use for the proposed solution is detailed and a comparative description between the dynamic and static proposed solution is made. In the end, new future directions are shown based on elements presented in this paper. The future results look very encouraging.

  8. 8 CFR 212.14 - Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (âLEAâ) will request S classification. 212.14 Section 212.14 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS: NONIMMIGRANTS; WAIVERS; ADMISSIO...

  9. 8 CFR 1212.14 - Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parole determinations for alien witnesses and informants for whom a law enforcement authority (âLEAâ) will request S classification. 1212.14 Section 1212.14 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS DOCUMENTARY REQUIREMENTS:...

  10. 76 FR 56786 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Law and Order on Indian Reservations-Marriage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... Law and Order on Indian Reservations--Marriage & Dissolution Applications; Request for Comments AGENCY... on Indian Reservations--Marriage & Dissolution Applications, which concerns marriage and dissolution of a marriage in a Court of Indian Offenses. The information collection is currently authorized by...

  11. Real Estate Agent Commission Disputes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anida Duarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among Procuring Cause Law, real estate agent years of experience, and real estate commission disputes. A pilot survey was conducted in the southwestern United States among real estate agents, realtor(s, and brokers. After testing the hypothesis, the decision was made to fail to reject the hypothesis and conclude that real estate agent experience and not Procuring Cause Law produced favorable outcomes in disputes. As a result, the following recommendations were made: (a Agency seller and buyer’s agreements should be used in each transaction to avoid disputes, (b proper expectations and guidelines should be reviewed prior to starting any real estate transaction, (c a checklist may assist in the assurance that all valuable information is reviewed, (d agents could benefit from fully understanding Procuring Cause Law and sharing this information with their clients, (e state and national regulatory requirements of the law could be modified for easier understanding and use, and (f consumers who willfully violate the law could be subject to monetary penalties.

  12. A geographic information system for characterizing exposure to Agent Orange and other herbicides in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellman, Jeanne Mager; Stellman, Steven D; Weber, Tracy; Tomasallo, Carrie; Stellman, Andrew B; Christian, Richard

    2003-03-01

    Between 1961 and 1971, U.S. military forces dispersed more than 19 million gallons of phenoxy and other herbicidal agents in the Republic of Vietnam, including more than 12 million gallons of dioxin-contaminated Agent Orange, yet only comparatively limited epidemiologic and environmental research has been carried out on the distribution and health effects of this contamination. As part of a response to a National Academy of Sciences' request for development of exposure methodologies for carrying out epidemiologic research, a conceptual framework for estimating exposure opportunity to herbicides and a geographic information system (GIS) have been developed. The GIS is based on a relational database system that integrates extensive data resources on dispersal of herbicides (e.g., HERBS records of Ranch Hand aircraft flight paths, gallonage, and chemical agent), locations of military units and bases, dynamic movement of combat troops in Vietnam, and locations of civilian population centers. The GIS can provide a variety of proximity counts for exposure to 9,141 herbicide application missions. In addition, the GIS can be used to generate a quantitative exposure opportunity index that accounts for quantity of herbicide sprayed, distance, and environmental decay of a toxic factor such as dioxin, and is flexible enough to permit substitution of other mathematical exposure models by the user. The GIS thus provides a basis for estimation of herbicide exposure for use in large-scale epidemiologic studies. To facilitate widespread use of the GIS, a user-friendly software package was developed to permit researchers to assign exposure opportunity indexes to troops, locations, or individuals.

  13. The Spectrum of Cyber Conflict from Hacking to Information Warfare: What is Law Enforcement's Role?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adkins, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    ... of future cyber attacks, The main problem is distinguishing the type of intrusion or attack and developing the mechanisms to appropriately respond whether by law enforcement or military action, This paper...

  14. Consensus for linear multi-agent system with intermittent information transmissions using the time-scale theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taousser, Fatima; Defoort, Michael; Djemai, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the consensus problem for linear multi-agent system with fixed communication topology in the presence of intermittent communication using the time-scale theory. Since each agent can only obtain relative local information intermittently, the proposed consensus algorithm is based on a discontinuous local interaction rule. The interaction among agents happens at a disjoint set of continuous-time intervals. The closed-loop multi-agent system can be represented using mixed linear continuous-time and linear discrete-time models due to intermittent information transmissions. The time-scale theory provides a powerful tool to combine continuous-time and discrete-time cases and study the consensus protocol under a unified framework. Using this theory, some conditions are derived to achieve exponential consensus under intermittent information transmissions. Simulations are performed to validate the theoretical results.

  15. Soft Regulation with Crowd Recommendation: Coordinating Self-Interested Agents in Sociotechnical Systems under Imperfect Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Regulating emerging industries is challenging, even controversial at times. Under-regulation can result in safety threats to plant personnel, surrounding communities, and the environment. Over-regulation may hinder innovation, progress, and economic growth. Since one typically has limited understanding of, and experience with, the novel technology in practice, it is difficult to accomplish a properly balanced regulation. In this work, we propose a control and coordination policy called soft regulation that attempts to strike the right balance and create a collective learning environment. In soft regulation mechanism, individual agents can accept, reject, or partially accept the regulator’s recommendation. This non-intrusive coordination does not interrupt normal operations. The extent to which an agent accepts the recommendation is mediated by a confidence level (from 0 to 100%). Among all possible recommendation methods, we investigate two in particular: the best recommendation wherein the regulator is completely informed and the crowd recommendation wherein the regulator collects the crowd’s average and recommends that value. We show by analysis and simulations that soft regulation with crowd recommendation performs well. It converges to optimum, and is as good as the best recommendation for a wide range of confidence levels. This work sheds a new theoretical perspective on the concept of the wisdom of crowds. PMID:26977699

  16. Soft Regulation with Crowd Recommendation: Coordinating Self-Interested Agents in Sociotechnical Systems under Imperfect Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Iyengar, Garud; Venkatasubramanian, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    Regulating emerging industries is challenging, even controversial at times. Under-regulation can result in safety threats to plant personnel, surrounding communities, and the environment. Over-regulation may hinder innovation, progress, and economic growth. Since one typically has limited understanding of, and experience with, the novel technology in practice, it is difficult to accomplish a properly balanced regulation. In this work, we propose a control and coordination policy called soft regulation that attempts to strike the right balance and create a collective learning environment. In soft regulation mechanism, individual agents can accept, reject, or partially accept the regulator's recommendation. This non-intrusive coordination does not interrupt normal operations. The extent to which an agent accepts the recommendation is mediated by a confidence level (from 0 to 100%). Among all possible recommendation methods, we investigate two in particular: the best recommendation wherein the regulator is completely informed and the crowd recommendation wherein the regulator collects the crowd's average and recommends that value. We show by analysis and simulations that soft regulation with crowd recommendation performs well. It converges to optimum, and is as good as the best recommendation for a wide range of confidence levels. This work sheds a new theoretical perspective on the concept of the wisdom of crowds.

  17. Landscape Epidemiology Modeling Using an Agent-Based Model and a Geographic Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Niaz Arifin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A landscape epidemiology modeling framework is presented which integrates the simulation outputs from an established spatial agent-based model (ABM of malaria with a geographic information system (GIS. For a study area in Kenya, five landscape scenarios are constructed with varying coverage levels of two mosquito-control interventions. For each scenario, maps are presented to show the average distributions of three output indices obtained from the results of 750 simulation runs. Hot spot analysis is performed to detect statistically significant hot spots and cold spots. Additional spatial analysis is conducted using ordinary kriging with circular semivariograms for all scenarios. The integration of epidemiological simulation-based results with spatial analyses techniques within a single modeling framework can be a valuable tool for conducting a variety of disease control activities such as exploring new biological insights, monitoring epidemiological landscape changes, and guiding resource allocation for further investigation.

  18. Exploring utilitarian and hedonic antecedents for adopting information from a recommendation agent and unplanned purchase behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Research indicated that in order for properly utilizing recommendation agents (RAs), customers must rationally evaluate capability and suggestions of RAs during the interaction process. However, enjoying interactive processes and interface is also important. Methods for increasing user enjoyment of RAs are yet unknown. This study investigated the influences of utilitarian and hedonic factors on intention to adopt RAs suggestions and their antecedents. Involvement influences relative importance of utilitarian and hedonic factors. Contrary to common assumptions, customers may make unplanned purchases, rather than rational purchase. A field experiment with 2 × 2 × 2 factorial design reveals main findings. First, information diagnosticity and enjoyment enhance adoption intention simultaneously. Information diagnosticity is more important than enjoyment. Diagnosticity was determined by outcome similarity, and enjoyment was determined by both outcome similarity and atmospherics. The context of interacting with RAs is important. Outcome similarity even directly affects adoption intention. Second, highly involved users considered enjoyment and diagnosticity when forming adoption intentions, while users with low involvement only considered enjoyment. Third, information cascades altered the relationship between adoption intention and unplanned purchases. Most customers change selection after seeing ratings from other customers, even if they originally strongly want to adoption suggestion from RAs. Theoretical and managerial implications are proposed.

  19. Synchronisation effects on the behavioural performance and information dynamics of a simulated minimally cognitive robotic agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moioli, Renan C; Vargas, Patricia A; Husbands, Phil

    2012-09-01

    Oscillatory activity is ubiquitous in nervous systems, with solid evidence that synchronisation mechanisms underpin cognitive processes. Nevertheless, its informational content and relationship with behaviour are still to be fully understood. In addition, cognitive systems cannot be properly appreciated without taking into account brain-body- environment interactions. In this paper, we developed a model based on the Kuramoto Model of coupled phase oscillators to explore the role of neural synchronisation in the performance of a simulated robotic agent in two different minimally cognitive tasks. We show that there is a statistically significant difference in performance and evolvability depending on the synchronisation regime of the network. In both tasks, a combination of information flow and dynamical analyses show that networks with a definite, but not too strong, propensity for synchronisation are more able to reconfigure, to organise themselves functionally and to adapt to different behavioural conditions. The results highlight the asymmetry of information flow and its behavioural correspondence. Importantly, it also shows that neural synchronisation dynamics, when suitably flexible and reconfigurable, can generate minimally cognitive embodied behaviour.

  20. 77 FR 64819 - New Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement/Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ...This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the new Information Collection Request (ICR) abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and approval under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments, of the following collection of information on June 20, 2012, 77 FR 37062. The collection involves the reimbursement of expenses incurred by airport operators for the provision of law enforcement officers (LEOs) to support airport security checkpoint screening.

  1. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloepfer, M.

    1989-01-01

    This comprehensive reference book on environmental law and practice also is a valuable textbook for students specializing in the field. The entire law on pollution control and environmental protection is presented in an intelligent system, covering the latest developments in the Federal and Land legislation, public environmental law, and the related provisions in the fields of civil law and criminal law. The national survey is rounded up by information concerning the international environmental law, environmental law of the European Communities, and of other foreign countries as e.g. Austria and Switzerland. The author also reviews conditions in neighbouring fields such as technology and labour law, environmental economy, environmental policy. Special attention is given to current topics, as e.g. relating to genetic engineering, disused landfills or industrial sites, soil protection, transport of hazardous goods, liability for damage to forests, atomic energy law, and radiation protection law. The latest publishing dates of literature and court decisions considered in the book are in the first months of 1989. (RST) [de

  2. An agent-based information management model of the Chinese pig sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, S.A.; Kramer, M.R.; Hofstede, G.J.; Roozmand, O.; Beulens, A.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of a selected top-down measure (what-if scenario) on actual agent behaviour and total system behaviour by means of an agent-based simulation model, when agents’ behaviour cannot fully be managed because the agents are autonomous. The Chinese pork sector serves as

  3. A New Approach to Abortion Informed Consent Laws: How An Evidence Law Framework Can Clarify Casey’s Truthful, Non-Misleading Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veneeta Jaswal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available United States Supreme Court doctrine has, for a quarter century, permitted regulations designed—through facts or nudges, but not force—to persuade pregnant women to choose childbirth over abortion. States have increasingly exceeded the bounds of this persuasive power by subjecting women to emotive and potentially distressing ‘information’ like real-time fetal images, heart beat recordings, or state-mandated directives by their doctors that abortion would “terminate the life of a whole, separate, unique, living human being.” This article advances a novel approach to informed consent in abortion that draws on established principles in the U.S. Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE. Evidentiary rules requiring “completeness”, exempting “common knowledge”, and prohibiting evidence that is “more prejudicial than probative” provide a sounder way for courts to determine which informed consent regulations on abortion mislead and demean a woman in ways that violate her constitutional right to make the ultimate decision about whether to continue a pregnancy. This evidence law framework would resolve conflicts between a woman’s right and the state’s interest by forbidding mandatory disclosures of incomplete, unnecessary, and emotionally charged information designed to promote childbirth over abortion.

  4. Leveraging on Information Technology to Teach Construction Law to Built Environment Students: A Knowledge-Based System (KBS Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Manzoor Arain

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Construction law is a vital component of the body of knowledge that is needed by construction professionals in order to successfully operate in the commercial world of construction. Construction law plays an important role in shaping building projects. Construction projects are complex because they involve many human and non-human factors and variables. Teaching construction law is therefore a complex issue with several dimensions. In recent years, Information Technology (IT has become strongly established as a supporting tool for many professions, including teachers. If faculty members have a knowledge base established on similar past projects, it would assist the faculty members to present case studies and contractually based scenarios to students. This paper proposes potential utilisation of a Knowledge-based System (KBS for teaching construction law to built environment students. The KBS is primarily designed for building professionals to learn from similar past projects. The KBS is able to assist professionals by providing accurate and timelyinformation for decision making and a user-friendly tool for analysing and selecting the suggested controls for variations in educational buildings. It is recommended that the wealth of knowledge available in the KBS can be very helpful in teaching construction law to built environment students. The system presents real case studies and scenarios to students to allow them to analyse and learn construction law. The KBS could be useful to students as a general research tool because the students could populate it with their own data and use it with the reported educational projects. With further generic modifications, the KBS will also be useful for built environment students to learn about project management of building projects; thus, it will raise the overall level of professional understanding, and eventually productivity, in the construction industry.

  5. Maximising Organisational Information Sharing and Effective Intelligence Analysis in Critical Data Sets. A case study on the information science needs of the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community

    OpenAIRE

    Wilhelmsen, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Organisational information sharing has become more and more important as the amount of information grows. In order to accomplish the most effective and efficient sharing of information, analysis of the information needs and the organisation needs are vital. This dissertation focuses on the information needs sourced through the critical data sets of law enforcement organisations; specifically the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community represented by the Na...

  6. A multi-agent approach: To preserve user information privacy for a pervasive and ubiquitous environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandramohan Dhasarathan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cloud user’s data are getting insecure in current technological advancement. This research focuses on proposing a secure model to maintain the secrecy in a cloud environment using intelligent agent. This paper presents an intelligent model to protect user’s valuable personal data. Preserving proprietor’s data and information in cloud is one of the top most challenging missions for cloud provider. Many researches fanatical their valuable time’s to discover some technique, algorithms and protocols to solve secrecy issue and develop a full-fledged cloud computing standard structure as a newest computing to all cloud users. Some researchers came forward with cryptography technique, cyber middle wear technique, noise injection and third party layer technique to preserve privacy about data in cloud. We propose a hybrid authentication technique as an end point lock. It is a composite model coupled with an algorithm for user’s privacy preserving, which is likely to be Hash Diff Anomaly Detection and Prevention (HDAD. This algorithmic protocol acts intelligently as a privacy preserving model and technique to ensure the users data are kept more secretly and develop an endorsed trust on providers. We also explore the highest necessity to maintain the confidentiality of cloud user’s data.

  7. On the existence of optimal contract mechanisms for incomplete information principal-agent models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balder, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Two abstract results are given for the existence of optimal contract selection mechanisms in principal-agent models; by a suitable reformulation of the (almost) incentive compatibility constraint, they deal with both single- and multi-agent models. In particular, it is shown that the existence

  8. Information asymmetries as antecedents of opportunism in buyer-supplier relationships: testing principal-agent theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, Claus; Schiele, Holger; Ernst, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A severe problem in supplier selection refers to moral hazard: suppliers not behaving in the expected way once contracted. Principal-agent theory could provide insights on how to reduce this problem. Because buyer–supplier relationships can be interpreted as principal-agent situations, the

  9. Criminal law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, J.M. da.

    1979-01-01

    Facts concerning the application of atomic energy are presented and those aspects which should be under tutelage, the nature and guilt of the nuclear offenses and the agent's peril are presented. The need of a specific chapter in criminal law with adequate legislation concerning the principles of atomic energy is inferred. The basis for the future elaboration this legislation are fixed. (A.L.S.L.) [pt

  10. Agents, Individuals, and Networks: Modeling Methods to Inform Natural Resource Management in Regional Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lael Parrott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscapes are complex systems. Landscape dynamics are the result of multiple interacting biophysical and socioeconomic processes that are linked across a broad range of spatial, temporal, and organizational scales. Understanding and describing landscape dynamics poses enormous challenges and demands the use of new multiscale approaches to modeling. In this synthesis article, we present three regional systems - i.e., a forest system, a marine system, and an agricultural system - and describe how hybrid, bottom-up modeling of these systems can be used to represent linkages across scales and between subsystems. Through the use of these three examples, we describe how modeling can be used to simulate emergent system responses to different conservation policy and management scenarios from the bottom up, thereby increasing our understanding of important drivers and feedback loops within a landscape. The first case study involves the use of an individual-based modeling approach to simulate the effects of forest harvesting on the movement patterns of large mammals in Canada's boreal forest and the resulting emergent population dynamics. This model is being used to inform forest harvesting and management guidelines. The second case study combines individual and agent-based approaches to simulate the dynamics of individual boats and whales in a marine park. This model is being used to inform decision-makers on how to mitigate the impacts of maritime traffic on whales in the Saint Lawrence Estuary in eastern Canada. The third example is a case study of biodiversity conservation efforts on the Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. In this example, the social-ecological system is represented as a complex network of interacting components. Methods of network analysis can be used to explore the emergent responses of the system to changes in the network structure or configuration, thus informing managers about the resilience of the system. These three examples

  11. Integration of Life Cycle Assessment Into Agent-Based Modeling : Toward Informed Decisions on Evolving Infrastructure Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, C.B.; Nikoli?, I.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented that allows for a life cycle assessment (LCA) to provide environmental information on an energy infrastructure system while it evolves. Energy conversion facilities are represented in an agent-based model (ABM) as distinct instances of technologies with owners capable of making

  12. Semantic Oriented Agent based Approach towards Engineering Data Management, Web Information Retrieval and User System Communication Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Zeeshan; Gerhard, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    The four intensive problems to the software rose by the software industry .i.e., User System Communication / Human Machine Interface, Meta Data extraction, Information processing & management and Data representation are discussed in this research paper. To contribute in the field we have proposed and described an intelligent semantic oriented agent based search engine including the concepts of intelligent graphical user interface, natural language based information processing, data management...

  13. The Spectrum of Cyber Conflict from Hacking to Information Warfare: What is Law Enforcement's Role?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adkins, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Our reliance on computers and information-based technologies within DOD has greatly increased our potential for vulnerability if our information systems are attacked, DOD systems now receive numerous...

  14. How to make the best of mandatory information requirements in consumer law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaub, M.Y.

    2017-01-01

    EU consumer protection relies inter alia on information requirements imposing on traders the duty to provide specific and mandatory information to consumers before the conclusion of a contract. If consumers make well informed choices this can serve their individual interest, but it is also thought

  15. Internationalizing the Right to Know: Conceptualizations of Access to Information in Human Rights Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Cheryl Ann

    2009-01-01

    Currently there exists a global movement promoting institutional transparency and freedom of information legislation. Conceptualizing access to government-held information as a human right is one of the latest developments in this global trend promoting access to information. The purpose of this dissertation is to identify and analyze the various…

  16. Perfect match? Generation Y as change agents for information communication technology implementation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Kwang Chien; Miils, Erin; Airey, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The current healthcare delivery model will not meet future healthcare demands. The only sustainable healthcare future is one that best leverages advances in technology to improve productivity and efficiency. Information communication technology (ICT) has, therefore, been touted as the panacea of future healthcare challenges. Many ICT projects in healthcare, however, fail to deliver on their promises to transform the healthcare system. From a technologist's perspective, this is often due to the lack of socio-technical consideration. From a socio-cultural perspective, however, there is often strong inertia to change. While the utilisation of user-centred design principles will generate a new wave of enthusiasm among technologists, this has to be matched with socio-cultural changes within the healthcare system. Generation Y healthcare workers might be the socio-cultural factor required, in combination with new technology, to transform the healthcare system. Generation Y has generated significant technology-driven changes in many other industries. The socio-cultural understanding of generation Y healthcare workers is essential to guide the design and implementation of ICT solutions for a sustainable healthcare future. This paper presents the initial analysis of our qualitative study which aims to generate in-depth conceptual insights of generation Y healthcare workers and their view of ICT in healthcare. Our results show that generation Y healthcare workers might assist future ICT implementation in healthcare. This paper, however, argues that significant changes to the current healthcare organisation will be required in order to unleash the full potential of generation Y workers and ICT implementation. Finally, this paper presents some strategies to empower generation Y workers as change agents for a sustainable future healthcare system.

  17. A Formal Characterization of Relevant Information in Multi-Agent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    Conference iTrust. (2004) [17] Sadek, D.: Le dialogue homme-machine : de l’ ergonomie des interfaces à l’ agent intelligent dia- loguant. In: Nouvelles interfaces hommemachine, Lavoisier Editeur, Arago 18 (1996) 277–321

  18. Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations: A review of requirements for biological information in federal, state, and local environmental laws and regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Biological information concerning Yucca Mountain collected since 1980 is evaluated to determine if it is sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the various federal, state, and local laws and regulations that pertain to environmental protection or to development of waste repositories. The pertinent requirements of each law are summarized, missing information is identified, and recommendations are made for studies to fill these gaps. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Electrophysiological correlates of social information processing for detecting agents in social interaction scenes: P200 and N250 components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crivelli Davide

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available According to interaction theories, the detection of situated agents and the understanding of their intentions and mental states are mediated by smart perceptual and embodied mechanisms. While the network supporting agency-attribution, action understanding, and grasping of others’ mental state is quite known, the actual mental chronometry of such social perception processes is still not clear. We then designed an exploratory study to investigate electrophysiological correlates (ERPs and source localization of information-processing for the detection of potential agents in realistic interaction scenes. Morphological and statistical analyses of electrophysiological data highlighted that the manipulation the nature of a potential agent, the gesture it executed and the relative position of an interagent was differently associated to the modulation of specific relevant middle-latency ERP components, labelled as P200 and N250, and of their relative intra-cortical current density distribution within the first 300 ms from the appearance of the stimulus.

  20. Study of market model describing the contrary behaviors of informed and uninformed agents: Being minority and being majority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Xia; Liao, Hao; Medo, Matus; Shang, Ming-Sheng; Yeung, Chi Ho

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we analyze the contrary behaviors of the informed investors and uniformed investors, and then construct a competition model with two groups of agents, namely agents who intend to stay in minority and those who intend to stay in majority. We find two kinds of competitions, inter- and intra-groups. The model shows periodic fluctuation feature. The average distribution of strategies illustrates a prominent central peak which is relevant to the peak-fat-tail character of price change distribution in stock markets. Furthermore, in the modified model the tolerance time parameter makes the agents diversified. Finally, we compare the strategies distribution with the price change distribution in real stock market, and we conclude that contrary behavior rules and tolerance time parameter are indeed valid in the description of market model.

  1. 77 FR 10370 - Rewards and Awards for Information Relating to Violations of Internal Revenue Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... whistleblowers should be rewarded for the prevention of future tax avoidance based on the whistleblower's... regulations do not address awards relating to the prevention of future tax avoidance. Special Analysis It has... information provided to the Secretary when the information relates to the detection of underpayments of tax or...

  2. Personal Learning Environments: A proposal to develop digital competences and information in university teaching of Law in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos CABEZAS GONZÁLEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Personal Learning Enviroment (PLE is one of the most interesting concepts that has aroused among teachers and software engineers in the last time and that will have an impact on the next years among all the levels and modalities of education. ple is a product of various factors including a social web that is shown by tools and free access services based in an open code technology. But a PLE is not a kind of software or platform; it is a new view about how to use the technologies for the learning process both in the initial formation and the lifelong learning. This article has teaching in Law Schools in Colombia and the inexistence of juridical practice proposals that may develop the professional competencies linked to the non-formal and everyday learning and linked to personal learning environments. The target that we try to acquire is to create a PLE proposal supported by 2.0 technologies and orientated to encourage a lifelong learning that may develop the digital and informative competences in Law practice. We strongly believe that a PLE model will help the student acquire the knowledge, abilities and experiences that may allow them a personal and professional development in the frame of a lifelong learning program that will contribute to approach goals and opportunities in the information and communication society that is in constant evolution.

