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Sample records for latvia considers plan

  1. Cluster Concept in Policy Planning Documents: the Cases of Latvia and Northern Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanete Garanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important role in the economy of the 21st century. A regional cluster can be defined as a combination of 5 dimensions – single sector enterprises that cooperate and compete; supportive enterprises from a wide range of sectors; public and government institutions interested in economic development of the sector and region; other institutions, like research, education, finance and others and the fifth is regional dimension, which combines all four previously mentioned dimensions into one region. From the literature review standpoint, the findings of the authors show that cluster ­based entrepreneurship has an important role in stimulating the firm’s performance, competitiveness and innovation. Authors’ findings show that cluster concept is implemented in the EU policy planning documents at all levels, while in the country level cluster policy is not a single policy issue, but is implemented in industry, regional and other policy aspects. Example from Latvia shows that in recent years cluster­based entrepreneurship plays an important, if not central, role in policy planning documents, while evidence from Northern Cyprus shows that the importance attached to the concept of cluster­based economic development has not yet surfaced in the policy documents. Learning from experience of the EU and Latvia, the authors in cooperation with experts from University of Mediterranean Karpasia suggest policy makers in Northern Cyprus to implement cluster­based entrepreneur­ ship ideas in the policy documents using the bottom­up approach. In this way cluster based entrepreneurship is implemented in policy planning documents in Northern Cyprus at region, industry and national level. This paper is the first attempt towards cluster concept recognition in Northern Cyprus and therefore the topic is opened for further discussions and recommendations. The target audience of this paper is policy makers in Northern Cyprus

  2. Spatial Development Potential Considering Conservation Planning Criteria

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    Dora Tomić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issues of possible differences in the decision considering spatial allocation of land use and its potential and optimized allocation that derives from suitability modeling. The researched area was Žumberak- Samoborsko gorje Nature Park, one of the youngest Croatian nature parks. As such, it should have a physical plan of the special features areas, in order to know its potential and limitations. There is no such plan yet, so protection measures and development is relinquished to cities and municipalities, within whose territory the Park is situated. One of the municipalities is Ozalj, and it is used in the paper as an example for the analysis of physical planning approach for Žumberak- Samoborsko gorje Nature Park. By the survey of Physical plan of Ozalj municipality, a random selection was used to choose one activity that was planned in the area and for that activity dual spatial analysis was created. It included spatial attractiveness and vulnerability analysis. The results of the analysis have shown whether, in addition to spatial attractiveness criteria, spatial vulnerability criteria was taken into consideration when deciding on the location for the winter sports center. The analysis has also shown whether the Physical plan was in favor of the municipality development or was the fact that it is a Nature Park, designed as the protected area of natural and cultural values, also considered relevant.

  3. Nanotechnologies in Latvia: Commercialisation Aspect

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    Geipele I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the possibilities to apply the nanotechnology products of manufacturing industries in Latvia for further commercialisation. The purpose of the research is to find out the preliminary criteria for the system of engineering economic indicators for multifunctional nanocoating technologies. The article provides new findings and calculations for the local nanotechnology market research characterising the development of nanotechnology industry. The authors outline a scope of issues as to low activities rankings in Latvia on application of locally produced nanotechnologies towards efficiency of the resource use for nanocoating technologies. For the first time in Latvia, the authors make the case study research and summarise the latest performance indicators of the Latvian companies operating in the nanotechnology industry.

  4. Advance Care Planning: Medical Issues to Consider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition is considered to be “end stage” when optimal medical care can no longer stabilize the medical ... may enable this person to recover, get needed sleep and rest, and resume functional capacity when off ...

  5. Leasing development in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Rapša, Iveta

    2007-01-01

    The most common and the most efficient form of lending in Latvia is lease. Multilateral impact of lease on the economic concerned with the fact that it attracts private capital investment in the manufacturing sector, improves the financial situation of the direct manufacturers and improves their competitiveness simultaneously. It has become very accessible for individuals and entities during the last few decades. However, there are still problems and opportunities of its solution in Latvia. ...

  6. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy-system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems. Latvia has economic growth...... but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form...... the reflective approach of this paper to the future of energy supplies in Latvia. Udgivelsesdato: SEP-NOV...

  7. Generation Expansion Planning Considering Integrating Large-scale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Generation expansion planning (GEP) is the problem of finding the optimal strategy to plan the Construction of new generation while satisfying technical and economical constraints. In the deregulated and competitive environment, large-scale integration of wind generation (WG) in power system has...... necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. A bi-level generation expansion planning approach considering large-scale wind generation was proposed in this paper. The first phase is investment decision, while the second phase is production...

  8. Renewable Energy in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipkovs, P.; Kashkarova, G. [Latvian Energy Agency, Riga (Latvia); Shipkovs, M. [Energy-R Ltd., Riga (Latvia)

    1997-12-31

    Latvia is among those countries that do not have gas, coal and, for the time being, also oil resources of its own. The amount of power produced in Latvia does not meet the demand, consequently a part of the power has to be purchased from neighbouring countries. Firewood, peat and hydro resources are the only significant domestic energy resources. Massive decrease of energy consumption has been observed since Latvia regained independence. Domestic and renewable energy resources have been examined and estimated. There are already 13 modern boiler houses operating in Latvia with total installed capacity 45 MW that are fired with wood chips. Latvian companies are involved in the production of equipment. 7 small HPPs have been renewed with the installed capacity 1.85 MW. Wind plant in Ainazi has started its operation, where two modern wind turbines with the capacity of 0.6 MW each have been installed. Mechanism of tariff setting is aligned. Favourable power energy purchasing prices are set for renewable energy sources and small cogeneration plants

  9. Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Desired Generation Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh GOLESTANI

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transmission Network Expansion Planning (TNEP is an important part of power system planning in both conventional and new structured power market. Its goal is to minimize the network construction and operational cost while satisfying the demand increase, considering technical and economic conditions. Planning algorithm in this paper consisted of two stages. The former specifies highly uncertain lines and probability of congestion, considering desired generation security level (e.g. N-2 generation security level. The latter determines the optimal expansion capacity of existing lines. Splitting required capacity for reinforcement of weak lines due to desired generation security level simplifies the TNEP problem. In addition, it monitors the impact of generation uncertainty on transmission lines. Simulation results of the proposed idea are presented for IEEE-RTS-24bus network.

  10. Multiobjective transmission expansion planning considering security and demand uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Andrés Bolaños Ocampo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for resolving the transmission expansion planning problem by considering single contingency criteria (N-1. Each bus bar in the power system considered future demand uncertainty. The planning problem was divided into an investment problem (calculating investment costs and an operative problem (resolving power flows. A modified evolutionary elitist non-dominated sorted genetic algorithm (NSGA-II was used for resolving the investment problem, determining several in- vestment proposals where feasibility was evaluated by solving the operative problem. On the other hand, a high order interior point (HOIP method was proposed for solving load flow problems. The methodology was tested by using two systems found in the specialised literature: IEEE-24 bus and Garver or IEEE-6 bus systems. The results, when compared with traditional ones, sho- wed the proposed method’s power and the multi-objective technique’s convenience.

  11. BIM-BASED INDOOR PATH PLANNING CONSIDERING OBSTACLES

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    M. Xu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, 87 % of people’s activities are in indoor environment; indoor navigation has become a research issue. As the building structures for people’s daily life are more and more complex, many obstacles influence humans’ moving. Therefore it is essential to provide an accurate and efficient indoor path planning. Nowadays there are many challenges and problems in indoor navigation. Most existing path planning approaches are based on 2D plans, pay more attention to the geometric configuration of indoor space, often ignore rich semantic information of building components, and mostly consider simple indoor layout without taking into account the furniture. Addressing the above shortcomings, this paper uses BIM (IFC as the input data and concentrates on indoor navigation considering obstacles in the multi-floor buildings. After geometric and semantic information are extracted, 2D and 3D space subdivision methods are adopted to build the indoor navigation network and to realize a path planning that avoids obstacles. The 3D space subdivision is based on triangular prism. The two approaches are verified by the experiments.

  12. A Transition from Spontaneity to Planning? Economic Values and Educational Policies in the Process of Revitalizing the Regional Language of Latgalian (Latvia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazdina, Sanita

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with current questions in revitalizing the regional language Latgalian, one of the varieties native to Latgale, a region located in the eastern part of Latvia. It first provides an overview of domains where Latgalian is used and highlights recent changes in these. Based on linguistic landscape data as well as interviews with…

  13. Lagrange multiplier for perishable inventory model considering warehouse capacity planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Tiena Gustina; Fatima, Zenny

    2017-06-01

    This paper presented Lagrange Muktiplier approach for solving perishable raw material inventory planning considering warehouse capacity. A food company faced an issue of managing perishable raw materials and marinades which have limited shelf life. Another constraint to be considered was the capacity of the warehouse. Therefore, an inventory model considering shelf life and raw material warehouse capacity are needed in order to minimize the company's inventory cost. The inventory model implemented in this study was the adapted economic order quantity (EOQ) model which is optimized using Lagrange multiplier. The model and solution approach were applied to solve a case industry in a food manufacturer. The result showed that the total inventory cost decreased 2.42% after applying the proposed approach.

  14. A deterministic aggregate production planning model considering quality of products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi, Najmeh; Yew Wong, Kuan

    2013-06-01

    Aggregate Production Planning (APP) is a medium-term planning which is concerned with the lowest-cost method of production planning to meet customers' requirements and to satisfy fluctuating demand over a planning time horizon. APP problem has been studied widely since it was introduced and formulated in 1950s. However, in several conducted studies in the APP area, most of the researchers have concentrated on some common objectives such as minimization of cost, fluctuation in the number of workers, and inventory level. Specifically, maintaining quality at the desirable level as an objective while minimizing cost has not been considered in previous studies. In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multi-objective mixed integer linear programming model that serves those companies aiming to incur the minimum level of operational cost while maintaining quality at an acceptable level. In order to obtain the solution to the multi-objective model, the Fuzzy Goal Programming approach and max-min operator of Bellman-Zadeh were applied to the model. At the final step, IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the experimental results based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The results show that incorporating quality in the model imposes some costs, however a trade-off should be done between the cost resulting from producing products with higher quality and the cost that the firm may incur due to customer dissatisfaction and sale losses.

  15. Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Phase-Shifter Transformers

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    Celso T. Miasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mathematical model for the transmission network expansion planning problem. Main idea is to consider phase-shifter (PS transformers as a new element of the transmission system expansion together with other traditional components such as transmission lines and conventional transformers. In this way, PS are added in order to redistribute active power flows in the system and, consequently, to diminish the total investment costs due to new transmission lines. Proposed mathematical model presents the structure of a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem and is based on the standard DC model. In this paper, there is also applied a specialized genetic algorithm aimed at optimizing the allocation of candidate components in the network. Results obtained from computational simulations carried out with IEEE-24 bus system show an outstanding performance of the proposed methodology and model, indicating the technical viability of using these nonconventional devices during the planning process.

  16. Efficient Heat Use from Biogas CHP Plants. Case Studies from Biogas Plants in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Dzene, Ilze; Slotiņa, Lāsma

    2013-01-01

    This paper is focusing on efficient heat use from biogas plants. It gives an overview about various biogas heat use options and specifically addresses biogas heat use market in Latvia. In the end three examples from typical agricultural biogas plants in Latvia and their heat use plans are described.

  17. Social orphanhood in Latvia

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    Trapenciere I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reform processes and the developments of social policy to solve the major social problems of the socially vulnerable population, among them, children in particular, take place in Latvia during the last 20 years. Protection of children rights is declared one of the strategic priorities of the state social policy. At the same time the problem of child neglect and child abandonment in Latvia has not yet been sufficiently conceptualized. Already since 1990-ies Latvian society has clearly faced with an objective necessity of solving problems of child abandonment in connection with an increasing number of social orphans. The situation was complicated by the fact that the formation of a fundamentally new system of social policy, social support and assistance to risk children had to be developed and implemented in conditions of economic transition to market economy relations, increasing social tensions, and sharp increase in social inequality and social discrimination. Among the enourmous number of economical and social problems in the developing democratic state, the issue of child abandonment as an important social problem has been addressed rather fragmentary. The term “social orphanhood” does not appear in the social policy vocabulary of the Latvian social policy doscourse.

  18. INNOVATIONS OF THE TRADE MARKETING IN LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Spīča, Inese; Spīčs, Ernests

    2010-01-01

    In the rapidly changing environment contemporary marketing activities affects educational programms. The paper analyze the marketing and sales current events in Latvia. In this paper given a substantive explanation of trade marketing and trade marketing development opportunities for Latvia, trade marketing new development areas and to clarify their learning opportunities in Latvia.

  19. Tertiary education in Latvia today and tomorrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Panina

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The market economy principles are deeply implemented in the system of tertiary education in Latvia. The share of private sector and private funding is significantly big, as well as the variety of study programs. Nevertheless it is only one side of supply-demand dimension that might be seriously changed by economic crisis. The author draws tertiary sector development scenarios considering probable demographic, economical and political trends. The more efficient and effective interaction of tertiary and business sectors, the development oriented decentralisation of state macro economical and regional policy are the decisive success factors for sustainability both of the state and tertiary sector.

  20. Considering DG in Expansion Planning of Subtransmission System

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    H. Shayeghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deregulation has been obtained new options in the design and planning of the power system. One of these options is the integration of Distributed Generation (DG into the power system. In this paper, the presence of distributed generation is regarded as another alternative for supplying the load of subtransmission system. The effects of DG on expansion planning of subtransmission system have been modeled as an  optimization problem where the Genetic Algorithm (GA and Linear Programming (LP are employed to solve it. The proposed approach is applied to a realistic subtransmission system and the results are evaluated.

  1. MOPSO-based multi-objective TSO planning considering uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi

    2014-01-01

    factors, i.e. load growth, generation capacity and line faults, and aims to enhance the transmission system via the multi-objective TSO planning (MOTP) approach. The proposed MOTP approach optimizes three objectives simultaneously, namely the probabilistic available transfer capability (PATC), investment...

  2. Procurement planning in oil refining industries considering blending operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsdottir, Thordis Anna; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses procurement planning in oil refining, which has until now only had limited attention in the literature. We introduce a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model and develop a novel two-stage solution approach, which aims at computational efficiency while addressing...... the problems due to discrepancies between a non-linear and a linearized formulation. The proposed model covers realistic settings by allowing the blending of crude oil in storage tanks, by modeling storage tanks and relevant processing units individually, and by handling more crude oil types and quality...

  3. Distribution System Planning With Distributed Generations Considering Benefits and Costs

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    Saeid Soudi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods used in the design and utilization of distribution systems to improve power quality and reliability of load power supply of consumers, is the application of distributed generation (DG sources. In this paper, a new method is proposed for the design and utilization of distribution networks with DG resources application by finding the optimal sitting and sizing of generated power of DG with the aim of maximization of its benefits to costs. The benefits for DG are considered as system losses reduction, system reliability improvement and benefits from the sale electricity or from lack of purchase of electricity from the main system. The costs of DG are considered as initial capital, maintenance and operation cost and investment cost. In this paper to solve the optimal sitting and sizing problem a Modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is applied. Simulations are presented on a 69-bus test distribution system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results showed that the proposed high-power method to find the optimal points of problem is faster and application of DG resources reduced the losses, costs and improved the system voltage profile.

  4. Impairment of assets– the case of Latvia

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    Vita Zarina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic recession has led to the worsening of financial results of many Lat-vian companies. In this situation, cash flows from the use of assets in economic activities turn out to be insufficient to recover the balance sheet value of those as-sets. The laws and accounting standards of Latvia do not provide sufficient guid-ance on how the decrease in value should be calculated because cash flows gener-ated by individual items of fixed assets cannot be estimated reliably in most cases. In the present economic situation it seems reasonable to follow the rule that when the market value of assets is lower than their balance sheet value it is necessary to recognize an impairment loss or to carry out their revaluation, which will allow their true value to be calculated. Annual revaluation is necessary for those items whose true value is changeable. For items whose values change rarely revaluation can be done less frequently. In the economic situation of Latvia almost every com-pany, excepting only some production areas, is facing a high risk of decrease in the value of its assets. If there are indications that there may be a decrease in the value of long term assets, the company’s management has to consider at least the indicators provided by internal and external sources of information.

  5. Comparison of breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia

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    Broka Līga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although benefits of breast-feeding have been known for a long time and breast milk is considered as ideal nutrition for infants, the composition of breast milk is still being studied, since breast milk differs among mothers and populations, as well as during different times of lactation. Further, no study has been performed among lactating women in Latvia during recent years. The objective of the study was to determine the breast milk composition and influencing factors among lactating women in Latvia in different lactation periods, as well as to compare the results with data from other countries. Fifty breast milk samples were obtained from 44 mothers (on the 5th-7th and 11th-28th day of lactation, whose neonates were treated in the Neonatal Care Unit, Children’s Clinical University Hospital, Rīga. Milk analysis (pH, density, protein, fat, and lactose concentration was performed in the Latvia University of Agriculture. Breast milk composition among lactating women in Latvia on the 5th-7th lactation day more resembled transitional milk containing a higher amount of protein and a lower amount of fat. The composition of the studied milk samples on the 11th-28th lactation day was comparable to data from other countries. Concentration of lactose was correlated with neonatal weight and not gestational age.

  6. The Cost-estimation of Mechanical Pre-treatment Lines of Municipal Solid Waste in Latvia

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    Āriņa Dace

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Production of refuse derived fuel from municipal solid waste in future shall play a strategic role in an integrated waste management system. The amount of landfilled biodegradable materials thus will be diminished according to provisions of the 1999 Waste Landfill Directive. The aim of this article is to evaluate cost effectiveness based on cost evaluation of the different complication of the waste pre-treatment equipment complectation and based on regenerable waste quantities in Latvia. The comparison of cost estimates is done in 3 scenarios considering potential waste quantities in Latvia: Scenario I - planned annual waste quantity is 20 kT; Scenario II - 40 kT and Scenario III - 160 kT. An increase in amount of waste and processing capacity means the decrease in costs of mechanical pre-treatment of 1 ton of waste. Thus, costs of mechanical sorting line under different scenarios with capacities of 10 t h-1, 20 t h-1 and 80 t h-1 are EUR 32 per t, EUR 24 per t and EUR 15 per t, respectively. Most feasible cost for a set of mechanical pre-treatment equipment for the capacity of 10 t h-1 is EUR 32 per t by using rotating drum screener with the following manual sorting. Mechanical pre-treatment equipment of unsorted municipal waste is economically nonbeneficial, when the use of fine (biologically degradable fraction is not possible. As the sorting of biodegradable kitchen waste is not developed under the current waste management system in Latvia, the lines for mechanical pre-treatment of household waste would be better to install in landfills.

  7. Decadal oscillations of the aquatic chemistry of river waters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porshnov, Dmitry; Klavins, Maris

    2016-10-01

    Water quality changes of surface waters can be used to assess human impact intensity, but of importance is to consider also impacts of climate change/variability and naturally occurring changes of environmental quality. In Latvia, during the recent decades a major reduction of anthropogenic pressure has happened due to restructuring of economy and industrial production, resulting in major decrease of loading of many groups of pollutants. However, trends and driving factors for other groups of substances have not been much studied. Long term (1980-2012) results of hydrochemical monitoring, performed in rivers of Latvia, are analysed during this study in connection with long-term sets of hydrological and heliophysical data, using standard statistical approaches. Our results indicate that variation of some hydrochemical values, for example COD and total Fe, show clearly visible decadal oscillated character, while variation of some other values, for example phosphate P and total P, show some individual characteristics of decadal oscillations. These results indicate the presence of a large scale, geochemical and geophysical significant process: multiannual pulse of catchment, driven by variation of solar irradiance through complex interactions between global atmospheric circulation, groundwater and surface waterbodies. The process described in our study is significant from a geochemical point of view and must be taken into account in prediction of water quality and quantity. Impacts of natural processes should be considered in the planning of environmental policy.

  8. "Leaving before she leaves": considering future family when making career plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; O'Brien, Karen M; Mereish, Ethan; Miller, Matthew J

    2013-07-01

    An instrument was developed to measure the extent to which people consider future children and romantic partners when planning for a career (i.e., the PLAN scale). Two independent factor-analytic studies of a total of 726 college women were conducted to assess the factor structure and psychometric properties of this measure. Results suggested that the PLAN represents a general Considering Future Family When Making Career Plans factor and 2 domain-specific factors: Considering Children and Prioritizing and Compromising for Partner. Suggestions for future research and practice using the PLAN scale are provided.

  9. Minimum Load-curtailment in Transmission Network Planning Considering Integrated Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; WEN Jinyu; CHENG Shijie

    2011-01-01

    With the enlarging scale of integrated wind power, the transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) problem considering wind farms is more important than before. TNEP problem usually can be divided into two sub-problems. The first sub-problem is to determine the new planning scheme in some way, and the second sub-problem is to assess the security and reliability of the transmission network planning scheme using the minimum load-shedding index.

  10. Development of nuclear energetics in Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikelsons, Karlis; Ekmanis, Juris; Gavars, Valdis; Tomsons, Elmars; Zeltins, Namejs

    2010-09-15

    A scientific nuclear reactor was launched in 1961, and a critical test assembly - in 1965. A unique gamma-ray source was created, and it was proposed to form an industrial production plant of radiation chemistry at Ignalina NPP. In order to supply Latvia with electricity, a site was chosen in the 1980-ties for a base-power nuclear power plant. After the restoration of independence the scientists of Latvia continue taking part in international projects of nuclear fusion and the 4th generation nuclear reactors. The supply of Latvia with electricity in a more distant period will be possible by using nuclear energy.

  11. Dispatching Plan Based on Route Optimization Model Considering Random Wind for Aviation Emergency Rescue

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Zhang; Hui Yu; Jue Yu; Yifan Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Aviation emergency rescue is an effective means of nature disaster relief that is widely used in many countries. The dispatching plan of aviation emergency rescue guarantees the efficient implementation of this relief measure. The conventional dispatching plan that does not consider random wind factors leads to a nonprecise quick-responsive scheme and serious safety issues. In this study, an aviation emergency rescue framework that considers the influence of random wind at flight trajectory i...

  12. Water environmental planning considering the influence of non-linear characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Guang-ming; QIN Xiao-sheng; WANG Wei; HUANG Guo-he; LI Jian-bing; B. Statzner

    2003-01-01

    In practical water environmental planning, the influence of the non-linear characteristics on the benefit of environmental investment was seldom taken into consideration. This paper demonstrates that there exist a lot of non-linear behaviors in water environment by emphatically analyzing the influence of the non-linear characteristics of the economic scale, the meandering river and the model on water environmental planning, which will make a certain impact on the water environmental planning that sometimes cannot be neglected. This paper also preliminarily explores how to integrate the non-linear characteristics into water environmental planning. The results showed that compared with traditional methods, water environmental planning considering non-linear characteristics has its prevalence and it is necessary to develop the relevant planning theories and methods.

  13. Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Järg 2001 nr. 1 lk. 32-40, nr. 2 lk. 49-56, nr. 3 lk. 39-50, 2002 nr. 1 lk. 24-33, nr. 2 lk. 49-59, nr. 3 lk. 35-45, 2003 nr. 1 lk. 33-43, nr. 2 lk. 43-55, nr. 3 lk. 41-53, 2004 nr. 1 lk. 41-53, 2005 nr. 1 lk. 45-57, nr. 2 lk. 53-65, nr. 3 lk. 29-35. Ülevaade Läti peamistest majandusnäitajatest. Lisa: Tabel majandusnäitajatega

  14. The Use of Analytic Network Process for Risk Assessment in Production of Renewable Energy from Agriculture Biomass in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandija Rivza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Risk assessment is an important factor for successful and sustainable entrepreneurship of bioenergy production that has become one of the priorities in energy sector of Latvia. Promotion of the use of renewable energy is included as one of the strategic goals for European Union (EU and Latvia. As this field of energy production in Latvia is rather new and scantily explored there are many risk factors arising in different stages of production, starting with planning and building of a bioreactor and ending with production and further use and distribution of energy. The present research focuses on risk assessment in renewable energy production form biomass as this kind of energy is seen as a perspective source for renewable energy under the conditions of Latvia. A risk assessment module for renewable energy production made by using the Analytic Network Process (ANP software is described in the paper.

  15. The Effect of Considering Environmental Aspect to Distribution Planning: A Case in Logistics SME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prambudia, Yudha; Andrian Nur, Andri

    2016-01-01

    Environmental aspect is often neglected in traditional distribution planning process of a product. Especially in small-medium enterprises (SME) of developing countries where cost efficiency is the predominant factor. Bearing in mind that there is a large number of SME's performing logistics activities, the consideration of environmental aspect in their distribution planning process would be beneficial to climate change mitigation efforts. The purpose of this paper is to show the impact of environmental aspect should it be considered as a contributing factor in distribution planning. In this research, an adoption of CO2-emission factor in an SME's distribution planning in Indonesia was simulated. The outputs of distribution planning with and without the factor consideration are then compared. The result shows that adoption of CO2-emission factor would change the priority of delivery route.

