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Sample records for latvia forms minority

  1. Major and minor form of hereditary hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Vergouwe, MN; van Dijk, JG; Rees, M; Frants, RR; Brown, P

    Hyperekplexia is a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses. Within the disorder two clinical forms can be distinguished. The major form is characterized by continuous generalized stiffness in the first year of life and an exaggerated startle reflex, accompanied

  2. Minor Forms in a Badlands Landscape Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Hernandez, J. L.; Yepes, J.; Romero-Diaz, A.

    2009-07-01

    We describe and classify some medium-scale erosional morphologies in badlands areas. They have been categorized in three different types: A) Surficial forms on horizontal surfaces (soil surface crusts, cracks, popcorn) and walls (slips, pseudo-stalactites). B) Punctual fingerprints: rain impact and micro-collapses (dimples). C) Ruiniform morphologies (caves, shelters, residual pinnacles). The A type shapes are caused by damping-desiccation phenomena on clayey soils; morphologies on walls are due to laminar runoff on weak lithologies (clay, loam), also dubbed pseudo-spleleothemes. Their scale is centimetric-decimetric. B-Type forms may be an external passive process (impact) or an internal dynamic process (dimples) occurring in granular sediments inside shelters, in conditions of apparent calm, measuring up to a few centimetres. The caves and shelters of type C generally involve an excavation following stratification or jointing planes, while the residual pinnacles are vertical forms linked to advanced piping and fluting. Both forms are decametric in scale. (Author) 7 refs.

  3. Minor Forms in a Badlands Landscape Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Hernandez, J. L.; Yepes, J.; Romero-Diaz, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe and classify some medium-scale erosional morphologies in badlands areas. They have been categorized in three different types: A) Surficial forms on horizontal surfaces (soil surface crusts, cracks, popcorn) and walls (slips, pseudo-stalactites). B) Punctual fingerprints: rain impact and micro-collapses (dimples). C) Ruiniform morphologies (caves, shelters, residual pinnacles). The A type shapes are caused by damping-desiccation phenomena on clayey soils; morphologies on walls are due to laminar runoff on weak lithologies (clay, loam), also dubbed pseudo-spleleothemes. Their scale is centimetric-decimetric. B-Type forms may be an external passive process (impact) or an internal dynamic process (dimples) occurring in granular sediments inside shelters, in conditions of apparent calm, measuring up to a few centimetres. The caves and shelters of type C generally involve an excavation following stratification or jointing planes, while the residual pinnacles are vertical forms linked to advanced piping and fluting. Both forms are decametric in scale. (Author) 7 refs.

  4. Development of nuclear energetics in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelsons, Karlis; Ekmanis, Juris; Gavars, Valdis; Tomsons, Elmars; Zeltins, Namejs

    2010-09-15

    A scientific nuclear reactor was launched in 1961, and a critical test assembly - in 1965. A unique gamma-ray source was created, and it was proposed to form an industrial production plant of radiation chemistry at Ignalina NPP. In order to supply Latvia with electricity, a site was chosen in the 1980-ties for a base-power nuclear power plant. After the restoration of independence the scientists of Latvia continue taking part in international projects of nuclear fusion and the 4th generation nuclear reactors. The supply of Latvia with electricity in a more distant period will be possible by using nuclear energy.

  5. Introduction and Breeding of Rhododendrons in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondratovičs Rihards

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons are relatively new beautiful ornamental plants in Latvia forming an essential part of public and private gardens, although they were introduced in Latvian territory already during the first half of 19th century. Rhododendrons deserve their immense popularity due to the diversity of their habitat, size and type of blossoms and leaves and their flowering season. There are about 1000 rhododendron species in the wild up to now whereas breeders in various countries have created more than 30 000 cultivars. Intensive rhododendrons introduction and acclimatization in Latvia started in 1957 when Rihards Kondratovičs, at the time director of the Botanical Garden, University of Latvia, started his research on the introduction and acclimatization of rhododendrons. Winterhardiness of about 400 wild species in Latvia was tested and 76 species were found to be suitable. Following the development of an extensive collection of wild rhododendron species and cultivars, the Rhododendron Breeding and Experimental Nursery “Babīte”, University of Latvia, was established at 1980 and the active breeding of new winterhardy cultivars was started. In 2017, the collection of outdoor rhododendrons of the University of Latvia consists of 76 species and 265 cultivars, including 109 cultivars bred in Latvia by Professor Rihards Kondratovičs.

  6. The startle pattern in the minor form of hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Padberg, G. W.; van Dijk, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The major and minor forms of hereditary hyperekplexia (HE) are characterized by excessive startle responses, which are accompanied by transient stiffness only in major HE; patients with major HE also have continuous stiffness during infancy. A point mutation has been identified for major

  7. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  8. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form...

  9. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  10. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P; Kashkarova, G [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1998-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  11. Environmental performance reviews. Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The ECE Committee on Environmental Policy included the Environmental Performance Review of Latvia in its work programme in May 1997. The review team prepared a report on the environmental performance of Latvia before, during and after the review mission in Riga in April 1998. The report by the review team, including draft recommendations for the solution of existing problems in national environmental policy and management, was submitted for evaluation to the ECE Committee on Environmental Policy at its annual session in Geneva, on 1 October 1998. A high-level delegation from Latvia attended this session. It was headed by the State Minister for Environmental Protection and also included representatives of the Ministry of Transport and the Ministry of Welfare. The evaluation by the Committee was based on the in-depth preparation by two reviewing countries, Portugal and Ukraine. At the end of its evaluation, the Committee agreed on a final set of recommendations for inclusion in this publication. The consideration of the EPR report confirmed the strategy that has been applied to Latvian environmental policy and management during the transition period. The inherited acute environmental problems have been tackled essentially on a case by case basis. The long-term solution of the problems will have to be accompanied also by strategic orientations for environmental policy. The development of such orientations in co-operation with both governmental and non-governmental partners is a need also related to the efforts by Latvia to approach European practices of environmental management. The Latvian Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development is fully aware of the considerable resources that are required at all levels for the full transformation to such practices

  12. Social orphanhood in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trapenciere I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform processes and the developments of social policy to solve the major social problems of the socially vulnerable population, among them, children in particular, take place in Latvia during the last 20 years. Protection of children rights is declared one of the strategic priorities of the state social policy. At the same time the problem of child neglect and child abandonment in Latvia has not yet been sufficiently conceptualized. Already since 1990-ies Latvian society has clearly faced with an objective necessity of solving problems of child abandonment in connection with an increasing number of social orphans. The situation was complicated by the fact that the formation of a fundamentally new system of social policy, social support and assistance to risk children had to be developed and implemented in conditions of economic transition to market economy relations, increasing social tensions, and sharp increase in social inequality and social discrimination. Among the enourmous number of economical and social problems in the developing democratic state, the issue of child abandonment as an important social problem has been addressed rather fragmentary. The term “social orphanhood” does not appear in the social policy vocabulary of the Latvian social policy doscourse.

  13. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  14. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  15. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer (CRC Program in Latvia

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    Irmejs Arvids

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The aim of the study is to evaluate the incidence and phenotype - genotype characteristics of hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes in Latvia in order to develop the basis of clinical management for patients and their relatives affected by these syndromes. Materials and methods From 02/1999-09/2002 in several hospitals in Latvia cancer family histories were collected from 865 patients with CRC. In families suspected of having a history consistent with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome, DNA testing for MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 genes was performed. In addition immunohistochemical (IH examination of the normal and cancer tissue from large bowel tumors for MSH2 and MSH6 protein expression was performed prior to DNA analysis. Results From the 865 CRC cases only 3 (0.35% pedigrees fulfilled the Amsterdam II criteria of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer (HNPCC and 15 cases (1.73% were suspected of HNPCC. In 69 cases (8% with a cancer family aggregation (CFA were identified. Thus far 27 IH analyses have been performed and in 3 cancers homogenous lack of MSH2 or MSH6 protein expression was found. In one of these cases a mutation in MSH6 was identified. In 18 patients suspected of HNPCC or of matching the Amsterdam II criteria, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC followed by DNA sequencing of any heteroduplexes of the 35 exons comprising both MLH1 and MSH2 was performed revealing 3 mutations. For all of kindreds diagnosed definitively or with a high probability of being an HNPCC family appropriate recommendations concerning prophylactic measures, surveillance and treatment were provided in written form. Conclusions Existing pedigree/clinical data suggest that in Latvia the frequency of HNPCC is around 2% of consecutive colorectal cancer patients. It is crucial that genetic counseling is an integral part of cancer family syndrome management.

  16. Parent and School Relations in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, Dainuvite; Ivanova, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Families in Latvia know what is best for their children, and they make a major contribution to their education. Consequently, it is important to build close partnerships between school and family. This article reviews extant research that provides insight into the nature of school-parent relations in Latvia as the nation stands at the crossroads…

  17. Radioactive waste programme in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmins, A.

    2000-01-01

    An overview is made on the use of radioactive sources and waste management in Latvia. Brief overview of the development of national legal documents - the framework law of environmental protection; international agreements; the new law on radiation safety and nuclear safety; regulation of the Cabinet of Ministers - is given. The regulatory infrastructure in the nearest future is outlined. The institutional framework for radioactive waste management is described. Basic design of the repository and radioactive waste inventory are also given. The activities on the EU DG Environment project CASIOPEE are reported

  18. Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 32-40, nr. 2 lk. 49-56, nr. 3 lk. 39-50, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 24-33, nr. 2 lk. 49-59, nr. 3 lk. 35-45, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 33-43, nr. 2 lk. 43-55, nr. 3 lk. 41-53, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 41-53, 2005 nr. 1 lk. 45-57, nr. 2 lk. 53-65, nr. 3 lk. 29-35. Ülevaade Läti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  19. The Response of Duckweed (Lemna minor L. Roots to Cd and Its Chemical Forms

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    Yan Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The response of duckweed (Lemna minor L. roots to Cd and its chemical forms was investigated. The relative root growth rate and concentrations of Cd and its different chemical forms in the root, that is, ethanol-extractable (FE-Cd, HCl-extractable (FHCl-Cd, and residual fractions (Fr-Cd, were quantified. Weibull model was used to unravel the regression between the relative root elongation (RRL with chemical forms of Cd. Parameters assessed catalase (CAT, peroxidases (POD, and superoxide dismutase (SOD, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA and total antioxidant capacity (A-TOC. Our results show that both the relative root growth rate and relative frond number were affected by Cd concentrations. The chemical forms of Cd were influenced by Cd content in the medium. Relative root elongation (RRL showed a significant correlation with chemical forms of Cd. Additionally, POD and SOD increased at lower Cd concentrations followed by a decrease at higher Cd concentrations (at more than 5 μM Cd. Moreover, MDA and A-TOC increased and CAT decreased with increasing Cd exposure. Furthermore, CAT showed a significant correlation with FHCl-Cd. Taken together, it can be concluded that the chemical forms of Cd are statistically significant predictors of Cd toxicity to duckweed and to the other similar aquatic plants.

  20. Economical and Political Transformations - Latvia's Case / Lembit Ebre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ebre, Lembit

    1999-01-01

    Juris Dreifeldsi raamatust "Latvia in transition" ja Marja Nissineni raamatust "Latvia's transition to a market economy". Läti poliitiline ja majanduslik areng. Tabel: Ettevõtete omanike jaotus rahvuste järgi

  1. The Use of Analytic Network Process for Risk Assessment in Production of Renewable Energy from Agriculture Biomass in Latvia

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    Sandija Rivza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is an important factor for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship of bioenergy production that has become one of the priorities in energy sector of Latvia. Promotion of the use of renewable energy is included as one of the strategic goals for European Union (EU and Latvia. As this field of energy production in Latvia is rather new and scantily explored there are many risk factors arising in different stages of production, starting with planning and building of a bioreactor and ending with production and further use and distribution of energy. The present research focuses on risk assessment in renewable energy production form biomass as this kind of energy is seen as a perspective source for renewable energy under the conditions of Latvia. A risk assessment module for renewable energy production made by using the Analytic Network Process (ANP software is described in the paper.

  2. 222Rn gas metrology in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogucarska, T.; Lapenas, A.

    2004-01-01

    The measurements of radon gas provides in Latvia according with the State radiation monitoring program. The national standard/reference level for the protection of employees and population from exposure to radon Latvia has been accepted. The facilities for calibration of the radon gas measurement instruments and detectors have been established on basic of the Radiation Metrology and Testing Center which is the local SSDL for Baltic Region. The radon measurement instruments and detectors calibration can be performed at the 170-4000 Bq/m 3 range. (author)

  3. Russian Capital in Latvia: Trends and Perspectives

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    N A Volgina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals the issue of the positions of Russian capital in Latvian market. The paper aims to estimate the volume and dynamics of Russian capital inflows into Latvia in compliance with Russian economic interests; to identify key sectors of Latvian economy that Russian capital is interested to invest in; to systemize information concerning Russian firms investing in Latvia; to assess the role of Russian capital in Latvian economy in comparison with other foreign investors; to propose author’s view on challenges and perspectives of Latvian-Russian investment cooperation in the situation of economic sanctions and geo-political conflict in east Ukraine. The author underlines that at the end of 2013, investments of Russian business to Latvia constituted about 5.0% of the total FDI stock and by that time Russia was the 7th largest investor with 0.5 bln euro of capital invested. The main sectors of Russian interests in Latvia are - gas supply, transport communications (transit corridors, banking and real estate. The article concludes that though the future of Russian-Latvian economic relations in the short-run is on a substantial pressure of geopolitical factors, the economic interests in mutual investment relations will prevail in the long-run perspectives.

  4. Russkie v Latvii: osobennosti sociokul'turnoj adaptacii i identichnosti [Russians in Latvia: Peculiarities of Socio-cultural Adaptation and Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronov Viktor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author identifies trends and variations of the socio-cultural identity and integration of Russians in Latvia. According to the author, since the middle 1990s, two trends have been recognized - first, the “ingrowing” of ethnic Russians into the life of independent Latvia, and second, forming their new identity. The article presents a number of factors hampering the integration of ethnic Russians into Latvian society. Variations and options of socio-cultural identity and integration (or assimilation of the Russian population of Latvia are shown.

  5. The energy situation and demand side management in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebergs, V.; Zeltins, N.; Stuits, I.; Stripnieks, Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Only 12 per cent of the electric energy consumed in Latvia is produced by local energy resources(hydro-, peat, firewood). The rest (50 per cent) is imported or produced from the imported fuel (gas, heavy fuel). After 1991, when Latvia entered the market economy, the fuel prices began to approach the world prices and the production of electric energy decreased. Therefore it is important to work out a correct concept of Energy Development in Latvia corresponding to the market economy. (author)

  6. Costs of biodiesel supply chain in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birzietis, G.; Kunkule, D.

    2003-01-01

    Biodiesels has already become reality in Latvia, but still not are extensively used due to number of reasons. Cost reduction would be one of the most efficient tools that could encourage wider use of biodiesel. Identifying costs in biodiesel supply chain and evaluating their weight in total cost of final product is the first step to finding most costly elements and potential for cost reduction. General cost breakdown in final price is calculated and analysed in this study (authors)

  7. Energy tariff project - Latvia. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harne, N.J.

    1996-05-01

    Latvia has only a few indigenous energy resources that are concentrated on hydro-power, wood and peat. The country is therefore strongly dependant on imports of natural gas, oil, coal and electricity. After independence the supply of natural gas, oil and electricity were organised by three state owned joint-stock companies, Latvijas Gaze, Latvijas Nafta and Latvenergo. Partial privatisation of the gas and oil companies has been decided by the Latvian government but so far not implemented. Two types of models have been used within the Energy Tariff Project: The EFOM model that was developed and implemented for Latvia as a part of the EURIO project has been adapted to describe the long term reactions for the electricity and district heating sectors; A system of Customer Calculation Sheets for the analysis of consumer expenditure and utility revenue. The optimization model for the electricity and CHP system is also used to analyze the impact of gas tariffs for the electricity and district heating sector within geographical or institutional limits. In this report the following regions are specified: City of Riga; Other district heating areas; Rest of Latvia. The Danish tariff structure for natural gas was reviewed. The present structure is presently market orientated with direct links to the price movements of alternative fuels for all customer groups. (EG) 50 refs

  8. How great is Latvia's success story? The economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Austers, Aldis

    2014-01-01

    The current state of Latvia can be best described in medical terms: the patient is pale, but alive. The financial woes have been successfully resolved, but economic, social and political challenges remain. The crisis is continuing to affect the fabric of social and political life in Latvia. This paper looks at the economic, social and political consequences of the recent financial crisis and the ensuing economic collapse in Latvia and suggests some remedial actions.

  9. Y and Er minor addition effect on glass forming ability of a Ni–Nb–Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, L.P.; Oliveira, M.F. de

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical selection criterion to predict the GFA was used for Ni–Nb–Zr–RE alloys. • The prediction agrees very well with thermal parameter gm used to evaluate experimentally the GFA. • RE doped alloys showed higher GFA than the base alloy. • Y and Er elements showed similar effects to improve the GFA of the base alloy. - Abstract: Since the discovering of amorphous alloys in 1960, the actual causes of why some alloys can be easily formed into glasses while others cannot, are not clearly known, thus there is no universal theory to predict the glass forming ability in metallic systems. It is well known that the minor amount addition of proper rare-earth elements can greatly enhance the glass forming ability of some glass-forming alloys. In the present study, a selection criterion was successfully used to predict the glass forming ability improvement of Ni 67.3 Nb 28.4 Zr 4.3 alloy with minor additions of Y or Er. The actual glass forming ability of the base alloy and rare-earth doped alloys were evaluated by the thermal parameter γ m and the results agree very well with the tendency predicted by the calculation. The amorphous nature of alloys was mainly analyzed by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. This work also presents a brief and complementary consideration about oxygen contamination quantified by the inert gas fusion method

  10. Genus Sisymbrium L. (Rockets In The Flora Of Latvia

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    Rūrāne Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest genera in the Cruciferae family in Latvia is Sisymbrium L. The genus includes not only native, but also some alien species. The distributions of the Sisymbrium species were reviewed for the first time in the last 50th years in Latvia. The distribution data were compiled from herbarium material, literature and field surveys. An identification key for the Sisymbrium species in Latvia and detailed scientific nomenclature are presented in the current study. In total, seven species of Sisymbrium were found in Latvia — S. supinum L., S. loeselii L., S. polymorphum (Murray Roth, S. volgense M. Bieb. ex E. Fourn., S. altissimum L., S. orientale L. and S. officinale (L. Scop. The mainly were recorded in railway verges, roadsides, waste dumps and wasteland. Five species of the genus are alien to the flora of Latvia — S. loeselii, S. altissimum, S. polymorphum, S. orientale, and S. volgense; two are native — S. supinum and S. officinale.

  11. Influence of accessibility of services on Quality of Life of school children with Cerebral Palsy in Latvia

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    Cibule L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of accessibility of services and health related factors on Quality of Life (QoL of school children with Cerebral Palsy (CP in Latvia. 80 children 47 boys and 33 girls with CP and their parents from all regions of Latvia took part in the study. Mean age of participants was 11,7 (SD± 3,5 years. 50 children without diagnosed chronic diseases formed the control group. Validated evaluation tools were used in the study (KIDSCREEN-52, GMFCS- E&R. The results show lower QoL in children with CP in comparison with their healthy peers and European children. QoL is influenced by the level of gross motor functions, lack of coordination of services, lack of rehabilitation infrastructure and presence of environmental barriers in Latvia.

  12. Legislative Framework for Landscape Planning in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitavska, Natalija; Zigmunde, Daiga

    2017-10-01

    With the adoption and the ratification of the European Landscape Convention a legally justified need for a clear landscape policy was grounded in the European countries. It includes the elaboration of the new and the improvement of the existing legislative documents on landscape planning, protection and management. The aim of the particular study is to analyse the existing legislative documents in Latvia influencing landscape planning on different scales / and the implementation of the European Landscape Convention. The study emphasizes the complex structure of the Latvian legislative framework affected by the distribution of the normative documents under the various ministries. Therefore, the main problem is unclear responsibility levels and organizational system for solving the issues regarding landscape planning, protection and management. Thus the various discussions between the involved disciplines and responsible institutions are arising. Two groups of the legislative documents influencing the implementation of the landscape policy in Latvia are detected within the study. The first group is strategic documents determining main landscape planning principles and directions at European, national, regional and professional or sectoral level. The second group is operational documents providing a set of actions for the landscape planning, protection and management at the local or the municipality level. The study concludes that operational documents developed by the municipalities are in high importance because of their direct influence on the landscape planning in Latvia. This often leads to the different landscape planning requirements included in the normative documents of the neighbouring municipalities, although the spatial and ecological borders of the visual landscape do not fit with the formal borders of the municipalities. Thus, it is essential to develop the common principles and actions that would be incumbent on all municipalities to provide the

  13. Financial Participation of Employees in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauberg, Theis; Muravska, Tatyana; Mygind, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines main trends in employees' financial participation in Latvia including historical, socioeconomic and legal background. A special emphasis is placed on privatization during the transition period which shaped an environment for employees' financial participation and influenced...... the current state of employee share ownership and profit-sharing. Attitudes of social partners and the government will be addressed. The report will show why the transition process lead to a low level of employees' financial participation and the indifference and ignorance of policy makers concerning...... the development of financial participation....

  14. Impairment of assets– the case of Latvia

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    Vita Zarina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic recession has led to the worsening of financial results of many Lat-vian companies. In this situation, cash flows from the use of assets in economic activities turn out to be insufficient to recover the balance sheet value of those as-sets. The laws and accounting standards of Latvia do not provide sufficient guid-ance on how the decrease in value should be calculated because cash flows gener-ated by individual items of fixed assets cannot be estimated reliably in most cases. In the present economic situation it seems reasonable to follow the rule that when the market value of assets is lower than their balance sheet value it is necessary to recognize an impairment loss or to carry out their revaluation, which will allow their true value to be calculated. Annual revaluation is necessary for those items whose true value is changeable. For items whose values change rarely revaluation can be done less frequently. In the economic situation of Latvia almost every com-pany, excepting only some production areas, is facing a high risk of decrease in the value of its assets. If there are indications that there may be a decrease in the value of long term assets, the company’s management has to consider at least the indicators provided by internal and external sources of information.

  15. Ritual, Power and Historical Perspective: Baptism and Name-giving in Lithuania and Latvia

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    Rasa Paukštytė-Šaknienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Power in our life can certainly be expressed in a variety of ways. One of them is power transmission through life cycle rituals. Soviet rule denied “religious traditions” and tried to form a new atheistic communist culture (and traditions. The new rituals were expected to replace older religious rites because communist morality and socialist internationalism was expected to overpower bourgeois nationalism. As indicated by scholars investigating into Soviet rituals and by my fieldwork data collected in 1999 in Northeast Lithuania and in 1998 in Southeast Latvia, the mission of creating communist traditions has not always been successful. I shall try to examine this process in my article by analysing the cases of “traditional” baptism as well as the phenomenon of the so-called “modern” name-giving ritual in Latvia and Lithuania.

  16. Ritual, Power and Historical Perspective: Baptism and Name-giving in Lithuania and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa Paukštytė-Šaknienė

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Power in our life can certainly be expressed in a variety of ways. One of them is power transmission through life cycle rituals. Soviet rule denied “religious traditions” and tried to form a new atheistic communist culture (and traditions. The new rituals were expected to replace older religious rites because communist morality and socialist internationalism was expected to overpower bourgeois nationalism. As indicated by scholars investigating into Soviet rituals and by my fieldwork data collected in 1999 in Northeast Lithuania and in 1998 in Southeast Latvia, the mission of creating communist traditions has not always been successful. I shall try to examine this process in my article by analysing the cases of “traditional” baptism as well as the phenomenon of the so-called “modern” name-giving ritual in Latvia and Lithuania.

  17. Solid state physics and physicists of the post war Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakis, J.

    2003-01-01

    In Latvia during the so-called post war period (1944-1991) fields that promoted the research activities were nuclear research and semiconductor electronics. Being considered as classified the researches in these fields were separated from the universities and transferred to the institutes of recently founded Latvian Academy of Sciences. The institutes related to the so-called sector management ministries performed the most of research in semiconductor physics. Research activities at the University of Latvia were mainly in the basic solid state physics (ionic crystals, Ferro ceramics). Despite of being controlled research activities in solid-state physics in Latvia were on relatively high level recognized both nationally and internationally

  18. Dormice - Their present status in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdis Pilats

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The distribution and habitats of four Dormouse species (Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula and Myoxus glis found in Latvia are described. This study was carried out as part of a Latvian and European mammal atlas project, starting in 1991. Questionnaires were the main source of information regarding the period since 1970. In Latvia dormice are rare animals and have small populations in separated localities. Here D. nitedula and M. glis are at their most northern edge of distributional range. Reduction of the known localities for M. glis and E. quercinus is described. M. avellanarius, often found in bird nest boxes, is the most common Dormouse in western Latvia. Legal and practical aspects of dormice conservation, and the protection of habitats are discussed. Riassunto Mioxidi in Lettonia: lo stato attuale - Vengono descritti distribuzione e habitat di quattro specie di Mioxidi (Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula e Myoxus glis presenti in Lettonia. Questa ricerca è stata condotta come parte del progetto per un atlante dei mammiferi lettoni ed europei avviato nel 1991. La maggior parte delle informazioni riguardanti il periodo successivo a1 1970 deriva da questionari. In Lettonia i Mioxidi sono animali rari con piccole popolazioni in località distinte. La Lettonia rappresenta il margine settentrionale di distribuzione di D. nitedula e di M. glis. Viene descritta la riduzione di località note per M. glis e E. quercinus. M. avellanarius, spesso trovato in cassette nido per uccelli, è il Mioxide più comune nella Lettonia occidentale. Vengono discussi aspetti pratici e legali riguardanti la conservazione e la protezione degli habitats dei Mioxidi.

  19. Nontherapeutic Circumcision of Minors as an Ethically Problematic Form of Iatrogenic Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoboda, J Steven

    2017-08-01

    Nontherapeutic circumcision (NTC) of male infants and boys is a common but misunderstood form of iatrogenic injury that causes harm by removing functional tissue that has known erogenous, protective, and immunological properties, regardless of whether the surgery generates complications. I argue that the loss of the foreskin itself should be counted, clinically and morally, as a harm in evaluating NTC; that a comparison of benefits and risks is not ethically sufficient in an analysis of a nontherapeutic procedure performed on patients unable to provide informed consent; and that circumcision violates clinicians' imperatives to respect patients' autonomy, to do good, to do no harm, and to be just. When due consideration is given to these values, the balance of factors suggests that NTC should be deferred until the affected person can perform his own cost-benefit analysis, applying his mature, informed preferences and values. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Pages of the history of roentgenology and radiology in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemiro, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The history of roentgenology in Latvia is discussed singling out 3 periods in its development: 1) from the discovery of X-rays up to the Great October Socialist Revolution and the establishment of Soviet power in Latvia; 2) the bourgeois period in Latvia (1920-1940); 3) from the beginning of the Great Patriotic War to the present period. The paper is devoted to an analysis of the main historical events and facts pertaining to the formation and further development of roentgenology and radiology in Latvia. The role and importance of the roentgenology and radiology chair and the Republican roentgenoradiological center in the development of roentgenoradiology as independent clinical branches, training of specialists, the development and clinical application of present-day methods of radiation therapy are considered. The chief advances of Latvian radiologists and their contacts with leading specilaists are marked

  1. How Democratic is Latvia? Audit of Democracy 2005–2014

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The Audit of Democracy 2014 prepared within the scope of National Research Programme “National Identity”. Audit preparation and publication supported by the Friedrich Ebert Foundation and the United States Embassy in Latvia.

  2. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  3. The Colour Characteristics of Wool Dyed with Plants of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bernava, Aina

    2014-01-01

    Dyeing with natural dyes from plant and other organic sources is known since the prehistoric times. In Latvia, natural dyes have been used for the colouring of natural fibres, such as flax, wool, cotton, silk and leather. Plants for the dyeing were collected in autumn in Latvia, used fresh or dried. Mordant ferrous sulphate, copper sulphate pentahydrate, potassium hydroxide, potassium dichromate and acetic acid were used before, during and after dyeing. The quality of dye...

  4. Financial Literacy in Latvia: Defining the Concept and Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Lāce, N; Ciemleja, G; Titko, J

    2013-01-01

    One of the priorities of the National Development Plan of Latvia for 2014 – 2020 is citizens’ resilience, which is related to the human economic security. In turn, economic security implies that citizens have predictable and sufficient income. Thus, the issues of the improvement of financial literacy level in Latvia are emphasized at a government level. Despite the questions related financial literacy are frequently debated in the academic literature, there is no consistent approach to unders...

  5. Country policy profile - Latvia. August 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-08-01

    In Latvia, renewable electricity generation is stimulated through a complex support system based on a feed-in tariff, which also includes elements of a quota system and tenders. The existing feed-tariff is on hold until January 2016 due to concerns about corruption and a lack of transparency in the way it was carried out since 2007. The existing state support mechanisms for energy production from renewable energy resources are being assessed and revised. Stringent supervision of subsidized electricity producers, stricter controls and a limited timeframe for the implementation of RES projects has been introduced. At the same time, a new tax for subsidized electricity producers was introduced in January 2014. The tax should be paid by companies receiving financial support for power generation from renewable energy sources or from combined heat and power plants. Since 1 January 2014 RES-E is promoted also through net-metering. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is promoted through different tax benefits. Also the only incentive currently available for renewable energy sources in the transport sector is a tax regulation mechanism (source: RES-Legal Europe)

  6. Country policy profile - Latvia. October 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    In Latvia, renewable electricity generation is stimulated through a complex support system based on a feed-in tariff, which also includes elements of a quota system and tenders. The existing feed-tariff is on hold until January 2016 due to concerns about corruption and a lack of transparency in the way it was carried out since 2007. The existing state support mechanisms for energy production from renewable energy resources are being assessed and revised. Stringent supervision of subsidized electricity producers, stricter controls and a limited timeframe for the implementation of RES projects has been introduced. At the same time, a new tax for subsidized electricity producers was introduced in January 2014. The tax should be paid by companies receiving financial support for power generation from renewable energy sources or from combined heat and power plants. Since 1 January 2014 RES-E is promoted also through net-metering. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is promoted through different tax benefits. Also the only incentive currently available for renewable energy sources in the transport sector is a tax regulation mechanism (source: RES-Legal Europe)

  7. Country policy profile - Latvia. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    In Latvia, renewable electricity generation is stimulated through a complex support system based on a feed-in tariff, which also includes elements of a quota system and tenders. The existing feed-tariff is on hold until January 2016 due to concerns about corruption and a lack of transparency in the way it was carried out since 2007. The existing state support mechanisms for energy production from renewable energy resources are being assessed and revised. Stringent supervision of subsidized electricity producers, stricter controls and a limited timeframe for the implementation of RES projects has been introduced. At the same time, a new tax for subsidized electricity producers was introduced in January 2014. The tax should be paid by companies receiving financial support for power generation from renewable energy sources or from combined heat and power plants. Since 1 January 2014 RES-E is promoted also through net-metering. Heating and cooling from renewable energy sources is promoted through different tax benefits. Also the only incentive currently available for renewable energy sources in the transport sector is a tax regulation mechanism (source: RES-Legal Europe)

  8. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...-860; A-822-804; A-823-809; A- 841-804] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia... antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete reinforcing bars from Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova... orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia...

  9. PROBLEMS OF INTERPRETATION OF CRUELTY AND VIOLENCE TOWARDS MINOR IN CRIMINAL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Kipāne, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Violence and cruelty against children is not only problem in Latvia but it is also global problem. There is a special section in Latvian Criminal Law regarding to protection minor against cruel and violence. The article is devoted to the analysis of the corpus delicti of cruel towards and violence against a minor. The author has analysed difference between concepts cruelty treatment towards minor and violence against minor. The author of the paper came to conclusion that necessary condition f...

  10. REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS OF SMALL AND MEDIUMSIZED ENTERPRISES IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja Lace

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the achievements attained in recent years in the economic development of Latvia, until now Latvia’s regions demonstrate uneven development, which negatively impacts the development of small business. The development of the regional innovation environment will contribute to the enhancement of competitiveness of regional economies.

  11. Technical Assistance to Land Privatisation and Registration in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    The current situation on Photogrammetry, Digital Mapping and Land Information Systems is described concerning State Land Service in Latvia. The report lists achievements during the project period October 1996 – September 1998, in particular on staff training, production improvements and logistics....

  12. Economic crisis in the Baltic states : Focusing on Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyama Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of the economic crisis in new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on the Baltic States, especially Latvia. Thanks to the Single Market of the EU, workers in this country became able to migrate to advanced EU countries, especially the UK, decreasing the unemployment rate and at the same time causing a sharp increase in wages due to a tightened labour market. Banks from Nordic countries came to operate in Latvia and competed for market shares, stirring a consumption boom. In a situation in which people can easily get loans denominated in a foreign currency the monetary policies of the central bank are weakened. The Latvian economy already showed signs of overheating in 2005. However in the spring of 2007 the government turned to restrictive policies, causing a depression at the end of 2007. The Lehman shock dealt the Latvian economy its final blow. Latvia set up the introduction of the Euro in 2013 as an exit strategy. Latvia is in a dilemma: if the country does not devalue its national currency and tries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria soon, it will be obliged to adopt pro-cyclical policies, causing economic stagnation.

  13. Assessment of the Environmental Tax System in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurušs Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Environmental taxes should play an important part in environmental policy as they help to internalize externalities, reduce damage, and increase the quality of life; besides they allow raising revenue for national and local governments. The aim of this paper is to evaluate environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, equity impact, administrative feasibility and cost, and political acceptability of environmental (energy, transport, and natural-resource taxes in Latvia. The study is based on desk research. The results demonstrate little evidence that existing environmental taxes lead to a significant reduction in environmental pollution and waste flows, but they have a significant fiscal effect. Most of the environmental taxes in Latvia apply direct and indirect subsidies, but most of the revenue comes from taxes on energy and transport. Environmental tax rates in Latvia are the result of political compromise and are not backed by the research on environmental costs of the particular activity. This paper fills the gap in environmental policy evaluation by looking at the performance and effectiveness of environmental taxes in Latvia.

  14. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  15. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  16. Quality product of Latvia on threshold of the European Union

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti turundusnõukogu poolt loodud nn "rohelise lusika" logo, algselt "Quality product of Latvia" nime kandnud kaubamärgist, mis võimaldab märgistada kõrgekvaliteedilisi tooteid nende päritolu rõhutamata

  17. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunickis M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale.

  18. The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  19. The Review of Internet Marketing Use in Latvia's Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloka, Biruta; Kantane, Inara; Walczak, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Development of new technologies and increasing competition require new solutions in business applications in internet marketing and advertising. The paper deals with issues related to advertising activities in internet marketing. There were presented both theoretical findings and empirical analysis of the survey conducted among Latvia's companies.…

  20. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey in Latvia 1995/96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Based on Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry measurements performed with the Danish AGS equipment in 1995 and 1996 maps of the natural radioactivity have been produdced for selected areas in Latvia. The calibration of the quipment have been improved by comparisons with soil sample measurements....

  1. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavtchoutko, V; Vene, S; Haglund, M; Forsgren, M; Duks, A; Kalnina, V; Hörling, J; Lundkvist, A

    2000-02-01

    Viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) antigenic complex, within the family Flaviviridae, cause a variety of diseases including uncomplicated febrile illness, encephalitis, meningo-encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever and chronic disease in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife species. TBE is a serious problem in Latvia with up to a 1,000 patients confirmed serologically annually 1994-1995. No previous data had been reported on the causative agent of TBE in Latvia. In the present study, a virus was isolated from serum of a patient with clinical symptoms of an acute TBE infection. Nucleotide sequence information obtained by direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the serological characteristics of the isolated virus strain, designated TBE-Latvia-1-96, indicated a closer relationship to the Vasilchenko strain, isolated in Novosibirsk (Siberia, Russia), as compared to the western European or far eastern subtypes of TBE viruses. In a mouse neurovirulence assay, a significant difference in survival rates (days) was shown between Latvia-1-96 and the western European TBE virus subtype. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Physical Investment Financing: The Cases of Poland and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żak Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present and compare the major sources of financing of physical investments in Poland and Latvia and to attempt to identify their determinants. The subject of the diagnosis is the corporate sector in Poland and i Latvia in the years 2005-2015.The article uses methodology, developed by C. Mayer, J. Corbett and T. Jenkinson, that is based on the net sources of finance. The financial data analysed in the article come from the capital and financial accounts, constituting the element of the integrated system of national accounts. Assuming that in a given period of time, the sources of finance (revenue are equal to their use (expenditure, it is possible to estimate the structure of financing of physical investments in the corporate sector. The practical dimension of the analysis should be viewed as an indication for identifying changes in the area of financing of physical investments in enterprises in the two countries.

  3. Methodological and Technical Aspects of Power Sector Liberalisation of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, B.; Viksna, I.; Zeltinsh, N.

    2001-01-01

    A successful liberalisation of energy markets is taking place in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania), that is why it is important to investigate the methodological and technical aspects as well as the effect of this process upon the development of energy supply in the North European region. Energy supply to the Baltic countries is characterised by the fact that energy resources there are mainly supplied from the CIS, where there is a rather difficult prognostic energy market with sharp price fluctuations (sometimes supplies are completely cut). At the same time, by using the CIS energy resources, the development of the energy sector may significantly influence the total North European energy supplies. Energy saving measures and energy-efficient technologies in the following years will greatly influence energy market and energy consumption. This is an actual problem for such countries as Latvia, where the main part of its energy carriers is imported from neighbouring countries.(author)

  4. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakipova S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  6. Social Media Metrics Importance and Usage Frequency in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ronalds Skulme

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper was to explore which social media marketing metrics are most often used and are most important for marketing experts in Latvia and can be used to evaluate marketing campaign effectiveness. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the aim of this paper several theoretical and practical research methods were used, such as theoretical literature analysis, surveying and grouping. First of all, theoretical research about social media metrics was...