  3. 77 FR 65701 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ...This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number 1652-0043, abstracted below to OMB for review and approval of an extension of the currently approved collection under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments, of the following collection of information on July 20, 2012, 77 FR 42751. The collection involves a certification form that applicants for the Federal Air Marshal positions are required to complete regarding their mental health history.

  4. 75 FR 57049 - Extension of Agency Information Collection Activity Under OMB Review: Office of Law Enforcement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ...This notice announces that the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) has forwarded the Information Collection Request (ICR), Office of Management and Budget (OMB) control number 1652-0043, abstracted below to OMB for review and approval of an extension of the currently approved collection under the Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA). The ICR describes the nature of the information collection and its expected burden. TSA published a Federal Register notice, with a 60-day comment period soliciting comments, of the following collection of information on June 16, 2010, 75 FR 34148. The collection involves a certification form that applicants for the Federal Air Marshal positions are required to complete regarding their mental health history.

  5. Characterizing, Classifying, and Understanding Information Security Laws and Regulations: Considerations for Policymakers and Organizations Protecting Sensitive Information Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaw, David Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Current scholarly understanding of information security regulation in the United States is limited. Several competing mechanisms exist, many of which are untested in the courts and before state regulators, and new mechanisms are being proposed on a regular basis. Perhaps of even greater concern, the pace at which technology and threats change far…

  6. Informed consent from cognitively impaired persons participating in research trials: comparative law observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the ethical requirements to be considered when conducting clinical trials involving human subjects whose mental condition limits their ability to understand the information and to express fully autonomous and informed consent. It does not address other categories of vulnerable persons, such as children, or advanced directives concerning end-of-life care. There are many ethical issues entailed in clinical trials involving subjects with mental disabilities: how to obtain informed consent, balancing risks and benefits, balancing individual benefits with collective scientific and social interests, legal representation and many more. This article focuses on the issues surrounding the concept of minimal risk and the relationship between informed consent and risk. These issues are addressed with particular emphasis on the regulations adopted by the European Union and the federal government of the United States of America. The conclusion proposes a list of working criteria.

  7. Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawhan, Karl

    2001-01-01

    .... Nontraditional threats, however, pose asymmetric dilemmas for the United States. The increased U.S. military and economic reliance on information systems introduces new vulnerabilities not adequately protected by traditional kinetic force arms...

  8. Security Clearances and the Protection of National Security Information: Law and Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Sheldon

    2000-01-01

    ... designed to protect National Security information. The report provides an authoritative compendium for lawyers, security officers and for managers of corporations who must deal with the legal and procedural aspects of security clearances...

  9. Informed consent from cognitively impaired persons participating in research trials: comparative law observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the ethical requirements to be considered when conducting clinical trials involving human subjects whose mental condition limits their ability to understand the information and to express fully autonomous and informed consent. It does not address other categories of vulnerable persons, such as children, or advanced directives concerning end-of-life care. There are many ethical issues entailed in clinical trials involving subjects with mental disabilities: how to obtain informed consent, balancing risks and benefits, balancing individual benefits with collective scientific and social interests, legal representation and many more. This article focuses on the issues surrounding the concept of minimal risk and the relationship between informed consent and risk. These issues are addressed with particular emphasis on the regulations adopted by the European Union and the federal government of the United States of America. The conclusion proposes a list of working criteria.

  10. A hybrid approach to decision making and information fusion: Combining humans and artificial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Frans C.A.; Pavlin, Gregor; Winterboer, Andi; Evers, Vanessa

    This paper argues that hybrid human–agent systems can support powerful solutions to relevant problems such as Environmental Crisis management. However, it shows that such solutions require comprehensive approaches covering different aspects of data processing, model construction and the usage. In

  11. An Agent Architecture for Multi-Attribute Negotiation Using Incomplete Preference Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, C.M.; Robu, V.; Treur, J.

    2007-01-01

    A component-based generic agent architecture for multi-attribute (integrative) negotiation is introduced and its application is described in a prototype system for negotiation about cars, developed in cooperation with, among others, Dutch Telecom KPN. The approach can be characterized as cooperative

  12. Application of mobile agent technology with portable information device to the maintenance support of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Ito, Yo; Sato, Hisashi; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    A support system for trouble shooting activities has been developed based on the distributed DB and mobile agent technology. The main purpose of the proposed system is to provide field workers with effective functions for realizing trouble-shooting with the aid of the mobile agents, which performs data retrieval from DB and fault diagnosis. In the proposed scheme of trouble shooting support, a portable information device is utilized by the maintenance personnel, which is connected to the local data base (LDB) via wireless network. The important point is that these functions can be accessed by the field workers through wearable information device with the lower cognitive burden. The prototype system has been developed using the JAVA-based Aglets Framework SDK and applied to the actual objective system. It has been confirmed through the experiments that the developed prototype system is capable of performing the tasks to support diagnostic activities. (author)

  13. Privacy laws: who owns information compiled as part of a business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mair, Judith

    Patients have a right to expect that their personal information will remain confidential when they consult a practitioner. However, when they consult a doctor who is contracted to provide services as part of a business, the question can arise as to the right to ownership of the medical records created by that doctor, and/or the information recorded therein, after that doctor leaves the business. This was the issue in a recent case heard in NSW, IVF Australia Pty Ltd v Palantrou Pty Ltd [2005] NSWSC 810, in which IVFA sought an injunction to prevent specialists from accessing a database containing patient information when those specialists left the business to set up elsewhere. A further issue is what effect privacy legislation has on such disputes. This review provides an overview of the case and its outcome.

  14. Impact of the Cybernetic Law of Requisite Variety on a Theory of Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    Search for an integrated, comprehensive theory of information science (IS) has so far been unsuccessful. Appearance of a theory has been retarded by one central constraint, the large number of disciplines concerned with human communication. Crossdisciplinary interdependence occurs in two ways: theoretical relation of IS phenomena to a given…

  15. Private law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    working and researching in the key areas of law, security and privacy in IT, international trade and private law. Now, in 2010 and some seven conferences later, the event moves to Barcelona and embraces for the first time the three conference tracks just described. The papers in this work have all been...... blind reviewed and edited for quality. They represent the contributions of leading academics, early career researchers and others from an increasing number of countries, universities and institutions around the world. They set a benchmark for discussion of the current issues arising in the subject area...... and continue to offer an informed and relevant contribution to the policy making agenda. As Chair of the Conference Committee, I am once more very proud to endorse this work "Private Law: Rights, Duties & Conflicts" to all those seeking an up to date and informed evaluation of the leading issues. This work...

  16. Outsourcing en unidades de información jurídica corporativas Outsourcing in corporate law information units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra E. Romagnoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la posibilidad de tercerizar algunas de las funciones que se llevan a cabo en las bibliotecas, con especial énfasis en las unidades de información corporativas del área jurídica. En primer lugar se revisa el concepto de outsourcing, las etapas del proceso como así también las ventajas y desventajas de su implementación. Se consideran en forma particular los procesos técnicos como un área propicia para su puesta en funcionamiento. Finalmente se reflexiona acerca de su viabilidad en las unidades de información que son objeto de análisis del presente trabajo.The possibility of outsourcing some of the library functions is analized with a special emphasis in corporate law information units. Firstly, the concept, stages, and pros and cons of outsourcing library services are considered. Technical services are especially examined as a propitious area to outsource. Finally, the viability of its implementation in corporate law libraries is particularly considered.

  17. The Application of Chinese High-Spatial Remote Sensing Satellite Image in Land Law Enforcement Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Yang, R.

    2018-04-01

    Chinese high -resolution (HR) remote sensing satellites have made huge leap in the past decade. Commercial satellite datasets, such as GF-1, GF-2 and ZY-3 images, the panchromatic images (PAN) resolution of them are 2 m, 1 m and 2.1 m and the multispectral images (MS) resolution are 8 m, 4 m, 5.8 m respectively have been emerged in recent years. Chinese HR satellite imagery has been free downloaded for public welfare purposes using. Local government began to employ more professional technician to improve traditional land management technology. This paper focused on analysing the actual requirements of the applications in government land law enforcement in Guangxi Autonomous Region. 66 counties in Guangxi Autonomous Region were selected for illegal land utilization spot extraction with fusion Chinese HR images. The procedure contains: A. Defines illegal land utilization spot type. B. Data collection, GF-1, GF-2, and ZY-3 datasets were acquired in the first half year of 2016 and other auxiliary data were collected in 2015. C. Batch process, HR images were collected for batch preprocessing through ENVI/IDL tool. D. Illegal land utilization spot extraction by visual interpretation. E. Obtaining attribute data with ArcGIS Geoprocessor (GP) model. F. Thematic mapping and surveying. Through analysing 42 counties results, law enforcement officials found 1092 illegal land using spots and 16 suspicious illegal mining spots. The results show that Chinese HR satellite images have great potential for feature information extraction and the processing procedure appears robust.

  18. The reliability of financial information of charitable organizations: an exploratory study based on the Benford’s Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Figueiredo Milani Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Benford's Law (BL is a logarithmic distribution which is useful to detect abnormal patterns of digits in number sets. It is often used as a primary data auditing method for detecting traces of errors, illegal practices or undesired occurrences, such as fraud and earning management. In this descriptive study, I analyzed the financial information (revenue and expenditure of the registered charitable hospitals located in Ontario and Quebec, which have the majority (71.4% of these organizations within Canada. The aim of this study was to verify the reliability of the financial data of the respective hospitals, using the probability distribution predicted by Benford’s Law as a proxy of reliability. The sample was composed by 1,334 observations related to 339 entities operating in the tax year 2009 and 328 entities in 2010, gathered from the Canada Revenue Agency’s database. To analyze the discrepancies between the actual and expected frequencies of the significant-digit, two statistics were calculated: Z-test and Pearson’s chi-square test. The results show that, with a confidence level of 95%, the data set of the organizations located in Ontario and Quebec have similar distribution to the BL, suggesting that, in a preliminary analysis, their financial data are free from bias.

  19. Autonomy, consent and responsibility. Part II. Informed consent in medical care and in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellado, J M

    Legal recognition of patient's rights aspired to change clinical relationship and medical lex artis. However, its implementation has been hampered by the scarcity of resources and the abundance of regulations. For several years, autonomy, consent, and responsibility have formed one of the backbones of the medical profession. However, they have sparked controversy and professional discomfort. In the first part of this article, we examine the conceptual and regulatory limitations of the principle of autonomy as the basis of informed consent. We approach the subject from philosophical, historical, legal, bioethical, deontological, and professional standpoints. In the second part, we cover the viability of informed consent in health care and its relationship with legal responsibility. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. €œWhere Does a Wise Man Hide a Leaf?”: Modernising the Laws of Disclosure in the Information Age

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Litigation practice has been significantly altered by the advent of electronically stored information in daily corporate life. It is argued that the laws of disclosure should be updated to recognise that technology-assisted document review via keyword searching is crucial in ensuring that the costs of litigation are well managed. In order to facilitate keyword searching, a new legal concept of accuracy in the selection of keywords should be introduced into the laws of disclosure. At the same ...

  1. 'Better justice?' or 'shambolic justice?': Governments' use of information technology for access to law and justice, and the impact on regional and rural legal practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hart

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a study on whether government use of information technology potentially compromises access to law and justice by Queensland regional and rural (RR legal practitioners. The paper describes current approaches to the use of information technology by state and federal governments, and provides an insight into the challenges and opportunities identified by individual RR legal practitioners, policy-makers and the judiciary on the use of such technology. The paper makes recommendations to promote increased access to law and justice for RR legal practitioners when using government information technology.

  2. Enacting trust: contract, law and informal economic relationships in a Spanish border enclave in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Campbell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Small and removed from the Spanish mainland, the Enclave of Ceuta has always depended on flows of goods and labour out of the Moroccan hinterland, with individuals from different ethnic and religious groups forming informal, flexible and personal economic bonds based on mutual ‘confianza’ (trust. Since its entry into the European Union in 1986,the Spanish government has erected a border-wall around the enclave, and introduced new migration policies branding many informal workers within its borders as a threat to Spanish society. Based on my preliminary months of research, this paper compares the Ceutancontext with other research recently conducted on the topics of migration and borders in the Mediterranean region. It brings into focus key theoretical issues and assumptions that constantly emerge in such literature, particularly regarding the role of ‘a-cultural’ personal ties between migrants and locals in undermining State categories and ideology. This paper observes how the Ceutan case encourages us to expand our focuses and consequently problematise our understanding of crucial concepts such as ‘trust’ and ‘integration’.

  3. A Multi-agent Supply Chain Information Coordination Mode Based on Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Wuxue Jiang; Jing Zhang; Junhuai Li

    2013-01-01

     In order to improve the high efficiency and security of supply chain information coordination under cloud computing environment, this paper proposes a supply chain information coordination mode based on cloud computing. This mode has two basic statuses which are online status and offline status. At the online status, cloud computing center is responsible for coordinating the whole supply chain information. At the offline status, information exchange can be realized among different nodes by u...

  4. Information Professionals as Intelligent Agents--Or When Is a Knowbot Only a Robot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Jessie

    With the explosion in information resources being developed by computer scientists, subject specialists, librarians, and commercial companies, the challenge for the information professional is to keep abreast of the most significant developments and to distill the information for a wide range of users. This paper looks at some of the developments…

  5. Mobile agents in crisis situations - adapting information to user’s affective state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Winterboer, A.; Cramer, H.; Pavlin, G.; Groen, F.; Evers, V.

    2010-01-01

    Emotion has been found to influence humans’ cognitive information processing and decision-making (Schwarz, 2000). A state of sadness, for example, is accompanied by substantive information processing, with greater attention to detail, whereas people in a happier state tend to process information

  6. An Information Theoretic Framework and Self-organizing Agent- based Sensor Network Architecture for Power Plant Condition Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loparo, Kenneth [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Kolacinski, Richard [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Threeanaew, Wanchat [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States); Agharazi, Hanieh [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-01-30

    A central goal of the work was to enable both the extraction of all relevant information from sensor data, and the application of information gained from appropriate processing and fusion at the system level to operational control and decision-making at various levels of the control hierarchy through: 1. Exploiting the deep connection between information theory and the thermodynamic formalism, 2. Deployment using distributed intelligent agents with testing and validation in a hardware-in-the loop simulation environment. Enterprise architectures are the organizing logic for key business processes and IT infrastructure and, while the generality of current definitions provides sufficient flexibility, the current architecture frameworks do not inherently provide the appropriate structure. Of particular concern is that existing architecture frameworks often do not make a distinction between ``data'' and ``information.'' This work defines an enterprise architecture for health and condition monitoring of power plant equipment and further provides the appropriate foundation for addressing shortcomings in current architecture definition frameworks through the discovery of the information connectivity between the elements of a power generation plant. That is, to identify the correlative structure between available observations streams using informational measures. The principle focus here is on the implementation and testing of an emergent, agent-based, algorithm based on the foraging behavior of ants for eliciting this structure and on measures for characterizing differences between communication topologies. The elicitation algorithms are applied to data streams produced by a detailed numerical simulation of Alstom’s 1000 MW ultra-super-critical boiler and steam plant. The elicitation algorithm and topology characterization can be based on different informational metrics for detecting connectivity, e.g. mutual information and linear correlation.

  7. Analysis of the Deployed Military Health Information System and Its Ability to Satisfy Requirements of Public Law 105-85, Section 765

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, David

    2005-01-01

    .... The information obtained in this analysis will be used to further identify the strengths and weaknesses of the deployed medical information systems in the MRS and determine the ability of the MRS to meet the requirements of Public Law 105-85.

  8. Themes in nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers

  9. Management of new information technologies in organisations by intelligent software agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel præsenteres argumenter for, hvorfor den Kartesianske management model baseret på en kognitiv psykologisk forståelse af organisationer, ikke kan beskrive de forandringsprocesser, som indførelsen af ny informationsteknologi i organisationer forårsager. På denne baggrund definerer vi...... Post-Kartesiansk management. Endvidere argumenteres for, hvordan Intelligent Software Agents kan hjælpe managers med at få en bedre forståelse for de førnævnte forandringer i organisationerne....

  10. Introducing spatial information into predictive NF-kappaB modelling--an agent-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Pogson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Nature is governed by local interactions among lower-level sub-units, whether at the cell, organ, organism, or colony level. Adaptive system behaviour emerges via these interactions, which integrate the activity of the sub-units. To understand the system level it is necessary to understand the underlying local interactions. Successful models of local interactions at different levels of biological organisation, including epithelial tissue and ant colonies, have demonstrated the benefits of such 'agent-based' modelling. Here we present an agent-based approach to modelling a crucial biological system--the intracellular NF-kappaB signalling pathway. The pathway is vital to immune response regulation, and is fundamental to basic survival in a range of species. Alterations in pathway regulation underlie a variety of diseases, including atherosclerosis and arthritis. Our modelling of individual molecules, receptors and genes provides a more comprehensive outline of regulatory network mechanisms than previously possible with equation-based approaches. The method also permits consideration of structural parameters in pathway regulation; here we predict that inhibition of NF-kappaB is directly affected by actin filaments of the cytoskeleton sequestering excess inhibitors, therefore regulating steady-state and feedback behaviour.

  11. Optimal Labor Contracts with Asymmetric Information and More than Two Types of Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Elena MARINESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we discuss the optimal labor agreements between workers and firms in the situation of asymmetric information. Using a standard adverse selection model, we analyze the optimality of the labor contracts when it is the firm which has private information affecting the results of the contractual relationship. We propose an alternative procedure to solve the optimization problem, using the informational rents as variables. In the last part of the paper we derive and comment the features of the optimal labor contracts in asymmetric information.

  12. Law across nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of participants keen to work together to promote research and policy development in such a lively forum." - Professor Steve Saxby PhD, Cert Ed., MBCS Professor of IT Law and Public Policy, Solicitor, Deputy Head of School (Research), Faculty of Business and Law, University of Southampton, Editor...... not only the original themes of Legal, Security and Privacy Issues in IT Law and International Law and Trade but more recently two new conferences on International Public and Private Law. The papers in this volume then represent the contributions to all these fields and reflect the strong desire......-in-Chief, The Computer Law & Security Review - The International Journal of Technology Law and Practice (Elsevier), www.elsevier.com/locate/clsr, Editor, The Encyclopedia of Information Technology Law (Sweet & Maxwell), Director ILAWS - Institute for Law and the Web - School of Law, Southampton University, www...

  13. A Computational Model and Multi-Agent Simulation for Information Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    Podell , Information Security: an Integrated Collection of Essays, IEEE Computer Society Press, Los Alamitos, CA, 1994. Brinkley, D. L. and Schell, R...R., “What is There to Worry About? An Introduction to the Computer Security Problem,” ed. Abrams and Jajodia and Podell , Information Security: an

  14. A multi-agent systems approach to distributed bayesian information fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlin, G.; de Oude, P.; Maris, M.; Nunnink, J.; Hood, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces design principles for modular Bayesian fusion systems which can (i) cope with large quantities of heterogeneous information and (ii) can adapt to changing constellations of information sources on the fly. The presented approach exploits the locality of relations in causal

  15. Business Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Föh, Kennet Fischer; Mandøe, Lene; Tinten, Bjarke

    Business Law is a translation of the 2nd edition of Erhvervsjura - videregående uddannelser. It is an educational textbook for the subject of business law. The textbook covers all important topic?s within business law such as the Legal System, Private International Law, Insolvency Law, Contract law......, Instruments of debt and other claims, Sale of Goods and real estate, Charges, mortgages and pledges, Guarantees, Credit agreements, Tort Law, Product liability and Insurance, Company law, Market law, Labour Law, Family Law and Law of Inheritance....

  16. 76 FR 14896 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... specific regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety and biosecurity issues... assessments, biosafety requirements, and security measures. DATES: The meeting will be held on May 10, 2011... meeting to address questions and concerns. Entity registration, security risk assessments, biosafety...

  17. 75 FR 23223 - Multi-Agency Informational Meeting Concerning Compliance With the Federal Select Agent Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... specific regulatory guidance and information on standards concerning biosafety and biosecurity issues... discussed include entity registration, security risk assessments, biosafety requirements, and security..., biosafety requirements, and security measures are among the issues that will be discussed. All attendees...

  18. Modelling the Effects of Information Campaigns Using Agent-Based Simulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wragg, Tony

    2006-01-01

    .... The study highlighted the requirement for accurate data concerning a population's social hierarchy, social networks, behavior patterns, human geography and their subsequent impact on the success of both word-of-mouth and mass media driven information campaigns.

  19. 77 FR 69548 - Proposed Information Collection (Agent Orange Registry Code Sheet); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... information contained in AOR to be able to notify Vietnam era veterans who served in the Republic of Vietnam... Gulf War Veterans Health Registry. Registry examination is provided to veterans who served in Korea in...

  20. Informed consent for the administration of an intravenous contrast agent: importance and determinants of patient refusal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martel, J.; Garcia-Diaz, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    We proposed to determine the proportion of patients who refuse to undergo intravenous contrast administration and the factors that influence their refusal. Our series consisted of 442 patients who were supposed to undergo imaging studies involving the intravenous injection of an iodine contrast. In a personal interview, the patients were issued a questionnaire specifically designed for this study. The following parameters were recorded: sex, age, inpatient or outpatient status, medical history available, person who informed them about the procedure, person signing the informed consent (patient or other) , highest academic degree, attitude toward receiving the information and degree of concern after reading and signing the consent form. In our series 8.6% of the patients (95% confidence interval: 6-11.2) refused to sign the informed consent form. In addition, there were a number of patients who delayed the procedure or hindered the daily work schedule by some other means. When the relationship between each of the variables studied and refusal to sign the consent form was assessed, significant associations were observed between the latter and the academic level of the patient, his or her degree of concern and having received the information from a trained person. There was also a nearly significant trend toward the association between refusal and the patient's background. Relatively few patients refuse to sign the informed consent to receive intravenous contrast administration but this negative decision interferes with the health care practice. It is possible to identify certain correctable factors that influence the patient in this respect. (Author) 13 refs

  1. Conserving analyst attention units: use of multi-agent software and CEP methods to assist information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey; McNeese, Michael; Hall, David

    2013-05-01

    Although the capability of computer-based artificial intelligence techniques for decision-making and situational awareness has seen notable improvement over the last several decades, the current state-of-the-art still falls short of creating computer systems capable of autonomously making complex decisions and judgments in many domains where data is nuanced and accountability is high. However, there is a great deal of potential for hybrid systems in which software applications augment human capabilities by focusing the analyst's attention to relevant information elements based on both a priori knowledge of the analyst's goals and the processing/correlation of a series of data streams too numerous and heterogeneous for the analyst to digest without assistance. Researchers at Penn State University are exploring ways in which an information framework influenced by Klein's (Recognition Primed Decision) RPD model, Endsley's model of situational awareness, and the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model can be implemented through a novel combination of Complex Event Processing (CEP) and Multi-Agent Software (MAS). Though originally designed for stock market and financial applications, the high performance data-driven nature of CEP techniques provide a natural compliment to the proven capabilities of MAS systems for modeling naturalistic decision-making, performing process adjudication, and optimizing networked processing and cognition via the use of "mobile agents." This paper addresses the challenges and opportunities of such a framework for augmenting human observational capability as well as enabling the ability to perform collaborative context-aware reasoning in both human teams and hybrid human / software agent teams.

  2. A educação informal e o rap como agente educativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Felipe Fiuza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this text are broached the relationship between rap music and the educational processes. To achieve this goal, the study deals with the conceptualization of the modalities of education, namely formal, non-formal and informal education, based on national and foreign bibliography. Considering the object of study, this paper is based on interdisciplinary reflections, consisting of theoretical and methodological approaches from the fields of Education, Music, Communication and Sociology of Culture. These theoretical frameworks contribute to the accuracy of concepts and the observation of the multiple dimensions that hip hop, and specifically rap, holds as a social and cultural phenomenon. By focusing on the particularity of informal education, which is even more prevalent in the so-called knowledge or media society, this study aims to contribute to the discussion of educational processes intrinsic to the culture industry and the media, and their significant influence on the audience.