  16. Economical and Political Transformations - Latvia's Case / Lembit Ebre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ebre, Lembit

    1999-01-01

    Juris Dreifeldsi raamatust "Latvia in transition" ja Marja Nissineni raamatust "Latvia's transition to a market economy". Läti poliitiline ja majanduslik areng. Tabel: Ettevõtete omanike jaotus rahvuste järgi

  17. Economical and Political Transformations - Latvia's Case / Lembit Ebre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ebre, Lembit

    1999-01-01

    Juris Dreifeldsi raamatust "Latvia in transition" ja Marja Nissineni raamatust "Latvia's transition to a market economy". Läti poliitiline ja majanduslik areng. Tabel: Ettevõtete omanike jaotus rahvuste järgi

  18. Possible Applications of Soil Remediation Technologies in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlakovs, Juris; Vircavs, Magnuss

    2011-01-01

    Increasing public concern about deleterious effects of contamination on the environment and human health has led to legislative actions aimed at controlling and regulating the emission of potential contaminants into the environment, but there is still a plethora of territories historically contaminated with different contaminants within the territory of Latvia. The purpose of the present study is to give an overview of the formerly and presently contaminated areas and give some recommendations for remediation. 242 first category contaminated territories (the contamination exceeds the acceptable normative 10 times or more) are mentioned in the National Register of Contaminated Territories, a lot of them are known as contaminated with hazardous contaminants such as heavy metals, oil products, organic compounds and other contaminants in different amounts and concentrations. An overview of soil contamination in Latvia is provided, the planned and recommended research, as well as the planned remediation in pilot case studies, are described, giving a review of the historical contamination situation and of applications of the planned remediation technologies.

  19. The Relationship Between Seriously Considering, Planning, and Attempting Suicide in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Victor W.

    2005-01-01

    The assumed ordinal relationship between seriously considering, planning, and attempting suicide in the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey was examined by constructing a trajectory that identified all possible response patterns among the four questions measuring suicidal activity. Statistical analysis tested for differences in frequency of risk…

  20. 41 CFR 102-76.20 - What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? 102-76.20 Section 102-76.20... What issues must Federal agencies consider in providing site planning and landscape design services? In providing site planning and design services, Federal agencies must— (a) Make the site planning and...

  1. An Integrated Decentralized Energy Planning Model considering Demand-Side Management and Environmental Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mahmood Kazemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized energy planning (DEP is looked upon as an indisputable opportunity for energy planning of villages, isolated islands, and far spots. Nonetheless, at this decentralized planning level, the value of demand-side resources is not fairly examined, despite enjoying great advantages. Therefore, the core task of this study is to integrate demand-side resources, as a competing solution against supply-side alternatives, with decentralized energy planning decisions and demonstrate the rewarding role it plays. Moreover, sustainability indicators (SIs are incorporated into DEP attempts in order to attain sustainable development. It is emphasized that unless these indicators are considered at lower energy planning levels, they will be ignored at higher planning levels as well. Hence, to the best knowledge of the authors, this study for the first time takes into account greenhouse gas (GHG emissions produced by utilization of renewable energies in DEP optimization models. To address the issues mentioned previously, multiobjective linear programming model along with a min-max goal programming approach is employed. Finally, using data taken from the literature, the model is solved, and the obtained results are discussed. The results show that DSM policies have remarkably contributed to significant improvements especially in terms of environmental indicators.

  2. Dispatching Plan Based on Route Optimization Model Considering Random Wind for Aviation Emergency Rescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aviation emergency rescue is an effective means of nature disaster relief that is widely used in many countries. The dispatching plan of aviation emergency rescue guarantees the efficient implementation of this relief measure. The conventional dispatching plan that does not consider random wind factors leads to a nonprecise quick-responsive scheme and serious safety issues. In this study, an aviation emergency rescue framework that considers the influence of random wind at flight trajectory is proposed. In this framework, the predicted wind information for a disaster area is updated by using unscented Kalman filtering technology. Then, considering the practical scheduling problem of aircraft emergency rescue at present, a multiobjective model is established in this study. An optimization model aimed at maximizing the relief supply satisfaction, rescue priority satisfaction, and minimizing total rescue flight distance is formulated. Finally, the transport times of aircraft with and without the influence of random wind are analyzed on the basis of the data of an earthquake disaster area. Results show that the proposed dispatching plan that considers the constraints of updated wind speed and direction is highly applicable in real operations.

  3. Consider the OIG Work Plan in your 2012 internal audit schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaum, Kathleen D

    2011-12-01

    Wound care professionals should conduct monthly internal audits of their business processes. In addition to auditing, the coding, payment, and coverage issues that are considered issues by the Medicare contractor that processes your claims and the Medicare contractors that audit your claims and payments, be sure to include the OIG Work Plan topics that pertain to your wound care business. Remember, if atopic is important enough to make the OIG Work Plan, it should be important enough to make your 2012 internal audit plan. Because the Medicare Trust Fund is important to all US citizens, everyone has a responsibility to assist in combating fraud, waste, abuse, and mismanagement in HHS programs. Therefore, the OIG Hotline accepts tips from all sources. To provide a tip to the OIG Hotline, see Table 1 for contact information.

  4. Multiobjective Transmission Network Planning considering the Uncertainty and Correlation of Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to consider the uncertainty and correlation of wind power in multiobjective transmission network expansion planning (TNEP, this paper presents an extended point-estimation method to calculate the probabilistic power flow, based on which the correlative power outputs of wind farm are sampled and the uncertain multiobjective transmission network planning model is transformed into a solvable deterministic model. A modified epsilon multiobjective evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the above model and a well-distributed Pareto front is achieved, and then the final planning scheme can be obtained from the set of nondominated solutions by a fuzzy satisfied method. The proposed method only needs the first four statistical moments and correlation coefficients of the output power of wind farms as input information; the modeling of wind power is more precise by considering the correlation between wind farms, and it can be easily combined with the multiobjective transmission network planning model. Besides, as the self-adaptive probabilities of crossover and mutation are adopted, the global search capabilities of the proposed algorithm can be significantly improved while the probability of being stuck in the local optimum is effectively reduced. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method are validated by IEEE 24 as well as a real system.

  5. Optimized Planning of Power Source Capacity in Microgrid, Considering Combinations of Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since renewable energy resource is universally accepted as a promising method to solve the global energy problem, optimal planning and utilization of various distributed generators (DG and energy storage (ES devices deserve special concern. ES devices possess various characteristics in power density, energy density, response speed (switching speed and lifetime. Besides, as different load types have various requirements on power supply reliability according to their importance, coordinated planning with consideration of reasonable matching between power source and load can efficiently improve power supply reliability and economic efficiency via a customized power supply and compensation strategy. This paper focuses on optimization of power source capacity in microgrid and a coordinated planning strategy is proposed with integrated consideration of characteristics of DG, ES and load. An index named additional compensation ratio (ACR for balancing economic efficiency and reliability is proposed and considered in the strategy. The objective function which aims to minimize life cycle cost (LCC is established considering economic efficiency, reliability and environmental conservation. The proposed planning strategy and optimizing model is calculated and verified through case study of an autonomy microgrid.

  6. Innovative development of Latvia: analysis of problems and directions of national innovative policy formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Stradinya

    2015-09-01

    formation of national innovation policy, long-term economic growth and competitiveness of the country. The further development of Latvia is possible, provided with the governmental focus on the development of intellectual potential of fundamental research and development and information resources. State has to invest and promote investment in the researches and development of private firms; try to develop international competitiveness in science and increase the number of scientists and experts in the sphere of natural sciences and engineering. Matters considered in this article do not show the whole list of problems that hinder the innovative development of Latvia. But even they are constraining the development of this process. Conclusions and directions for further research. We believe that economic growth and competitiveness of Latvia is possible only through formation of national innovation policy. Therefore, further research is proposed to channel into the establishment of regional innovation centers and tracking processes that impede their innovative development.

  7. Spatial Perception and Cognition Review. Considering Geotechnologies as Urban Planning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia Borges

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a review of the spatial cognition and perception principles, referring to the definition proposed by Cullen and Lynch, through the geotechnology tools. It presents a case study to be analyzed through Geographical Information Systems (GIS, 3D Modeling, Spatial Analysis and Data Base Structure. This proposition presents reflections about the concepts and values of the early foundations of the spatial perception and cognition theories as a base to promote participative planning, investigating how geotechnologies can favor the registration and identification of landscape values to be considered in urban planning. The downtown of Belo Horizonte (Brazil was defined as a case study to promote the exercise of these reflections, aiming to present a practical illustration of the methodological proposition. This work tried to reach its purpose inquiring how geotechnologies could enhance knowledge gain in the Urban Planning practice. It points out some research paths that could be followed, as well as new approaches to the development of academic understanding of the geotechnologies role in the urban planning scenario.

  8. Municipal solid waste management planning considering greenhouse gas emission trading under fuzzy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Huang, Gordon

    2014-03-15

    Waste management activities can release greenhouse gases (GHGs) to the atmosphere, intensifying global climate change. Mitigation of the associated GHG emissions is vital and should be considered within integrated municipal solid waste (MSW) management planning. In this study, a fuzzy possibilistic integer programming (FPIM) model has been developed for waste management facility expansion and waste flow allocation planning with consideration of GHG emission trading in an MSW management system. It can address the interrelationships between MSW management planning and GHG emission control. The scenario of total system GHG emission control is analyzed for reflecting the feature that GHG emission credits may be tradable. An interactive solution algorithm is used to solve the FPIM model based on the uncertainty-averse preferences of decision makers in terms of p-necessity level, which represents the certainty degree of the imprecise objective. The FPIM model has been applied to a hypothetical MSW planning problem, where optimal decision schemes for facility expansion and waste flow allocation have been achieved with consideration of GHG emission control. The results indicate that GHG emission credit trading can decrease total system cost through re-allocation of GHG emission credits within the entire MSW management system. This will be helpful for decision makers to effectively determine the allowable GHG emission permits in practices.

  9. Wrestling on the Table: The Contemporary Wedding Meal in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astra Spalvēna

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE The object of this paper is to examine the contemporary wedding meal in Latvia, focusing on one particular social group of well situated young couples who choose fine dining restaurants or rented venues for their wedding celebrations because they considered restaurant weddings more elaborate and modern. The desire to embrace a modern lifestyle is the way in which to obtain a new identity in a rapidly changing post-socialist world. The aim of present research is to reveal how different traditions intertwine in the wedding meal - new or borrowed, with ancient and national or Soviet traditions. While followers of a modern lifestyle are emphasising a challenge to traditions, it is nevertheless the wedding meal and symbolic practices connected with it that indicates a more or less intentional respect for tradition. I argue that the wedding ceremony reveals the shift from rites of passage to social distinction. This argument is developed by analysing how social and family relationships, value systems and the ethos as a whole have changed recently in Latvia. The use of the symbolic capacity of wedding food, denoting fertility and prosperity, provides the stability of the structure of the wedding feast, which also affects the structure of the marriage ceremony as a whole. 

  10. Spatial interpolation of monthly mean air temperature data for Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniskevich, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    Temperature data with high spatial resolution are essential for appropriate and qualitative local characteristics analysis. Nowadays the surface observation station network in Latvia consists of 22 stations recording daily air temperature, thus in order to analyze very specific and local features in the spatial distribution of temperature values in the whole Latvia, a high quality spatial interpolation method is required. Until now inverse distance weighted interpolation was used for the interpolation of air temperature data at the meteorological and climatological service of the Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre, and no additional topographical information was taken into account. This method made it almost impossible to reasonably assess the actual temperature gradient and distribution between the observation points. During this project a new interpolation method was applied and tested, considering auxiliary explanatory parameters. In order to spatially interpolate monthly mean temperature values, kriging with external drift was used over a grid of 1 km resolution, which contains parameters such as 5 km mean elevation, continentality, distance from the Gulf of Riga and the Baltic Sea, biggest lakes and rivers, population density. As the most appropriate of these parameters, based on a complex situation analysis, mean elevation and continentality was chosen. In order to validate interpolation results, several statistical indicators of the differences between predicted values and the values actually observed were used. Overall, the introduced model visually and statistically outperforms the previous interpolation method and provides a meteorologically reasonable result, taking into account factors that influence the spatial distribution of the monthly mean temperature.

  11. Optimization of the Waterbus Operation Plan Considering Carbon Emissions: The Case of Zhoushan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juying Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, as more people are concerned with the issues around environment protection, research about how to reduce carbon emissions has drawn increasing attention. Encouraging public transportation is an effective measure to reduce carbon emissions. However, overland public transportation does less to lower carbon because of the gradually increasing pressure of the urban road traffic. Therefore, the waterbus along the coast becomes a new direction of the urban public transport development. In order to optimize the operation plan of the waterbus, a bi-level model considering carbon emissions is proposed in this paper. In the upper-level model, a multiple objective model is established, which considers both the interests of the passengers and the operator while considering the carbon emissions. The lower-level model is a traffic model split by using a Nested Logit model. A NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Finally, the city of Zhoushan is chosen as an example to prove the feasibility of the model and the algorithm. The result shows that the proposed model for waterbus operation optimization can efficiently reduce transportation carbon emissions and satisfy passenger demand at the same time.

  12. An Indoor Navigation Approach Considering Obstacles and Space Subdivision of 2d Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Man; Wei, Shuangfeng; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2016-06-01

    The demand for indoor navigation is increasingly urgent in many applications such as safe management of underground spaces or location services in complex indoor environment, e.g. shopping centres, airports, museums, underground parking lot and hospitals. Indoor navigation is still a challenging research field, as currently applied indoor navigation algorithms commonly ignore important environmental and human factors and therefore do not provide precise navigation. Flexible and detailed networks representing the connectivity of spaces and considering indoor objects such as furniture are very important to a precise navigation. In this paper we concentrate on indoor navigation considering obstacles represented as polygons. We introduce a specific space subdivision based on a simplified floor plan to build the indoor navigation network. The experiments demonstrate that we are able to navigate around the obstacles using the proposed network. Considering to well-known path-finding approaches based on Medial Axis Transform (MAT) or Visibility Graph (VG), the approach in this paper provides a quick subdivision of space and routes, which are compatible with the results of VG.

  13. The Competence of Primary School Mathematics Teachers in Mathematics Didactics in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Gunta Lāce

    2010-01-01

    Abstract This work presents an analysis of competence of preliminary school mathematics teachers in Latvia in mathematics didactics, i.e. determined planning of teaching process, skills to explain the material to pupils, determined work with exercises, justified choice of teaching methods and work forms, differentiated work with pupils with various skill levels, comprehension of evaluation and skills to implement it, determined use of IT in teaching process. By use of ana...

  14. A Multiobjective Fuzzy Aggregate Production Planning Model Considering Real Capacity and Quality of Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Madadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an attempt has been made to develop a multiobjective fuzzy aggregate production planning (APP model that best serves those companies whose aim is to have the best utilization of their resources in an uncertain environment while trying to keep an acceptable degree of quality and customer service level simultaneously. In addition, the study takes into account the performance and availability of production lines. To provide the optimal solution to the proposed model, first it was converted to an equivalent crisp multiobjective model and then goal programming was applied to the converted model. At the final step, the IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio software was used to obtain the final result based on the data collected from an automotive parts manufacturing company. The comparison of results obtained from solving the model with and without considering the performance and availability of production lines, revealed the significant importance of these two factors in developing a real and practical aggregate production plan.

  15. Education in Latvia. Reviews of National Policies for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    How can Latvia improve the quality and equity of its education system and realise long-term efficiency gains? This report covers the whole education system from early childhood education and care to tertiary education and provides an assessment of Latvia's policies and practices against the best approaches in education and skills across the OECD.…

  16. Stress-related Psychological Disorders Among Surgical Care Nurses in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kristaps Circenis; Liana Deklava

    2011-01-01

    Background: The subject of stress related psychological disorders is considered to be one of the mostcritical problems in the 21st century. Latvia’s social-economic situation is stressful and a lot of nurses stillneed to work more than one shift. There are no complete studies about surgical care nurses and operatingroom nurses burnout, depression, anxiety and compassion fatigue situation in Latvia.Aim and Objectives: Research aim was to find out burnout, depression, compassion fatigue and anx...

  17. Financial Participation of Employees in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauberg, Theis; Muravska, Tatyana; Mygind, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines main trends in employees' financial participation in Latvia including historical, socioeconomic and legal background. A special emphasis is placed on privatization during the transition period which shaped an environment for employees' financial participation and influenced...... the current state of employee share ownership and profit-sharing. Attitudes of social partners and the government will be addressed. The report will show why the transition process lead to a low level of employees' financial participation and the indifference and ignorance of policy makers concerning...... the development of financial participation....

  18. Financial Participation of Employees in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klauberg, Theis; Muravska, Tatyana; Mygind, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines main trends in employees' financial participation in Latvia including historical, socioeconomic and legal background. A special emphasis is placed on privatization during the transition period which shaped an environment for employees' financial participation and influenced...... the current state of employee share ownership and profit-sharing. Attitudes of social partners and the government will be addressed. The report will show why the transition process lead to a low level of employees' financial participation and the indifference and ignorance of policy makers concerning...... the development of financial participation....

  19. Mathematical Decision Models Applied for Qualifying and Planning Areas Considering Natural Hazards and Human Dealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Elena; Andina, Diego

    2014-05-01

    The authors were involved in the use of some Mathematical Decision Models, MDM, to improve knowledge and planning about some large natural or administrative areas for which natural soils, climate, and agro and forest uses where main factors, but human resources and results were important, natural hazards being relevant. In one line they have contributed about qualification of lands of the Community of Madrid, CM, administrative area in centre of Spain containing at North a band of mountains, in centre part of Iberian plateau and river terraces, and also Madrid metropolis, from an official study of UPM for CM qualifying lands using a FAO model from requiring minimums of a whole set of Soil Science criteria. The authors set first from these criteria a complementary additive qualification, and tried later an intermediate qualification from both using fuzzy logic. The authors were also involved, together with colleagues from Argentina et al. that are in relation with local planners, for the consideration of regions and of election of management entities for them. At these general levels they have adopted multi-criteria MDM, used a weighted PROMETHEE, and also an ELECTRE-I with the same elicited weights for the criteria and data, and at side AHP using Expert Choice from parallel comparisons among similar criteria structured in two levels. The alternatives depend on the case study, and these areas with monsoon climates have natural hazards that are decisive for their election and qualification with an initial matrix used for ELECTRE and PROMETHEE. For the natural area of Arroyos Menores at South of Rio Cuarto town, with at North the subarea of La Colacha, the loess lands are rich but suffer now from water erosions forming regressive ditches that are spoiling them, and use of soils alternatives must consider Soil Conservation and Hydraulic Management actions. The use of soils may be in diverse non compatible ways, as autochthonous forest, high value forest, traditional

  20. From Town Planning to Urban Design Work-The Dimensions to be Considered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan Altaban

    2013-06-01

    . Thirdly, the urban design project should be an instrument for the creation of new dynamics in urban structure. 4. The urban design work is a complicated process involving a continues change and transformation in the selected urban area. 5. The urban design project should contain and consider the phasing programme for implementation process, the organization of a participation medium for stakeholders, the financial (a budgetary programme for the whole stages of implementation. 6. The implementation process should contain several parties such as, the citizens with real estate ownership; the citizens without any ownership; the private sector acting as developer and investor; the public sector taking part as organizer, finance provider and promoter of public participation. 7. Within the continues process starting from town planning stage down to the implementation of urban design project, following items should be considered in a hierarchical order: in the upper scale, the strategies to be defined; in the medium scale, the policies to be explained; in the design scale, the means and ends, opportunities and instruments for implementation and including a phased development programme to be prepared in a detailed written statement. Consequently, a descriptive and expected qualification of an urban design and designer is explained under three headings. And a short section on the author’s opinions and several proposals about the urban fact in which social, economic and spatial aspects with reference to urban community as a whole are also included.

  1. Folkloristic Art Deco and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Čaupale, Renāte

    2013-01-01

    Analysing terminology existing in the art theory today and considering eclectic expressions in Art Deco aesthetics in the20-30s in connection with nationally ethnographic style elements or their stylisation, it is offered to use the term Folkloristic Art Deco. To show essential contention and esthetical difference between national romanticism and folkloristic Art Deco, the examples of Latvian architecture and art of the beginning of the 20th century are given. The term Folkloristic Art Deco a...

  2. Considering a Lexicographic Plan for Gabon within the Gabonese Language Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Steve Ndinga-Koumba-Binza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article raises a number of questions that should be dealt with in drawing up a lexicographic plan for Gabon. For which of the Gabonese languages should lexicographic units be established? This question entrains the issue of inventorying the Gabonese languages and their standardization as well as the issue of language planning for Gabon. What is the status of those foreign languages widely spoken in Gabon? What about French? Should Gabon keep importing its French dictionaries from France, or should the Gabonese compile their own French dictionaries, including French words and expressions exclusively used in Gabon? Finally, after trying to answer these questions, a number of suggestions are made for the establishment of a lexicographic plan for Gabon.

    Keywords: GABONESE LANGUAGE LANDSCAPE (GLL, LEXICOGRAPHIC PLAN FOR GABON, LANGUAGE DIVERSITY, LANGUAGE POLICY, LANGUAGE STANDARDIZATION, GABONESE LEXICOGRAPHY, NATIONAL LANGUAGE, NATIVE LANGUAGES, FOREIGN LANGUAGES

    *****

    OPSOMMING: Die oorweging van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen binne die Gaboenese taallandskap. Hierdie artikel bring 'n aantal vrae ter sprake waaraan aan-dag gegee moet word by die opstel van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen. Vir watter Gaboenese tale moet leksikografiese eenhede gestig word? Hierdie vraag bring die kwessie van die inventari-sering van die Gaboenese tale en hul standaardisering ter sprake, asook die kwessie van taalbe-planning vir Gaboen. Wat is die status van daardie vreemde tale wat algemeen in Gaboen gepraat word? Wat van Frans? Moet Gaboen voortgaan om sy Franse woordeboeke uit Frankryk in te voer, of moet hy sy eie Franse woordeboeke saamstel, met insluiting van Franse woorde en uitdrukkings wat uitsluitlik in Gaboen gebruik word? Ten slotte, nadat geprobeer is om hierdie vrae te beant-woord, word 'n aantal voorstelle gemaak vir die totstandbrenging van 'n leksikografiese plan vir Gaboen.

    Sleutelwoorde: GABOENESE

  3. Preoperative implant planning considering alveolar bone grafting needs and complication prediction using panoramic versus CBCT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, Maria Eugenia; Jacobs, Reinhilde [OIC, OMFS IMPATH Research Group, Department of Imaging and Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Noriega, Jorge [Master of Periodontology, Universidad San Martin de Porres, Lima (Peru)

    2014-09-15

    This study was performed to determine the efficacy of observers' prediction for the need of bone grafting and presence of perioperative complications on the basis of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiographic (PAN) planning as compared to the surgical outcome. One hundred and eight partially edentulous patients with a need for implant rehabilitation were referred for preoperative imaging. Imaging consisted of PAN and CBCT images. Four observers carried out implant planning using PAN image datasets, and at least one month later, using CBCT image datasets. Based on their own planning, the observers assessed the need for bone graft augmentation as well as complication prediction. The implant length and diameter, the need for bone graft augmentation, and the occurrence of anatomical complications during planning and implant placement were statistically compared. In the 108 patients, 365 implants were installed. Receiver operating characteristic analyses of both PAN and CBCT preoperative planning showed that CBCT performed better than PAN-based planning with respect to the need for bone graft augmentation and perioperative complications. The sensitivity and the specificity of CBCT for implant complications were 96.5% and 90.5%, respectively, and for bone graft augmentation, they were 95.2% and 96.3%, respectively. Significant differences were found between PAN-based planning and the surgery of posterior implant lengths. Our findings indicated that CBCT-based preoperative implant planning enabled treatment planning with a higher degree of prediction and agreement as compared to the surgical standard. In PAN-based surgery, the prediction of implant length was poor.