  7. Legal Regulation of Franchise in Latvia and Abroad

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Jarkina

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This doctoral thesis is a scientific study “Legal Regulation of Franchise in Latvia and Abroad” which analyses in detailed and systematic manner peculiarities and trends of development of legal franchise regulation in the countries of the world, as well as issues of legal qualification and content of the franchise agreement in the context of Romanic-Germanic system of law. The theoretical basis of the study is scientific works of renowned experts of law, articles...

  8. Internal audit in small local governments in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Faitusa, Ivita

    2017-01-01

    Research background The role of internal audit is to provide independent assurance that an organisation’s risk management, governance, and internal control processes are operating effectively. Purpose of the article The purpose of the article was to substantiate the significance of the internal audit function and the relationship between indicators in financial statement (revenue and balance sheet value) and the existence of the internal audit function in local governments in Latvia and to...

  9. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Henrijs Kaļķis

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  10. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Spalvēna

    2012-03-01

    I argue that the wedding ceremony reveals the shift from rites of passage to social distinction. This argument is developed by analysing how social and family relationships, value systems and the ethos as a whole have changed recently in Latvia. The use of the symbolic capacity of wedding food, denoting fertility and prosperity, provides the stability of the structure of the wedding feast, which also affects the structure of the marriage ceremony as a whole.

  11. Contemporary journalistic texts of Latvia in the discoursively cognitive aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Milevich, I.

    2010-01-01

    In article the questions devoted to methods of studying of modern publicism of Latvia are considered. The most effective method now admits discoursive various versions – discoursive functional, discoursive cognitive, and comparative discoursive cognitive a method of studying which answers problems of cognitive and pragmatical linguistics. The research of contrastive cognitive journalistic discourse corresponds with the assignments of the cognitive and pragmatic linguistic direction in describ...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL TERRITORIES IN LATVIA IMPLEMENTING TELEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Vītola, Alise; Baltiņa, Iveta; Ādamsone, Liena; Judrupa, Ilze; Šenfelde, Maija

    2013-01-01

    Population decline is taking place in rural areas in Latvia as well as in rural areas in Europe. There is a question of utmost importance - will people choose to live in the rural area doing remote work or will they choose the job in the towns. Increased pace of population declining is forecasted in the event of steady decreasing working places and services. Growing service costs per inhabitant may infl uence lowering of accessibility of some services in the territory. Till nowadays measureme...

  13. Social Media Metrics Importance and Usage Frequency in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds Skulme

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: The purpose of this paper was to explore which social media marketing metrics are most often used and are most important for marketing experts in Latvia and can be used to evaluate marketing campaign effectiveness. Methodology/methods: In order to achieve the aim of this paper several theoretical and practical research methods were used, such as theoretical literature analysis, surveying and grouping. First of all, theoretical research about social media metrics was conducted. Authors collected information about social media metric grouping methods and the most frequently mentioned social media metrics in the literature. The collected information was used as the foundation for the expert surveys. The expert surveys were used to collect information from Latvian marketing professionals to determine which social media metrics are used most often and which social media metrics are most important in Latvia. Scientific aim: The scientific aim of this paper was to identify if social media metrics importance varies depending on the consumer purchase decision stage. Findings: Information about the most important and most often used social media marketing metrics in Latvia was collected. A new social media grouping framework is proposed. Conclusions: The main conclusion is that the importance and the usage frequency of the social media metrics is changing depending of consumer purchase decisions stage the metric is used to evaluate.

  14. Agent-based and phylogenetic analyses reveal how HIV-1 moves between risk groups: injecting drug users sustain the heterosexual epidemic in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, Frederik; Leitner, Thomas; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2012-01-01

    Injecting drug users (IDU) are a driving force for the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia and other Baltic States, accounting for a majority of cases. However, in recent years, heterosexual cases have increased disproportionately. It is unclear how the changes in incidence patterns in Latvia can be explained, and how important IDU are for the heterosexual sub-epidemic. We introduce a novel epidemic model and use phylogenetic analyses in parallel to examine the spread of HIV-1 in Latvia between 1987 and 2010. Using a hybrid framework with a mean-field description for the susceptible population and an agent-based model for the infecteds, we track infected individuals and follow transmission histories dynamically formed during the simulation. The agent-based simulations and the phylogenetic analysis show that more than half of the heterosexual transmissions in Latvia were caused by IDU, which sustain the heterosexual epidemic. Indeed, we find that heterosexual clusters are characterized by short transmission chains with up to 63% of the chains dying out after the first introduction. In the simulations, the distribution of transmission chain sizes follows a power law distribution, which is confirmed by the phylogenetic data. Our models indicate that frequent introductions reduced the extinction probability of an autonomously spreading heterosexual HIV-1 epidemic, which now has the potential to dominate the spread of the overall epidemic in the future. Furthermore, our model shows that social heterogeneity of the susceptible population can explain the shift in HIV-1 incidence in Latvia over the course of the epidemic. Thus, the decrease in IDU incidence may be due to local heterogeneities in transmission, rather than the implementation of control measures. Increases in susceptibles, through social or geographic movement of IDU, could lead to a boost in HIV-1 infections in this risk group. Targeting individuals that bridge social groups would help prevent further spread of the

  15. Radiocarbon dating of floodplain and young terraces alluvial sediments of Latvia rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhards, G.; Saltupe, B.

    2000-01-01

    This paper include new information about alluvial sediments structure and radiocarbon data of some Latvia free-meandering rivers (Gauja, Ogre, Liela and Maza Jugla, Daugava) floodplains and first terraces. In this present study we examined Gauja river floodplains in the different geomorphological and geological areas. Radiocarbon dating add the fact that the high level floodplain (4-5 m) formation and sediment accumulation take place 3000-5000 years before present (BP) middle level floodplains formed 1500-2100 years BP. Investigations show that one river terraces and floodplains with same relative height have a several absolute age. The rivers crossed same hypsometrical regions (highlands, lowlands) downstream in lowlands alluvial terraces performed as floodplains or from from floodplains to terraces with same height. On the highest, middle and in the lower parts of the rivers with free - meandering channel to - day the dynamic balance of the channel processes exits 4000-5000 years. (author)

  16. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...-860; A-822-804; A-823-809; A- 841-804] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia... concrete reinforcing bars from Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic of China...-0371, respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete...

  17. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested party...

  18. Economic and technical factors affecting the development of decentralized CHP in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klavs, G.; Turlajs, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the development and usage of the Energy Flow Optimisation Model (EFOM-ENV) in Latvia. The model is used to analyze and evaluate different scenarios for the power sector development in Latvia. Important study objectives have been the penetration of the new technologies, and the impact of imported electricity price changes. (author)

  19. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  20. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  1. Climatic fluctuations and origin of sediments during Alleroed in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelle, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Alleroed sediments are known from more than 30 sites in Latvia, but usually each of them reflects incomplete part of this important interval within the Late-Glacial. The lithological and palinological record of stratigraphically complete sections (Lielauce a.o.) proves that Alleroed is not climatically homogeneous. Relative cooling had been observed in middle part (about 11500-11300 years ago) of this interval. The pollen and spore composition, the radiocarbon dates and the changes in lithology of sediments during Alleroed time are discussed. The entire Alleroed interval may be subdivided into three stratigraphic units: lower (AL-1), middle (AL-2) and upper (AL-3). (author)

  2. Influence of minor alloying additions on the glass-forming ability of Mg-Ni-La bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, S.; Figueroa, I.A.; Todd, I.

    2009-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses of Mg 60 Ni 23.6 Y x La (16.4-x) and Mg 65 Ni 20 Y x LaMM (15-x) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 at.% have been produced by injection casting. For the La-containing alloy a maximum amorphous diameter of 4 mm for x = 0.5 and 0.75 was obtained. The LaMM-containing alloy showed a maximum amorphous diameter of 2 mm for x = 0 and 0.25 but decreased to 1 mm with further Y additions. The glass-forming ability of the Mg 60 Ni 23.6 La 16.4 alloy decreased when La is partially substituted by small amounts of small atoms (Si or B) or by large atoms (Y and Si).

  3. Impact of Parents' Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity and Acculturation Strategies on Acculturation of Children in Russian Families in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko T.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of an empirical research on the relationship between motivation for ethnocultural continuity and acculturation strategies in ethnocultural minorities (with Russians in Latvia as an example. Since acculturation is a process that affects several generations, we adopted a research plan that involved representatives of two generations of a family (parents and children. 112 Russian families participated in the research (parents: N=112, age 35—59, Me=42; children: N=112, age 16—24, Me=17. A questionnaire we used included J. Berry's acculturation strategies, scales of satisfaction with life and oneself, and the Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity scale by C. Ward. The employed structural modeling revealed that acculturation strategies of the children correlate significantly with those of their parents as well as with their own motivation for ethnicultural continuity. The adolescents' choice of integration strategy is positively related to their satisfaction with themselves; however, in the cases of marginalization and assimilation this relation is negative.

  4. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  7. Level of occupational irradiation to medical personnel in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubatova, D.Ya.; Kostenko, I.V.; Nemiro, Ye.A.; Pustovit, I.A.; Semyonov, R.A.; Trautman, N.F. (Latvian Medical Academy, Riga (Latvia))

    1992-06-01

    An automated system for the recording and analysis of mass personal dosimetry data was developed. The results obtained with this system show that the average annual dose for X-ray laboratory assistants in Latvia gradually decreased before 1979 and that since then it has fluctuated without exceeding 5 mSv. The average annual dose for the republic's physicians has amounted to 4 mSv. The contribution of doses in excess of 15 mSv to the collective dose received by the republic's physicians has accounted for about 30 to 40%, which testifies to the fact that working conditons cannot be considered as being quite favourable; these conditions have to be further improved, and personal dosimetry of this category of personnel has to be conducted on a systematic basis. (orig.).

  8. Level of occupational irradiation to medical personnel in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gubatova, D.Ya.; Kostenko, I.V.; Nemiro, Ye.A.; Pustovit, I.A.; Semyonov, R.A.; Trautman, N.F.

    1992-01-01

    An automated system for the recording and analysis of mass personal dosimetry data was developed. The results obtained with this system show that the average annual dose for X-ray laboratory assistants in Latvia gradually decreased before 1979 and that since then it has fluctuated without exceeding 5 mSv. The average annual dose for the republic's physicians has amounted to 4 mSv. The contribution of doses in excess of 15 mSv to the collective dose received by the republic's physicians has accounted for about 30 to 40%, which testifies to the fact that working conditons cannot be considered as being quite favourable; these conditions have to be further improved, and personal dosimetry of this category of personnel has to be conducted on a systematic basis. (orig.) [de

  9. Landscape seasons and air mass dynamics in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauklis, A.; Draveniece, A.

    2004-01-01

    Latvia is located in the middle of an area where the boreal and nemoral zones and the regions of oceanic and continental climate meet, and it was studied as a model territory of the most typical variation of boreo-nemoral ecotone. The subject of this study was seasonal dynamics of the state of landscapes and diachronous links between seasons. It was found that landscapes undergo 12 seasonal states or seasons during the annual cycle of insulation and air mass occurrence. Each season may be distinguished by a definite amount of solar radiation, distinctive state of heat and water balance, phenological state of vegetation, and a distinctive occurrence of different air mass types and their particular 'association'. During each season these variables show a particular combination of numerical values and a distinctive landscape pattern

  10. Demonstration of energy audit at Zunda Riga, Latvia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    An energy audit at the furniture factory Zunda in Riga, Latvia has been made. The overall purpose of the project was to demonstrate the entire process of an energy audit in Latvia. The greatest potential for energy savings lies in the wood drying process. Whilst the existing drying chambers are old, worn out and without any controlling devices, rather large savings can be obtained by installing new drying chambers. Further, new chambers would be easier to control and therefore the output, the dried wood, would have a better and more stabile quality than it is the case for the time being. The analyses indicate that the energy consumption for wood drying could be reduced to just 1/3 of the present level. The evaluation of this has been supported by a financial analysis which indicates the financial benefits from investing in new drying chambers. Further, the project has covered the newly installed boilers based on wood waste from the production. The issue was whether these boilers can supply enough energy to eliminate the purchase of surplus energy from an adjacent factory. The result of this assessment shows that it will only be necessary to buy heat for a very short period of time each year. The project also dealt with the compressed air system. The conclusion is that savings can be obtained rather easily through a systematic maintenance where holes are located and fixed, in order to reduce the considerable loss from the system. In this way, the power consumption for the compressors are expected to drop. As concerns the ventilating systems at Zunda, it is concluded that the efficiency of the exhaust ventilators could be improved by a systematic maintenance process, where holes in the ducts are located and fixed. (LN)

  11. The unfortunate generation: stroke survivors in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKevitt, Christopher; Luse, Agita; Wolfe, Charles

    2003-05-01

    The poor health status of citizens in post-Soviet states has been reported but few studies have investigated the illness experiences of people in those countries. This paper reports findings from an interview study conducted with stroke patients in Riga, Latvia, who were part of a cohort recruited over 1 year for a European study comparing the provision of care, outcomes and resource use. The interview study aimed to elicit stroke patients' own perceptions of the impact of stroke 1 year after the event. Adopting a phenomenological perspective we illustrate how the particular social setting shapes stroke as an illness, its influences on access to health care and on consideration of the impact of stroke. We argue that for stroke survivors and their relatives in post-Soviet Latvia this disorder acquires a meaning that transcends the individual biography and signifies an upheaval of social life in general. The meanings attributed to stroke by interviewees are developed in the context of the momentous recent historical events which participants lived through. In this sense, stroke has become an idiom of a disruption in social biography rather than individual biography alone. Most participants were pensioners and their main concern was their own poverty. Some complained of their inability to meet their basic needs, much less pay for on-going medication and therapy. Only one person was 'severely disabled', using a standard neurological definition, but about half of those interviewed regarded the stroke as a sign foretelling their own death. Although this generation had expected to be cared for in their older age under the Soviet regime, the much longed for Latvian independence was seen to have brought unexpected hardships for those who were old and sick.

  12. The development of the nuclear physics in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmanis, U.

    2003-01-01

    The history of the nuclear physics (NP) in Latvia begun in the 50-ies of the past century and is associated with the Institute of Physics (IP) Latvian Academy of Science. The plan of 1952 has contained theoretical works about interaction of elementary particles (P.Kunin and I.Taksar), the use of radioactive isotopes as 'labelled atoms' in industry (the marketing of steel tapes) and other topics. During 1952-1955 in the IP as the leader of NP works has been Arshavir Karamyan, scientific worker of D.Mendeleev All-Union Research Institute of Metrology in St.Petersburg (then Leningrad). He has been also scientific supervisors of the IP scientist Peteris Prokofjevs post-graduate studies in St.Petersburg on 1952-1956. The theme of this thesis was related with the construction of magnetic gamma-spectrometer. During the period 195-1957 the practical use of radioisotopes as labelled atoms and sources of ionising radiation has been developed in laboratory of radioactive methods in automation (leader V.Janushkovskii). At that time different apparatus with radioisotopes for counting of things, regulation of temperature, current, voltage, measure of different liquid levels etc. have been well known in the world (exhibitions, international conferences). The other, isotope laboratory (leader J.Chudars) was connected with research in nuclear spectroscopy and interaction of radiation with matter problems: construction of gamma- and beta spectrometers, gamma-gamma and gamma-beta coincidence schemes, measure of decay schemes of different radioisotopes (L. Pelekis, J.Chudars, I.Taure, L.Bambe) measure of periods of half-decay (V.Breslav) and the gamma-ray scattering in materials (U.Ulmanis and N.Dubinska). The next stage of the development of nuclear physics in Latvia is connected with the research nuclear reactor in Salaspils. (author)

  13. Japanese tourists in Finland, Estonia and Latvia – a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Suvanto, Hannele; Sudakova, Lea; Kattai, Kaili; Grīnberga-Zālīte, Gunta; Bulderberga, Zane

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of this literature survey, it can be concluded that the following points are especially interesting from the perspective of rural tourism in Finland, Estonia and Latvia. Characteristics of Japanese tourists Most spend a lot of money but have a short time to spend it. Men have especially short holidays, staying around three nights. The location of Finland is crucial (airport in Helsinki and stopovers) and proximity to Estonia and Latvia convenient. Travel is mainly...

  14. Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspars Zellis

    2011-01-01

    Annotation Doctoral thesis „Propaganda of the Occupation Regime of National Socialistic Germany in Latvia (1941-1945)” presents analysis of Nazi propaganda towards people of Latvia during the World War II. The analysis covers the institutions of propaganda and the main channels of propaganda – media, radio, cinema etc. The content of propaganda has been analyzed in the research as well. The thesis deals with the issue of propaganda of integration, the main goal of which was creating a n...

  15. Consistency Analysis and Data Consultation of Gas System of Gas-Electricity Network of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemite, L.; Kutjuns, A.; Bode, I.; Kunickis, M.; Zeltins, N.

    2018-02-01

    In the present research, the main critical points of gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been determined to ensure secure and reliable gas supply among the Baltic States to fulfil the core objectives of the EU energy policies. Technical data of critical points of the gas transmission and storage system of Latvia have been collected and analysed with the SWOT method and solutions have been provided to increase the reliability of the regional natural gas system.

  16. Nettle Fibers as a Potential Natural Raw Material for Textile in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Baltiņa, I; Lapsa, L; Jankauskiene, Z; Gruzdeviene, E

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, attention is devoted to the methods of obtaining nettle fibers for technical textiles. Several new nettle plant clones have been created. From wild nettles they differ in the higher number of fibers. The nettle can be grown for 10 – 15 years in one place without much care. The wild nettle grows in Latvia very well. Therefore, the task has been to determine the possibility of cultivating nettle in Latvia for fiber needs. It has been determined that the obtained ...

  17. Promoting interculturalism through art education : a case study Portugal and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Esho, Deborah Mofoluwani, 1984-

    2015-01-01

    This study examines art student’s awareness, understanding and practices of intercultural art education in higher institution of art. Specifically, the research focused on Art Academy of Latvia, Riga. The purpose was to promote “interculturalism’’ among students and to acquaint them with the knowledge and skills of developing and reflecting on their cultural values and that of others’. For 10 weeks, 7 students in the Art Academy of Latvia explored the Traditional African Ceramics. My research...

  18. Cystic form of paraduodenal pancreatitis (cystic dystrophy in heterotopic pancreas (CDHP)): a potential link with minor papilla abnormalities? A study in a large series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.; Ronot, M.; Vilgrain, V. [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Paris (France); Vullierme, M.P. [University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Radiology Department, Beaujon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France); Rebours, V.; Ruszniewski, P. [Paris Diderot University, INSERM, UMR 1149, Paris (France); University Hospitals Paris Nord Val de Seine, Gastroenterology Department, Beaujon Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Clichy (France)

    2016-01-15

    To analyze the association between cystic dystrophy in the heterotopic pancreas (CDHP) and minor papilla abnormalities. Seventy-six patients with CDHP were retrospectively included over 14 years. Two radiologists searched for MDCT signs of CDHP (cysts and thickened intestinal wall, inflammatory changes), and minor papilla abnormalities (Santorini duct dilatation, luminal calcifications of the minor papilla). Other pancreatic abnormalities (parenchymal calcifications, main pancreatic duct dilatation) or bile duct dilatation were also analysed. CDHP was mostly located in the second part of the duodenum (71/76, 93.5 %). Median duodenal wall thickness was 20 mm (range 10-46). There were multiple cysts in 86 % (65/76, median = 3), measuring 2-60 mm. No cysts were identified in four patients (5 %). Inflammatory changes were found in 87 % (66/76). Minor papilla abnormalities were found in 37 % (28/76) and calcifications in the minor papilla without calcifications in the major papilla were only observed in three patients (4 %). Abnormalities of the pancreas and main bile duct dilatation were identified in 78 % (59/76) and 38 % (29/76). Previously described CT features were seen in most patients with CDHP. However, minor papilla abnormalities were seen in a minority of patients and, therefore, do not seem to be a predisposing factor for CDHP. (orig.)

  19. Relationship between Trust and Acculturation Attitudes (With Ukrainians in Russia and Russians in Latvia as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarko A.N.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the relationship between various types of trust and acculturation strategies (according to J. Berry’s model in ethnic minorities and migrants. Trust is a major resource both of an individual and society. On the individual level it is considered as a component of the social psychological capital of personality, and on the societal level — as a core part of the social capital of the society. This study aimed to test the assumption that generalized trust in migrants or minorities is related to their preferred acculturation strategies and that this relationship is mediated by more particular types of trust, such as trust in representa- tives of own ethnic group and trust in representatives of other ethnic groups. The study involved Russians living in Riga, Latvia (N=336 and Ukrainian migrants who have been living in Moscow for approximately 1,5 years (N=80. The outcomes show that generalized trust and trust in representative of non-ethnic groups correlate with the choice of acculturation strategies aimed at integration with the society. Trust in representatives of own ethnic group correlates positively with the choice of the “Separation” strategy.

  20. Factors Influencing Customer Trust in Mobile Banking: Case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvarciany Viktorija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking sector has developed and extended the use of its services in the past decade. In fact, nowadays mobile banking (M-banking is the most developing service offered by a bank. In order to encourage customers to use m-banking services, it is extremely important to get clients to trust the M-banking services provided by the bank. This article discusses private clients’ trust in mobile banking in Latvia. Hence, the goal of the research is to identify the key factors driving individual customer’s confidence in mobile banking. In order to determine the weight of each factor, expert evaluation method based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used. The results showed that the most vital factor affecting private clients’ trust in mobile banking is customer characteristics, especially customers’ computer literacy. However, after summarizing all the subfactors, it became clear that the most powerful in the trust-building process is convenience/practicality of using a mobile application. However, there is a limitation – the survey was conducted by interviewing experts, which means that the results may differ from the responses of the clients themselves.

  1. Meat and Meat Product Consumption among Infants in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Širina Inga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumption during the first year of life is especially important to provide necessary iron requirements. The aim of the study was to assess meat and meat product consumption of Latvian infants during their first year of life, in relation to different factors. Data were collected by interview method using two types of questionnaires: food frequency questionnaires and food diary. The study included a representative sample of infants and toddlers from all regions of Latvia with a target sample of 560 participants. The study included 266 infants: 127 girls, 139 boys, aged from 0 to 12 month. Data were summarised using the Excel software and analysed using the SPSS software. For data analysis two age groups were created: 0–5.9 months and 6–12 months. Consumption was analysed by two parameters: frequency and amount per feeding. Meat products were defined as offal products, sausages, and meat in baby food. Meat was mainly consumed after 6 months of age and by 73% of infants (n = 107. Meat from baby food was consumed only after 6 months and by 23% (n = 34. Sausages and offal products were consumed after 6 months of age. Sausages were consumed by 18% (n = 28 and offal products by 11% (n = 16 of infants. Meat consumption for the majority of infants was introduced after 6 months and was in accordance with recommendations.

  2. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  3. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  4. Thyroid disorders in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Orlikovs, G.; Ritenberga, R.; Skudra, M.; Lemane, R.; Lemanis, A.; Curbakova, E.; Groma, V.; Socnevs, A.

    1999-01-01

    The condition of thyroid was examined in 2188 Chernobyl clean-up workers residing in Latvia and a control group consisting of 1041 employees of the Ministry of International Affairs. Thyroid examinations included palpation, ultrasonography, selective scintigraphy and detection of the level of thyroid hormones in blood serum:L STH (thyroid-stimulating hormone), total T3 (triiodothyronine), and T4 (thyroxine). Thyroid was registered in 394 Chernobyl clean-up workers. Of these cases, 28 patients with suspected thyroid cancer were operated, and morphological examinations revealed papillary adenocarcinoma (in 5 patients), follicular adenocarcinoma (2), nodular colloid goiter (16); toxic diffuse goiter (1), papillary-follicular adenoma (3), and chronic thyroiditis (1). It was determined that the thyroid pathology in the Chernobyl clean-up workers had a tendency to progress (27 cases in 1987 versus 394 cases in 1998 in total; and absence of thyroid cancer in 1987, compared with 7 cases in 1998); thyroid nodules increased twice (64 cases in 1997, compare with 126 cases in 1998). (author)

  5. Upgrading of radon's type near surface repository in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenkovs, A.

    2006-01-01

    In 1959, the Soviet government decided to construct the near surface radioactive wastes repository 'Radons' near the Baldone city. It was put in operation in 1962. The changes in the development of the repository were induced by the necessarily to upgrade it for disposal of radioactive wastes from the decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR). The safety assessment of repository was performed during 2000-2001 under the PHARE project for necessary upgrades of repository. The outline design for new vaults and interim storage for long lived radioactive wastes was elaborated during 2003-2004 years. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for upgrade of Baldone repository was performed during 2004-2005 years. It was found, that additional efforts must be devoted for solution of social aspects o for successful operation and upgrade of repository. It was shown by EIA, that the local population has a negative opinion against the upgrade of repository in Latvia. The main recommendations for upgrades were connected with increasing the safety of repository, increasing of PR activities for education of society and developing of compensation mechanism for local municipality. (author)

  6. Communication of 16 September 1997 from the government of the Republic of Latvia to the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of a note verbale dated 16 September 1997 received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia providing information about the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of Latvia

  7. Returns to Education During and After the Economic Crisis: Evidence from Latvia 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilerts Karlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We employ EU-SILC micro data for Latvia to study how returns to education changed during the economic crisis of 2008–2009 and afterwards. We found that returns to education increased significantly during the crisis and decreased slightly during the subsequent economic recovery. The counter-cyclical effect was evident in nearly all population groups. After the crisis, education became more associated than before with a longer working week and a higher employment probability. Furthermore, we show that returns to education in Latvia are generally higher in the capital city and its suburbs than outside the capital city region, as well as for citizens of Latvia than for resident non-citizens and citizens of other countries, but lower for males and young people. Wage differential models reveal a relatively large wage premium for higher education and a rather small one for secondary education. Estimates obtained with instrumental variable (IV models significantly exceed the OLS estimates.

  8. Critical Aspects of Cultural Diversity in Music Education: Examining the Established Practices and Cultural Forms in Minority Language Schools in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikka, Jan-Erik; Westvall, Maria; Heimonen, Marja

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses the role of general music education within the framework of cultural diversity. The empirical part of the article focuses on teachers in Swedish-speaking minority schools in Finland and their perceptions of the relationship between music and multicultural perspectives. The results showed that in some instances it took some…

  9. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    result of research by the Institute of Horticulture: 1 new local breeding fruit crop cultivars were obtained and recommended for commercial orchards; variety testing including growing technologies was initiated in different regions of Latvia; 2 monitoring of harmful and favourable organisms was conducted in plantations, with development of a system for prognosis and control; and 3 research results were transferred to growers through practical recommendations, publications, seminars and demonstrations.

  10. Family Background, School Quality and Rural-Urban Disparities in Student Learning Achievement in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Andrejs; Grinfelds, Andris; Dedze, Indra; Zhang, Yanhong

    2006-01-01

    Over the course of the fifteen years since 1991, Latvia has been undergoing rapid political changes from a party controlled state to a market economy. These changes have affected the system of education. The issue of quality and equity of educational outcomes is gaining increasing importance as schools are expected to adjust to the new economic…

  11. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar... Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4409 (July 2013), entitled Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar from...

  12. 77 FR 39254 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus, China, Indonesia...

  13. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ...)] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  14. Medical and social consequences of low doses of radiation for the population of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoi, V.

    1997-01-01

    About 6000 people involved in the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and family members evacuated from Pripyat settled in Latvia. Although exposed to doses not exceeding 25cGy, an increasing number of diseases leading to invalidity and mortality of liquidators is noted. The symptoms of the various medical disorders being observed are described. (author)

  15. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  16. Insufficient control of heart rate in stable coronary artery disease patients in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Balode

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Despite the wide use of beta-blockers, HR is insufficiently controlled in the analyzed sample of stable CAD patients in Latvia. Target HR ≤60 bpm is achieved only in 25% of the patients while more than one third have increased HR ≥70 bpm.

  17. Rol' tranzita v jekonomike Latvii [The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  18. Female all cancer incidence in medical radiation workers in Latvia 1982-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matisane, L.; Carpenter, L.; Venables, K.

    2005-01-01

    Medical radiation workers belong to one of the oldest occupational groups exposed to external radiation. Since the various radiological protection recommendations have been introduced, now ths process has resulted in low-dose exposure, regular monitoring of exposure and establishment of national dose registration bodies. In order to provide additional information to studies on cancer incidence among medical radiation workers (specially female workers) and in order to assess all cancer incidence in female medical radiation workers in Latvia, a retrospective cohort study based on the National Dose Register was set up in Latvia. The study cohort consisted of all workers employed in health care, occupationally exposed to ionising radiation for more than one year in any of the public health care establishments in Latvia, except military ones, between 1 January 1972 and 1 January 2002 and who were registered in the National Dose Register of Latvia. The cohort consisted of 1416 female medical radiation workers either in hospitals or outpatient departments, or both. The cohort included diagnostic and therapeutic radiologists with predominantly medical qualification, it also included radiotechnologits, nurses, junior nurses, but it did not include academic, physicists and dentists. In all cases the calculated SIR was over than expected or close to expected. Several major differences in study design makes ir difficult to compare the results of this study with the results of the studies carried out in other countries

  19. Holistic Approach as Viewed by the Basic School Teachers in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjanova, Jelena; Iliško, Dzintra

    2015-01-01

    The article points to new competencies required from basic school teachers, reinforced by the reform processes in the educational system in Latvia, the quality assurance of educational process, and modernisation and critical re-evaluation of educational materials and standards. The authors view sustainability as an integral part of reform…

  20. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LEADING PORTS OF LATVIA: COMPETITIVENESS OF LIEPAJA PORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diāna Līduma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 10 operating ports in Latvia and 3 of them – Liepaja, Ventspils and Riga ports are regarded as the leading commercial ports. Role of port operation in the economics of region and country is essential from the point of view of employment and entrepreneurship. This is based with data on investment of operation of Latvian ports in GDP, on average it is assessed to be 5-7% annually. In the context of employment, Liepaja Port gives work to 6.9% of human resources of the city. However, concern about the competitiveness of Liepaja Port influenced by the proximity of more developed competitive ports, technical possibilities of the port and dynamics of freight turnover has occurred in recent years. Therewith in framework of this article in the context of such criteria as location of ports and their technical parameters, volumes of freight, specialization and costs of ports, the operation of leading ports of Latvia is intercompared and analyzed by clarifying whether Liepaja Port is competitive among other ports of Latvia. Opinions of port experts on perspectives of port development and statistical data of ports from 2011-2013 are analyzed within the framework of the article. The aim of the research is to clarify the comparative advantages of ports of Latvia. The research revealed that the provision of competitiveness of Liepaja Port is to be related with application of the available free territories, advantages of location in relation to the Scandinavian market, and the necessity to develop the cooperation among ports of Latvia to offer joint freight acquisition, distributions and unified logistics solution and strengthen the position of ports in the circumstances of international competition.

  1. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  2. Uncertainties and Solutions Related to Use of WRB (2007) in the Boreo-nemoral zone, Case of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Rolavs, Nauris

    2014-05-01

    Relatively high diversity of soils groups according to the WRB (2007) classification is observed in forest ecosystems in the boreo-nemoral zone in Latvia. This is due to the geological genesis of area and environmental conditions (Kasparinskis, Nikodemus, 2012), as well as historical land use and management (Nikodemus et al., 2013). Due to the relatively young soils, Albic, Spodic and Cambic horizons are relatively weakly expressed in many cases. Relatively well developed Albic horizons occur in sandy forest soils, but unusually well expressed Spodic features are observed. In some cases there is a Cambic horizon, however location of Cambisols in the WRB (2007) soil classification sequence does not provide an opportunity to classify these soils as Cambisols, but they are classified as Arenosols. This sequence does not reflect the logical sheme of soil development, and therefore raises the question about location of Podzols, Arenosols and Cambisols in the sequence of WRB (2007) soil classification. Soils with two parent materials (abrupt textural change) are relatively common in Latvia, where conceptually on the small scale mapping results in classification as the soil group Planosols, but in many cases there is occurrence of Fluvic materials, as parent material in the upper part of the soil profile is formed by Baltic Ice lake sandy sediments - this leads to question about the location of Fluvisols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. Soil research has found cases, where a relatively well developed Spodic horizon was established as the result of ground water table depth in areas of abrupt textural change. In this case the profile corresponds to the soil group of Podzols, however in some cases - Gleysols not Planosols due to a high ground water table. Therefore there is a need for discussion also about the location of Podzols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. The above mentioned questions raise

  3. Anticipated future of Latvia and Russia during a global economic crisis: A mixed methods perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesovs Aleksandrs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study explored subjective predictors of more positive evaluation of the future of the country during a global socioeconomic crisis. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen for an exploration of students’ expectations in Russia and Latvia as countries contrasting in macro-contextual conditions. In 2009, Study 1 was designed as a thematic analysis of essays on topic “The Future of Latvia/Russia”. The results demonstrated that the future of a country is anticipated by taking into account external influences, the present of the country, and its perceived power and stability. In 2011, Study 2 involved these themes as independent variables in a multiple regression model. The results demonstrated that positive evaluation of the present and higher perceived power of the country are individuallevel predictors of more positive evaluation of its future. Observed concordance of models indicates relatively high importance of subjective view of the country in the changing world.

  4. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers.

  5. Significance of hidden advertising of the media business models in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Rožukalne, Anda

    2012-01-01

    Since 2002 parliamentary and municipal elections in Latvia, media content researches have shown a considerable amount of hidden advertising: media publish information that is paid-for, yet not identified as advertising, assigning this information with the qualities of independent content, therefore misleading its audience. In order to analyze this practice, a research was commissioned to find out why Latvian media publish hidden advertising, what is the force behind this practice, who are com...

  6. Investigation on the essential mineral element contentents of cultivated and wild blueberry fruits in latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Pormale, Jolanta; Osvalde, Anita; Karlsons, Andis

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. Wild blueberry (Vaccinium murtillus) is one of the most popular wild-harvested fruit in Latvia, traditionally used in folk-medicine and food. Unfortunately there are wide fluctuations in yields. The recent years mark a tr...

  7. U.S. Foreign Policy Towards Latvia During the Inter-War Period, 1917- 1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Latvia. and Lithuania in Lhe Twentieth Century. New York: Longman, 1991. Hixson, Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia...Walter L. George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast . New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Hodgson, Godfrey. The Colonel: The Life and Wars of...Cold War Iconoclast (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), 7. 64 The Russian Section furnished the State Department with considerable evidence that

  8. DESIGN AND LICENSING TRENDS OF THE GENERAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mihailovs, Ivans Jānis; Krūmiņa, Aira Aija

    2016-01-01

    The general education program designing and licensing trends in Latvia in the period from 2010 to 2014 are analyzed in the article. Based on the general education program licensing data, it found that there isn’t a trend to license author’s program in primary education, while the secondary level of education author's programs are designed and licensed more often. The fact that primary education is more licensed programs in mathematics, science and technology, but in general secondary educatio...

  9. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  10. A profile of traumatic spinal cord injury and medical complications in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Nulle, Anda; Tjurina, Uljana; Erts, Renars; Vetra, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Study design A single centre retrospective study. Objectives To collect data and analyse the epidemiological profile of traumatic spinal cord injury and its medical complications during the subacute rehabilitation period. Setting Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Programme of the National Rehabilitation Centre, ‘Vaivari’, Jurmala, Latvia. Methods Information was collected in 2015 from the medical records of 134 patients with a traumatic spinal cord injury admitted for primary rehabilitation b...

  11. Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Kazaka, Olga

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the framework of the doctoral thesis „Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)” a new theoretical approach to corporate communication in social media was developed which will help companies to successfully organize their communication with target publics in social media and will provide a new social media investigation tool for the researchers. An added communicative value model was developed by the author in the framework of the new t...

  12. The Challenges for Real Estate Mass Valuation and Taxation System for the Economic Stabilization of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Barvika, S; Rausis, A; Geipele, I

    2012-01-01

    The real estate tax policy, as well as a massive reform in the real estate mass valuation was among major reforms of the Latvian government in the financial crisis management plan. These reforms were supported by the International Monetary Fund and European Commission. One of the directions for economic recovery suggested by the lenders to Latvia was a reform of taxation system including reviewing of stagnated real property tax principles. This reform met total critici...

  13. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhiqian Yu; Dalia Streimikiene; Tomas Balezentis; Rimantas Dapkus; Radislav Jovovic; Veselin Draskovic

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sect...

  14. SEBACEOUS CYSTS MINOR SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Agung Laksemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Minor surgery is small surgery or localized example cut ulcers and boils, cyst excision, and suturing. Somethings that need to be considered in the preparation of the surgery is minor tools, operating rooms and operating tables, lighting, maintenance of tools and equipment, sterilization and desinfection equipment, preparation of patients and anesthesia. In general cysts is walled chamber that consist of fluid, cells and the remaining cells. Cysts are formed not due to inflammation although then be inflamed. Lining of the cysts wall is composed of fibrous tissue and usually coated epithelial cells or endothelial. Cysts formed by dilated glands and closed channels, glands, blood vessels, lymph channels or layers of the epidermis. Contents of the cysts wall consists of the results is serum, lymph, sweat sebum, epithelial cells, the stratum corneum, and hair. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  15. An overview of the digital publishing market in Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arūnas Gudinavičius

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze several aspects of digital publishing markets in Baltic countries. Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have their own languages, so there are three different publishing markets. Results show that there are significant differences in the number of available titles, despite the fact that the Baltic e-book market is relatively new. The research on e-book sales identified the main e-book retailers and publishers in Baltic countries. E-books in Lithuanian, Latvian and Estonian available on sale were counted and the differences between e-book formats and the pricing in each country were established. The results showed that the smallest Baltic country, Estonia, has more e-books on sale than both Latvia and Lithuania. It is difficult to say if Latvia even has an e-book market at all. Lithuania is somewhere in the middle. Finally, an overview of the largest retailers and publishers is provided and overall publishing dynamics within the past 20 years is described.