  3. Self vs. other: neural correlates underlying agent identification based on unimodal auditory information as revealed by electrotomography (sLORETA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justen, C; Herbert, C; Werner, K; Raab, M

    2014-02-14

    Recent neuroscientific studies have identified activity changes in an extensive cerebral network consisting of medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, temporo-parietal junction, and temporal pole during the perception and identification of self- and other-generated stimuli. Because this network is supposed to be engaged in tasks which require agent identification, it has been labeled the evaluation network (e-network). The present study used self- versus other-generated movement sounds (long jumps) and electroencephalography (EEG) in order to unravel the neural dynamics of agent identification for complex auditory information. Participants (N=14) performed an auditory self-other identification task with EEG. Data was then subjected to a subsequent standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) analysis (source localization analysis). Differences between conditions were assessed using t-statistics (corrected for multiple testing) on the normalized and log-transformed current density values of the sLORETA images. Three-dimensional sLORETA source localization analysis revealed cortical activations in brain regions mostly associated with the e-network, especially in the medial prefrontal cortex (bilaterally in the alpha-1-band and right-lateralized in the gamma-band) and the temporo-parietal junction (right hemisphere in the alpha-1-band). Taken together, the findings are partly consistent with previous functional neuroimaging studies investigating unimodal visual or multimodal agent identification tasks (cf. e-network) and extent them to the auditory domain. Cortical activations in brain regions of the e-network seem to have functional relevance, especially the significantly higher cortical activation in the right medial prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Agent Based Modelling of Communication Costs: Why Information Can Be Free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čače, Ivana; Bryson, Joanna J.

    What purposes, other than facilitating the sharing of information, can language have served? First, it may not have evolved to serve any purpose at all. It is possible that language is just a side effect of the large human brain — a spandrel or exaptation — that only became useful later. If language is adaptive, this does not necessarily mean that it is adaptive for the purpose of communication. For example Dennett (1996) and Chomsky (1980) have stressed the utility of language in thinking. Also, there are different ways to view communication. The purpose of language according to Dunbar (1993), is to replace grooming as a social bonding process and in this way to ensure the stability of large social groups.

  5. A method for evaluating cognitively informed micro-targeted campaign strategies: An agent-based model proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jens Koed; Pilditch, Toby D

    2018-01-01

    In political campaigns, perceived candidate credibility influences the persuasiveness of messages. In campaigns aiming to influence people's beliefs, micro-targeted campaigns (MTCs) that target specific voters using their psychological profile have become increasingly prevalent. It remains open how effective MTCs are, notably in comparison to population-targeted campaign strategies. Using an agent-based model, the paper applies recent insights from cognitive models of persuasion, extending them to the societal level in a novel framework for exploring political campaigning. The paper provides an initial treatment of the complex dynamics of population level political campaigning in a psychologically informed manner. Model simulations show that MTCs can take advantage of the psychology of the electorate by targeting voters favourable disposed towards the candidate. Relative to broad campaigning, MTCs allow for efficient and adaptive management of complex campaigns. Findings show that disliked MTC candidates can beat liked population-targeting candidates, pointing to societal questions concerning campaign regulations.

  6. Design and Implementation of Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Supporting Decision Making (A Case Study on Military Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwin Datumaya Wahyudi Sumari

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Quick, accurate, and complete information is highly required for supporting strategically impact decision making in a Military Operation (MO in order to reduce the decision cycle and to minimize the loss. For that purpose, we propose, design and implement a hierarchical Multi Agent-based Information Fusion System for Decision Making Support (MAIFS-DMS. The information fusion is implemented by applying Maximum Score of the Total Sum of Joint Probabilities (MSJP fusion method and is done by a collection of Information Fusion Agents (IFA that forms a multiagent system. MAIFS uses a combination of generalization of Dasarathy and Joint Director’s Laboratory (JDL process models for information fusion mechanism. Information fusion products that are displayed in graphical forms provide comprehensive information regarding the MO area dynamics. By observing the graphics resulted from the information fusion, the commandant will have situational awareness and knowledge in order to make the most accurate strategic decision as fast as possible

  7. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketteler, G.; Kippels, K.

    1988-01-01

    In section I 'Basic principles' the following topics are considered: Constitutional-legal aspects of environmental protection, e.g. nuclear hazards and the remaining risk; European environmental law; international environmental law; administrative law, private law and criminal law relating to the environment; basic principles of environmental law, the instruments of public environmental law. Section II 'Special areas of law' is concerned with the law on water and waste, prevention of air pollution, nature conservation and care of the countryside. Legal decisions and literature up to June 1988 have been taken into consideration. (orig./RST) [de

  8. Civil law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Gibbons, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of civil law has two distinct meanings. that is, disputes between private parties (individuals, corporations), as opposed to other branches of the law, such as administrative law or criminal law, which relate to disputes between individuals and the state. Second, the term civil law is

  9. Criminal Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    <> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....

  10. History of establishment of scientific technology law focused on exchanges of Korea, China and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gyeong Hui

    1990-10-01

    This book introduces science and technology promotion related law, industrial technology related law, resources and energy related law, nuclear energy related law, information and communication related law, intellectual property right related law, and environment related law. It explains process of development of 7 laws in threes countries and relations of three countries exchanges. It also covers special law for science and technology innovation, electric utility law, petroleum enterprise law, telecommunication related law, law of settlement of digital divide, and information-oriented law.

  11. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  12. Nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringuier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The object of this report is to present the evolution of the nuclear law during the period from 2006 to 2008, period that was characterized in France by a real rewriting from the implementation of a control authority. The prescriptive backing of nuclear activities has been deeply changed by numerous texts. In this first part are presented: (1) the institutional aspects, (2) openness and public information, (7) radioactive wastes and (9) liability and insurance. In a next publication will be treated: (3) safety and radiation protection; (4) nuclear matter, inspection, physical protection; (5) transports; (6) trade, non-proliferation; (8) radiological accidents. (N.C.)

  13. Bilgi Edinme Hakkı Kanunu ve Kurumsal Bilgi Yönetimi İlişkisi / Freedom of Information Law and Relation with Organizational Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Anameriç

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available E-Government process in Turkey as one of the adoption projects encompasses many legislation including some regulations. One of these regulation is that Freedom of Information Act that will provide to manage their information and enable citizens acquire information efficiently and prodocutively. Laws that are made for this purpose in 50 countries and effective as of democratic and flexible public management. By means of that, the regulations work in the aim of public’s fair use and access to information in terms of essences and rules in the basis of equality, objectivity and openness principles. Therefore, information that are produced by the foundation and institutions can be under control and described to extent of its security and sharability and information.

  14. New Law Relating to Family and Medical Leave (1987 Wisconsin Act 287). Information Memorandum 88-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Laura

    This document describes the 1987 Wisconsin Act 287 which concern providing family leave and medical leave to employees. The background of the law is described in the first part of the document. The second part of the document describes the family and medical leave act. These topics are covered: (1) basic provisions of family and medical leave,…

  15. Investigation methodology for information-driven horizontal fiscal supervision : A Dutch approach to improving effective law enforcement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, T.M.; Engers, van T.M.

    2012-01-01

    The article focuses on how the Dutch Tax Administration and other tax administrations can deploy their resources efficiently and assure the quality of law enforcement. It says that the Tax Administration is seeking to new forms of co-operation with people to build trust, confidenceconfidence, and

  16. New Russian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The information about the Russian Federation law dealing with population radiation safety signed by the President in January 1996 is given. The law is based on a new strategy of radiation protection including the mean efficient dose from all ionizing radiation sources as the main factor for evaluation of the safe level for the population. The norms stated in the law will become valid from January 1, 2000

  17. Law Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Tolstopiatenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the origin of the International Law Department were such eminent scientists, diplomats and teachers as V.N. Durdenevsky, S.B. Krylov and F.I. Kozhevnikov. International law studies in USSR and Russia during the second half of the XX century was largely shaped by the lawyers of MGIMO. They had a large influence on the education in the international law in the whole USSR, and since 1990s in Russia and other CIS countries. The prominence of the research of MGIMO international lawyers was due to the close connections with the international practice, involving international negotiations in the United Nations and other international fora, diplomatic conferences and international scientific conferences. This experience is represented in the MGIMO handbooks on international law, which are still in demand. The Faculty of International Law at MGIMO consists of seven departments: Department of International Law, Department of Private International and Comparative Law; Department of European Law; Department of Comparative Constitutional Law; Department of Administrative and Financial Law; Department of Criminal Law, Department Criminal Procedure and Criminalistics. Many Russian lawyers famous at home and abroad work at the Faculty, contributing to domestic and international law studies. In 1947 the Academy of Sciences of the USSR published "International Law" textbook which was the first textbook on the subject in USSR. S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky were the authors and editors of the textbook. First generations of MGIMO students studied international law according to this textbook. All subsequent books on international law, published in the USSR, were based on the approach to the teaching of international law, developed in the textbook by S.B. Krylov and V.N. Durdenevsky. The first textbook of international law with the stamp of MGIMO, edited by F.I. Kozhevnikov, was published in 1964. This textbook later went through five editions in 1966, 1972

  18. Validity of cubic law for fluid flow in a deformable rock fracture. Technical information report No. 23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Wang, J.S.Y.; Iwai, K.; Gale, J.E.

    1979-10-01

    The validity of the cubic law for laminar flow of fluids through open fractures consisting of parallel planar plates has been established by others over a wide range of conditions with apertures ranging down to a minimum of 0.2 μm. The law may be given in simplified form by Q/Δh = C(2b) 3 , where Q is the flow rate, Δh is the difference in hydraulic head, C is a constant that depends on the flow geometry and fluid properties, and 2b is the fracture aperture. The validity of this law for flow in a closed fracture where the surfaces are in contact and the aperture is being decreased under stress has been investigated at room temperature using homogeneous samples of granite, basalt, and marble. Tension fractures were artifically induced and the laboratory setup used radial as well as straight flow geometries. Apertures ranged from 250 μm down to 4 μm. The cubic law was found to be valid whether the fracture surfaces were held open or were being closed under stress, and the results are not dependent on rock type. Permeability was uniquely defined by fracture aperture and was independent of the stress history used in these investigations. The effects of deviations from the ideal parallel plate concept only cause an apparent reduction in flow and may be incorporated into the cubic law by replacing C by C/f. The factor f varied from 1.04 to 1.65 in these investigations. The model of a fracture that is being closed under normal stress is visualized as being controlled by the strength of the asperities that are in contact. These contact areas are able to withstand significant stresses while maintaining space for fluids to continue to flow as the fracture aperture decreases. The controlling factor is the magnitude of the aperture and since flow depends on (2b) 3 , a slight change in aperture evidently can easily dominate any other change in the geometry of the flow field

  19. Using social network analysis and agent-based modelling to explore information flow using common operational pictures for maritime search and rescue operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, C; Stanton, N A; Atkinson, J; McMaster, R; Houghton, R J

    2013-01-01

    The concept of common operational pictures (COPs) is explored through the application of social network analysis (SNA) and agent-based modelling to a generic search and rescue (SAR) scenario. Comparing the command structure that might arise from standard operating procedures with the sort of structure that might arise from examining information-in-common, using SNA, shows how one structure could be more amenable to 'command' with the other being more amenable to 'control' - which is potentially more suited to complex multi-agency operations. An agent-based model is developed to examine the impact of information sharing with different forms of COPs. It is shown that networks using common relevant operational pictures (which provide subsets of relevant information to groups of agents based on shared function) could result in better sharing of information and a more resilient structure than networks that use a COP. SNA and agent-based modelling are used to compare different forms of COPs for maritime SAR operations. Different forms of COP change the communications structures in the socio-technical systems in which they operate, which has implications for future design and development of a COP.

  20. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  1. Environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This pocketbook contains major federal regulations on environmental protection. They serve to protect and cultivate mankind's natural foundations of life, to preserve the environment. The environmental law is devided as follows: Constitutional law on the environment, common administrative law on the environment, special administrative law on the environment including conservation of nature and preservation of rural amenities, protection of waters, waste management, protection against nuisances, nuclear energy and radiation protection, energy conservation, protection against dangerous substances, private law relating to the environment, criminal law relating to the environment. (HSCH) [de

  2. | Yilma | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current information age requires intellectual property laws to catch up with and proactively regulate unfolding technological realities. The dynamic advances in the domain of the Internet have thus necessitated corresponding changes in Ethiopias intellectual property legal regime including copyright laws in relation with ...

  3. Expropriation law in France

    OpenAIRE

    Melot, Romain

    2015-01-01

    In this publication, the editors present the first comparative overview of expropriation law in Europe covering 15 different jurisdictions. For many of the countries represented, this publication is the first English-language description of their national expropriation law. This survey provides a lot of information for all practitioners in the field of expropriation of land.

  4. Repensando la relación entre la ley y la violencia hacia las mujeres. Una aproximación a los discursos de los/las agentes del ámbito judicial en relación a la ley integral de violencia de género en España Rethinking the relationship between law and violence against women. An approach to the juridical agents' discourses in relation to the integral law of gender-based violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Schmal Cruzat

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available De las múltiples dimensiones del problema de la violencia que ejercen los hombres hacia las mujeres en el contexto de las relaciones de pareja o de ex pareja, en este artículo abordaremos lo que concierne al análisis de las producciones discursivas de actores/as institucionales que forman parte del proceso judicial. Nuestra intención es indagar en la relación que se establece entre el derecho penal y la violencia de género a partir de la reciente aplicación de la Ley Integral de Violencia de Género en España (LO. 1/2004 desde una perspectiva teórica que asume principalmente las aportaciones de la psicología social y el feminismo socio-jurídico. Nos hemos aproximado a los instrumentos jurídicos — la Ley Integral de Violencia de Género — a través de los discursos de los/las agentes jurídicos, con una mirada que cuestiona los valores, tantas veces proclamados, de universalidad, objetividad y neutralidad del Derecho. Of the many dimensions of the problem of violence exercised by men toward women in the context of the relations of partner or ex partner, this article deals with the analysis of the discursive productions of the institutional actors that are part of the judicial process. Our intention is to investigate the relationship between criminal law and gender-based violence starting from the implementation of the Law of Integral Gender-based Violence in Spain (LO. 1 / 2004 from a theoretical perspective which includes contributions from social psychology, and socio-legal feminism. We have approached the legal instrument — the Law of Integral Gender-based Violence — through the discourse of legal officers with a perspective that questions the values, so often proclaimed, of universality, objectivity and neutrality of the law.

  5. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin brings together the texts of the following case laws: Canada: - Judgment of the Federal Court of Canada sending back to a joint review panel for reconsideration the environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario. France : - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 358882); - Conseil d'etat, 24 March 2014 (Request No. 362001). Slovak Republic: - Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; - Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. United States: - Initial Decision of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Ruling in Favour of Nuclear Innovation North America, LLC (NINA) Regarding Foreign Ownership, Control or Domination

  6. E-health in Switzerland: The laborious adoption of the federal law on electronic health records (EHR) and health information exchange (HIE) networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Francetic, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Within the framework of a broader e-health strategy launched a decade ago, in 2015 Switzerland passed a new federal law on patients' electronic health records (EHR). The reform requires hospitals to adopt interoperable EHRs to facilitate data sharing and cooperation among healthcare providers, ultimately contributing to improvements in quality of care and efficiency in the health system. Adoption is voluntary for ambulatories and private practices, that may however be pushed towards EHRs by patients. The latter have complete discretion in the choice of the health information to share. Moreover, careful attention is given to data security issues. Despite good intentions, the high institutional and organisational fragmentation of the Swiss healthcare system, as well as the lack of full agreement with stakeholders on some critical points of the reform, slowed the process of adoption of the law. In particular, pilot projects made clear that the participation of ambulatories is doomed to be low unless appropriate incentives are put in place. Moreover, most stakeholders point at the strategy proposed to finance technical implementation and management of EHRs as a major drawback. After two years of intense preparatory work, the law entered into force in April 2017. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  8. Decrypting Information Sensitivity: Risk, Privacy, and Data Protection Law in the United States and the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlioglu, Muge

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation examines the risk-based approach to privacy and data protection and the role of information sensitivity within risk management. Determining what information carries the greatest risk is a multi-layered challenge that involves balancing the rights and interests of multiple actors, including data controllers, data processors, and…

  9. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reports on 7 case laws from 4 countries: - France: Conseil d'Etat decision, 28 June 2013, refusing to suspend operation of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant; - Slovak Republic: New developments including the Supreme Court's judgment in a matter involving Greenpeace Slovakia's claims regarding the Mochovce nuclear power plant; New developments in the matter involving Greenpeace's demands for information under the Freedom of Information Act; - Switzerland: Judgment of the Federal Supreme Court in the matter of the Departement federal de l'environnement, des transports, de l'energie et de la communication (DETEC) against Ursula Balmer-Schafroth and others on consideration of admissibility of a request to withdraw the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant; - United States: Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit granting petition for writ of mandamus ordering US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to resume Yucca Mountain licensing; Judgment of the Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit invalidating two Vermont statutes as preempted by the Atomic Energy Act; Judgment of the NRC on transferring Shieldalloy site to New Jersey's jurisdiction

  10. Pollution law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triffterer, O.

    1980-01-01

    In the draft proposed by the legal advisory board the law for the controlling of environmental criminality was promulgated on 28th March 1980. The present commentary therefore - as seen from the results - corresponds in essential to the original assessment of the governmental draft. However, an introduction into the problems of environmental law precedes this commentary for the better unterstanding of all those not acquainted with pollution law and the whole legal matter. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Lindy's Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-11-01

    Aging means that as things grow old their remaining expected lifetimes lessen. Either faster or slower, most of the things we encounter in our everyday lives age with time. However, there are things that do quite the opposite - they anti-age: as they grow old their remaining expected lifetimes increase rather than decrease. A quantitative formulation of anti-aging is given by the so-called ;Lindy's Law;. In this paper we explore Lindy's Law and its connections to Pareto's Law, to Zipf's Law, and to socioeconomic inequality.

  12. An Agent-Based Model of Private Woodland Owner Management Behavior Using Social Interactions, Information Flow, and Peer-To-Peer Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Silver Huff

    Full Text Available Privately owned woodlands are an important source of timber and ecosystem services in North America and worldwide. Impacts of management on these ecosystems and timber supply from these woodlands are difficult to estimate because complex behavioral theory informs the owner's management decisions. The decision-making environment consists of exogenous market factors, internal cognitive processes, and social interactions with fellow landowners, foresters, and other rural community members. This study seeks to understand how social interactions, information flow, and peer-to-peer networks influence timber harvesting behavior using an agent-based model. This theoretical model includes forested polygons in various states of 'harvest readiness' and three types of agents: forest landowners, foresters, and peer leaders (individuals trained in conservation who use peer-to-peer networking. Agent rules, interactions, and characteristics were parameterized with values from existing literature and an empirical survey of forest landowner attitudes, intentions, and demographics. The model demonstrates that as trust in foresters and peer leaders increases, the percentage of the forest that is harvested sustainably increases. Furthermore, peer leaders can serve to increase landowner trust in foresters. Model output and equations will inform forest policy and extension/outreach efforts. The model also serves as an important testing ground for new theories of landowner decision making and behavior.

  13. Libraries, National Security, Freedom of Information Laws and Social Responsibilities. IFLA/FAIFE World Report Series Volume V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelin, Susanne, Ed.; Hamilton, Stuart, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The IFLA/FAIFE World Report Series is unique. It is the only source based on a systematic data collection process that provides an overview of how libraries around the world are tackling barriers to freedom of access to information and freedom of expression. This year's edition includes 84 country reports which detail the extent of Internet access…

  14. 75 FR 34148 - Intent To Request Renewal From OMB of One Current Public Collection of Information; Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    .../ Federal Air Marshal are required to complete regarding their mental health history. DATES: Send your..., Communications Branch, Business Management Office, Office of Information Technology, TSA-11, Transportation... evaluation determining that they do not have an established medical history or clinical diagnosis of...

  15. Promoting tobacco control law enforcement in China through applications of “Government Information Disclosure” and media advocacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu Wang

    2018-03-01

    Effective implementation of smoke-free policies is important to create public health benefits and enhance the tobacco control movement. The civil society should make full use of existing policies or mechanisms such as “Government Information Disclosure” to monitor and promote tobacco control work.

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gathers three case laws, one concerning France and the two others concerning the United States. France - Decision of the Administrative Court in Strasbourg on the permanent shutdown of the Fessenheim nuclear power plant: On 9 March 2011, the administrative court in Strasbourg confirmed the government's rejection to immediately close the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, the first unit of which started operation on 1 January 1978. The court rejected the motion of the 'Association trinationale de protection nucleaire' (ATPN) filed against the decision of the Minister of Economy, Industry and Employment to refuse the final shutdown of the plant. The group, which brings together associations as well as French, German and Swiss municipalities, had taken legal action in December 2008. United States - Case law 1 - Judgment of a US Court of Appeals on public access to sensitive security information and consideration of the environmental impacts of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities: This case concerns 1) the public's right to access classified and sensitive security information relied upon by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its environmental review; and 2) the sufficiency of the NRC's environmental review of the impacts of terrorist attacks for a proposed Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In 2003, the NRC ruled that the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) did not require the NRC to consider the impacts of terrorist attacks in its environmental review for the proposed ISFSI at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant. ' NEPA mandates that all federal agencies must prepare a detailed statement on the environment impacts before undertaking a major federal action that significantly affects the human environment. In 2004, the San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace, a group of individuals who live near the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, filed a petition in the US Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit challenging the NRC's 2003 decision. The

  17. Voting over law enforcement: Mission impossible

    OpenAIRE

    İnal , Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Median voter theorem has been used in many economic environments including law enforcement. Assumptions of the median voter theorem, however, are generally violated in lawenforcement models. Moreover, it is impossible to have agents with "opposite equilibrium preferences" over enforcement levels in law enforcement models. These limitations on the use of preferences over law enforcement raises questions about the robustness and validity of law enforcement models.

  18. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Case Law France: Conseil d'etat decision, 22 February 2016, EDF v. Republic and Canton of Geneva relative to the Bugey nuclear power plant (No. 373516); United States: Brodsky v. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 650 Fed. Appx. 804 (2. Cir. 2016)

  19. Law 302.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

  20. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws sorted by country: 1 - Germany: Federal Administrative Court confirms the judgments of the Higher Administrative Court of the Land Hesse: The shutdown of nuclear power plant Biblis blocks A and B based on a 'moratorium' imposed by the Government was unlawful; List of lawsuits in the nuclear field. 2 - Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant. 3 - United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission resuming the licensing process for the Department of Energy's construction authorisation application for the Yucca Mountain high-level radioactive waste repository; Judgment of the Licensing Board in favour of Shaw AREVA MOX Services regarding the material control and accounting system at the proposed MOX Facility; Dismissal by US District Court Judge of lawsuit brought by US military personnel against Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in connection with the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident

  1. The access of political representatives to information and the new laws on transparency and access to public information. In particular, their capacity to file claims with the transparency authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Guichot Reina

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The new public independent authorities in charge of access to information’s claims have adopted conflicting positions on the rules applicable to requests for information made by political representatives and on their own competence to hear complaints they may raise. The right of access to the information of the political representatives cannot have a smaller scope in its substantive, procedural and guarantees content than the one that the new regulation on transparency and access to the information recognizes to any person. The case law of the Supreme Court has consistently affirmed this. It would contribute to legal certainty if this criterion was followed by every new public independent authorities and it was expressly established by a future legislative reform.

  2. Système d’information voyageur à base d’agent pour la recherche d’itinéraires multimodaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Belgueliel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the technologies of information and communication current, the researchers and industrialists are interested to improve the quality of the service offered to the users of the public transportation. It is essentially a question of improving the quality of the information of transport in term of access facility, availability, and efficiency and it to help the customers to move for an information system traveler, In this optics, leaning on the multi-theory Agents, our work aims at conceiving an information system traveler of assistant to the multimodal movement essentially aims at calculating the shortest route in term of cost, of time(weather of crosses(goes through and of comfort, to assist the travelers by using a new approach of the composition of the Web services.

  3. 45 CFR 303.69 - Requests by agents or attorneys of the United States for information from the Federal Parent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... request information directly from the Federal PLS in connection with a parental kidnapping or child... locate an individual in connection with a parental kidnapping or child custody case. (2) Any information...

  4. Biological Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E-Tools Safety and Health Topics / Biological Agents Biological Agents This page requires that javascript be enabled ... 202) 693-2300 if additional assistance is required. Biological Agents Menu Overview In Focus: Ebola Frederick A. ...

  5. Intelligent Software Agents as tools for managing ethical issues in organisations caused by the introduction of new Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abolfazlian, Ali Reza Kian

    1996-01-01

    I denne artikel beskrives der, hvordan medarbejdernes værdier i og for organisationerne udvikler sig i sammenhæng med de teknologiske værktøjer, som de udfører deres job med. På denne baggrund beskrives nogle af de etiske problemer, der opstår som konsekvens af indførelsen af ny informationstekno...... informationsteknologi i organisationerne, og hvordan Intelligent Software Agents (ISAs) på en aktiv måde kan hjælpe managers med at overkomme disse problemer....