  4. Assessing emergency planning zone for new nuclear power plant considering risk of extreme external events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzbutas, Robertas

    2015-04-01

    In general, the Emergency Planning Zones (EPZ) are defined as well as plant site and arrangement structures are designed to minimize the potential for natural and manmade hazards external to the plant from affecting the plant safety related functions, which can affect nearby population and environment. This may include consideration of extreme winds, fires, flooding, aircraft crash, seismic activity, etc. Thus the design basis for plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. It has been observed that the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) methodologies to deal with EPZ and extreme external events have not reached the same level of maturity as for severe internal events. The design basis for any plant and site is deeply related to the effects of any postulated external events and the limitation of the plant capability to cope with accidents i.e. perform safety functions. As a prime example of an advanced reactor and new Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) with enhanced safety, the International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS) and Site selection for New NPP in Lithuania had been considered in this work. In the used Safety-by-Design™ approach, the PSA played obviously a key role; therefore a Preliminary IRIS PSA had been developed along with the design. For the design and pre-licensing process of IRIS the external events analysis included both qualitative evaluation and quantitative assessment. As a result of preliminary qualitative analyses, the external events that were chosen for more detailed quantitative scoping evaluation were high winds and tornadoes, aircraft crash, and seismic events. For the site selection in Lithuania a detail site evaluation process was performed and related to the EPZ and risk zoning considerations. In general, applying the quantitative assessment, bounding site characteristics could be used in order to

  5. Characteristic Features of Publications on Architectural Competition Practice in Latvia, 1859–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Leitāne-Šmīdberga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition practice has been rather extensively published, as publications on architectural competitions are inseparable from the competition process itself. They are a significant part of representation that explicitly promotes understanding of the design, realization and implementation process, and are a way to communicate the project to the client, jury, community and authorities. Yet, there have always been insufficient consistent critical discussions on the architecture and planning discourse in Latvia, neither on competitions, nor on the related publications. The purpose of the paper is to distinguish features that characterize publications on architectural competitions in Latvia. Methodological principles and systematization of the materials have been carried out according to the historical and logical approach method based on studies of the collected examples and sources of over 1,000 publications on 960 competitions of the past 160 years. The paper systematizes publications on competition practice over the several time periods in Latvia (Russian Empire 1859–1918, Independence 1918–34, Authoritarian Regime 1934–40, Soviet Period 1940–90 and the Second Independence 1991–2013 according to their topics, the author’s professional profiles, type and content and, eventually their characteristic style. Insights into the development of local competition practice through related publications help to explain the formation of a significant part of the local architectural and urban discourse, as its understanding is partially determined by the plurality of representations and interpretations.

  6. Cost-Benefit Assessment of Inspection and Repair Planning for Ship Structures Considering Corrosion Model Uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dian-qing; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun

    2005-01-01

    Owing to high costs and unnecessary inspections necessitated by the traditional inspection planning for ship structures, the risk-based inspection and repair planning should be investigated for the most cost-effective inspection. This paper aims to propose a cost-benefit assessment model of risk-based inspection and repair planning for ship structures subjected to corrosion deterioration. Then, the benefit-cost ratio is taken to be an index for the selection of the optimal inspection and repair strategy. The planning problem is formulated as an optimization problem where the benefit-cost ratio for the expected lifetime is maximized with a constraint on the minimum acceptable reliability index. To account for the effect of corrosion model uncertainty on the cost-benefit assessment, two corrosion models, namely, Paik's model and Guedes Soares' model, are adopted for analysis. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the proposed method. Sensitivity studies are also provided. The results indicate that the proposed method of risk-based cost-benefit analysis can effectively integrate the economy with reliability of the inspection and repair planning. A balance can be achieved between the risk cost and total expected inspection and repair costs with the proposed method, which is very effective in selecting the optimal inspection and repair strategy. It is pointed out that the corrosion model uncertainty and parametric uncertainty have a significant impact on the cost-benefit assessment of inspection and repair planning.

  7. Application Framework Of Integrated Energy Resources Planning Considering Full Environmental Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, Paulo Helio; Morales Udaeta, Miguel Edgar; Ribeiro Galvao, Luis Claudio; Baesso Grimoni, Jose Aquiles

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes the full environmental accounting being used in RAA (Administrative Region of Aracatuba), an area composed of 43 municipalities in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The full environment accounting shows the vulnerabilities and advantages in the region that can be used as a tool for public awareness and involvement in decision making to choose the most appropriate energy resources of the region. It is characterized by four main environmental categories: aerial, aquatic, land and anthropogenic mediums, each to be used as a tool for decision making in energy planning, specifically with the methodology of PIR - Integrated Energy Resources Planning.

  8. Model for rural transportation planning considering simulating mobility and traffic kills in the badger Meles meles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, C.F.; Langevelde, van F.; Baveco, J.M.; Eupen, van M.; Arisz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale spatial planning requires careful use and presentation of spatial data as it provides a means for communication with local stakeholders and decision makers. This is especially true for endangered species, such as the badger (Meles meles) in the Netherlands. To effectively mitigate the

  9. Multi-Objective Planning of Multi-Type Distributed Generation Considering Timing Characteristics and Environmental Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to multi-type distributed generation (DG planning based on the analysis of investment and income brought by grid-connected DG. Firstly, the timing characteristics of loads and DG outputs, as well as the environmental benefits of DG are analyzed. Then, on the basis of the classification of daily load sequences, the typical daily load sequence and the typical daily output sequence of DG per unit capacity can be computed. The proposed planning model takes the location, capacity and types of DG into account as optimization variables. An improved adaptive genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Case studies have been carried out on the IEEE 14-node distribution system to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method and model.

  10. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...... - was developed, and maps could be produced for several regions in Latvia measured with airborne gamma-ray spectrometry in 1996....

  11. 21 CFR 822.11 - What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What should I consider when designing my plan to conduct postmarket surveillance? 822.11 Section 822.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES POSTMARKET SURVEILLANCE...

  12. Assessment of Acute Pain in Nursing Practice in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Strode

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: International Association for the Study of Pain defines pain as annoying sensations and emotions associated with actual or potential tissue damage or is described as such damage. Pains always are considered to be subjective sensations with multidimensional nature composed from physical, emotional and cognitive components. One of the main tasks in pain syndrome effective therapy is the option to perform objective assessment of pain intensity and quality utilizing principle of continuity. Independent surveys on pain management in postoperative period are performed in different countries of the world. Studies analyze effectiveness of both - medical and non-medical measurements in order to reduce pain syndrome. Very few investigations of chronic and acute pain influence on recovery process, progress and outcome of illness, assessment of pain intensity and quality are performed in Latvia. In the case of acute pain chronification, pain perception and management can be changed; pains become inadequately long lasting and may combine with psychogenic pains. According to the data obtained by the World Health Organization, fifty percent patients after injuries or operations have severe and insufferable pains despite the development of acute pain treatment and care. Insufficiently controlled postoperative pains become a risk factor for development of various abnormalities. Aim of the study: To study the usage of postoperative period pain intensity and quality assessment scales in the clinical practice of nursing, as well as availability of these methodsMaterial and methods: Survey utilizes quantitative research method. As an investigation tool was chosen questionnaire. Survey was carried out in the surgical profile wards in Riga and regional clinics of Latvia. Questionnaire embraced 309 nurses, working in the surgical profile.Results: Assessment of acute pains should be considered as the fifth vital sign providing more successful achievement of

  13. MILP Approach for Bilevel Transmission and Reactive Power Planning Considering Wind Curtailment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ugranli, Faruk; Karatepe, Engin; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2017-01-01

    In this study, two important planning problems in power systems that are transmission expansion and reactive power are formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming taking into account the bilevel structure due to the consideration of market clearing under several load-wind scenarios....... The objective of the proposed method is to minimize the installation cost of transmission lines, reactive power sources, and the annual operation costs of conventional generators corresponding to the curtailed wind energy while maintaining the reliable system operation. Lower level problems of the bilevel...... structure are designated for the market clearing which is formulated by using the linearized optimal power flow equations. In order to obtain mixed-integer linear programming formulation, the so-called lower level problems are represented by using primal-dual formulation. By using the proposed method, power...

  14. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  15. The Optimization Model for Interregional Power System Planning considering Carbon Emissions Trading and Renewable Energy Quota Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liwei Ju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, the rapid construction of ultra-high-voltage (UHV transmission lines promotes interregional resource optimizing configuration and interregional power system planning. This paper analyzes external environment of interregional power system planning from geographical, technical, and policy environments. Then, the paper takes the minimum system investment cost as the optimization objective and constructs the optimization model of interregional power system planning considering carbon emissions trading (CET and renewable energy quota mechanism (REQ. Finally, this paper sets base scenario, carbon emissions trading scenario, renewable energy quota mechanism scenario, and comprehensive scenario for case simulation. The results show that interregional power system planning could connect power grids in different regions, enlarge wind power consumption space, and relieve the inconformity problem between power resource and load demand. CET and REQ can increase the installed proportion of clean energy and reduce carbon dioxide emissions, but the cost of transmission lines construction and system reserve will increase correspondingly. The optimization effect of REQ on power system planning is better than CET. When they are both introduced, the power structure will reach the best, carbon dioxide emissions will achieve the minimum, and comprehensive benefits will become more balanced.

  16. Factors to consider when planning a pipeline inspection: making an informed best choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Ben [GE Oil and Gas, PII Pipeline Solutions, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    When managing pipeline integrity, the quality of inspection information is critical to determining the true condition of the pipeline, and predicting its future condition over time. The cost of a pipeline failure is nearly always much more than the cost of using a quality inspection service to obtain accurate information on the condition of the line. With pressure to reduce costs for all services, the focus often falls on the two most visible areas, tool selection and short-term service cost. These are important factors, but what is equally important is the quality and reliability of the data obtained and its effect on pipeline integrity. Without reliable data our information on pipeline condition is uncertain at best. These issues of data quality are often not well understood since many specialist technical factors are involved. This paper highlights some of the issues that need to be considered so that their importance and the effort that goes into them can be appreciated better. At the end of the day, the prime requirement is a safe, accurate and reliable inspection, delivering a good specification over a wide range of pipeline conditions and flow velocities. (author)

  17. Multi-Period Optimization Model for Electricity Generation Planning Considering Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ahmadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges for widespread penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs is their impact on the electricity grid. The energy sector must anticipate and prepare for this extra demand and implement long-term planning for electricity production. In this paper, the additional electricity demand on the Ontario electricity grid from charging PHEVs is incorporated into an electricity production planning model. A case study pertaining to Ontario energy planning is considered to optimize the value of the cost of the electricity over sixteen years (2014–2030. The objective function consists of the fuel costs, fixed and variable operating and maintenance costs, capital costs for new power plants, and the retrofit costs of existing power plants. Five different case studies are performed with different PHEVs penetration rates, types of new power plants, and CO2 emission constraints. Among all the cases studied, the one requiring the most new capacity, (~8748 MW, is assuming the base case with 6% reduction in CO2 in year 2018 and high PHEV penetration. The next highest one is the base case, plus considering doubled NG prices, PHEV medium penetration rate and no CO2 emissions reduction target with an increase of 34.78% in the total installed capacity in 2030. Furthermore, optimization results indicate that by not utilizing coal power stations the CO2 emissions are the lowest: ~500 tonnes compared to ~900 tonnes when coal is permitted.

  18. A Multiobjective Stochastic Production-Distribution Planning Problem in an Uncertain Environment Considering Risk and Workers Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. J. Mirzapour Al-e-Hashem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective two stage stochastic programming model is proposed to deal with a multi-period multi-product multi-site production-distribution planning problem for a midterm planning horizon. The presented model involves majority of supply chain cost parameters such as transportation cost, inventory holding cost, shortage cost, production cost. Moreover some respects as lead time, outsourcing, employment, dismissal, workers productivity and training are considered. Due to the uncertain nature of the supply chain, it is assumed that cost parameters and demand fluctuations are random variables and follow from a pre-defined probability distribution. To develop a robust stochastic model, an additional objective functions is added to the traditional production-distribution-planning problem. So, our multi-objective model includes (i the minimization of the expected total cost of supply chain, (ii the minimization of the variance of the total cost of supply chain and (iii the maximization of the workers productivity through training courses that could be held during the planning horizon. Then, the proposed model is solved applying a hybrid algorithm that is a combination of Monte Carlo sampling method, modified -constraint method and L-shaped method. Finally, a numerical example is solved to demonstrate the validity of the model as well as the efficiency of the hybrid algorithm.

  19. Autochthonous canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis canis in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzina, Inese; Capligina, Valentina; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate; Cirule, Dina; Matise, Ilze

    2013-09-23

    This is the first report of confirmed canine babesiosis in Latvia supporting the observed geographical expansion of this disease. Between 2009 and 2011 three dogs which have not traveled outside of Latvia were diagnosed with babesiosis. Hematological analysis and serological tests for granulocytic anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis and borreliosis were negative (Idexx SNAP 4Dx test). Peripheral blood erythrocytes of the three dogs contained large Babesia that were identified as Babesia canis canis by PCR. Sequences of partial 18S rRNA gene were 98-100% similar to the sequences of B. canis canis isolated from dogs in other European countries. We conclude that these are the first autochthonous canine babesiosis cases reported from Latvia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Flexible Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Uncertain Renewable Generation and Load Demand Based on Hybrid Clustering Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hao Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible transmission network expansion planning (TNEP approach considering uncertainty. A novel hybrid clustering technique, which integrates the graph partitioning method and rough fuzzy clustering, is proposed to cope with uncertain renewable generation and load demand. The proposed clustering method is capable of recognizing the actual cluster distribution of complex datasets and providing high-quality clustering results. By clustering the hourly data for renewable generation and load demand, a multi-scenario model is proposed to consider the corresponding uncertainties in TNEP. Furthermore, due to the peak distribution characteristics of renewable generation and heavy investment in transmission, the traditional TNEP, which caters to rated renewable power output, is usually uneconomic. To improve the economic efficiency, the multi-objective optimization is incorporated into the multi-scenario TNEP model, while the curtailment of renewable generation is considered as one of the optimization objectives. The solution framework applies a modified NSGA-II algorithm to obtain a set of Pareto optimal planning schemes with different levels of investment costs and renewable generation curtailments. Numerical results on the IEEE RTS-24 system demonstrated the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Technical Assistance to Land Privatisation and Registration in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Poul

    1998-01-01

    The current situation on Photogrammetry, Digital Mapping and Land Information Systems is described concerning State Land Service in Latvia. The report lists achievements during the project period October 1996 – September 1998, in particular on staff training, production improvements and logistics....

  2. Construction materials and construction influential factors in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Skribans, V.

    2000-01-01

    In work are analysed situation in Latvian building, building material producing, in real estate market. Show on building material producing influential factors. Analysed statistic about building material produce and using in Latvia. Work out matrix, which help to develop produces and building material branch.

  3. The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  4. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  5. Low Level Caesium Mapping in Latvia Anno 1995

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina

    1999-01-01

    In Latvia the caesium-137 contamination from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapon tests in the 1960´es is very low. Conventional techniques for extracting information from the measured spectra cannot be used here. Therefore a new, sensitive technique - the pseudo concentration method...

  6. Economic crisis in the Baltic states : Focusing on Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyama Yoji

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causes of the economic crisis in new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe, focusing on the Baltic States, especially Latvia. Thanks to the Single Market of the EU, workers in this country became able to migrate to advanced EU countries, especially the UK, decreasing the unemployment rate and at the same time causing a sharp increase in wages due to a tightened labour market. Banks from Nordic countries came to operate in Latvia and competed for market shares, stirring a consumption boom. In a situation in which people can easily get loans denominated in a foreign currency the monetary policies of the central bank are weakened. The Latvian economy already showed signs of overheating in 2005. However in the spring of 2007 the government turned to restrictive policies, causing a depression at the end of 2007. The Lehman shock dealt the Latvian economy its final blow. Latvia set up the introduction of the Euro in 2013 as an exit strategy. Latvia is in a dilemma: if the country does not devalue its national currency and tries to satisfy the Maastricht criteria soon, it will be obliged to adopt pro-cyclical policies, causing economic stagnation.

  7. Quality product of Latvia on threshold of the European Union

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti turundusnõukogu poolt loodud nn "rohelise lusika" logo, algselt "Quality product of Latvia" nime kandnud kaubamärgist, mis võimaldab märgistada kõrgekvaliteedilisi tooteid nende päritolu rõhutamata

  8. Airborne Gamma-Ray Survey in Latvia 1995/96

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Based on Airborne Gamma-Ray Spectrometry measurements performed with the Danish AGS equipment in 1995 and 1996 maps of the natural radioactivity have been produdced for selected areas in Latvia. The calibration of the quipment have been improved by comparisons with soil sample measurements....

  9. Quality product of Latvia on threshold of the European Union

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti turundusnõukogu poolt loodud nn "rohelise lusika" logo, algselt "Quality product of Latvia" nime kandnud kaubamärgist, mis võimaldab märgistada kõrgekvaliteedilisi tooteid nende päritolu rõhutamata

  10. The Review of Internet Marketing Use in Latvia's Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloka, Biruta; Kantane, Inara; Walczak, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Development of new technologies and increasing competition require new solutions in business applications in internet marketing and advertising. The paper deals with issues related to advertising activities in internet marketing. There were presented both theoretical findings and empirical analysis of the survey conducted among Latvia's companies.…

  11. Internet Banking Adoption: Case of Lithuania and Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaile-Sarkane, Elina; Jureviciene, Diva; Skvarciany, Viktorija; Iljins, Juris

    2017-01-01

    The banking sector has developed and extended usage of different services at a distance using the internet in the last decade. Internet-based banking services dominate over other historically provided alternatives. This paper explores the adoption of internet banking in Lithuania and Latvia. Internet banking success model was developed based on…

  12. Quantitative and Qualitative Parameters of Awards in Architecture and Construction Industries of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Mikelsone

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available While evaluating the built environment, predominant agreement on what aspects constitute an achievement or failure in architecture is changing in the course of time. The subject of the research is value set agreements in regional comprehension, followed by the generic tree of award in architecture and construction industries of Latvia. Recently, besides the original task of promoting quality, the judgment typology can be considered a significant evidence of what the contemporary questions, problems and challenges consist of in the regional architecture. Based on the method of analytic comparison, this research paper lists regional awards as established public forms of judgment, reflected in professional editions and mass media during the last two decades. By sorting them by responsible initiatives, aim formulations, establishment data, criterion and target audience, the paper focuses on the general examination of affiliation segments and quantitative and qualitative indicators in the awards assigned since 1990. Conclusions include the data on widespread generalizations in the terms of criteria, segmentation and fragmentation, reputation of subjectivity, commercialization and expansive development in awarding, and at the same time raise the lack of constructive criticism culture in Latvia.

  13. Latvia needs a renewable energy plan / Raquel Dura Lahoz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dura Lahoz, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Läti Transatlantiline Organisatsioon ja Sorose fond korraldasid 21. septembril diskussiooni, mille teemadeks olid taastuv energia ja suurem energiasõltumatus. Diskussioonist võtsid osa poliitikud, investorid, energeetikaeksperdid ja parteide esindajad

  14. Latvia needs a renewable energy plan / Raquel Dura Lahoz

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Dura Lahoz, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Läti Transatlantiline Organisatsioon ja Sorose fond korraldasid 21. septembril diskussiooni, mille teemadeks olid taastuv energia ja suurem energiasõltumatus. Diskussioonist võtsid osa poliitikud, investorid, energeetikaeksperdid ja parteide esindajad

  15. A New Method to Plan the Capacity and Location of Battery Swapping Station for Electric Vehicle Considering Demand Side Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to electric vehicle (EV charging mode, battery swapping mode can realize concentrated and orderly charging. Therefore battery swapping stations (BSS can participate in the demand side management (DSM as an integrated form. In this context, a new method to plan the capacity and location of BSS for EV, considering DSM, is proposed in this paper. Firstly, based on the original charging power of BSS with the rule of “First-In First-Out”, a bi-level optimal configuration model of BSS, in which net profit of BSS is maximized in the upper model and operating cost of Distribution Company is minimized in the lower model, is developed to decide the rated power, number of batteries, contract pricing and dispatched power of BSS for DSM. Then, the optimal locating model of BSS with the objective of minimizing network loss is built. A mesh adaptive direct search algorithm with YALMIP toolbox is applied to optimize the bi-level model. Simulation calculation was carried on IEEE-33 nodes distribution system and the results show that participating in DSM can improve the economic benefits of both BSS and distribution network and promote the consumption of distributed generation, verifying the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sivicka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Oregano populations are variable by morphology, cytology, genetics, biochemistry and agrobotany. Using international Draft Descriptor Lists it is possible to describe oregano samples and to select the most variable accessions for cultivation of Origanum vulgareL. The aim of this research was to explore the several aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia. In summer 2012, 44 oregano accessions from an ex situcollection of spice- and medicinal plants of the Laboratory of Cultivated Plants and Apilogy ( Jelgava, 1 Strazdu str. were analysed. Plant growth habit, plant height, number of stems per plant, branching density, colour of the upper surface and shape of blade of the leaf, density of flowers, colour of petals were described in this research. The results showed that oregano accessions differ morphologically in Latvia. It is necessary to continue this research to allow plants to fully express their characteristics and to explore the possible changeableness of parameters.

  17. The Potential of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakipova, S.; Jakovics, A.; Gendelis, S.

    2016-02-01

    The article discusses some aspects of the use of renewable energy sources in the climatic conditions prevailing in most of the territory of Latvia, with relatively low wind speeds and a small number of sunny days a year. The paper gives a brief description of the measurement equipment and technology to determine the parameters of the outer air; the results of the measurements are also analysed. On the basis of the data obtained during the last two years at the meteorological station at the Botanical Garden of the University of Latvia, the energy potential of solar radiation and wind was estimated. The values of the possible and the actual amount of produced energy were determined.

  18. The information presented on labels for bread produced in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murniece, Irisa; Straumite, Evita

    2014-11-01

    Bakery products, particularly bread, make up a significant share of the food guide pyramid. To help consumers make more informed choices from the bread available in the market, it is essential to provide correct and appropriate information on food labels. The aim of this research was to analyse the information shown on labels for different types of bread produced in Latvia. Different types of bread were chosen from 28 bakeries located in regions throughout Latvia. For statistical analysis, the data were processed using the S-PLUS 6.1 Professional Edition. From the analysis of labels on bread in Latvian, we conclude there is an absence of information about energy; only 4.8% of labels presented energy calculated according to the Nutritional Labelling Regulation 90/496/ECC.

  19. Issues Regarding Origin Labeling of Food in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ligita Melece

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results of studies which are connected with the establishment and development of quality trademarks (labels) of food products and of organically produced food products in Latvia. Also the place and importance of the food sector in total, and organic production in particular, is accented. The interpretation of EU quality mark is done and possibilities to obtain EU labels to Latvian food products are outlined At present there are two types of trademarks (labels) of food which...

  20. Ergonomics Integration Omproving Production Process Management in Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Kaļķis, Henrijs

    2013-01-01

    Dotoral thesis ERGONOMICS INTEGRATION IMPROVING PRODUCTION PROCESS MANAGEMENT IN ENTERPRISES OF LATVIA ANNOTATION Ergonomics integration in process management has great significance in organisations` growth of productivity. It is a new approach to entrepreneurship and business strategy, where ergonomic aspects and values are taken into account in ensuring the effective process management and profitability of enterprises. This study is aimed at solution of the problem of e...

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM IN LATVIA: ISSUES AND POTENTIALITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Melece, Ligita; Ruciņš, Mārtiņš

    2012-01-01

    Tourism is recognized as one of the most important economic sectors or industries in the world and many countries see tourism as the main instrument for economic and regional development. The paper provides a short theoretical framework for tourism and its role or impact, discussing the definition of tourism and some aspects of the tourism sector. The paper presents results of studies devoted to some issues of tourism development in Latvia. Comparison of some indicators of tourism sector’s de...

  2. Latvia - the new key region for increasing natural gas supply reliability and security in europe; La Lettonie - une region - cle pour augmenter la fiabilite et la securite de l'approvisionnement en gaz naturel de l'europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.; Freibergs, G. [Latvian gas company ' ' Latvijas Gaze' ' (Latvia); Zebergs, V.; Zeltinsh, N. [Institute of Physical Energetics, Latvian Academy of Sciences (Latvia)

    2000-07-01

    The territory of Latvia is situated near the geographical centre of Europe. This means that its distance from the Russian gas fields is greater than 3000 km, while from those of Northern Europe - only 1000 km. The geological structure of Latvian territory is a unique one, because it allows siting new highly reliable underground gas storage facilities (UGSs). At present, in Latvia there is functioning one UGS with an active capacity of 2.3 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} of gas. This storage provides non-stop gas supply for Latvia and, partially, for the neighbouring countries during the whole year. In future, it is possible to site in Latvia a new UGS (or a network of storage's) with an active capacity for gas of 50 10{sup 9} m{sup 3}. Such a huge storage could become a basis for a new, economically substantiated, concept of gas pipeline building that would provide a high level of gas supply in the scale of Northern Europe as well as Central and Eastern Europe. In the work, we analyse the existing as well as newly proposed schemes of supplying Europe with gas, and present the results of research concerning UGSs - both existing and potential. We also consider the UGS from the viewpoint of economic efficiency in the context of gas supply systems of Europe and Latvia. The conclusions are drawn that would serve as a basis for international cooperation and help to attract investments for UGS construction. (authors)

  3. 77 FR 64127 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from Belarus... concrete reinforcing bar from Latvia and Moldova. The Commission found that the respondent interested party...