  16. Quality benchmarking methodology: Case study of finance and culture industries in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zemīte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political, socio-economic and cultural changes that have taken place in the world during the last years have influenced all the spheres. Constant improvements are necessary to sustain in rival and shrinking markets. This sets high quality standards for the service industries. Therefore it is important to conduct comparison of quality criteria to ascertain which practices are achieving superior performance levels. At present companies in Latvia do not carry out mutual benchmarking, and as a result of that do not know how they rank against their peers in terms of quality, as well as they do not see benefits in sharing of information and in benchmarking.The purpose of this paper is to determine the criteria of qualitative benchmarking, and to investigate the use of the benchmarking quality in service industries, particularly: finance and culture sectors in Latvia in order to determine the key driving factors of quality, to explore internal and foreign benchmarks, and to reveal the full potential of inputs’ reduction and efficiency growth for the aforementioned industries.Case study and other tools are used to define the readiness of the company for benchmarking. Certain key factors are examined for their impact on quality criteria. The results are based on the research conducted in professional associations in defined fields (insurance and theatre.Originality/value – this is the first study that adopts the benchmarking models for measuring quality criteria and readiness for mutual comparison in insurance and theatre industries in Latvia.

  17. Characteristic Features of Publications on Architectural Competition Practice in Latvia, 1859–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Leitāne-Šmīdberga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition practice has been rather extensively published, as publications on architectural competitions are inseparable from the competition process itself. They are a significant part of representation that explicitly promotes understanding of the design, realization and implementation process, and are a way to communicate the project to the client, jury, community and authorities. Yet, there have always been insufficient consistent critical discussions on the architecture and planning discourse in Latvia, neither on competitions, nor on the related publications. The purpose of the paper is to distinguish features that characterize publications on architectural competitions in Latvia. Methodological principles and systematization of the materials have been carried out according to the historical and logical approach method based on studies of the collected examples and sources of over 1,000 publications on 960 competitions of the past 160 years. The paper systematizes publications on competition practice over the several time periods in Latvia (Russian Empire 1859–1918, Independence 1918–34, Authoritarian Regime 1934–40, Soviet Period 1940–90 and the Second Independence 1991–2013 according to their topics, the author’s professional profiles, type and content and, eventually their characteristic style. Insights into the development of local competition practice through related publications help to explain the formation of a significant part of the local architectural and urban discourse, as its understanding is partially determined by the plurality of representations and interpretations.

  18. Knowledge of the Importance of Iodine in Nutrition among Adults in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciekure Elīna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO states that it is essential for people to understand what constitutes a healthy diet and to know how to use their resources in the most effective way. Iodine is an essential nutrient for mammals, required as a mandatory structural and functional element of thyroid hormones. Previous studies in Latvia highlighted a tendency of reduced level of iodine for newborns, school-age children and pregnant women. No studies in the general adult population had been conducted yet. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of knowledge regarding the role of iodine in nutrition in the adult population of Latvia. In total 199 adults participated in the survey. Data on the knowledge about the occurrence of iodine in nature and foodstuffs, the role of iodine in nutrition, and its deficiency were obtained. Results of the survey showed that only 4.5% of respondents used iodised salt daily in the diet. One-fourth knew that iodine is widely found in the environment and more than one-third knew all of the main functions of iodine in the human body. Salt and sea food were mentioned as the most common iodine sources. While iodised salt is used rarely, public awareness about the role of iodine is good and potential iodine deficiency in Latvia is likely due to unbalanced diet rather than lack of knowledge.

  19. Minority Games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, R

    2005-01-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG when

  20. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  1. Minority Games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, R [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2005-02-25

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players-Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang-have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the 'physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the 'stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the

  2. Smoking and attitudes towards it and its cessation among dental students in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jorma I; Filppula, Maarit; Maldupa, Ilze; Patja, Kristiina

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of smoking is higher in Latvia than in most EU countries. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge of dental students in Latvia about the effects of smoking on oral health and their attitudes toward smoking and its cessation. A cross-sectional survey among all the dental students in Latvia was conducted in 2011. Students at the Riga Stradins University were asked to participate in this anonymous, voluntary survey. The questionnaire included items concerned with the students' own smoking habits, their knowledge of smoking as an addiction and its health effects and their attitudes towards its prevention and cessation in a dental setting. The response rate was 87% (173/200). The Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for the statistical analyses. About one quarter of the students (24%) were daily or occasional smokers and almost half of the male students (46%) had smoked at least 100-times in their lifetime. The students revealed a lack of knowledge about the addictive nature of smoking, in that about half of the students did not consider smoking physically or socially addictive. About one fifth (21.4%) didn't consider environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) harmful to one's health. Although the students' awareness of smoking improved during their studies, the most significant factor related to their knowledge was their own smoking history (OR=2.7; p=0.021). Smoking was frequent among undergraduate dental students and they lacked knowledge of its addictiveness. More emphasis ought to be placed on education with regard to smoking and on cessation services.

  3. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  4. Importance of the Marine Cadastre in the Development of the Real Estate Industry in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Stāmure, I; Kaminskis, J; Kowalczyk, K

    2017-01-01

    In Latvia, the issues of the Real Estate Cadastre are arranged; however, it should be noted that part of the issues affecting the Baltic Sea, i.e., the issues of the Marine Cadastre, are not covered by the Real Estate Cadastre. The status of the Baltic coastline is an essential element of infrastructure for all countries around the Baltic Sea. This baseline serves as the key element or reference for the Marine Cadastre. In place-to-place, this line is the dynamic element as it is possible ...

  5. Thyroid Nodularity and cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurjane, N.; Farbtuha, T.; Matisane, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on April 26, 1986, resulted in massive radioactive contamination of the surrounding area. Radiation exposure was from rapidly decaying radioactive iodines, as well as from 137 CS and other long-lived radioisotopes. About 6000 clean-up workers of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident were from Latvia. External radiation exposure was defined for 40% of them and the doses were 0.01-0.5 Grey (Gy). Although according to conclusions of authoritative experts of different countries, the actual doses of radiation might be at least 3-4 times higher. Because the thyroid is highly susceptible to cancer induction by ionizing radiation, our examination was conducted in 2001 to determine the prevalence of thyroid tumors in 1990-2000 and other nodular thyroid disease 14 years after the accident in Latvia's Chernobyl clean-up workers. The Latvian State Register for persons who have received ionising radiation in Chernobyl and Latvia's Cancer Register were used in this work as well as 1000 Chernobyl accident clean-up workers medical ambulatory cards were analysed. We have received that occurrence of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers was 10,6 times higher than in Latvia's population (men) in 1990-2000 and also it occurs at earlier age in comparison with population data (40-50 and 55-65 accordingly). This can be explained in two ways: either due to effect of the short-term or long-term external and internal radiation exposure (including, from the incorporated 131 I) on the thyroid tissue, or due to a better dispensarisation (obligatory thyroid ultrasound examination once per year) of the examined group. The first thyroid cancer was discovered in 1996 -after ten years of latent period. The relative risk of thyroid cancer in Chernobyl clean-up workers in 1996 was 33.27, and in 1997 -42.64. Then, the morbidity of the thyroid cancer exhibits tendency to decrease (RR 18.27 in 1998, and 9.42 in 1999). The presence of thyroid benign nodules was

  6. The Role of Ecotourism in the Reduction of Anthropogenic Load on Natura 2000 Territories throughout Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitis, Eriks; Leitis, Ēriks

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism is able to contribute to biodiversity and to ensure the ecosystem function in Latvia through a complicated process of fulfilment of the established criteria for a valid ecotourism. The tourism flow in protected nature territories should be monitored, and the appropriate environmental management, education and a code of conduct need to be introduced. Ecotourism will serve for reducing the social and economic pressures on biodiversity and will promote responsible actions in support of environmentally friendly technologies and approaches. The areas selected for this study are the Natura 2000 territories that have undertaken the development of ecotourism facilities.

  7. Development of the nuclear technology in Latvia in the second half of 20 century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavars, V.; Tomsons, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the second part of 20th century Latvia that was at that time a part of the Soviet Union, one of the nuclear power world powers, participated in the development of nuclear technology. Already in the 60ies the local specialists created an original nuclear equipment highly recognized by specialists from different countries. The most important of them was critical assembly (zero power nuclear reactor) - RKS, large-scale gamma rays source - RK-LM, special control devices for space-rocket nuclear reactors and a renovated research nuclear reactor IRT-M with thermo power of 5MW, etc.(authors)

  8. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  9. New forms of sampling for minority and hidden populations: respondent samples conducted in a south american immigrant population [Nuevas formas de muestreo para minorías y poblaciones ocultas: muestras por encuestado conducido en una población de inmigrantes sudamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Cárdenas Castro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS is a method of sampling for hidden or hard-to-reach populations. This is a procedure for estimating the repre- sentativeness of the sample in those groups that is unknow the sampling frame. This study presents both the theoretical description of this form of sampling as the report of its practical application in the case of ethnic minorities (immigrants Bolivians, Peruvians and Colombians in northern Chile. The study started with 8 seeds and recruited a total sample of 109 people from Colombia, Peru and Bolivia. The information resulting from the procedure RDS reports a similar pattern of recruitment for men and women, reflecting the sizes of the networks of both groups did not differ significantly.

  10. Minority Language Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Riagain, Padraig; Shuibhne, Niamh Nic

    1997-01-01

    A survey of literature since 1990 on minority languages and language rights focuses on five issues: definition of minorities; individual vs. collective rights; legal bases for minority linguistic rights; applications and interpretations of minority language rights; and assessments of the impact of minority rights legislation. A nine-item annotated…

  11. Minority engineering scholarships, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science: Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri S...

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF FAMILY-FRIENDLY WORKPLACES IN LATVIA:EXPLORATION OF OBSTRUCTIVE AND FACILITATIVE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Korpa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Development of family-friendly workplaces is an important aspect within thecontext of social inclusion and sustainability of society. Its importance is alsorecognized at European Union level in relation to European Union strategic aims.In order to promote development of family-friendlyworking environment it isimportant to identify and evaluate obstructive andfacilitative factors.The aim ofthe paper is the clarification of what hinders andwhat facilitates formation offamily-friendly workplaces in Latvia. The researchis based on 20 semi-structuredin-depth interviews with experts and 36 semi-structured interviews withemployers of different business organizations in Latvia.The research results reveal that development of family-friendly workingenvironment is a multidimensional process and the several participants (socialagents must get involved. During the research process acquired data discoverproblematic issues related to allocation of responsibility between state, localmunicipalities and private sector in the context ofempowerment of the requiredinfrastructure for work-family reconciliation. Theresearch shows that at presentthere is a lack of information, knowledge and studies of the real benefits gainedby all the parties involved, when organizations implement different initiatives,provisions, programs or strategies with the goal ofpromoting workers’ work andfamily reconciliation possibilities.

  13. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  14. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  15. Decadal oscillations of the aquatic chemistry of river waters in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Porshnov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Water quality changes of surface waters can be used to assess human impact intensity, but of importance is to consider also impacts of climate change/variability and naturally occurring changes of environmental quality. In Latvia, during the recent decades a major reduction of anthropogenic pressure has happened due to restructuring of economy and industrial production, resulting in major decrease of loading of many groups of pollutants. However, trends and driving factors for other groups of substances have not been much studied. Long term (1980–2012 results of hydrochemical monitoring, performed in rivers of Latvia, are analysed during this study in connection with long-term sets of hydrological and heliophysical data, using standard statistical approaches. Our results indicate that variation of some hydrochemical values, for example COD and total Fe, show clearly visible decadal oscillated character, while variation of some other values, for example phosphate P and total P, show some individual characteristics of decadal oscillations. These results indicate the presence of a large scale, geochemical and geophysical significant process: multiannual pulse of catchment, driven by variation of solar irradiance through complex interactions between global atmospheric circulation, groundwater and surface waterbodies. The process described in our study is significant from a geochemical point of view and must be taken into account in prediction of water quality and quantity. Impacts of natural processes should be considered in the planning of environmental policy.

  16. DSM energy saving pilot project report. Company Augstceltne Ltd., Riga, Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krievins, P.; Cakuls, A.; Kaross, V.; Jansons, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a part of the Joint Latvian - Danish Project DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY SAVING. The Project is a part of the Danish aid and technology transfer to Latvia. It is the result of collaborative efforts between a Latvian team, consisting of the specialists from Latvenergo and a Danish team, which was represented by Danish Power Consult. The purpose of this pilot project was not only to carry out energy audit in the company Augstceltne Ltd and propose demand side management and energy saving measures. Another task of the project was the application of DPC energy audit methodic, measuring equipment and software in Latvian conditions and the promotion of energy saving programs in Latvia in this way. The Company Augstceltne Ltd was created to rent the rest of premises for many other independent companys and to earn money for surviving. Now the Company has 9 buildings with a total area of 26,920 square meters. The tower block has 23 floors and it is the main business centre. 66 companies are located in the building. (EG)

  17. Final Energy Consumption Trends and Drivers in Czech Republic and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqian Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the trends of final energy consumption in Latvia and Czech Republic. Analysis of final energy consumption during 2000-2013 period indicated the main driving forces of final energy consumption during and after world financial crisis of 2008. The paper aimed to evaluate the impact of economic activity and other factors on final energy consumption. The decomposition of the final energy consumption is assessed by analyzing effect of different drivers by the main end-users sector (industry, transport, households, agriculture, services, activity, demography, lifestyles, structural effects, energy savings etc. The results show that the reduction in final energy consumption in most EU members states before and after year 2008 can be related to the decline in energy intensities within endusers sectors. At the same time, the increase in final energy intensity after the year 2008 is attributed to expansion of energy demand sectors. Comparison of final energy consumption trends and drivers in Latvia and Czech Republic indicated that Czech Republic implemented more policies and measures in industry and tertiary sector and this provided for final energy consumption decreased and huge energy savings in these sectors.

  18. Latvia in the System of European Territorial Security: a View from the Inside and Outside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on Latvian contribution to European security, which, for the purposes of this study, is understood as a territorial system of regional security. Such system is a combination of interconnected institutions with Latvian participation operating in the field of security, Latvian cooperation with other European countries in the field of security, and the European perception of major security challenges and threats (that Latvia may or may not agree with. A systemic approach to studying the role of Latvia in the territorial system of European security requires a solid theoretical framework. The theories of international relations discussed in this article fall into two categories: those where territorial security systems are viewed as a product of external factors, and those that focus on internal regional factors. In this article, the authors rely on a variety of methods, including those that are characteristic of classical theories of international relations (such as realism and liberalism, and those employed in social constructivism studies. It is concluded that Latvian cooperation with institutions and countries of the territorial system of European security is rather limited, which indicates either a lack of the country’s integration into the system or a crisis of the system itself. An important result of the study is the validation of a systemic approach to studying regional security systems. This angle proves particularly useful in identifying crises of territorial systems of regional security in various regions of the world.

  19. Characterization of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) foci in Germany and Latvia (1997-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süss, Jochen; Schrader, Christina; Abel, Ulrich; Bormane, Antra; Duks, Arnis; Kalnina, Vaira

    2002-06-01

    Knowledge concerning the prevalence of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in wild living tick populations is very important for understanding the epidemiology of the disease and for immuno prophylactic strategy. In Germany high and low risk areas of TBE exist. In the years 1997-2000, 533 autochthonous clinical TBE cases were recorded, in the high-risk areas of Bavaria and Baden-Wuerttemberg 140 and 363, and in the low risk areas in Hesse (Odenwald) and Rhineland-Palatinate 22 and 8, respectively. Corresponding to these case reports we have measured the virus prevalence in free living ticks in these four risk areas and compared these findings with the situation in high-risk areas in Latvia. In the years 1997-2000, 2,797 clinical TBE cases were recorded in Latvia. For the studies in Germany, a total of 17,398 Ixodesricinus ticks (14,860 nymphs and 2,538 adults) were collected by flagging and examined for TBEV, in Latvia the corresponding numbers were 525 I. ricinus ticks (350 adults and 175 nymphs) and 281 I. persulcatus ticks (adults only). Information concerning annual and seasonal differences of the TBEV prevalence in natural TBE foci is not available in Germany. This paper is a continuation of the study (Süss et al., 1999), starting in 1997. We investigated every year, in May and September, the virus prevalence in ticks in high risk areas of Bavaria (8 foci) and Baden-Wuerttemberg (5 foci). A total of 15,400 ticks (13,100 nymphs and 2,300 adults) were examined for TBEV. The ticks were tested for the presence of TBEV-RNA using a sensitive, nested-RT-PCR. The virus prevalence in the Bavarian foci of the whole tick population ranged from 0.3 to 2.0% during these four years, in adults between 1.2 and 5.3% and in nymphs between 0.1 and 1.4%. In the high-risk areas of Baden-Wuerttemberg, in the Black Forest, the estimated virus prevalence rates of investigated ticks varied from 0.2 to 3.4%, in adults from 0 to 4.8%, and in nymphs from 0.2 to 3.4%. Using the same

  20. The Acculturation of Russian-Speaking Adolescents in Latvia: Language Issues Three Years after the 2004 Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cara, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article presents research findings on acculturation strategies (attitudes and behaviors) in the language domain of Russian-speaking adolescents in Latvia in the context of the education reform. Data comes from a longitudinal study of adolescents from schools with Russian as the language of instruction in Riga; the same schools were invited to…

  1. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Scientific Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Three)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, S.; Geipele, I.; Kauskale, L.; Zeltins, N.; Staube, T.; Pudzis, E.

    2017-10-01

    The present scientific paper is the third part and continuation of the indepth scientific study of the developed system of engineering economic indicators, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. Part three determines the crucial scientific indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia. The paper provides the interaction of new identified indicators of nanofield in terms of further scientific and practical activities. Latvia is analysed in comparison with other countries in the world.

  2. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01), Lithuania (r=-0.93, P<0.01), and Estonia (r=-0.91, P<0.01). There was also a correlation between infant mortality and healthcare expenditure in local currency per capita: Latvia (r=-0.81, P<0.01); Lithuania (r=-0.90, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=-0.88, P<0.01). In Latvia (r=0.87, P<0.01) and Estonia (r=0.70; P<0.01), a significant correlation between infant mortality and unemployment levels was observed from 1996 to 2008, whereas the statistical significance disappeared in the period from 1996 to 2010. In Lithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  3. Bioethics and power: Informed consent procedures in post-socialist Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putniņa, Aivita

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores two lines of development in the donor consent procedures in post-Soviet Latvia. The paper is based on secondary analysis of interview, focus group discussion data, and media and legal text material collected throughout three previously conducted research projects on organ transplantation, population genome project and xenotransplantation focusing on the historical development of the issues of donor consent across these three fields of medical technologies. The paper argues that the quality of consent depends not as much on political and legal change per se as on the strengthening of the position of both medical specialists and donors, facilitating bonds between the two. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Asylum Seekers Crisis in Europe 2015: Debating Spaces of Fear and Security in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulle Aija

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyse emerging discourses of fear on the one hand and safety and security on the other. In the context of rupture - sudden, unprecedented asylum flows as well as the historical context of the fear and experience of losing the state’s freedom, we pose the following research question: Where do insecurities and fear come from and how are spaces of security and safety carved out through public discourses? We argue that, instead of singling out political discourses in Eastern European as filled with hatred towards other ethnicities and races or an inability to show solidarity with human suffering, we have to open up a far more deep reaching debate on the interplay of fear and the willingness to create safer, more secure futures. We illustrate this with examples from media debates in Latvia, in late 2015.

  5. Study of accessibility and quality of the patient information about medicines in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozolina V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Receipt of adequate amount of accurate patient information on medicines before their use is one of the main cornerstones of the treatment. Without the information medicines cannot be used safely and effectively. Basically, it can be argued that the information is converting the pharmacologically active substance into the medicinal product. Main source of information for patients in Latvia is Package leaflets. Label of medicines and patient information leaflet are drawn up in compliance with regulatory requirements, but for people it is often difficult to understand information contained in the package leaflets due to the complex language. The readability test – introduced as a mandatory requirement for marketing authorization and renewal of marketing authorization of medicines – improves the quality of package leaflets making them more patient “friendly”.

  6. The radioactive waste management concept: problem definition and solving in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreimanis, A.; Shatrovska, D.

    2003-01-01

    Development of radioactive waste (RW) management concept is treated as a key component of a general process - elaboration of the overall RW management strategy for a certain country/region. We present indication of possible solutions for crucial RW management problems for Latvia being in the same time rather generic for other countries. The importance of the Concept for Latvia follows from the planned decommissioning of the Salaspils Research Reactor (SRR) and from the recommended further upgrading of RW management organization in conditions of limited resources.The aim of this Concept is to stimulate the development of advanced, environmentally sound and population friendly system of RW management, in accord with the fair social system for the protection of human health and the environment, in line of international recommendations.The Concept foresees solutions for the safe management of RW for the period 2003-2010. The main problems to be analysed and solved in the Concept: 1.The increase of the RW quantity and a lack of the sufficient storage space. In addition to the traditional producers of RW such as medicine, industry, and science, there are two major operators in Latvia that have significantly increase the yearly amount of RW for disposal in recent years and will do so in nearest future - disposal off of the SRR decommissioning waste in the existing near-surface LILW-SL RW repository, which dictates the need for its enlargement. 2. The safety of the existent repository. To ensure protection of population and environment (including the Baltic sea) from exposure and radioactive contamination, proper measures shall be taken. The safety of RW repository should be upgraded via building long-term cover, according to recommendations of safety assessment (SA) by consortium CASSIOPEA. 3. Construction of a long term storage and the geological disposal site. Safe isolation of long-lived RW can be achieved by storage in the geological disposal site only, thereby; a

  7. Deterrence Dilemma in Latvia and Estonia: Finding the Balance between External Military Solidarity and Territorial Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andžāns Māris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While potential threats from Russia and NATO collective defence commitments are similar for Latvia and Estonia, both countries have adopted different approaches in the balancing exercise between territorial defence and military solidarity. Notwithstanding their differences, both are by their nature fully non-aggressive – without room for pre-emptive initiatives, extra territoriality or asymmetrical tools. Given that in a case of a hypothetical large-scale conventional attack both countries would almost entirely have to rest on the allies, external military solidarity is essential. Until the Ukraine crisis, both offered more military solidarity towards their NATO allies than the latter offered to them. As the result of the Ukrainian crisis, allies became more military-solidary with the Baltic nations, especially having established the Enhanced Forward Presence, while Estonian and especially Latvian contributions to international missions and operations dropped. Therefore, it is suggested that both countries increase their efforts to the allied international endeavours.

  8. Trends in the development of the use of natural gas in Latvia in the EU context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, A.; Gedrovics, M.; Ekmanis, J.; Zeltins, N.

    2004-01-01

    The work reflect the growing share of natural gas among various types of fuel used in the EU, which has taken place during the recent decade as a result of technological progress, better understanding of the environmental issues in the European Union as well as lower prices in comparison with those of the liquid fuel. The Latvian fuel balance of the recent years indicates that the prevailing energy resources are natural gas, oil products and firewood. The paper gives comparison of the share of natural gas in the balance of energy consumption in the EU and the future member states as well as a comparison of the energy balance in Latvia and the EU-15. (authors)

  9. Cluster Concept in Policy Planning Documents: the Cases of Latvia and Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanete Garanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economy of the 21st century. A regional cluster can be defined as a combination of 5 dimensions – single sector enterprises that cooperate and compete; supportive enterprises from a wide range of sectors; public and government institutions interested in economic development of the sector and region; other institutions, like research, education, finance and others and the fifth is regional dimension, which combines all four previously mentioned dimensions into one region. From the literature review standpoint, the findings of the authors show that cluster ­based entrepreneurship has an important role in stimulating the firm’s performance, competitiveness and innovation. Authors’ findings show that cluster concept is implemented in the EU policy planning documents at all levels, while in the country level cluster policy is not a single policy issue, but is implemented in industry, regional and other policy aspects. Example from Latvia shows that in recent years cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important, if not central, role in policy planning documents, while evidence from Northern Cyprus shows that the importance attached to the concept of cluster­based economic development has not yet surfaced in the policy documents. Learning from experience of the EU and Latvia, the authors in cooperation with experts from University of Mediterranean Karpasia suggest policy makers in Northern Cyprus to implement cluster­based entrepreneur­ ship ideas in the policy documents using the bottom­up approach. In this way cluster based entrepreneurship is implemented in policy planning documents in Northern Cyprus at region, industry and national level. This paper is the first attempt towards cluster concept recognition in Northern Cyprus and therefore the topic is opened for further discussions and recommendations. The target audience of this paper is policy makers in Northern Cyprus

  10. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curbakova, E.; Dzerve, B.; Eglite, M.; Frickausa, I.; Zvagule, T.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed γ-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government

  11. Procedural aspects of healthcare quality control in Latvia and its effect on legal protection of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liepins A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the European Commission data, 8–12% of patients cared for in hospitals throughout the European Union have suffered accidents related to the healthcare provided for them. The Directive 2011/24/EU of the European Parliament and Council of 9th March 2011 on the application of patients’ rights in cross-border healthcare provides that the Member States shouldensurethat patients have easily accessible and transparent appeal procedures and mechanisms that provide possibilities for legal remedies in cases of inflicted harm during medical treatment according to regulations of the respective Member State. Healthcare quality control mechanisms are intended for two major purposes: to identify accidents that have occurred during medical treatment and to prevent similar accidents from reoccurring in the future. The aim of this article is to evaluate, firstly, the procedural aspects of healthcare quality control mechanisms in Latvia and, secondly, how healthcare quality control mechanisms have been affected with the implementation of the Directive 2011/24/EU in Latvian legal order, providing for a specific legal remedy – the newly created Medical risk fund. Conclusions are made on the procedural nature of the patients’ right to submit complaints and also the developments in Latvian court practice related to the healthcare quality control. The authors have also analysed regulations related to the Medical risk fund, its influence on the civil liability mechanisms of medical practitioners, as well as the patient’s right to obtainjust compensation for the harm inflicted to his health and the legal nature of opinions of the Health Inspectorate of Latvia.

  12. Health status and follow-up of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident liquidators in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curbakova, E; Dzerve, B; Eglite, M; Frickausa, I; Zvagule, T [Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine of P. Stradins State clinical Hospital, Riga (Latvia)

    1996-07-01

    The accident at the Nuclear Power Plant in Chernobyl create a new problem for health professionals in Latvia due to the fact that 6475 inhabitants (mainly healthy and men of reproductive age) of Latvia took part in clear-up works in Chernobyl within the period 1986-1991. Chernobyl clear-up workers were exposed {gamma}-radiation and they also incorporated radionuclides. The doses documented for the clear-up workers are variable; they are estimated to be between 0.01-0.5 Gy although the specialists working on the precision of received doses think that they could be even 2 or 3 times higher. The aim of this work is to evaluate the health status of liquidators investigating them on a long-term basis: to create the correct system of health status evaluation of Chernobyl clear-up workers, to improve the register of Chernobyl clear-up workers and of their children, to analyze the data about the incidence of different diseases and mortality gained from follow-ups, to evaluate health status and clinical picture within the period of time, to work out and use adequate methods of treatment. Chernobyl clear-up workers more often than the control group suffer from diseases of the nervous, the endocrine and the metabolic and immune system. They also have higher rate of incidence for diseases of digestive and respiratory system and for diseases of bones, muscles and connective tissue higher rates of accidents and suicides. Now, ten years after the accident there are Chernobyl clear-up workers who are chronically ill and their health status is expected to be worse in the next few years. Regular follow-up and medical examination of Chernobyl clear-up workers and their children should be carried out every year. Regular rehabilitation of Chernobyl clear-up workers should be provided by the government.

  13. Religious Itineraries as the Driving Forces behind Sustainable Local Development in the Veneto? Towards a Proposal for Promoting an Unusual and Often “Subliminal” Form of Heritage: Sanctuaries and Minor Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Simone Rizzo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Religious sites/assets are reacquiring pre-eminence, partly in the role of mainsprings for local development: they are privileged witnesses to collective memory and depositories for symbolic, historical, cultural and spiritual values that they have contributed towards forging. These are essential keys for interpreting “places” and their evolution, as well as for studying their various facets and nuances in greater detail. In full knowledge of this, we are presenting here a study on the subject of cultural (and religious itineraries as a determining element in territorial conservation and as an instrument for: a promoting a type of tourism that is sustainable, alternative and aware, in which the approach towards “exploitation” changes (contributing towards not only the “consumption” of experiences, but also the enrichment of the tourist; b highlighting the value of authenticity and contact with local culture, as well as promoting contextual elements that are highly distinctive. In line with the need to make better use of local religious heritage, we identified anchor sites (sanctuaries and minor churches around which to develop further forms of (religious tourism.We devised an itinerary some 300 km long that “expresses” the diverse environmental/cultural/gastronomic realities that have the sanctuaries at their centre.This itinerary and its sub-routes – created via GIS – cover the central and western parts of the Veneto, as well as the south of the Region. The main route connects the sites in an attempt to link the area under examination, thanks to a ring, to the ancient Via Romea (the subject of research and reclamation as a long distance route.

  14. Health status of Russian minorities in former Soviet Republics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, W G F; van Ginneken, J K

    2011-08-01

    To examine if, and to what extent, disparities in health status exist between ethnic Russians and the native majority populations of four former Soviet Republics; and to determine to what extent indicators of socio-economic status and lifestyle behaviours explain variations in health status. Data from the World Health Organization's World Health Surveys of former Soviet Republics that include information on ethnicity (i.e. Estonia, Latvia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Russia) were used. Russia was included as the benchmark population as it is the country of origin of ethnic Russians. Data were collected from respondents aged ≥25 years in 2001-2003. Principal component analysis was used to derive the Health Status Index and Household Wealth Index. Multiple classification analysis was applied to examine the effects of the determinants on health status, including ethnic group membership. In Estonia and Kazakhstan, ethnic Russians have, on average, a lower health status than members of the majority population, while their health status is higher in Ukraine. Higher levels of material wealth, educational attainment and physical activity were associated with a higher health status. The association of these variables with health status was often stronger than the association between ethnic group membership and health status. Differences in health status between Russian ethnic minorities and the majority populations were found in Estonia and Kazakhstan, but were non-existent in Latvia and were the opposite of what was expected in Ukraine. Use of the Health Status Index in combination with multiple classification analysis proved to be a useful approach to examine health status differentials, and to identify and profile vulnerable groups in a society. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Economics of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Flournoy A., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    This article discusses some of the more important economic problems of minorities in the United States, identifying the economics of minorities with the economics of poverty, discrimination, exploitation, urban life, and alienation. (JM)

  16. Health Care Spending Structures in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia Over the Years as Compared to Other EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walczak Renata

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available After joining the European Union in 2004, the post-communist countries have dramatically changed their structure of expenditure for medical services. The cause of this is legislative and ownership changes in the new economy. The study analyzed the expenditure on medical services in the European Union with a special focus on Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia. The European Union countries were divided into clusters using different methods, that is, Ward’s, Two Step and Centroid Clustering. In the paper, the structure and changes in health expenses were presented according to the types of expenditures over the years 2004-2015. Countries were assigned to clusters based on three variables: medical products, appliances and equipment, outpatient services and hospital services. Variables were considered as a percentage of household budget. In Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, there is a clear increase in the outpatient services spending compared to the hospital services expenditure.

  17. Minorities and majorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.E.; Fassbender, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses the paradox of minorities as a constitutive Other of international law. While minorities have been viewed as outside the international legal system for centuries, minorities have at the same time made a significant and fundamental contribution to precisely that system, as they

  18. Factors associated with Listeria monocytogenes contamination of cold-smoked pork products produced in Latvia and Lithuania.

    OpenAIRE

    Berzins,-A; Horman,-A; Lunden,-J; Korkeala,-H

    2007-01-01

    A total of 312 samples of sliced, vacuum packaged, cold-smoked pork from 15 meat processing plants in Latvia and Lithuania, obtained over a 15-month period from 2003 until 2004, were analyzed for the presence of Listeria monocytogenes at the end of their shelf-life. Overall, 120 samples (38%) tested positive for L. monocytogenes. Despite the long storing period, the levels of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked pork products were low. Manufacturing processes were studied at seven meat processing ...

  19. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  20. More than 20 years after re-emerging in the 1990s, diphtheria remains a public health problem in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsone, Ieva; Lucenko, Irina; Perevoscikovs, Jurijs

    2016-12-01

    In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the goal of eliminating diphtheria within the WHO European Region by the year 2000. However, in 1990 an epidemic emerged within the Russian Federation and spread to other countries, including Latvia, by 1994. We describe national surveillance and immunisation coverage data in Latvia from 1994 to 2014 and present historical data from 1946. We defined a laboratory-confirmed case as a clinical case in which toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. From 1994 to 2014, 1,515 cases were reported, giving an average annual incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.1-14.8), with the highest incidence in age groups 5-19 and 40-49 years (4.4 and 4.3/100,000, respectively); 111 deaths were reported, 83.8% cases were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases occurred in unvaccinated adults. To improve disease control a supplementary immunisation campaign for adults was initiated in 1995, and by the end of 1998 national coverage among adults reached 70%, and reached 77% in 2003, but declined to 59% by 2014. Diphtheria remains a problem in Latvia with continued circulation of toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae. We recommend to strengthen immunisation to cover adults, as well as the education of health professionals and a serological survey. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  1. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Relation With Vibration Disease and Exposure to Vibration Among Employees in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Karganova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (ONIHL is a form of sensorineural hearing loss that is caused by intensive and continuous exposure to noise. It is one of the most frequently encountered occupational diseases worldwide despite numerous available control measures. ONIHL is a preventable disease, however, once the damage to the inner ear structures has occurred no medical intervention can reverse it. Aim. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse incidence of registered cases of ONIHL in relation to vibration disease and exposure to vibration among employees in Latvia between 2005 and 2014. Materials and methods. The data used in the study were acquired from the Latvian State Register of Patients with Occupational Diseases and afterwards analyzed with applicable statistical tests using both Excel and IBM SPSS programmes to compare epidemiological parameters between ONIHL, vibration disease (VD and exposure to vibration and to identify the association between them. Results. In total data were obtained about 2302 patients with 2562 cases of occupational ear, nose and throat (ENT diseases. Out of them ONIHL was registered in 1699 cases (819 cases were ONIHL in combination with VD. Most of the employees with ONIHL and ONIHL simultaneously with VD were males aged 55-64. There was found statistically significant association between ONIHL and VD (p<0.001; Cramer’s V=0.42; OR=32.08; 95% confidence interval (95% CI 19.62–52.45. Statistically significant association was encountered between ONIHL and exposure to vibration as well (p<0.001; Cramer’s V=0.46; OR=10.97; 95% CI: 8.63–13.96. Conclusion. In total ONIHL was the most prevalent occupational ENT disease followed by chronic laryngitis, chronic pharyngitis and allergic rhinitis. Statistically significant association was found between ONIHL and VD, and ONIHL and exposure to vibration. Study revealed that hearing quality of workers employed in manufacturing; transport, storage

  2. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  3. An aeolian or a glaciolacustrine record? A case study from Mieļupīte, Middle Gauja Lowland, northeast Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nartišs Māris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Middle Gauja Lowland, northeast Latvia, dunes are distributed over a vast glaciolacustrine plain that formed during the retreat of the Fennoscandian ice sheet. Such a direct contact between aeolian and glaciolacustrine sediments can be used to infer depositional settings and decipher to what extent these sediments bear an aeolian component. Our proxies, although preliminary, reveal a limited range of variation in grain-size parameters, a significant presence of quartz grains with silica precipitation and matt-surface grains of various rounding degrees and massive structure combined with horizontal lamination. These are indicative of periglacial-aeolian depositional conditions in the foreland of the Linkuva ice-marginal zone. Sedimentary characteristics do not match a single luminescence date of 9.2±0.6 ka, which significantly postdates the minimum age of the Linkuva ice-marginal zone with 10Be ages between 15.4 and 12.0 ka. Whether deposition started directly after drainage of the Middle Gauja ice-dammed lake or if there is a gap of 2.8–6.2 ka is a matter of debate; only future studies at higher OSL resolution could resolve this.

  4. Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonds Kasparinskis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the spatial relationships between environmental factors (Quaternary deposits, topographical situation, land cover, forest site types, tree species, soil texture and soil groups, and their prefix qualifiers (according to the international Food and Agricultural Organization soil classification system World Reference Base for Soil Resources [FAO WRB]. The results show that it is possible to establish relationships between the distribution of environmental factors and soil groups by applying the generalized linear models in data statistical analysis, using the R 2.11.1 software for processing data from 113 sampling plots throughout the forest territory of Latvia.A very high diversity of soil groups in a relatively similar geological structure was revealed. For various reasons there is not always close relationship between the soil group, their prefix qualifiers and Quaternary deposits, as well as between forest site types, the dominant tree species and specific soil group and its prefix qualifiers. Close correlation was established between Quaternary deposits, forest site types, dominant tree species and soil groups within nutrient-poor sediments and very rich deposits containing free carbonates. No significant relationship was detected between the CORINE Land Cover 2005 classes, topographical situation and soil group.