  6. Case - Case-Law - Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadl, Urska

    2013-01-01

    Reasoning of the Court of Justice of the European Union – Constr uction of arguments in the case-law of the Court – Citation technique – The use of formulas to transform case-law into ‘law’ – ‘Formulaic style’ – European citizenship as a fundamental status – Ruiz Zambrano – Reasoning from...

  7. A Study of the Effects of Congestion Information and a Priority Boarding Pass in a Theme Park with Multi-Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tone, Tetsuya; Kohara, Kazuhiro

    We have investigated ways to reduce congestion in a theme park with multi-agents. We constructed a theme park model called Digital Park 1.0 with twenty-three attractions similar in form to Tokyo Disney Sea. We consider not only congestion information (number of vistors standing in line at each attraction) but also the advantage of a priority boarding pass, like Fast Pass which is used at Tokyo Disney Sea. The congestion-information-usage ratio, which reflects the ratio of visitors who behave according to congestion information, was changed from 0% to 100% in both models, with and without priority boarding pass. The “mean stay time of visitors" is a measure of satisfaction. The smaller mean stay time, the larger degree of satisfaction. Here, a short stay time means a short wait time. The resluts of each simulation are averaged over ten trials. The main results are as follows. (1) When congestion-information-usage ratio increased, the mean stay time decreases. When 20% of visitors behaved according to congestion information, the mean stay time was reduced by 30%. (2) A priority boarding pass reduced congestion, and mean stay time was reduced by 15%. (3) When visitors used congestion information and a priority boarding pass, mean stay time was further reduced. When the congestion-information-usage ratio was 20%, mean stay time was reduced by 35%. (4) When congestion-information-usage ratio was over 50%, the congestion reduction effects reached saturation.

  8. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Maurice.

    1979-01-01

    This book on nuclear law is the first of a series of analytical studies to be published by the French Energy Commission (CEA) concerning all the various nuclear activities. It describes national and international legislation applicable in France covering the following main sectors: the licensing procedure for nuclear installations, the law of the sea and nuclear law, the legal system governing radioisotopes, the transport of radioactive materials, third party liability and insurance and radiation protection. In each chapter, the overall analysis is supplemented by the relevant regulatory texts and by organisation charts in annex. (NEA) [fr

  9. Social Norms and the Enforcement of Laws

    OpenAIRE

    Daron Acemoglu; Matthew O. Jackson

    2014-01-01

    We examine the interplay between social norms and the enforcement of laws. Agents choose a behavior (e.g., tax evasion, production of low-quality products, corruption, substance abuse, etc.) and then are randomly matched with another agent. An agent's payoff decreases with the mismatch between her behavior and her partner's, as well as average behavior in society. A law is an upper bound (cap) on behavior and a law-breaker, when detected, pays a fine and has her behavior forced down to the le...

  10. [Dental and health law 4. The treatment of minors and of adults who are unable to give informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, W G; van der Ven, J M; Brands-Bottema, G W

    2013-01-01

    When minors are treated, a complex triangular relationship can emerge among dentist, patient and the individual legally responsible for the patient. Generally speaking, both parents are those legally responsible for a child. This might not be the case if the parents are not married to each other or have divorced, or when there is a question of a child protection ruling. The governing rule is that dentists are required to honour the obligations to the legal representatives thatfollow from the patients' rights concerning the treatment of children under the age of 12. In the case of patients between the ages of 12 and 16, dentists are required to act in accordance with their obligations to both those legally responsible and to the patients. Finally, in the case ofpatients who are 16 and older, dentists are required to act only in accordance with their obligations to the patients. There are, however, various exceptions to this governing rule. One of the most common examples is the patient who is a minor of 16 or older who is unable to determine what is in his own best interest. That criterium is also used in determining the capability to give informed consent in adults.

  11. Image-based change estimation (ICE): monitoring land use, land cover and agent of change information for all lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Megown; Andy Lister; Paul Patterson; Tracey Frescino; Dennis Jacobs; Jeremy Webb; Nicholas Daniels; Mark Finco

    2015-01-01

    The Image-based Change Estimation (ICE) protocols have been designed to respond to several Agency and Department information requirements. These include provisions set forth by the 2014 Farm Bill, the Forest Service Action Plan and Strategic Plan, the 2012 Planning Rule, and the 2015 Planning Directives. ICE outputs support the information needs by providing estimates...

  12. Islamic Law

    OpenAIRE

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-01-01

    The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-...

  13. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal overturning a decision to send back for reconsideration an environmental assessment of a proposed new nuclear power plant in Ontario; 2 - France: Council of State decision, 28 November 2014, Federation 'Reseau sortir du nucleaire' (Nuclear Phase-Out network) and others vs. Electricite de France (EDF), Request No. 367013 for the annulment of: - The resolution of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) dated 4 July 2011 specifying additional regulations for Electricite de France (EDF) designed to strengthen the reactor basemat of reactor No. 1 in the Fessenheim nuclear power plant, and - The resolution of ASN dated 19 December 2012 approving the start of work on reinforcing the reactor basemat in accordance with the dossier submitted by EDF; 3 - Germany: Judgment of the European Court of Justice on the nuclear fuel tax; 4 - India: Judgment of the High Court of Kerala in a public interest litigation challenging the constitutional validity of the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act, 2010; 5 - Japan - District court decisions on lawsuits related to the restart of Sendai NPP and Takahama NPP; 6 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository; Certain provisions of the Regulation of the Minister of Health of 18 February 2011 on the conditions for safe use of ionising radiation for all types of medical exposure have been declared unconstitutional by a judgment pronounced by the Constitutional Tribunal; 7 - Slovak Republic: Developments in relation to the disclosure of information concerning the Mochovce nuclear power plant

  14. Energy Logic (EL): a novel fusion engine of multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion for intelligent surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababaah, Haroun; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2009-04-01

    The rapidly advancing hardware technology, smart sensors and sensor networks are advancing environment sensing. One major potential of this technology is Large-Scale Surveillance Systems (LS3) especially for, homeland security, battlefield intelligence, facility guarding and other civilian applications. The efficient and effective deployment of LS3 requires addressing number of aspects impacting the scalability of such systems. The scalability factors are related to: computation and memory utilization efficiency, communication bandwidth utilization, network topology (e.g., centralized, ad-hoc, hierarchical or hybrid), network communication protocol and data routing schemes; and local and global data/information fusion scheme for situational awareness. Although, many models have been proposed to address one aspect or another of these issues but, few have addressed the need for a multi-modality multi-agent data/information fusion that has characteristics satisfying the requirements of current and future intelligent sensors and sensor networks. In this paper, we have presented a novel scalable fusion engine for multi-modality multi-agent information fusion for LS3. The new fusion engine is based on a concept we call: Energy Logic. Experimental results of this work as compared to a Fuzzy logic model strongly supported the validity of the new model and inspired future directions for different levels of fusion and different applications.

  15. Computation of the target state and feedback controls for time optimal consensus in multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulla, Ameer K.; Patil, Deepak U.; Chakraborty, Debraj

    2018-02-01

    N identical agents with bounded inputs aim to reach a common target state (consensus) in the minimum possible time. Algorithms for computing this time-optimal consensus point, the control law to be used by each agent and the time taken for the consensus to occur, are proposed. Two types of multi-agent systems are considered, namely (1) coupled single-integrator agents on a plane and, (2) double-integrator agents on a line. At the initial time instant, each agent is assumed to have access to the state information of all the other agents. An algorithm, using convexity of attainable sets and Helly's theorem, is proposed, to compute the final consensus target state and the minimum time to achieve this consensus. Further, parts of the computation are parallelised amongst the agents such that each agent has to perform computations of O(N2) run time complexity. Finally, local feedback time-optimal control laws are synthesised to drive each agent to the target point in minimum time. During this part of the operation, the controller for each agent uses measurements of only its own states and does not need to communicate with any neighbouring agents.

  16. Sources of information on lymphoma associated with anti-tumour necrosis factor agents: comparison of published case reports and cases reported to the French pharmacovigilance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Théophile, Hélène; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Abouelfath, Abdelilah; Kahn, Valentine; Haramburu, Françoise; Bégaud, Bernard

    2011-07-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents, through their intense immunoregulatory effect, have been suspected to increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. However, the classical epidemiological approaches conducted over about the last 10 years have not totally succeeded in addressing the question of a causal or artifactual association. Therefore, the analysis of a substantial set of case reports, although usually considered as poorly generalizable to the general population, could be particularly informative. Two main sources of case reports in postmarketing settings are available; publications in medical journals and reports to pharmacovigilance systems. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics of case reports from both these sources in order to understand whether they provided the same information for the investigation of the causal link between lymphoma and anti-TNF agents. All case reports of malignant lymphoma in patients treated with an anti-TNF agent published in MEDLINE and all reports to the French pharmacovigilance system up to 1 February 2010 were identified. Cases of malignant lymphoma identified in postmarketing surveillance from both sources were compared regarding the following variables: age, sex, anti-TNF agent involved, indication for use, type of lymphoma, prior or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs and time to onset of lymphoma. A total of 81 published case reports and 61 cases reported to the French pharmacovigilance system were compared. In published reports, patients were younger (p = 0.03) and more frequently receiving a first anti-TNF treatment (p = 0.03), particularly infliximab (p = 0.03). Conversely, in the pharmacovigilance system reports, a succession of different anti-TNFs (p = 0.03) and adalimumab (p French pharmacovigilance system differed markedly for all characteristics tested, except sex and the use of prior or concomitant immunosuppressive drugs. Published case reports favoured convincing arguments

  17. Importance of the awareness, training exchange of information and co-operation between regulatory authorities and customs, police and other law enforcement agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakshooki, S.K.; Al-Ahaimer, R.O.

    1998-01-01

    Fast developments in science and technology are a great accomplishment in this century. These facilities have been utilized by criminals and deviants by identified way. Industrial developed countries have their own means to improve and to modify technology and scientific facilities to cope up with any new existing problems, such as the problem of illegal trading of nuclear materials. Facilities for exchange of information among industrial countries also play an important role to prevent any dangerous phenomena may exist. In contrast most developing countries lack the means of up-to-date follow up quick and continuous scientific and technological developments. However they have qualified personnel to follow up quickly and to prevent drug and narcotics smuggling. Recently we have heard about a dangerous phenomena, the illegal trading of nuclear materials, which derive attention internationally. The developed countries can cope easily with it. However, in developing countries, their lack of up to date facilities can cause a grate damage to their nations. Libyan Arab Jamahiriya is always willing to co-operate internationally to prevent any new dangerous phenomena. We think it is a time for conformation on international official agreement regarding this phenomena. Exchange of information between different countries through an international agency is important for prohibiting the illegal nuclear materials trading. Also to help in creation of a temporally scientific committee to provide different countries of the world the available information in this area and to co-operate specially with police, custom and law enforcement agencies of each nation providing an international legislation for dealing with such phenomena is a priority. Assistance for the arrangement of training through IAEA is of great importance. (author)

  18. Why Don’t More Farmers Go Organic? Using A Stakeholder-Informed Exploratory Agent-Based Model to Represent the Dynamics of Farming Practices in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In spite of a growing interest in organic agriculture; there has been relatively little research on why farmers might choose to adopt organic methods, particularly in the developing world. To address this shortcoming, we developed an exploratory agent-based model depicting Philippine smallholder farmer decisions to implement organic techniques in rice paddy systems. Our modeling exercise was novel in its combination of three characteristics: first, agent rules were based on focus group data collected in the system of study. Second, a social network structure was built into the model. Third, we utilized variance-based sensitivity analysis to quantify model outcome variability, identify influential drivers, and suggest ways in which further modeling efforts could be focused and simplified. The model results indicated an upper limit on the number of farmers adopting organic methods. The speed of information spread through the social network; crop yields; and the size of a farmer’s plot were highly influential in determining agents’ adoption rates. The results of this stylized model indicate that rates of organic farming adoption are highly sensitive to the yield drop after switchover to organic techniques, and to the speed of information spread through existing social networks. Further research and model development should focus on these system characteristics.

  19. Appraising the Role of Information Communication Technology (ICT) as a Change Agent for Higher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Yusuf Musibau; Oluwole, Afolabi Festus; Blessing, Loto Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have become inseparable entities in all aspects of human life. The use of ICT has fundamentally changed the practices and procedures of nearly all forms of endeavour within business, governance and civil service. In education, ICT has begun to have a presence but the impact has not been as…

  20. Criminal Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn

    Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds......-trial proceedings, trial stage, and legal remedies. A final part describes the execution of sentences and orders, the prison system, and the extinction of custodial sanctions or sentences. Its succinct yet scholarly nature, as well as the practical quality of the information it provides, make this book a valuable...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...

  1. Consumer in insurance law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čorkalo Milena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the notion of consumer in the European Union law, and, in particular, the notion of consumer in insurance law. The author highligts the differences between the notion of consumer is in aquis communautaire and in insurance law, discussing whether the consumer can be defined in both field in the same way, concerning that insurance services differ a lot from other kind of services. Having regarded unequal position of contracting parties and information and technical disadvantages of a weaker party, author pleads for broad definition of consumer in insurance law. In Serbian law, the consumer is not defined in consistent way. That applies on Serbian insurance law as well. Therefore, the necessity of precise and broad definition of consumes is underlined, in order to delimit the circle of subject who are in need for protection. The author holds that the issue of determination of the circle of persons entitled to extended protection as consumers is of vital importance for further development of insurance market in Serbia.

  2. Travel Agent Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    Written for college entry-level travel agent training courses, this course outline can also be used for inservice training programs offered by travel agencies. The outline provides information on the work of a travel agent and gives clear statements on what learners must be able to do by the end of their training. Material is divided into eight…

  3. Information report established according to the article 145 of the Regulation by the common information mission on the application of the law nr 2015-992 of 17 August 2015 related to energy transition for a green growth. Nr 4157

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanteguet, Jean-Paul; Battistel, Marie-Noelle; Buis, Sabine; Aubert, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This huge report details the context and issues of the French law for energy transition towards a green growth. The titles of the different chapters of this report are: definition of the common objectives (reinforcing the energy independence and the economic competitiveness of France, preserving the human health and the environment and struggling against the climatic change issue); better renovation of buildings in order to save energy, reduce energy bills and create jobs; development of clean transportation systems in order to improve air quality and protect health; struggle against squandering and promotion of circular economy (from product design to product recycling); encouraging the renewable energy sources and valorizing France's territories; reinforcing the nuclear safety and citizen information; simplification and clarification of procedures in order to gain efficiency and competitiveness; giving citizens, enterprises, territories and State the means to act together. A review of round table discussions on these matters is also presented

  4. 78 FR 53172 - Agency Information Collection Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ...-199). The law strengthens the protections for federal employees who disclose evidence of waste, fraud... 312 will now appear in new section 11. Abstract: The National Security Act of 1947, as amended by the... Access to Classified National Security Information,'' authorizes the DNI as the Security Executive Agent...

  5. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig.) [de

  6. Haramaya Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scientific manuscripts and disseminates scientific and information to the users in Ethiopia, Africa and elsewhere in the world. It also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities and accepts papers from anywhere else in ...

  7. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    disruptive responses to the social and environmental .... Aboriginal peoples, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) and impact benefit agreements ... as a model for local law “becomes an abuse only if it is informed by a legalistic spirit .... health and safety, the protection of property, business activities within the territory,.

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives and analyses three examples of case law: decision rejecting application to close down Tomari nuclear power plant (Japan); judgement by the Supreme Administrative Court on the closing of Barsebaeck (Sweden); litigation relating to the Department of Energy's obligations under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to accept spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste (United States). (A.L.B.)

  9. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the two following case laws: Slovak Republic: Further developments in cases related to the challenge by Greenpeace Slovakia to the Mochovce nuclear power plant; United States: Judgment of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission denying requests from petitioners to suspend final reactor licensing decisions pending the issuance of a final determination of reasonable assurance of permanent disposal of spent fuel

  10. Business Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marson, James; Ferris, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Marson & Ferris provide a thorough account of the subject for students. Essential topics are introduced by exploring current and pertinent examples and the relevance of the law in a business environment is considered throughout. This pack includes a supplement which considers the effects of the Consumer Rights Act 2015.

  11. Contrast agents for MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnemain, B.

    1994-01-01

    Contrast agents MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) have been developed to improve the diagnostic information obtained by this technic. They mainly interact on T1 and T2 parameters and increase consequently normal to abnormal tissues contrast. The paramagnetic agents which mainly act on longitudinal relaxation rate (T1) are gadolinium complexes for which stability is the main parameter to avoid any release of free gadolinium. The superparamagnetic agents that decrease signal intensity by an effect on transversal relaxation rate (T2) are developed for liver, digestive and lymph node imaging. Many area of research are now opened for optimal use of present and future contrast agents in MRI. (author). 28 refs., 4 tabs

  12. Dismantling the Justice Silos: avoiding the pitfalls and reaping the benefits of information-sharing between forensic science, medicine and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelty, Sally F; Julian, Roberta; Ross, Alastair

    2013-07-10

    Forensic science is increasingly relied on by police and the courts to exonerate the innocent and to establish links to crime. With this increased reliance the potential for unjust outcomes increases, especially in serious matters for two reasons. The more serious the matter, the more likely that evidence mishandling can lead to wrongful imprisonment, and the more likely the personnel involved will be multi-disciplinary (police, medicine, law, forensic science), and multi-organisational (Health, Justice, private legal/medical, police). The importance of identifying effective multi-organisational interactions was highlighted in the recent wrongful imprisonment of an Australian male for a sexual assault he did not commit. One factor that led to this unjust outcome was the justice silo effect: where forensic practitioners from different agencies operate in isolation (rarely communicating or sharing information/knowledge). In this paper we discuss findings from the Interfaces Project designed to assess the extent of the justice silos within Australia. We interviewed 103 police, forensic scientists, lawyers, judges, coroners, pathologists and forensic physicians Australian-wide. Five main themes were identified in the data: the silo effect was only partial and in each jurisdiction some form of inter-agency communication was actively occurring; inter-agency meetings were more common in homicide than sexual assault cases; forensic physicians were semi-invisible; there had been considerable momentum over the past ten years for practice improvement groups, and; practitioners gain more benefits than pitfalls from inter-agency information-sharing. Based on these findings, five recommendations are made for improving practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Information to prevent human exposure to disease agents associated with wildlife—U.S. Geological Survey circulars on zoonotic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Moede Rogall, Gail

    2018-03-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey in collaboration with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and others have published reports with information about geographic distribution, specific pathogens, disease ecology, and strategies to avoid exposure and infection for a selection of zoonotic diseases. Zoonotic diseases are diseases that can be passed from animals to humans, such as rabies and plague. This summary factsheet highlights the reports on plague, bat rabies, and raccoon roundworm with links to all seven zoonotic diseases covered in this series.

  14. Nuclear Energy Law and Arbo Law/Safety Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eijnde, J.G. van den

    1986-01-01

    The legal aspects of radiation protection in the Netherlands are described. Radiation protection is regulated mainly in the Nuclear Energy Law. The Arbo Law also has some sections about radiation protection. The interaction between both laws is discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Agent Architectures for Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua

    A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.

  16. Evaluation of location and number of aid post for sustainable humanitarian relief using agent based modeling (ABM) and geographic information system (GIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khair, Fauzi; Sopha, Bertha Maya

    2017-12-01

    One of the crucial phases in disaster management is the response phase or the emergency response phase. It requires a sustainable system and a well-integrated management system. Any errors in the system on this phase will impact on significant increase of the victims number as well as material damage caused. Policies related to the location of aid posts are important decisions. The facts show that there are many failures in the process of providing assistance to the refugees due to lack of preparation and determination of facilities and aid post location. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the number and location of aid posts on Merapi eruption in 2010. This study uses an integration between Agent Based Modeling (ABM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) about evaluation of the number and location of the aid post using some scenarios. The ABM approach aims to describe the agents behaviour (refugees and volunteers) in the event of a disaster with their respective characteristics. While the spatial data, GIS useful to describe real condition of the Sleman regency road. Based on the simulation result, it shows alternative scenarios that combine DERU UGM post, Maguwoharjo Stadium, Tagana Post and Pakem Main Post has better result in handling and distributing aid to evacuation barrack compared to initial scenario. Alternative scenarios indicates the unmet demands are less than the initial scenario.

  17. Technical rules in law

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debelius, J

    1978-08-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself.

  18. Energy law '90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The International Bar Association's Section on Energy and Natural Resources Law selected eight key topics for discussion at their ninth seminar in the Netherlands in 1990. Only two papers specifically related to nuclear power and these were within the topic of environmental issues facing the energy industries. Both papers dealt with the legal aspects of nuclear plants sited near national borders and covered international law and the need for standardized regulations and agreements on issues such as environmental impacts, safety, radiological protection, public information and emergency plans in case of accidents. (UK)

  19. Technical rules in law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debelius, J.

    1978-01-01

    An important source of knowledge for technical experts is the state of the art reflected by catalogues of technical rules. Technical rules may also achieve importance in law due to a legal transformation standard. Here, rigid and flexible reference are controversial with regard to their admissibility from the point of view of constitutional law. In case of a divergence from the generally accepted technical rules, it is assumed - refutably - that the necessary care had not been taken. Technical rules are one out of several sources of information; they have no normative effect. This may result in a duty of anyone applying them to review the state of technology himself. (orig.) [de

  20. Islamic Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doranda Maracineanu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The law system of a State represents the body of rules passed or recognized by that State inorder to regulate the social relationships, rules that must be freely obeyed by their recipients, otherwisethe State intervening with its coercive power. Throughout the development of the society, pedants havebeen particularly interested in the issue of law systems, each supporting various classifications; theclassification that has remained is the one distinguishing between the Anglo-Saxon, the Roman-German,the religious and respectively the communist law systems. The third main international law system is theMuslim one, founded on the Muslim religion – the Islam. The Islam promotes the idea that Allah createdthe law and therefore it must be preserved and observed as such. Etymologically, the Arabian word“Islam” means “to be wanted, to obey” implying the fact that this law system promotes total andunconditioned submission to Allah. The Islamic law is not built on somebody of laws or leading cases,but has as source. The Islam is meant as a universal religion, the Koran promoting the idea of the unityof mankind; thus, one of the precepts in the Koran asserts that “all men are equal (…, there is nodifference between a white man and a black man, between one who is Arabian and one who is not,except for the measure in which they fear God.” The Koran is founded mainly on the Talmud, Hebrewsource of inspiration, and only on very few Christian sources. The Islam does not forward ideas whichcannot be materialized; on the contrary its ideas are purely practical, easy to be observed by the commonman, ideas subordinated to the principle of monotheism. The uncertainties and gaps of the Koran, whichhave been felt along the years, imposed the need for another set of rules, meant to supplement it – that isSunna. Sunna represents a body of laws and, consequently, the second source of the Koran. Sunnanarrates the life of the prophet Mohamed, the model to

  1. The Legal Principles In The Democratic State Of Law And The Labor Principle Of Protection: An Analysis Of The Informative, Regulatory And Interpretative Functions Of The Principle Of Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Feliciano de Araújo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate, from the perspective of the material and effective dimensions of the right to work, addressing the issue of principles and their functions, the comprehensiveness of the principle of protection in labor law. Promoting the deepening of research through a descriptive-explanatory research of the documentary-bibliographic type, is dedicated to analytical-conceptual problems of theories of principles. It reveals that the principles have broad application in labor law and these, especially protection, must be present in the labor system in its informative, interpretative and normative functions in order to ensure the effectiveness of fundamental social rights.

  2. Environmental law and nuclear law: a growing symbiosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennerechts, S.

    2008-01-01

    This article is divided in two parts. The first part deals with the interrelationship between environmental law and nuclear law. It specifically addresses selective topics which the author considers as substantial proof that environmental law is in evidence in the nuclear field. These topics are access to nuclear information, public participation in nuclear decision-making and prevention and compensation of environmental damage caused by nuclear incidents. Environmental law will be considered in its narrow sense, meaning the law that seeks to protect nature such as soil, water, air and biodiversity. The position of the author is that the importance of environmental law for nuclear activities is increasing and may lead to a growing symbiosis with nuclear law. Environmental law and nuclear law share the same objectives: protection against mitigation of and compensation for damage to the environment. In the second part a specific problem that touches upon the extra-territorial effect of environmental legislation in the nuclear field will be examined. At the beginning of the 21. century, it can be expected that vendors of nuclear facilities will spare no efforts in trying to enter new markets all over the world. Countries with more developed environmental requirements on the construction of nuclear facilities by their national vendors in customer countries. This part of the article will analyse whether public international laws to the construction of nuclear facilities abroad. The author believes that there may well be a legal basis under customary international law justifying the application of national environmental law to the construction of nuclear facilities and the performance of work on nuclear facilities in foreign countries, but there would appear to be none permitting the enforcement of these laws in the absence of an agreement with the foreign country. (N.C.)