  4. Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmane, I.

    2003-01-01

    Investigations of Gamasina mites in natural and man-affected soils in Latvia (Acari: Mesostigmata) A short overview is presented on Gamasina material collected in 22 natural and man-disturbed habitats in Latvia. Species diversity, average density and species dominance were investigated. Altogether 1

  5. Prevalence of Foodborne Pathogens in Freshwater Fish in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentjeva, Margarita; Eizenberga, Inga; Valciņa, Olga; Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Strazdiņa, Vita; Bērziņš, Aivars

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Yersinia enterocolitica in freshwater fish in Latvia. In total, 235 samples, including freshly caught fish from fives lakes (n = 129) and fish from retail markets (n = 106), were collected from April 2014 to December 2014 in Latvia. Samples were tested according to International Organization for Standardization methods. No Salmonella spp. were found in fresh fish from lakes or in commercially available fish. In contrast, the overall prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater fish was 13% (30 of 235) and 14% (34 of 235), respectively, and no significant difference between the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica was observed (P > 0.05). All Y. enterocolitica isolates belonged to the nonpathogenic 1A biotype. Molecular serotyping of L. monocytogenes revealed that the most distributed serogroup was 1/2a-3a (65%), followed by 1/2c-3c (25%), 1/2b-3b (5%), and 4b, 4d, 4e (5%). The prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in freshwater lake fish was 2% (2 of 129) and 3% (4 of 129), respectively. In contrast, the prevalence of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in fish at retail markets was 26% (28 of 106) and 28% (30 of 106), respectively. In retail samples, 9 of 58 positive fish contained both L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica. In general, differences in the prevalences of L. monocytogenes and Y. enterocolitica in retail samples were significantly higher than those in freshly caught fish (P < 0.05). The results of this study indicate that freshwater fish could be an important source of Y. enterocolitica and L. monocytogenes for consumers in Latvia.

  6. Prevalence of tabacco product use in Latvia and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco products is a major problem having a serious effect on public health. Deaths from external causes are those that can be prevented by ensuring environmental safety and educating the society about the effect of lifestyle habits and behaviour on health of an individual. Not only research data reveal the prevalence of tobacco use but also the rate of tobacco sales. Tobacco industry marketing includes advertising, sales promotion and sponsorship strategies that are aimed at promotion of tobacco use. Demand for tobacco products is influenced also by changes in legislation relating to ban on tobacco advertising and sponsorship. Therefore it is necessary to introduce an agreed strategy for reducing tobacco use. The countries that have ratified the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (the Convention should develop and implement an effective tobacco control programme. In Latvia the number of daily smokers gradually decreases thanks to the extensive smoking restrictions though tobacco manufacturers use all the available media, radio and television, newspapers, magazines, advertisements and Internet, to advertise their products. Therefore in order to combat the prevalence of smoking first of all it is necessary to limit cigarette marketing and sales and to carry out monitoring and development of tobacco control measures on the state level. The sales of legal cigarettes have decreased in Latvia starting from 2009. However, the increase in tax rates and prices has contributed to the movement of illegal goods therefore it is necessary to take additional restrictive measures concerning the movement of illegal goods. Though amendments to legislation of Latvia relating to tobacco control comply with the requirements of the WHO Convention it is necessary to evaluate the efficiency of control measures and to improve them. Systematic and comprehensive education of the public is required to encourage the change of

  7. Considering wind energy in regional planning guidelines and communal land-use planning; Die Beruecksichtigung der Windenergie in der Richt- und Nutzungsplanung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soguel, R. [Atelier North and Robyr, Neuchatel (Switzerland); Henz, H.R. [Metron Raumplanung AG, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the situation in Switzerland regarding the planning guidelines required at regional and communal level that are required for the granting of permission to build wind energy installations. Various types of wind turbines and wind farms are described and topics such as planning tools, landscape protection and promotional concepts are discussed. The role of the Swiss Cantons in the promotion of wind energy is examined and the question of how to integrate wind energy plant into cantonal and communal planning guidelines is looked at. This working guide introduces two schemes that demonstrate how the planning process for the construction of wind farms can be co-ordinated with the development of land-use plans. Examples of current cantonal guidelines are presented in the appendix to the report.

  8. 77 FR 8892 - Detailed Planning To Consider Additional Land Protection on the Missouri River From Fort Randall...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... 25486, DFC, Denver, CO 80225. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Nick Kaczor, Planning Team Leader... and that their Outstandingly Remarkable Values shall be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of... habitats for fish and wildlife will provide benefits to visitors, neighbors, and local communities of...

  9. Biomass production of young lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia stands in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansons A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass as a source of renewable energy is gaining an increasing importance in the context of emission targets set by the European Union. Large areas of abandoned agricultural land with different soils are potentially available for establishment of biomass plantations in the Baltic states. Considering soil and climatic requirements as well as traits characteristic for lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. var. latifolia Engelm and the scarcity of published knowledge, we assessed the above-ground biomass of Pinus contorta in comparison to that of native Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and factors affecting biomass production. Data were collected in 3 experimental trials, located in two sites in central part of Latvia: Zvirgzde and Kuldiga (56°41’ N, 24°28’ E and 57°03’ N, 21°57’ E, respectively. Trials were established with density 5000 tree ha-1, using seed material from Canada (50°08’-60°15’ N, 116°25’-132°50’ W and two Pinus contorta stands with unknown origin growing in Latvia. Results reveal that absolute dry aboveground biomass of Pinus contorta reaches 114 ± 6.4 t ha-1 at age 16 on a fertile former arable land, 48 ± 3.6 and 94 ± 9.4 t ha-1 at age 22 and 25, respectively, on a sandy forest land (Vacciniosa forest type. The biomass is significantly (p < 0.01 and considerably (more than two-fold higher than that of the native Pinus sylvestris and the productivity is similar (in fertile soils or higher (on poor soils than reported for other species in energy-wood plantations. Provenance was a significant factor affecting the above-ground biomass, and the ranking of provenances did not change significantly between different soil conditions. It provides opportunities for further improvement of productivity using selection.

  10. Tan spot - the most harmful wheat leaf disease in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biruta Bankina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis is one of the most important wheat diseases in Latvia. Significant spreading of this disease was observed from 1998. Field experiments were carried out at the Research and Training Farm "Peterlauki" of the Latvia University of Agriculture, during 1998-2003. Development of diseases was observed on 14 winter wheat varieties, dynamics of development was investigated on 'Donskaja polukarlikovaja' and 'Stava'. Assessments of the disease severity were carried out on the upper three leaves each week from the start of stem elongation to full ripening. Tan spot was observed at the stage of stem elongation in 2003, and only after flowering in 1999. Increase of the disease severity was slow until stage of milk ripeness, and only in late stages of wheat development sharp increase of the disease was observed. Total rate of infection (through the session of vegetation was very slow (0,01-0,19, but during ripening rate achieved 0,5-0,6. The main reason of so unequal development of the disease seems changes in amount of infection sources. Other possible reason of rapid increase of the disease development is the relationship between leaf age and susceptibility to the disease. Further research is necessary for better understanding of tan spot life cycle.

  11. Transformations of Neopaganism in Latvia: From Survival to Revival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasulane Anita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neopaganism (Dievturība in Latvia has undergone phenomenal transformations which have been driven by socio-political conditions. The history of the Dievturi movement makes it possible to outline the historical change in the movement due to differing political circumstances. In the first period of its development (1925-1940, Neopaganism displayed itself as a form of politicised phenomenon; it became part of prevailing policies of nationalism by offering a Latvian national religion. With Latvia’s occupation by the Soviet forces (1940 Latvian Neopagans, Dievturi, became a disadvantaged group. Persecution and repression faced by Dievturi (1940-1953 were due to the imposition of Communist ideology and restrictions on freedom. Later during the Soviet regime (1953-1986, the Dievturi were not part of an organised religious movement, their teaching and ritual practice were not further developed during this time period. However, it was while in exile that the Dievturi had the opportunity to develop and expand the movement, but they had to address an urgent problem of preservation of ethnic identity. In the 1980s the Dievturi movement gradually resumed its activity, and it was officially registered as a religious organisation (1990. Today the Dievturi movement in Latvia includes controversial aspects: opposition to globalisation trends and its New Age trajectory.

  12. Verification Plan for the Concrete Temperature of the MACSTOR/KN-400 Module under Transient State Considering Actual Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Park, Jeong Eun [KHNP, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    This paper covers a verification plan of the results of heat transfer analysis in the MACSTOR/KN-400 on a transient state basis. The transient state reflects several natural environment parameters such as solar loads and daily temperature variations. These factors seriously affect analysis results in terms of concrete temperature and temperature gradients. There are two objectives to verifying the heat analysis results under transient state. First, there is the need to meet the request of the regular body to confirm that concrete temperature stays below the level of the design criteria. Second, it is necessary to recognize how much conservative the analysis is. In actual operating conditions, concrete temperature would be reduced by less conservative conditions.

  13. Cost-based Optimal Distributed Generation Planning with Considering Voltage Depended Loads and Power Factor of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yousefi-Khangah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available If determination of location and size of Distributed Generation (DG are applied accurately, the DG’s ability will improve the network situation and reduce operation costs. In this paper, various market conditions are considered to maximize the benefit of DG’s presence and make a trade off among advantages of DG, network situation, and Distribution Company (DISCO owners. To determine the optimal location and size of DG, two methods of the cost minimization and the nodal pricing are combined. In addition to evaluating the impact of parameters such as variation of energy price and load on objective function, effect of these parameters on location and size of DG is considered. To confirm the results, impact of loads which are dependent on voltage and variation of the power factor of the DG units is applied and then effect of power factor on optimal location and size of DG is shown. A method is proposed for convergence of different results which is caused by different power factors. To observe long-term impact of the DG’s presence in the network, a load growth for five years is considered annually. Study is carried out on IEEE30 bus test circuit.

  14. Decision Theories used in Areas Planning around La Colacha Basin (Cordoba, Argentina) considering Natural and Human Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, Jose M.; Grau, Juan B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cisneros, Jose M.; Andina, Diego

    2010-05-01

    The authors of U.P.M. have had relations with Argentine Universities and Administrations, in part with J.M.Cisneros that is Professor at Universidad Nacional de Rio Cuarto in Prov. de Córdoba Arg., and have applied Decision Theories with Mathematic tools for the planning of defences and uses of soils in these areas and especially of La Colacha bassin enlarged with larger areas around it as "Cuenca de los Arroyos Menores" at West and South of Rio Cuarto. These large flat lands have loess soils brought by winds from Los Andes that are much far at West, there is a very old line of not high mountains at West near the study area from which rivers flow with little slopes to somehow lower flat areas at West with some marshes. Rivers through loess get regressive erosions with rains forming kilometres long ditches in the loess called "cárcavas" some meters deep and quite large across otherwise flat agricultural lands, and J.M. Cisneros, that has numerous publications about local soil uses, has directed diverse genie rural works to halt the regression of some of them. Part of the study is about protection against floods and "cárcavas". There are famous experiences and records of higher inundations of large areas by rivers. Latitude of Rio Cuarto is 31°25' South, that area is temperate refreshed by south winds, Zonda föhn winds from West being hotter and drier, and there are monsoons and so winter in July is dry and summer and December has rains, that average 829mm per year. Wind erosion and fires occur frequently on these loess soils in winter. This is an excellent area for agriculture but some actual uses may be not sustainable in long term such as excesses with genetically engineered soy, and the authors have studied aided with mathematical models (ELECTRE I, PROMETHEE and Expert Choice) the preferences of various alternative systems of land use (Autochthonous forest, High value forest, Traditional farms, Erosion control Crop with agriculture use, and Erosion control

  15. Implementing the Bio-fuel Plan while considering water resource protection; Mise en oeuvre du plan biocarburant au regard de la protection de la ressource en eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report recalls the objectives of the 'Bio-fuel Plan', and analyses firstly their implications in terms of cultivated surfaces either by using land fallows, or by substitution to other crops, or by intensification, and secondly, the consequences of these different options for water resources. The authors finally discusses the agronomic issue related to the protection of colza, the content of the environmental charter for the cultivation of winter colza, and some financial and practical conditions for the development of energetic crops

  16. Ideas of Orthodox Christianity and Hesychasm in Latvia from 1836 to 1934

    OpenAIRE

    Vuguls, Juris

    2012-01-01

    Annotation Theme of the research - „Ideas of Orthodox Christianity and Hesychasm in Latvia from 1836 to 1934”. This research is analyzing Patristic philosophical and theological ideas in aspect of hesuchia in Latvian Orthodox church tradition in second half of 19. century and beginning of 20. centry, with using ideas of Annales school, M. Focault, hermeneutical, historical approaches, methods of life philosophy and philosophy of dialogue. Researches in Latvia in this field so far have not ...

  17. Ideas of Orthodox Christianity and Hesychasm in Latvia from 1836 to 1934

    OpenAIRE

    Vuguls, Juris

    2012-01-01

    Annotation Theme of the research - „Ideas of Orthodox Christianity and Hesychasm in Latvia from 1836 to 1934”. This research is analyzing Patristic philosophical and theological ideas in aspect of hesuchia in Latvian Orthodox church tradition in second half of 19. century and beginning of 20. centry, with using ideas of Annales school, M. Focault, hermeneutical, historical approaches, methods of life philosophy and philosophy of dialogue. Researches in Latvia in this field so far have not ...

  18. Reform of labour taxes in Latvia 2011-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmārs Šņucins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the motives for and results of the labour tax reforms undertaken by the Latvian government in 2011-2013 with a special focus on the lowwage sector. The reforms were developed with the goal of overcoming negative effects on the labour market caused by the deep economic crisis in 2008-2010 as well as of coping with an increase in labour tax burdens during consolidation. In 2008-2010, Latvia was seriously affected by the global economic crisis and during these years real gross domestic product (GDP declined by 21 percent. Labour market conditions became worse rapidly and at the beginning of 2010, the unemployment rate reached 21.5 per cent of the economically active population. For the period of 2011-2016, the reforms provide for a reduction in the rates of personal income tax (PIT and social security contributions (SSC as well as for an increase in PIT allowances. Taking into account the changes made in labour tax laws, we employed forecasts of average wages and applied the Eurostat methodology to calculate the tax wedge for different groups of employees depending on income level and on the number of their dependants. The results show that the impact of the reform varies greatly and it is more beneficial for employees with dependants and for low-wage earners. The findings of the paper contribute to policy discussions and decisions on the tax wedge, especially in the Euro area. In the period covered by the paper, about half of the Euro area member states (including Latvia received a country-specific recommendation to address this issue in the context of the European Semester.

  19. Planning of medium-voltage networks considering optimized power factor control of distributed generators; Planung von Mittelspannungsnetzen unter Beruecksichtigung von Blindleistungssteuerung dezentraler Erzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotering, Niklas; Schroeders, Christian; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen (Germany). IAEW

    2011-07-01

    Distributed generation causes new challenges in medium voltage networks. Especially voltage stability is becoming an issue. Conventional planning measures, like network expansion, can be used to address these challenges but they should planned with great care due to their high costs. Power factor control of distributed generators is an alternative to such measures. Therefore it should also be considered in long term distribution network planning. It is the purpose of this paper to present a new approach for long term medium-voltage network optimization that integrates near optimal power factor control. The structural optimization is heuristic and based on a Delaunay triangulation in combination with an ant colony algorithm. Power factor control is predicated on dynamic programming. It is shown how near optimal results can easily be realized under German law with present technologies. A case study illustrates the impacts and advantages of an integrated planning approach. The integrated optimization results in network costs that are 2.5% lower than the costs of the best topology found by conventional planning. (orig.)

  20. Electricity savings in Latvia through implementation of labelling directives. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-01-01

    Legislation on labelling of household appliances was enforced in Latvia July 2001 to implement the European labelling directives. The project 'Electricity Savings in Latvia through Implementation of labelling Directives' was started January 2001 in order to support the implementation of the directives to ensure that they got an immediate effect. The project has included the following activities: Information of the general public and of traders and importers. In relation to the general public the activities consisted of production of a widely spread information brochure, TV-spots and a TV competition and participation in a school project. Seminars and meetings with traders and importers were held to inform about the legislation before it was enforced and to create a network for discussion of practical implementation problems and planning of the information activities. Test and control activities. The purpose of the test and control activities was to strengthen the test and control capacities and to transfer experience from Denmark. This was achieved though workshops for as well inspectors from the Consumer Rights Protection Centre and for members of the voluntary Consumer Protection Clubs. Results: It is assumed that the project has been very successful in the sense that the information about labelling of appliances has been efficiently spread via the information brochure, which was printed in 100.000 copies and distributed in shops, via Latvenergo and the consumer clubs. Furthermore, a cartoon about 'Energy-eaters' produced as part of the project by a very talented Latvian film study (Environmental Film Studio) has been used as TV-spot and has been broadcasted 40 times, including in connection to a morning TV-competition on labelling of appliances. The participatory approach used in the project has resulted in a very dedicated participation from the different stake holders side. Thus there is basis for sustainability in the sense, that a network

  1. A representation of place attachment: A study of spatial cognition in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilters, Jurgis; Zarina, Liga; Raita, Liva

    2017-04-01

    Perception of geographical space is reflected in place attachment, i.e., a multidimensional cognitive-affective link between humans and their spatial environment. Place attachment balances emotions, conception of proximity. It is both social and spatial cognitive structure. Place attachment has an impact on people's actions, which in turn reversibly affect the environment in which people live. Place attachment provides emotional regulation for humans linking local - neighborhood-scale and country and world-scale environments. In Latvia a large-scale spatial cognition study has been conducted within participatory research project „Telpas pavasaris" ("Spatial Spring") by foundation Viegli. In the study 1523 respondents reported their associations characterizing certain type of places (e.g., safe place, dangerous place, far place, close place, dear place). The answers were analyzed according to several cognitive-affective categories including modes of experience, emotional valence, geographical distance, and perceptual modality. The current results indicate that socio-cognitive and affective information are primary in respect to purely spatial information (referring to spatial objects or regions and their relations). However, different types of geographical places and spatial objects (natural or artefactual) have to be distinguished and are significant to a different degree. Our results are important for environmental and urban planning because they show the ways how socio-cognitive and affective knowledge shapes the spatial cognition of geographic environment.

  2. Impact of Parents' Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity and Acculturation Strategies on Acculturation of Children in Russian Families in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryabichenko T.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents outcomes of an empirical research on the relationship between motivation for ethnocultural continuity and acculturation strategies in ethnocultural minorities (with Russians in Latvia as an example. Since acculturation is a process that affects several generations, we adopted a research plan that involved representatives of two generations of a family (parents and children. 112 Russian families participated in the research (parents: N=112, age 35—59, Me=42; children: N=112, age 16—24, Me=17. A questionnaire we used included J. Berry's acculturation strategies, scales of satisfaction with life and oneself, and the Motivation for Ethnocultural Continuity scale by C. Ward. The employed structural modeling revealed that acculturation strategies of the children correlate significantly with those of their parents as well as with their own motivation for ethnicultural continuity. The adolescents' choice of integration strategy is positively related to their satisfaction with themselves; however, in the cases of marginalization and assimilation this relation is negative.

  3. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  4. Comparison of Different Internationally Accepted Reference Standards to Measure Childhood Adiposity Rates in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupča Sarmīte

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adiposity is increasingly affecting developed and developing countries alike. Body Mass Index (BMI is a good first approximation of body weight, but interpretation in specific patient populations may be inconsistent. The aim of this study was to compare adiposity rates using three internationally accepted weight reference standards – World Health Organisation (WHO, International Obesity Task Force (IOTF, and US Centers for Disease Control (CDC, plus a local national scale (LV, evaluating 465, 6-to-9-year old school children in Latvia. After obtaining height and weight, BMI was calculated, and the four scales were individually applied by gender and age. Highly significant differences between LV and CDC, LV and IOTF, LV and WHO were found in all age groups (P < 0.01, and between WHO and IOTF reference standards (P < 0.01 in 7- and 8-year olds. We conclude that reference standards should be used with great caution. Reference standards for local ethnic populations are needed to avoid disagreements between scales, as this can lead to incorrect choice of therapy; reliance on any single reference standard may not consider a patient's unique set of circumstances that have resulted in excess weight and information that is vital for a good clinical outcome.

  5. Distribution Network Expansion Planning Considering Multiple Active Management Strategies%考虑多种主动管理策略的配电网扩展规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢海军; 程浩忠; 杨镜非; 洪绍云; 杨堤; 王存平

    2016-01-01

    A mixed integer second-order cone programming (SOCP) model for active distribution network (ADN) expansion planning is proposed,which minimizes the total investment and operation cost.Four active management strategies consisting of on load tape changer (OLTC) tap adj ustment,distributed generator (DG) curtailment,load curtailment,and reactive power compensation are considered to cut the planning cost and future operation risks of the planning.The planning model allows alternatives to be considered for active management,new wiring,new substation,substation expansion and DG installation. The distribution network planning (DNP) problem is a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem.What with the active management and uncertainties,the DG integration has made the DNP problem considerably complicated.In order to find a polynomial time computable model,the DNP problem is converted to a SOCP model through power flow equations and constraint relaxation.A modified IEEE 33-bus system and Miranda 54-bus system are used to testify the proposed model.%提出了主动配电网扩展规划的混合整数二阶锥规划模型,该模型以总的投资与运行费用最小为目标函数。文中考虑了4种主动管理措施降低规划方案成本及未来的运行风险,包括有载调压变压器调节、切机、切负荷及无功补偿。规划措施包括主动管理、新建线路、新建变电站、扩建变电站、新建分布式电源。配电网规划是一个混合整数非线性规划问题,再加对各种主动管理措施及未来不确定性的考虑,配电网规划问题求解变得相当复杂。基于配电网潮流方程及约束松弛技术,建立了配电网规划的二阶锥规划模型,并利用改进的IEEE 33节点系统及Miranda 54节点系统进行了算例验证。

  6. THE TRADITION OF MAY DEVOTIONS TO THE VIRGIN MARY IN LATGALE (LATVIA: FROM THE PAST TO THE PRESENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AIGARS LIELBĀRDIS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An important role has been allocated to the Virgin Mary since the very beginnings of Christianity. According to the calendar of the Roman Catholic Church, May is dedicated to honouring the Virgin Mary. Due to her human origins, she has become an intermediary between people and God, capable of influencing the decisions of her son Jesus Christ, and providing assistance to people of her own accord. Together with God and Jesus Christ, she is considered to have extraordinary, saintly qualities in Latvian Catholic communities. At the beginning of the 19th century, the tradition of May devotions began to spread widely in Catholic territories in Latvia. Currently the services are usually performed by womenfolk in the rural environment. Every evening or on weekends in May, people gather to pray and sing in churches, cemeteries, at crossroads, or in the centre or the edge of villages where crucifixes are located

  7. Soft drinks and obesity in Latvia: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knai, Cécile; McKee, Martin; Pudule, Iveta

    2011-06-01

    Childhood obesity is now firmly on the political agenda in western Europe but has received rather less attention in the eastern region of the European Union. This is a situation that cannot continue forever, especially in the light of evidence of the future social and economic cost of failure to act. Semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Latvia were conducted in October 2004 to understand the Latvian response to childhood obesity and, specifically, to soft drink consumption as one of its key risk factors. Analysis was undertaken using the established principles of stakeholder analysis to assess the position and influence of the stakeholders on consumption of soft drink consumption within broader efforts to curb obesity in children. Twenty interviews were conducted and no one refused to be interviewed. Most stakeholders were concerned or convinced of the importance of restricting soft drinks consumption as part of initiatives to prevent childhood obesity. The most influential and supportive stakeholders were high school and primary school directors and parent groups. These findings help elucidate the actions of the Latvian government in November 2006 when it moved to ban certain foods and drinks from schools based on a concern for the adverse impact of additives on child health. The rapidity with which this poorly evidenced decision took place may have been supported by the unique context of an unstable government, nutrition leadership in dissolution, relatively weak industry influence and a surprisingly strong movement of teachers and parents.