  5. Cultural Adaptation of Erasmus Students in Latvia and Host University Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vevere Velga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Internationalisation of education and student mobility (incoming and outgoing has become a significant factor in the sphere of higher education. These processes lead to interaction between local students and exchange students, as well as between exchange students and host universities. Being in the foreign country for a certain period (one or two semesters requires some cultural and social adaptation that could or could not be problematic for various reasons. In order to maximise benefits for the exchange students and host universities, it is important to identify existing problems and to offer possible solutions. The aim of the current paper is to research the critical aspects of cultural adaptation process of ERASMUS students in Latvia. The international group that consists of a professor of the University College of Economics and Culture and three exchange students from Italy and Spain carried out the research. The empirical methods used were the following: a survey of ERASMUS students (non-probability purposive sampling and semi-structured interviews with the host university ERASMUS coordinators. The data processing methods were the descriptive statistics as well as the thematic content analysis. On the basis of critical issues identified during the research process, the authors worked a set of practical solutions aimed at the host institutions.

  6. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  7. Possible further subjects of study in the field of fusion plasma theory in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: First fusion plasma theory relevant studies in Latvia were related to edge localized modes (ELMs). This work has been carried out at the Institute of Solid Physics and is nearing successful completion. The next suggested topic 'Stochastisation of magnetic field lines and its impact on fusion plasma' is related to the theory of ergotic magnetic fields. The stochastisation of magnetic field lines is thought to play a major role in fast energy loss events from magnetically confined fusion plasma due to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. Classical examples are sawtooth crashes and disruptions. Here it is thought that stochastisation plays a role in the enhanced reconnection rate, which is often observed. More recently, this process has also been proposed as an explanation for the neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) phenomenon, which is repetitive rapid decrease of a neoclassical magnetic island due to its interaction with other MHD modes. The timescale for this phenomenon is clearly too fast to be explained by a conventional reconnection. The theoretical study of the onset of stochastisation will be illustrated for plasma parameters typical for the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak operated at the Max-Planc-Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching, Germany

  8. Principles of the complex therapy of gliomas in Latvia (1993-1998)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apskalne, D.; Ozolins, J.; Krumina, R.; Razuks, R.; Dzelzitis, J.

    1998-01-01

    60-70 malignant gliomas of 3rd and 4th degree of anaplasia are diagnosed in Latvia every year. The basic method of treatment of malignant gliomas is their surgical evacuation using CUSA, coagulation loops, binocular operation loupes and in several stages of surgery - microscope. Detailed morphological analysis of operation material according to 7 qualitative and 1 quantitative (Ki-67 antibody detection) signs. This analysis determines in general the choice of further method of complex therapy. Most often in the cases of malignant gliomas complex fractionated radiotherapy (55-60 Gy per course, 2 Gy per procedure) and systemic chemotherapy were used. In the cases when radiotherapy is not possible because of various side reasons and PI of gliomas is less than 5% and the structure is rich in blood vessels, only chemotherapy is used. Main agent are ACNU and CeeNU. Chemotherapy is carried in 2-3 stages, 6-courses in every stage. Interval between the courses - 6 weeks, between the stages - 6 month. When the schedule is accomplished CT and MR are done. At the present time 71% of the patients after complex therapy are in the phase of remission and in 29% of cases recurrent gliomas were diagnosed. (Full text)

  9. Factors Influencing Private Customers′ Trust in Internet Banking: Case of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skvarciany Viktorija

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Banking sector has developed and extended the usage of online services in the past decade. In fact, nowadays, Internet-based banking services dominate over other historically provided alternatives. This article discusses private clients′ trust in Internet banking in Latvia. The model of trust in Internet banking was developed based on four factors, distinguished in the scientific literature. They are provided information, bank’s characteristics, ebanking system and website of a bank. Hence, the goal of the research is to measure the impact of distinguished factors on trust in Internet banking. In order to determine how these attributes affect private customers′ trust, correlation and regression analysis were applied. The results showed that the most vital factor affecting private clients’ trust in Internet banking is e-banking system. What is more, it was found that provided information is a statistically insignificant factor and, hence, it was removed from the model. Respondents, being private customers, limit the breadth of study, thus the results do not reflect companies’ trust in Internet banking.

  10. Patient groups in art therapies: A case study of the health care field in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vende K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to introduce the reader with an example of the arts therapies work in a children hospital in Latvia in order to describe art therapies work similarities and differences in three different specializations. Comparison will take place of patient groups in the work of art therapists in each specialization (art therapy, dance movement therapy and music therapy. The question of the research is: with which patient groups’ a specialist from a particular arts therapies specialization has worked within a year in VSIA BKUS children hospital “Gaiļezers” during the time period from 05.2009 to 05.2010?The results were gained by comparing patient groups at the age from 2,5 to 17 years in the children hospital and they showed that the art therapists and dance movement therapist most frequently were working with patients who have behaviour and emotional disorders. However music therapists are working more frequently with patients who have mental retardation.

  11. Comparative efficiency of wind turbines with different heights of rotor hubs: performance evaluation for Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezrukovs, V P; Zacepins, A J; Bezrukovs, V V

    2014-01-01

    Performance evaluation of wind turbines (WT) for different heights of the rotor hub is made based on the wind speed and direction data obtained in 2009–2013 on-shore in the north of Latvia using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measurement system mounted on a 60 m mast. Based on the measurement analysis results, wind speed distribution curves have been modelled for heights of up to 200 m using power and logarithmic (log) law approximation methods. The curves for the modelled Weibull's parameters are plotted in dependence on height. The efficiency comparison is made for different WT types taking into account the distribution of the wind energy potential in height in the Latvian territory. The annual electric energy production was calculated for the WTs with different heights of rotor hubs. In the calculations the technical data on the following WT types were used: E-3120 (50 kW, hub height 20.5/30.5/36.5/42.7 m), E-33 (330 kW, hub height 37/44/49/50 m), E-48 (800 kW, hub height 50/60/75 m) and E-82 (2.3 MW, hub height of 78/85/98/108/138 m)

  12. A representation of place attachment: A study of spatial cognition in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilters, Jurgis; Zarina, Liga; Raita, Liva

    2017-04-01

    Perception of geographical space is reflected in place attachment, i.e., a multidimensional cognitive-affective link between humans and their spatial environment. Place attachment balances emotions, conception of proximity. It is both social and spatial cognitive structure. Place attachment has an impact on people's actions, which in turn reversibly affect the environment in which people live. Place attachment provides emotional regulation for humans linking local - neighborhood-scale and country and world-scale environments. In Latvia a large-scale spatial cognition study has been conducted within participatory research project „Telpas pavasaris" ("Spatial Spring") by foundation Viegli. In the study 1523 respondents reported their associations characterizing certain type of places (e.g., safe place, dangerous place, far place, close place, dear place). The answers were analyzed according to several cognitive-affective categories including modes of experience, emotional valence, geographical distance, and perceptual modality. The current results indicate that socio-cognitive and affective information are primary in respect to purely spatial information (referring to spatial objects or regions and their relations). However, different types of geographical places and spatial objects (natural or artefactual) have to be distinguished and are significant to a different degree. Our results are important for environmental and urban planning because they show the ways how socio-cognitive and affective knowledge shapes the spatial cognition of geographic environment.

  13. The Trojan minor planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Christopher E.

    1988-08-01

    There are (March, 1988) 3774 minor planets which have received a permanent number. Of these, there are some whose mean distance to the sun is very nearly equal to that of Jupiter, and whose heliocentric longitudes from that planet are about 60°, so that the three bodies concerned (sun, Jupiter, minor planet) make an approximate equilateral triangle. These minor planets, which occur in two distinct groups, one preceding Jupiter and one following, have received the names of the heroes of the Trojan war. This paper concerns the 49 numbered minor planets of this group.

  14. Determination of the minor disinfection by-products formed in the water plant of Sant Joan Despi (Barcelona, Spain); Determinacion de los subproductos de desinfeccion minoritarios formados en la planta de Sant Joan Despi (Barcelona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cancho, B.; Galceran, M.T. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Ventura, F. [AGBAR. Societat General d` Aigues de Barcelona, S.A. (Spain)

    1997-09-01

    Chlorine is widely used in drinking water disinfection due to be a powerful and not expense disinfection. Although the benefits of disinfection, the formation of stable disinfection by-products of the health concern, is the result of the interaction of aqueous chlorine with natural organic matter presents in water. Disinfection by-products generated in major concentration are trihalomethane and haloacetic acids. Disinfection by-products generated in minor concentration are haloacetonitriles, haloketones,chloral hydrate and chloropicrin and some new groups such as cyanogen halides and trihaloacetaldydes. In this work two analytical methods.: headspace/gas chromatography/electron capture detector and liquid-liquid microextraction/gas chromatography/electron capture detector are studied and compared to determine the minor by-products and to establish finally, a systematic control of them in the different stages of the Water Treatment Plant of San Joan Despi (Barcelona, Spain). (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Minorities and Malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Francis A.

    Various aspects of the relationship between minorities and malnutrition are discussed in this brief paper. Malnutrition, one of the byproducts of low economic status, is creating a crisis-proportion health problem affecting minority citizens. Malnutrition seriously affects children, older people in poverty, and chronically unemployed or…

  16. Surveying ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost Kappelhof

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining accurate survey data on ethnic minorities is not easy. Ethnic minorities are usually underrepresented in surveys, and it is moreover not certain that those who do take part in surveys are representative of the group the researcher is interested in. For example, is it only people with

  17. Autonomy and minority rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barten, Ulrike

    2008-01-01

    on the content of the syllabus. When autonomy is understood in the literal sense, of giving oneself one's own laws, then there is a clear connection. Autonomy is usually connected to politics and a geographically limited territory. Special political rights of minorities - e.g. is the Danish minority party SSW...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC TRANSPORT: FUTURE CHALLENGES OF LIEPAJA` S TRAM (LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diāna Līduma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transport has always had an important role in the lifestyle of population and development of economy, but the public transport performs mainly the social function – it works for the benefit of the society. Development and quality of services must be provided also for the public transport companies, however, we meet different problems related to infrastructure and traffic for this to happen. To successfully manage and develop a public transport company, it is essential to change the thinking of people in favour of the public transport, not for the personal transport. It is necessary to ensure the sustainability as the main value, which means selection of the right public transport system. The authors relied on the experience of formation of a unified transport system in the world and Latvia’s largest cities’ strategic vision for public transport development. Taking into account the fact that Liepaja is one the three cities in Latvia where the public transport service is provided by a tram, an empiric research was made. Its aim was to clarify the opinion of the inhabitants of Liepaja, regarding the services provided by Liepaja trams, regarding the possible improvements and necessity for development. 200 inhabitants of Liepaja were questioned within the framework of the research. The results of the research revealed that although the tram provides daily the inhabitants of Liepaja with the movement possibilities, unfortunately inhabitants are not ready yet to replace their personal transport with the public transport – tram to settle their daily problems. The results of the research allowed to conclude that future development possibilities and perspectives of the tram in Liepaja City can be related mainly with the creation of a new route, purchase of new carriages and unified public transport system in Liepaja City.

  19. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated study of the uppermost Ordovician Porkuni Stage in the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia, has revealed one of the most complete Hirnantian successions in the eastern Baltic region. The interval is characterized by two shallowing upwards depositional sequences that correspond to the Kuldiga and Saldus formations. The whole-rock carbon stable isotope curve indicates a long rising segment of the Hirnantian carbon isotope excursion, with the highest peak in the upper part of the Kuldiga Formation. The bioclast carbon and oxygen curves fit well with the whole-rock carbon data. Micro- and macrofossil data enabled seven combined associations to be distinguished within the Hirnantian strata. The early Porkuni fauna of the Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone, with pre-Hirnantian affinities, is succeeded by an interval with a Hindella–Cliftonia brachiopod association, a specific polychaete fauna, the chitinozoan Conochitina scabra, and the conodont Noixodontus girardeauensis. The middle part of the Kuldiga Formation is characterized by a low-diversity Dalmanella testudinaria brachiopod association, high diversity of scolecodonts, and the occurrence of the chitinozoan Lagenochitina prussica. From the middle part of the Kuldiga Formation the youngest occurrence yet known of the conodont Amorphognathus ordovicicus is reported. Also typical of the Kuldiga Formation is the occurrence of the trilobite Mucronaspis mucronata. The uppermost Hirnantian Saldus Formation contains no shelly fauna, but yields redeposited conodonts and at least partly indigenous chitinozoans and scolecodonts. Palaeontological criteria and stable isotope data enable correlation of the Stirnas section with other Hirnantian successions in the Baltic region and elsewhere.

  20. Bacterial microflora of roach (Rutilus rutilus caught in the Driksna river in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kluga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fish products are a food group with a high nutritional value, however, the fish may contains a variety of microorganisms, which may cause foodborne infection outbreaks in humans after consumption. The aim of the present study was to identify the bacterial microflora of skin, gill and gut of roach caught in river. Altogether, nine roach (Rutilus rutilus samples were collected from fishermen from Driksna river in Latvia. Skin, gills and gut samples were investigated for total bacterial count (TBC, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae. Pooled skin, muscles and internal organ samples were examined for presence of pathogens – Salmonella spp., Listeria spp. and Yersinia spp. in accordance with ISO standards. Identification of bacterial species was performed with MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper. TBC ranged from 1.96 to 5.16 log10 CFU g-1, coliforms from 0 to 3.66 log10 CFU g-1 and Enterobacteriaceae from 0 to 4.16 log10 CFU g-1 in roach skin, gills and gut samples. The highest counts of TBC, coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae was found in roach gills and gut samples, while there were no significant differences between the TBC in skin, gills and gut (p<0.05. Rahnella spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were the dominant bacteria identified in fish skin, gills and gut. These microorganisms promote the development of deterioration processes of fish meat, and also can be associated with human infections. Salmonella spp., Listeria spp. and Yersinia spp. were not detected in fish samples, however, the presence of potential human pathogens - Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in roach samples was observed.

  1. THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE VALUES IN PUBLIC SECTORS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maija Ivanova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organizational culture is an important issue because of its` big influence on enterprises’ productivity and consequently on realization of their objectives and goals. The validation and harmonization of organizational values and employees’ values has an important role in increasing operational efficiency. It has long been established that enterprises and organizations, where creative and interested employees who support and understand the organizational values of the company work, operate more effectively. In this article elements of organizational culture are studied with a particular focus on the meaning of organizational culture values. This article also reveals an evaluation of the organizational culture in public sectors in Latvia (based on publicly available data and sources of information. In the research there is an indepth analysis of official public organizational culture values included. The analysis has been done in the context of rating different leaders’ organizational values. In this article we analyze the conclusions of various writers on the subject of organizational culture framework characterization. The research of values guidance as well as a view of cultural meaning and influence on both individual and organizational development is described here. The authors analyze the results of empirical research about official public values of companies and the results of a public leaders’ survey (as well as the personal values of employees which provide an opportunity to compare organizational employees’ values with the common results of organizations. Conclusions shows public characterization of values and values distribution in potentially limitative and positive values. The in-depth research of organizational values is based on A. Maslow’s (Maslow 2000 hierarchy of needs approach and developed on R. Barrett`s (Barrett 2006 sample of seven levels of consciousness.

  2. BCDC Minor Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — An administrative permit can be issued for an activity that qualifies as a minor repair or improvement in a relatively short period of time and without a public...

  3. Minority Veteran Report 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  4. Minorities in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims, and deba......Contrary to the popular understanding of Iran as a Persian nation, half of the country's population consists of minorities, among whom there has been significant ethnic mobilization at crucial stages in Iranian history. One such stage is now: suppressed minority demands, identity claims......, and debates on diversity have entered public discourse and politics. In 2005–2007, Iran was rocked by the most widespread ethnic unrest experienced in that country since the revolution. The same period was also marked by the re-emergence of nationalism. This interdisciplinary book takes a long-overdue step...

  5. Minority Veteran Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...

  6. Multichoice minority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ein-Dor, Liat; Metzler, Richard; Kanter, Ido; Kinzel, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The generalization of the problem of adaptive competition, known as the minority game, to the case of K possible choices for each player, is addressed, and applied to a system of interacting perceptrons with input and output units of a type of K-state Potts spins. An optimal solution of this minority game, as well as the dynamic evolution of the adaptive strategies of the players, are solved analytically for a general K and compared with numerical simulations

  7. Minority engineering scholarships renewal, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Scholarships for Minority Students Studying Engineering and Science : Support will make scholarships available to minority students : interested in engineering and science and will increase significantly the number of minority students that Missouri ...

  8. Mortality of children under five and prevalence of newborn congenital anomalies in relation to macroeconomic and socioeconomic factors in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Zakis, Aleksandrs; Folkmanis, Valdis; Rumba-Rozenfelde, Ingrida

    2011-01-01

    Mortality of infants and children younger than 5 years is a globally recognized and broad national welfare indicator. Scientific literature has data on the correlation of mortality indicators with macroeconomic indicators. It is important to study the associations between prevalence and mortality indicators and socioeconomic factors, since deaths from congenital anomalies account for approximately 25%-30% of all deaths in infancy. The aim of the study was to analyze the overall trend in mortality of infants and young children aged 0 to 4 years in relation to macroeconomic factors in Latvia and prevalence of congenital anomalies in newborns in relation to socioeconomic factors. The Newborns' Register and Causes of Death Register were used as data sources; data on specific socioeconomic factors were retrieved from the Central Statistics Office. The results of the study show a strong correlation between mortality in children younger than 5 years and gross domestic product, as well as health budget in LVL per capita and the national unemployment level. The average decrease in infant mortality from congenital anomalies in Latvia was found to be 6.8 cases per 100,000 live births. There is a strong correlation between child mortality and socioeconomic situation in the country. There is a need to analyze the data on child mortality in a transnational context on a regular basis and studying the correlations between child mortality indicators and socioeconomic indicators and health care management parameters.

  9. Phenotypical characteristics of leukocyte membranes in Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia: use of the fluorescent probe ABM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnina, I.; Meirovics, I.; Garbuseva, N.; Bruvere, R.; Heisele, O.; Zvagule, T.; Volrate, A.; Feldmane, G.

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescent probe - aminoderivative of benzanthrone, AMB (developed at the Riga Technical University, Riga, Latvia) - has been previously shown to localise within the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane, and shown to affect the structural and functional properties of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The probe ABM was used to characterise the PBMC membranes of 97 Chernobyl clean-up workers from Latvia. The study was conducted in the years 1997-1998. After addition of the probe to PBMC, fluorescence intensity of ABM (F) was measured, the depolarisation value P was calculated, and emission spectra were recorded. Screening of all individuals showed 5 different patterns of fluorescence spectra. Four of the patterns had never been previously observed in healthy individuals or patients with tuberculosis, multiple sclerosis, oncologic patients, etc., examined by us. The spectral patterns of ABM suspensions were associated with ability of leukocytes to produce interferons, with the levels of immunoglobulins A, G, and M, the concentration of lead in peripheral blood, and with several neurologic diseases. The use of ABM allowed to show phenotypic differences in PBMC between Chernobyl clean-up workers and individuals who had never had professional contact with radioactivity. (author)

  10. Management of Spent Sealed Radioactive Sources in Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, M.; Cowley, M.; Moreton, T.; Wells, D.

    2003-01-01

    This study has been performed to consider the situation relating to the regulation and management of spent sealed radioactive sources (SSRS) in five of the Central and Eastern European (C and EE) countries that are being considered for admission to the EU, namely, Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania and Slovakia. Two previous studies have considered the situation in the current EU member states(1) and in the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia(2). The general aim of this study has been to acquire a thorough understanding of the management of SSRS in the five countries, in order to recommend improvements in management schemes and to establish whether the application of common disposal criteria would be advantageous. This report is structured in the following manner; following the Introduction (Section 1), there is a description of the current and proposed regulatory requirements in the EU, together with a summarised comparison of the regulatory systems in the five countries with EU standards (Section 2). Sections 3 to 7 are dedicated to each of the five countries. Each of these sections is similarly sub-divided to enable country-by-country and topic-by-topic comparison. In each of Sections 3 to 7 there is an overview, description of the sealed source inventory, regulations, current management practices, retrieval of unregistered (sometimes known as lost or orphan sources) SSRS, conclusions and a description of possible future technical assistance projects. In addition, there is a description in each of Sections 3 to 7 of the management of 226 Ra sources, which is receiving special attention in many countries (Table I provides a summary and comparison of the management of 226 Ra in the five countries).both country-specific and generic recommendations. A common concern in the five countries and many other countries, including the EU member states, is the problem of accidental inclusion of SSRS in consignments of scrap metal. The detection of

  11. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  12. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  13. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  14. Teaching minority children hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rheinländer, Thilde; Samuelsen, Helle; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    infrastructures were important barriers for the implementation of safe home child hygiene. Furthermore, the everyday life of highland villages, with parents working away from the households resulted in little daily adult supervision of safe child hygiene practices. While kindergartens were identified......Objectives. Ethnic minority children in Vietnam experience high levels of hygiene- and sanitation-related diseases. Improving hygiene for minority children is therefore vital for improving child health. The study objective was to investigate how kindergarten and home environments influence...... children were further disadvantaged as teaching was only provided in non-minority language. Conclusions. Kindergartens can be important institutions for the promotion of safe hygiene practices among children, but they must invest in the maintenance of hygiene and sanitation infrastructures and adopt...

  15. Housing Problems of Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Robert

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, reviews the status of minority group housing and the effects of federal programs upon it, advocating an approach which recognizes the intrinsic locational and real estate value of many black ghettos. (Author/JM)

  16. Minority Language Teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monique Turkenburg

    2001-01-01

    Original title: Onderwijs in alochtone levende talen. At the request of the Dutch Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, an exploratory study was carried out of minority Language teaching for primary school pupils. This exploratory study in seven municipalities not only shows the way in

  17. Ethnic Minorities and Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mérove Gijsberts

    2005-01-01

    There has been a great deal of discussion in the Netherlands recently about the integration of ethnic minorities. The tenor of that discussion is sombre: some observers speak of a 'multicultural drama', while others claim that the government's integration policy has failed completely. Recent

  18. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  19. Britain's Ethnic Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central Office of Information, London (England).

    This pamphlet discusses the situation of ethnic minorities--particularly those of Caribbean, Asian, or African origin--in the United Kingdom. Following introductory material, the background to immigration in Britain is described and the numbers and geographic distribution of the different ethnic groups are discussed. Next comes a general…

  20. Sail-Type Wind Turbine for Autonomous Power Supplay: Possible Use in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.

    2014-12-01

    Under the conditions of continuous increase in the energy consumption, sharply rising prices of basic energy products (gas, oil, coal), deterioration of environment, etc., it is of vital importance to develop methods and techniques for heat and power generation from renewables. The paper considers the possibility to use a sail-type wind turbine for autonomous power supply in Latvia, taking into account its climatic conditions. The authors discuss the problems of developing a turbine of the type that would operate efficiently at low winds, being primarily designed to supply power to small buildings and farms distant from centralized electricity networks. The authors consider aerodynamic characteristics of such a turbine and the dependence of the thrust moment of its pilot model on the airflow rate at different angles of attack. The pilot model with a changeable blade shape has been tested and shows a good performance. Darbs veltīts vienam no atjaunojamo enerģiju veidiem - vēja enerģijai, analizētas tās izmantošanas iespējas. Vispirms īsi raksturota vēja enerģijas izmantošana pasaulē, kā arī vērtētas izmantošanas perspektīvas no inženiertehniskā un klimatisko apstākļu viedokļa. Turpinājumā raksturota situācija Latvijā, t. sk., arī vēja potenciāla pieejamība dažādos reģionos, kā arī vēja enerģijas izmantošanas efektivitāti raksturojošie lielumi. Konstatējot problēmu, rast vēja turbīnu risinājumus Latvijas apstākļiem ar maziem vidējiem vēja ātrumiem, izveidots buras tipa turbīnas modelis. Šī modeļa raksturlielumu izpēte veikta vēja tunelī Karagandas universitātē, konstatējot relatīvi labus efektivitātes rādītājus tiešai un pretējai vēja plūsmai. Izmantojot mērījumu rezultātus, ierosināti sistēmas uzlabojumi, kurus plānots pētīt turpmāk. Šādas sistēmas potenciāli var rast lietojumu tur, kur nepieciešami autonomi enerģijas avoti.

  1. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  2. The prevalence and the socio – economic costs of smoking among the working age population in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health problem, the costs of which include sickness, pain, grief and misery. But tobacco use also imposes a significant economic burden on society. One efficient way to assess the adverse health effects of smoking on a society is to translate smoking-caused illnesses, premature mortality, and productivity losses into economic terms, a universal marker for measuring the adverse effects of smoking. Due to the high proportion of smokers, Latvia faces high male mortality from smoking-related diseases; life expectancy for men in the age group 35–64 years is 2.44 years less than for non-smokers in the same age group, losing 37% of total lost years of life and therefore the government loses approximately 45 88346 Euro per year from YPLL from smoking related diseases.

  3. Main tasks of social worker in reducing poverty for families with children and social inclusion policy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodele-Dubrovska I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an inability of an individual or a group of persons to integrate into society due to poverty, insufficient education, unemployment, discrimination or other causes in Latvia. Welfare of families is influenced not only by the employment of its members, but also by the amount of their salary. Limited amount of family’s financial resources make a person to refuse himself a lot of things or restrict expenses to minimum thus increasing the risk of exclusion of the household. When finding a solution of social problems faced by families with children it is essential to involve a social worker. Well-being of children must be in focus of social work practice, in addition taking the special care for their safety and welfare.

  4. Proportion of knotty wood in stems of 28-year old lodgepole and Scots pine in experimental plantation in Zvirgzde, Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons Aris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In forestry, alien tree species are planted to maximize yield from a stand by increasing productivity and decreasing environmental risks. In Eastern Europe, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia might be used as a source of biomass and industrial wood; however, before any recommendations are given, possible gains of the novel species should be scrupulously evaluated. In this study, we compared volume and proportion of knotty stemwood (VKN of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris from first generation seed orchards and provenances of alien lodgepole pine [Fort Nelson (58°38’ N, 122°41’ W and Summit Lake (54°24› N, 122°37› W] at the age of 27 years growing in central Latvia. We also assessed the relationships between VKN and several morphometric parameters.

  5. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  6. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  7. Minor burn - first aid - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100213.htm Minor burn - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... out of 2 Overview To treat a minor burn, run cool water over the area of the ...

  8. Multiculturalism and legal autonomy for cultural minorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ebbe Juul Nielsen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Does multiculturalism imply that certain cultural minorities – nomos groups, whose cultural conceptions extend in important ways into views about the law – should have forms of legal autonomy that go beyond normal multicultural accommodations such as exemptions and special protection? In other words: should we allow «minority jurisdictions» for multicultural reasons and give certain minorities powers of legislation and adjudication on certain issues? The paper sketches how one might arrive at such a conclusion given some standard multicultural reasoning, and then proceeds by examining eight key rejoinders to such a proposal. None of these rejoinders provide by themselves knockdown arguments against extending multicultural rights to forms of legal autonomy, but together they do provide a basis for some skepticism about the cogency and desirability of at least more ambitious forms of legal autonomy for cultural minorities within a liberal framework.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i2.1798

  9. Minor actinide transmutation using minor actinide burner reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukaiyama, T.; Yoshida, H.; Gunji, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of minor actinide burner reactor is proposed as an efficient way to transmute long-lived minor actinides in order to ease the burden of high-level radioactive waste disposal problem. Conceptual design study of minor actinide burner reactors was performed to obtain a reactor model with very hard neutron spectrum and very high neutron flux in which minor actinides can be fissioned efficiently. Two models of burner reactors were obtained, one with metal fuel core and the other with particle fuel core. Minor actinide transmutation by the actinide burner reactors is compared with that by power reactors from both the reactor physics and fuel cycle facilities view point. (author)

  10. Institutional Investors as Minority Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Assaf Hamdani; Yishay Yafeh

    2013-01-01

    We examine the link between minority shareholders' rights and corporate governance by studying institutional investors' voting patterns in a concentrated ownership environment. Institutions rarely vote against insider-sponsored proposals even when the law empowers the minority. Institutions vote against compensation-related proposals more often than against related party transactions even when minority shareholders cannot influence outcomes. Potentially conflicted institutions are more likely...

  11. The Serbs in Slovenia: A new minority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prelić Mladena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown of the former Yugoslavia has resulted in formation of new independent states while the former co-citizens and constitutive people have found themselves in new roles. Some have become a majority while some have become a minority, with an aspiration to affirm the status in the public sphere. As a country with a large numbers of immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is facing a challenge of the confirmation of ethnic pluralism within its borders, along with solutions and appropriate places for 'new' minorities (the usual appellation for ethnic groups formed by the members of the former Yugoslavia, where the Serbs are outnumbering the rest. At the same time, the new minorities face a challenge of constitution foundation of their own associations, that is, formation of their own identity and public affirmation in the new context. This paper discusses these ongoing processes with a special attention to the Serbian ethnic group.

  12. Myths and reality of «latvian national opposition» in the second world war: struggle for free Latvia or ordinary fascism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е Н Панин

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme researched by the author has important historical-political significance. The author showed the essence of the «Latvian national opposition during the Second World War that played an auxiliary role for Hitler Germany in its plans for world domination - in bloody crimes against humanity. Being covered by «noble slogans of protection of Latvia from bolshevism», Latvian nationalists and fascists were the instrument in the war against the Soviet Union.

  13. PUBLIC RELATIONS IN LATVIA AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 21ST CENTURY: SUPPORTING FUNCTION OF THE ORGANIZATION’S MANAGEMENT AND / OR MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Pūre, Inga

    2010-01-01

    Public Relations (PR) in Latvia is a new cross - disciplinary branch, the beginning of which dates back to the gaining of independence. It has rapidly developed during the last twenty years. The interpretation of Public Relations though is still problematic. A lot of heads of establishments do not realize the importance of Public Relations in the development of enterprises. They do not see the difference between Public Relations and marketing. Public Relations is often viewed as a marketing s...

  14. Drastic influence of minor Fe or Co additions on the glass forming ability, martensitic transformations and mechanical properties of shape memory Zr-Cu-Al bulk metallic glass composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Sergio; Pérez, Pablo; Rossinyol, Emma; Suriñach, Santiago; Dolors Baró, Maria; Pellicer, Eva; Sort, Jordi

    2014-06-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr 48 Cu 48 -  x Al 4 M x (M ≡ Fe or Co, x  = 0, 0.5, 1 at.%) metallic glass (MG) composites are highly dependent on the amount of Fe or Co added as microalloying elements in the parent Zr 48 Cu 48 Al 4 material. Addition of Fe and Co promotes the transformation from austenite to martensite during the course of nanoindentation or compression experiments, resulting in an enhancement of plasticity. However, the presence of Fe or Co also reduces the glass forming ability, ultimately causing a worsening of the mechanical properties. Owing to the interplay between these two effects, the compressive plasticity for alloys with x  = 0.5 (5.5% in Zr 48 Cu 47.5 Al 4 Co 0.5 and 6.2% in Zr 48 Cu 47.5 Al 4 Fe 0.5 ) is considerably larger than for Zr 48 Cu 48 Al 4 or the alloys with x  = 1. Slight variations in the Young's modulus (around 5-10%) and significant changes in the yield stress (up to 25%) are also observed depending on the composition. The different microstructural factors that have an influence on the mechanical behavior of these composites are investigated in detail: (i) co-existence of amorphous and crystalline phases in the as-cast state, (ii) nature of the crystalline phases (austenite versus martensite content), and (iii) propensity for the austenite to undergo a mechanically-driven martensitic transformation during plastic deformation. Evidence for intragranular nanotwins likely generated in the course of the austenite-martensite transformation is provided by transmission electron microscopy. Our results reveal that fine-tuning of the composition of the Zr-Cu-Al-(Fe,Co) system is crucial in order to optimize the mechanical performance of these bulk MG composites, to make them suitable materials for structural applications.

  15. MINOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES AND METHODS OF THEIR FINANCING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Komissarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minor enterprises do not have resources sufficient for investment. Present experience of venture financing and attraction of funds from finance markets is poor in Russia. Main minor entrepreneurship financing sources are state allocations in the form of subsidies, subventionsand donations. This support promotes economics diversification and increases jobs. The state becomes client of innovations and provides for business environment favorable for minor entrepreneurship and for subsequent diffusion of innovations. One of most efficient innovationactivity stimulation methods (applied to minor enterprises as well is provision for tax privileges, favorable state bank credits and preferences to innovation activity supporting commercial banks.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Minority Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, R.

    2005-02-01

    New branches of scientific disciplines often have a few paradigmatic models that serve as a testing ground for theories and a starting point for new inquiries. In the late 1990s, one of these models found fertile ground in the growing field of econophysics: the Minority Game (MG), a model for speculative markets that combined conceptual simplicity with interesting emergent behaviour and challenging mathematics. The two basic ingredients were the minority mechanism (a large number of players have to choose one of two alternatives in each round, and the minority wins) and limited rationality (each player has a small set of decision rules, and chooses the more successful ones). Combining these, one observes a phase transition between a crowded and an inefficient market phase, fat-tailed price distributions at the transition, and many other nontrivial effects. Now, seven years after the first paper, three of the key players—Damien Challet, Matteo Marsili and Yi-Cheng Zhang—have published a monograph that summarizes the current state of the science. The book consists of two parts: a 100-page overview of the various aspects of the MG, and reprints of many essential papers. The first chapters of Part I give a well-written description of the motivation and the history behind the MG, and then go into the phenomenology and the mathematical treatment of the model. The authors emphasize the `physics' underlying the behaviour and give coherent, intuitive explanations that are difficult to extract from the original papers. The mathematics is outlined, but calculations are not carried out in great detail (maybe they could have been included in an appendix). Chapter 4 then discusses how and why the MG is a model for speculative markets, how it can be modified to give a closer fit to observed market statistics (in particular, reproducing the `stylized facts' of fat-tailed distributions and volatility clustering), and what conclusions one can draw from the behaviour of the MG

  17. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  18. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  19. System Dynamics Modeling of Households' Electricity Consumption and Cost-Income Ratio: a Case Study of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariss, Uldis; Bazbauers, Gatis; Blumberga, Andra; Blumberga, Dagnija

    2017-11-01

    Increased energy efficiency of the building sector is high on the list of priorities for energy policy since better energy efficiency would help to reduce impact on climate change and increase security of energy supply. One aim of the present study was to find a relative effect of growth of demand for energy services due to changes in income, energy consumption per unit of demand due to technological development, changes in electricity price and household income on household electricity consumption in Latvia. The method applied included system dynamics modeling and data from a household survey regarding the relationship between electricity saving activities and the electricity cost-income ratio. The results revealed that, in direct contrast to the expected, a potential reduction of the electricity consumption is rather insensitive to electricity price and electricity cost-income ratio, and that the efficiency of technologies could be the main drivers for future electricity savings. The results suggest that support to advancement of technologies and faster replacement of inefficient ones rather than influencing the energy price could be effective energy policy measures. The model, developed in the study could be used in similar assessments in other countries.

  20. Determination of pharmaceutical residues and assessment of their removal efficiency at the Daugavgriva municipal wastewater treatment plant in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholds, I; Muter, O; Pugajeva, I; Rusko, J; Perkons, I; Bartkevics, V

    2017-01-01

    Pharmaceutical products (PPs) belong to emerging contaminants that may accumulate along with other chemical pollutants in wastewaters (WWs) entering industrial and/or urban wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). In the present study, the technique of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap-HRMS) was applied for the analysis of 24 multi-class PPs in WW samples collected at different technological stages of Daugavgriva WWTP located in Riga, Latvia. Caffeine and acetaminophen levels in the range of 7,570-11,403 ng/L and 810-1,883 ng/L, respectively, were the predominant compounds among 19 PPs determined in the WW. The results indicate that aerobic digestion in biological ponds was insufficiently effective to degrade most of the PPs (reduction efficiency <0-50.0%) with the exception of four PPs that showed degradation efficiency varying from 55.0 to 99.9%. Tests of short-term chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis for PP degradation in WW samples were performed, and the results reflected the complexity of different degradation mechanisms and physicochemical transformations of PPs. The toxicological studies of WW impact on Daphnia magna indicated gradual reduction of the total toxicity through the treatment stages at the WWTP.

  1. Palaeopathological Evidence of Infectious Disease in a Skeletal Population from Late Medieval Riga, Latvia (15Th-17Th Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards Guntis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in the Dome Church (Riga Cathedral Cemetery population, dating from the late medieval period (15th-17th centuries AD. A total of 274 individuals were macroscopically observed for evidence of infectious disease, and seven individuals with lesions possibly associated with a bacterial infection affecting the skeleton were selected for further analysis. Pathological changes on the outer table of the skull and in the long bones of legs characteristic of venereal syphilis were observed in four female and one male individual. Likewise, changes possibly related to late congenital syphilis were observed in a 14-15-year-old non-adult individual. All these individuals were buried in a small area adjacent to the northern wall of the Dome Church, which possibly belonged to a hospital or a shelter. The evidence for venereal syphilis from the cemetery complements historical data about the spread of the disease in Riga during the 16th-17th centuries AD. One adult male individual had destructive changes in the lower spine, which could be associated with tuberculosis (TB. So far, this is the first individual with possible TB from the archaeological populations of Riga. This research provides unique evidence about infectious disease in skeletal populations from the late medieval period in Latvia, and the results will be used as the basis for future research in the subject, including extraction of ancient pathogen DNA.