  3. 12 CFR 612.2260 - Standards of conduct for agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agent to carry out other agent duties as required by contract, FCA regulations, or law. (c) System... employees of the institutions; the solicitation and acceptance of gifts, contributions, or special...

  4. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...), human rights, rules of engagement, emergency essential civilians supporting military operations, contingency contractor personnel, foreign and deployment, criminal law, environmental law, fiscal law...

  5. [Alkylating agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourquier, Philippe

    2011-11-01

    With the approval of mechlorethamine by the FDA in 1949 for the treatment of hematologic malignancies, alkylating agents are the oldest class of anticancer agents. Even though their clinical use is far beyond the use of new targeted therapies, they still occupy a major place in specific indications and sometimes represent the unique option for the treatment of refractory diseases. Here, we are reviewing the major classes of alkylating agents and their mechanism of action, with a particular emphasis for the new generations of alkylating agents. As for most of the chemotherapeutic agents used in the clinic, these compounds are derived from natural sources. With a complex but original mechanism of action, they represent new interesting alternatives for the clinicians, especially for tumors that are resistant to conventional DNA damaging agents. We also briefly describe the different strategies that have been or are currently developed to potentiate the use of classical alkylating agents, especially the inhibition of pathways that are involved in the repair of DNA lesions induced by these agents. In this line, the development of PARP inhibitors is a striking example of the recent regain of interest towards the "old" alkylating agents.

  6. Mandatory Compensation to Commercial Agents upon Termination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamil Abdu Oumer

    the compensation due to the agent upon the termination of the commercial .... Virginia School of Law Legal Studies Working Papers Series, Working Paper No. ..... grant up to a one year commission if they find the circumstances equitable.67 In.

  7. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Decision of the Canadian Federal Court of Appeal dismissing an appeal related to an environmental assessment of a project to refurbish and extend the life of an Ontario nuclear power plant; 2 - Poland: Decision of the Masovian Voivod of 28 December 2015 concerning the legality of the resolution on holding a local referendum in the Commune of Rozan regarding a new radioactive waste repository (2015); 3 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of construction permit for the Shine Medical Isotope Facility in Janesville, Wisconsin; 4 - United States: Commission authorises issuance of combined licences for the South Texas Project site in Matagorda County, Texas

  8. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This section gathers the following case laws: 1 - Canada: Judicial review of Darlington new nuclear power plant project; Appeal decision upholding criminal convictions related to attempt to export nuclear-related dual-use items to Iran: Her Majesty the Queen V. Yadegari; 2 - European Commission: Greenland cases; 3 - France: Chernobyl accident - decision of dismissal of the Court of Appeal of Paris; 4 - Slovak Republic: Aarhus Convention compliance update; 5 - United States: Judgement of a US court of appeals upholding the NRC's dismissal of challenges to the renewal of the operating licence for Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station; reexamination of the project of high-level waste disposal site at Yucca Mountain

  9. Perspectives on why digital ecologies matter: combining population genetics and ecologically informed agent-based models with GIS for managing dipteran livestock pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    It is becoming clear that handling the inherent complexity found in ecological systems is an essential task for finding ways to control insect pests of tropical livestock such as tsetse flies, and old and new world screwworms. In particular, challenging multivalent management programs, such as Area Wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM), face daunting problems of complexity at multiple spatial scales, ranging from landscape level processes to those of smaller scales such as the parasite loads of individual animals. Daunting temporal challenges also await resolution, such as matching management time frames to those found on ecological and even evolutionary temporal scales. How does one deal with representing processes with models that involve multiple spatial and temporal scales? Agent-based models (ABM), combined with geographic information systems (GIS), may allow for understanding, predicting and managing pest control efforts in livestock pests. This paper argues that by incorporating digital ecologies in our management efforts clearer and more informed decisions can be made. I also point out the power of these models in making better predictions in order to anticipate the range of outcomes possible or likely. Copyright © 2014 International Atomic Energy Agency 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Several judgements are carried: Supreme Administrative Court Judgement rejecting an application to prevent construction of a new nuclear power plant (Finland); judgement of the Council of State specifying the law applicable to storage facilities for depleted uranium (France); Supreme Court Decision overturning for foreign spent fuel (Russian federation); Court of Appeal Judgement on government decision to allow the start up of a MOX fuel plant ( United Kingdom); judgement on lawfulness of authorizations granted by the Environment Agency: Marchiori v. the Environment Agency; (U.K.); Kennedy v. Southern California Edison Co. (U.S.A); Judgement concerning Ireland ' s application to prevent operation of BNFL ' s MOX facility at Sellafield: Ireland v. United Kingdom; At the European Court of Human Rights Balmer-Schafroth and others have complained v. Switzerland. Parliamentary decision rescinding the shutdown date for Barseback - 2 (Sweden); Decision of the International trade Commission regarding imposition of countervailing and anti-dumping duties on imports of low enriched uranium from the European Union, Yucca Mountain site recommendation (USA). (N.C.)

  11. The LAW library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, N.M.; Parks, C.V.; Arwood, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    The 238 group LAW library is a new multigroup library based on ENDF/B-V data. It contains data for 302 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, though it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections

  12. Biological warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraipandian Thavaselvam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies.

  13. Biological warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavaselvam, Duraipandian; Vijayaraghavan, Rajagopalan

    2010-01-01

    The recent bioterrorist attacks using anthrax spores have emphasized the need to detect and decontaminate critical facilities in the shortest possible time. There has been a remarkable progress in the detection, protection and decontamination of biological warfare agents as many instrumentation platforms and detection methodologies are developed and commissioned. Even then the threat of biological warfare agents and their use in bioterrorist attacks still remain a leading cause of global concern. Furthermore in the past decade there have been threats due to the emerging new diseases and also the re-emergence of old diseases and development of antimicrobial resistance and spread to new geographical regions. The preparedness against these agents need complete knowledge about the disease, better research and training facilities, diagnostic facilities and improved public health system. This review on the biological warfare agents will provide information on the biological warfare agents, their mode of transmission and spread and also the detection systems available to detect them. In addition the current information on the availability of commercially available and developing technologies against biological warfare agents has also been discussed. The risk that arise due to the use of these agents in warfare or bioterrorism related scenario can be mitigated with the availability of improved detection technologies. PMID:21829313

  14. Culturally Aware Agent Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Nakano, Yukiko; Koda, Tomoko

    2012-01-01

    Agent based interaction in the form of Embodied Conversational Agents (ECAs) has matured over the last decade and agents have become more and more sophisticated in terms of their verbal and nonverbal behavior like facial expressions or gestures. Having such “natural” communication channels...... available for expressing not only task-relevant but also socially and psychologically relevant information makes it necessary to take influences into account that are not readily implemented like emotions or cultural heuristics. These influences have a huge impact on the success of an interaction...

  15. Nuclear Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, Bruno

    1978-01-01

    This book is the first attempt of a comprehensive compilation of national Austrian Nuclear Law (Nuclear Liability Act; Radiation protection Act, Radiation Protection Ordinance, Security Control Act, Act on the uses of Nuclear Energy - Zwentendorf Nuclear Power Plant) and the most important international agreements to which Austria is a party. Furthermore, the book contains the most important Nuclear Liability Conventions to which Austria is not yet a party, but which are applicable in neighbouring; the Paris Convention served as a model for the national Nuclear Liability Act and may be used for its interpretation. The author has translated a number of international instruments into German, such as the Expose des Motifs of the Paris Convention. (NEA) [fr

  16. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following case laws (United States): 1 - Virginia Uranium, Inc. v. Warren, 848 F.3d 590 (4. Cir. 2017): In the United States District Court for the Western District of Virginia, the plaintiffs, a collection of uranium mining companies and owners of land containing uranium deposits, challenged a Commonwealth of Virginia moratorium on conventional uranium mining. The plaintiffs alleged that the state moratorium was preempted by federal law under the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution.; 2 - United States v. Energy Solutions, Inc.; Rockwell Holdco, Inc.; Andrews County; Holdings, Inc.; and Waste Control Specialists, LLC. (D. Del. June 21, 2017): In 2016, the United States, acting through the US Department of Justice, commenced an action in United States District Court in Delaware seeking to enjoin the acquisition of Waste Control Specialists, LLC (WCS) and its parent company by Energy Solutions, Inc., and its parent. WCS and Energy Solutions are competitors in the market for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) produced by commercial generators of such material. The United States alleged that the proposed acquisition was unlawful. 3 - Cooper v. Tokyo Electric Power Company, No. 15-56426 (9. Cir. 2017): The plaintiffs are US Navy service members who were deployed off the Japanese coast as part of the US effort to provide earthquake relief after the 9.0 earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on 11 March 2011. Plaintiffs sued alleging 'that TEPCO was negligent in operating the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and in reporting the extent of the radiation leak

  17. Environmental Law

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  18. Working within the Law: Copyright Questions Answered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Susan S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses copyright issues: what can be copyrighted, rights of copyright holders, avoiding copyright infringement, using copyrighted works, and addresses for more information concerning copyright laws. (CT)

  19. Aspects of agents for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotte, U.

    1999-01-01

    With the development of the Internet and the WWW, information treatment has gained a new dimension. (Intelligent) software agents are one of the means expected to relieve human staff of the burden of information overload, and in the future to contribute to safeguards data acquisition, data evaluation and decision-making. An overview is given for the categories of Internet, intranet and desktop agents. Aspects of the potential application of agents are described in three fields: information access and delivery, collaboration and workflow management, adaptive interfaces and learning assistants. Routine application of agents is not yet in sight, but the scientific and technical progress seems to be encouraging. (author)

  20. Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CR) see Riot Control Agents Digitalis Distilled mustard (HD) see Sulfur mustard E Ethylene glycol F Fentanyls and other opioids H Hydrazine Hydrofluoric acid (hydrogen fluoride) Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen cyanide (AC) Hydrogen ...

  1. Spatiality of environmental law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baaner, Lasse; Hvingel, Line

    2015-01-01

    , examines legal regulation as spatial information. It aims to deepen the understanding of spatiality as a core element of environmental law, and to connect it to the basic concept of representation used in giscience. It concludes that the future path for e-Government demands a shift in legal paradigm, from...... maps showing representations of applied legal norms, to maps build on datasets that have legal authority. That will integrate legal and geographic information systems, and improve the legal accountability of decision support systems used in e-Government services based on spatio-legal data....

  2. Greedy algorithms and Zipf laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, José; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    We consider a simple model of firm/city/etc growth based on a multi-item criterion: whenever entity B fares better than entity A on a subset of M items out of K, the agent originally in A moves to B. We solve the model analytically in the cases K  =  1 and . The resulting stationary distribution of sizes is generically a Zipf-law provided M  >  K/2. When , no selection occurs and the size distribution remains thin-tailed. In the special case M  =  K, one needs to regularize the problem by introducing a small ‘default’ probability ϕ. We find that the stationary distribution has a power-law tail that becomes a Zipf-law when . The approach to the stationary state can also be characterized, with strong similarities with a simple ‘aging’ model considered by Barrat and Mézard.

  3. Case Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    Different case law are presented in this part: By decision dated 17 july 2009, the Ontario Court of Appeal (Canada) has ruled on the scope of solicitor-client privilege and the protections that may be afforded to privileged investigations reports. The decision reaffirms the canadian court system view of the importance of the protection of solicitor-client privilege to the administration of justice; For United states here is a judgment of a U.S. court of Appeals on the design basis threat security rule (2009), this case concerns a challenge to the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission (N.R.C.) revised design basis threat rule, which was adopted in 2007 (nuclear bulletin law no. 80). The petitioners public citizen, Inc., San Luis Obispo Mothers for Peace and the State of New York filed a lawsuit in the U.S. court of appeals for the Ninth circuit alleging that the N.R.C. acted arbitrarily and capriciously and in violation of law by refusing to include the treat of air attacks in its final revised design basis rule. On the 24. july 2009, a panel of three ninth circuit judges rules 2-1 that the N.R.C. acted reasonably in not including an air treat in its design basis rule. Secondly, judgment of a U.S. court of appeals on consideration of the environmental impact of terrorist attacks on nuclear facilities (2009), this case concerns the scope of the U.S. Nuclear regulatory commission environmental analysis during its review of applications to re-licence commercial nuclear power plants. New Jersey urged the N.R.C. to consider the environmental impact of an airborne terrorist attack on the power plant, arguing that such analysis was required by the national environmental policy act (N.E.P.A.). On 31. march 2009, a panel of three circuit judges declined to follow the ninth circuit opinion and affirmed NRC decision 3-0 ruling that NRC was not required to consider terrorism in its N.E.P.A. analysis because NRC re-licensing would not be a reasonably close cause of terrorism

  4. The pertinence of Sutton's law to exposure science: Lessons from unconventional shale gas drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Bernard D

    2018-01-04

    Sutton's Law urges the medical practitioner to utilize the test that goes directly to the problem. When applied to exposure science, Sutton's Law would argue that the major emphasis should be on techniques that directly measure exposure in or close to the human, animal or ecosystem receptors of concern. Exposure science largely and appropriately violates Sutton's Law by estimating exposure based on information on emissions or measurements obtained at a distance from the receptors of concern. I suggest four criteria to help determine whether Sutton's law should be violated for an innovative technology, and explore these criteria in relation to potential human exposure resulting from unconventional gas drilling (UGD): (1) The technological processes possibly leading to release of the chemical or physical agents of concern are reasonably understood; (2) the agents of concern are known; (3) the source and geographical location of the releases can be reasonably identified; and (4) there is information about the likely temporal pattern of the releases and resulting pollutant levels in relation to the temporal patterns of receptor susceptibility. For UGD, the complexity of the technology including many possible release points at different time periods; the existence of three variable mixtures of chemical and physical agents as well as possible unknown reactants; the demonstrated large variation in releases from site to site; and deficiencies in transparency and regulatory oversight, all suggest that studies of the potential health impact of UGD should follow Sutton's Law. This includes the use of techniques that more directly measure exposure close to or within the receptors of concern, such as biological markers or through community-based citizen science. Understanding the implications of Sutton's Law could help focus scientific and regulatory efforts on effective approaches to evaluate the potential health and ecosystem implications of new and evolving technologies.

  5. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    This article reviews the judgements and law decisions concerning nuclear activities throughout the world during the end of 1999 and the first semester 2000. In Belgium a judgement has allowed the return of nuclear waste from France. In France the Council of State confirmed the repeal of an authorization order of an installation dedicated to the storage of uranium sesquioxide, on the basis of an insufficient risk analysis. In France too, the criminal chamber of the French Supreme Court ruled that the production in excess of that authorized in the licence can be compared to carrying out operations without a licence. In Japan the Fukui district court rejected a lawsuit filed by local residents calling for the permanent closure, on safety grounds, of the Monju reactor. In the Netherlands, the Council of State ruled that the Dutch government had no legal basis for limiting in time the operating licence of the Borssele plant. In Usa a district court has rejected a request to ban MOX fuel shipment. (A.C.)

  6. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1988-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1235 references to publications covering the following subject fields: general environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (HP) [de

  7. Recent publications on environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, S.

    1989-01-01

    The bibliography contains 1160 references to publications covering the following subject fields: General environmental law; environmental law in relation to constitutional law, administrative law, procedural law, revenue law, criminal law, private law, industrial law; law of regional development; nature conservation law; law on water protection; waste management law; law on protection against harmful effects on the environment; atomic energy law and radiation protection law; law of the power industry and the mining industry; laws and regulations on hazardous material and environmental hygiene. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Mental Health and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Henry C.

    1982-01-01

    Briefly reviews historical development of mental health and the law as a multidisciplinary field and considers variety of information seekers addressing certain topics of special importance. Pertinent information sources and services are outlined. Fifteen references and a recommended core library for fellowship programs in forensic psychiatry are…

  9. UNCLOS and International Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Romera, Beatriz; Coelho, Nelson F.

    2018-01-01

    , treaty law is only one of many sources of the law that governs international relations, the others being customary international law and principles of law. The main conclusion of this chapter is that states may have to wake up to the limitations of the UNCLOS and that this will require understanding...... the relative role of this treaty among other sources of international law....

  10. The French nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear law had been out of the environmental law. The act on the transparency and the security of the nuclear matter was enacted in 2006 and set in the code of the environment in 2012. It means that the nuclear law is part of the environmental law and that it is advanced. I will report the French nuclear law. (author)

  11. Demonstrating the Gas Laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, David A.

    1982-01-01

    Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

  12. Based on Civil Law Perspective of Study on the Legal Problems of the Protection of Personal Information%民法角度下个人信息保护的相关问题探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宁; 贾茜

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid development of society,in recent years,people's personal information has been illegally collected for illegal channels,personal information is no longer used to steal the use of more and more.However,there is no definite legal provision in the existing legal provisions of personal information,and the existence of its legal system is almost blank,leading to more and more information theft cases.For China's current personal information protection issues,a variety of civil law scholars say that the reason,or because of the current law of China's lack of civil law and the relevant departments of the supervision of dereliction of duty.Leading to the protection of the current personal information in China is facing a grim situation.To clarify the current legal provisions of the protection of personal information,it is necessary to personal information on the rule of law attributes of the analysis of personal information that the privacy rights and other issues.But the personal information is still in a framework of the concept of rights,it must be explained for the concept,it is more conducive to the legal positioning of personal information protection,to achieve the protection of personal information rights and interests,so as to effectively achieve the personal information of the property theory to protect the continuation The Through the elaboration of the theoretical development and the present situation of the personal information right,this article analyzes the dilemma faced by the current personal information protection in our country,so as to explore the way to effectively protect the personal information.%随着社会的飞速发展,近年来,人们的个人信息被非法采集用于非法途径,个人信息无端被盗窃使用的行为越来越多.但是我国目前对于个人信息没有确切的法律规定,其法律制度的存在作用近乎空白,导致越来越多的信息盗窃侵权案件发生.对于我国当前的个人信息保护

  13. Beta-blockers influence the short-term and long-term prognostic information of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines in chronic heart failure independent from specific agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankenstein, Lutz; Nelles, Manfred; Slavutsky, Maxim; Schellberg, Dieter; Doesch, Andreas; Katus, Hugo; Remppis, Andrew; Zugck, Christian

    2007-10-01

    In chronic heart failure (CHF), the physiologic effects of natriuretic peptides and catecholamines are interdependent. Furthermore, reports state an agent-dependent effect of individual beta-blockers on biomarkers. Data on the short-term and long-term predictive power comparing these biomarkers as well as accounting for the influence of beta-blocker treatment both on the marker or the resultant prognostic information are scarce. We included 513 consecutive patients with systolic CHF, measured atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), noradrenaline, and adrenaline, and monitored them for 90 +/- 25 months. Death or the combination of death and cardiac transplantation at 1 year, 5 years, and overall follow-up were considered end points. Compared with patients not taking beta-blockers, patients taking beta-blockers had significantly lower levels of catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. Only for adrenaline was the amount of this effect related to the specific beta-blocker chosen. Receiver operating characteristic curves demonstrated superior prognostic accuracy for NTproBNP both at the 1- and 5-year follow-up compared with ANP, noradrenaline, and adrenaline. In multivariate analysis including established risk markers (New York Heart Association functional class, left ventricular ejection fraction, peak oxygen uptake, and 6-minute walk test), of all neurohumoral parameters, only NTproBNP remained an independent predictor for both end points. Long-term beta-blocker therapy is associated with decreased levels of plasma catecholamines but not natriuretic peptides. This effect is independent from the actual beta-blocker chosen for natriuretic peptides and noradrenaline. In multivariate analysis, both for short-term and long-term prediction of mortality or the combined end point of death and cardiac transplantation, only NTproBNP remained independent from established clinical risk markers.

  14. Law Enforcement Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Law Enforcement Locations in Kansas Any location where sworn officers of a law enforcement agency are regularly based or stationed. Law enforcement agencies "are...

  15. 20 CFR 401.155 - Law enforcement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Law enforcement purposes. 401.155 Section 401... INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.155 Law enforcement purposes. (a) General. The Privacy Act allows us to disclose information for law enforcement purposes under certain...

  16. Tenancy Law Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml......Report on Danish Tenancy Law. Contribution to a research project co-financed by the Grotius Programme for Judicial Co-Operation in Civil Matters. http://www.iue.it/LAW/ResearchTeaching/EuropeanPrivateLaw/Projects.shtml...

  17. Multimodal training between agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    In the system Locator1, agents are treated as individual and autonomous subjects that are able to adapt to heterogenous user groups. Applying multimodal information from their surroundings (visual and linguistic), they acquire the necessary concepts for a successful interaction. This approach has...

  18. PRINCIPLES, BASES, AND LAWS OF FUNDAMENTAL INFORMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady N. Zverev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper defines the goals and problems of fundamental informatics, formulates principal laws of information universe and constructive bases of information objects and processes. The classification of semantics types of knowledge and skills is presented. 

  19. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    The first point concerns the judgement of the federal Administration Court on the standing of third parties regarding attacks at interim storage facilities (2008). In its judgement handed down on 10. april 2008, the german Federal Administrative Court overrules a decision of a Higher Regional Administrative Court and declares that residents in the vicinity of an interim storage facility may challenge the licence for that facility on the grounds that the necessary protection has not been provided against disruptive action or other interference by third parties. The second point concerns the judgement of the European Court of justice of a member State to fulfill obligations under directive 96/29 EURATOM (2007): the united kingdom imposed to intervene only if a situation of radioactive contamination results from a present or past activity for the exercise of which a licence was granted. The national legislation does not oblige the authorities to take measures in circumstances in which radioactive contamination results from a past practice which was not the subject of a such licence. The United Kingdom Government admitted the validity of the Commission claims adding that further legislation to transpose that article (article 53) into national laws is in the process of being drawn up. The third point is relative to judgement of the US court of Appeals on licensing of the L.E.S. uranium enrichment facility (2007), on appeal to the Federal Court of Appeals for the district of Columbia, the joint petitioners objected to the Nuclear regulatory Commission (NRC) issuing to the Louisiana Energy Services, L.P. (L.E.S.) Uranium enrichment Facility in New Mexico on several grounds: the NRC violated the Atomic Energy Act by supplementing the environmental impact statement after hearing closed; the NRC violated the National Environmental Policy Act by insufficiently analysing the environmental impact of depleted uranium waste from the L.E.S. facility; the NRC violated the Atomic

  20. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Canada: Brunswick News Inc. versus Her Majesty the Queen in the Right of the Province of New Brunswick denying release of nuclear power feasibility study: A superior court in Canada has made an important decision with regard to freedom of information legislation and protection of confidential commercial information. It denied a provincial newspaper company access to a feasibility study concerning the construction of a second nuclear power reactor in New Brunswick. U.S.A.: In the Court of federal Claims, plaintiffs Carolina Power and Light Company and Florida power corporation (collectively Progress Energy) claimed damages of U.S.D. 91 029 704 from defendant U.S. Department of Energy (D.O.E.), under the terms of D.O.E. standard contract for Disposal of spent nuclear fuel and/or high level waste. D.O.E. liability was previously established and the amount of damages was the sole issue in this case.Germany: in 2005, the federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (B.M.U.) instructed the regulatory and supervisory body of the federal state Baden-Wurtemberg to issue an order, which required the operator to shut its plant, without delay or further orders, in case of not obviously insignificant non-compliance with technical limits, measures or other specific safety-related requirements deemed to control incidents. The operator was further required to inform the regulatory and supervisory body immediately if it was no longer able to demonstrate the controllability of design basis accidents. In the judgement of the Federal Administrative court, the instruction to stop operation is too ambiguous since it does not specify with technical criteria should compel operators to shut their reactors.The court rules that, in compliance with the principle that administrative decisions must be precise, clear and unambiguous, an order to terminate operations must clearly state when and for what reasons an operator has this duty. a global obligation to

  1. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  2. Case law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    Concerning the France, the judgement of the European Court of Human Rights on the Right to a fair Trial, in the litigation Collectif Stop Melox and Mox versus France (2007) and the decision of the Council of State Quashing a decree concerning a nuclear installation in Brennilis, for the want of public information and consultation (2007) are reported. For South Africa, the judgment of the Cape High Court in the case of Mc donald and others versus Minister of Minerals and Energy and others (2007) is reported. United Kingdom states the decision of the Wick Sheriff Court Fining UKAEA for plutonium exposure (2007). Concerning Usa the judgment of the US Court of Appeals on environment Analysis of the effects of terrorism (2006) and the vacatur of US Court of Federal Claims Decision regarding Price-Anderson Compensation of Costs in a private Tort Claim (2007) are reported. (N.C.)