  8. Helminth parasites of the wolf Canis lupus from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagrade, G; Kirjusina, M; Vismanis, K; Ozoliņs, J

    2009-03-01

    Thirty-four wolves were collected between 2003 and 2008 from throughout Latvia and examined for helminths. A total of 17 helminth species were recorded: the trematode Alaria alata (85.3%); the cestodes Diphyllobothrium latum (2.9%), Echinococcus granulosus (2.9%), Echinococcus multilocularis (5.9%), Mesocestoides lineatus (5.9%), Taenia crassiceps (8.8%), Taenia hydatigena (41.2%), Taenia (ovis) krabbei (8.8%), Taenia multiceps (47.1%), Taenia pisiformis (20.6%), Taenia polyacantha (11.8%), Taenia spp. (8.8%); and the nematodes Ancylostoma caninum (2.9%), Crenosoma vulpis (9.1%), Eucoleus aerophilus (36.4%), Pearsonema plica (41.4%), Trichinella spp. (69.7%), Toxocara canis (5.8%), and Uncinaria stenocephala (41.2%). Alaria alata presented the highest mean intensity (403.8). All animals were infected with at least one species of parasite, while the maximum recorded in one specimen was eight. No differences in the intensity or prevalence of any helminth species were found among the host based on age and gender, except for T. multiceps which was more prevalent in adults than in juveniles.

  9. Energy Efficiency and Importance of Renewable Energy Sources in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.

    2007-10-01

    The main goal of Latvian energy policy is to ensure safe and environmentally friendly long-term energy supply at cost-effective prices, contributing to enhance competitiveness, and to ensure safe energy transit. The Latvian Parliament approved an Energy Efficiency Strategy in 2000. Its objective is to decrease energy consumption per unit of GDP by 25% by 2010. Awareness raising, implementation of standards and economic incentives for self financing are the main instruments to increase energy efficiency, mentioned in the strategy. Latvia, as many other European Union member states, is dependent on the import of primary energy resources. The Latvian Renewable Energy strategy is still under development. The only recent study on RES was developed in the framework of a PHARE program in year 2000: "Renewable energy resource program", where three main objectives for a future RES strategy were proposed: 1. To increase the use of wood waste and low value wood and forest residues. 2. To improve efficiency of combustion technologies and to replace outdated plants. 3. To increase the use of renewables in Combined Heat and Power plants (CHP). Through the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership, partners will develop a set of new shared activities, and coordinate and strengthen existing efforts in this area.

  10. Returns to Education During and After the Economic Crisis: Evidence from Latvia 2006–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilerts Karlis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We employ EU-SILC micro data for Latvia to study how returns to education changed during the economic crisis of 2008–2009 and afterwards. We found that returns to education increased significantly during the crisis and decreased slightly during the subsequent economic recovery. The counter-cyclical effect was evident in nearly all population groups. After the crisis, education became more associated than before with a longer working week and a higher employment probability. Furthermore, we show that returns to education in Latvia are generally higher in the capital city and its suburbs than outside the capital city region, as well as for citizens of Latvia than for resident non-citizens and citizens of other countries, but lower for males and young people. Wage differential models reveal a relatively large wage premium for higher education and a rather small one for secondary education. Estimates obtained with instrumental variable (IV models significantly exceed the OLS estimates.

  11. The Facial Growth Pattern and the Amount of Palatal Bone Deficiency Relative to Cleft Size Should Be Considered in Treatment Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the best surgical/orthodontic treatment plan for the complete bilateral and unilateral cleft lip and palate patient to achieve all treatment goals of facial aesthetics, speech, dental function, and psychosocial development. Methods: Review of 40 years of serial complete bilateral cleft lip and palate and complete unilateral cleft lip and palate dental casts and photographs from birth to adolescence, with serial cephs starting at 4 years. This was part of a multicenter international 3-dimensional palatal growth study of serial dental casts of patients who developed good speech, occlusion, and facial growth. Results: Nasoalveolar molding and gingivoperiosteoplasty were introduced without proven longitudinal benefits. The procedure bodily retruded the premaxilla, which “telescoped” backward causing synostosis at the premaxillary vomerine suture. The resulting midfacial recessiveness with an anterior dental crossbite can only be corrected by midfacial protraction or a Le Fort I surgery. Conclusions: Staged orthodontic/surgical treatment limiting premaxillary retraction forces to lip adhesion or forces that cause only premaxillary ventroflexion produce the best results. The palatal cleft should be closed between 18 and 24 months when the ratio of the cleft to the palatal size medial to the alveolar ridge is at least 10%. The protruding premaxilla should only be ventroflexed but never bodily retruded. The facial growth pattern and degree of palatal bone deficiency are the main items to be considered in treatment planning. PMID:27579230

  12. River Basin Management Plans - Institutional framework and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth

    2011-01-01

    The report it a deliverable to the Waterpraxis project, based on research carried out in WP3. It is based on country reports from analyses of water planning in one river basin district in each of the countries Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Denmark, and it compares...... the institutional set-up, the public participation and the potentials and barriers for implementing the water plans....

  13. River Basin Management Plans - Institutional framework and planning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Pia; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth;

    2011-01-01

    The report it a deliverable to the Waterpraxis project, based on research carried out in WP3. It is based on country reports from analyses of water planning in one river basin district in each of the countries Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Germany and Denmark, and it compares...... the institutional set-up, the public participation and the potentials and barriers for implementing the water plans....

  14. Nitrogen and phosphorus trend analysis in Latvia agricultural monitoring stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimanta, Z.; Vircavs, V.; Veinbergs, A.; Lauva, D.; Ambramenko, K.; Gailuma, A.; VÄ«tola, I.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality depends on human activity. Intensive agriculture is one of the main sources, that cause water quality pollution and eutrophication. The use of fertilizers not only improves soil fertility, crop yield and quality, but also causes water pollution. Human activities, including the use of fertilizer, promote nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations in water. Compared to the 90th agricultural production in Latvia has progressed. Vulnerable zones have been specified in the country. It is situated in the region of Zemgale's south site, within the border Lithuania. There are defined requirements for water and soil protection from agricultural activity that cause nitrate pollution. The EU Nitrates Directive aim is to protect water from nitrate pollution. In Latvia defined nitrate values are: 50 mg/l NO3 or 11.2 mg/l N/NO3 and Ptot - 0.2 mg/l. As agriculture has became intensive and the use of fertilizers has grown, results indicate that the leaching potential and values of N and P has increased. Nutrients leaching in agricultural areas have observed all year in vulnerable zones, but it's values changes depending on season. The highest nutrient concentrations observe in winter and spring periods, particularly in snow and ice melting periods. The lowest values are in summer. Nutrient leaching potencial depends on precipitation, plant vegetation, season, fertilization type and soil cultivation process. N and P leaching can decrease, taking consideration the use time of fertilizers and good agricultural practices. Research objects are monitoring stations Bērze and Mellupīte with tree research scales: drainage fields, small catchments and observation wells. The research analyses N and P concentrations in groundwater (2006-2010) and drain field and small catchment runoff (1995-2010). The aim of the research is to analyze nitrate and phosphorus concentration fluctuations in a time period. To determine nutrient concentrations, water samples were collected

  15. Analytical Treatment of Forecasts of Electric Energy Consumption in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balodis, M.; Gavars, V.; Andersons, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the paper, the changes in electric energy consumption are analyzed as associated with structural changes in the Latvian economy of postsocialistic period. To the analysis, a particular approach is applied, which consists in comparison of the basic and specific electricity consumption indices in West-, Central-, and East-European states for the time span of 1990-2010, with differences and tendencies of changes revealed. Tendencies of the type are determined for the electric energy consumption in Latvia, and recommendations are given for the use of such indices in the relevant forecasts. Rakstā apskatītas elektroenerģijas patēriņa izmaiņas, kas saistītas ar Latvijas postsociālisma perioda ekonomikas strukturālām izmaiņām. Rakstā dota Latvijas galveno elektroenerģijas patēriņa indikatoru analīze, lietojot īpašu pieeju - Rietumeiropas, Centrāleiropas un Austrumeiropas valstu indikatoru salīdzinājumu. Analizēts periods no 1990. gada līdz 2010. gadam. Salīdzināti Eiropas valstu grupu īpatnējie elektroenerģijas patēriņa indikatori un noskaidrotas to atšķirības un izmaiņu tendences. Noteiktas elektroenerģijas patēriņa izmaiņu tendences Latvijā. Dotas rekomendācijas par šo indikatoru izmantošanu elektroenerģijas patēriņa prognozēšanā. 07.05.2014.

  16. THE POSITION OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND FEDERAL REPUBLIC OF GERMANY ON THE BALTIC REPUBLICS’ (LATVIA, LITHUANIA, ESTONIA JOINING THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Dmitrievna Portnyagina

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Enlargement of the EU in 2004 was of great significance not only for the EU members, but for the Russian Federation as the candidates were former USSR republics and countries that had been under the influence of the USSR.  The purpose of this article is to uncover the attitude of Russian and German officials to Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The study uses the methods of historicism and objectivity as its basis. A regional approach that describes the development of the region into global political process is used.The author proves that Russia has underestimated the consequence of Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia’s joining the EU. The Russian Federation made the hasty judgement that the Baltic countries’ joining the EU would automatically solve the bilateral problems in relations between Russia, Latvia, Lithiania and Estonia. Russian politicians failed to detect negative economic consequences, which the Baltic states’ joining the European Union brought about. The position of the German government was ambiguous. It was impacted by the obligations within its role as the ‘motor’ of European integration, but also had to consider the direct interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.  The German ruling coalition by morally supporting the intention of the Baltic Republics to join the EU delegated the role of an ‘advocate’ of newly independent republics to the northern European countries while taking the right to defend primarily national interests of the Federal Republic of Germany.The materials of the study can be used for further research of the history of the Baltic Region, in lectures and special courses.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-32

  17. 计及线路路径优化的空间电网规划%Spatial Power Network Planning Considering Electric Line Route Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒隽; 韩冰; 陈学姣

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to precisely take complex paths and environmental costs into account in traditional power network planning methods. This paper presented a spatial power network planning model considering electric line routing and substation location based on rasterized three-dimension map. The objective function in the proposed model was to minimize the investment and operation cost of the power network while subject to a list of constraints to ensure the security of power system and the feasibility of electric line route. It is a mixed integer, non-linear, non-convex optimization problem, which is complex and computationally demanding. In view of this, this paper proposed a bi-level structure in which the master problem was traditional power network planning considering substation location to be solved by genetic algorithm, while the sub problems were route optimizations for candidate lines to be solved by dynamic programming. Meanwhile, a memory structure was introduced in genetic algorithm to improve the computational efficiency. Numerical case studies utilizing IEEE Graver-6 system, IEEE 118-bus system and a real power system illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed approach for the spatial power network planning problem.%针对传统电网规划方法难于有效计及复杂路径及环境成本的问题,基于栅格化三维地图,以设备投资成本和运行费用综合最小为目标函数,考虑传统电网规划约束和线路路径优化约束,建立了考虑路径优化和变电站选址的空间电网规划模型。该模型是一个复杂的混合整数非线性规划模型,将其分解为考虑变电站选址的电网规划上层问题和线路路径优化下层问题,并提出适合求解该模型的遗传算法和动态规划法相结合的混合优化算法,该混合优化算法在采用遗传算法解决网架结构优化和变电站选址优化的同时,将动态规划法嵌入到遗传算法中,求

  18. Evaluation of oral health status of retirement-age population in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidzis, Aldis; Cema, Ingrida; Krasta, Ingrida; Brinkmane, Anda; Kalnins, Imants

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Latvian government Health care financing regulations do not envisage free dental care in nursing homes. Consequently, in this situation arises need to carry out comparative evaluation of oral health status and quantity indicators of dental prosthodontics among retirement-age population in Latvia. The aim of the study was to estimate oral health and dental prosthodontics indicators among retirement-age population in Latvia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We examinated 465 retirement-age inhabitants in Latvia. We assessed dental status, quantity and quality of the existing complete dental prostheses. We also evaluated the DMF-T index. RESULTS. Oral health indicators among Latvian retirement-age population are better than those for nursing homes residents in the same age group. Complete dental prostheses used by nursing homes residents do not meet denture's quality criteria. Retirement-age patients have oral hygiene problems. CONCLUSIONS. DMF-T index among Latvian retirement-age population is lower than among residents of nursing homes. The major component of DMF-T index is the number of lost teeth. The assessment of dental prostheses among residents of nursing homes showed unsatisfactory results. Retirement-age population in Latvia needs treatment of oral mucosal diseases, improvement of oral hygienic measures and increase of amount of dental prosthodontics.

  19. Parenting Dimensions in Relation to Pre-Schoolers' Behaviour Problems in Latvia and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebre, Sandra B.; Jusiene, Roma; Dapkevice, Egle; Skreitule-Pikse, Inga; Bieliauskaite, Rasa

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine associations between parenting and child behaviour problems in two neighbouring countries with subtle, yet apparent cultural differences. Participants were mothers and fathers of preschool-age children from Latvia and Lithuania. Parents completed a measure of child-rearing attitudes and reported on their…

  20. Quantitative Characteristics and Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Development Trends in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Valer’evich Nikiforovs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the trends of higher education in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia in a comparative perspective taking into account such trends as the strengthening of statehood and membership in the EU and the Bologna process. The author identifies important trends in the higher education system of the three countries using fresh demographic data.

  1. 77 FR 71631 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine; Scheduling of Full Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Antidumping Duty Orders on Steel Concrete...) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bar from...

  2. 77 FR 70140 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, People's Republic of...'') initiated the second Sunset Reviews of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty orders on steel concrete reinforcing bars from...

  3. 78 FR 41079 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... COMMISSION Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bar From Belarus, China, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, and... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on steel concrete... views of the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4409 (July 2013), entitled Steel Concrete...

  4. 78 FR 43858 - Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ...] Steel Concrete Reinforcing Bars From Belarus, Indonesia, Latvia, Moldova, Poland, the People's Republic... Department of Commerce (``Department'') that revocation of the antidumping duty orders \\1\\ on steel concrete... of the continuation of the antidumping duty orders. \\1\\ See Antidumping Duty Orders: Steel Concrete...

  5. Rol' tranzita v jekonomike Latvii [The role of transit in the economy of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gžibovska Nataļja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transit is an important issue in the history of world economy, including the economy of Latvia. Transit makes a significant contribution to the budget of many transit countries, one of which is the Republic of Latvia. These countries do not have significant natural resources and prefer to focus on logistics and infrastructure in order to facilitate the transit process. This article focuses on the role of transit in the economy of Latvia, whose unique geographical position makes the country an effective transport corridor (bridge in both the west-east and north-south directions. The article presents the results of an opinion poll conducted at Latvian transit enterprises regarding their future development and offers an overview of the main seaports and the Rīga international airport. The author examines the issue of Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization and its impact on the Latvian transit, the prolongation of EU sanctions against Belarus, and the use of Latvian transport infrastructure for handling the non-military cargo traffic to/from Afghanistan. In conclusion, a forecast of possible transit development in Latvia is provided.

  6. Multilayered Perspectives on Language Policy in Higher Education: Finland, Estonia, and Latvia in Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Carbonell, Josep; Saarinen, Taina; Kibbermann, Kerttu

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses language policies in higher education (HE) in Finland, Estonia, and Latvia, as well as the European Union (EU). We take a multilayered approach to language policies in order to illuminate the intertwined nature of local, national, and international language policies in HE. We are particularly interested in the construction of…

  7. A cross-sectional survey of urinary iodine status in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilze Konrade

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that although the overall median UIC in Latvian schoolchildren falls within the lower normal range, almost 50% of the schoolchildren are iodine deficient, especially in urban schools and in the eastern part of Latvia. The absence of a mandatory salt iodization program puts a significant number of children and pregnant women at risk.

  8. Social Emotional Learning: Implementation of Sustainability-Oriented Program in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsone, Baiba

    2016-01-01

    This article is focused on the description of the content and the implementation process of an originally developed, culturally appropriate and sustainable social and emotional learning program in Latvia. The article also includes the teachers' self-reflected experience illustrated through the perspective of the program's sample activities. The…

  9. Intercultural and Media Literacy: Global Tendencies in Metacontent of Teacher Education in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousa, Inga; Stakle, Alnis

    2010-01-01

    Under the influence of processes of globalisation, higher education in the countries of Europe, including Latvia, has been reshaped, restructured, re-evaluated and reoriented towards the establishment of a European higher education area. New issues have emerged at both the content and metacontent level, the most significant of which are…

  10. Should Climatologists and Spatial Planners Interact? Weather regulation as an ecosystem service to be considered in the land-use planning field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Mathieu; De Noblet-Ducoudré, Nathalie; Strada, Susanna; Stéfanon, Marc; Torre, André

    2016-04-01

    scope of solutions to be considered in the spatial planning field. Regional meteorology/climatology has demonstrated over the past decades that changes in land-uses and/or land cover may have substantial impacts on a) mean regional/local climate (Lobell & Bonfils, 2008), b) the magnitude and duration of extreme events (e.g. Marshall et al., 2004, Davin et al., 2014), c) air quality and therefore human's and ecosystems' health (e.g. Corchnoy et al. 1992, Hewitt et al., 2009). Such studies support the hypothesis that a careful regional climate modelling may help to refine the global climate projections and assess the local benefits or drawbacks of various land use/land cover policies. There is however a lack of studies at such spatial scales (from local to regional) to carefully quantify the impacts realistic land scenarios may have on atmospheric conditions (e.g. temperature, humidity, air quality, winds, incoming radiation). We have started to think about ways to evaluate those at the French national scale. That implies the choice of ad-hoc models, scenarios, data for evaluation, … that we will discuss. Our proposal is that in fine the regulation of the atmospheric boundary layer (where we live) may be considered as a service that land uses/cover/management may impact and that we need to study as much as other ecosystem services are. ____________ References: Bulkeley, H. (2006) A changing climate for spatial planning? In: Planning Theory and Practice, 7(2): 203-214. Corchnoy, S.B.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R. (1992) Hydrocarbon emission from twelve urban shade trees of the Los Angeles, California, air basin. In: Atmospheric Environment, 26B(3): 339-348. Davoudi, S.; Crawford, Jenny; Mehmood, A. (2009) Planning for Climate Change: Strategies for Mitigation and Adaptation for Spatial Planners. London: Earthscan, 344 p. Davin, E. L.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T. (2014) Preferential cooling of hot extremes from cropland albedo management, Proceedings of

  11. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    result of research by the Institute of Horticulture: 1 new local breeding fruit crop cultivars were obtained and recommended for commercial orchards; variety testing including growing technologies was initiated in different regions of Latvia; 2 monitoring of harmful and favourable organisms was conducted in plantations, with development of a system for prognosis and control; and 3 research results were transferred to growers through practical recommendations, publications, seminars and demonstrations.

  12. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  13. [Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940)]/ Svetlana Bogojavlenska

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bogojavlenska, Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Sebastian Rimestad. The Challenges of Modernity to the Orthodox Church in Estonia and Latvia (1917-1940). (Erfurter Studien zur Kulturgeschichte des orthdoxen Christentums, Bd. 6). Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2012

  14. An Unmastered Past: Latvia and Russia After NATO and EU Enlargement: Bilateral Issues of Statecraft 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    strengthen Russia.141 Russia reacted to geostrategic changes in the Baltics with calm restraint. Russian policy shifted from regular emotional ...with Advisor, Environmental Issues, to the Ministry of Defense of Latvia Ilona Ekmane , on April 20, 2006. 163 The comparison with Finland mentioned in...Russia actually does not get any political benefit from this type of cooperation. In this respect the emotional reaction in Latvia on the signing of

  15. Anticipated future of Latvia and Russia during a global economic crisis: A mixed methods perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesovs Aleksandrs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-cultural study explored subjective predictors of more positive evaluation of the future of the country during a global socioeconomic crisis. A sequential mixed-method design was chosen for an exploration of students’ expectations in Russia and Latvia as countries contrasting in macro-contextual conditions. In 2009, Study 1 was designed as a thematic analysis of essays on topic “The Future of Latvia/Russia”. The results demonstrated that the future of a country is anticipated by taking into account external influences, the present of the country, and its perceived power and stability. In 2011, Study 2 involved these themes as independent variables in a multiple regression model. The results demonstrated that positive evaluation of the present and higher perceived power of the country are individuallevel predictors of more positive evaluation of its future. Observed concordance of models indicates relatively high importance of subjective view of the country in the changing world.

  16. New finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver (Castor fiber) in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segliņa, Zanda; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Deksne, Gunita; Spuņģis, Voldemārs; Kurjušina, Muza

    2015-08-01

    We report the first finding of Trichinella britovi in a European beaver. In Latvia, beaver is a common game animal and frequently used in human diet. A high prevalence of Trichinella infections in Latvia is present in the most common hosts-carnivores and omnivores. In total, 182 European beaver muscle samples were tested for Trichinella larvae accordingly to the reference method of European Communities Commission Regulation (EC) No. 2075/2005 (2005). Trichinella britovi larvae were detected in one animal (prevalence 0.5%; intensity 5.92 larvae per gram of muscle). This finding suggests that the consumption of European beaver meat can be a risk to human health. Further studies are needed in order to determine if the present observation represents an isolated individual case or low prevalence of Trichinella infection in beavers.

  17. Refurbishing apartments and houses in Latvia and Bulgaria: levers and brakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gosselain, Véronique; Ozoliņa , Līga; Garā, Evita; Vassileva, Dobrina; Stamova, Grozdanka; Bartiaux, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates levers and brakes for carrying out energy effective retrofits in private dwellings in Latvia and in Bulgaria. In both countries, 24 home owners occupying either their apartment or their single family house, were interviewed in 2009-10 about their energy-saving renovation works and their justifications, both in cities and in the countryside. The paper begins with a description of the building stock in the two countries. Both have a large proportion of apartments (46 % o...

  18. Patient groups in art therapies: A case study of the health care field in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Vende K.; Vaverniece I.; Upmale A.; Martinsone K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to introduce the reader with an example of the arts therapies work in a children hospital in Latvia in order to describe art therapies work similarities and differences in three different specializations. Comparison will take place of patient groups in the work of art therapists in each specialization (art therapy, dance movement therapy and music therapy). The question of the research is: with which patient groups’ a specialist from a particular arts therapies special...

  19. Comparative Evaluation of the Practical Areas of Human Resource Management in Lithuania and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, L; Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the significant aspects of human resource management practices. The article discusses significant aspects of human resource management practices in the context of the high performance human resource management. The authors carried out a comparative theoretical analysis of the various functional areas of human resource management practices. This paper presents the results of experts’ evaluation of human resource management in organizations of Latvia and Lith...

  20. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE) IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. RUSINA

    2003-01-01

    The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly w...

  1. Comparative Evaluation of the Practical Areas of Human Resource Management in Lithuania and Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Lobanova, L; Ozoliņa-Ozola, I

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to identify the significant aspects of human resource management practices. The article discusses significant aspects of human resource management practices in the context of the high performance human resource management. The authors carried out a comparative theoretical analysis of the various functional areas of human resource management practices. This paper presents the results of experts’ evaluation of human resource management in organizations of Latvia and Lith...

  2. High Performance Athletes’ Dual Career Management in Higher Educational Establishments of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ābeļkalns, Ilvis

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Within the dissertation "High Performance Athletes’ Dual Career Management in Higher Educational Establishments of Latvia" framework the factors contributing to the high performance athletes’ dual career management are being studied and analyzed. The doctoral thesis summarizes and analyzes other countries experience in dual career management. There are analyzed high performance athletes’ survey results about what kind of support they receive and what kind of support would be neces...

  3. Methods of Human Resource Management Evaluation and Directions for Their Improvement in Large Enterprises of Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Peiseniece, Līga

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the dissertation „Methods of Human Resource Management Evaluation and Directions for Their Improvement in Large Enterprises of Latvia” is to establish new methods for efficiency evaluation of human resource management to improve processes of human resource management in large enterprises of Latvia. The first chapter covers the nature and methods of evaluation of human resource management. The necessity of evaluation of human resource management has been based ...

  4. The Latvian Legion (1943-1945) and Its Role in Latvia’s History

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    initiative Thanks to the historians like Timothy Snyder , today the Western world has access to a variety of information on the actual events...and Thomas Lane. The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London: Routledge, 2002. Snyder , Timothy . Bloodlands: Europe between Hitler and...by EDMUNDS SVENCS, MAJOR, LATVIAN ARMED FORCES B.A., Latvian National Defense Academy, Riga, 2000 M.A., Riga Teacher Training and Educational

  5. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  6. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE) IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rusina, S.

    2003-01-01

    The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associa...

  7. Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Kazaka

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the framework of the doctoral thesis „Use of Social Media in Corporate Communication in Latvia (2009-2011)” a new theoretical approach to corporate communication in social media was developed which will help companies to successfully organize their communication with target publics in social media and will provide a new social media investigation tool for the researchers. An added communicative value model was developed by the author in the framework of the new t...

  8. What Research Shows about Mathematics Teachers' Learning Needs: Experience from Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    France, Ilze; Namsone, Dace; Cakane, Liga

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of new skills (competencies) according to education regulation documents in 2006 – 2008 demanded a change in the Mathematics and Science teaching practice in Latvia. Work on the new education reform started this year (2015). The aim of the research is to look for the answers to the following questions – do the changes in learning approach occur and are teachers’ skills sufficient for organizing a different teaching process? What are the learning needs expressed by teachers ...