  2. Biodosimetry of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia and Latvia using the glycophorin A in vivo somatic cell mutation assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigbee, W.L.; Jensen, R.H.; Veidebaum, T.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 necessitated a massive environmental cleanup that involved over 600,000 workers from all 15 Republics of the former Soviet Union. To determine whether the whole-body radiation received by workers in the course of these decontamination activities resulted in a detectable biological response, over 1,500 blood samples were obtained from cleanup workers sent from two Baltic countries, Estonia and Latvia. Here we report the results of studies of biodosimetry using the glycophorin A (GPA) locus in vivo somatic cell mutation assay applied to 734 blood samples from these workers, to 51 control samples from unexposed Baltic populations and to 94 samples from historical U.S. controls. The data reveal inconsistent evidence that the protracted radiation exposures received by these workers resulted in a significant dose-associated increase in GPA locus mutations compared with the controls. Taken together, these data suggest that the average radiation exposure to these workers does not greatly exceed 10 cGy, the minimum levels at which radiation effects might be detectable by the assay. Although the protracted nature of the exposure may have reduced the efficiency of induction of GPA locus mutations, it is likely that the estimated physical doses for these cleanup worker populations (median reported dose 9.5 cGy) were too low to result in radiation damage to erythroid stem cells that can be detected reliably by this method. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Fruit Set of Several Sour Cherry Cultivars in Latvia Influenced by Weather Conditions Before and During Flowering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldmane Daina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit set is a crucial stage in the process of yield formation, which is influenced by environmental factors, growing technologies and peculiarities of genotype. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of pollen (viability and germination capacity and the effect of weather before and during flowering on fruit set in sour cherry cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’, ‘Zentenes’, ‘Bulatnikovskaya’, and ‘Orlica’. The research was carried out in Institute of Horticulture (Latvia University of Agriculture in 2009-2016. Good pollen viability and germination was found for cultivars ‘Latvijas Zemais’ and ‘Bulatnikovskaya’. Negative effects of increasing air temperature (in the range of 7.7 to 17.5 °C and relative humidity (in the range of 51.4 to 88.5% was observed for all cultivars during flowering. The effects of diurnal temperature fluctuations, wind and the amount of days with precipitation differed depending on sour cherry cultivar.

  4. U.S. Department of Energy physical protection upgrades at the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center, Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, M.; Hine, C.; Robertson, C.

    1996-01-01

    Approximately five years ago, the Safe, Secure Dismantlement program was started between the US and countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). The purpose of the program is to accelerate progress toward reducing the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This would be accomplished by strengthening the material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. Under the US Department of Energy''s program of providing cooperative assistance to the FSU countries in the areas of Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC and A), the Latvian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Research Center (LNRC) near Riga, Latvia, was identified as a candidate site for a cooperative MPC and A project. The LNRC is the site of a 5-megawatt IRT-C pool-type research reactor. This paper describes: the process involved, from initial contracting to project completion, for the physical protection upgrades now in place at the LNRC; the intervening activities; and a brief overview of the technical aspects of the upgrades

  5. Awareness of doctors of health care and possible therapy methods for alcohol and drug dependant patients in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave V.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim is to investigate the knowledge of Latvian doctors about addiction treatment and healthcare possibilities in Latvia, to compare which methods are the best known to physicians, and which are offered to addicted patients. Work material and methods. Questionnaire was developed by researchers themselves, it contains 14 questions (about demographical data, treatment methods and their application. 250 questionnaires were distributed, 158 (63, 2% were received. Results. Average age of participants – 43.7 years. 31,0% of respondents are psychiatrists, 13,3% – addiction specialists, 34,8% – other specialists (general practitioners, internists, health care doctors, neurologists and others, 12,0% – psychotherapists, 4,4% – surgeons, 1,9% – dentists and 1,9% – paediatricians. The best known were detoxification (98,2% and suggestion (892% methods. The least known methods for drug addicts were substitution therapy (73,4% and rehabilitation communities (73,4%. The most recommended treatment method was Minnesota programme – 108 (68,4% and detoxification 99 (62,7%, the least recommended – substitution therapy – 29 (18,5%. Conclusions. 17,1% of respondents do not meet patients with addiction problems, but 20,3% of respondents don’t recommend any of treatment methods. Although 73%-98% of respondents have information about treatment methods, only 18%-68% of respondents offer them.

  6. The circumstances of minor planet discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The circumstances of discoveries of minor planets are presented in tabular form. Complete data are given for planets 2125-4044, together with notes pertaining to these planets. Information in the table includes the permanent number; the official name; for planets 330 and forward, the table includes the provisional designation attached to the discovery apparition and the year, month, the day of discovery, and the discovery place

  7. Ethnic Minority Dropout in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from similar high school tracks show no significant…

  8. Ethnic minority dropout in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the first-year study success of minority students in the bachelor program in economics at Erasmus University Rotterdam. We find that the gap in study success between minority and majority students can be attributed to differences in high school education. Students from

  9. First records of 5 allochthonous species and subspecies of turtles (Trachemys scripta troostii, Mauremys caspica, Mauremys rivulata, Pelodiscus sinensis, Testudo horsfieldii and new records of subspecies Trachemys scripta elegans in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija PUPINA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the presence of allochthonous species of turtles in the nature of Latvia, as well as to withdraw them from the nature according to the "Plan on protection of Emys orbicularis in Latvia", officially approved by the Latvian Ministry of Environment (Pupiņš & Pupiņa 2007a. The methods of the research were: 1 information campaign and survey; 2 interviews with inhabitants; 3 field expeditions; 4 laboratory study of viability of found turtles. In course of research, five new allochthonous species and subspecies of the turtles were recorded for the first time, and new data were obtained about finding Trachemys scripta elegans in the nature of Latvia. Most of the registered animals (80% were removed from the nature. Since allochthonous turtles get there in the result of escape from pet-lovers and, apparently, illegal introduction into nature by their owners, education of population is of great importance.

  10. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions--Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to "neutralize" the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. Modelling soil erosion and associated sediment yield for small headwater catchments of the Daugava spillway valley, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soms, Juris

    2015-04-01

    The accelerated soil erosion by water and associated fine sediment transfer in river catchments has various negative environmental as well as economic implications in many EU countries. Hence, the scientific community had recognized and ranked soil erosion among other environmental problems. Moreover, these matters might worsen in the near future in the countries of the Baltic Region, e.g. Latvia considering the predicted climate changes - more precisely, the increase in precipitation and shortening of return periods of extreme rainfall events, which in their turn will enable formation of surface runoff, erosion and increase of sediment delivery to receiving streams. Thereby it is essential to carry out studies focused on these issues in order to obtain reliable data in terms of both scientific and applied aims, e.g. environmental protection and sustainable management of soils as well as water resources. During the past decades, many of such studies of soil erosion had focused on the application of modelling techniques implemented in a GIS environment, allowing indirectly to estimate the potential soil losses and to quantify related sediment yield. According to research results published in the scientific literature, this approach currently is widely used all over the world, and most of these studies are based on the USLE model and its revised and modified versions. Considering that, the aim of this research was to estimate soil erosion rates and sediment transport under different hydro-climatic conditions in south-eastern Latvia by application of GIS-based modelling. For research purposes, empirical RUSLE model and ArcGIS software were applied, and five headwater catchments were chosen as model territories. The selected catchments with different land use are located in the Daugava spillway valley, which belongs to the upper Daugava River drainage basin. Considering lithological diversity of Quaternary deposits, a variety of soils can be identified, i.e., Stagnic

  12. MARKETING - MANAGEMENT AS A SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE INTEGRATION OF THE FOREIGN STUDENTS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Владимировна Голубкова

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of integration of foreign students during their education at the present stage, in Latvia occurs extremely slowly.  It is determined, first of all, by the lack of scientifically proven study of the given problem. The solution of this problem is possible by the concentration in the single scheme of the theoretical aspects of marketing – management, logical constructs of the estimation criterion, allowing developing the marketing conceptions and finding an opportunity of its implementation through the creation of an organization that offers a product that meets the needs and demands of the consumer – the foreign student. The potential market and target consumer – the foreign students who studying in the universities located in the same geographical segment, defined as the result of marketing research and conducted polling has allowed defining the product and necessity of founding an organization, offering this product. For this purpose is developed the commodity portfolio based on the balance of its structure carried out the forecasting of the strategic planning and is determined its consumption value. The analysis of the competitive environment has allowed identifying the competitors in the geographical segment and a new method of the estimation of the competitiveness, to suggest the new type of competitive strategy, the strategy of the management for an organization. Having determined the necessity of creation of an organization is given the assessment of the possibility of the creation of an organization, offering a product that meets the needs, requirements of the consumer – the foreign student that proves the solution of the problem of the integration process through the exchange as the key category of marketing.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-6

  13. Clinical aspects of the health disturbances in Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident clean-up workers (liquidators) from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglite, M E; Zvagule, T J; Rainsford, K D; Reste, J D; Curbakova, E V; Kurjane, N N

    2009-06-01

    The health status of some 6,000 workers from Latvia who went to clean-up the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) site following the explosion on 26 April 1986 has been analyzed. The data on these workers have been recorded in the Latvian State Register of Occupational disease patients and people exposed to ionizing radiation due to Chernobyl NPP accident (Latvian State Register) that was established in 1994. From these data, estimates have been made of external ionizing radiation to which these workers were exposed together with observations on the impact of exposure to heavy metals (especially lead and zinc) and radioactive isotopes released during the reactor 'meltdown'. These factors along with psycho-emotional and social-economic stresses account for a marked excess of mortality and morbidity in the group of CNPP accident clean-up workers compared with that of the non-exposed normal Latvian population adjusted for age and sex. The number of diseases or conditions in the CNPP accident clean-up workers has progressively risen from an average of 1.3 in 1986 to 10.9 in 2007. This exceeds for the Latvian population when adjusted for age and sex. The most serious conditions affect the nervous, digestive, respiratory, cardiovascular, endocrine (especially thyroid) and immunological systems. While the morbidity associated with diseases of the respiratory and digestive systems has decreased in recent years that in the other systems is increasing. In recent years, there has been an increased occurrence of cancers affecting the thyroid, prostate and stomach. Clinical and laboratory investigations suggest that surviving CNPP accident clean-up workers exhibit signs of immuno-inflammatory reactions causing premature aging with evidence of autoimmune diseases and immunological deficiencies or abnormalities. It is suggested that the CNPP accident clean-up workers may have a specific syndrome, the 'Chernobyl post-radiation neurosomatic polypathy', due to sustained oxidant

  14. The Human Rights of Minority Women:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbøl, Camilla Ida

    2010-01-01

    . These challenges go beyond the Romani issue only and into larger issues of women and minorities. It raises questions as to whether the historical separation between categories of gender and race/ethnicity within the international community in practice has become a gap that isolates Romani women from the human...... rights attention that they claim. It is argued that in order to strengthen the validity of human rights in the lives of Romani women, as a framework that ensures their full and equal protection, special attention needs to be given to interrelated grounds and forms of discrimination. “Intersectionality......This article explores the complexities surrounding the human rights of minority women. With analytical focus on Romani women in Europe it seeks to contribute with new insight into the grey areas of rights issues, where groups within special rights categories share different human rights concerns...

  15. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  16. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dace, Elina; Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra; Kaczala, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  17. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Two)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-10-01

    Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.

  18. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.

  19. Protocol between the government of the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency additional to the agreement for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 December 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 12 July 2001. 2. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Latvia and the Agency, i.e. on 12 July 2001

  20. Protocol between the government of the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency additional to the agreement for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-28

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Safeguards Agreement concluded between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Additional Protocol was approved by the Board of Governors on 7 December 2000. It was signed in Vienna on 12 July 2001. 2. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force upon signature by the representatives of Latvia and the Agency, i.e. on 12 July 2001.

  1. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    2007-01-01

    Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Fifth Edition, is the official reference for the field of the IAU, which serves as the internationally recognised authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and any surface features on them. The accelerating rate of the discovery of minor planets has not only made a new edition of this established compendium necessary but has also significantly altered its scope: this thoroughly revised edition concentrates on the approximately 10,000 minor planets that carry a name. It provides authoritative information about the basis for all names of minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, this collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions. The fifth edition serves as the primary reference, with plans for complementary booklets with newl...

  2. Demarketing, minorities, and national attachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.; Nisan, Udi

    This study addresses two important global trends: protection of public goods, specifically the environment, and the emergence of multiethnic societies with influential minority groups. The study tests the effect of a government proenvironmental demarketing campaign on the deconsumption behavior of

  3. Properties of minor actinide nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Masahide; Itoh, Akinori; Akabori, Mitsuo; Arai, Yasuo; Minato, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    The present status of the research on properties of minor actinide nitrides for the development of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle based on nitride fuel and pyrochemical reprocessing is described. Some thermal stabilities of Am-based nitrides such as AmN and (Am, Zr)N were mainly investigated. Stabilization effect of ZrN was cleary confirmed for the vaporization and hydrolytic behaviors. New experimental equipments for measuring thermal properties of minor actinide nitrides were also introduced. (author)

  4. National Tests and minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal

    Assessment in school represent a technology and materiality with profound impact on the life, activities and interactions in school (eg. Lawn & Grosvenor, 2005). It can be considered as an integrated and in different ways also dominating part of pedagogic practice which influence processes of in...... – in the classroom – as well as at the macro level – the nation.The practice of teachers offering national tests occurs in different forms in primary schools throughout the world (eg. McNess et al. 2015). These practices are often associated with a curriculum and learning objectives that are nationalistic...... in their orientation. In a policy perspective, the underlying motive may be a desire to evaluate and compare students’ academic development and performance as well as schools’ performance and goal attainment at the national level. National testing are based on the assumption that the tested pupils all speak the same...

  5. Criminal law policy of Latvia in the context of European Union: The treaty of Lisbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.

  6. The ESR age of Portlandia arctica shells from glacial deposits of Central Latvia . an answer to a controversy on the age and genesis of their enclosing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molodkov, Anatoly; Dreimanis, Aleksis; ĀBoltiņš, Ojars; Raukas, Anto

    The occurrence of Portlandia arctica shells in glacigenic sediments of Central Latvia had created a controversy in many publications about (1) their age ranging from the Holsteinian to the Late Weichselian and (2) the genesis of their enclosing sediments: glacial, glaciomarine or marine. Our reinvestigation of the main object of controversy, the Lı¯čupe site, leads to a conclusion that the sedimentary package of diamictons, clays and sands containing Portlandia arctica shells and marine microfossils is a large glacial raft that had been transported and deposited by the Riga lobe during the Weichselian. The electron spin resonance (ESR) ages on five sets of Portlandia arctica shells from the Lı¯čupe and Daugmales Tomēni sites range from 86.0±6.8 to 105.0±9.2 ka BP. These ESR age determinations and the cool climate indicators of the associated microflora and microfauna suggest that their source sediments, probably in the Gulf of Riga, are marine clays of Early Weichselian age, probably correlative to the Brørup Interstadial. In Central Latvia Portlandia arctica shells and their enclosing clay occur resedimented or translocated in glacial deposits during Weichselian glacial advances.

  7. CO2 taxes as economic tool for energy efficiency analysis of CO2 tax impact on energy efficiency projects in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberga, D.; Blumberga, M.; Veidenbergs, I.

    2005-01-01

    The intended purpose of the carbon tax is to reduce CO 2 emissions. This tax can play a significant role in the implementation of energy saving projects. The paper evaluates three market mechanisms for reducing greenhouse gas emissions: joint implementation, emissions trading and CO 2 taxes. The first market mechanism - pilot phase of joint implementation (Activities Implemented Jointly) opened the minds of specialists to the GHG emission reduction potential of energy efficiency projects. The second mechanism was implemented after Latvia had accepted the National Allocation Plan to start emission trading. The third mechanism is based on the introduction of a carbon tax, which will come into force in Latvia in July 2005. This paper describes the potential impact of this tax that could promote development of energy efficiency projects. The authors worked out an evaluation methodology to calculate the impact of CO 2 taxes on emissions levels and the potential value of such taxes. The proposed methodology is applicable to district heating companies and governmental institutions, defining links between the energy efficiency and CO 2 taxes and showing ways of justifying these taxes both economically and environmentally. (authors)

  8. Minority Status and Labor Market Outcomes : Does India Have Minority Enclaves?

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Maitreyi Bordia

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 61st Round of the National Sample Survey to understand the employment outcomes of Dalit and Muslim men in India. It uses a conceptual framework developed for the US labor market that states that ethnic minorities skirt discrimination in the primary labor market to build successful self-employed ventures in the form of ethnic enclaves or ethnic labor markets. ...

  9. Solar-wind minor ions: recent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bame, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the years following the Solar Wind Four Conference at Burghausen our knowledge of the solar wind ion composition and dynamics has grown. There have been some surprises, and our understanding of the evolution of the solar wind has been improved. Systematic studies have shown that the minor ions generally travel with a common bulk speed and have temperatures roughly proportional to their masses. It has been determined that the 3 He ++ content varies greatly; 3 He ++ / 4 He ++ ranges from as high as 10 2 values to below 2 x 10 - 4 . In some solar wind flows which can be related to energetic coronal events, the minor ions are found in unusual ionization states containing Fe 16 + as a prominent ion, showing that the states were formed at unusually high temperatures. Unexpectedly, in a few flows substantial quantities of 4 He + have been detected, sometimes with ions identifiable as O 2 + and O 3 + . Surprisingly, in some of these examples the ionization state is mixed showing that part of the plasma escaped the corona without attaining the usual million-degree temperatures while other parts were heated more nearly in the normal manner. Additionally, detailed studies of the minor ions have increased our understanding of the coronal expansion. For example, such studies have contributed to identifying near equatorial coronal streamers as the source of solar wind flows between high speed streams

  10. Investigation of mineral composition of differently treated devonian, quaternary and triassic clays of Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosorukovs, A.; Viss, R.

    1999-01-01

    Clayey fractions (particle size less than 5 μm )of the Latvian Devonian (Kuprava and Liepa deposits), Quaternary (Laza and Ugale deposits) and Triassic (Akmene deposit, Republic of Lithuania) clays have been obtained. The clayey fractions were converted in the form in which all the cations were exchanged for magnesium ions. After the ion exchange the fractions were treated with dimethyl sulfoxide or glycerol in the course for two days, one sample being subjected to thermal treatment at 550±110 C for two hours. Diffractograms for the treated samples have been obtained using a DRON-2,0 diffractometer (Co-radiation). Analysis of the obtained diffractograms show that: 1) the main clayey minerals of the Devonian clays occur to be hydromicas (mainly hydromuscovite) containing admixtures of kaolinite and quartz; 2) the main clayey minerals of the Quarternary clays also occur to be hydromicas - mixtures of hydrobiotite and hydromuscovite containing admixtures of kaolinite and iron-containing chlorite; 3) smectite occurs to be the main mineral of the Triassic clay; it contains admixtures of hydromica and chlorite; 4) the Triassic and Quaternary clays contain fine- and coarse-grained carbonates, mainly calcite, in quantities of 10-16%; 5) iron and titanium are included in fine grained minerals. (author)

  11. Minority workers or minority human beings? A European dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skutnabb-Kangas, Tove; Phillipson, Robert

    1996-07-01

    "European" identities may be politonymic, toponymic, ethnomyic or linguonymic (Bromley 1984). Each dimension may affect whether migrant minorities are treated as "European", and influence their schooling, integration and rights. Treatment and terminology vary in different states and periods of migration. However, the position for immigrated minorities is that they are still largely seen as workers rather than human beings with equal rights. Lack of success in schools is blamed on the migrants themselves rather than the educational system. This construction of migrants as being deficient is parallel to educational practice which falls within a UN definition of linguistic genocide, and contributes to mis-education. If current efforts in international bodies to codify educational linguistic human rights were to lead to greater support for minorities, this could assist in a redefinition of national identities and a reduction of racism and conflict.

  12. Minors and Sexting: Legal Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorang, Melissa R; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2016-03-01

    Sexting is the sending or forwarding of sexually explicit photographs or videos of the sender or someone known to the sender via cell phone. It has become common practice among young people, as cell phones are being given to adolescents at ever younger ages. Youths often send messages without giving appropriate thought to the content of the images. In studies on the subject, rates of minors who have sent sexual images range from 4 to 25 percent, depending on the age of the youths surveyed, the content of the messages and other factors. Because transferring and viewing sexually explicit material when the subject is a minor can be considered child pornography, there can be serious legal consequences. Several states have enacted legislation to help differentiate between child pornography and sexting by minors. The trend reflected in statutes has been that minors involved in sexting without other exacerbating circumstances should be charged with a less serious offense. There is no clear national consensus on how sexting by minors is adjudicated, and therefore we compared several statutes. Case examples are used to illustrate the range of legal outcomes, from felony charges to no charges. Two sexting episodes that were followed by suicide are described. We also address the role of the forensic mental health professional. © 2016 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  13. Legislative vulnerability of minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, Carlos Eduardo Artiaga; Silva, Ana Paula da; Bittar, Cléria Maria Lôbo

    2017-12-01

    Minorities are in an inferior position in society and therefore vulnerable in many aspects. This study analyzes legislative vulnerability and aims to categorize as "weak" or "strong" the protection conferred by law to the following minorities: elderly, disabled, LGBT, Indians, women, children/ adolescents and black people. In order to do so, it was developed a documental research in 30 federal laws in which legal provisions were searched to protect minorities. Next, the articles were organized in the following categories: civil, criminal, administrative, labor and procedural, to be analyzed afterwards. Legal protection was considered "strong" when there were legal provisions that observed the five categories and "weak" when it did not meet this criterion. It was noted that six groups have "strong" legislative protection, which elides the assertion that minorities are outside the law. The exception is the LGBT group, whose legislative protection is weak. In addition, consecrating rights through laws strengthens the institutional channels for minorities to demand their rights. Finally, it was observed that the legislative protection granted tominorities is not homogeneous but rather discriminatory, and there is an interference by the majority group in the rights regulation of vulnerable groups.

  14. DNA minor groove alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, W A

    2001-04-01

    Recent work on a number of different classes of anticancer agents that alkylate DNA in the minor groove is reviewed. There has been much work with nitrogen mustards, where attachment of the mustard unit to carrier molecules can change the normal patterns of both regio- and sequence-selectivity, from reaction primarily at most guanine N7 sites in the major groove to a few adenine N3 sites at the 3'-end of poly(A/T) sequences in the minor groove. Carrier molecules discussed for mustards are intercalators, polypyrroles, polyimidazoles, bis(benzimidazoles), polybenzamides and anilinoquinolinium salts. In contrast, similar targeting of pyrrolizidine alkylators by a variety of carriers has little effect of their patterns of alkylation (at the 2-amino group of guanine). Recent work on the pyrrolobenzodiazepine and cyclopropaindolone classes of natural product minor groove binders is also reviewed.

  15. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns...... the meeting between citizens with an ethnic minority background and the Danish state, represented by welfare institutions, in this case public elementary schools, and changes the character of this meeting for the individuals involved. In the article, I concentrate on two rights at stake in this meeting......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...

  16. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2016-10-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status-sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex-oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the associations of transitions with happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past 5 years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness.

  17. Happiness and Sexual Minority Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Reczek, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    We used logistic regression on nationally representative data (General Social Survey, N = 10,668 and N = 6,680) to examine how sexual minority status related to happiness. We considered two central dimensions of sexual minority status—sexual behavior and sexual identity. We distinguished between same-sex, both-sex, and different-sex oriented participants. Because individuals transition between sexual behavior categories over the life course (e.g., from both-sex partners to only same-sex partners) and changes in sexual minority status have theoretical associations with well-being, we also tested the effects of transitions on happiness. Results showed that identifying as bisexual, gay, or lesbian, having both male and female partners since age 18, or transitioning to only different-sex partners was negatively related to happiness. Those with only same-sex partners since age 18 or in the past five years had similar levels of happiness as those with only different-sex partners since age 18. Additional tests showed that the majority of these happiness differences became non-significant when economic and social resources were included, indicating that the lower happiness was a product of structural and societal forces. Our findings clearly and robustly underscored the importance of taking a multi-faceted approach to understanding sexuality and well-being, demonstrating that not all sexual minority groups experience disadvantaged happiness. Our study calls for more attention to positive aspects of well-being such as happiness in examinations of sexual minorities and suggests that positive psychology and other happiness subfields should consider the role of sexual minority status in shaping happiness. PMID:27102605

  18. The Willink Minority Commission and minority rights in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequently, copious provisions to protect some basic human rights and fundamental freedoms of all Nigerians were enshrined in the independence constitution. This article examines the debates about minority rights in the work of the Willink Commission and the circumstances leading to the enactment of human rights ...

  19. The prevalence of genital warts in the Baltic countries: findings from national cross-sectional surveys in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusküla, Anneli; Reile, Rainer; Rezeberga, Dace; Karnite, Anda; Logminiene, Zeneta; Padaiga, Žilvinas; Nygård, Mari

    2015-02-01

    To assess the prevalence and correlates of self-reported genital warts (GWs) among women and men aged 18-45 years in the Baltic countries. In 2011-2013 we performed a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to collect information on the history of clinically diagnosed GWs, sociodemographic characteristics and sexual behaviour. Probability sampling methods were used to invite 16,959 individuals representing the general population, of whom 7760 (45.8%) participated (Estonia: 1967 women, 1221 men; Latvia: 1525 women, 1525 men; Lithuania: 1522 women). The estimated lifetime prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs in women was 4.6% (95% CI 3.8 to 5.5) in Estonia, 2.9% (95% CI 2.0 to 3.6) in Latvia and 1.5% (95% CI 1.2 to 2.0) in Lithuania. Among men, the corresponding values were 2.8% (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) in Estonia and 1.9% (95% CI 1.3 to 2.6) in Latvia. The mean age at first episode of clinically diagnosed GW was 24.6 years (95% CI 23.6 to 25.5) for women and 24.5 years (95% CI 22.9 to 26.0) for men. A lifetime history of clinically diagnosed GW was associated with a history of sexually transmitted infections other than GW (adjusted OR (AOR) 3.0, 95% CI 2.1 to 4.3 for women; AOR 5.3, 95% CI 3.0 to 9.2 for men), and a higher number (5+) of lifetime sexual partners (AOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.2 for women; AOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.9 for men). Men living comfortably within their household income had higher odds for GW (AOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.2). Our estimated prevalence of clinically diagnosed GWs was lower than estimates from the general population of other European countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Minority Enrollments in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astin, Alexander

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, by the Director, Cooperative Institutional Research Program, University of California, Los Angeles, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, is stated to place special emphasis on possible explanations for recent changes in earlier trends in minority enrollments. (Author/JM)

  1. Opening the Suburbs to Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidoff, Paul

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, notes that the Suburban Action Institute is involved actively in assisting the cities by working to open opportunities in the suburbs for minority families, and advocates that New York City become alert and active in combating discriminatory…

  2. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... and transcend negative social categories about a ‘Muslim school girl' as ‘isolated and oppressed' and ‘too studios'. [1] I use the term ethnic minority, not as a distinction with numerical proportions, but rather related to societal power relations (Phoenix, 2001). In that way the Danish Palestinian pupils...

  3. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  4. Minority game with SK interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes, Pedro Castro; Sherrington, David

    2013-01-01

    A batch minority game with fake random history and additional SK-like quenched interaction is introduced and analysed. A mixing parameter λ quantifies the admixture and dictates the relative dominance of the two contributions: if λ → 0, agent decisions are based on their strategies and point-scores alone, as in the pure minority game, whereas for λ > 0 the agents also communicate with each other directly and update their points accordingly. Keeping the minority game dynamics in which the agents’ points are updated in parallel at each time step, the aim is to understand what happens if instead of simply using the normal strategy-based decisions, the agents also take account of an ‘effective field’ generated by the other agents. It is shown that the SK interaction introduces a ‘noise’ term which is broader than that in the normal minority game and which furthermore kills the normal phase transition. It is also shown that the same effect would occur if, instead of an SK interaction, Gaussian-distributed quenched random fields are added. By calculating order parameters in the time-translational invariant phase we show that the system is persistent in a ergodic phase. Both simulational and analytical results are presented. (paper)

  5. Minority Student Progress Report, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Porfirio R.; Luan, Jing

    This report offers a consolidated systemwide analysis of key issues and recommendations for improvement of minority recruitment and retention at Arizona State Universities and an evaluation of progress toward achieving Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR) approved recruitment and graduation goals. A description of ABOR system goals notes three goals:…

  6. African Journals Online: Latvia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Cambodia, Cameroon, Canada, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic, Congo, Republic, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Croatia, Cuba, Curaçao, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Djibouti, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, Arab Rep.

  7. Global rebounds boost Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Läti peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis leiab, et riigi majanduspoliitika on õigel teel ja et majanduskriis on peagi möödas. Läti riigikontrolöri Inguna Sudraba ja rahanduminister Einars Repse arvamused

  8. Investing in Youth: Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The series Investing in Youth builds on the expertise of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) on youth employment, social support and skills. It covers both OECD countries and countries in the process of accession to the OECD, as well as some emerging economies. This report provides a detailed diagnosis of the youth…

  9. MIRU-VNTR genotype diversity and indications of homoplasy in M. avium strains isolated from humans and slaughter pigs in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvisa, Adrija; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Silamikelis, Ivars; Skenders, Girts; Broka, Lonija; Zirnitis, Agris; Jansone, Inta; Ranka, Renate

    2016-09-01

    Diseases which are caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasing problem in the developed countries. In Latvia, one of the most clinically important members of NTM is Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated from several lung disease patients and tissue samples of slaughter pigs. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of the M. avium isolates in Latvia and to compare the distribution of genotypic patterns among humans and pigs. Eleven (Hall and Salipante, 2010) clinical M. avium samples, isolated from patients of Center of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (years 2003-2010), and 32 isolates from pig necrotic mesenterial lymph nodes in different regions (years 2003-2007) were analyzed. The majority (42 of 43) of samples were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis; one porcine isolate belonged to M. avium subsp. avium. MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 13 distinct genotypes, among which nine genotype patterns, including M. avium subsp. avium isolate, were newly identified. IS1245 RFLP fingerprinting of 25 M. avium subsp. hominissuis samples yielded 17 different IS1245 RFLP patterns, allowing an efficient discrimination of isolates. Clusters of identical RFLP profiles were observed within host species, geographical locations and time frame of several years. Additional in silico analysis on simulated MIRU-VNTR genotype population datasets showed that the MIRU-VNTR pattern similarity could partly arise due to probabilistic increase of acquiring homoplasy among subpopulations, thus the similar MIRU-VNTR profiles of M. avium strains even in close geographical proximity should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Minor sources of miner exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, J.C.; Green, N.; Brown, K.; O'Riordan, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of radiation exposure to miners in non-coal mines in addition to radon daughters are thoron daughters in mine air, long-lived radionuclides in mine dust and gamma radiation from the local rocks. A crude estimate of the total annual effective dose equivalent from these minor sources is 2 - 5 mSv which is of secondary importance compared to the dose from radon daughters. (UK)

  11. Principal minors and rhombus tilings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, Richard; Pemantle, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The algebraic relations between the principal minors of a generic n × n matrix are somewhat mysterious, see e.g. Lin and Sturmfels (2009 J. Algebra 322 4121–31). We show, however, that by adding in certain almost principal minors, the ideal of relations is generated by translations of a single relation, the so-called hexahedron relation, which is a composition of six cluster mutations. We give in particular a Laurent-polynomial parameterization of the space of n × n matrices, whose parameters consist of certain principal and almost principal minors. The parameters naturally live on vertices and faces of the tiles in a rhombus tiling of a convex 2n-gon. A matrix is associated to an equivalence class of tilings, all related to each other by Yang–Baxter-like transformations. By specializing the initial data we can similarly parameterize the space of Hermitian symmetric matrices over R,C or H the quaternions. Moreover by further specialization we can parametrize the space of positive definite matrices over these rings. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Cluster algebras mathematical physics’. (paper)

  12. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  13. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  14. Minority Outlook: Opening the Door in Biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiherr, Gregory

    1979-01-01

    The national Minority Biomedical Support (MBS) Program, established in 1972 with National Institutes of Health funds, is described with emphasis on its role in increasing minority representation in biomedical research. (LBH)

  15. Health Risks among Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual Minority Youth Communication Resources Protective Factors for LGBT Youth Survey of Today’s Adolescent Relationships and Transitions ( ... as a result of challenges such as stigma, discrimination, family disapproval, social rejection, and violence. Sexual minority ...

  16. Minority students benefit from mentoring programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, D L; Rodak, B; Fitzgerald, N; Baker, S

    1993-01-01

    Mentoring has been proposed as one strategy to attract minority students to the radiologic sciences profession. This case study describes a minority mentoring program conducted for pre-radiologic science students at a Midwestern university during the 1991-92 academic year. Ten minority radiologic science students enrolled in the mentoring program. The study showed that mentoring may be a viable option to serve the special needs of minorities for recruitment and retention.

  17. Minor and major depression in the general population: does dysfunctional thinking play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, LE.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Cuijpers, P.; Arntz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although most research suggests that minor depression is part of a depression continuum, conflicting results have also been found. Moreover, little is known about dysfunctional thinking in minor depression and how this varies along the continuum. Especially, research on the form of

  18. PETOM: Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Journal of Education, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of a two-year program called PETOM (Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities), which receives funding from the Kamehameha Schools and the University of Hawaii to prepare teachers of underachieving minority children. The program educates teachers who can make school successful for Hawaii's minority students.…

  19. The Minority Game : An Economics Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kets, W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a critical account of the minority game literature. The minority game is a simple congestion game: players need to choose between two options, and those who have selected the option chosen by the minority win. The learning model proposed in this literature seems to differ markedly

  20. The Minority Teacher Shortage: Fact or Fable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Richard M.; May, Henry

    2011-01-01

    This research examines national data on the status of the minority teacher shortage--the low proportion of minority teachers in comparison to the increasing numbers of students of color in schools. The authors show that efforts over recent decades to recruit more minority teachers, and place them in disadvantaged schools, have been very…

  1. Wellness of Minority Female Counselor Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, M. Ann; Trice-Black, Shannon; Butler, S. Kent

    2013-01-01

    Minority female counselor educators are faced with numerous challenges. This qualitative study revealed that for female minority counselor educators, these challenges continue to negatively affect their professional and personal experiences. It is through operational wellness practices and optimal balance and functioning that minority female…

  2. 14 CFR 152.419 - Minority business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minority business. 152.419 Section 152.419... AIRPORT AID PROGRAM Nondiscrimination in Airport Aid Program § 152.419 Minority business. Each person subject to this subpart is required to comply with the Minority Business Enterprise Regulations of the...

  3. 7 CFR 795.12 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 795.12 Section 795.12 Agriculture... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.12 Minor children. (a) A minor child and his parents or guardian (or other person responsible for him) shall be considered as one...

  4. 75 FR 81395 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities. The final rule implements the provisions.... It also requires each regulated entity to establish an Office of Minority and Women Inclusion, or...

  5. 75 FR 10446 - Minority and Women Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... 2590-AA28 Minority and Women Inclusion AGENCIES: Federal Housing Finance Board; Federal Housing Finance... minority and women inclusion. Section 1116 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 amended section... Loan Banks to promote diversity and the inclusion of women and minorities in all activities...

  6. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  7. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  8. Violence, Burnout and Minor Psychiatric Disorders in Hospital Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Dal Pai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Identifying the violence suffered by the health team workers and their association with Burnout and minor psychiatric disorders. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 269 health team professionals of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected through the use of the Survey Questionnaire: Workplace Violence in the Health Sector, Maslach Inventory Burnout and Self-Report Questionnaire. RESULTS Workplace violence struck 63.2% of workers, prevailing mostly in women (p = 0.001, among nursing auxiliaries/technicians (p=0.014 and was associated with minor psychiatric disorders (p<0.05, as exposure to different forms of violence increased the chances of these disorders by 60% (CI 95%: 1.2-2.1. The three Burnout dimensions were also associated to violence at work (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Health workers experience violence in the workplace and this exposure is associated with Burnout symptoms and minor psychiatric disorders.

  9. Children of ethnic minority backgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Stine Liv

    2010-01-01

    media products and toys just as they will have knowledge of different media texts, play genres, rhymes etc. This has consequences for their ability to access social settings, for instance in play. New research in this field will focus on how children themselves make sense of this balancing of cultures......Children of ethnic minority background balance their everyday life between a cultural background rooted in their ethnic origin and a daily life in day care, schools and with peers that is founded in a majority culture. This means, among other things, that they often will have access to different...

  10. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  11. Agreement of 21 December 1993 between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    The text of the Agreement between the Republic of Latvia and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 2 December 1993 and signed in Vienna on 6 December 1993 and in Riga on 21 December 1993

  12. The evolution of minor active and toxic gases in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; Davies, A.A.; McGahan, D.J.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1988-09-01

    This study has considered a number of toxic and active gases which could potentially form in relatively small amounts in a deep repository for radioactive wastes. It has been concluded that many of these would react under repository conditions or be highly soluble in groundwater. The minor amounts of the inert and relatively insoluble gas krypton-85 would dissolve in a small volume of repository water. The wide range of organic gases and vapours that could form in trace amounts has been shortened to a list of 21 by consideration of their toxicity, volatibility and extent of formation at a landfill site for non-radioactive waste. The amounts of the inert and inactive gas helium formed from α-particles and the decay of tritium will have only a very minor effect on the overall rate of gas production. (author)

  13. Anatomical study of minor alterations in neonate vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Adriano Rezende; Machado, Almiro José; Crespo, Agrício Nubiato

    2014-01-01

    Minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover are frequent causes of voice abnormalities. They may be difficult to diagnose, and are expressed in different manners. Cases of intracordal cysts, sulcus vocalis, mucosal bridge, and laryngeal micro-diaphragm form the group of minor structural alterations of the vocal fold cover investigated in the present study. The etiopathogenesis and epidemiology of these alterations are poorly known. To evaluate the existence and anatomical characterization of minor structural alterations in the vocal folds of newborns. 56 larynxes excised from neonates of both genders were studied. They were examined fresh, or defrosted after conservation via freezing, under a microscope at magnifications of 25× and 40×. The vocal folds were inspected and palpated by two examiners, with the aim of finding minor structural alterations similar to those described classically, and other undetermined minor structural alterations. Larynges presenting abnormalities were submitted to histological examination. Six cases of abnormalities were found in different larynges: one (1.79%) compatible with a sulcus vocalis and five (8.93%) compatible with a laryngeal micro-diaphragm. No cases of cysts or mucosal bridges were found. The observed abnormalities had characteristics similar to those described in other age groups. Abnormalities similar to sulcus vocalis or micro-diaphragm may be present at birth. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Workplace harassment: double jeopardy for minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, Jennifer L; Moore, Celia

    2006-03-01

    To date there have been no studies of how both sex and ethnicity might affect the incidence of both sexual and ethnic harassment at work. This article represents an effort to fill this gap. Data from employees at 5 organizations were used to test whether minority women are subject to double jeopardy at work, experiencing the most harassment because they are both women and members of a minority group. The results supported this prediction. Women experienced more sexual harassment than men, minorities experienced more ethnic harassment than Whites, and minority women experienced more harassment overall than majority men, minority men, and majority women.