  3. Forming Circle Formations of Anonymous Mobile Agents With Order Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Chen; Xie, Guangming; Cao, Ming

    2013-01-01

    We propose distributed control laws for a group of anonymous mobile agents to form desired circle formations when the agents move in the one-dimensional space of a circle. The agents are modeled by kinematic points. They share the common knowledge of the orientation of the circle, but are oblivious

  4. [Biological agents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Koichi

    2009-03-01

    There are two types of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); monoclonal antibodies and recombinant proteins. Among the latter, etanercept, a recombinant fusion protein of soluble TNF receptor and IgG was approved in 2005 in Japan. The post-marketing surveillance of 13,894 RA patients revealed the efficacy and safety profiles of etanercept in the Japanese population, as well as overseas studies. Abatacept, a recombinant fusion protein of CTLA4 and IgG, is another biological agent for RA. Two clinical trials disclosed the efficacy of abatacept for difficult-to-treat patients: the AIM for MTX-resistant cases and the ATTAIN for patients who are resistant to anti-TNF. The ATTEST trial suggested abatacept might have more acceptable safety profile than infliximab. These biologics are also promising for the treatment of RA for not only relieving clinical symptoms and signs but retarding structural damage.

  5. Learning in engineered multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Anup

    graph (communication graph) and, under certain conditions, prove convergence of agent joint action (under eITEL) to the welfare optimizing set. The main condition requires that the union of interaction and communication graphs be strongly connected; thus the algorithm combines an implicit form of communication (via interactions through utility functions) with explicit inter-agent communications to achieve the given collaborative goal. This work has kinship with certain evolutionary computation techniques such as Simulated Annealing; the algorithm steps are carefully designed such that it describes an ergodic Markov chain with a stationary distribution that has support over states where agent joint actions optimize the welfare function. The main analysis tool is perturbed Markov chains and results of broader interest regarding these are derived as well. The other algorithm, Collaborative Extremum Seeking (CES), uses techniques from extremum seeking control to solve the problem when agent actions are drawn from the set of real numbers. In this case, under the assumption of existence of a local minimizer for the welfare function and a connected undirected communication graph between agents, a result regarding convergence of joint action to a small neighborhood of a local optimizer of the welfare function is proved. Since extremum seeking control uses a simultaneous gradient estimation-descent scheme, gradient information available in the continuous action space formulation is exploited by the CES algorithm to yield improved convergence speeds. The effectiveness of this algorithm for the wind farm power maximization problem is evaluated via simulations. Lastly, we turn to a different question regarding role of the information exchange pattern on performance of distributed control systems by means of a case study for the vehicle platooning problem. In the vehicle platoon control problem, the objective is to design distributed control laws for individual vehicles in a platoon

  6. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  7. Investigating Coulomb's Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Ellis; Koehlinger, Mervin; Kowalski, Ludwik; Swackhamer, Gregg

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of a computer-linked camera to demonstrate Coulomb's law. Suggests a way of reducing the difficulties in presenting Coulomb's law by teaching the inverse square law of gravity and the inverse square law of electricity in the same unit. (AIM)

  8. Teaching Human Rights Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Howard R.

    1985-01-01

    The international community has developed a system of human rights law relevant to many areas of legal encounter, which American law schools have been slow to incorporate into curricula. Teaching human rights law provides an opportunity for law schools to enrich the learning process and contribute creatively to the respect for rights in society.…

  9. Tax Law System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsindeliani, Imeda A.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with consideration of the actual theoretic problems of the subject and system of tax law in Russia. The theoretical approaches to determination of the nature of separate institutes of tax law are represented. The existence of pandect system intax law building as financial law sub-branch of Russia is substantiated. The goal of the…

  10. The punishment of gene doping - The relation between WADA prohibited lists, German Medicinal Products Act, German Doping Agents Amounts Ordinance, and Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzeller, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The genetic constitution of athletes influences efficiency. Knowledge of genetic influences provides an opportunity for medical diagnostic and therapeutic attempts. Beside risks and therapeutic aspects, however, the possibilities of abuse for gene doping purposes in sports also exist. Genetic screening or gene therapy may have an advantage for athletes who use these methods. In juridical comments, it is pointed out that gene doping so far plays no role in sports, but that the legislator must consider a development in this area. Preventing abuse requires legal regulations. These regulations can include sanctions. This paper deals with the gene doping prohibition of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as confirmed and accepted by the monitoring group according to Articles 10 and 11 of the European Anti-Doping Convention by the Council of Europe, the prohibition of (gene) doping in sports of the German Medicinal Products Act (Arzneimittelgesetz - AMG) and the German Doping Agents Amounts Ordinance (Dopingmittel-Mengen-Verordnung-DmMV) of the German Federal Ministry of Health (BMG). The comprehensibility of the doping ban on the norm addressee was tested with a questionnaire. In connection with legal regulations of the German constitution, gene doping is discussed and problems which may arise by a state doping prohibition are pointed out. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The Public Schools Contracts Law. Focus on School Law Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabreu, O. Lisa

    New Jersey's Public Schools Contracts Law, enacted on June 2, 1977, places limits on the authority of local and regional boards of education to make purchases and to enter into contracts, agreements, or leases for supplies or services. This publication is designed to provide information and guidance that will assist boards of education in meeting…

  12. International Investment Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    regional economic integration agreements, International Competition Law, International Investment Regulation, International Monetary Law, International Intellectual Property Protection and International Tax Law. In addition to the regular annual volumes, EYIEL Special Issues routinely address specific...... current topics in International Economic Law. The entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty entails sweeping changes with respect to foreign investment regulation. Most prominently, the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) now contains in its Article 207 an explicit competence...... for the regulation of foreign direct investment as part of the Common Commercial Policy (CCP) chapter. With this new competence, the EU will become an important actor in the field of international investment politics and law. The new empowerment in the field of international investment law prompts a multitude...

  13. Property law in Jersey

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Rebecca Frances

    2012-01-01

    Jersey law, and within it Jersey property law, has received little academic attention. This thesis seeks to examine, and provide a systematic account of, the Jersey law of property. Specific aspects of substantive law are explored. From these, general observations about the nature and structure of property law are made. Unsurprisingly, given the small size of the island, Jersey has a relatively limited amount of indigenous legal material to offer, much of it in French. Inevitab...

  14. EU Labour Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ruth

    The focus in this book is upon EU labour law and its interaction with national and international labour law. The book provides an analysis of the framework and sources of European labour law. It covers a number of substantive topics, notably collective labour law, individual employment contracts......, discrimination on grounds of sex and on other grounds, free movement of persons, restructuring of enterprises, working environment and enforcement of rights derived from EU labour law....

  15. Europeanisation of private law and English law

    OpenAIRE

    Beale, Hugh

    2003-01-01

    To what extent is English Private Law being affected by the United Kingdom’s membership of the European Union? I think we can try to answer this at three levels: (i) The United Kingdom’s compliance with EU legislation; (ii) the influence of European ideas on English Private Law; (iii) the attitude in England towards greater harmonisation or possible unification of European Private Law

  16. Teaching medical ethics and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2012-03-01

    The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.

  17. Environmental Agents Service (EAS) Registry System of Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Environmental Agent Service (EAS) Registries is the information system encompassing the Ionizing Radiation Registry (IRR), the Agent Orange Registry (AOR), and...

  18. Trading Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Wellman, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Automated trading in electronic markets is one of the most common and consequential applications of autonomous software agents. Design of effective trading strategies requires thorough understanding of how market mechanisms operate, and appreciation of strategic issues that commonly manifest in trading scenarios. Drawing on research in auction theory and artificial intelligence, this book presents core principles of strategic reasoning that apply to market situations. The author illustrates trading strategy choices through examples of concrete market environments, such as eBay, as well as abst

  19. Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyard, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    The fear for nuclear energy and more particularly for radioactive wastes is analyzed in the sociological context. Everybody agree on the information need, information is available but there is a problem for their diffusion. Reactions of the public are analyzed and journalists, scientists and teachers have a role to play [fr

  20. Investigation of the Ethical Concepts that Inform the Laws Limiting Genetic Screening in Employment Decisions: Privacy, Human Dignity, Equality, Autonomy, Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquerella, Lynn; Rothstein, Lawrence E.

    2003-01-16

    The broad question addressed in our research is : What is the influence of ethical concepts on legislative outcomes? The research focuses on the important ethical concerns that surround the use of genetic information in employment matters and in American state legislatures. By analyzing the contents of hearings, interviews and advocacy documents involved in the legislative process, the research seeks to answer the question: How might the dominance of a particular ethical concept informing the discussion of a bill influence the legislative outcome?

  1. Exchange of information in the field of direct taxation in the European Union Law and in the practice of the European Court of Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvjetković Cvjetana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to one form of mutual assistance in tax matters in the field of direct taxation - the exchange of information which in terms of the functioning of the single market of the European Union is gaining more importance. This paper also presents new solutions of Directive 2011/16/EU. Special attention in this paper is focused on the practice of the European Court of Justice in the area of the exchange of information.

  2. A school peer mediation program as a context for exploring therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ): Can a peer mediation program inform the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliam, Nicky

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports an exploratory study of a school peer mediation program implemented as an alternative way to manage bullying and other destructive conflict. The study explores the effects of the program on the well-being of members of the school community by examining perceptions of students, staff and a sample of parents and former students. Drawing on therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) the study explores whether the component parts of the program, separately or together, promote intended or unintended therapeutic effects. The preliminary findings of the study emphasise the importance of peer mediation training and suggest that existing scholarship in the area of school conflict resolution and peer mediation, when viewed through a TJ lens, may provide valuable insights into how to optimally configure programs for development and adoption in schools and other community settings. The study highlights the lack of attention paid by the legal system to valuable scholarship in the area of school conflict resolution and peer mediation, which may have implications for the understanding and development of legal processes and the law in general. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Haramaya Law Review: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Haramaya Law Review (HLR) publishes original scientific manuscripts and disseminates scientific and information to the users in Ethiopia, Africa and elsewhere in the world. It also enhances exchange of ideas among scientists engaged in research and development activities and accepts papers ...

  4. HIV / AIDS and the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Since HIV is sexually transmitted, people living with AIDS and HIV (PWA/PHA) risk being stigmatized as immoral and promiscuous and they are often discriminated against in society. To this effect, the South African AIDS Law Project and Lawyers for Human Rights have developed a comprehensive resource manual detailing human rights with a special emphasis on issues relevant to PWA/PHA. The concept of the manual aimed to look at the legal and human rights questions that have been raised by the HIV/AIDS epidemic; inform people living with HIV/AIDS about their rights and the law; provide people working in businesses, trade unions, and nongovernmental organization with information about correct and incorrect responses to HIV/AIDS; and give victims of discrimination ideas on how to fight back. This manual initially introduces basic facts about HIV and AIDS and then describes the legal system and the Bill of Rights within the new South African Constitution. The main areas of focus in the manual include: 1) patient's medical rights, 2) employment rights, 3) women's rights, 4) the rights of lesbians and gay men, 5) the rights of youth and children, 6) the rights of prisoners, 7) social support for PWA, 8) HIV/AIDS and insurance law, 9) power of attorney and making wills, 10) criminal law, and 11) legal remedies, such as using the law to protect one's rights.

  5. 45 CFR 5.68 - Exemption seven: Law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption seven: Law enforcement. 5.68 Section 5... INFORMATION REGULATIONS Reasons for Withholding Some Records § 5.68 Exemption seven: Law enforcement. We are not required to disclose information or records that the government has compiled for law enforcement...

  6. Agent-based enterprise integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. M. Berry; C. M. Pancerella

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing and deploying software agents in an enterprise information architecture such that the agents manage enterprise resources and facilitate user interaction with these resources. The enterprise agents are built on top of a robust software architecture for data exchange and tool integration across heterogeneous hardware and software. The resulting distributed multi-agent system serves as a method of enhancing enterprises in the following ways: providing users with knowledge about enterprise resources and applications; accessing the dynamically changing enterprise; locating enterprise applications and services; and improving search capabilities for applications and data. Furthermore, agents can access non-agents (i.e., databases and tools) through the enterprise framework. The ultimate target of the effort is the user; they are attempting to increase user productivity in the enterprise. This paper describes their design and early implementation and discusses the planned future work.

  7. 28 CFR 0.29j - Law enforcement authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Law enforcement authority. 0.29j Section 0.29j Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 4-Office of the Inspector General § 0.29j Law enforcement authority. Subject to guidelines promulgated by the Attorney General, Special Agents of the Offic...

  8. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    head of traditional central government, the headman was the head of the ward, and the family head exercised leadership at family level.13 Accordingly, the nature of traditional governance in South Africa was that of an unspecialised legal system where the king or chief was creator of laws, the executor of laws and the judge ...

  9. Use of the accelerating rotarod for assessment of motor performance decrement induced by potential anticonvulsant compounds in nerve agent poisoning. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capacio, B.R.; Harris, L.W.; Anderson, D.R.; Lennox, W.J.; Gales, V.

    1992-12-31

    The accelerating rotarod was used to assess motor performance decrement in rats after administration of candidate anticonvulsant compounds (acetazolamide, amitriptyline, chlordiazepoxide, diazepan, diazepam-lysine, lorazepam, loprazolam, midazolam, phenobarbital and scopolamine) against nerve agent poisoning. AH compounds were tested as the commercially available injectable preparation except for diazepam-lysine and loprazolam, which are not FDA approved. A peak effect time, as well as a dose to decrease performance time by 50% from control (PDD50), was determined. The calculated PDD50 (micrometer ol/kg) values and peak effect tunes were midazolam, 1.16 at 15 min; loprazolam, 1.17 at 15 min; diazepam-lysine, 4.17 at 30 min; lorazepwn, 4.98 at 15 min; diazepam, 5.27 at 15 min; phenobarbital, 101.49 at 45 min; chlordiazepoxide, 159.21 at 30 min; scopolamine, amitriptyline and acetazolamide did not demonstrate a performance decrement at any of the doses tested. The PDD50 values were compared with doses which have been utilized against nerve agent-induced convulsions or published ED50 values from standard anticonvulsant screening tests (maximal electroshock MES and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol (scMET)). I serve agents, anticonvulsants, diazepam, accelerating rotarod, motor performance.

  10. Themes in nuclear law; Temas de Derecho Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The nuclear law was analyzed during a workshop. The main aspects were: the law of population to access to information on nuclear energy and the relationship between the Regulator Organism and the nuclear power plants managers.

  11. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  12. Thermodynamic Laws Applied to Economic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Villacís

    2009-01-01

    Economic activity in its different manifestations--production, exchange, consumption and, particularly, information on quantities and prices--generates and transfers energy. As a result, we can apply to it the basic laws of thermodynamics. These laws are applicable within a system, i.e., in a country or between systems and countries. To these…

  13. Radioprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Kelle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since1949, a great deal of research has been carried out on the radioprotective activity of various chemical substances. Thiol compounds, compounds which contain –SH radical, different classes of pharmacological agents and other compounds such as vitamine C and WR-2721 have been shown to reduce mortality when administered prior to exposure to a lethal dose of radiation. Recently, honey bee venom as well as that of its components melittin and histamine have shown to be valuable in reduction of radiation-induced damage and also provide prophylactic alternative treatment for serious side effects related with radiotherapy. It has been suggested that the radioprotective activity of bee venom components is related with the stimulation of the hematopoetic system.

  14. Telemedicine and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilloy, W.J.; Lewalle, L.; Pilloy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To identify the legal and ethical obstacles to the development of tele (nuclear) medicine, and to propose solutions. Material and method: Lessons have been drawn from 4 years practice of telemedicine between Luxemburg and 5 European centres. Problems so raised have been confronted with the US and EU literature. Results: Academic applications (web sites, teaching, hospital networks) are yet functional and are not dealt with here. Difficulties arise in case of 1st reading (e.g. 24 hour service), 2nd reading (expert advice) or distant reading (locum, service in remote places). In most applications, the relation is doctor to doctor; patient issues like quality of content, freedom of choice are minor. A body of laws, rules and directives apply to other issues. Confidentiality is ruled by the EU Directives on the Protection of Individuals and on Data Protection. Data are commonly encrypted/anonymized. Consent and free choice are ruled by the law of medicine. A doctor requiring 2nd advice stays in charge of the patient (no need to consent). Remote reading or 1st reading is usually based on prior agreement between doctors (like after hours service), and information or consent is recommended. Registration and accreditation are ruled by the Directives of the European Internal Market for Services. No obstacle to the delivery of services across the EU would remain if it is perceived that a tele-patient consults abroad rather than a tele-doctor practices abroad. (author)

  15. Corporate Social Responsibility: what role for law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhmann, Karin

    2006-01-01

    , the article questions the conception that CSR is to do “more than the law requires”. CSR is discussed with the triple bottom line as a point of departure, focussing on social (esp. labour and human rights) and environmental dimensions. It is argued that CSR functions as informal law, and that important...... principles of law function as part of a general set of values that guide much action on CSR. Furthermore, it is argued that aspects of law in the abstract as well as in the statutory sense and as self-regulation influence the substance, implementation and communication of CSR, and that the current normative...

  16. Recent Case Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petz, Thomas; Sagaert, Vincent; Østergaard, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In this section authors from various European countries report the recent case law in their country on the field of private patrimonial law, that is decisions on the law of property, juridical acts, the law of obligations, contract law and prescription. The European Review of Private Law (ERPL......) started this section in 2003. The section aims to give our readers an overview of what is happening in the most recent European case law. We have asked the national reporters to report the juridical essence of the decisions given by the highest courts in their country. These national reports...... not relate the facts of the decision, nor the personal opinion of the reporter. One can find discussions on the most important decisions of European courts in ERPL’s case note section. The recent case law section gives overviews of decisions published in periods of four months. The period of January...

  17. By Law Established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017......An analysis of the degree and content of statutory law regulation of Nordic Lutheran majority churches in 2017...

  18. Civil Law Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  19. Community Notification Laws

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Speck, Michael B

    2007-01-01

    .... Furthermore, a false sense of security and reductions in incest reporting continue to victimize children, which results in further sex offender laws passed by legislatures without empirical data supporting such laws...

  20. Clustering recommendations to compute agent reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Punam; Kaur, Harmeet

    2005-03-01

    Traditional centralized approaches to security are difficult to apply to multi-agent systems which are used nowadays in e-commerce applications. Developing a notion of trust that is based on the reputation of an agent can provide a softer notion of security that is sufficient for many multi-agent applications. Our paper proposes a mechanism for computing reputation of the trustee agent for use by the trustier agent. The trustier agent computes the reputation based on its own experience as well as the experience the peer agents have with the trustee agents. The trustier agents intentionally interact with the peer agents to get their experience information in the form of recommendations. We have also considered the case of unintentional encounters between the referee agents and the trustee agent, which can be directly between them or indirectly through a set of interacting agents. The clustering is done to filter off the noise in the recommendations in the form of outliers. The trustier agent clusters the recommendations received from referee agents on the basis of the distances between recommendations using the hierarchical agglomerative method. The dendogram hence obtained is cut at the required similarity level which restricts the maximum distance between any two recommendations within a cluster. The cluster with maximum number of elements denotes the views of the majority of recommenders. The center of this cluster represents the reputation of the trustee agent which can be computed using c-means algorithm.

  1. Superfund TIO videos. Set B. Basics of administrative law, and prp search process: PRP search, information exchange and access. Part 3. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into two sections. Section 1 identifies the various types of administrative hearings, including quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial, and hybrid types. Section 2 provides an overview of the PRP search process; explains how and when to issue Section 104(e) letters and administrative subpoenas; outlines the enforcement authorities available in cases of non-compliance; and describes the types of information that can be released to PRPs

  2. [Medical Devices Law for pain therapists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regner, M; Sabatowski, R

    2016-08-01

    Medical Devices Law is a relatively new legal system, which has replaced the Medical Devices Regulations still well-known in Germany. German Medical Devices Law is based on European directives, which are, in turn, incorporated into national law by the Medical Devices Act. The Medical Devices Act is a framework law and covers a number of regulations that address specific topics within Medical Devices Law. In turn, in individual regulations, reference is made to guidelines, recommendations, etc. from other sources that provide detailed technical information on specific topics. Medical Devices Law is a very complex legal system, which needs to be permanently observed due to constant updating and adjustment. In the current article, the design and the structure of the system will be described, but special emphasis will be laid on important problem areas that need to be considered when applying and operating medical products, in this case by pain therapists in particular.

  3. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Ayu Astuti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyber terrorism is one of the category of crimes that cross border organized and has been established as an extraordinary crime. This crime is becoming a serious threat to countries in the world. In this regard, the Government's attitude of firmness needed to enforce cyber laws against the freedom development in social media. The development of the immeasurable it in the country of Indonesia required the limitations by doing legal liability over the behavior of law which deviates towards the use of technology tools. Strict law enforcement efforts as a clear attitude to stop actively moving massive terrorism, by enacting the provisions of the law on information and electronic transactions as well as the law of terrorism effectively. How To Cite: Astuti, S. (2015. Law Enforcement of Cyber Terorism in Indonesia. Rechtsidee, 2(2, 157-178. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v2i2.82

  4. Informe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon Lichetenberger

    1950-10-01

    Full Text Available Informe del doctor Egon Lichetenberger ante el Consejo Directivo de la Facultad, sobre el  curso de especialización en Anatomía Patológica patrocinado por la Kellogg Foundation (Departamento de Patología

  5. Approaching comparative company law

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, David C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies some common errors that occur in comparative law, offers some guidelines to help avoid such errors, and provides a framework for entering into studies of the company laws of three major jurisdictions. The first section illustrates why a conscious approach to comparative company law is useful. Part I discusses some of the problems that can arise in comparative law and offers a few points of caution that can be useful for practical, theoretical and legislative comparative ...

  6. On crystallization of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szmodis Jenő

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article introduces the problem of autonomy of law. The paper examines the medieval origins of legal positivism from a historical approach, sketching the main theories concerning the emergence of law, and phrasing some preliminary consideration for a historical and philosophical view of the problem of the birth of law. As a result of reasoning the article suggests some legal historical and human ethological ideas relating to the phenomena of crystallization of the law.

  7. LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    is still on the increase.8 It is forecast that the world will face a 40 per cent .... the legal context entails.27 Renowned property law scholars, like Underkuffler, argue ..... operation of law.53 The classic examples of Roman law res publicae were ...

  8. European tax law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terra, B.J.M.; Wattel, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book is intended as a reference book for tax law and EC law pratitioners, tax administrators, academics, the judiciary and tax or Community law policy makers. For students, an abridged student edition textbook is available. The book offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC

  9. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  10. Transnational Constitutional Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); K.I. Bhatt (Kinnari)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its

  11. Environmental law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse, Ellen Margrethe

    Modern Danish environmental law has a strong international dimension due to membership of EU and participation in global and regional agreements. The concept of transnational law that includes EU environmental law that has vertical as well as horizontal effects across jurisdictions binding national...

  12. Unjust enrichment in business law

    OpenAIRE

    Vydrová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses the concept of unjust enrichment under the business law. First of all the thesis explains the term of business law. Business law is a complex of legal rules concerning the contractual relationships between entrepreneurs arising from their business activities. Business law is a comprehensive field of law which extends into many other fields of law, both private and public law. Equally the regulation of unjust enrichment within the business law expands into many other laws ...

  13. Knowledge management impact of information technology Web 2.0/3.0. The case study of agent software technology usability in knowledge management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysik-Piorunkiewicz, Anna

    2015-02-01

    How we can measure the impact of internet technology Web 2.0/3.0 for knowledge management? How we can use the Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for generating, evaluating, sharing, organizing knowledge in knowledge-based organization? How we can evaluate it from user-centered perspective? Article aims to provide a method for evaluate the usability of web technologies to support knowledge management in knowledge-based organizations of the various stages of the cycle knowledge management, taking into account: generating knowledge, evaluating knowledge, sharing knowledge, etc. for the modern Internet technologies based on the example of agent technologies. The method focuses on five areas of evaluation: GUI, functional structure, the way of content publication, organizational aspect, technological aspect. The method is based on the proposed indicators relating respectively to assess specific areas of evaluation, taking into account the individual characteristics of the scoring. Each of the features identified in the evaluation is judged first point wise, then this score is subject to verification and clarification by means of appropriate indicators of a given feature. The article proposes appropriate indicators to measure the impact of Web 2.0/3.0 technologies for knowledge management and verification them in an example of agent technology usability in knowledge management system.