  9. Influence of quality of life on the state and development of human capital in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Tsaurkubule

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the essence and forms of interrelation between human capital and quality of life are still insufficiently studied. Therefore, there is a need for defining general components of these categories and areas, where human capital interacts with quality of life. Today, Latvia has been developing in difficult conditions: the population is decreasing, emigration is growing, possibilities of employment are limited, and the income of residents is decreasing. All these factors reduce quality of life for the population and lead to the loss of human resources in the country. The existence of a problem stemming from the relationship between quality of life and human capital establishes the relevance of the research and determines its aim. The main contradiction is between the external positioning of the state as a country successfully overcoming crisis and the growth of internal crisis in the state, leading to the further impoverishment of the population, leading to an increased emigration of the working population of Latvia. The main research question is as follows: how to preserve human resources in the state? Based on an analysis of post-crisis socio-economic processes taking place in the society, recommendations are made to improve the socio-economic policy in ways that improve the welfare of the population of Latvia.

  10. Quality benchmarking methodology: Case study of finance and culture industries in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zemīte

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Political, socio-economic and cultural changes that have taken place in the world during the last years have influenced all the spheres. Constant improvements are necessary to sustain in rival and shrinking markets. This sets high quality standards for the service industries. Therefore it is important to conduct comparison of quality criteria to ascertain which practices are achieving superior performance levels. At present companies in Latvia do not carry out mutual benchmarking, and as a result of that do not know how they rank against their peers in terms of quality, as well as they do not see benefits in sharing of information and in benchmarking.The purpose of this paper is to determine the criteria of qualitative benchmarking, and to investigate the use of the benchmarking quality in service industries, particularly: finance and culture sectors in Latvia in order to determine the key driving factors of quality, to explore internal and foreign benchmarks, and to reveal the full potential of inputs’ reduction and efficiency growth for the aforementioned industries.Case study and other tools are used to define the readiness of the company for benchmarking. Certain key factors are examined for their impact on quality criteria. The results are based on the research conducted in professional associations in defined fields (insurance and theatre.Originality/value – this is the first study that adopts the benchmarking models for measuring quality criteria and readiness for mutual comparison in insurance and theatre industries in Latvia.

  11. Rehabilitation centers and their role in medical tourism development in latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muiznieks A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the research is the possible development of rehabilitation centres in medical tourism. The paper analyses the financial situation of rehabilitation centres in Latvia, the correlation with economical situation in Latvia as well as the comparison of services and prices in Latvian and European rehabilitation centres. A visitors’ survey in order to investigate their satisfaction regarding services was conducted in the rehabilitation centre “Jaunkemeri”. The findings of the survey are summarized as guidelines (proposals for the development of Latvian rehabilitation centres in the context of medical tourism. The main research results are as follows: Latvian rehabilitation centres offer a wide variety of services, the prices of the services are competitive with European ones, and the clients are satisfied with the quality of services and believe that the quality corresponds with the price. However, Latvian rehabilitation centres depend on the economical situation of the country and its financial support, there is a lack of unified standards in Latvia, the Soviet infrastructure dominates and the leisure time activities are limited. The aim of the guidelines is to offer a solution of the problem regarding the possibility to develop rehabilitation centres in order to foster the medical tourism and the ways how to do it.

  12. 26 CFR 11.404(a)(6)-1 - Time when contributions to “H.R. 10” plans considered made.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...(b) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (prior to its amendment by the Tax... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) TEMPORARY INCOME TAX REGULATIONS UNDER THE EMPLOYEE RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 11.404(a)(6)-1 Time when contributions to “H.R. 10” plans...

  13. Considering sound in planning and designing public spaces : A review of theory and applications and a proposed framework for integrating research and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bild, Edda; Coler, Matthew; Pfeffer, Karin; Bertolini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    We critically review the literature on the relationship between users of public spaces and their auditory environments, and how this knowledge is integrated in the planning, design, and management of public spaces as well as in technologies for acoustic and spatial data collection, analysis, and

  14. Considering Sound in Planning and Designing Public Spaces : A Review of Theory and Applications and a Proposed Framework for Integrating Research and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bild, E.; Coler, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Bertolini, L.

    2016-01-01

    We critically review the literature on the relationship between users of public spaces and their auditory environments, and how this knowledge is integrated in the planning, design, and management of public spaces as well as in technologies for acoustic and spatial data collection, analysis, and

  15. Features of Touristic Territory Branding on the Example of Sochi City (Russian Federation and Jurmala City (Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gunare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The brand is a harmonic combination of social and cultural life, modern infrastructure, authorities and business activities, attractive investing climate and historical heritage. In a modern world territory brand formation and its successful integration is a key aspect in ensuring of well-being and development of society. Geographic mobility is increasing and it influences welfare of territories. Complex of branding activities provides a sustainable place in a market for territory. Russian experience in tourism development demonstrates that each ruble spent on tourism promotion returns to growth of tourist flow, tax revenues and local producers’ incomes. So territory brand promotion expenditures can give a heavy impact to socio-economic development of the region. The brand of territory is directed to diverse target audiences, the most important of whom are investors, tourists, consumers of goods and services in the external market, residents. The article considers the touristic territory branding experience of Russia and Latvia. Research aims to analyze how the implementation of branding activities contributed to achieving a new level in tourism and investment attractiveness of cities, and if it allowed creating an image of unique place for visiting.

  16. Relationship between Trust and Acculturation Attitudes (With Ukrainians in Russia and Russians in Latvia as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatarko A.N.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the relationship between various types of trust and acculturation strategies (according to J. Berry’s model in ethnic minorities and migrants. Trust is a major resource both of an individual and society. On the individual level it is considered as a component of the social psychological capital of personality, and on the societal level — as a core part of the social capital of the society. This study aimed to test the assumption that generalized trust in migrants or minorities is related to their preferred acculturation strategies and that this relationship is mediated by more particular types of trust, such as trust in representa- tives of own ethnic group and trust in representatives of other ethnic groups. The study involved Russians living in Riga, Latvia (N=336 and Ukrainian migrants who have been living in Moscow for approximately 1,5 years (N=80. The outcomes show that generalized trust and trust in representative of non-ethnic groups correlate with the choice of acculturation strategies aimed at integration with the society. Trust in representatives of own ethnic group correlates positively with the choice of the “Separation” strategy.

  17. Addressing health care market reform through an insurance exchange: essential policy components, the public plan option, and other issues to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronstin, Paul; Ross, Murray N

    2009-06-01

    HEALTH INSURANCE EXCHANGE: This Issue Brief examines issues related to managed competition and the use of a health insurance exchange for the purpose of addressing cost, quality, and access to health care services. It discusses issues that must be addressed when designing an exchange in order to reform the health insurance market and also examines state efforts at health reform that use an exchange. RISK VS. PRICE COMPETITION: The basic component of managed competition is the creation an organized marketplace that brings together health insurers and consumers (either as individuals or through their employers). The sponsor of the exchange would set "rules of engagement" for participating insurers and offer consumers a menu of choices among different plans. Ultimately, the goal of a health insurance exchange is to shift the market from competition based on risk to competition based on price and quality. ADVERSE SELECTION AND AFFORDABILITY: Among the issues that need to be addressed if an exchange that uses managed competition has a realistic chance of reducing costs, improving quality, and expanding coverage: Everyone needs to be in the risk pool, with individuals required to purchase insurance or face significant financial consequences; effective risk adjustment is essential to eliminate risk selection as an insurance business model--forcing competition on costs and quality; the insurance benefit must be specific and clear--without standards governing cost sharing, covered services, and network coverage there is no way to assess whether a requirement to purchase or issue coverage has been met; and subsidies would be necessary for low-income individuals to purchase insurance. THE PUBLIC PLAN OPTION: The public plan option is shaping up to be one of the most contentious issues in the health reform debate. Proponents also believe of a public plan is necessary to drive private insurers toward true competition. Opponents view it as a step toward government-run health

  18. VARIABLES VINCULADAS CON LA PLANEACIÓN DE RECURSOS HUMANOS A NIVEL TERRITORIAL / VARIABLES TO CONSIDER ON THE PLANNING OF THE HUMAN RESOURCES AT THE TERRITORIAL LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodobaldo Martínez-Vivar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como objetivo la utilización de la vía experimental para la identificación del grupo de variables y sus interrelaciones e influencias sobre la planeación de recursos humanos en el nivel territorial. El procedimiento seguido para comprobar la existencia de las variables está compuesto por 2 fases: la investigación cualitativa de las variables que influyen en la planeación de recursos humanos y la fase confirmatoria (cuantitativa para demostrar la existencia de dimensiones, mediante el empleo de la estadística multivariada. Finalmente se obtienen las variables y su agrupamiento en las dimensiones esenciales que integran la planeación de recursos humanos en el nivel territorial, representándose estas en un modelo conceptual que se basa en las demostraciones realizadas.AbstractThe aim of this paper is to use the experimental method for the identification of the group of variables and its interrelations and influences on the planning of the human resources at the territorial level. The procedure that was followed to check the existence of the variables is compound of 2 phases: the qualitative investigation of the variables that influence on the planning of human resources and the confirmatory phase (quantitative in order to demonstrate the existence of dimensions, through the employment of the multivariate statistical. Finally, there were obtained the variables and their cluster in the essential dimensions that integrate the planning of human resources at the territorial level, which are represented in a conceptual model based on the demonstrations carried out.

  19. Comparison of nutrient intakes from two selected diet plans considered healthful versus the cutoff points for green lights as defined by the UK's multiple traffic light scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, H; Fern, E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared nutrient intakes from 7-day menus for the US MyPlate and DASH Eating Plan versus the cutoff points for green lights defined by the UK's multiple traffic light (MTL) scheme. For both diets, the foods achieved green lights for saturated fat and salt, and for beverages for total fat, saturated fat and salt. The other nutrients achieved amber lights but were within the range of the two diets. By contrast, the MTL threshold for salt in beverages was outside the range of the diets. The values for salt in beverages in the MyPlate and Dash diet plans were 0.06±0.07 and 0.19±0.01 (s.d.) g/100 ml, which are both considerably lower compared with the cutoff of 0.3 g/100 ml for an MTL green light. Adjusting the green MTL threshold values to the median values for a healthful diet could help make MTL labelling a more valid way of helping consumers choose a healthful diet.

  20. Influence of accessibility of services on Quality of Life of school children with Cerebral Palsy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibule L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of accessibility of services and health related factors on Quality of Life (QoL of school children with Cerebral Palsy (CP in Latvia. 80 children 47 boys and 33 girls with CP and their parents from all regions of Latvia took part in the study. Mean age of participants was 11,7 (SD± 3,5 years. 50 children without diagnosed chronic diseases formed the control group. Validated evaluation tools were used in the study (KIDSCREEN-52, GMFCS- E&R. The results show lower QoL in children with CP in comparison with their healthy peers and European children. QoL is influenced by the level of gross motor functions, lack of coordination of services, lack of rehabilitation infrastructure and presence of environmental barriers in Latvia.

  1. Chemical elements in the muscle tissues of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudovica, Vita; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-10-01

    Fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. Concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (Anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of Latvia. The concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for Pb, 0.019-0.047; Cd, 0.0051-0.011; Hg, 0.13-0.36; Cu, 0.76-0.92; Zn, 28-42; and As, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A positive correlation was revealed between the concentration of Hg in muscles and fish length in inland lakes. Concentration of metals in muscle tissues of eels from brackish coastal and inland lakes was without statistically significant difference. This research demonstrated that the elemental content of Cd and Pb in muscles of the examined fish was lower than the maximum allowed threshold set by the European Union legislation. Mercury content was over the threshold limit for all the analyzed eels if to compare with the Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards. On other side, only 7% of analyzed fish have indicated values that are over threshold limits for mercury established by the European Union food legislation. The current study contributes to the implementation of Water Framework Directive in Latvia by collection of information necessary for the further protection measures of waters. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data on multielemental bioaccumulation in muscle tissues of European eels collected from fishing lakes of Latvia.

  2. First union formation in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: patterns across countries and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luule Sakkeus

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the transformation of first union formation in the Baltic countries between the late 1960s and early 1990s, in the context of societal and family-level gender relations. The analyses employ microdata from the European Family and Fertility Surveys program. Our results on the trends indicate that in Estonia and Latvia the shift from direct marriage to cohabitation started well before the fall of socialist regime. Event-history models provide support for a hypothesised association between union formation and gender system, with Lithuania showing more traditional features in both respect, plausibly embedded in long-standing cultural differences between the countries.

  3. Cooperation between developed countries and the Republic of Latvia in the field of energy: globalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oss, A. [State Power Company, Riga (Latvia); Zeltina, L. [Riga Technical University (Latvia); Zeltinsh, N. [Latvian Academy of Sciences, Riga (Latvia). Institute of Physical Energetics

    2003-07-01

    This article presents characteristics of Latvian economics. A detailed analysis is given for the cooperation of Latvia with developed and other countries. Our research is based on the methodology worked out and developed introduced into practice by Professor J. Michna, Chairman of the International Centre for Energy and Environmental Policy (ICEEP) for Central and Eastern Europe Countries, intended for the research 'Cooperation between developed and post-transformation countries (in the scope of energy consumption problems) in relation to research results in the years 1994-1997'. Capital investments in Latvian economics are discussed in a global aspect. (author)

  4. Assessment of Alder Tree Bark Potential as a Renewable Source of Proanthocyanidins in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janceva Sarmīte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to assess potential of alder tree bark as a renewable source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts and proanthocyanidins (PAC isolated from bark of two alder species (grey alder and black alder growing in Latvia have been examined employing two test systems, ABTS●+, DPPH● assays. In the tests the high free radical scavenging capacities of the PAC were demonstrated. The polyphenolic nature of the bark PAC opens the possibility of its application as food additive. The PAC has good potential as an antioxidant for mayonnaise.

  5. Coming of age under Hitler and Stalin: the everyday life of adolescent girls in occupied Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the possibility of the continuation of everyday life in occupied Europe through a case study of the lives of twenty-five adolescent girls and young women living in Latvia between 1939 and 1944. Late adolescence is the period in which young women are struggling to establish some degree of independence, especially through leaving the parental home and entering the labour market. These transitions are the conventional markers of adulthood in modern societies. The article explores how occupation by the Soviet Union and the Third Reich affected daily life and the speed and nature of the transition to adulthood.

  6. The Role of Ecotourism in the Reduction of Anthropogenic Load on Natura 2000 Territories throughout Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitis, Eriks; Leitis, Ēriks

    2011-01-01

    Ecotourism is able to contribute to biodiversity and to ensure the ecosystem function in Latvia through a complicated process of fulfilment of the established criteria for a valid ecotourism. The tourism flow in protected nature territories should be monitored, and the appropriate environmental management, education and a code of conduct need to be introduced. Ecotourism will serve for reducing the social and economic pressures on biodiversity and will promote responsible actions in support of environmentally friendly technologies and approaches. The areas selected for this study are the Natura 2000 territories that have undertaken the development of ecotourism facilities.

  7. CPAFFC President Chen Haosu Leads Delegation To Russia,Latvia and Lithuania

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>A CPAFFC delegation headed by its president Chen Haosu paid a friendly visit to Russia,Latvia and Lithuania from May 31 to June 9 at the invitation of the Russian Centre for International Scientific and Cultural Cooperation,the United Latvian Friendship Society with Foreign Countries and the Lithuanian Parliament. In Russia,the delegation attended the 12th Symposium on China-Russia Regional Cooperation,one of the activities of the Year of China. Leaders of friendship organizations and relevant departments,representatives of local governments and small and medium-sized enterprises,totaling over 70 people,attended the symposium.

  8. What Computing Curricula is Needed: A Case at the University of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juris BORZOVS

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Computer science undergraduate (bachelor curriculum of the University of Latvia was developed in late 80th based on curricula of several US universities while keeping strong practical setting. The very core of the curriculum comprises Software Engineering lectures and related information system development course project in the second year. Thus every undergraduate (even theoretical computer science major is prepared to start professional career of computer programmer by the second study year. It is amazing to realize how well this rather old curriculum conforms to the new ACM/IEEE Computing Curricula 2001.

  9. MARKETING - MANAGEMENT AS A SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF THE INTEGRATION OF THE FOREIGN STUDENTS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Владимировна Голубкова

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The process of integration of foreign students during their education at the present stage, in Latvia occurs extremely slowly.  It is determined, first of all, by the lack of scientifically proven study of the given problem. The solution of this problem is possible by the concentration in the single scheme of the theoretical aspects of marketing – management, logical constructs of the estimation criterion, allowing developing the marketing conceptions and finding an opportunity of its implementation through the creation of an organization that offers a product that meets the needs and demands of the consumer – the foreign student. The potential market and target consumer – the foreign students who studying in the universities located in the same geographical segment, defined as the result of marketing research and conducted polling has allowed defining the product and necessity of founding an organization, offering this product. For this purpose is developed the commodity portfolio based on the balance of its structure carried out the forecasting of the strategic planning and is determined its consumption value. The analysis of the competitive environment has allowed identifying the competitors in the geographical segment and a new method of the estimation of the competitiveness, to suggest the new type of competitive strategy, the strategy of the management for an organization. Having determined the necessity of creation of an organization is given the assessment of the possibility of the creation of an organization, offering a product that meets the needs, requirements of the consumer – the foreign student that proves the solution of the problem of the integration process through the exchange as the key category of marketing.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-6

  10. A meta-heuristic approach supported by NSGA-II for the design and plan of supply chain networks considering new product development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh Afrouzy, Zahra; Paydar, Mohammad Mahdi; Nasseri, Seyed Hadi; Mahdavi, Iraj

    2017-06-01

    There are many reasons for the growing interest in developing new product projects for any firm. The most embossed reason is surviving in a highly competitive industry which the customer tastes are changing rapidly. A well-managed supply chain network can provide the most profit for firms due to considering new product development. Along with profit, customer satisfaction and production of new products are goals which lead to a more efficient supply chain. As new products appear in the market, the old products could become obsolete, and then phased out. The most important parameter in a supply chain which considers new and developed products is the time that developed and new products are introduced and old products are phased out. With consideration of the factors noted above, this study proposes to design a tri-objective multi-echelon multi-product multi-period supply chain model, which incorporates product development and new product production and their effects on supply chain configuration. The supply chain under consideration is assumed to consist of suppliers, manufacturers, distributors and customer groups. In terms of overcoming NP-hardness of the proposed model and in order to solve the complicated problem, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm is employed. As there is no benchmark available in the literature, the non-dominated ranking genetic algorithm is developed to validate the results obtained and some test problems are provided to show the applicability of the proposed methodology and evaluate the performance of the algorithms.

  11. Modelling soil erosion and associated sediment yield for small headwater catchments of the Daugava spillway valley, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soms, Juris

    2015-04-01

    The accelerated soil erosion by water and associated fine sediment transfer in river catchments has various negative environmental as well as economic implications in many EU countries. Hence, the scientific community had recognized and ranked soil erosion among other environmental problems. Moreover, these matters might worsen in the near future in the countries of the Baltic Region, e.g. Latvia considering the predicted climate changes - more precisely, the increase in precipitation and shortening of return periods of extreme rainfall events, which in their turn will enable formation of surface runoff, erosion and increase of sediment delivery to receiving streams. Thereby it is essential to carry out studies focused on these issues in order to obtain reliable data in terms of both scientific and applied aims, e.g. environmental protection and sustainable management of soils as well as water resources. During the past decades, many of such studies of soil erosion had focused on the application of modelling techniques implemented in a GIS environment, allowing indirectly to estimate the potential soil losses and to quantify related sediment yield. According to research results published in the scientific literature, this approach currently is widely used all over the world, and most of these studies are based on the USLE model and its revised and modified versions. Considering that, the aim of this research was to estimate soil erosion rates and sediment transport under different hydro-climatic conditions in south-eastern Latvia by application of GIS-based modelling. For research purposes, empirical RUSLE model and ArcGIS software were applied, and five headwater catchments were chosen as model territories. The selected catchments with different land use are located in the Daugava spillway valley, which belongs to the upper Daugava River drainage basin. Considering lithological diversity of Quaternary deposits, a variety of soils can be identified, i.e., Stagnic

  12. Decision-Making Model of Power Network Planning with Wind Power Integration Considering Environmental Bearing Capacity%计及环境承载力的风电并网规划决策模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾鸣; 向红伟; 陈英杰; 刘晓立; 刘洋; 邹晖

    2013-01-01

    To maintain the reliability of wind power integration, a four-dimensional environment of decision-making of power network planning with wind power integration is proposed. To consider the features of new energy integration, this article focuses especially on the impact of technical environment and ecological environment on power network planning. Based on the theory of environmental bearing capacity, the decision of power network planning with wind power integration considered is studied, which helps to make a comprehensive and accurate decision of power network planning from aspects of technique, ecology, economy and policy.%为维持风电并网的可靠性,以某区域电网为例,提出了风电并网规划决策的四维环境并分别进行了承压度建模,针对新能源接入特性分析了技术环境和生态环境对电网规划的影响,基于环境承载力理论研究了风电接入电网规划决策,从技术、生态、经济及政策等方面准确地作出电网规划的决策.

  13. Energy Production from Biogas: Competitiveness and Support Instruments in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klāvs, G.; Kundziņa, A.; Kudrenickis, I.

    2016-10-01

    Use of renewable energy sources (RES) might be one of the key factors for the triple win-win: improving energy supply security, promoting local economic development, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The authors ex-post evaluate the impact of two main support instruments applied in 2010-2014 - the investment support (IS) and the feed-in tariff (FIT) - on the economic viability of small scale (up to 2MWel) biogas unit. The results indicate that the electricity production cost in biogas utility roughly corresponds to the historical FIT regarding electricity production using RES. However, if in addition to the FIT the IS is provided, the analysis shows that the practice of combining both the above-mentioned instruments is not optimal because too high total support (overcompensation) is provided for a biogas utility developer. In a long-term perspective, the latter gives wrong signals for investments in new technologies and also creates unequal competition in the RES electricity market. To provide optimal biogas utilisation, it is necessary to consider several options. Both on-site production of electricity and upgrading to biomethane for use in a low pressure gas distribution network are simulated by the cost estimation model. The authors' estimates show that upgrading for use in a gas distribution network should be particularly considered taking into account the already existing infrastructure and technologies. This option requires lower support compared to support for electricity production in small-scale biogas utilities.

  14. Higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness in Latvia: Exploratory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stankevičs Aivars

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness in Latvia is necessary because of contradictory facts in the socio-economic reality of Latvian higher education. Despite the fact that investment in the Latvian higher education system results in high participation, the economic and innovation returns, i.e., the profitability of the resulting highly educated labour force, are low. The analysis of the literature has shown that there are other factors that determine higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness and enable highly skilled specialists to potentially turn their knowledge into innovation and national income; e.g., the quality of higher education and the level of technological development in business. We conducted an empirical analysis of a set of indicators that are potentially significant to economic performance and innovativeness, and concluded that, first, higher education’s contribution to economic performance and innovativeness differs depending on the stage of the country’s economic development; and second, that a country’s ability to attract and retain talented people becomes more significant at each stage of economic development. In Latvia both the ability to attract and retain talented people and the level of technological development are poorly developed, which results in low economic and innovative returns from a relatively large number of highly skilled specialists.

  15. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  16. DSM energy saving pilot project report. Company Augstceltne Ltd., Riga, Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krievins, P.; Cakuls, A.; Kaross, V.; Jansons, D.

    1995-05-01

    This report is a part of the Joint Latvian - Danish Project DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT AND ENERGY SAVING. The Project is a part of the Danish aid and technology transfer to Latvia. It is the result of collaborative efforts between a Latvian team, consisting of the specialists from Latvenergo and a Danish team, which was represented by Danish Power Consult. The purpose of this pilot project was not only to carry out energy audit in the company Augstceltne Ltd and propose demand side management and energy saving measures. Another task of the project was the application of DPC energy audit methodic, measuring equipment and software in Latvian conditions and the promotion of energy saving programs in Latvia in this way. The Company Augstceltne Ltd was created to rent the rest of premises for many other independent companys and to earn money for surviving. Now the Company has 9 buildings with a total area of 26,920 square meters. The tower block has 23 floors and it is the main business centre. 66 companies are located in the building. (EG)

  17. Healthcare financing reform in Latvia: switching from social health insurance to NHS and back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitenbergs, Uldis; Brigis, Girts; Quentin, Wilm

    2014-11-01

    In the 1990s, Latvia aimed at introducing Social Health Insurance (SHI) but later changed to a National Health Service (NHS) type system. The NHS is financed from general taxation, provides coverage to the entire population, and pays for a basic service package purchased from independent public and private providers. In November 2013, the Cabinet of Ministers passed a draft Healthcare Financing Law, aiming at increasing public expenditures on health by introducing Compulsory Health Insurance (CHI) and linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax. Opponents of the reform argue that linking entitlement to health services to the payment of income tax does not have the potential to increase public expenditures on health but that it can contribute to compromising universal coverage and access to health services of certain population groups. In view of strong opposition, it is unlikely that the law will be adopted before parliamentary elections in October 2014. Nevertheless, the discussion around the law is interesting because of three main reasons: (1) it can illustrate why the concept of SHI remains attractive - not only for Latvia but also for other countries, (2) it shows that a change from NHS to SHI does not imply major institutional reforms, and (3) it demonstrates the potential problems of introducing SHI, i.e. of linking entitlement to health services to the payment of contributions.