  15. Aspartokinase in Lemna minor L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan F.; Dennis, David T.

    1973-01-01

    The growth of Lemna minor was followed by means of frond number, fresh weight, and dry weight measurements in the presence of various amino acids at a concentration 0.25 mm. Lysine inhibited growth but not to the same extent as threonine and homoserine. Isoleucine was also an inhibitor of growth. In the presence of methionine there was some growth for 2 to 3 days, but by 5 days most of the plants appeared to be dead. When lysine and threonine were added together, there was no growth at all, and the plants were dead after 5 days. This effect of lysine + threonine could be reversed by adding methionine or homoserine to the growth medium. The isolated aspartokinase from Lemna showed inhibition by lysine and higher concentrations of threonine. When these amino acids were added together at low concentrations, there was a concerted inhibition of the aspartokinase. It is suggested that some effects of amino acids on the growth of L. minor can be explained on the basis of a concerted feedback control of aspartokinase. Images PMID:16658324

  16. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  17. Minority Stress and Intimate Partner Violence Among Gay and Bisexual Men in Atlanta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Finneran, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) rates are disproportionately high among sexual minority populations. Few studies have examined the plausible relationship between minority stress and IPV among men who have sex with men. This study examines the associations between IPV and three indicators of minority stress: internalized homophobia, sexuality-based discrimination, and racism, in a large venue-based sample of gay and bisexual men from Atlanta, USA. Each of the minority stress measures was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of self-reporting any form of receipt of IPV. Significant associations were also identified between perpetration of IPV and minority stressors, with most types of IPV perpetration linked to internalized homophobia. This study confirms findings in a growing body of research supporting the relationship between minority stress and increased prevalence of IPV among men who have sex with men, and points to the need to address structural factors in IPV prevention programs for male-male couples.

  18. Ethnic Minorities: Elements in Defining and Hierarchisation of the Right to Difference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Čačić-Kumpes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The theme that this paper examines are minorities, or rather ethnic minorities, which are central within the framework of social phenomena and processes linked to the multiethnic and multicultural structure of contemporary societies. Proceeding from the assumption that clarity of concepts is a precondition for understanding and solving problems pertaining to ethnic minorities, the authors provide a critique of the definitions and differentiations of concepts from which, in concrete societies and in specific ways, the rights of ethnic minorities mainly derive. The problem is posed in the context of contemporary societies, especially the immigration societies of the European Union, and the authors note the ethnic heterogeneity of the latter and the declared general consensus on the right to difference and on the importance of this right. Comparing, on the one hand, the ethnic structures of fifteen countries of the European Union (based on census data and estimations, and on the other hand data pertaining to the legislative regulation of minority protection in these countries, the authors conclude that various forms of selective denial of equality of the right to difference are in action. Contemporary divisions distinguishing between formerly disprivileged traditional minorities that are striving towards their revitalisation, and new ethnic minorities that are being formed out of immigrant populations, open possibilities for new forms of discrimination. Therefore, the authors further conclude that an attempt should be made to make minority rights equal, also since establishing hierarchies of rights, as has been shown throughout history, may lead to frustrations with long-term consequences.

  19. Association of depression and anxiety with cardiovascular co-morbidity in a primary care population in Latvia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovs, R; Kivite, A; Ziedonis, D; Mintale, I; Vrublevska, J; Rancans, E

    2018-03-06

    Cardiovascular (CV) diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Globally, there is a growing interest in understanding and addressing modifiable psychosocial risk factors, particularly depression and anxiety, to prevent CVDs and to reduce morbidity and mortality. Despite the high premature mortality rate from CVDs in Latvia, this is the first Latvian study to examine the association of depression and anxiety with CVD morbidity in a primary care population. This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2015 within the framework of the National Research Program BIOMEDICINE at 24 primary care facilities throughout Latvia. Consecutive adult patients during a one-week time period at each facility were invited to join the study. Assessments onsite included a 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and a 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) followed by a socio-demographic questionnaire and measurements of height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, and total cholesterol. The diagnostic Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was conducted over the telephone within 2 weeks after the visit to the general practitioner. A multivariate model was developed using binary logistic regression. From the 1565 subjects (31.2% male), CVD was detected in 17.1%. Depression screening was positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) for 14.7%, and anxiety screening was positive (GAD-7 ≥ 10) for 10.1% of the study subjects. According to the MINI, 10.3% had current and 28.1% had lifetime depressive episode, and 16.1% had an anxiety disorder. Depression, not anxiety, was statistically significantly related to CVDs with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.52 (p = 0.04) for current depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and 2.08 (p = 0.002) for lifetime depressive episode (MINI). Current depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 10) and a lifetime depressive episode (according to the MINI) were significantly associated with increased risk of CV morbidity

  20. Minority game with arbitrary cutoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, N. F.; Hui, P. M.; Zheng, Dafang; Tai, C. W.

    1999-07-01

    We study a model of a competing population of N adaptive agents, with similar capabilities, repeatedly deciding whether to attend a bar with an arbitrary cutoff L. Decisions are based upon past outcomes. The agents are only told whether the actual attendance is above or below L. For L∼ N/2, the game reproduces the main features of Challet and Zhang's minority game. As L is lowered, however, the mean attendances in different runs tend to divide into two groups. The corresponding standard deviations for these two groups are very different. This grouping effect results from the dynamical feedback governing the game's time-evolution, and is not reproduced if the agents are fed a random history.

  1. Resistance to minor groove binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmegna, Benedetta; Uboldi, Sarah; Erba, Eugenio; D'Incalci, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    In this paper multiple resistance mechanisms to minor groove binders (MGBs) are overviewed. MGBs with antitumor properties are natural products or their derivatives and, as expected, they are all substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). However, a moderate expression of P-gp does not appear to reduce the sensitivity to trabectedin, the only MGB so far approved for clinical use. Resistance to this drug is often related to transcriptional mechanisms and to DNA repair pathways, particularly defects in transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER). Therefore tumors resistant to trabectedin may become hypersensitive to UV rays and other DNA damaging agents acting in the major groove, such as Platinum (Pt) complexes. If this is confirmed in clinic, that will provide the rationale to combine trabectedin sequentially with Pt derivates.

  2. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health......European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  3. Over het onderscheid en de oecologie van Lemna minor en Lemna gibba

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de L.; Segal, S.

    1968-01-01

    Flat forms of Lemna gibba (fig. 1, a—c) occur rather commonly and differ in several characters from L. minor (fig. 1, d—e), e.g.: The largest diameter of the air cavities below the lower surface of the discs averages 0,19 mm in L. minor, 0,36 mm in flat growth forms of L. gibba and 0,47 mm in

  4. Retaining minorities in engineering: Assessment of a program prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jennifer Marie (Phillips)

    Program assessment is an essential part of healthy program development. Assessment should include multiple considerations, dimensions, and outcomes that match the program's objectives. As a newly formed retention program, the Auburn University Minority Engineering Program, designed to help pre-engineering minority students make the transition into their freshman year of university studies, incorporated evaluation and assessment into all three components of the program (the interactive learning laboratory, critical-thinking workshops, and Sunday-evening tutorials) from the program's inception. If students successfully adapted to the university environment and the demands of the pre-engineering course of study, then retention of minority students in the College of Engineering should improve. Data were gathered on the students involved in the various program components. Students who entered the Minority Engineering Program were pre- and posttested on three standardized subtests (critical thinking, mathematics, and science reasoning) of the Collegiate Assessment of Academic Proficiency. The first-quarter grade-point averages of the students were also gathered to compare their grades to freshman students in previous quarters within the College of Engineering. Qualitative data were also gathered on this same group of students. An analysis of the data revealed that student achievement is affected by involvement in the Minority Engineering Program. Specifically, the first quarter grade point averages of students involved in the program exceeded those of their peers in earlier years of study prior to the program's existence. In addition, mathematics and science reasoning scores on standardized tests increased pre- to postintervention. Comments collected in journals and files also demonstrated use of critical-thinking and problem-solving skills employed by the students. Recommendations for alterations of the program were made based on the outcome of the program evaluation

  5. Awareness, training, exchange of information and co-operation among regulatory authorities and other law enforcement institutions. Experience and problems in Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, I.; Salmins, A.

    1998-01-01

    Latvia is developing infrastructure to ensure adequate system for safety and security of radioactive and nuclear materials, radiation sources and nuclear facilities within its Radiation and Nuclear Safety legal framework. The first phase of implementation was to establish and develop further relevant legal acts, but in the same time there was a need to improve the technical capabilities for the control of goods movement across the border and the need to establish the relevant educational system. The Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development (MEPRD) started to participate in this process from the early beginning when the problem of illicit trafficking was foreseen. After the technical expertise carried out by the Environmental Data Centre the first border guards and customs control points were equipped with portable measurement devices. By assistance of Nordic countries and USA this system is under constant development, but full scope conceptual analysis of entire problem is not yet finished. The need for further development of the training capabilities, as well as information sharing among all relevant institutions and awareness building for decision-makers still remains. (author)

  6. SIA "Statoil Fuel & Retail Latvia" komunikācijas sociālajos medijos; klientu uzrunāšana un uzklausīšana

    OpenAIRE

    Černova, Egita

    2013-01-01

    Bakalaura darbā "SIA "Statoil Fuel & Retail Latvia" komunikācijas sociālajos medijos; klientu uzrunāšana un uzklausīšana" tika pētīta uzņēmuma komunikācija sociālajos tīklos - komunicēšanas veids, identificējot sociālo tīklu lietotāju viedokli par to. Darba mērķis izpētīt „Statoil” komunikāciju sociālajos medijos un secinājumus piedāvāt kā ierosinājumus uzņēmuma komunikācijas pilnveidošanai. Darba teorētisko daļu veido nodaļas par Gruniga sabiedrisko attiecību komunikācijas modeļiem, so...

  7. Dynamics of the Minority Game for Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyungsik; Yoon, Seong-Min; Yum, Myung-Kul

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the minority game for patients, and the results known from the minority game are applied to the patient problem consulted at the department of pediatric cardiology. We find numerically the standard deviation and the global efficiency, similar to the El Farol bar problem. After the score equation and the scaled utility are introduced, the dynamical behavior of our model is discussed for particular strategies. Our result presented will be compared with the well-known minority games.

  8. LEGAL PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Klopčič

    2018-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia mentions only Italian and Hungarian national minority and Roma community as holders of special collective minority rights. Special rights of the autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national minorities in Slovenia are defined in Article 64. Although data on the ethnic structure in Slovenia reflect more heterogeneous ethnic structure, members of other ethnic groups than Italian and Hungarian national communities and Roma community, at present, do not...

  9. Nutritional composition of minor indigenous fruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shajib, Md. Tariqul Islam; Kawser, Mahbuba; Miah, Md. Nuruddin

    2013-01-01

    In line of the development of a food composition database for Bangladesh, 10 minor indigenous fruits were analysed for their nutrient composition comprising ascorbic acid, carotenoids and mineral values. Nutrient data obtained have been compared with published data reported in different literatur...... values of these minor fruits would make awareness among the people for their mass consumption for healthy life and to grow more minor fruit trees from extinction in order to maintain biodiversity....

  10. Results from occultations by minor planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    Since the minor planets are believed to consist of primordial matter dating from the time of the formation of the solar system there is great interest in determining their composition. It is therefore necessary to calculate their densities, for which we need accurate masses and sizes. On the rare occasions when a minor planet occults a star, timed observations of the event from a number of observing sites enable an accurate size of the minor planet to be determined. (Auth.)

  11. Minority Serving Institutions Reporting System Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The database will be used to track SSA's contributions to Minority Serving Institutions such as Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU), Tribal Colleges...

  12. Racial and ethnic minority enrollment in randomized clinical trials of behavioural weight loss utilizing technology: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, D L; Piers, A D; Schumacher, L M; Kase, C A; Butryn, M L

    2017-07-01

    Many racial and ethnic minority groups (minorities) are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity; however, minorities are often under-represented in clinical trials of behavioural weight loss (BWL) treatment, potentially limiting the generalizability of these trials' conclusions. Interventions involving technology may be particularly well suited to overcoming the barriers to minority enrollment in BWL trials, such as demanding or unpredictable work schedules, caregiving responsibilities and travel burdens. Thus, this systematic review aimed to describe minority enrollment in trials utilizing technology in interventions, as well as to identify which form(s) of technology yield the highest minority enrollment. Results indicated relatively low enrollment of minorities. Trials integrating smartphone use exhibited significantly greater racial minority enrollment than trials that did not; trials with both smartphone and in-person components exhibited the highest racial minority enrollment. This review is the first to explore how the inclusion of technology in BWL trials relates to minority enrollment and can help address the need to improve minority enrollment in weight loss research. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Major events and minor episodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Pontecorvo was a freshly graduated twenty one years old physicist when he joined, in the summer of 1934, the research group led by Enrico Fermi. In October the Panisperna boys would make their most important discovery – radioactivity induced by slow neutrons – and shortly thereafter would be parted by personal and historical events. This paper describes some episodes of those early years and of later periods, sketching a portrait of the team: starting from the extraordinary human and scientific experience of via Panisperna, up to the patent negotiations in USA, to which Pontecorvo’s flight to URSS put an end with unexpected consequences; getting to his first return in Italy, allowed by the sovietic government in 1978, on the occasion of the conference celebrating Edoardo Amaldi’s 70. anniversary. That was the first of several encounters of the author of this paper with Bruno Pontecorvo, which are here briefly recounted, as minor episodes giving a personal perspective on the man.

  14. Production and measurement of minor actinides in the commercial fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanbro, W.D.

    1997-03-01

    The minor actinide elements, particularly neptunium and americium, are produced as a normal byproduct of the operation of thermal power reactors. Because of the existence of long-lived isotopes of these elements, they constitute the major sources of the residual radiation in spent fuel or in wastes resulting from reprocessing. This has led to examinations by some countries of the possibility of separating the minor actinides from waste products. The papers found in this report address the production of minor actinides in common thermal power reactors as well as approaches to measure these materials in various media. The first paper in this volume, open-quotes Production of Minor Actinides in the Commercial Fuel Cycle,close quotes uses calculations with the ORIGEN2 reactor and decay code to estimate the amounts of minor actinides in spent fuel and separated plutonium as a function of reactor irradiation and the time after discharge. The second paper, open-quotes Destructive Assay of Minor Actinides,close quotes describes a number of promising approaches for the chemical analysis of minor actinides in the various forms in which they are found at reprocessing plants. The next paper, open-quotes Hybrid KED/XRF Measurement of Minor Actinides in Reprocessing Plants,close quotes uses the results of a simulation model to examine the possible applications of the hybrid KED/XRF instrument to the determination of minor actinides in some of the solutions found in reprocessing plants. In open-quotes Calorimetric Assay of Minor Actinides,close quotes the authors show some possible extensions of this powerful technique beyond the normal plutonium assays to include the minor actinides. Finally, the last paper in this volume, open-quotes Environment Measurements of Transuranic Nuclides,close quotes discusses what is known about the levels of the minor actinides in the environment and ways to analyze for these materials in environmental matrices

  15. Traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavkovski Peter

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Throughout Europe and within various historical and socio-economic conditions, Slovaks have formed many enclaves and diasporas. In order to investigate common cultural and ethnic characteristics and/or differences between Slovaks in Slovakia and the various diasporas that they formed in relationship with majorities of their host countries, we suggest the usage of the cartographic method. Namely, during the 1997-1999 the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science used the cartographic method to analyze various complex questions relating to the traditional culture and ethnic history of many Slovakian minorities in the countries of Central Europe: in Poland, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary. The project was named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central Europe - the application of ethno-cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestation. The project yield positive results and in 2000-2002 proceeded with yet another scientific project: Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Southeastern Europe - the application of the cartographic method in research and comparison of cultural manifestations once more, the data were obtained on the traditional folk culture of the Slovakian enclaves in Vojvodina and Croatia. The cartographic method used in both projects enabled researchers to document relevant data in a relatively short period of time. A solid foundation was created for a scientific synthesis of selected topics that deal with the traditional culture of Slovakian minorities in Central and Southeastern Europe, and its comparisons with the parent country culture. The cartographic method is widely used in Slovakia, in some 250 sites. Further, the scientific project of the Institute of Ethnology of the Slovakian Academy of Science named Traditional Culture of Slovakian Minorities in Central and Southern Europe as an integral part of their cultural inheritance (In between cultural stability and

  16. Traffic mortality and the role of minor roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Langevelde, Frank; van Dooremalen, Coby; Jaarsma, Catharinus F

    2009-01-01

    Roads have large impacts on wildlife, as they form one of the principal causes of mortality, and disturbance and fragmentation of habitat. These impacts are mainly studied and mitigated on major roads. It is, however, a widespread misconception that most animals are killed on major roads. In this paper, we argue that minor roads have a larger impact on wildlife with respect to habitat destruction, noise load and traffic mortality. We use data on traffic related deaths in badgers (Meles meles) in The Netherlands to illustrate that traffic mortality is higher on minor roads. We ask for a more extensive investigation of the environmental impacts of minor roads. Moreover, we argue that the success of mitigation on roads drastically increases when both major and minor roads are integrated in the planning of traffic flows. Therefore, we propose a strategy based on the concept of a "traffic-calmed area". Traffic-calmed areas create opportunities for wildlife by decreasing limitations for animal movement. We ask for further studies to estimate what size traffic-calmed areas should be to maintain minimum viable animal populations.

  17. Forms of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hacker

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phrase ‘Lebensform’ (form of life had a long and varied history prior to Wittgenstein’s use of it on a mere three occasions in the Philosophical Investigations. It is not a pivotal concept in Wittgenstein’s philosophy. But it is a minor signpost of a major reorientation of philosophy, philosophy of language and logic, and philosophy of mathematics that Wittgenstein instigated. For Wittgenstein sought to replace the conception of a language as a meaning calculus (Frege, Russell, the Tractatus by an anthropological or ethnological conception. A language is not a class of sentences that can be formed from a set of axioms (definitions, formation and transformation rules and the meanings of which is given by their truth-conditions, but an open-ended series of interlocking language-games constituting a form of life or way of living (a culture. Wittgenstein’s uses of ‘Lebensform’ and its cognates, both in the Investigations and in his Nachlass are severally analysed, and various exegetical misinterpretations are clarified.

  18. First record of Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Molorchus minor minor (Linnaeus (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae is recorded for the first time in Brazil (Bahia. It was originally described from Europe and is currently widely distributed in that continent and Asia.

  19. Cultural Minorities and Life Styles: Iranian Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Fakouhi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Globalization accelerated the paradoxical processes of modernization by introducing the cultural homogenizations and heterogenizations: construction and deconstruction of local-communitarian identities. This is why we are facing on the one hand, the increasing of local identities and visions and on the other hand, the interference, sometimes in a conflicted way, of the latter forms with the national and global identities. In this context, the Iranian problematic is discussed by an urban anthropological theoretical approach. The main concern in this article is the everyday life styles as the most important means of the cultural identity formation and their self expressions. Social constructed space as Lefebvre put it, and Cultural Studies tradition of everyday life, have been the starting points of this paper aiming to analyze the cultural resistance phenomenon expressed in physical and bodily spaces as well as in social and intercultural relations in domains such as age, ethnics and gender. These identity schemes have been taken as minority situations when they express in a way or other, some sort of cultural or social resistance facing a dominant pattern and by this way the paper try to present some practical and applied solutions to decrease the social tensions.

  20. Comparative Models for Preparing Teachers of Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Dale; Dolgos, Kathleen

    This paper highlights three programs that prepare culturally sensitive teachers to meet the needs of minority students. The University of Hawaii's Preservice Education for Teachers of Minorities has a partnership with the Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate private school for children of Hawaiian ancestry. The school brings new culturally sensitive…

  1. The Shortchanged: Women and Minorities in Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Rodney; Sapery, Elisabeth

    The study by a team from the Council on Economic Priorities found: (1) that employment discrimination against minorities and women is endemic to commercial banking; (2) that a majority of the commercial banks studied are unwilling to permit public scrutiny of their employment and minority lending practices; and (3) that both the secrecy and the…

  2. 22 CFR 51.28 - Minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... under § 51.28(a)(5) must be made by a senior passport authorizing officer pursuant to guidance issued by... appearance of the minor is specifically excused by a senior passport authorizing officer pursuant to guidance..., unless the personal appearance of the minor is specifically excused by a senior passport authorizing...

  3. School Effects on Performance of Minority Pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, W. H. Adriaan

    1994-01-01

    Presents results of a study examining the comparative effects of school (system) determinants on the educational careers of minority students in the Netherlands, drawing on rational choice and empowerment theories. Results indicate the importance of a school policy aimed at improving minority student achievement. Pull-out programs are detrimental,…

  4. Minorities and Women and Honors Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Maria Luisa Alvarez

    1986-01-01

    Although honors education can be a key to the liberation of women and minorities, both groups continue to be underrepresented, perhaps because bright women and minority students are uncomfortable displaying their talents and adding pressure in an already stressful situation. (MSE)

  5. Sociolinguistic Minorities, Research, and Social Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Mark; Raschka, Christine; Sercombe, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper suggests elements of an agenda for future sociolinguistics among minority groups, by seeing it as a mutual relationship that involves benefits to researcher and researched. We focus on two aspects of the relationship. One is the political, economic and social benefits that can accrue to a minority group as a result of the research.…

  6. Minorities Are Disproportionately Underrepresented in Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Mattison, Richard; Maczuga, Steve; Li, Hui; Cook, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether minority children attending U.S. elementary and middle schools are disproportionately represented in special education. We did so using hazard modeling of multiyear longitudinal data and extensive covariate adjustment for potential child-, family-, and state-level confounds. Minority children were consistently less likely…

  7. [Minor Uralic languages...] / Väino Klaus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Klaus, Väino, 1949-

    1998-01-01

    Arvustus: Minor Uralic languages and their contacts / University of Tartu ; editor A. Künnap. Tartu : University of Tartu, 1993 ; Minor Uralic languages: structure and development : [artikleid ja materjale / edited and preface by Ago Künnap]. Tartu : [Tartu University Press] ; Groningen : University of Groningen, 1994

  8. 7 CFR 1400.101 - Minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor children. 1400.101 Section 1400.101 Agriculture... SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Limitation § 1400.101 Minor children. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, payments received by a child under 18 years of age as of April 1...

  9. Minority Teacher Recruitment and Retention Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney-Gissendaner, Janet E.

    2010-01-01

    The tools and resources in this book help school leaders seamlessly incorporate minority teacher recruitment and retention programs into current human-resources activities. With details about exemplary minority teacher recruitment and retention programs, this book also showcases strategies for how to replicate such programs in your own school or…

  10. Do Double Minority Students Face Double Jeopardy? Testing Minority Stress Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jeffrey A.; Chun-Kennedy, Caitlin; Edens, Astrid; Locke, Benjamin D.

    2011-01-01

    Data from 2 studies revealed that ethnic and sexual minority clients experienced greater psychological distress on multiple dimensions than did European American or heterosexual clients, respectively, as did ethnic and sexual minority students who were not clients. Among sexual minority students, ethnicity was not an added source of distress.…

  11. LEGAL PROTECTION OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Klopčič

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia mentions only Italian and Hungarian national minority and Roma community as holders of special collective minority rights. Special rights of the autochthonous Italian and Hungarian national minorities in Slovenia are defined in Article 64. Although data on the ethnic structure in Slovenia reflect more heterogeneous ethnic structure, members of other ethnic groups than Italian and Hungarian national communities and Roma community, at present, do not have the status of a national minority in the sense of collective holders of minority rights. In February 2018 the draft Act on the Implementation of Collective Cultural Rights of National Communities of the Nations of the Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in the Republic of Slovenia was prepared. The draft received a support within the National Parliament of the Republic of Slovenia for further consideration

  12. Legal protection of informed consent of minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    One of the pillars of healthcare provision is respect for the autonomy of the patient's wishes, which is given substance by the process of obtaining informed consent. Minors deserve special protection, entitled to basic rights and increasingly autonomous as they develop. In certain situations, minors are deemed matures and able to consent to treatment without the involvement of a parent or guardian. The assessment of competence would be based on the child's functional ability, not on age or outcome of the decision. This manuscript includes a brief analysis of legal perspectives on informed consent of minors, and minors' capacities to make medical decisions. Remaining questions of how to evaluate capacity and balance parental and minor autonomy are explored. Considerations on informed consent in different situations as refusing treatment and termination of pregnancy by female children are analyzed.

  13. Multiple Minority Stress and LGBT Community Resilience among Sexual Minority Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Elizabeth A; Janulis, Patrick; Phillips, Gregory; Truong, Roky; Birkett, Michelle

    2018-03-01

    Minority stress theory has widespread research support in explaining health disparities experienced by sexual and gender minorities. However, less is known about how minority stress impacts multiply marginalized groups, such as lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people of color (LGBT POC). Also, although research has documented resilience in the face of minority stress at the individual level, research is needed that examines macro-level processes such as community resilience (Meyer, 2015). In the current study, we integrate minority stress theory and intersectionality theory to examine multiple minority stress (i.e., racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood) and community resilience (i.e., connection to LGBT community) among sexual minority men of different racial/ethnic groups who use a geosocial networking application for meeting sexual partners. Results showed that Black sexual minority men reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and White sexual minority men reported the lowest levels, with Asian and Hispanic/Latino men falling in between. Consistent with minority stress theory, racial/ethnic stigma in LGBT spaces and LGBT stigma in one's neighborhood were associated with greater stress for sexual minority men of all racial/ethnic groups. However, connection to LGBT community played more central role in mediating the relationship between stigma and stress for White than POC sexual minority men. Results suggest that minority stress and community resilience processes may differ for White and POC sexual minority men. Potential processes driving these differences and implications for minority stress theory are discussed.

  14. WFPC2 Observations of the URSA Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mighell, Kenneth J.; Burke, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    We present our analysis of archival Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) observations in F555W (approximately V) and F814W (approximately I) of the central region of the Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The V versus V - I color-magnitude diagram features a sparsely populated blue horizontal branch, a steep thin red giant branch, and a narrow subgiant branch. The main sequence reaches approximately 2 magnitudes below the main-sequence turnoff (V(sup UMi, sub TO) approximately equals 23.27 +/- 0.11 mag) of the median stellar population. We compare the fiducial sequence of the Galactic globular cluster M92 (NGC 6341). The excellent match between Ursa Minor and M92 confirms that the median stellar population of the UMi dSph galaxy is metal poor ([Fe/H](sub UMi) approximately equals [Fe/H](sub M92) approximately equals -2.2 dex) and ancient (age(sub UMi)approximately equalsage(sub M92) approximately equals 14 Gyr). The B - V reddening and the absorption in V are estimated to be E(B - V) = 0.03 +/- 0.01 mag and A(sup UMi, sub V) = 0.09 +/- 0.03 mag. A new estimate of the distance modulus of Ursa Minor, (m - M)(sup UMi, sub 0) = 19.18 +/- 0.12 mag, has been derived based on fiducial-sequence fitting M92 [DELTA.V(sub UMi - M92) = 4.60 +/- 0.03 mag and DELTA(V - I)(sub UMi - M92) = 0.010 +/- 0.005 mag] and the adoption of the apparent V distance modulus for M92 of (m - M)(sup M92, sub V) = 14.67 +/- 0.08 mag (Pont et al. 1998, A&A, 329, 87). The Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy is then at a distance of 69 +/- 4 kpc from the Sun. These HST observations indicate that Ursa Minor has had a very simple star formation history consisting mainly of a single major burst of star formation about 14 Gyr ago which lasted approximately stars in the central region Ursa Minor dwarf spheroidal galaxy are ancient. If the ancient Galactic globular clusters, like M92, formed concurrently with the early formation of the Milky Way galaxy itself, then the Ursa Minor

  15. Sexual minorities, human rights and public health strategies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made towards the recognition of sexual minority rights in Africa. At the same time, a marked increase in attacks, rhetorical abuse, and restrictive legislation against sexual minorities or ‘homosexuality’ makes activism for sexual rights a risky endeavour in many African countries. Campaigns for sexual rights and ‘coming out’ are frequently perceived as a form of Western cultural imperialism, leading to an exportation of Western gay identities and provoking a patriotic defensiveness. Cultures of quiet acceptance of same-sex relationships or secretive bisexuality are meanwhile also problematic given the high rate of HIV prevalence on much of the continent. This article examines specific initiatives that are using subtle, somewhat covert means to negotiate a path between rights activism and secretive bisexuality. It argues that strategies primarily focused on health concerns that simultaneously yet discreetly promote sexual rights are having some success in challenging prevalent homophobic or ‘silencing’ cultures and discourses.

  16. Minor actinide transmutation - a waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.

    1986-01-01

    The incentive to recycle minor actinides results from the reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk rather than from a better utilization of the uranium resources. Nevertheless, the gain in generated electricity by minor actinide transmutation in a fast breeder reactor can compensate for the costs of their recovery and make-up into fuel elements. Different recycling options of minor actinides are discussed: transmutation in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) is possible as long as plutonium is not recycled in light water reactors (LWRs). In this case a minor actinide burner with fuel of different composition has to be introduced. The development of appropriate minor actinide fuels and their properties are described. The irradiation experiments underway or planned are summarized. A review of minor actinide partitioning from the PUREX waste stream is given. From the present constraints of LMFBR technology a reduction of the long-term α-radiological risk by a factor of 200 is deduced relative to that from the direct storage of spent LWR fuel. Though the present accumulation of minor actinides is low, nuclear transmutation may be needed when nuclear energy production has grown. (orig.)

  17. CRIMINALITY AT MINORS WITH MENTAL DEFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Kitkanj

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present, from penological aspect, the involvement and structure of recidivism at minors with mental deficiency within the whole area of juvenile criminality in Macedonia. The research covers 62 subjects who pay the penalty in juvenile penitentiary or institutional measure directing to correctional institution for minors. Of the total number of minors who hold one of the above-mentioned sanctions, minors with lower average IQ are presented with 56.4%. The shown involvement is in penological terms (refers to minors who hold institutional measure correctional institution for minors or penalty - juvenile penitentiary which does not mean that this category of juvenile delinquents participate in such percent in the total number of reported, accused and convicted minors. According to the research results it can be concluded that falling behind in intellectual development is an indicator for delinquent behavior but in no case it can be crucial or the most important factor for criminality. Of the total number of juvenile delinquents with intellectual deficit, 80% are repeat offenders in criminal legal sense. It is of great concern that 56% of the under average juvenile delinquents defied the law for the first time before the age of 14 years that is as children.

  18. Visual and Computational Modelling of Minority Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertas Damaševičius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Minority Game and focuses on analysis and computational modelling of several variants (variable payoff, coalition-based and ternary voting of Minority Game using UAREI (User-Action-Rule-Entities-Interface model. UAREI is a model for formal specification of software gamification, and the UAREI visual modelling language is a language used for graphical representation of game mechanics. The URAEI model also provides the embedded executable modelling framework to evaluate how the rules of the game will work for the players in practice. We demonstrate flexibility of UAREI model for modelling different variants of Minority Game rules for game design.

  19. Bioactivity of Minor Milk Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Duc Ninh

    . In particular, 3-15% of very low birth weight preterm infants suffer from the most servere form of intestinal inflammation, known as necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This disease is incurable with a high mortality rate of 15-30%. Mother’s breast milk consists of different bioactive constituents...... of infant formula. Thereafter, bioactive milk components which were preserved in gently-processed infant formula were selected for further investigation of their immunomodulatory activity in cell and preterm pig models. We hope this project will contribute to the research on the development of new...

  20. Considerations for successful minority investments in independent power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleveans, Lincoln

    1998-01-01

    This article considers the role of lead developers and lead investors, and minority investors in power projects. The risks involved in minority investment without control is examined, and minority investor issues, the 'due diligence' of the minority investor, the need for timely information, and the importance of minority investors to the power project are discussed. (UK)

  1. Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus minor cabanisi in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... in Tanzania: a breeding record in a traditional beehive ... Scimitarbills Rhinopomastus minor entering a hole on the bottom of one of the bee- ... resident of open bushed and wooded habitats in lower rainfall areas east of Lake.

  2. Closing the Minority Achievement Gap in Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Minority students face numerous academic barriers for achievement in the classroom as well as outside the school. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) suggests six principles for maintaining the standard of school mathematics.

  3. Clinical Trials Shed Light on Minority Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander communities. OMH project manager Christine Merenda, M.P.H., R.N. explains ... are disproportionately affected by diabetes. But historically, both women and minorities have been under-represented in clinical ...

  4. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  5. Minority populations in Canadian second language education

    CERN Document Server

    Arnett, Katy

    2013-01-01

    This book broadens the study of second language learning in Canada beyond the examination of majority populations in French immersion to highlight lessons learned from studies of minority populations learning languages in Canada.

  6. International Legislation Specific to the Minor Immigrant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Pusca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inside the vast array characterizing the phenomenon of migration, in this paper we chose to focus our analysis on a unique and extremely delicate category: the minor immigrants. The main objective is to highlight the heterogeneity of juvenile migratory phenomenon, achieving a prospective of analyses which focuses not only on international law aimed at protecting minors but also on the flaws of European systems which ignore too often the importance of the superior interests of the child. Mainly the Convention on the Rights of the Child, signed in New York in 1959, provides a generalized protection of minor figure and it represents the legal basis for all rules directed towards children and thus to minor immigrants.

  7. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H J

    2013-02-01

    To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents' preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). The results showed that early fans of different types of rock (eg, rock, heavy metal, gothic, punk), African American music (rhythm and blues, hip-hop), and electronic dance music (trance, techno/hardhouse) showed elevated minor delinquency concurrently and longitudinally. Preferring conventional pop (chart pop) or highbrow music (classic music, jazz), in contrast, was not related to or was negatively related to minor delinquency. Early music preferences emerged as more powerful indicators of later delinquency rather than early delinquency, indicating that music choice is a strong marker of later problem behavior. The mechanisms through which music preferences are linked to minor delinquency are discussed within the framework of MMT.

  8. National Minority Organisations in Prague: structure, competence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sulitka, Andrej; Uherek, Zdeněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 5 (2015), s. 3-17 ISSN 0862-8351 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : ethnology * social anthropology * Czech Republic * minority * national policy Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Dynamics of the minority game for patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsik; Yoon, Seong-Min; Kul Yum, Myung

    2004-12-01

    We analyze the minority game for patients, and the results known from the minority game are applied to the patient problem consulted at the department of pediatric cardiology. We find numerically the standard deviation and the global efficiency, which is discussed similar to the El Farol bar problem. After the score equation and the scaled utility are introduced, the dynamical behavior of our model is discussed for particular strategies. Our results presented will be compared with recent numerical calculations.

  10. Ethnic Minority Personnel Careers: Hindrances and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Catharine

    2004-01-01

    Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...

  11. International Legislation Specific to the Minor Immigrant

    OpenAIRE

    Andy Pusca

    2016-01-01

    Inside the vast array characterizing the phenomenon of migration, in this paper we chose to focus our analysis on a unique and extremely delicate category: the minor immigrants. The main objective is to highlight the heterogeneity of juvenile migratory phenomenon, achieving a prospective of analyses which focuses not only on international law aimed at protecting minors but also on the flaws of European systems which ignore too often the importance of the superior interests of the ...

  12. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma.

  13. [Surgical management of minor salivary gland tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liang; Chen, Xiaoling; Huang, Weiting; Li, Kelan; Zhang, Xiaotong; Wang, Wei

    2007-11-01

    To study the clinical features of minor salivary gland tumors and to discuss the treatment modalities for these tumors. Retrospective analysis of 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumor operated in our hospital from 1997 to 2004. Among 54 cases with minor salivary gland tumors in this series, 16 patients lost of follow up. Among the remaining 38 patients, 2 patients with nasal cavity adenoid cystic carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 2 and 3 years after the surgery respectively, one patient with laryngeal myoepithelial carcinoma died of tumor recurrence 3 years after the surgery and one patient with paranasal sinus mucoepidermoid carcinoma died of recurrence 17 months after the surgery. Two patients with paranasal sinus adenoid cystic carcinoma recurred after the primary surgery and were survived without tumor after salvage surgery. The other patients survived with no tumor recurrence. While different histopathology of minor salivary gland tumors were found in this group, malignant tumors were predominant, accounting for 81.4%. The choice of treatment for minor salivary gland tumors depends upon the location and the histopathology of the tumors. The treatment policy for benign tumors is simple tumor excision, while that for malignant tumors is surgery combined with pre- or post-operative radiation therapy. Complete surgical resection of tumor masses and tumor free margin is essential for successful treatment of malignant minor salivary gland tumors.