  14. A novel Multi-Agent Ada-Boost algorithm for predicting protein structural class with the information of protein secondary structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ming; Zheng, Bin; Li, Lihua

    2015-10-01

    Knowledge of the structural class of a given protein is important for understanding its folding patterns. Although a lot of efforts have been made, it still remains a challenging problem for prediction of protein structural class solely from protein sequences. The feature extraction and classification of proteins are the main problems in prediction. In this research, we extended our earlier work regarding these two aspects. In protein feature extraction, we proposed a scheme by calculating the word frequency and word position from sequences of amino acid, reduced amino acid, and secondary structure. For an accurate classification of the structural class of protein, we developed a novel Multi-Agent Ada-Boost (MA-Ada) method by integrating the features of Multi-Agent system into Ada-Boost algorithm. Extensive experiments were taken to test and compare the proposed method using four benchmark datasets in low homology. The results showed classification accuracies of 88.5%, 96.0%, 88.4%, and 85.5%, respectively, which are much better compared with the existing methods. The source code and dataset are available on request.

  15. Agent zero: toward neurocognitive foundations for generative social science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Epstein, Joshua M

    2013-01-01

    .... When multiple agents of this new type move and interact spatially, they collectively generate an astonishing range of dynamics spanning the fields of social conflict, psychology, public health, law...

  16. Water, law, science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2008-01-01

    SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

  17. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    to health care services dovetails with the international law approach to assessing compliance with the ..... with extended opening hours) are well distributed across the city.40 Availability of .... often constitutes a de facto denial of access to care.

  18. Human law and computer law comparative perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Hildebrandt, Mireille

    2014-01-01

    This book probes the epistemological and hermeneutic implications of data science and artificial intelligence for democracy and the Rule of Law, and the challenges posed by computing technologies traditional legal thinking and the regulation of human affairs.

  19. Finite-time consensus of second-order leader-following multi-agent systems without velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanjiao; Yang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    This Letter investigates the finite-time consensus problems of second-order multi-agent systems in the presence of one and multiple leaders under a directed graph. Specifically, we propose two bounded control laws, which are independent of velocity information, to deal with the finite-time consensus tracking problem with one leader and the finite-time containment control problem with multiple leaders, respectively. With the aid of homogeneous theory, some sufficient conditions are established for the achievement of the finite-time tracking control problem of second-order multi-agent systems. Numerical examples are finally provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  20. A common law agenda for labour law

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Barry; Spowart-Taylor, Ann

    1999-01-01

    This article assesses the purposes of a re-contractualisation of the employment relationship. It examines in particular the implied duty to act in good faith, and argues that in developing this and other implied terms the judiciary only extends employment protection to further wealth maximisation. It is argued that the common law sees its contribution to labour law as a device for maximising the efficiency of the enterprise and promoting the creation of wealth for the benefit of the national ...

  1. The Information Society and Global Economy: Some Aspects of the Cybernet Law A Sociedade da Informação na Economia Globalizada: Alguns Aspectos do Direito Cibernético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Deserti

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available With the arrival of information technology to the day to day life in many places of the world and the use of the Internet as the main type of communication, a new society has been organized, where information power has performed an important role in the life of almost everyone, having an effect on many people’s lives. Law, as a juridical subject, can not avoid such consequences and should be taken into consideration. Our purpose is to present a historical evolution of the Web, since the first PC until the point that it reaches its importance in the world wide web nowadays, being denominated “Information Society”. Having delineated an overview of the importance of the Internet and Information technologies in the current society, some examples will be shown on how information influences the social and law relations, through offense to fundamental laws as well as its special role in the business improvement. It will be demonstrated the great importance of the Juridical Science outlining concepts and parameters in this type of media.O uso dos recursos da informática no cotidiano dos lares e das empresas e a utilização da Internet como um dos principais meios de comunicação determinou a formação de uma nova sociedade, na qual o poder da informação passou a desempenhar um papel fundamental para qualquer indivíduo, e afetou a vida de milhões de pessoas. O Direito, como disciplina jurídica das relações humanas, não pode esquivar-se de tais conseqüências, sendo, portanto, submetido a diversos questionamentos. Nosso objetivo aqui é apresentar uma evolução histórica da Grande Rede, desde o nascimento do primeiro computador, até a significância do mundo virtual em nossos dias, caracterizando–se o que chamamos hoje de “Sociedade da Informação”. Após o panorama da relevância da Internet e das Tecnologias da Informação na atual sociedade, apresentaremos alguns exemplos de como a informação influi nas rela

  2. 17 CFR 249.619 - Form TA-Y2K, information required of transfer agents pursuant to section 17 of the Securities...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form TA-Y2K, information... Certain Exchange Members, Brokers, and Dealers § 249.619 Form TA-Y2K, information required of transfer... affecting Form TA-Y2K, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  3. KEAGENAN BANK DALAM PERSPEKTIF COMMON LAW SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Persada Putera

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of the national economy and banking external environment, causing banking activities not only engage in activities that are primary (core business, but also non-core business such as agency activities as Mutual Fund Sales Agent (APERD and Bancassurance. In the concept of the common law system, the agency as the center of all business affairs as a business owner can not do your own business, so delegating affairs to agents as a mediator. There is a legal relationships and trust (fiduciary relationship between the principal and the agent acting on behalf principal. In addition, there is an element of supervision of the principal to the agent so that the agent must comply under the supervision of the principal. Supervision is an essential element that determines the existence of an agency relationship, so it is a vertical relationship between principal and agent. The principal control components in the form of action directives, orders, limitation of power agents and monitoring the agent's action.

  4. The accounting law and the Globalisation Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe LEPĂDATU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The accounting law appeared as a new procedure together with the globalisation period and the knowledge economy. The accounting information relevance for company patrimony approach is both an economic theoretical issue and an accounting law one. Apart from the norms regarding significance breakeven and economic axiom, contractual aspects are also important. The most precise, organized and significant data can be obtained only from accounting. In this way, managers and administrators would like to get information ignoring the real capacity of accounting as much as possible. For this kind of situations, it is the accounting law that puts things into light.

  5. Information Managerx

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    1996-10-01

    Oct 1, 1996 ... locate and access information from current awareness sources such as newspapers and radio. Legislators (35%) ... law-making and supervision for a viable democracy .... from a parliamentary library is a major concern for.

  6. Dynamics of Information as Natural Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Dodig Crnkovic

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Processes considered rendering information dynamics have been studied, among others in: questions and answers, observations, communication, learning, belief revision, logical inference, game-theoretic interactions and computation. This article will put the computational approaches into a broader context of natural computation, where information dynamics is not only found in human communication and computational machinery but also in the entire nature. Information is understood as representing the world (reality as an informational web for a cognizing agent, while information dynamics (information processing, computation realizes physical laws through which all the changes of informational structures unfold. Computation as it appears in the natural world is more general than the human process of calculation modeled by the Turing machine. Natural computing is epitomized through the interactions of concurrent, in general asynchronous computational processes which are adequately represented by what Abramsky names “the second generation models of computation” [1] which we argue to be the most general representation of information dynamics.

  7. Distributed reconfigurable control strategies for switching topology networked multi-agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallehdari, Z; Meskin, N; Khorasani, K

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, distributed control reconfiguration strategies for directed switching topology networked multi-agent systems are developed and investigated. The proposed control strategies are invoked when the agents are subject to actuator faults and while the available fault detection and isolation (FDI) modules provide inaccurate and unreliable information on the estimation of faults severities. Our proposed strategies will ensure that the agents reach a consensus while an upper bound on the team performance index is ensured and satisfied. Three types of actuator faults are considered, namely: the loss of effectiveness fault, the outage fault, and the stuck fault. By utilizing quadratic and convex hull (composite) Lyapunov functions, two cooperative and distributed recovery strategies are designed and provided to select the gains of the proposed control laws such that the team objectives are guaranteed. Our proposed reconfigurable control laws are applied to a team of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) under directed switching topologies and subject to simultaneous actuator faults. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed distributed reconfiguration control laws in compensating for the effects of sudden actuator faults and subject to fault diagnosis module uncertainties and unreliabilities. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermodynamic laws apply to brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerian, Alen J

    2010-02-01

    Thermodynamic laws and complex system dynamics govern brain function. Thus, any change in brain homeostasis by an alteration in brain temperature, neurotransmission or content may cause region-specific brain dysfunction. This is the premise for the Salerian Theory of Brain built upon a new paradigm for neuropsychiatric disorders: the governing influence of neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, thermodynamic laws. The principles of region-specific brain function thermodynamics are reviewed. The clinical and supporting evidence including the paradoxical effects of various agents that alter brain homeostasis is demonstrated.

  9. Awareness, training, exchange of information and co-operation among regulatory authorities and other law enforcement institutions. Experience and problems in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, I.; Salmins, A.

    1998-01-01

    Latvia is developing infrastructure to ensure adequate system for safety and security of radioactive and nuclear materials, radiation sources and nuclear facilities within its Radiation and Nuclear Safety legal framework. The first phase of implementation was to establish and develop further relevant legal acts, but in the same time there was a need to improve the technical capabilities for the control of goods movement across the border and the need to establish the relevant educational system. The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development (MEPRD) started to participate in this process from the early beginning when the problem of illicit trafficking was foreseen. After the technical expertise carried out by the Environmental Data Centre the first border guards and customs control points were equipped with portable measurement devices. By assistance of Nordic countries and USA this system is under constant development, but full scope conceptual analysis of entire problem is not yet finished. The need for further development of the training capabilities, as well as information sharing among all relevant institutions and awareness building for decision-makers still remains. (author)

  10. English-language videos on YouTube as a source of information on self-administer subcutaneous anti-tumour necrosis factor agent injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, Sena; Yurdakul, Ozan Volkan; Basaran, Betul; Rezvani, Aylin

    2018-05-14

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability, content, and quality of videos for patients available on YouTube for learning how to self-administer subcutaneous anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) injections. We searched for the terms Humira injection, Enbrel injection, Simponi injection, and Cimzia injection. Videos were categorised as useful information, misleading information, useful patient opinion, and misleading patient opinion by two physicians. Videos were rated for quality on a 5-point global quality scale (GQS; 1 = poor quality, 5 = excellent quality) and reliability and content using the 5-point DISCERN scale (higher scores represent greater reliability and more comprehensive videos). Of the 142 English videos, 24 (16.9%) videos were classified as useful information, 6 (4.2%) as misleading information, 47 (33.1%) as useful patient opinion, and 65 (45.8%) as misleading patient opinion. Useful videos were the most comprehensive and had the highest reliability and quality scores. The useful information and useful patient opinion videos had the highest numbers of views per day (median 8.32, IQR: 3.40-14.28 and 5.46, IQR: 3.06-14.44), as compared with 2.32, IQR: 1.63-6.26 for misleading information videos and 2.15, IQR: 1.17-7.43 for misleading patient opinion videos (p = 0.001). Almost all (91.5%) misleading videos were uploaded by individual users. There are a substantial number of English-language YouTube videos, with high quality, and rich content and reliability that can be sources of information on proper technique of anti-TNF self-injections. Physicians should direct patients to the reliable resources of information and educate them in online resource assessment, thereby improving treatment outcomes.

  11. Right to Information and Communication between Government and Citizens: Identifying Continuities and Discontinuities in the Practices of Turkey at the 10th Anniversary of the Law on Right to Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba ASRAK HASDEMİR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The right to information as a form of right to petition is one of the cornerstones in the formation of the modern constitutional state and has important ties with the freedom of thought and expression as well as citizens’ right to ask their administration to be accountable.In Turkey, the practices related with the right to information, as the instrument of making the acts and actions of the government “public”, came to the agenda on the eve of 2000s, became part of the national legislation, and as of 2015, we commemorated its 10th anniversary.In the article, the right to information practices will be analyzed by considering the first ten-year period of the practices in Turkey, and also regarding the worldwide experiences and discussions around the issue. The main aim of the study is to elaborate certain practices of the right to information, regulated in the legislation related with the Right to Information in Turkey, and problems encountered in the application process. Also this article will focus on the applications to the Council of Cassation of Right to Information in Turkey since this Council, like European Ombudsman, is the final authority to review the decisions related with partial or full refusal of the access to the information and documents. The last part of the article is reserved for the evaluations and recommendations on how the practices of right to information contributes to the interaction between citizens and the government and to revive public sphere in the case of Turkey.

  12. Arranged marriages annulled by law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, H

    1996-06-01

    The arranged marriages of 210 young people in Yongle Town in Zunyi County of Guizhou Province were dissolved in 1995. The proportion of child betrothals, which generally happens among close relatives, is as high as 85% in the town. Some engagements, known as fetus betrothals or belt betrothals, are arranged before the children are born or while they are still infants strapped (belted) to their mothers. Dissemination of information from the Constitution, the Marriage Law, and the Regulations on the Registration of Marriage concerning marriage, healthier births, and good upbringing of children, and other information on reproductive health, has shown young people that they have the freedom to love and marry of their own free will, that their marriage is protected by law, and that consanguineous marriage is harmful to the health of future generations. Some convinced their parents that their arranged marriages should be annulled.

  13. Water, law, science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2007-10-17

    In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

  14. Environment and nuclear law from the lawyer point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orol, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    This work has a two-fold purpose: first, to enunciate the characteristics of Environmental and Nuclear Law; and second, to take a glance at the lawyer's interest on these subjects. The beginnings of both subjects are different. Environmental law has evolved slower than Nuclear Law. Nuclear Law presents the following characteristics: strong state intervention, strong international cooperation, emphasis on the prevention of risks, and effective responsibility for nuclear risk. Environmental Law has as characteristics: a constitutional rank, horizontal authority, and diversified risk. A comparison between both laws could be undertaken on: state participation, legislative activity, institutional set up and organization, as well as on public participation through information. (author)

  15. 14 CFR 243.15 - Conflict with foreign laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conflict with foreign laws. 243.15 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS PASSENGER MANIFEST INFORMATION § 243.15 Conflict with foreign laws. (a) If a... portion of this part is not required because of a conflict with applicable foreign law. [Doc. No. OST-95...

  16. An Investigation of Mentoring and Socialization among Law Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Ray K.; Petrosko, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined mentoring and organizational socialization among law faculty at American Bar Association (ABA) approved law schools. Data obtained from respondents (n = 298) captured the types of mentoring (formal or informal) occurring in law schools and faculty perceptions of the effectiveness of each type of mentoring. Comparative analysis…

  17. International Treaties Tax Law in Brazilian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Zampieri Sellmann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available International agreements are the primary source of obligations internationally, whi- ch generate reflections in national law. They have been extremely used in tax harvest because they avoid double taxation and reduce tax burden in international trade. They are formal sources of tax law, which the legislature is expressly recognized in Article 96 of the National Tax Code to set the “tax legislation” expression. Article 98 of the Code determines the supremacy of international tax agreements over national law. Against the odds, international tax agreements do not revoke or modify the national legislation, just limit the effectiveness of national law incompatible with them, with supra-legal hierarchy and infra-constitution. They are above national law, either after or before it is created, and are below the Federal Constitution, so agreements incompatible with it should not be approved by Congress and, if so, they will be subject to declaration of unconstitutionality by the Supreme Court. It is a reporting case the international agreement’s unconstitutio- nality after it is celebrated.

  18. An implementation of norm-based agent negotiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieter; Prakken, H.; Vey Mestdagh, C.N.J. de

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we develop our previous outline of a multi-agent architecture for regulated information exchange in crime investigations. Interactions about information exchange between agents (representing police officers) are further analysed as negotiation dialogues with embedded persuasion

  19. The rule of law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Murati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The state as an international entity and its impact on the individual’s right has been and still continues to be a crucial factor in the relationship between private and public persons. States vary in terms of their political system, however, democratic states are based on the separation of powers and human rights within the state. Rule of law is the product of many actors in a state, including laws, individuals, society, political system, separation of powers, human rights, the establishment of civil society, the relationship between law and the individual, as well as, individual-state relations. Purpose and focus of this study is the importance of a functioning state based on law, characteristics of the rule of law, separation of powers and the basic concepts of the rule of law.

  20. Dentistry and criminal law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, B S; Khoury, J N

    2017-09-01

    Criminal law in dentistry, as shaped and moulded by the prevailing views of society, defines what is or is not socially acceptable. It applies in both personal and professional contexts with the intended consequence of protecting the public from unacceptable conduct and potential imbalances of power. At its centre, a patient's consent plays a pivotal role in transforming unlawful conduct into lawful conduct. This literature review considers the current law and the trend of utilizing criminal law in addition to non-criminal law alternatives of reprimanding clinicians for failure to achieve consent in the course of dental practice. Dentists must appreciate this change and the prosecuting authority's increasing willingness to resort to criminal law. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  1. The Law Collection (formerly the Law Library of Library and Instructional Media Services at the College of the Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol Augustus Adams

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Law Collection of the Harry C. Moore Library and Information Centre was first established in August 2000 at the time that the College of The Bahamas entered into a collaborative LL.B programme with the University of the West Indies. This paper profiles the law librarians, the Law Collection and the UWI/COB programme.

  2. The Law Collection (formerly the Law Library of Library and Instructional Media Services at the College of the Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Errol Augustus Adams

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Law Collection of the Harry C. Moore Library and Information Centre was first established in August 2000 at the time that the College of The Bahamas entered into a collaborative LL.B programme with the University of the West Indies. This paper profiles the law librarians, the Law Collection and the UWI/COB programme.

  3. Zipf's law, power laws and maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Zipf's law, and power laws in general, have attracted and continue to attract considerable attention in a wide variety of disciplines—from astronomy to demographics to software structure to economics to linguistics to zoology, and even warfare. A recent model of random group formation (RGF) attempts a general explanation of such phenomena based on Jaynes' notion of maximum entropy applied to a particular choice of cost function. In the present paper I argue that the specific cost function used in the RGF model is in fact unnecessarily complicated, and that power laws can be obtained in a much simpler way by applying maximum entropy ideas directly to the Shannon entropy subject only to a single constraint: that the average of the logarithm of the observable quantity is specified. (paper)

  4. Transnational Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Zumbansen, P (Peer); Bhatt, Kinnari

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter provides an overview of the emerging field of transnational constitutional law (TCL). Whilst questions of constitutional law are typically discussed in the context of a specific domestic legal setting, a salient strategy of TCL is to understand constitutional law and its values by placing them ‘in context’ with existing and evolving cultural norms and political, social and economic discourses and struggles. Drawing on socio-legal investigations into the relationships ...

  5. Labor Laws and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Viral V. Acharya; Ramin P. Baghai; Krishnamurthy V. Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Can stringent labor laws be efficient? Possibly, if they provide firms with a commitment device to not punish short-run failures and thereby incentivize the pursuit of value-maximizing innovative activities. In this paper, we provide empirical evidence that strong labor laws indeed appear to have an ex ante positive incentive effect by encouraging the innovative pursuits of firms and their employees. Using patents and citations as proxies for innovation and a time-varying index of labor laws,...

  6. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  7. Enjoying the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2005-01-01

    of the concept of enjoyment is instructive, and looking at it more closely makes it possible to spell out why obedience in itself does not suffice for a moral existence. Subjecting ourselves to the prescriptions of positive law might actually function as a way of escaping the insatiable demands of the moral law....... In this case, the positive law not only sustains our enjoyment (by securing basic liberties), but also comes to function as an object of enjoyment itself....

  8. New laws on population urged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-12-03

    A workshop on ''Population and the Law'' sponsored by the Family Planning Organization of the Philippines and the International Planned Parenthood Federation recommended the following changes in Philippine law to implement family planning: legalization of abortion for women whose life or health are endangered by pregnancy and those who become pregnant despite contraceptives; delaying age of marriage to 18; extension of family planning incentives and maternity leave to women in government service; allow trained nurses and midwives to dispense contractives; legalize sterilization; include sterilization in medicare benefits; specify by law which contraceptive drugs may be dispensed by nonphysicians and nonpharmacists in rural areas; legalize premarital family planning counseling; declare family planning materials tax exempt; encourage reluctant doctors to practice sterilization through professional regulatory agencies; extend industrial family planning services to women living near the plant; launch massive information drives to advise young people of the hazards of premarital sex; strict enforcement of abortion laws in areas where illegal abortion still exists; grant women equal rights in area of consent for sterilization; and eliminate the stigma of illegitimacy for those born out of wedlock.

  9. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  10. Outlines of environmental Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzwedel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this omnibus, ten members of the working group for environmental law attempt to present the respective fields of environmental law in a consistent context, and to show the autonomy of each subject-matter as well as their interdependence and interrelationships. In the long run, the complexity of basic facts of natural science, technology and that of practical execution will require subject-specific penetration and application. Relationships between systems have to be realized to an increasing extent. Structures of law and administration have to be harmonized, and statements on the environmental impact of projects have to be made possible on the whole. Fundamental issues of environmental law are dealt with in the chapters entitled 'Concept and levels of applications of environmental law' and 'Environmental law in general'. The international, supranational and constitutional conditions given in advance of any environmental legislation increasingly gaining in importance are presented in the chapter on 'International environmental law', 'Basics of European Law' and on 'Constitutional Fundamentals'. The necessity of interdisciplinary cooperation becomes evident in those contributions concerning individual fields of environmental law. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Law before Gratian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This volume, the third in the series, contains the proceedings of the conference 'Law before Gratian' and covers a wide range of topics from individual and local studies to broader reflections on the status and function of law in medieval European societies before the scholastic legal 'revolution......' of the later twelfth century. Seeking to broaden our view of what constituted law in this period, the articles examine these earlier developments in their own right and provide new insights into the variety and complexity of early and high medieval approaches to law and jurisprudence. Contributors...

  12. Operational Law Handbook,2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... & SOFAs, legal assistance, combating terrorism, domestic operations, noncombatant evacuation operations, special operations, civil affairs, air, sea, and space law, detainee operations, reserve...

  13. The laws of sociodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Movsesyan, Arsen A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to tell briefly about the newly discovered fundamental Laws of Sociodynamics, which are the driving force of the evolution of society and the determining factor of world historic process. Based on the principle of symmetry of the laws of nature the relationship between the Laws of Thermodynamics and Sociodynamics is shown, due to which the fifth Law of Thermodynamics has been formulated. In doing so the objectivity of the concept of «spirituality» has been subst...

  14. Contemporary intellectual property law and policy

    CERN Document Server

    MacQueen, Hector; Laurie, Graeme; Brown, Abbe

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law, unrivalled amongst IP textbooks available today. Beyond providing an up-to-date account of intellectual property law, the text examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern IP law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.

  15. Contemporary intellectual property law and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Waelde, Charlotte; Kheria, Smita; Cornwell, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Intellectual Property: Law and Policy offers a unique perspective on intellectual property law. It goes beyond an up-to-date account of the law and examines the complex policies that inform and guide modern intellectual property law at the domestic (including Scottish), European and international levels, giving the reader a true insight into the discipline and the shape of things to come. The focus is on contemporary challenges to intellectual property law and policy and the reader is encouraged to engage critically both with the text and the subject matter. Carefully developed to ensure that the complexities of the subject are addressed in a clear and approachable manner, the extensive use of practical examples, exercises and visual aids throughout the text enliven the subject and stimulate the reader.

  16. Chemical warfare agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaraghavan R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided.

  17. Chemical warfare agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, K.; Raza, S. K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2010-01-01

    Among the Weapons of Mass Destruction, chemical warfare (CW) is probably one of the most brutal created by mankind in comparison with biological and nuclear warfare. Chemical weapons are inexpensive and are relatively easy to produce, even by small terrorist groups, to create mass casualties with small quantities. The characteristics of various CW agents, general information relevant to current physical as well as medical protection methods, detection equipment available and decontamination techniques are discussed in this review article. A brief note on Chemical Weapons Convention is also provided. PMID:21829312

  18. Interacting agents in finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hommes, C.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Interacting agents in finance represent a behavioural, agent-based approach in which financial markets are viewed as complex adaptive systems consisting of many boundedly rational agents interacting through simple heterogeneous investment strategies, constantly adapting their behaviour in response

  19. Riot Control Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button Facts About Riot Control Agents Interim document Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir What riot control agents are Riot control agents (sometimes referred to ...

  20. Ethnic Differences for Public Health Knowledge, Health Advocacy Skills, and Health Information Seeking Among High School Students: Community Agents of Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Rao, Satya; Marquez, Ruben

    2018-03-06

    Although adult health advocacy programs have been examined in communities, little is known about integrated adolescent health advocacy programs in high schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the health advocacy program impact and ethnic differences among high school students. Using a cross-sectional study, high school students participating in the school-based program completed evaluation surveys. The program domains included upstream causes of health, community assets, and public health advocacy. Bivariate analyses were conducted to examine ethnic differences for public health knowledge, health advocacy skills, and health information seeking behaviors. Using thematic analysis, open-ended survey item responses were coded to identify themes for students' perceptions of community health. Non-Hispanic (n = 72) and Hispanic high school students (n = 182) in ten classes reported owning smartphones (95%) and laptops (76%). Most students (72%) reported seeking online health information. Non-Hispanic students reported significantly higher health advocacy skills for speaking with the class about health issues, identifying community services, or creating health awareness at school than Hispanic students. Non-Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from fathers and television than Hispanic students. Hispanic students were more likely to seek health information from hospital or clinic staff than non-Hispanic students. Emergent themes included health advocacy skills, community awareness, and individual and community health changes. High schools benefit from integrating health advocacy programs into the core curriculum. Adolescents gain important skills to improve their individual health and engage in changing community health.