  18. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RUSINA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  19. Grain Composition and Functional Ingredients of Barley Varieties Created in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šterna Vita

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, including barley, have been recognised as functional foods that provide beneficial effect on the health of the consumer and decrease the risk of various diseases. The aim of investigation was to determine the grain composition of barley varieties and perspective breeding lines bred in Latvia and to evaluate its functional ingredients. The results of analysis showed that protein content among varieties ranged from 106.6-146.8 g·kg-1, total dietary fibre 187.4-208.2 g·kg-1, β-glucans 42.8 g-49.4 g·kg-1, and amount of α-tocopherol 6.03-8.93 mg·kg-1. The sum of essential amino acids in barley grain samples was from 32.90 g·kg-1 to 38.71 g·kg-1. All varieties of hulled and hulless barley grain were found to be sources of protein with high biological value. Comparison of barley varieties bred in Latvia suggests that variety ‘Kornelija’ outperforms others in protein, dietary fibre and micronutrient content.

  20. The effect of price and production risks on optimal farm plans in Swiss dairy production considering 2 different milk quota systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, S; Finger, R

    2013-04-01

    The amount of milk produced on Swiss dairy farms is restricted by contracts between the farmers and their marketing agent. In the past, these contracts have been calculated on a yearly base. Due to a switch in agricultural policy, these yearly contracts are currently more and more replaced by contracts calculated on a monthly base. These new contracts are assumed to restrict the flexibility of farmers to react on changes in milk price as well as on changes in fodder availability. Thus, the contract design is expected to influence farmers' ability to cope with risks and, thus, to influence the farm's gross margin variability. Applying a bioeconomic whole-farm model, the effects of price and weather risk as well as different risk-management strategies on the gross margin and the variability of the gross margin in Swiss dairy production are assessed under the 2 contract designs. We consider both risk-neutral and risk-averse behavior of farmers in our study. Results show that gross margin is slightly higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. Variability of gross margin is also higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. If the farmer is assumed to be risk averse, under both contracts he can reduce the coefficient of variation of the gross margin by almost 20% at opportunity costs below 1% of the gross margin. To reduce variability of gross margin under both contracts the size of the feedstock needs to be increased. This increase, however, must be considerably higher under the monthly contract than under the yearly contract. An additional risk-management strategy under a monthly contract is an increase in the area used as intensive pasture to ensure fodder availability in years with unfavorable weather. Under the yearly contract, an increase in the area used as extensive pasture is shown to be more favorable because it increases the amount of direct payments the farmer will receive. Additional restrictions in farm management due to a monthly

  1. Internationalization of Higher Education Institutions in Latvia and Turkey: Its Management and Development during the Last Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burçer, Sibel; Kangro, Ilze

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at examining internationalization in higher education in two countries: Latvia and Turkey. The analysis is based on three dimensions of internationalization: institutional, organizational, and educational. Recently, under the influence of global processes, the internationalization takes form through the perspectives of three…

  2. Transmission Network Value Planning Considering Large-scale Wind Power Integration%大规模风电接入的输电系统价值规划方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建平; 朱忠烈; 柳璐; 田书欣; 张立波; 程浩忠

    2014-01-01

    The integration of large-scale wind power in East China grid is described.The method of transmission network value planning considering large-scale wind power is successively proposed.Based on a thorough investigation on the life cycle cost and financial benefits of transmission network,a mathematical model for value planning is developed with maximum revenue as the obj ective while taking into account the planning cost and the benefit at the same time.The environmental benefit arising from large-scale wind power integration is also calculated.Case study results have verified the validity of the value planning model.It is shown that the value planning has guiding significance evidently for actual network planning and the high environmental benefit is in keeping with the national strategy for sustainable development.%介绍了华东大规模风电接入的背景,提出了大规模风电接入的输电系统价值规划方法。研究了输电系统的全寿命周期成本和财务效益,在此基础上建立了以收益最大为目标的价值规划模型,同时考虑规划的成本和效益,并且分析了大规模风电接入的环保效益。算例分析结果验证了价值规划模型的有效性,对实际电网规划具有指导意义,大规模风电接入带来的较高的环保效益符合国家可持续发展的战略需求。

  3. An approach for visually supporting the creation of Personal Development Plans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melero, Javier; Hernández-Leo, Davinia; Arroyo, Ernesto; Aguilar, Albert; Blat, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Melero, J., Hernández-Leo, D., Arroyo, E., Aguilar, A., & Blat J. (submitted). An approach for visually supporting the creation of Personal Development Plans. The 9th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies. July, 14-18, 2009, Riga, Latvia.

  4. Land cover mapping in Latvia using hyperspectral airborne and simulated Sentinel-2 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovels, Dainis; Filipovs, Jevgenijs; Brauns, Agris; Taskovs, Juris; Erins, Gatis

    2016-08-01

    Land cover mapping in Latvia is performed as part of the Corine Land Cover (CLC) initiative every six years. The advantage of CLC is the creation of a standardized nomenclature and mapping protocol comparable across all European countries, thereby making it a valuable information source at the European level. However, low spatial resolution and accuracy, infrequent updates and expensive manual production has limited its use at the national level. As of now, there is no remote sensing based high resolution land cover and land use services designed specifically for Latvia which would account for the country's natural and land use specifics and end-user interests. The European Space Agency launched the Sentinel-2 satellite in 2015 aiming to provide continuity of free high resolution multispectral satellite data thereby presenting an opportunity to develop and adapted land cover and land use algorithm which accounts for national enduser needs. In this study, land cover mapping scheme according to national end-user needs was developed and tested in two pilot territories (Cesis and Burtnieki). Hyperspectral airborne data covering spectral range 400-2500 nm was acquired in summer 2015 using Airborne Surveillance and Environmental Monitoring System (ARSENAL). The gathered data was tested for land cover classification of seven general classes (urban/artificial, bare, forest, shrubland, agricultural/grassland, wetlands, water) and sub-classes specific for Latvia as well as simulation of Sentinel-2 satellite data. Hyperspectral data sets consist of 122 spectral bands in visible to near infrared spectral range (356-950 nm) and 100 bands in short wave infrared (950-2500 nm). Classification of land cover was tested separately for each sensor data and fused cross-sensor data. The best overall classification accuracy 84.2% and satisfactory classification accuracy (more than 80%) for 9 of 13 classes was obtained using Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier with 109 band

  5. African swine fever virus introduction into the EU in 2014: Experience of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oļševskis, Edvīns; Guberti, Vittorio; Seržants, Mārtiņš; Westergaard, Jørgen; Gallardo, Carmina; Rodze, Ieva; Depner, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    African swine fever (ASF) virus was introduced in Latvia in June 2014. Thirty-two outbreaks in domestic pigs and 217 cases in wild boar were notified in 2014. Twenty-eight outbreaks (87.5%) were primary outbreaks. The contagiosity within pig herds was low. Failure to use simple biosecurity measures to reduce the chance of virus introduction, for example by inadvertent feeding of locally produced virus contaminated fodder were the main causes for the outbreaks in backyard holdings. The infection in wild boar survived locally in two different areas with a low prevalence and a slow spread. The persistence of the infection in wild boar within an area was most probably linked to wild boar scavenging the carcasses of infected wild boar.

  6. Neoliberal austerity and corporate crime: the collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfson, Charles; Juska, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    The roof collapse of the Maxima supermarket in Riga, Latvia on November 21, 2013 left 54 dead. This analysis identifies the disaster as a "safety crime." Neoliberal deregulatory measures, intensified by the global economic and financial crisis and a programme of radical austerity, together with corporate and state disregard of public safety and well-being, combined to produce the disaster. The wider context and underlying causes of catastrophic safety failure exemplify the inherently contradictory character of the neoliberal "Baltic model" of austerity, recently much in vogue with international policymakers in both Europe and the United States. The authors conclude that the current renewed drive by the European Commission towards reducing regulation for business, especially in the aftermath of the crisis, further justifies longstanding anti-regulatory preferences of neoliberal domestic elites, with the result that the costs of disregard for public safety are externalized onto the general populace.

  7. Pharmacological research on natural substances in Latvia: Focus on lunasin, betulin, polyprenol and phlorizin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muceniece, Ruta; Namniece, Jana; Nakurte, Ilva; Jekabsons, Kaspars; Riekstina, Una; Jansone, Baiba

    2016-11-01

    In this concise review the current research in plant bioactive compound studies in Latvia is described. The paper summarizes recent studies on substances from edible plants (e.g., cereals and apples) or their synthetic analogues, such as peptide lunasin, as well as substances isolated from inedible plants (e.g., birch and conifer), such as pentacyclic triterpenes (e.g., betulin, betulinic acid, and lupeol) and polyprenols. Latvian researchers have been first to demonstrate the presence of lunasin in triticale and oats. Additionally, the impact of genotype on the levels of lunasin in cereals was shown. Pharmacological studies have revealed effects of lunasin and synthetic triterpenes on the central nervous system in rodents. We were first to show that synthetic lunasin causes a marked neuroleptic/cataleptic effect and that betulin antagonizes bicuculline-induced seizures (a GABA A receptor antagonist). Studies on the mechanisms of action showed that lunasin binds to dopamine D1 receptors and betulin binds to melanocortin and gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptors therefore we suggest that these receptors play an essential role in lunasin's and betulin's central effects. Recent studies on conifer polyprenols demonstrated the ability of polyprenols to prevent statin-induced muscle weakness in a rat model. Another study on plant compounds has demonstrated the anti-hyperglycemic activity of phlorizin-containing unripe apple pomace in healthy volunteers. In summary, research into plant-derived compounds in Latvia has been focused on fractionating, isolating and characterizing of lunasin, triterpenes, polyprenols and phlorizin using in vitro, and in vivo assays, and human observational studies.

  8. Framework Planning of Distribution Network Containing Distributed Generation Considering Active Management%主动管理模式下含分布式发电的配电网网架规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陈; 张翔; 程浩忠; 张沈习; 姚良忠

    2014-01-01

    为了适应未来大规模分布式电源接入后的新型配电系统规划要求,考虑主动管理模式,建立了含分布式发电的配电网网架双层规划模型,上层规划以年综合费用最小为目标,下层规划是以分布式电源出力切除量最小为目标,并在约束中考虑了分布式发电加入后对配电网可靠性的影响。计及风电光伏等间歇式电源出力及负荷不确定性,分别利用树形结构编码的单亲遗传算法和原对偶内点法对上下层规划模型进行求解。通过29节点配电网算例验证了所提模型的合理性和有效性。%To adapt to the demand of new type of distribution network after grid-connection of large-scale distributed generation (DG) in the future, considering active management a bi-layer framework planning model for distribution network containing DG is built. The lowest annual comprehensive cost is taken as the objective for the upper layer of the built planning model and the minimized disconnected output of DG is taken as the objective of lower-layer of the built planning model, and in the constraints the impact of DG on the reliability of distribution network after grid-connection of DG is taken into account. Considering the uncertainty of both load and intermittent DG such as wind farm and photovoltaic generation, the upper-and lower-layer of the planning model are solved by tree structure coding pertheno-genetic algorithm (TSE-PGA) and prime-dual interior point method respectively. The reasonableness and effectiveness of the proposed planning model are validated by simulation results of a 29-bus distribution network.

  9. Trust Regulation in the Czech Republic: the Model Law for Introduction of the Trust Instrument in the Republic of Latvia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Grasis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, thanks to the process of globalization, there is the diversification of forms and kinds of the economic relations. Therefore the trust instrument is used more and more in the countries where before it was practically unknown legal instrument. The author has defended dissertation paper “The Essence of Trusts, its Recognition and Legal Regulation in the Roman – German Law System Countries and Possible Introduction in Latvia” on September 12, 2008. In this dissertation paper it was advised to introduce trust instrument in the Republic of Latvia I order to improve the existing regulation in Latvia; draft law on trusts was prepared. The Czech Republic had introduced trust instrument from January 1 2014. This article will be devoted to the comparative analysis of the Czech regulation on trusts; therefore it is a very important both from academic and practical point of view. Till now there are a few researches on this theme. The survey and comparative analysis are the main methods used in the present article. Based on the comparative analysis it is recommended to use regulation of the Czech Republic and Province of Quebec in order to draft similar legislation in the Republic of Latvia. The present research is a very topical for the academics, Members of the Saeima (Latvian Parliament, practitioners in the financial and legal field. This is unique research on comparative basis, using Civil Code of the Czech Republic and Province of Quebec, the Principles of European Trust Law , the Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to Trusts and on their Recognition and existing regulation and prepared draft legislation on trusts of the Republic of Latvia.

  10. 考虑电动汽车充电站选址定容的配电网规划%Distribution Network Planning by Considering Siting and Sizing of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈婷; 卫志农; 吴霜; 孙国强; 韦延方; 许晓慧

    2013-01-01

    The problem of distribution network planning by considering siting and sizing of electric vehicle charging stations has recently received the increasing research attention.In this paper,an optimal model is proposed,which aims to minimize the investment and operation costs of the distribution network and electric vehicle charging stations.By using the improved tree structure encoding partheno-genetic algorithm (ITSE-PGA) with elitist strategy,the problems of distribution network planning and optimization of the location and capacity of electric vehicle charging stations can be tackled simultaneously.Different from the ITSE-PGA for traditional distribution network planning,the considered distribution network here is not necessarily connected in the optimization process when considering electric vehicle charging stations,so the infeasible solutions should be specially handled.Finally,simulation results are provided to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.%针对电动汽车充电站选址定容的配电网规划问题,建立了以配电网投资及运行成本、电动汽车充电站投资及运行成本最小为优化目标的模型.采用带精英策略的改进树形结构编码单亲遗传算法ITSE-PGA(improved tree structure encoding partheno-genetic algorithm),在配电网规划的同时进行了电动汽车充电站位置和容量的优化.不同于用于传统的配电网规划的树形结构编码单亲遗传算法,该方法在含电动汽车充电站的优化过程中,配电网络不一定连通,所以要对不可行解做特殊处理.通过算例仿真,验证了该方法的可行性和有效性.

  11. Infant mortality gap in the Baltic region - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - in relation to macroeconomic factors in 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebela, Inguna; Zile, Irisa; Ebela, Danute Razuka; Rozenfelde, Ingrida Rumba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE. A constant gap has appeared in infant mortality among the 3 Baltic States - Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania - since the restoration of independence in 1991. The aim of the study was to compare infant mortality rates in all the 3 Baltic countries and examine some of the macro- and socioeconomic factors associated with infant mortality. MATERIAL AND METHODS. The data were obtained from international databases, such as World Health Organization and EUROSTAT, and the national statistical databases of the Baltic States. The time series data sets (1996-2010) were used in the regression and correlation analysis. RESULTS. In all the 3 Baltic States, a strong and significant correlation was found: Latvia (r=-0.81, PLithuania (r=-0.93, PLithuania (r=-0.90, PLithuania, the relationship was not significant. CONCLUSIONS. Higher infant mortality rates and a less stable decreasing tendency in Latvia are apparently explained by less successful adaptation to a new political and economic situation and limited skills in adjusting the healthcare system to the reality of life.

  12. Investigations on Health Conditions of Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident Recovery Workers from Latvia in Late Period after Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reste Jeļena

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises the main findings on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP accident recovery workers from Latvia and their health disturbances, which have been studied by the authors during the last two decades. Approximately 6000 persons from Latvia participated in CNPP clean-up works in 1986–1991. During their work period in Chernobyl they were exposed to external as well as to internal irradiation, but since their return to Latvia they were living in a relatively uncontaminated area. Regular careful medical examinations and clinical studies of CNPP clean-up workers have been conducted during the 25 years after disaster, gathering knowledge on radiation late effects. The aim of the present review is to summarise the most important information about Latvian CNPP clean-up worker health revealed by thorough follow-up and research conducted in the period of 25 years after the accident. This paper reviews data of the Latvian State Register of Persons Exposed to Radiation due to CNPP Accident and gives insight in main health effects found by the researchers from the Centre of Occupational and Radiological Medicine (Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital and Rīga Stradiņš University in a number of epidemiological, clinical, biochemical, immunological, and physiological studies. Latvian research data on health condition of CNPP clean-up workers in the late period after disaster indicate that ionising radiation might cause premature ageing and severe polymorbidity in humans.

  13. More than 20 years after re-emerging in the 1990s, diphtheria remains a public health problem in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantsone, Ieva; Lucenko, Irina; Perevoscikovs, Jurijs

    2016-12-01

    In 1994, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the goal of eliminating diphtheria within the WHO European Region by the year 2000. However, in 1990 an epidemic emerged within the Russian Federation and spread to other countries, including Latvia, by 1994. We describe national surveillance and immunisation coverage data in Latvia from 1994 to 2014 and present historical data from 1946. We defined a laboratory-confirmed case as a clinical case in which toxin-producing Corynebacterium diphtheriae, C. ulcerans or C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated. From 1994 to 2014, 1,515 cases were reported, giving an average annual incidence of 3.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants (range 0.1-14.8), with the highest incidence in age groups 5-19 and 40-49 years (4.4 and 4.3/100,000, respectively); 111 deaths were reported, 83.8% cases were laboratory-confirmed. Most cases occurred in unvaccinated adults. To improve disease control a supplementary immunisation campaign for adults was initiated in 1995, and by the end of 1998 national coverage among adults reached 70%, and reached 77% in 2003, but declined to 59% by 2014. Diphtheria remains a problem in Latvia with continued circulation of toxin-producing strains of C. diphtheriae. We recommend to strengthen immunisation to cover adults, as well as the education of health professionals and a serological survey. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  14. River lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L., fishery in Latvia – insight into the origin of catch statistics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abersons Kaspar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most research to date on the status of the river lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L. in Latvia has been done based on catch statistics data. The aim of this study was to explore the present status of the river lamprey fishery in Latvia to improve the understanding of catch statistics data. Currently, river lamprey fishing in Latvia is carried out at 24 fishing grounds located on 17 rivers. The most popular fishing gear is the lamprey fyke net, but lamprey weirs and lamprey trammel nets are also used. The type and design of the fishing gear depends on the parameters of the fishing ground. The catch size is highly variable and is greatly affected by the number of non-resources related circumstances, such as fishing regulations and meteorological factors determining the intensity of lamprey migration during the fishing season and opportunities for fishing during periods of the most intense migration. The fishing effort and the type of fishing gear have also largely changed since the 1960s and 1970s. Therefore, the fluctuation in both the long- and short-term catch data may not correspond to changes in the actual status of the lamprey population.

  15. Comparative analysis of subjective well-being of Latvia's inhabitants in the context of economic development of European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lonska J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world, during the past 10 years, when evaluating development of a particular area, there has been a tendency of taking into consideration subjective evaluation and attitude to the living conditions of inhabitants living in this area. More often these indicators are the general life satisfaction and feeling of happiness. Analysing Latvia's place in these ratings, it is possible to conclude that inhabitants of Latvia are very pessimistic in assessing their lives in this country. As surveys indicate, the economic factors have an important influence on people's subjective satisfaction. The problem of the research is that during the last two years, there has been a tendency to improvement of the economic indicators in all three Baltic States, but when comparing the closest neighbours, the Latvian inhabitants' subjective satisfaction with life is decreasing, but in Lithuania and Estonia it is increasing together with improvement of the economic situation. In this article the author suggests her own vision of the situation in relation to the arrangement of countries according to subjective indicators analysing the influence of objective socio-economic factors on subjective opinions about living conditions of the inhabitants living in Latvia and neighbouring countries.

  16. Assortment Planning Considering Consumers' Two-stage Choice Behavior%考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵藜; 田澎; 李相勇

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the assortment planning problem considering consumers' two-stage choice behavior in the context of network revenue management. A two-stage choice model based on consumer preferences is proposed, and a dynamic programming model for assortment planning is developed. The choice deterministic linear programming method (CDLP) is used to approximate the optimal offer sets. Finally,through numerical examples,the effects of consumers' two-stage choice behavior on firm's average expected revenues are discussed.%在网络收益管理框架下,研究了考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划问题.提出了基于消费者产品偏好的两阶段选择行为模型,并建立了品类规划问题的动态规划模型.利用选择确定性线性规划方法对模型进行了近似求解,推导了最优的产品组合.最后通过数值算例讨论了消费者两阶段选择行为对厂商平均期望收益与产品组合选择的影响.

  17. Trichinella britovi biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirjušina, Muza; Bakasejevs, Eduards; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2016-11-15

    Parasites of the genus Trichinella are cosmopolitan nematodes infecting primarily wild animals, which represent the main reservoirs of these zoonotic pathogens. To investigate the transmission patterns of Trichinella spp. from wild to domestic animals and to humans and for the risk assessment of these parasites in a geographical area, it is important to know the number of possible transmission events deriving from carcasses of infected hosts. For this purpose, the evaluation of the larval biomass in reservoir hosts is needed. No data is available on how to estimate the biomass of Trichinella spp. larvae in muscles of naturally infected animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the larval biomass in naturally infected pine martens (Martes martes) of Latvia, in which the prevalence of Trichinella britovi infection was over 50%. Single muscles or group of muscles (abdomen, back, diaphragm, intercostal muscles, muscles from the head, left and right shoulders, lower and upper parts of the forelimbs and hind limbs, neck, rump with tail, and base and tip of the tongue) were collected from five skinned and eviscerated carcasses of T. britovi infected pine martens. Muscles were entirely removed from the bones and weighted. Each muscle or group of muscles was separately digested to detect the larvae per gram (LPG). Using linear regression, the larval burden in each muscle or group of muscles was evaluated to measure the possible prediction of the total animal larval burden (both as total number of larvae and as average LPG). All muscles were significantly predictive of the total burden with high "goodness of fit" (all adjusted R2>0.80; P≤0.01), and the left shoulder provided the highest adjusted R2 (0.999). Then, to estimate the Trichinella britovi biomass in the pine marten population of Latvia, recent literature data on prevalence (56.2%, 95% CI: 47.8-64.3) and geometric mean LPG (1.26, 95% CI: 0.89-1.79) in the limb muscles of a sample representative of the whole

  18. Assessment of Wind Shear and Wind Energy Potential in the Baltic Sea Region of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezrukovs, V.; Bezrukovs, Vl.; Zacepins, A.; Komashilovs, V.