  14. Tobacco sales to minors in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, Silvano; Tramacere, Irene; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Colombo, Paolo; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    One of the strategies to control tobacco is to limit purchase of cigarettes to minors. To understand the attitudes of Italian adults towards regulations to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco products, we added specific questions to the annual survey on smoking in Italy. During March-April 2007, we conducted a survey on smoking on 3,057 subjects representative of the Italian population aged > or = 15 years. Two specific questions were included, one investigating the attitudes towards the proposed legislation prohibiting purchase of tobacco to individuals under 18 years of age (instead of 16 years) as a policy to reduce smoking prevalence and consumption. The second question asked whether the current tobacco sales-to-minors law was observed. Overall, 78% of Italians believed that a restriction of the current tobacco sales-to-minors law could be moderately to extremely effective as a strategy to decrease smoking prevalence and consumption. More than 90% of Italians reported that they had never seen in their lifetime a retailer refusing to sell cigarettes to an adolescent or requesting the minor's identification or age. A restriction of the legislation, increasing to 18 years the minimum age for purchasing tobacco, would limit access to tobacco products by minors, only if adopted together with systematic and effective enforcement measures.

  15. The Historically Black Colleges and Universities/Minority Institutions Environmental Technology Consortium annual report, 1992--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The HBCU/MI Consortium was formed (1) to respond to national R and D, policy formulation and minority manpower needs in environmental technology, hazardous, solid and mixed waste materials management, environmental restoration, and environmental health; and (2) to address limited minority participation in the public, private and non-profit environmental industries; limited environmental awareness among minorities; minimal interaction between HBCUs/MIs and majority universities, industry and interest groups; limited institutional development in environmental education and research; and lack of minority technical businesses in the environmental industry. This report gives progress made for the 92--93 period.

  16. Valka-Valga: recomposition d’une agglomération frontalière entre Lettonie et Estonie ? Valka-Valga: the recomposition of a cross-border urban agglomeration between Latvia and Estonia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Orcier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Valka (Lettonie et Valga (Estonie forment un continuum urbain transfrontalier de 20 000 habitants. L’article propose d’envisager dans un premier temps la singularité de la configuration frontalière locale, dans le contexte de restauration nationale qui a caractérisé les Etats baltes depuis 1991, puis de leur intégration communautaire. La frontière est désormais complètement ouverte, mais fait partie de l’identité et du quotidien de la ville. Toutefois, le tissu urbain ne semble pour l’instant guère affecté par ce changement de statut, et des obstacles persistent à l’existence d’une vie transfrontalière plus marquée. Il existe pourtant des stratégies économiques visant à recoudre la trame urbaine, avec l’aide des fonds européens. L’exploitation de la frontière peut-elle jouer comme élément de reconversion d’une économie locale fragilisée par le déclin des activités industrielles et agricoles ? Le déclin économique et démographique est réel, longtemps accentué par le handicap que représentait la proximité de la frontière et une situation en périphérie des territoires nationaux. La ville réunifiée est-elle en mesure de redevenir un pôle régional à part entière, comme elle l’avait été pendant les siècles précédents ?Valka (Latvia and Valga (Estonia form a cross-border urban continuum of 20 000 inhabitants. The article first proposes to examine the singularity of the local cross-border configuration, within the context of national restoration, which has characterized Baltic States since 1991, and then their integration to the EU. The border is nowadays completely open, but is still part of the identity and everyday life of the city. To date the urban fabric has hardly been affected by this change of status, and obstacles still prevent the development of a more intense cross-border activity. However, economic strategies do exist to mend the urban fabric, with the help of EU funds

  17. Intersectionality, Recruitment and Selection : Ethnic Minority Candidates in Dutch Parties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mügge, L.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to explanations why ethnic minority women outnumber ethnic minority men in national parliaments of European immigration countries. Extending the intersectional lens it asks: which ethnic minority candidates are recruited and selected? Drawing on nine elections

  18. 75 FR 20977 - Departmental Management; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ...; Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers AGENCY: USDA. ACTION: Notice: Request for Nominations. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture (Secretary) establish the Advisory Committee on Minority Farmers (Committee) on... assistance to socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers, methods of maximizing participation of minority...

  19. Contributor Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2014-09-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  20. Contributors Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chief Editor

    2016-06-01

    to produce preprints or reprints and translate into languages other than English for sale or free distribution; and 4 the right to republish the work in a collection of articles in any other mechanical or electronic format. We give the rights to the corresponding author to make necessary changes as per the request of the journal, do the rest of the correspondence on our behalf and he/she will act as the guarantor for the manuscript on our behalf. All persons who have made substantial contributions to the work reported in the manuscript, but who are not contributors, are named in the Acknowledgment and have given me/us their written permission to be named. If I/we do not include an Acknowledgment that means I/we have not received substantial contributions from non-contributors and no contributor has been omitted.S NoAuthors' NamesContribution (IJCME Guidelines{1 substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2 drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3 final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3}.SignatureDate                              Note: All the authors are required to sign independently in this form in the sequence given above. In case an author has left the institution/country and whose whereabouts are not known, the senior author may sign on his/her behalf taking the responsibility.No addition/deletion/ or any change in the sequence of the authorship will be permissible at a later stage, without valid reasons and permission of the Editor.If the authorship is contested at any stage, the article will be either returned or will not be processed for publication till the issue is solved.Maximum up to 4 authors for short communication and up to 6 authors for original article.

  1. The impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M

    2011-04-01

    We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White) completed a questionnaire assessing gender expression, minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homophobia, and concealment), social-psychological resources (i.e., social support, spirituality), and health-related outcomes. We used structural equation modeling to test associations among these factors, with gender expression as an antecedent and social-psychological resources as a mediator between minority stress and health. The final model demonstrated acceptable fit, χ²(79) = 414.00, p accounting for significant portions of the variance in mental health problems (56%) and substance use (14%), as well as the mediator social-psychological resources (24%). Beyond indirect effects of minority stress on health outcomes, direct links emerged between victimization and substance use and between internalized homophobia and substance use. Findings indicate a significant impact of minority stressors and social-psychological resources on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. The results improve understanding of the distinct role of various minority stressors and their mechanisms on health outcomes. Health care professionals should assess for minority stress and coping resources and refer for evidence-based psychosocial treatments. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Nuptial and childbearing customs of the ethnic minorities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Y; Yang, Y

    1989-01-01

    The current nuptial customs of the ethnic minorities in China are examined. "Although monogamous marriage has now been adopted by all but a few ethnic communities, variations still exist between different nationalities in the specific forms of marriage and range of intermarriage owing to the uneven nature of historical development. Such variations are shaped by various factors of the given locality and given time such as the socioeconomy, religion, culture and education, and exert direct influence on the childbearing behavior and reproduction of the ethnic population." excerpt

  3. Methods and Contexts in the Study of Muslim Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Research on Islam and Muslim minorities in Europe has generally been focused on the active representatives of these groups, in the form of research on the development of movements and organizations, their legal and political status, activities and relations with the wider political contexts both ...... in the fields of race relations and migration have increasingly mobilized ‘Muslims’ and ‘Islam’ as a common denominator. Initially, among social scientists the motivation seems often to have been the necessity of refining larger unmanageable ethnic groupings....

  4. 78 FR 72527 - Minority Enterprise Development Week, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... fundamental promise. America's minority enterprises include everything from Main Street cornerstones that... to recover, our investments in minority owned and operated firms will help create jobs, strengthen...

  5. Disclosure of minor mental health problems: an exploratory theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Healy, D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore people's experiences, concerns and beliefs about disclosing minor mental health problems by focusing on the ways in which such disclosures are interpreted. Approximately half of people with mental health problems do not seek help. The decision to consult represents just one aspect of the process of revealing one's illness to others. People with mental health problems are known to be reluctant to reveal the existence of those problems through fear of how others might then view them. A qualitative approach was employed. In-depth interviews were carried out with 47 users and nonusers of community mental health services. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The data suggest that when people reveal minor mental health problems others interpret these in relation to a number of perceived contextual factors. These include perceptions of the severity and duration of any possible causes, the inner 'strength' of the person, the expected ability of the person to either solve or suppress the experience, and the form and context of the expression itself. The data presented included individuals who were seeking help for relatively 'minor' mental health problems (primarily depression and anxiety) and individuals who had no current mental health problems but routinely managed expressions of their own emotions. Throughout the data there appeared to be no distinct difference between these two groups other than one of the severity of psychological experience. The key elements involved in the interpretation of people's expressions of sadness were essentially the same as those involved in the interpretation of expressions of depression. An appreciation of these contextual factors influencing the interpretation and disclosure of minor mental health problems may aid the development of more person-centred mental health services and inform the content of health education in the mental health field.

  6. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups? Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. THE RIGHTS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES TO INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aid Mršić

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The public service, which should be the guardian of the identity of national minorities, fell under the political pressure. In this way, it came out of the scope of its actions. Leading people in independent media believe that the role of the public service is crucial in protecting national minorities.But the media can not do it alone. First of all, the state must regulate, and respect what it has brought. With strong strategies and the inclusion of national minorities in all social trends, it is possible to achieve, not fully, but partially, the equality of all those who liveon the territory of BiH.On the other hand, the public service must respect what the state says. The Communications Regulatory Agency is obliged to impose rules in an adequate manner and at the same time to monitor how much the media (public service meets its obligations.

  8. The minor collagens in articular cartilage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Yunyun; Sinkeviciute, Dovile; He, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Articular cartilage is a connective tissue consisting of a specialized extracellular matrix (ECM) that dominates the bulk of its wet and dry weight. Type II collagen and aggrecan are the main ECM proteins in cartilage. However, little attention has been paid to less abundant molecular components......, especially minor collagens, including type IV, VI, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII, and XIV, etc. Although accounting for only a small fraction of the mature matrix, these minor collagens not only play essential structural roles in the mechanical properties, organization, and shape of articular cartilage, but also...... fulfil specific biological functions. Genetic studies of these minor collagens have revealed that they are associated with multiple connective tissue diseases, especially degenerative joint disease. The progressive destruction of cartilage involves the degradation of matrix constituents including...

  9. Minors' rights in medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    In the past, minors were not considered legally capable of making medical decisions and were viewed as incompetent because of their age. The authority to consent or refuse treatment for a minor remained with a parent or guardian. This parental authority was derived from the constitutional right to privacy regarding family matters, common law rule, and a general presumption that parents or guardians will act in the best interest of their incompetent child. However, over the years, the courts have gradually recognized that children younger than 18 years who show maturity and competence deserve a voice in determining their course of medical treatment. This article will explore the rights and interests of minors, parents, and the state in medical decision making and will address implications for nursing administrators and leaders.

  10. Minority Capital Resource Handbook. A Guide to Raising Capital for Minority Entrepreneurs. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Samuel D., Jr.; Maloney, Clifton H. W.

    This minority capital resource handbook consists of a guide to raising capital for minority entrepreneurs and a listing of sources that provide such capital. The first section deals with the process of raising capital. The realities of raising capital, intermediaries and financial advisors, and assessing needs are outlined. Factors considered in…

  11. The BCLA Minor: Business, Communication, and Liberal Arts Minor at Towson University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahin, Linda

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a cross-disciplinary minor that combines elements of business, communication, and the liberal arts. The BCLA Minor enhances employment opportunities and cultural awareness for students with majors in the Colleges of Business and Economics, Fine Arts and Communication, and Liberal Arts by integrating the…

  12. The Impact of Minority Stress on Mental Health and Substance Use among Sexual Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehavot, Keren; Simoni, Jane M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined the direct and indirect impact of minority stress on mental health and substance use among sexual minority women. Method: A combination of snowball and targeted sampling strategies was used to recruit lesbian and bisexual women (N = 1,381) for a cross-sectional, online survey. Participants (M age = 33.54 years; 74% White)…

  13. The Importance of Minority Teachers: Student Perceptions of Minority versus White Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherng, Hua-Yu Sebastian; Halpin, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    The demographic divide between teachers and students is of growing public concern. However, few studies have explicitly addressed the common argument that students, and particularly minority students, have more favorable perceptions of minority versus White teachers. Using data from the Measure of Effective Teaching study, we find that students…

  14. Self-Esteem Comparisons among Intellectually Gifted Minority/Non-Minority Junior High Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legin-Bucell, Cynthia; And Others

    Differences in self-esteem between 48 minority and 62 non-minority intellectually gifted and 75 intellectually average junior-high students were assessed using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Results indicated a higher level of self-esteem for the gifted students than for the control group. Significant differences were also found to exist…

  15. [Health and wellbeing of sexual minorities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime; Gómez, Fabiola; Cárdenas, Manuel; Gúzman, Mónica; Bahamondes, Joaquín

    2017-09-01

    Most of the information in Chile about health and wellbeing of sexual minorities refers to risk behaviors. To assess health and wellbeing in a sample of Chilean homosexual men and women. Spanish versions of the Satisfaction With Life Scale and Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45) were answered by 191 homosexual women and 256 homosexual men aged 18 to 67 years, from four Chilean cities. Lesbian women have better levels of satisfaction with life and adjustment in personal relationships than homosexual men. Eight percent of respondents had suicidal thoughts in some moment of their life. The information gathered in this work could help in the development of mental health policies for sexual minorities.

  16. Chest radiography after minor chest trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossen, B.; Laursen, N.O.; Just, S.

    1987-01-01

    The results of chest radiography in 581 patients with blunt minor thoracic trauma were reviewed. Frontal and lateral views of the chest indicated pathology in 72 patients (12.4%). Pneumothorax was present in 16 patients; 4 had hemothorax. The physical examination and the results of chest radiography were not in accordance because in 6(30%) of the 20 patients with hemo/-pneumothorax the physical examination was normal. Consequently there is wide indication for chest radiography after minor blunt chest trauma. (orig.)

  17. Ethnic-minority climbers : Evaluating “minority cultures of mobility” as a lens to study Dutch minority student organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slootman, M.W.

    2018-01-01

    The increasing discomfort with ethnic diversity in many countries is paralleled by the emergence of middle classes consisting of second-generation immigrants who articulate their minority identities. This calls for an enhanced understanding of the experiences and identifications of social climbers

  18. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Joshua W. [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Roden, Richard B.S., E-mail: roden@jhmi.edu [Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States); Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies.

  19. L2, the minor capsid protein of papillomavirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Joshua W.; Roden, Richard B.S.

    2013-01-01

    The capsid protein L2 plays major roles in both papillomavirus assembly and the infectious process. While L1 forms the majority of the capsid and can self-assemble into empty virus-like particles (VLPs), L2 is a minor capsid component and lacks the capacity to form VLPs. However, L2 co-assembles with L1 into VLPs, enhancing their assembly. L2 also facilitates encapsidation of the ∼8 kbp circular and nucleosome-bound viral genome during assembly of the non-enveloped T=7d virions in the nucleus of terminally differentiated epithelial cells, although, like L1, L2 is not detectably expressed in infected basal cells. With respect to infection, L2 is not required for particles to bind to and enter cells. However L2 must be cleaved by furin for endosome escape. L2 then travels with the viral genome to the nucleus, wherein it accumulates at ND-10 domains. Here, we provide an overview of the biology of L2. - Highlights: • L2 is the minor antigen of the non-enveloped T=7d icosahedral Papillomavirus capsid. • L2 is a nuclear protein that can traffic to ND-10 and facilitate genome encapsidation. • L2 is critical for infection and must be cleaved by furin. • L2 is a broadly protective vaccine antigen recognized by neutralizing antibodies

  20. The provision of education for minorities in South Africa | Mothata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the light of a lack of a consensus on the definition of the concept minority and the continuing debates on minorities and their rights in education, policy makers need to consider the adequate provision of education suitable to different minorities. The issue of minority rights in education is particularly sensitive in South Africa ...

  1. The Truth about Mentoring Minorities: Race Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David A.

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year study of mentoring patterns at 3 corporations reveals that whites and minorities follow distinct patterns of advancement and should be mentored in very different ways. Cross-race mentoring must acknowledge issues of negative stereotypes, role modeling, peer resentment, skepticism about intimacy, and network management. (JOW)

  2. Ethnic Minority Women. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet contains information about the numbers and status of ethnic minority women in Great Britain. In 1991, the last full count, 1.5 million women in Britain classified themselves as other than White. Women from all ethnic groups are less likely to be economically active (paid for work or looking for it) than men. However, among ethnic…

  3. Ethnic Minorities in Britain. CRE Factsheet. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission for Racial Equality, London (England).

    This factsheet provides information about the status of ethnic minorities in Great Britain. At the 1991 census, just over 3 million (5.5%) of the people in Britain did not classify themselves as White. About half were of South Asian descent (Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi) and 30% were Black. Nearly 7.3% of the British population had been born…

  4. National Minority Health Month Spotlight: Career Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    April is National Minority Health Month and in support of the 2016 theme, Accelerating Health Equity for the Nation, the NCI Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities (CRCHD) is highlighting how diversity training and career development opportunities are contributing to efforts to reduce the unequal burden of cancer in our society.

  5. The Deaf Child as a Linguistic Minority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrow, Veda R.; Wilbur, Ronnie B.

    The author offers support for viewing the deaf child as a member of a linguistic minority and considers how this situation affects education of the deaf. Deaf persons are discussed in terms of their intellectual abilities, educational achievement, English competence, and the sociolinguistic factors which point to the existence of a deaf community.…

  6. LIMITING ORGANISATIONAL RIGHTS OF MINORITY UNIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1996-02-19

    Feb 19, 1996 ... market in recent times can be attributed, in part, to inter-union rivalry.1 Minority unions ... March 2013 – resulting in a negative impact on South Africa's GDP and currency depreciation. In. 2013, the .... Organisational rights are regulated by Part A and B of Chapter 111 of the LRA, and the right to strike is ...

  7. Language and Cultural Minorities Resource Catalog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine State Dept. of Educational and Cultural Services, Augusta.

    The revised edition of the resource catalog lists nearly 1,000 print and non-print materials for use in Maine schools where close to 7,000 children of linguistic minorities are enrolled. There are 19 sections on these groups or topics: Afghan, Asian and refugee, bilingual education, Chinese, civil rights, Eastern Europe, English as a Second…

  8. The SWOT Team Approach: Focusing on Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Susan E.

    1991-01-01

    Underscores the applicability of marketing principles to minority student recruitment and retention at community colleges. Proposes the assessment of an institution's Strengths, Weaknesses, and external Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) to strategically market the college. Considers the development of a plan for action based on the SWOT analysis.…

  9. Building the Minority Faculty Development Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Paul E.; Ganey, James H.; Brown, Marc D.

    2003-01-01

    Describes efforts toward minority faculty development in dentistry, including those of Harlem Hospital-Columbia University School of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, the National Dental Association Foundation, and Bronx Lebanon Hospital Center. Explains that critical elements in the success of these programs are environment, selection criteria,…

  10. Minority Students: Understanding a New Clientele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmy Rudnick, Diane

    1985-01-01

    Provides data on recruitment, family, academic background, attitudes, and extracurricular/cultural interests of 1288 minority engineering technology students. Indicates that although their high school achievement was superior to average freshmen, their limited finances and low self-esteem remain as problems. Recommendations for addressing the…

  11. Stillbirth in an Anglophone minority of Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Mortensen, Laust Hvas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed trends in stillbirth over time for Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, a large Canadian province with publically funded health care and an English-speaking minority. METHODS: We calculated stillbirth rates for Francophones and Anglophones, and estimated hazard ratios (HR...

  12. 40 CFR 161.60 - Minor uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor uses. 161.60 Section 161.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS... until it is applied to the major use registrations. (3) EPA will accept extrapolations and regional data...

  13. Minors and social networks: legal questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ramón Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The participation in a company increasingly technological does that numerous questions appear on the protection of the most vulnerable subjects, between them the minors. The influence of the social networks like instrument of communication is not exempt from risks for the quantity of information that is facilitated and is shared. The lack of a specific regulation that he contemplates from the point of view of the Law which is the protection that a minor must have, does that there take place situations of abandonment of the rights of the same ones.The opportunity of regulation has been left to escape in the future law of protection of the infancy, nowadays in phase of preliminary design, since it does not refer to the social networks since it had been desirable. The current procedure as for minors, as well as those of protection of information, between others, do not turn out to be sufficient to contemplate all the situations of risk that can be given in the above mentioned area. In the present work we propose to think on minors and social networks raising some legal questions, and trying to contribute some response to the problematics that appears in the juridical area.

  14. Education of ethnic minority children in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas; Horst, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the dominant approach to education of ethnic minorities in Denmark. Using the concept of hegemony and the political-science distinction between monocultural and multicultural positions as approaches towards a situation of increasing linguistic, ethnic and cultural diversity, t...

  15. The daily life of urban ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andries van den Broek; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2008-01-01

    Original title: Het dagelijks leven van allochtone stedelingen. The integration of ethnic minorities in Dutch society is not an easy process. The present emphasis on the problems means there is little room for attention for the daily lives of people within the various ethnic groups. This

  16. Partitioning and Transmutation of minor actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, L.; Wellum, R.

    1991-01-01

    The partitioning of minor actinides from spent fuels and their transmutation into short-lived fission products has been the topic of two dedicated meetings organized jointly by the European Commission and the OECD. The conclusion of the last meeting in 1980, in short, was that partitioning and transmutation of minor actinides, especially in fast reactors, seemed possible. However, the incentive, which would be a reduction of the radiological hazard to the public, was too small if long-lived fission products were not included. Furthermore this meeting showed that minor actinide targets or possible nuclear fuels containing minor actinides for transmutation had not yet been developed. The European Institute for Transuranium Elements took up this task and has carried it out as a small activity for several years. Interests expressed recently by an expert meeting of the OECD/NEA (Paris, 25 April 1989), which was initiated by the proposed Japanese project Omega, led us to the conclusion that the present state of knowledge should be looked at in a workshop environment. Since the Japanese proposal within the project Omega is based on a broader approach we needed this evaluation to assess the relevance of our present activity and wanted to identifiy additional studies which might be needed to cover possible future demands from the public. This workshop was therefore organized, and participants active in the field from EC countries, the USA and Japan were invited

  17. Drugs and Minorities. Research Issues 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gregory A., Ed.; And Others

    This volume contains summaries of the latest research focusing on the issue of the extent of drug use and abuse among racial and ethnic minorities and the factors influencing it. Taken into consideration are age and sex differences among users, narcotics addiction, socioeconomic influences, cultural factors, racial factors, demographic factors,…

  18. Early adolescent music preferences and minor delinquency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Bogt, T.F.M.; Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To test Music Marker Theory (MMT) positing that early adolescents’ preferences for nonmainstream types of popular music indicate concurrent and later minor delinquency. Methods: MMT was tested in a 4-year longitudinal study (n = 309). Results: The results showed that early fans of

  19. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish

  20. Densified waste form and method for forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garino, Terry J.; Nenoff, Tina M.; Sava Gallis, Dorina Florentina

    2015-08-25

    Materials and methods of making densified waste forms for temperature sensitive waste material, such as nuclear waste, formed with low temperature processing using metallic powder that forms the matrix that encapsulates the temperature sensitive waste material. The densified waste form includes a temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix, the matrix is a compacted metallic powder. The method for forming the densified waste form includes mixing a metallic powder and a temperature sensitive waste material to form a waste form precursor. The waste form precursor is compacted with sufficient pressure to densify the waste precursor and encapsulate the temperature sensitive waste material in a physically densified matrix.

  1. THE NATIONAL MINORITY CONSULTATIVE MECHANISMS - THE COUNCILS OF NATIONAL MINORITIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čorni

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to explore the practical application of the soft law, in concrete terms, the documents adopted by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, referring to the models of participation of national minorities in public life in the case of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The objective of the research was to assess the legal and political grounds for functioning national minority councils as participation and consultative mechanisms, scope of responsibilities and capacities in relation to their effectiveness and impact and to identify relevant good practices on such mechanisms. The political and decision-making structures in Bosnia and Herzegovina demonstrated lack of actual commitment to the realization of the rights of minorities referring to participation in decision-making processes. Bearing in mind formal position within parliaments, visibility, and a significant promotional capacity for presence in the public sphere, the councils on national minorities may represent a significant body and channel for the minority – majority dialogue. However, at the moment, the national minority councils’ capacity to ensure participation of national minorities in Bosnian political life and their influence in decision-making process remains insufficient. In general, the consultative mechanisms, within their mandated responsibilities, have had insignificant and minimal impact on the practical, political and legislative segment.

  2. The impact of civil union legislation on minority stress, depression, and hazardous drinking in a diverse sample of sexual-minority women: A quasi-natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Bethany G; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Hughes, Tonda L

    2016-11-01

    A small but growing body of research documents associations between structural forms of stigma (e.g., same-sex marriage bans) and sexual minority health. These studies, however, have focused on a limited number of outcomes and have not examined whether sociodemographic characteristics, such as race/ethnicity and education, influence the relationship between policy change and health among sexual minorities. To determine the effect of civil union legalization on sexual minority women's perceived discrimination, stigma consciousness, depressive symptoms, and four indicators of hazardous drinking (heavy episodic drinking, intoxication, alcohol dependence symptoms, adverse drinking consequences) and to evaluate whether such effects are moderated by race/ethnicity or education. During the third wave of data collection in the Chicago Health and Life Experiences of Women study (N = 517), Illinois passed the Religious Freedom Protection and Civil Union Act, legalizing civil unions in Illinois and resulting in a quasi-natural experiment wherein some participants were interviewed before and some after the new legislation. Generalized linear models and interactions were used to test the effects of the new legislation on stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depression, and hazardous drinking indicators. Interactions were used to assess whether the effects of policy change were moderated by race/ethnicity or education. Civil union legislation was associated with lower levels of stigma consciousness, perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms, and one indicator of hazardous drinking (adverse drinking consequences) for all sexual minority women. For several other outcomes, the benefits of this supportive social policy were largely concentrated among racial/ethnic minority women and women with lower levels of education. Results suggest that policies supportive of the civil rights of sexual minorities improve the health of all sexual minority women, and may be most

  3. Sextortion of Minors: Characteristics and Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolak, Janis; Finkelhor, David; Walsh, Wendy; Treitman, Leah

    2018-01-01

    Sextortion (threats to expose sexual images to coerce victims to provide additional pictures, sex, or other favors) has been identified as an emerging online threat to youth, but research is scarce. We describe sextortion incidents from a large sample of victims (n = 1,385) and examine whether incidents occurring to minors (n = 572) are more or less serious than those experienced by young adults (n = 813). We ran advertising campaigns on Facebook to recruit victims of sextortion, ages 18-25, for an online survey. We use cross tabulations and logistic regression to analyze incidents that began when 18- and 19-year-old respondents were minors (ages 17 and younger) and compare them with incidents that began at ages 18-25 years. Most minor victims were female (91%) and aged 16 or 17 when incidents started (75%). Almost 60% of respondents who were minors when sextortion occurred knew perpetrators in person, often as romantic partners. Most knowingly provided images to perpetrators (75%), but also felt pressured to do so (67%). About one-third were threatened with physical assaults and menaced for >6 months. Half did not disclose incidents, and few reported to police or websites. Perpetrators against minors (vs. adults) were more likely to pressure victims into producing initial sexual images, demand additional images, threaten victims for >6 months, and urge victims to harm themselves. Sextortion incidents were serious victimizations, and often co-occurred with teen dating violence. We describe resources so that practitioners can help victims find support and legal advice and remove posted images. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Television viewing and forms of bullying among adolescents from eight countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Pickett, William; Overpeck, Mary; Craig, Wendy; Boyce, William; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2006-12-01

    Based on theories suggesting that frequent television viewers act and react in hostile, malicious, malevolent, or verbally aggressive ways rather than being physically violent, the present study investigates relationships between television viewing and different forms of bullying. Multilevel regression models were estimated based on cross-sectional data from 31,177 adolescents aged 11, 13, and 15 years from Canada, Estonia, Israel, Latvia, Macedonia, Poland, Portugal, and the United States who participated in the 2001-2002 Health Behavior in School-aged Children Survey. Although all different forms of bullying were associated with television viewing in bivariate analyses, only the verbal forms (i.e. "calling mean names" and "spreading rumors") remained significant in multiple regression models. These relationships were observed consistently in all eight participating countries. However, the association between television viewing and physical forms of bullying such as kicking, pushing, or shoving around, varied across countries. In most weekend TV viewing cultures, frequent television viewers were prone to kick or push another student in addition to verbal forms of bullying, which was not the case in weekday viewing cultures. These results demonstrate the importance of limiting adolescents' time engaged in unsupervised television watching, and the need to motivate adolescents to engage in joint family activities or organized after-school activities.

  5. Latvia, Estonia differ on sugar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti põllumajandusministri Martins Roze sõnul ei toeta Läti Euroopa Komisjoni reformikava suhkruturu liberaliseerimiseks, samal seisukohal näib olevat suhkrutootmisega tegelev Leedu. Eesti põllumajandusministeerium reformile vastu ei seisa

  6. Unknown Latvia / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    Hiljuti ilmunud raamatu "Riga - the Civilization of Nobody" filosoofist autor Arvydas Juozaitis kohtus Vilniuses lugejatega. Raamatus käsitletakse tänapäeva Läti poliitikat, kultuuri, demograafiat ja ajalugu

  7. Logistics centres development in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kabashkin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the situation where a large increase in trade and freight transport volumes in the Baltic Sea region (BSR is expected and in which the BSR is facing a major economic restructuring, eff orts to achieve more integrated and sustainable transport and communication links within the BSR are needed. One of these eff orts is the development of logistics centres (LCs and their networking, which will continue to have an impact on improving communication links, spatial planning practices and approaches, logistics chain development and the promotion of sustainable transport modes. These factors will refl ect on logistics processes both in major gateway cities and in remote BSR areas. The importance of logistics systems as a whole is not seen clearly enough. Logistics actors see that logistics operations are not appreciated as much as other fi elds of activity. In addition, logistics centres and the importance of logistics activities to the business life of areas and the employment rate should be brought up better. In the paper main goal and tasks of national approach to LCs development are discussed. Strategic focus of new activities in this area is on the integration of various networks within and between logistics centres in order to improve and develop the quality of logistics networks as well as to spatially widen the networking activities. The key objectives are to integrate the links between logistics centres, ports and other logistics operators in a functional and sustainable way, to promote spatial integration by creating sustainable and integrated approaches to spatial planning of logistics centres and transport infrastructure, to improve ICT-based networking and communication practices of the fi elds of transport and logistics and to increase the competence of logistics centres and associated actors by organising educational and training events. The current activities include, for example, the creation of measures for transport networking and port modernisation, multimodal transport network strategies, integrated networks between ports, logistics centres and other operators, the better involvement of LCs in spatial planning and knowledge of the land use needs of the LCs, territorial impact assessments on selected transport corridors where logistics centres are located, the establishment of a common vision of the future spatial and environmental development along the transport corridors and LC-areas, the elimination of bottlenecks in port-hinterland-LC connections, the integration of telematics supported logistics networks based on identifi cation and analysis of networks.

  8. Self-stigma among concealable minorities in Hong Kong: conceptualization and unified measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Winnie W S; Cheung, Rebecca Y M

    2010-04-01

    Self-stigma refers to the internalized stigma that individuals may have toward themselves as a result of their minority status. Not only can self-stigma dampen the mental health of individuals, it can deter them from seeking professional help lest disclosing their minority status lead to being shunned by service providers. No unified instrument has been developed to measure consistently self-stigma that could be applied to different concealable minority groups. The present study presented findings based on 4 studies on the development and validation of the Self-Stigma Scale, conducted in Hong Kong with community samples of mental health consumers, recent immigrants from Mainland China, and sexual minorities. Upon a series of validation procedures, a 9-item Self-Stigma Scale-Short Form was developed. Initial support on its reliability and construct validity (convergent and criterion validities) were found among 3 stigmatized groups. Utility of this unified measure was to establish an empirical basis upon which self-stigma of different concealable minority groups could be assessed under the same dimensions. Health-care professionals could make use of this short scale to assess potential self-stigmatization among concealable minorities, which may hamper their treatment process as well as their overall well-being.

  9. NMR studies of DNA oligomers and their interactions with minor groove binding ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Patricia A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-05-01

    The cationic peptide ligands distamycin and netropsin bind noncovalently to the minor groove of DNA. The binding site, orientation, stoichiometry, and qualitative affinity of distamycin binding to several short DNA oligomers were investigated by NMR spectroscopy. The oligomers studied contain A,T-rich or I,C-rich binding sites, where I = 2-desaminodeoxyguanosine. I•C base pairs are functional analogs of A•T base pairs in the minor groove. The different behaviors exhibited by distamycin and netropsin binding to various DNA sequences suggested that these ligands are sensitive probes of DNA structure. For sites of five or more base pairs, distamycin can form 1:1 or 2:1 ligand:DNA complexes. Cooperativity in distamycin binding is low in sites such as AAAAA which has narrow minor grooves, and is higher in sites with wider minor grooves such as ATATAT. The distamycin binding and base pair opening lifetimes of I,C-containing DNA oligomers suggest that the I,C minor groove is structurally different from the A,T minor groove. Molecules which direct chemistry to a specific DNA sequence could be used as antiviral compounds, diagnostic probes, or molecular biology tools. The author studied two ligands in which reactive groups were tethered to a distamycin to increase the sequence specificity of the reactive agent.

  10. Collaboration of Business and Science in Latvia ES struktūrinių fondų parama ekonominės aplinkos kūrimui per verslo ir mokslo bendradarbiavimą Latvijoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Meženiece

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses the good practice of Finland, which reconstructed the path changing towards building innovation-based economy, and Denmark, where the several programmes for network building and enhancement of collaboration between entrepreneurs as well as entrepreneurs and research institutes were introduced successfully, in order to make recomendations for development of economic environment in Latvia. The authors consider, that in the case of Latvia, at first, the government must take action in order to establish the macro-level environment that enables conditions for innovative self-renewing systems as well as introduce schemes that would facilitate knowledge spillover and commercialization, promote business activities of academic staff and researchers, as well as formation of networks and clusters.

    Article in English

    Straipsnyje analizuojama kitų šalių geroji praktika, siekiant suformuoti su Latvijos ekonominės aplinkos plėtra susijusius siūlymus. Analizei pasirinkta Suomijos geroji praktika, pagrįsta inovacijomis ekonomika ir Danijos programos, susijusios su tinklo kūrimu ir bendradarbiavimo stiprinimu tarp verslininkų ir mokslinio tyrimo institutų. Autoriai mano, kad Latvijos atveju vyriausybė turi imtis atitinkamų veiksmų, siekdama sukurti makrolygmens aplinką, kuri leistų taikyti įvairias sistemas, palengvinančias žinių sklaidą ir komercializaciją, skatintų mokslininkų ir tyrėjų aktyvumą verslo veikloje, taip pat formuotų tinklų ir klasterių plėtrą.

    Straipsnis anglų kalba

  11. Vaccines for minor use and minor species (MUMS)--industry's views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönisch, B

    2004-01-01

    Over the past 30 years the importance of vaccines for minor use and minor species has changed for multinational animal health companies. The major reasons for this are being reviewed, with a particular focus on technical, financial and business aspects. Key regulatory obstacles to the development of new products for minor uses and minor species are identified, and examples of vaccines falling into the various categories are provided. A number of proposals are offered with the intention of resolving the medicines availability problem between all the stakeholders involved. Finally, based on the presented scientific and regulatory considerations, ideas are shared as to where the legal and economical framework would need to change to reach a viable solution.

  12. Introduction: Methods in the Study of Non-organized Muslim minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeldtoft, Nadia; Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2011-01-01

    Research on Islam and Muslim minorities in Europe has generally been focused on the active representatives of these groups, in the form of research on the development of movements and organizations, their legal and political status, activities and relations with the wider political contexts both ...

  13. Trophic transfer of cadmium from duckweed (Lemna Minor L.) to Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Yan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Huang, Jin; Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan

    2018-01-01

    The transfer of the toxic heavy metal Cd from duckweed (Lemna minor L.) to the freshwater fish tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) was investigated. Concentrations of Cd in different chemical forms in duckweed and in different tissues (gut, edible muscle, and remnants) of tilapia, i.e.,

  14. "This Is How You Hetero:" Sexual Minorities in Heteronormative Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaica, Steven; Kwon, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of sex education has been questioned, as students participate in high rates of unsafe sex after completion. Without exploring various sexual minority (SM) identities (e.g., gay, lesbian, and bisexual) and forms of sex, sex education may be especially unhelpful for SMs by perpetuating the heteronormative (i.e., assuming heterosexuality…

  15. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Cross-border mergers and minority protection
    An open-ended harmonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Wyckaert

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Minority protection is an important, though difficult, issue in company law, and a subtle balance must be struck between the legitimate interests of the majority and minority shareholder(s. The rules on minority protection in the context of the Cross-border Mergers Directive, which was recently adopted and should have been transposed into Member States’ national law towards the end of 2007, are examined in this paper. The authors analyse how minority shareholders are protected within the scope of this Directive and how some of the Member States (such as Germany, Italy, Belgium and the Netherlands have transposed or will transpose some of these protective provisions. The different levels of minority protection (information rights, consultation rights, rights to challenge majority decisions and other specific rights are considered, as well as which types of shareholders can benefit from such protection, and why they should be afforded protection. With respect to the last question, the authors conclude that the change in corporate law encountered especially by the shareholders of the disappearing company seems to be the major rationale underlying the European legislator's decision to introduce minority protection (but not oblige Member States to do so. The authors submit that this reflects too narrow a vision on the need for minority protection because it ignores the fact that the change of the corporate form as a consequence of a merger is in itself sufficient rationale for protecting minority shareholders. It remains somewhat of a mystery as to why the European legislator, while confirming that a cross-border merger should be subject to the same rules as a national merger, has created one possible and very vague exception to that rule.