  1. An Effective Method for Protecting the Integrity of Mobile Agent

    OpenAIRE

    YARAHMADI, H.; KAMANKESH, M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A mobile agent is software which performs an action autonomously and independently as a person or organizations assistance. Mobile agents are used for searching information, retrieval information, filtering, intruder recognition in networks, and so on. One of the important issues of mobile agent is their security. It must consider different security issues in effective and secured usage of mobile agent. One of those issues is the integrity’s protection of mobile agents.In this paper...

  2. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    of customary law, affect the positioning, operation and influence of traditional justice systems. ... communities of East Africa.11 In non-centralised communities, the people were as critical to ..... Other elements which make traditional justice systems the preferred option include ..... are in attendance as friends of the court.

  3. School Law Update...Preventive School Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

    A wide variety of contemporary legal issues are addressed in the 15 separate papers that make up this volume. The introductory chapter by William C. Bednar, Jr. provides a broad-based rationale for "Preventive School Law." Chapters 2 and 3, both by Gerald A. Caplan, review "Current Issues in Reduction-in-Force" and "First Amendment Claims by…

  4. LAW OCRACY ELOPMENT LAW DEMOCRACY & DEVELOPMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP27975994114

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... section 20(1)(a) of the Electoral Commission Act 51 of 1996 after counsel ... in the 2016 national municipal elections scheduled for 3 August 2016, .... of South African law 9 ed (Cape Town: Juta and Company Ltd 2007) 93.

  5. Model(ing) Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin

    The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) was the first and most celebrated of a wave of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) built in the 1990s designed to advance liberalism through international criminal law. Model(ing) Justice examines the case law of the ICTY...

  6. Nanotechnology and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulin-Canselier, Sonia; Lacour, Stéphanie

    Law and nanotechnology form a vast subject. The aim here will be to examine them from the societal standpoint of nanoethics, if necessary without due reference to the work that has been undertaken. For while law differs from ethics, as we shall attempt to explain throughout this reflection, it must also be studied in its relationship with social realities.

  7. Archives: Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 21 of 21 ... Archives: Mizan Law Review. Journal Home > Archives: Mizan Law Review. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 21 of 21 Items. 2017. Vol 11, No 2 ...

  8. The Corporate Law Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofsky, James S.

    1976-01-01

    On the premise that corporate counsel must be an able diagnostician before he can focus on highly specialized and interrelated issues of business law, the author suggests an approach to corporate law curriculum in which the basic course balances the quality and quantity of material designed to create the needed sensitivity. (JT)

  9. Civil Law and Neuroscience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kogel, C.H.; Schrama, W.M.; Smit, M.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between the brain and human behaviour is receiving increasing attention in legal practice. Much has already been published about the role of neuroscience in criminal law, but surprisingly little is known about its role in civil law. In this contribution, the relevance of

  10. European food law handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.; Velde, van der M.; Szajkowska, A.; Verbruggen, R.

    2008-01-01

    This handbook analyses and explains the institutional, substantive and procedural elements of EU food law, taking the General Food Law as a focus point. Principles are discussed as well as specific rules addressing food as a product, the processes related to food and communication about food through

  11. EU Food Law Handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der B.M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The twenty-first century has witnessed a fundamental reform of food law in the European Union, to the point where modern EU food law has now come of age. This book presents the most significant elements of these legal developments with contributions from a highly qualified team of academics and

  12. Oromia Law Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Oromia Law Journal covers articles, book reviews, legislative and case comments related to legal, economic, political and social issues arising in relation to Oromia, Ethiopian, and other related International Laws. As such, the journal has two audiences-primary and secondary. The primary ones are legal professionals ...

  13. Essential EU Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This innovative textbook takes a broad approach to EU climate law and presents all available legal instruments to combat climate change, ranging from greenhouse gas emissions trading to the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency mechanisms. After providing a definition of climate law,

  14. Law-Abiding Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Beijing has begun work on laws and regulations to guarantee the smooth operation of the 2008 Olympics One of the major tasks for Beijing as host of the 2008 Olympic Games is to establish regulations and laws to govern the preparations for and conduct of the Games. Thus, on April 10 the Olympic Legislation Coordinating

  15. Law Education Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letwin, Alita Zurav

    1983-01-01

    Course outlines and timelines for a junior high school elective, "Youth and the Law," and a senior high school elective, "Criminal and Civil Law," are provided. A sample brochure about a supplementary television series for the junior high course is also included. (SR)

  16. Social Studies: Law Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

  17. International nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, M.M. de.

    1981-01-01

    The peculiar feature of a developing nuclear law is discussed. Opinions from various writers and jurists are presented. It is concluded that it should be considered as international law, whose main sources are the various treaties, conventions and agreements. (A.L.) [pt

  18. Introduction to planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronellenfitsch, M.

    1986-01-01

    The author surveys the planning law in the Federal Republic of Germany. He deals with general regulations of the administrative procedure and land-use planning procedure and the main special rules of planning law, according to the Atomic Energy Act, the Nuclear Installation Ordinance and the Federal Act on the Protection against Nuisances. (WG) [de

  19. Mizan Law Review: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. SUBMISSION GUIDELINES The following submissions are acceptable for publication upon approval by the Editorial Board. Publication of an ... and development of laws; Comments: Case comments that highlight and analyze issues, laws and their interpretation and application in case decisions or fact ...

  20. The law and neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-11-06

    Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making.

  1. Language and the Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, John

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

  2. Elaboration of Avogadro law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, A.T.

    1999-01-01

    In the report on the base of conducted experiments the conclusion about necessity of Avogadro law elaboration is made. It is suggested to add to existing formulation of the law 'In equal volumes of gases at similar pressure and temperature there are equal molecules number' - the elaboration 'and at same spectral content of heat sources'

  3. Law, Democracy & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South Africa and Africa as a whole. Law interacts with this process in ways that may promote or inhibit it. Law, Democracy & Development addresses this interaction. Our aim ...

  4. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  5. Essay on nuclear law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, Diva

    1994-01-01

    This book is divided in seven parts, covering international organizations in nuclear energy. agreements, nuclear laws and environment, national legislation program and Uruguayan legislation. The texts of the nuclear laws in Uruguay are reproduced, and several aspects on nuclear energy are discussed

  6. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality.

  7. The incorporation of public international law into municipal law and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monism and dualism represent two different approaches towards the relationship between public international law and municipal law. While the former views public international law and municipal law as a single legal system, the latter regards these two areas of law as separate and distinct legal systems that exist ...

  8. Nuclear security and law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozal, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show that the classical distinction between the military nuclear law and the civil nuclear law is outdated. The technologies are dual and might be misused from a pacific to a military goal. The central element of the nuclear law is thus the integration of the safety rules: the nuclear risk being universal, it has created an universal law (first part) that reflects our scientific knowledge and might thus evaluate. This universal law has been a factor of nuclear security (part 2), as in 50 years, there had been only one major nuclear accident and no nuclear conflict. The horizontal proliferation has been limited and the international community has understood that time had come to reduce our arsenals. (author)

  9. Military chemical warfare agent human subjects testing: part 1--history of six-decades of military experiments with chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark

    2009-10-01

    Military chemical warfare agent testing from World War I to 1975 produced thousands of veterans with concerns of possible long-term health consequences. Clinical and research evaluation of potential long-term health effects has been difficult because the exposures occurred decades ago, the identity of troops exposed and exposure magnitudes are uncertain, and acute effects during experiments poorly documented. In contrast, a companion article describes the large amount of information available about the specific agents tested and their long-term health effects. This short history describes U.S. military chemical-agent experiments with human subjects and identifies tested agents. Finally, the demonstrated need to anticipate future health concerns from military personnel involved in such military testing suggests current and future military researchers should be required, by law and regulation, to fully record the identity of those exposed, relevant exposure magnitude, and complete medical information for all subjects. New study protocols and institutional review board approvals for research involving military personnel should reflect this need.

  10. Trade, trust and the rule of law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Shu; Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; de Haan, Jakob

    Well-functioning institutions, both formal (i.e. rule of law) and informal (i.e. trust), facilitate economic exchange. To investigate the nature of the relationship between formal and informal institutions, we analyze bilateral trade patterns in a sample of 16 European countries between 1996-2009.

  11. [Report from the Student Press Law Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Student Press Law Center, Washington, DC.

    The Student Press Law Center serves as a national clearinghouse to collect, analyze, and distribute information on the First Amendment rights of student journalists and journalism teachers and on violations of these rights in high schools and colleges. This report details information concerning current censorship incidents: the investigation by…

  12. The Practice of Transnational Law

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Contents :"The new law merchant and the global market place" by Klaus Peter Berger, "The CENTRAL enquiry on the use of transnational law in international contract law and arbitration", "The UNIDROIT principles and transnational law" by Michael Joachim Bonell, "Examples for the practical application of transnational law", "The questionnaire and results of the CENTRAL enquiry"

  13. Autonomy in robots and other agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithers, T

    1997-06-01

    The word "autonomous" has become widely used in artificial intelligence, robotics, and, more recently, artificial life and is typically used to qualify types of systems, agents, or robots: we see terms like "autonomous systems," "autonomous agents," and "autonomous robots." Its use in these fields is, however, both weak, with no distinctions being made that are not better and more precisely made with other existing terms, and varied, with no single underlying concept being involved. This ill-disciplined usage contrasts strongly with the use of the same term in other fields such as biology, philosophy, ethics, law, and human rights, for example. In all these quite different areas the concept of autonomy is essentially the same, though the language used and the aspects and issues of concern, of course, differ. In all these cases the underlying notion is one of self-law making and the closely related concept of self-identity. In this paper I argue that the loose and varied use of the term autonomous in artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life has effectively robbed these fields of an important concept. A concept essentially the same as we find it in biology, philosophy, ethics, and law, and one that is needed to distinguish a particular kind of agent or robot from those developed and built so far. I suggest that robots and other agents will have to be autonomous, i.e., self-law making, not just self-regulating, if they are to be able effectively to deal with the kinds of environments in which we live and work: environments which have significant large scale spatial and temporal invariant structure, but which also have large amounts of local spatial and temporal dynamic variation and unpredictability, and which lead to the frequent occurrence of previously unexperienced situations for the agents that interact with them.

  14. Mobile agent location in distributed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountoukis, S. G.; Argyropoulos, I. P.

    2012-12-01

    An agent is a small program acting on behalf of a user or an application which plays the role of a user. Artificial intelligence can be encapsulated in agents so that they can be capable of both behaving autonomously and showing an elementary decision ability regarding movement and some specific actions. Therefore they are often called autonomous mobile agents. In a distributed system, they can move themselves from one processing node to another through the interconnecting network infrastructure. Their purpose is to collect useful information and to carry it back to their user. Also, agents are used to start, monitor and stop processes running on the individual interconnected processing nodes of computer cluster systems. An agent has a unique id to discriminate itself from other agents and a current position. The position can be expressed as the address of the processing node which currently hosts the agent. Very often, it is necessary for a user, a processing node or another agent to know the current position of an agent in a distributed system. Several procedures and algorithms have been proposed for the purpose of position location of mobile agents. The most basic of all employs a fixed computing node, which acts as agent position repository, receiving messages from all the moving agents and keeping records of their current positions. The fixed node, responds to position queries and informs users, other nodes and other agents about the position of an agent. Herein, a model is proposed that considers pairs and triples of agents instead of single ones. A location method, which is investigated in this paper, attempts to exploit this model.

  15. Agent review phase one report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zubelewicz, Alex Tadeusz; Davis, Christopher Edward; Bauer, Travis LaDell

    2009-12-01

    This report summarizes the findings for phase one of the agent review and discusses the review methods and results. The phase one review identified a short list of agent systems that would prove most useful in the service architecture of an information management, analysis, and retrieval system. Reviewers evaluated open-source and commercial multi-agent systems and scored them based upon viability, uniqueness, ease of development, ease of deployment, and ease of integration with other products. Based on these criteria, reviewers identified the ten most appropriate systems. The report also mentions several systems that reviewers deemed noteworthy for the ideas they implement, even if those systems are not the best choices for information management purposes.

  16. Law, Marxism and Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul O'Connell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Law is crucial to the maintenance and reproduction of capitalism. While Marx never produced a comprehensive theory of law, state and rights, there is much in his work, and in the broader Marxist tradition, that can help us understand the nature and role of law in contemporary capitalism. This paper sketches out some of the key resources from within the Marxist tradition that can assist us in developing Marxist understandings of law, state and rights today. Specifically, the focus is on the question of method, drawing out three key strands from Marx's own work: (i the importance of dialectical materialist analysis; (ii the historically specific and transitory nature of capitalism and (iii the centrality of class antagonism and class struggle. The argument advanced here, in sum, is that Marxist explanations of law, state and rights should foreground these analytical reference points, in order to make the role of law intelligible, and to begin to sketch how movements for fundamental social change might understand and engage with the law.

  17. Theoretical disagreement about law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravković Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As the dominant direction of the study of legal phenomena, legal positivism has suffered criticisms above all from representatives of natural law. Nevertheless, the most complex criticism of legal positivism came from Ronald Dworkin. With the methodological criticism he formed in 'Law's Empire', Dworkin attacked the sole foundations of legal positivism and his main methodological assumptions. Quoting the first postulate of positivism, which understands the law as a fact, Dworkin claims that, if this comprehension is correct, there could be no dispute among jurists concerning the law, except if some of them make an empirical mistake while establishing facts. Since this is not the case, Dworkin proves that this is actually a theoretical disagreement which does not represent a disagreement about the law itself, but about its morality. On these grounds, he rejects the idea of law as a fact and claims that the law is an interpretive notion, which means that disagreements within jurisprudence are most frequently interpretative disagreements over criteria of legality, and not empirical disagreements over historic and social facts.

  18. Power Laws are Disguised Boltzmann Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Peter; Solomon, Sorin

    Using a previously introduced model on generalized Lotka-Volterra dynamics together with some recent results for the solution of generalized Langevin equations, we derive analytically the equilibrium mean field solution for the probability distribution of wealth and show that it has two characteristic regimes. For large values of wealth, it takes the form of a Pareto style power law. For small values of wealth, wGeneralized Lotka-Volterra type of stochastic dynamics. The power law that arises in the distribution function is identified with new additional logarithmic terms in the familiar Boltzmann distribution function for the system. These are a direct consequence of the multiplicative stochastic dynamics and are absent for the usual additive stochastic processes.

  19. Reasoning about emotional agents

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, J.-J.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the role of emotions in artificial agent design, and the use of logic in reasoning about the emotional or affective states an agent can reside in. We do so by extending the KARO framework for reasoning about rational agents appropriately. In particular we formalize in this framework how emotions are related to the action monitoring capabilities of an agent.

  20. Information, Precedent, and Statute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Yalnazov (Orlin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractI compare precedent and statute in cost-effectiveness terms. To make laws, a lawmaker needs information. Information has a cost. That cost is sensitive to the choice of law production technology. The orthodoxy is that the courts acquire information more cheaply. Litigants volunteer it in

  1. Reconfiguring trade mark law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew James

    2013-01-01

    -border setting, with a particular focus on small business and consumers. The article's overall message is to call for a rethink of received wisdom suggesting that trade marks are effective trade-enabling devices. The case is made for reassessing how we think about European trade mark law.......First, this article argues that trade mark law should be approached in a supplementary way, called reconfiguration. Second, the article investigates such a reconfiguration of trade mark law by exploring the interplay of trade marks and service transactions in the Single Market, in the cross...

  2. Changes in environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    In this study the changing process of environmental law is depicted which is marked by the ecological crisis and the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Main emphasis is laid on the analysis of the reform of the ecological licensing and voidance procedures which is in the centre of the discussion about (environmental) law policy as well as on the jurisprudential enforcement of the basic environmental right on life and physical integrity. The volume ends with a study on 'Nuclear Energy, Law and Judiciary Power' - a subject which is of immediate interest and special significance with its far-reaching political consequences for ecology, energy, and economics. (orig.) [de

  3. Environmental law in change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Tasch, P.C.

    1978-01-01

    This study describes the process of change of environmental protection law taking place during an ecological crisis and unter the increasing pressure of the ecological movement. Special analyses refer to the reform of the licensing procedures and prodecures of dispute under environmental protection law today being in the focus of juridical discussion. Furthermore they refer to the juridical implementation of the fundamental right of life in an unspoiled and healthy environment. The volume ends with a study on ''Nuclear energy, law and justice'', - a subject being topical and important for its broad political consequences on environment, energy and economy. (orig.) [de

  4. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  5. Islamic law of tort

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, Abdul Basir Bin

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to discover cases and principles governing tort in Islamic law. The study is divided into six chapters, an introduction and a conclusion. The Introduction contains the explanation of the general characteristic of crime and tort, the scope, the importance of the study, methodology and the relevant literature of the thesis. Chapter one defines Western and Islamic law of tort, the existence of tort in Islām, some similar concepts between Western and Islām on the law o...

  6. Law, Literature and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Miranda Bahiense de Lyra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to highlight the importance of literature in critical thinking about the law, coupled with the search for the emergence of an autonomous political subject and as a possibility of materialization of a new right . This shall be used , bibliographic research , seeking at first discuss the historical background of the "Law and Literature Moviment " to later approach the thought of Michel Foucault , their ideas about power, the constitution subjectivity , the ethical dimension of the subject and the care of itself, the Aufklärung and its conception of this new law.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business ... Performances & Finance Open Government Freedom of Information (FOIA) Inspector General ...

  8. Agent-Based Approach for Modelling the Labour Migration from China to Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Leonidovich Makarov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the process of labour migration from China to Russia and shows its modelling using the agent-based approach. This approach allows us to simulate an artificial society in a computer program taking into account the diversity of individuals under consideration, as well as to model a set of laws and rules of conduct that make up the institutional environment in which the members of this society live. A brief review and analysis of agent-based migration models presented in the foreign literature are given. The agent-based model of labour migration from China to Russia developed by the Central Economic Mathematical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences simulates human behaviour close to reality, which is based on their internal purposes, determining the agents choice of territory as a place of residence. Therefore, at the development of the agents of the model and their behaviour algorithms, as well as the organization of the environment in which they exist and interact, the main characteristics of the population of two neighbouring countries and their demographic processes have been considered. Using the model, two experiments have been conducted. The purpose of the first of them was to assess the effect of depreciation of the rubble against the yuan on the overall indexes of labour migration, as well as its structure. In the second experiment, the procedure of the search of the information by agents for the migratory decision-making was changing. Namely, all generalizing information on the average salary by types of activity and skill level of employees, both in China and Russia, became available to all agents irrespective of their qualification level.

  9. An Agent Framework of Tourism Recommender System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the development of an Agent framework for tourism recommender system. The recommender system can be featured as an online web application which is capable of generating a personalized list of preference attractions for tourists. Traditional technologies of classical recommender system application domains, such as collaborative filtering, content-based filtering and content-based filtering are effectively adopted in the framework. In the framework they are constructed as Agents that can generate recommendations respectively. Recommender Agent can generate recommender information by integrating the recommendations of Content-based Agent, collaborative filtering-based Agent and constraint-based Agent. In order to make the performance more effective, linear combination method of data fusion is applied. User interface is provided by the tourist Agent in form of webpages and mobile app.

  10. Lawful Permanent Residents - Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A lawful permanent resident (LPR) or 'green card' recipient is defined by immigration law as a person who has been granted lawful permanent residence in the United...

  11. The Goettingen nuclear law catalogue 1976. Pt. B: bibliography - sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zieger, G.; Bauer, G.; Bischof, W.; Pelzer, N.

    1976-01-01

    In volume 26, the bibliography covering domestic and foreign publications on atomic energy law is continued. 2,930 publications are cited on: bibliographies, collections of texts, treatises, handbooks, commentaries, reference, books and dictionaries, concept of atomic energy law, organization, radiation protection and reactor safety, liability and insurance, licence and control, nuclear fuels, other radioactive substances and wastes, nuclear installations, nuclear ships, transport, investions and information, economic law, criminal law, mining law, research, training, documentation, environmental protection, and other special subjects. (orig./LN) [de

  12. Belief Change in Reasoning Agents

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yi

    2007-01-01

    The capability of changing beliefs upon new information in a rational and efficient way is crucial for an intelligent agent. Belief change therefore is one of the central research fields in Artificial Intelligence (AI) for over two decades. In the AI literature, two different kinds of belief change operations have been intensively investigated: belief update, which deal with situations where the new information describes changes of the world; and belief revision, which assumes the world is st...

  13. Nuclear law Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bischof, W.

    1976-01-01

    This publication gives, in Dutch and German, a comprehensive survey of the Netherland's current law in the field of reactor safety and radiation protection, including a survey of international agreements. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Labour Law in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Ole

    . Sources of Labour Law Chapter 6. International Private Labour Law – Conflicts of Law Selected Bibliography Part I. The Individual Employment Relation Chapter 1. Definitions and Concepts Chapter 2. Rights and Duties of the Parties during Employment Chapter 3. Working Time, Annual Holidays, Public Holidays...... Falling on a Normal Working Day and Leave Schemes Chapter 4. Remuneration and Benefits Chapter 5. Incapacity to Work Chapter 6. Job Security Chapter 7. Protection of Certain Categories of Employee and against Discrimination in Employment Chapter 8. Covenants of Non-competition and Non-solicitation Chapter....... Strikes, Lock-outs and Other Legal Forms of Industrial Action Chapter 6. Settlement of Industrial Disputes of Interest and Protection of Vital Needs Chapter 7. Disputes of Rights Introductory Remarks Part I. Implementation into National Law Chapter 1. Legal Sources Chapter 2. Objective and Scope Chapter 3...

  15. Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review publishes peer reviewed scholarly articles that identify, ... legal and related principles, stipulations and concepts based on research findings. Mizan's ... Comment: Major Differences between the Revised 'Federal' and SNNP ...

  16. Understanding scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator scaling laws how they can be generated, and how they are used are discussed. A scaling law is a relation between machine parameters and beam parameters. An alternative point of view is that a scaling law is an imposed relation between the equations of motion and the initial conditions. The relation between the parameters is obtained by requiring the beam to be matched. (A beam is said to be matched if the phase-space distribution function is a function of single-particle invariants of the motion.) Because of this restriction, the number of independent parameters describing the system is reduced. Using simple models for bunched- and unbunched-beam situations. Scaling laws are shown to determine the general behavior of beams in accelerators. Such knowledge is useful in design studies for new machines such as high-brightness linacs. The simple model presented shows much of the same behavior as a more detailed RFQ model

  17. Radiology and the law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Law of Medical Malpractice: An Overview; The Radiologist as Defendant; The Radiologist as an Expert Witness; The Missed Diagnosis; Legalities of the Radiograph; and Angiography and Interventional Radiology

  18. Empowerment As Replacement for the Three Laws of Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Salge

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The greater ubiquity of robots creates a need for generic guidelines for robot behavior. We focus less on how a robot can technically achieve a predefined goal and more on what a robot should do in the first place. Particularly, we are interested in the question how a heuristic should look like, which motivates the robot’s behavior in interaction with human agents. We make a concrete, operational proposal as to how the information-theoretic concept of empowerment can be used as a generic heuristic to quantify concepts, such as self-preservation, protection of the human partner, and responding to human actions. While elsewhere we studied involved single-agent scenarios in detail, here, we present proof-of-principle scenarios demonstrating how empowerment interpreted in light of these perspectives allows one to specify core concepts with a similar aim as Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics in an operational way. Importantly, this route does not depend on having to establish an explicit verbalized understanding of human language and conventions in the robots. Also, it incorporates the ability to take into account a rich variety of different situations and types of robotic embodiment.

  19. When Information Improves Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossklags, Jens; Johnson, Benjamin; Christin, Nicolas

    This paper presents a formal, quantitative evaluation of the impact of bounded-rational security decision-making subject to limited information and externalities. We investigate a mixed economy of an individual rational expert and several naïve near-sighted agents. We further model three canonical types of negative externalities (weakest-link, best shot and total effort), and study the impact of two information regimes on the threat level agents are facing.

  20. Constitutionalization of Peruvian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Landa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutionalizaton of Law’s different areas is a phenomenon gradually more ingrained in our cultural and legal framework. Maybe the best demonstration is the increasingly prominent role of the Constitutional Court (TC – Constitution’s Supreme Interpreter – in defining and redefining concepts, rights and legal principles touching a range of subjects, from TaxLaw to Human Rights. This is relevant to understand the Law and its current effects whether it is valued positively or negatively.