  17. Socioeconomic status and parenting in ethnic minority families: testing a minority family stress model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmen, Rosanneke A G; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Prevoo, Mariëlle J L; Yeniad, Nihal

    2013-12-01

    According to the family stress model (Conger & Donnellan, 2007), low socioeconomic status (SES) predicts less-than-optimal parenting through family stress. Minority families generally come from lower SES backgrounds than majority families, and may experience additional stressors associated with their minority status, such as acculturation stress. The primary goal of this study was to test a minority family stress model with a general family stress pathway, as well as a pathway specific to ethnic minority families. The sample consisted of 107 Turkish-Dutch mothers and their 5- to 6-year-old children, and positive parenting was observed during a 7-min problem-solving task. In addition, mothers reported their daily hassles, psychological distress, and acculturation stress. The relation between SES and positive parenting was partially mediated by both general maternal psychological stress and maternal acculturation stress. Our study contributes to the argument that stressors specific to minority status should be considered in addition to more general demographic and family stressors in understanding parenting behavior in ethnic minority families.

  18. Sexual Minority Stressors, Internalizing Symptoms, and Unhealthy Eating Behaviors in Sexual Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz-Wise, Sabra L.; Calzo, Jerel P.; Scherer, Emily A.; Sarda, Vishnudas; Jackson, Benita; Haines, Jess; Austin, S. Bryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual minorities are more likely than heterosexuals to engage in unhealthy eating behaviors. Purpose To examine sexual minority stressors and internalizing symptoms as predictors of unhealthy eating behaviors among sexual minority youth. Methods We used longitudinal data from 1461 sexual minority youth in the Growing Up Today Study, across ages 14-28 years. We hypothesized that sexual minority stressors would predict unhealthy eating behaviors, in part due to internalizing symptoms. Linear regression models fit via generalized estimating equations were stratified by gender and sexual orientation. Results Significant positive and inverse associations between stressors and eating behaviors were detected among females and males, with more significant associations among females. Associations were attenuated by up to 71% for females and 12% for males when internalizing symptoms were added to the models. Conclusions Sexual minority stressors predicted unhealthy eating behaviors overall and more so for some sexual orientation and gender groups; associations were partially explained by internalizing symptoms. The conceptual model appears to best describe the experiences of bisexual females. Findings have clinical implications for adolescent health. PMID:26156678

  19. What is a good death? Minority and non-minority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elizabeth; McGraw, Sarah A; Dobihal, Edward; Baggish, Rosemary; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2003-01-01

    While much attention has been directed at improving the quality of care at the end of life, few studies have examined what determines a good death in different individuals. We sought to identify common domains that characterize a good death in a diverse range of community-dwelling individuals, and to describe differences that might exist between minority and non-minority community-dwelling individuals' views. Using data from 13 focus groups, we identified 10 domains that characterize the quality of the death experience: 1) physical comfort, 2) burdens on family, 3) location and environment, 4) presence of others, 5) concerns regarding prolongation of life, 6) communication, 7) completion and emotional health, 8) spiritual care, 9) cultural concerns, 10) individualization. Differences in minority compared to non-minority views were apparent within the domains of spiritual concerns, cultural concerns, and individualization. The findings may help in efforts to encourage more culturally sensitive and humane end-of-life care for both minority and non-minority individuals.

  20. Issues in contracting with small minority businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, M.T.; Radford, M.L.; Saari, L.M.; Wright, J.

    1986-04-01

    The focus of this investigation was to identify issues central to increasing the involvement of small minority businesses (MBs) in federal or prime contracts with the Department of Energy (DOE), as a foundation for designing a program to assist buyers of contracted goods and services. The approach to determining issues involved interviewing the owners of 15 MBs, representing a range of businesses, and buyers and purchasing officers from three large DOE prime contractors. The interviewees identified issues related to positive working relationships and rated a predetermined set of 27 potential MB-DOE problems regarding their existence and criticalness. The issues identified by MBs were of two broad types. The predominant issues and barriers were associated with their being small businesses. Secondary issues reflected the disadvantaged status of the business (woman and/or minority-owned).

  1. Mental health issues in unaccompanied refugee minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huemer Julia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies about unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs showed that they are a highly vulnerable group who have greater psychiatric morbidity than the general population. This review focuses on mental health issues among URMs. Articles in databases PsycINFO, Medline and PubMed from 1998 to 2008 addressing this topic were reviewed. The literature had a considerable emphasis on the assessment of PTSD symptoms. Results revealed higher levels of PTSD symptoms in comparison to the norm populations and accompanied refugee minors. In several studies, age and female gender predicted or influenced PTSD symptoms. The existing literature only permits limited conclusions on this very hard to reach population. Future research should include the analysis of long-term outcomes, stress management and a more thorough analysis of the whole range of psychopathology. Additionally, the development of culturally sensitive norms and standardized measures for diverse ethnic groups is of great importance.

  2. Perceived sibling relationships of sexual minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Richardson, Rhonda A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of sexual minority youth and their siblings. The participants were 56 lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender individuals ranging in age from 18 to 24 years, who reported information about a total of 107 siblings. Respondents completed a demographic data questionnaire as well as adapted versions of the Sibling Closeness Scale (SCS) and the Sibling Approval of Sexual Behavior Scale (SASBS) to describe their relationship with each of their siblings. Analyses examined birth order and gender in relation to outness to siblings as well as sibling closeness and approval. Results provide information about disclosure of LGBT status to siblings, elements of closeness and acceptance in sibling relationships of sexual minority youth, and the significance of gender and birth order in these sibling relationships.

  3. Education and ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Bjørg

    The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant, ......, among ethnic minorities and native danes can be explainedby differences i parental, family and ethnic background and, second, how education resources are allocated among children within ethnic minorities families.......The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant...

  4. Minor actinide transmutation in accelerator driven systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friess, Friederike [IANUS, TU Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Transmutation of radioactive waste, the legacy of nuclear energy use, gains rising interest. This includes the development of facilities able to transmute minor actinides (MA) into stable or short-lived isotopes before final disposal. The most common proposal is to use a double-strata approach with accelerator-driven-systems (ADS) for the efficient transmutation of MA and power reactors to dispose plutonium. An ADS consists of a sub-critical core that reaches criticality with neutrons supplied by a spallation target. An MCNP model of the ADS system Multi Purpose Research Reactor for Hightech Applications will be presented. Depletion calculations have been performed for both standard MOX fuel and transmutation fuel with an increased content of minor actinides. The resulting transmutation rates for MAs are compared to published values. Special attention is given to selected fission products such as Tc-99 and I-129, which impact the radiation from the spent fuel significantly.

  5. Implementing Minority Rights in the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-27

    strengthening the autonomous powers of local government over taxation , delivery of services, and language use. The government of the Republic of Macedonia...or a considerable number. The Center for Ethnic Relations at the Institute for Sociological, Political, and Juridical Research, as a scientific...Affairs, members of national minorities represent 16.5 percent of the total number of those employed, a figure that has almost doubled in only two to

  6. Minor lipophilic compounds in edible insects

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Sabolová; Anna Adámková; Lenka Kouřimská; Diana Chrpová; Jan Pánek

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is faced with the question how to ensure suffiecient nutrition (quantity and quality) for rapidly growing population. One solution can be consumption of edible insect, which can have very good nutritional value (dietary energy, protein, fatty acids, fibers, dietary minerals and vitamins composition). Some edible insects species, which contains a relatively large amount of fat, can have a potential to be a „good" (interesting, new) source of minor lipophilic compound...

  7. A Psychometric Review of Measures Assessing Discrimination Against Sexual Minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Todd G; Bishop, C J; Morrison, Melanie A; Parker-Taneo, Kandice

    2016-08-01

    Discrimination against sexual minorities is widespread and has deleterious consequences on victims' psychological and physical wellbeing. However, a review of the psychometric properties of instruments measuring lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) discrimination has not been conducted. The results of this review, which involved evaluating 162 articles, reveal that most have suboptimal psychometric properties. Specifically, myriad scales possess questionable content validity as (1) items are not created in collaboration with sexual minorities; (2) measures possess a small number of items and, thus, may not sufficiently represent the domain of interest; and (3) scales are "adapted" from measures designed to examine race- and gender-based discrimination. Additional limitations include (1) summed scores are computed, often in the absence of scale score reliability metrics; (2) summed scores operate from the questionable assumption that diverse forms of discrimination are necessarily interrelated; (3) the dimensionality of instruments presumed to consist of subscales is seldom tested; (4) tests of criterion-related validity are routinely omitted; and (5) formal tests of measures' construct validity are seldom provided, necessitating that one infer validity based on the results obtained. The absence of "gold standard" measures, the attendant difficulty in formulating a coherent picture of this body of research, and suggestions for psychometric improvements are noted.

  8. Older Ethnic Minority Women's Perceptions of Stroke Prevention and Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Ivy; Bharmal, Nazleen; Choi, Sarah; Araiza, Daniel; Moore, Mignon R; Trejo, Laura; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2016-01-01

    To inform the development of a tailored behavioral stroke risk reduction intervention for ethnic minority seniors, we sought to explore gender differences in perceptions of stroke prevention and physical activity (walking). In collaboration with community-based organizations, we conducted 12 mixed-gender focus groups of African American, Latino, Chinese, and Korean seniors aged 60 years and older with a history of hypertension (89 women and 42 men). Transcripts were coded and recurring topics compared by gender. Women expressed beliefs that differed from men in 4 topic areas: 1) stroke-related interest, 2) barriers to walking, 3) facilitators to walking, and 4) health behavior change attitudes. Compared with men, women were more interested in their role in response to a stroke and post-stroke care. Women described walking as an acceptable form of exercise, but cited neighborhood safety and pain as walking barriers. Fear of nursing home placement and weight loss were identified as walking facilitators. Women were more prone than men to express active/control attitudes toward health behavior change. Older ethnic minority women, a high-risk population for stroke, may be more receptive to behavioral interventions that address the gender-specific themes identified by this study. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, G. Ivan; Christenson, John M.; Renier, J.P.; Marcille, T.F.; Casal, J.

    2010-01-01

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs). A top-level objective of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Systems Analysis program element of the DOE NERI program is to investigate spent fuel treatment and recycling options for current light water reactors (LWRs). Accordingly, this project targets to expand the traditional scope of nuclear fuel management optimization into the following two complementary specific objectives: (1) To develop a direct coupling between the pin-by-pin within-bundle loading control variables and core-wide (bundle-by-bundle) optimization objectives, (2) to extend the methodology developed to explicitly encompass control variables, objectives, and constraints designed to maximize minor actinide incineration in BWR bundles and cycles. The first specific objective is projected to 'uncover' dormant thermal margin made available by employing additional degrees of freedom within the optimization process, while the addition of minor actinides is expected to 'consume' some of the uncovered thermal margin. Therefore, a key underlying goal of this project is to effectively invest some of the uncovered thermal margin into achieving the primary objective.

  10. Global warming and allergy in Asia Minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajin, Munir Demir; Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Gurbuz, Melek Kezban

    2013-01-01

    The earth is warming, and it is warming quickly. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that global warming is correlated with the frequency of pollen-induced respiratory allergy and allergic diseases. There is a body of evidence suggesting that the prevalence of allergic diseases induced by pollens is increasing in developed countries, a trend that is also evident in the Mediterranean area. Because of its mild winters and sunny days with dry summers, the Mediterranean area is different from the areas of central and northern Europe. Classical examples of allergenic pollen-producing plants of the Mediterranean climate include Parietaria, Olea and Cupressaceae. Asia Minor is a Mediterranean region that connects Asia and Europe, and it includes considerable coastal areas. Gramineae pollens are the major cause of seasonal allergic rhinitis in Asia Minor, affecting 1.3-6.4 % of the population, in accordance with other European regions. This article emphasizes the importance of global climate change and anticipated increases in the prevalence and severity of allergic disease in Asia Minor, mediated through worsening air pollution and altered local and regional pollen production, from an otolaryngologic perspective.

  11. Sexual minority-related victimization as a mediator of mental health disparities in sexual minority youth: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Chad M; Marshal, Michael P; Chisolm, Deena J; Sucato, Gina S; Friedman, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specific victimization as a potential explanatory mechanism of the mental health disparities of sexual minority youth. One hundred ninety-seven adolescents (14-19 years old; 70 % female; 29 % sexual minority) completed measures of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality at two time points 6 months apart. Compared to heterosexual youth, sexual minority youth reported higher levels of sexual minority-specific victimization, depressive symptoms, and suicidality. Sexual minority-specific victimization significantly mediated the effect of sexual minority status on depressive symptoms and suicidality. The results support the minority stress hypothesis that targeted harassment and victimization are partly responsible for the higher levels of depressive symptoms and suicidality found in sexual minority youth. This research lends support to public policy initiatives that reduce bullying and hate crimes because reducing victimization can have a significant impact on the health and well-being of sexual minority youth.

  12. 32 CFR 1290.9 - Forms and reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accountability for each ticket issued and stocks on hand. (2) DLA field activity Counsels will coordinate with...'s copy of the DD Form 1805 by the applicable issuing authority. (ii) List of minor offenses... filed at the Security Office or equivalent issuing authority. DLA Form 1454, Vehicle Registration/Driver...

  13. Minority stressors, rumination, and psychological distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Liam; Rimes, Katharine A; Rahman, Qazi

    2017-11-07

    Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals report higher levels of depression and anxiety than heterosexual people. Genetic factors may be a 'common cause' of sexual minority status and psychological distress. Alternatively, these may be correlated because of non-genetic environmental factors (e.g. minority stressors). This study investigated minority stressors and distress in monozygotic twins discordant for sexual minority status. This design provides a test of the role of non-shared environmental factors while minimizing differences due to genetics. Thirty-eight twin pairs in which one was heterosexual and the other was LGB completed a survey. Differences between twin pairs in minority stressors, rumination, psychological distress, and gender non-conformity were examined. Associations between these variables were also tested. Although there were no significant group differences for distress, LGB twins had higher rumination, a vulnerability factor for distress, than heterosexual co-twins. LGB twins also had higher scores than heterosexual co-twins on expectations of rejection, active concealment, self-stigma, prejudice events, childhood gender non-conformity, and lower scores on sexual orientation disclosure. Differences between twin pairs in rumination were positively associated with differences in acceptance concerns and self-stigma. Finally, self-stigma was positively associated with rumination in the full sample of heterosexual co-twins and microaggressions were positively associated with rumination when looking at exclusively heterosexual co-twins. These results support environmental factors as a causal explanation for disparities in rumination between LGB and heterosexual individuals. These factors likely include minority stressors. Rumination may also be associated with minority stressors in heterosexual MZ co-twins of LGB individuals.

  14. The membrane-bound form of gene 9 minor coat protein of bacteriophage M13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houbiers, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    Bacteriophage M13 is a virus that infects the bacteria Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), a single cell organism that resides in our intestines. It consists of the cytoplasm (contents) and a double membrane that keeps the

  15. Invisible hand effect in an evolutionary minority game model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Saramäki, Jari; Kaski, Kimmo

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we study the properties of a minority game with evolution realized by using genetic crossover to modify fixed-length decision-making strategies of agents. Although the agents in this evolutionary game act selfishly by trying to maximize their own performances only, it turns out that the whole society will eventually be rewarded optimally. This “invisible hand” effect is what Adam Smith over two centuries ago expected to take place in the context of free market mechanism. However, this behaviour of the society of agents is realized only under idealized conditions, where all agents are utilizing the same efficient evolutionary mechanism. If on the other hand part of the agents are adaptive, but not evolutionary, the system does not reach optimum performance, which is also the case if part of the evolutionary agents form a uniformly acting “cartel”.

  16. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. Copyright © 2015 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Open source software and minority languages: a priceless opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Mas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Open source software is a form of software that gives its users freedom. With the advent of the Internet, open source software has consolidated as a technically viable, financially sustainable alternative to proprietary software. Languages such as Breton, Galician, Gaelic and Catalan have seen very little development in the world of proprietary software because of the limitations imposed. In contrast, in the world of open source software these languages have been developed with notable success. Open source projects of the importance of the Mozilla browser, the GNOME environment and the GNU/Linux system have complete or partial translations in all these languages. Open source software presents an unprecedented opportunity for the development of minority languages, such as Catalan, in new technologies thanks to the freedom that they guarantee us.

  18. Minority Institution ARO Fuel Cell/Battery Manufacturing Research Hub

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Selman, J

    2001-01-01

    ...) high-energy rechargeable battery research concentrated on Li-ion batteries; (3) minority outreach to give undergraduate minority students hands-on experience in electrochemical energy conversion technology and attract them to graduate studies...

  19. Minority Language Education in Malaysia: Four Ethnic Communities' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karla J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses minority language education in Malaysia, a multilingual and multicultural country. Looks at four language minority groups and what they have done to to provide beginning education programs for their children that use the children's native languages. (Author/VWL)

  20. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  1. Women in science & engineering and minority engineering scholarships : year 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Support will make scholarships available to minority and women students interested in engineering and science and will increase : significantly the number of minority and female students that Missouri S&T can recruit to its science and engineering pr...

  2. Introduction-Minority Language Policy: Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Oeter

    2007-01-01

    In practice the Charter has created legal standards that work like individual and collective rights and that empower minority language speakers to insist upon education in minority languages, on using the languages before judicial courts and the administration, on claiming a right to receive radio and television programmes in minority languages, and on insisting to be treated in the minority language in hospitals and homes for the elderly, to name only some of the most important guarantees of...

  3. Taking the struggle elsewhere. Minority representation in the European Parliament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilken, Lisanne

    This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005......This paper explored and discussed the struggle for recognition by representatives of linguistic minorities in the European Parliament from the early 1970s and up to the recognition of select minority languages as co-national languages in 2005...

  4. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta | Quaker-Dokubo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a conceptual background typical types of minorities and typical sources of minority conflict are outlined. A historical overview is given of the problems Niger Delta minorities have been experiencing. Their grievances and demands are highlighted, and the responses of different Nigerian governments are discussed.

  5. Minority Students and Faculty in Higher Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Allen

    2009-01-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the current minority situation in university and college music programs in the United States. Research in this area has concentrated to varying degrees on specific subsets of the minority population (e.g., African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asians) as well as on minorities in a more general…

  6. 78 FR 59425 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announces a meeting of the Minority Depository... discussion of the status of the minority depository institution industry and current topics of interest to...

  7. 78 FR 79076 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announces a meeting of the Minority Depository..., DC 20219. Agenda items include a discussion of the status of the minority depository institution...

  8. 78 FR 5871 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency... Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) announces a meeting of the Minority Depository Institutions Advisory... be open to the public. Agenda items include a discussion of the status of the minority depository...

  9. 75 FR 51169 - OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision [Docket ID: OTS-2010-0026] OTS Minority... (OTS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Charter for the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory... of the Treasury to announce the renewal of the OTS Minority Depository Institutions Advisory...

  10. 76 FR 71438 - Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ...] Minority Depository Institutions Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of the Treasury, Office of the... Currency (OCC) has determined to carry on the work of the Minority Depository Institutions Advisory... and in the public interest in order for the OCC to preserve the present number of minority depository...

  11. 75 FR 22576 - Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [CFDA No. 84.120A] Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program... the fiscal year (FY) 2009 grant slate for the Minority Science and Engineering Improvement Program. SUMMARY: The Secretary intends to use the grant slate developed in FY 2009 for the Minority Science and...

  12. 77 FR 48204 - Minority Depository Institution Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ...] Minority Depository Institution Advisory Committee AGENCY: Office of the Comptroller of the Currency... renewal of the Charter of the OCC Minority Depository Institution Advisory Committee (MDIAC) is necessary... and future development of minority depository institutions, in accordance with the goals established...

  13. Minority Stress across the Career-Lifespan Trajectory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispenza, Franco; Brown, Colton; Chastain, Taylor E.

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority persons (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer) are likely to encounter "minority stress", such as discrimination, concealment, expectation of rejection, and internalized heterosexism. Minority stress occurs alongside one's lifespan and has considerable implications in the context of the career lifespan trajectory.…

  14. Minor's healthcare: who decides? | Osime | Port Harcourt Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Virtually all legal authorities are in agreement that minors can indeed give valid informed consent for treatment (or make informed refusal) provided the minor is mature or emancipated. And for minors indeed, the overall best interest of the child should be taken into consideration with respect to parents or guardians ...

  15. 7 CFR 400.306 - Spouses and minor children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spouses and minor children. 400.306 Section 400.306... Regulations for the 1991 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.306 Spouses and minor children. (a) The spouse and minor children of an individual are considered to be the same as the individual for purposes of this...

  16. 40 CFR 158.60 - Minor use data policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to, the following: (a) A new data requirement pertinent to both an unregistered minor use and a registered major use will not be applied to a minor use applicant until it is applied to the major use... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minor use data policies. 158.60...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2184 - Operating permits for minor sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operating permits for minor sources. 52... permits for minor sources. Emission limitations and related provisions established in South Dakota minor... right to deem permit conditions not federally enforceable. Such a determination will be made according...

  18. Growth limitation of Lemna minor due to high plant density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driever, S.M.; Nes, van E.H.; Roijackers, R.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of high population densities on the growth rate of Lemna minor (L.) was studied under laboratory conditions at 23°C in a medium with sufficient nutrients. At high population densities, we found a non-linear decreasing growth rate with increasing L. minor density. Above a L. minor biomass

  19. 7 CFR 772.7 - Leasing minor program loan security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing minor program loan security. 772.7 Section 772..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS SERVICING MINOR PROGRAM LOANS § 772.7 Leasing minor program loan security. (a) Eligibility. The Agency may consent to the borrower leasing all or a portion of security...

  20. Self-Regulation in Children and Minors in Institutional Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrbackova, Karla; Vavrova, Sona

    2015-01-01

    The study deals with self-regulation in children and minors (aged 11 to 19 years) living in so-called "total institutions". It examines the degree of self-regulation of behaviour from the perspective of the children and minors themselves and from the perspective of their key workers. Children and minors and their key workers differ…

  1. 38 CFR 10.51 - Payments to minor child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments to minor child. 10.51 Section 10.51 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUSTED COMPENSATION Payments § 10.51 Payments to minor child. Payments to minor child through legal guardian, natural...

  2. The Courage To Care: Addressing Sexual Minority Issues on Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottenritter, Nan

    1998-01-01

    Sexual minority students face issues similar to those of ethnic and racial minority students. This article provides a framework for assessing the community college's inclusion of sexual minority students: lesbians, gays, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals. The first section of the article assesses community colleges in terms of sexual…

  3. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  4. Russian Minorities in the Former USSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Pérez González

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Soviet Empire has brought out the importance of the nationalities problem and the contradictory results produced by the various formulas applied since 1922 for resolving it. Two characteristics conditioned the evolution of this problem in the Soviet Union: the choice of a territorial model which would give a important role to the Empire’s non-Russian peoples; and the contradiction between the theoretical base established by Lenin and Stalin for solving the problem and actual practice, which followed traditional channels. The result was a new territorial structure endowed with the external elements characteristic of a state but cancelled out by the superiority of a party and by a policy ofprotecting minorities deliberately designed to make the new national entities nonviable. The lack of an adequately institutionalized state was at the root, of the virtual disappearance, after the collapse of the Communist Party, of links between the center and the periphery, a situation that nationalism, where it existed, exploited to gain powerand that governing minorities, meaningless outside the framework created by the USSR, exploited to stay in power. The result was none other than the appearance of new ethnically heterogeneous states with imprecise borders, bereft of the systems of interethnic equilibriumthe Soviet administration had created, and willing to consolidate their independence and identity at the expense of minorities such as the Russians, which have been discriminated against at times and excluded from political and cultural life at others. This phenomenonhas reduced the chances for the new states’ integration on an international level, placed a burden on the incipient democratic systems and made for tense relations with Russia.

  5. Operational safety evaluation for minor reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, O.S.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address a concern of applying conservatism in analysing minor reactor incidents. A so-called ''conservative'' safety analysis may exaggerate the system responses and result in a reactor scram tripped by the reactor protective system (RPS). In reality, a minor incident may lead the reactor to a new thermal hydraulic steady-state without scram, and the mitigation or termination of the incident may entirely depend on operator actions. An example on a small steamline break evaluation for a pressurized water reactor recently investigated by the staff at the Washington Public Power Supply System is presented to illustrate this point. A safety evaluation using mainly the safety-related systems to be consistent with the conservative assumptions used in the Safety Analysis Report was conducted. For comparison, a realistic analysis was also performed using both the safety- and control-related systems. The analyses were performed using the RETRAN plant simulation computer code. The ''conservative'' safety analysis predicts that the incident can be turned over by the RPS scram trips without operator intervention. However, the realistic analysis concludes that the reactor will reach a new steady-state at a different plant thermal hydraulic condition. As a result, the termination of the incident at this stage depends entirely on proper operator action. On the basis of this investigation it is concluded that, for minor incidents, ''conservative'' assumptions are not necessary, sometimes not justifiable. A realistic investigation from the operational safety point of view is more appropriate. It is essential to highlight the key transient indications for specific incident recognition in the operator training program

  6. Effects of general relativity in the motion of minor planets and comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitarski, G.

    1983-01-01

    Basing on the solution of one-body Schwarzschild problem, the relativistic terms were included to the equations of motion of a minor planet or comet. It appeared that the using of Painleve's coordinates allowed to write the equations of motion in a very simple form. Equations of motion as well as the commonly used equations based on the Schwarzschild isotropic and nonisotropic line elements were numerically integrated by the recurrent power series method. The results of integration of the motion of Mercury and of the minor planet Icarus show strictly the perihelion motion predicted by the general relativity theory. The relativistic effects in the motion of some minor planets and comets were examined too. (author)

  7. Future goal setting, task motivation and learning of minority and non-minority students in Dutch schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, I.; Phalet, K.; Lens, W.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Cross-cultural research on minority school achievement yields mixed findings on the motivational impact of future goal setting for students from disadvantaged minority groups. Relevant and recent motivational research, integrating Future Time Perspective Theory with Self-Determination

  8. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  9. Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Enevoldsen, I.

    of heavier trucks moving at larger speeds, and partly because the authorities want to permit transportation of special heavy goods at a larger part of the road net. These needs will in many cases cause the strengthening of the bridges becomes necessary. In order to keep the expenses of such strengthening...... the results obtained using the numerical models given in details in "Heavy Vehicles on Minor Highway Bridges : dynamic modelling of vehicles and bridges". The models are established using a ordinary vehicle which consists of a 48 t Scania with a 3 axle tractor and a 3 axle trailer, joined in a flexible hinge...

  10. Strategy selection in the minority game

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'hulst, R.; Rodgers, G. J.

    2000-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of the choice of an active strategy in the minority game. A history distribution is introduced as an analytical tool to study the asymmetry between the two choices offered to the agents. Its properties are studied numerically. It allows us to show that the departure from uniformity in the initial attribution of strategies to the agents is important even in the efficient market. Also, an approximate expression for the variance of the number of agents at one side in the efficient phase is proposed. All the analytical propositions are supported by numerical simulations of the system.

  11. ISLAM AND MINORITIES: Managing Identity in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Suaedy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian general election in March 2008 raised an interesting and new phenomenon. For the first time since independence in 1957, the ruling alliance known as the National Front (Barisan Nasional, BN failed to secure two thirds of seats in parliament and lost control of five of Malaysia’s 13 states. This was due to the challenge presented by the new opposition alliance known as the Alternative Front (Barisan Alternatif, BA or the People’s Alliance (Pakatan Rakyat, PK which won more than 36% of seats in parliament and gained control of the five states. In the 2004 election, BN secured the largest ever percentage of seats in parliament with 91%. What is interesting is that it seems that this significant increase in support for the opposition is  due to their offer to change the way minorities and ethnicity is managed. They  propose a move from “Bumiputera Supremacy”, or affirmative action for the approximately 65% of “Bumiputera” Malaysians (the rest being largely of Chinese or Indian ethnicity, to “The People’s Supremacy”, which involves eradicating affirmative action based on ethnicity, basing it instead on need, for  instance need due to poverty. This would potentially increase the likelihood  of justice and equality for all ethnic or racial groups. This paper connects the phenomenon of change, as seen in the about turn in the results between the  2004 and 2008 elections, to the more global trend in which minorities are standing up to demand their rights in this era of globalization, and to the challenge multiculturalism presents to parts of the Muslim world such as Malaysia. Malaysia, a Muslim majority nation that has formally declared Islam the official state religion with Yang di-Pertuan Agong (the King as  Head of the State and symbol of Islam, is one example, though not necessarily  representative, of how Islam and Muslims manage minorities and identity or  multiculturalism within the process of globalization

  12. Coping styles used by sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Perrin, Paul B; Snipes, Daniel J; Calton, Jenna M

    2016-12-01

    This study examined the coping styles used by sexual minority men who have experienced intimate partner violence, including sexual, emotional and physical victimisation, as well as physical injury. Although sexual minority men experience intimate partner violence at least as often as do heterosexuals, there is currently limited knowledge of intimate partner violence in this community or resources for sexual minority men who experience intimate partner violence. Cross-sectional design. Sexual minority men (N = 89) were recruited as part of a national online survey and completed questionnaires assessing lifetime experiences of intimate partner violence as well as various coping strategies. In terms of intimate partner violence, 34·8% of participants reported having been targets of sexual abuse, 38·2% targets of physical abuse, 69·7% targets of psychological abuse and 28·1% had experienced an injury as a result of intimate partner violence during their lifetime. Canonical correlation analyses found that intimate partner violence victimisation explained 32·5% of the variance in adaptive and 31·4% of the variance in maladaptive coping behaviours. In the adaptive coping canonical correlation, standardised loadings suggested that sexual minority men who experienced intimate partner violence resulting in injury were more likely to use religious coping, but less likely to use planning coping. In the maladaptive coping canonical correlation, sexual minority men who had been targets of intimate partner sexual victimisation and intimate partner violence resulting in injury tended to engage in increased behavioural disengagement coping. This study revealed several coping behaviours that are more or less likely as the severity of different forms of intimate partner violence increases. The identification of these coping styles could be applied to the development and modification of evidence-based interventions to foster effective and discourage ineffective coping styles

  13. Assessing Transplant Attitudes: Understanding Minority Men's Perspectives on the Multifarious Barriers to Organ Donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Bryan D; Naelitz, Bryan D; Jackson, Brielle; Howard, Mariah; Nowacki, Amy; Modlin, Charles S

    2017-08-01

    African Americans comprise 11 % of living organ donors, yet constitute 34 % of the kidney transplant waiting list. There are many barriers to organ donation among minorities that include decreased awareness of transplantation, cultural mistrust of the medical community, financial concerns, and fear of the transplant operation. This study investigates the societal misconceptions and demographic health factors that correlate with minority participation in organ and tissue donation. A 57 question Health and Wellness survey was designed to assess participants' demographic information, medical history, professional background, and opinions regarding organ transplantation. Participants were also asked to complete Quality Metric's Short Form-8 (SF-8) survey to assess physical health, mental health, and quality-of-life. Three hundred twenty-six surveys were administered to minority men. The majority of men were identified as African American, and 55 % were below the age of 40. Though 44 % of participants were willing to donate, only 27 % were registered as organ and tissue donors. Minorities who held misconceptions about organ donation-including the belief that they were too old or unhealthy to donate, for example-had lower general, physical, and mental health scores than those who did not (p = Minorities aware of the shortage for organs or who know a registered donor, an organ recipient, a dialysis patient, or someone on the waiting list were more willing to donate organs. Improving the general, physical, and mental health of minorities, coupled with an active educational outreach program, could result in a greater percentage of minorities registering and willing to be organ and tissue donors.

  14. Harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Bringmann, Kathrin; Ono, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Modular forms and Jacobi forms play a central role in many areas of mathematics. Over the last 10-15 years, this theory has been extended to certain non-holomorphic functions, the so-called "harmonic Maass forms". The first glimpses of this theory appeared in Ramanujan's enigmatic last letter to G. H. Hardy written from his deathbed. Ramanujan discovered functions he called "mock theta functions" which over eighty years later were recognized as pieces of harmonic Maass forms. This book contains the essential features of the theory of harmonic Maass forms and mock modular forms, together with a wide variety of applications to algebraic number theory, combinatorics, elliptic curves, mathematical physics, quantum modular forms, and representation theory.

  15. Sexual Minority-Related Victimization as a Mediator of Mental Health Disparities in Sexual Minority Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Chad M.; Marshal, Michael P.; Chisolm, Deena J.; Sucato, Gina S.; Friedman, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual minority youth (youth who are attracted to the same sex or endorse a gay/lesbian/bisexual identity) report significantly higher rates of depression and suicidality than heterosexual youth. The minority stress hypothesis contends that the stigma and discrimination experienced by sexual minority youth create a hostile social environment that can lead to chronic stress and mental health problems. The present study used longitudinal mediation models to directly test sexual minority-specifi...

  16. On freak minor octopus, Octopus minor, found out in Imabari Fish Market, Ehime Prefecture

    OpenAIRE

    Higashide, Ryosuke; Sakai, Yoichi; Hashimoto, Hiroaki

    2007-01-01

    The three male freak minor octopus, Octopus minor were found out on Fish Market of Imabari Fisheries Cooperative, Ehime Prefecture, Japan. One of them was the octopus landed on May 25, 2006, which had two hectocotilized arms on both of the third right and left, though male octopus usually has only one hectocotilized arm on the third right arm. It was seemed to be arisen from the abnormal generation. Another ones were landed on the Fish Market on April 16 and June 26, 2007, respectively. Both ...

  17. Hencky's model for elastomer forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikov, A. A.; Oleinikov, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the numerical simulation of elastomer forming process, Henckys isotropic hyperelastic material model can guarantee relatively accurate prediction of strain range in terms of large deformations. It is shown, that this material model prolongate Hooke's law from the area of infinitesimal strains to the area of moderate ones. New representation of the fourth-order elasticity tensor for Hencky's hyperelastic isotropic material is obtained, it possesses both minor symmetries, and the major symmetry. Constitutive relations of considered model is implemented into MSC.Marc code. By calculating and fitting curves, the polyurethane elastomer material constants are selected. Simulation of equipment for elastomer sheet forming are considered.

  18. Supporting minority nursing students: 'Opportunity for Success' for Ethiopian immigrants in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieli, D; Hirschfeld, M J

    2013-06-01

    To report on an Israeli academic nursing project, aimed at supporting the integration of Ethiopian immigrants into nursing studies. The representation of ethnic minorities within nursing is crucial for the provision of efficient care in diverse societies. Nevertheless, successful integration of minority students in nursing programs is not a simple task and needs developing support systems that will attract and retain students from minorities. Ethiopian Jewish immigrants and their descendants in Israel form a community of 120,000 people. Their participation in the national workforce is low, as well as their average income. The paper is based on formative evaluation, using action research, of an academic nursing program in Israel. Four main strategies identify this project: (1) a policy of institutional commitment, (2) personal relations with staff, (3) personal tutoring, and (4) cultural safety education. The project has reached success in terms of attraction, retention and students' satisfactions. The project's two main challenges, which need further concern, are: (1) giving support without labelling and (2) supporting without creating dependency. CONCLUSIONS AND INTERNATIONAL POLICY IMPLICATIONS: Appropriate strategies can enable success of minority students. Nevertheless, the amount of support needed for such programs raises two major questions: (1) To what extent should individual nursing departments be expected to bear solutions to this widely experienced problem? (2) How does focusing on one minority affect cultural safety of the overall group? © 2013 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2013 International Council of Nurses.

  19. Minors' capacity to refuse treatment: a reply to Gilmore and Herring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Emma; Wallbank, Julie

    2012-01-01

    Re R and Re W allow a parent to consent to treatment a competent minor refuses, but the cases have not been tested post-Human Rights Act 1998. Gilmore and Herring offer a means by which they might be distinguished or sidelined. They interpret Gillick to say that in order to consent a minor need only have a full understanding of the particular treatment. They argue that the minors in Re R and Re W were refusing all treatment which requires a separate assessment of capacity-an assessment which was not made. We fear that this distinction would not be workable in clinical practice and argue that their interpretation of Gillick is flawed. From a clinician's point of view, competence cannot always be judged in relation to a specific treatment, but instead must relate to the decision. We show that a decision can incorporate more than one treatment, and more than one decision might be made about one treatment. A minor's understanding of a specific treatment is not always sufficient to demonstrate competence to make a decision. The result is that whilst there might be situations when a parent and a minor both have the power to consent to a particular treatment, they will not share concurrent powers in relation to the same decision. Consequently, a challenge to Re R and Re W, if forthcoming, would need to take a different form. We emphasise the necessity to minimise the dichotomy between legal consent and how consent works in medical practice.

  20. Predictors of feminist activism among sexual-minority and heterosexual college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carly K; Ayres, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Engagement in activism is related to several aspects of social development in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Therefore, it is important to examine the correlates of different forms of activism, such as feminist collective action, among all youth. However, previous research has not investigated young sexual-minority women's engagement with feminist collective action. This study examined predictors of college-aged heterosexual and sexual-minority women's commitment to and participation in feminist activism. Sexual orientation, number of years in college, social support, experiences with discrimination, and gender identity were tested as predictors of commitment to and participation in feminist activism with a sample of 280 college-aged women (173 heterosexuals and 107 sexual minorities). Similar predictors were related to both commitment to and participation in feminist activism. However, for sexual-minority women, but not heterosexual women, the number of years in college was correlated with participation in feminist activism. Young sexual-minority women reported more participation in feminist activism than did heterosexual women, even after controlling for social support, discrimination, and gender identity.