    2015-04-01

    The paper is devoted to the investigation into the wind energy potential based on long-term observations of the wind speed and energy density fluctuations at heights from 10 to 160 m on the Baltic Sea coast of Latvia. During the observations (2004 - 2013), the wind speed and direction values were measured, and the statistical database was accumulated using a LOGGER 9200 Symphonie measuring systems mounted on 60 m masts - one on the western coast and another on the north-east of Latvia. From June 2011 to May 2012, these measurements were complemented with the data for the heights from 40 to 160 m obtained by means of a ZephIR lidar and with the metrological data provided by "Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre" for the same period. The graphs of seasonal fluctuations in the wind speed were obtained for the heights up to 160 m by measurements over the period of 2007 - 2013. The results of the research on the wind speed distribution up to 200 m are promising for evaluation of the wind energy potential of Latvia and will be helpful in assessment of prospective sites for construction of WPPs. Zinātniskais raksts ir veltīts pētījumam par vēja enerģijas potenciālu Latvijas teritorijā, Baltijas jūras piekrastē, balstoties uz ilgtermiņa vēja ātruma un vēja enerģijas blīvuma svārstību novērojumiem no 10 līdz 160 metriem augstumā. Vēja ātruma un vēja virziena mērījumu dati tika iegūti un apkopoti statistiskajā datubāzē laika periodā no 2004 līdz 2013. gadam, izmantojot mērīšanas sistēmu LOGGER 9200 Symphonie, kas bija ierīkotā uz 60 metru augsta masta - viena rietumu piekrastē un otra Latvijas ziemeļu-austrumos. No 2011. gada jūnija līdz 2012. gada maijam mērījumu datubāze tika papildināta ar datiem, kas tika iegūti ar lidaruZephIR augstumos no 40 līdz 160 metriem, un datiem no "Latvijas Vides, ģeoloģijas un meteoroloģijas centra" tam pašam laika periodam. Analizējot mērījumus 2007. g.-2013. g., grafiki ar

  19. Multistage Planning for Wind Turbine Generator Considering Correlations%考虑相关性的风力发电机组多阶段选址定容规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张沈习; 程浩忠; 李珂

    2014-01-01

    考虑到负荷和风力发电机组(wind turbine generator, WTG)之间存在一定的负相关性,文章首先采用拉丁超立方采样(Latin hypercube sampling,LHS)技术和Cholesky分解法排序产生相关性样本,然后以规划期内总成本最小为目标,建立了多阶段WTG选址定容机会约束规划模型,并采用模糊自适应遗传算法(fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm, FAGA)进行求解。在 FAGA 中,设计了一种新的模糊逻辑控制器,使得算法在迭代过程中能够动态调整控制参数,增加算法对解空间的搜索能力,从而克服了基本遗传算法容易陷入局部最优、收敛速度慢等缺点。33节点配电网算例的仿真分析表明,在进行WTG选址定容规划时不能忽略负荷和WTG之间的相关性。同时,算例仿真结果也验证了FAGA在求解规划模型时的高效性。%Considering the existence of a certain negative correlation between load demand and wind turbine generator (WTG), firstly the correlated samples come into being by Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) technique and Cholesky decomposition approach; then taking the minimum total cost during the planning period as the objective, a multistage chance constraint planning model for siting and sizing of WTGs is established and solved by fuzzy adaptive genetic algorithm (FAGA). In FAGA, a novel fuzzy logic controller is designed to make parameters of the algorithm enable to be dynamically adjusted, thus the search capability of FAGA in the solution space can be enhanced and such shortcomings of basic genetic algorithm as easy to fall into local optimum and slow convergence speed can be overcome. Simulation results of a 33-bus distribution network show that the correlation between load and WTGs should not be ignored during drafting the planning of siting and sizing of WTGs. Meanwhile, the high-efficiency of FAGA in solving planning model is validated by simulation results of test distribution network.

  20. Flexible Network Planning Considering Islanding Scheme for Distribution Systems with Distributed Generators%计及区域自组网的含分布式电源配电网网架柔性规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志铿; 王钢; 陈志刚; 汪隆君

    2013-01-01

    For a distribution system with distributed generators (DGs), the islanding scheme and stochastic DGs output make higher request to the network planning. The service restoration ratio is first defined considering the stochastic DGs output and power load, and a multi-object flexible network planning model is presented for a distribution system with DGs. The model takes economy investment and supply reliability as optimization objectives, and service restoration ratio, subarea supply, network connection mode and flexible constrained branch power flow and node voltage as constraint conditions. In the reliability revolution of the proposed planning mode, the effects of stochastic DGs output and power load to service restoration are included, thus the limitations of existing planning model can be broken through. The obtained network planning schemes can adapt widely to DGs access and make full utilization of its islanding scheme ability. Calculation and analysis based on an actual example are performed. The results indicate the validity of the method proposed, by which the theory basis of network planning for a distribution system with DGs can be provided.%在含分布式电源的配电网中,区域自组网的运行方式和分布式电源出力的随机性对其网架规划提出了更高要求.为此,文中计及分布式电源出力和负荷的随机性,定义了负荷供电恢复率,以此反映在网架规划方案和区域自组网方式下负荷的供电恢复情况.通过将其与分区供电要求、指定接线模式约束和支路潮流、节点电压柔性约束等作为约束条件,建立了以经济性和可靠性为目标的配电网线路开关联合优化的柔性规划模型.在该模型的网架方案可靠性评估中,计及了区域自组网运行方式下分布式电源出力和负荷的随机性对负荷供电恢复的影响,从而使所得的网架规划方案适应分布式电源的广泛接入,充分发挥电网区域自组网能力,突破了

  1. Genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of aminoglycoside-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauskenieks, Matiss; Pole, Ilva; Skenders, Girts; Jansone, Inta; Broka, Lonija; Nodieva, Anda; Ozere, Iveta; Kalvisa, Adrija; Ranka, Renate; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2015-03-01

    Mutations causing resistance to aminoglycosides, such as kanamycin (KAN), amikacin (AMK), and streptomycin, are not completely understood. In this study, polymorphisms of aminoglycoside resistance influencing genes such as rrs, eis, rpsL, and gidB in 41 drug-resistant and 17 pan-sensitive Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Latvia were analyzed. Mutation A1400G in rrs gene was detected in 92% isolates with high resistance level to KAN and diverse MIC level to AMK. Mutations in promoter region of eis were detected in 80% isolates with low-level MIC of KAN. The association of K43R mutation in rpsL gene, a mutation in the rrs gene at position 513, and various polymorphisms in gidB gene with distinct genetic lineages of M. tuberculosis was observed. The results of this study suggest that association of different controversial mutations of M. tuberculosis genes to the drug resistance phenotype should be done in respect to genetic lineages.

  2. Influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and diversity of forest soil in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonds Kasparinskis

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the spatial relationships between environmental factors (Quaternary deposits, topographical situation, land cover, forest site types, tree species, soil texture and soil groups, and their prefix qualifiers (according to the international Food and Agricultural Organization soil classification system World Reference Base for Soil Resources [FAO WRB]. The results show that it is possible to establish relationships between the distribution of environmental factors and soil groups by applying the generalized linear models in data statistical analysis, using the R 2.11.1 software for processing data from 113 sampling plots throughout the forest territory of Latvia.A very high diversity of soil groups in a relatively similar geological structure was revealed. For various reasons there is not always close relationship between the soil group, their prefix qualifiers and Quaternary deposits, as well as between forest site types, the dominant tree species and specific soil group and its prefix qualifiers. Close correlation was established between Quaternary deposits, forest site types, dominant tree species and soil groups within nutrient-poor sediments and very rich deposits containing free carbonates. No significant relationship was detected between the CORINE Land Cover 2005 classes, topographical situation and soil group.

  3. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS INFLUENCING THE VEGETATION IN MIDDLE-SIZED STREAMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. GRINBERGA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the species diversity and distribution of macrophytes in 131 surveyed sites of middle-sized streams of Latvia were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the composition of macrophyte vegetation in Latvian streams in relation to the environmental factors (stream width, water depth, substrate type, shading and flow velocity. On the basis of these factors, five major groups of streams were distinguished representing mutually different typical macrophyte communities – (1 fast flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (2 slow flowing streams on gravelly and stony substrate, (3 fast flowing streams on sandy substrate, (4 slow flowing streams on sandy substrate, and (5 streams with soft, silty substrate. Totally, 47 macrophyte taxa were found in the streams. The most common macrophyte species were Nuphar lutea found in 65% of all sites, followed by Sparganium emersum (64%, S. erectum s.l. (48%, Phalaris arundinacea (50%, Alisma plantago-aquatica (54% and Lemna minor (41%. The highest species richness (22 was found in slow flowing streams with gravelly substrate. Species-poor macrophyte communities were characteristic for fast flowing streams on sandy substrate.

  5. Introduction of Energy and Climate Mitigation Policy Issues in Energy - Environment Model of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Rekis, J.

    2016-12-01

    The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).

  6. Fertility and culture in Eastern Europe: a case study of Riga, Latvia, 1867-1881.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, C; Plakans, A

    1997-01-01

    This case study examined the influence of cultural and economic conditions on fertility decline in Eastern Europe. Cultural influence on fertility is conceived as the agent with which individuals change behavior which is specific to different ethnic groups and contexts. This study focused on measures of nuptiality and fertility among language and religious groups in Riga, Latvia, in 1867 and 1881. Data were obtained from censuses for Coale's measures of general fertility, marital fertility, the index of illegitimate fertility, and the proportion married. Each variable is a measure of Hutterite fertility as socially unrestrained fertility. Marriage includes the singulate mean age of marriage and the median age at marriage. An average of the urban multipliers for Bavaria, Prussia, Finland, and Sweden, was used to adjust infant mortality. Fertility estimates were higher than the European Fertility Projects. Nuptiality followed the Western European marriage pattern. Nuptiality reflected Hajnal's Western European pattern of late marriage and substantial singlehood. Fertility varied by language group. Fertility was highest among Yiddish speakers and lowest among Latvians. 12.5% of marriages were interfaith marriages. Protestants were the most likely to enter interfaith unions. However, opportunity in the marriage market may have affected mixed marriages. Catholics had the lowest marital fertility. Jews were the most different on a variety of factors. Jews had higher marital fertility and proportion married, and lower female workers, illegitimacy, and proportion single. The authors conclude that the mixed results are insufficient to untangle the effects of culture due to lack of individual level data.

  7. Patient groups in art therapies: A case study of the health care field in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vende K.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to introduce the reader with an example of the arts therapies work in a children hospital in Latvia in order to describe art therapies work similarities and differences in three different specializations. Comparison will take place of patient groups in the work of art therapists in each specialization (art therapy, dance movement therapy and music therapy. The question of the research is: with which patient groups’ a specialist from a particular arts therapies specialization has worked within a year in VSIA BKUS children hospital “Gaiļezers” during the time period from 05.2009 to 05.2010?The results were gained by comparing patient groups at the age from 2,5 to 17 years in the children hospital and they showed that the art therapists and dance movement therapist most frequently were working with patients who have behaviour and emotional disorders. However music therapists are working more frequently with patients who have mental retardation.

  8. Transmission systems expansion planning considering security and generation programming plans

    OpenAIRE

    Irenio de Jesus Silva Junior

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho apresenta algumas propostas para solucionar o problema de planejamento da expansão de sistemas de transmissão, estático e multiestágio, considerando restrições de segurança - critério de segurança (n_1), assim como para o planejamento da expansão de um sistema elétrico que satisfaça simultaneamente vários planos de programação da geração pré-especificados. Visando superar deficiências na determinação de soluções ótimas para sistemas de grande porte quando se usa métodos ...

  9. 考虑电量分布及行驶里程的高速公路充电站规划%Planning of charging stations on highway considering power distribution and driving mileage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少云; 冯亮; 刘洪; 王龙

    2013-01-01

    针对高速公路的车流情况和充电需求特点,构建了高速公路充电站的规划模型.该模型考虑了电动汽车的电量分布和行驶里程的影响,以高速公路中到充电站充电的电动汽车的数量期望值最大化为目标来进行充电站的站址选择,以充电站的服务成本和顾客的等待费用之和最小为目标来优化配置充电站的充电机台数,并利用排队论原理分析了充电站的服务水平和运行效率.最后通过算例验证了该规划模型的可行性和有效性.%According to the traffic condition and power charging demand of highway,a planning model of charging stations on highway is established,which considers the influences of the power distribution and driving mileage of electric vehicles,takes the maximum expectation of electric vehicles coming to charging station as the objective of station location planning,takes the minimum total cost of station service and customer waiting time as the objective of charger quantity per station,and applies the queuing theory to analyze the service level and operational efficiency of charging station.The feasibility and effectiveness of the model are verified by case study.

  10. BRICS To Be Considered?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Toloraya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available he current political situation in the world is becoming increasingly turbulent, which does not give an unambiguous answer to the question of the future architecture of global governance, the balance of power and the role of international forums such as the BRICS grouping of Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa – the prospects of which now seem highly controversial. As president of the BRICS in 2015, Russia did its best to promote dialogue at all levels of the BRICS, especially by increasing the number of formats and meetings within the main and outreach tracks. The BRICS Economic Partnership Strategy, which was adopted at the Ufa Summit, confirmed the consolidated positions on major financial and economic issues and on the general principles for relations between the subjects of world politics and specific development issues. Important steps were taken to develop cooperation within the BRICS in energy, science, technology, innovation and other areas. Relevant documents, declarations and action plans were prepared throughout the presidency. Several inaugural BRICS events were held, such as youth, global university and civil summits, creating a civil society component that definitely strengthened the BRICS. As a result of Russia’s presidency, the group has shown interest in further consolidation and development: the more complex the situation in a member, the more it is interested in mutual support and common positions in the existing system of global governance. Although the Ufa Summit demonstrated unity among the members and their intentions to cooperate on the agenda, many meetings and consultations revealed systemic divergences.The economic crisis in several countries narrowed the opportunities for cooperation and highlighted the existing political contradictions. Nonetheless, as a powerful mechanism for positioning these large economic actors outside the interests of the Group of Seven, the external representation of the BRICS is

  11. A Planning Method of Active Distribution Network for Siting and Sizing Considering both DG and ESS%一种同时考虑DG和ESS选址定容的主动配电网规划方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛四清; 刘梦

    2015-01-01

    为提高主动配电网的供电可靠性以及促进间歇性分布式电源的高效利用,提出了一种同时考虑分布式电源和储能系统选址定容的主动配电网规划方法。综合考虑了功率平衡约束、运行功率约束以及电压约束等约束条件,建立了以主动配电网的年经济费用、年平均缺供电量以及污染气体减排量为目标函数的多目标规划模型。利用改进的NSGA-Ⅱ算法对模型进行求解,得到目标函数的帕累托最优解集,并利用模糊集理论找出最优解。最后,对IEEE69节点配电系统进行规划,结果表明,所建立的模型能够兼顾主动配电网的经济性、可靠性以及环保性三方面影响,问题求解过程中所用算法具有良好的收敛性以及全局搜索能力。%In order to improve the power supply reliability of the active distribution system and promote the effi⁃cient utilization of the intermittent distributed generation, a planning method of active distribution network for siting and sizing, which considers both the distributed generation and the energy storage system is proposed. In view of the power balance constraints, operational power constraints voltage constraints and other constraints the multi⁃ob⁃jective planning model, with economic costs, lack of power supply and pollution emission reductions as its objective functions, has been established. Improved NSGA-Ⅱsolving method is proposed to obtain pareto optimal solution set of the objective function, and fuzzy set theory is employed to search for the optimal solution. Finally, the model is utilized in an IEEE69-bus distribution system planning. The results show that the model takes into account the economy, reliability and environmental protection of the active distribution system, and the algorithm which is used to solve the problem has favorable convergence and global search capability.

  12. Planning of Charging Stations Considering Traffic Flow and Capacity Constraints of Distribution Network%考虑车流信息与配电网络容量约束的充电站规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛少云; 冯亮; 刘洪; 王龙

    2013-01-01

    提出一种计及路网结构、车流信息、配电网络结构和容量约束等因素的城市区域电动汽车充电站的规划模型.该模型在配电网络的容量约束条件下,以用户在充电路程中的损耗成本和充电站线路投资之和最小为目标来进行站址和接入位置的选择,通过加权Voronoi图来实现充电站服务范围的自动划分,并利用排队论原理进行充电站的容量优化配置.最后,在兼顾电力公司和电动汽车用户双方利益的前提下,以全社会成本最小化为目标来进行充电站规划方案的优选.算例分析表明,所提出的方法和模型对于城市区域电动汽车充电站的优化规划具有一定的可行性和合理性.%Taking such factors as the road network structure,the traffic flow and the structure and capacity constraints of the distribution network into account,an optimization model for urban charging station planning was proposed.In the proposed model,the minimum sum of wastage cost of drivers on the way to charging stations and the line investment for charging stations was taken as the objective for the selection of the site and network connected positions of charging stations.The automatic partitioning of service areas of charging stations was implemented by the weighted Voronoi diagram,and utilizing the principle in queuing theory the optimization configuration of charging stations was performed.Finally,under the premise of considering interests of both power companies and electric vehicle drivers,the optimal charging station planning scheme was chosen,in which the minimization of full social cost was taken as the objective.The results of the example showed that the proposed method and model were feasible and reasonable for charging stations planning.

  13. 计及缺电成本的用户侧蓄电池储能系统容量规划%Capacity Plan of Battery Energy Storage System in User Side Considering Power Outage Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜志敏; 王承民; 连鸿波; 衣涛; 时志雄; 张宇

    2012-01-01

    Based on the relevant studies, in order to bring the battery energy storage system economical benefits in the user side caused by reducing capacity of user's distribution station and decreasing the power expenses for user, a value model for reducing loss of the transformer and power outage cost is built. In the mean time, considering the investment cost and operation and maintenance cost, the capacity optimization plan model for user' s battery energy storage system is developed and particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to solve it.%在相关研究的基础上,考虑了用户侧电池储能系统在减少用户配电站建设容量和降低购电费用方面为用户带来的经济价值,建立了其降低配电变压器损耗和停电损失的价值模型。同时,考虑蓄电池储能系统的投资成本和运行维护成本,建立了其容量优化规划模型,并用粒子群优化算法进行了求解。

  14. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-08-01

    The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  15. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present scientific paper is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research presented in a series of works on the development of the nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship in Latvia. The study has a focus on finding proper socioeconomic and technical indicators. It provides resume on a scope of the study. The paper contains the developed structure of engineering economic indicator system, determined groups of indicators for assessment of the development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in Latvia and results of the evaluation of the obtained statistics on the economic indicators.

  16. 考虑综合故障率的线路分段差异化规划方法%A Method of Line Segment Differentiation Planning Considering Comprehensive Fault Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯俊贤; 吴军; 董飞飞; 柯丽娜; 宋春丽; 王浩磊

    2015-01-01

    The scheme that lines were strengthened segmented in a differentiated way considering comprehensive fault rate had great significance in improving the resistance of power grid against natural disasters. The generalized theory of extreme value was introduced to model the ice history data of region, and then the probability of ice damage of the region under a given thickness of ice was obtained. Combining with the model of line fuzzy failure rate when the line was under stress, the model of line comprehensive fault rate was established under certain condition of ice. Comprehensive failure rate was used to calculate differentiated ‘impairment’ benefit, on the basis of which economy evaluation indexes of differentiated planning were established. In that case, the segment strengthening scheme of lines across different meteorological conditions were determined. Different lines were made differentiated planning through the simulation example. Various economic indicators were comprehensively compared, in that case, economic assessment results of lines under different strengthening schemes were obtained, which proves the effectiveness of the proposed method.%考虑综合故障率的线路差异化分段加强,对提高电网抗灾能力具有重要意义。采用广义极值理论对区域的历史覆冰数据建模,得到特定覆冰厚度下该区域发生冰灾的概率,结合线路承受应力时的线路模糊故障率模型,建立线路在特定覆冰条件下的综合故障率模型。利用综合故障率计算差异化“减损”效益,在此基础上建立经差异化规划经济性评估指标体系,进而确定跨越不同气象条件线路的分段加强方案。通过算例对不同线路进行差异化规划,综合比较各项经济性指标,得到线路在不同差异化加强方案下的经济性评估结果,证明了所提方法的有效性。

  17. Remanufacturing lot sizing production planning considering product differentiation in multi-uncertain environment%多重不确定环境下考虑产品差异的再制造批量生产计划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景熠; 王旭; 李文川; 邓蕾

    2012-01-01

    To solve manufacturing and remanufacturing lot sizing planning problems under the situation of hybrid production in multi-uncertain environment, a mixed integer programming model with constraints of inventory and production capacity was established. In this model, the discrete scenario set of know probability was used to describe returned products quantity and product demand's uncertainty, to describe the uncertainty of remanufacturing cost based on interval analysis, and to describe the uncertainty of remanufacturing rate with stochastic chance constrained programming. Satisfying demand ratio, operation cost and remanufacturing product rate were used as oper ation objects. Meanwhile, product differentiation was considered, and the strategy of one-way substitution was proposed to improve the flexibility of production planning. Adaptive mechanism was introduced in double chromosomes genetic algorithm to design solution for simulation example. The results showed the effectiveness and validity of proposed model.%针对多重不确定环境下制造/再制造混合生产场景中的批量计划问题,建立了库存和生产能力受限的混合整数规划模型。该模型分别采用已知概率的离散情景集合描述收回品数量和产品需求的不确定性,区间分析描述再制造成本的不确定性,以及随机机会约束描述再制造率的不确定性,并以需求满足率、运作成本和再制造产品率为运作目标,同时考虑再制造产品的差异,以单向替代策略增强生产计划的柔性。最后,将自适应机制引入双倍体遗传算法,设计了相应的求解过程,并对仿真算例进行了求解。计算结果表明,该计划模型和求解算法具有一定的有效性和实用性。

  18. Seroprevalence against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and occurence of antibody co-expression with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in dogs in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Berzina, Inese; Matise, Ilze

    2013-01-01

    Background Lyme disease is commonly diagnosed in humans in Latvia, but up to date no studies have been performed to investigate its prevalence in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate if seroprevalence against B. burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) and co-expression of antibodies against B.burgdorferi s.l. and A. phagocytophilum is higher in dogs with clinical suspicion of tick-borne diseases compared to healthy dogs. Findings Venous blood was taken from healthy dogs (n=441) an...

  19. Upper Devonian vertebrate taphonomy and sedimentology from the Klunas fossil site, Tervete Formation, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiļkova, J.; Lukševičs, E.; Stinkulis, Ä.¢.; Zupinš, I.

    2012-04-01

    The deposits of the Tervete Formation, Famennian Stage of Latvia, comprising weakly cemented sandstone and sand intercalated with dolomitic marls, siltstone and clay, have been traditionally interpreted as having formed in a shallow, rather restricted sea with lowered salinity. During seven field seasons the excavations took place in the south-western part of Latvia, at the Klunas site, and resulted in extensive palaeontological and sedimentological data. The taphonomical analysis has been performed, having evaluated the size, sorting, orientation of the fossils, articulation and skeletal preservation as well as the degree of fragmentation and abrasion. The sedimentological analysis involved interpretation of sedimentary structures, palaeocurrent direction reconstruction, grain-size analysis and approximate water depth calculations. The vertebrate assemblage of the Klunas site represents all known taxa of the Sparnene Regional Stage of the Baltic Devonian, comprising placoderms Bothriolepis ornata Eichwald, B. jani Lukševičs, Phyllolepis tolli Vasiliauskas, Dunkleosteus sp. and Chelyophorus sp., sarcopterygians Holoptychius nobilissimus Agassiz, Platycephalichthys skuenicus Vorobyeva, Cryptolepis sp., Conchodus sp., Glyptopomus ? sp., "Strunius" ? sp., and Dipterus sp., as well as an undetermined actinopterygian. Placoderms Bothriolepis ornata and B. jani dominate the assemblage. The fossils are represented in the main by fully disarticulated placoderm plates and plate fragments, sarcopterygian scales and teeth, rarely bones of the head and shoulder girdle, and acanthodian spines and scales. The characteristic feature is the great amount of fragmentary remains several times exceeding the number of intact bones. The horizontal distribution of the bones over the studied area is not homogenous, distinct zones of increased or decreased density of fossils can be traced. Zones of the increased density usually contain many elements of various sizes, whereas zones of the

  20. Collaboration of Business and Science in Latvia ES struktūrinių fondų parama ekonominės aplinkos kūrimui per verslo ir mokslo bendradarbiavimą Latvijoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Meženiece

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The article analyses the good practice of Finland, which reconstructed the path changing towards building innovation-based economy, and Denmark, where the several programmes for network building and enhancement of collaboration between entrepreneurs as well as entrepreneurs and research institutes were introduced successfully, in order to make recomendations for development of economic environment in Latvia. The authors consider, that in the case of Latvia, at first, the government must take action in order to establish the macro-level environment that enables conditions for innovative self-renewing systems as well as introduce schemes that would facilitate knowledge spillover and commercialization, promote business activities of academic staff and researchers, as well as formation of networks and clusters.

    Article in English

    Straipsnyje analizuojama kitų šalių geroji praktika, siekiant suformuoti su Latvijos ekonominės aplinkos plėtra susijusius siūlymus. Analizei pasirinkta Suomijos geroji praktika, pagrįsta inovacijomis ekonomika ir Danijos programos, susijusios su tinklo kūrimu ir bendradarbiavimo stiprinimu tarp verslininkų ir mokslinio tyrimo institutų. Autoriai mano, kad Latvijos atveju vyriausybė turi imtis atitinkamų veiksmų, siekdama sukurti makrolygmens aplinką, kuri leistų taikyti įvairias sistemas, palengvinančias žinių sklaidą ir komercializaciją, skatintų mokslininkų ir tyrėjų aktyvumą verslo veikloje, taip pat formuotų tinklų ir klasterių plėtrą.

    Straipsnis anglų kalba

  1. Cancer risk among Chernobyl cleanup workers in Estonia and Latvia, 1986-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Mati; Rahu, Kaja; Auvinen, Anssi; Tekkel, Mare; Stengrevics, Aivars; Hakulinen, Timo; Boice, John D; Inskip, Peter D

    2006-07-01

    Two cohorts of Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia (4,786 men) and Latvia (5,546 men) were followed from 1986 to 1998 to investigate cancer incidence among persons exposed to ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident. Each cohort was identified from various independent sources and followed using nationwide population and mortality registries. Cancers were ascertained by linkage with nationwide cancer registries. Overall, 75 incident cancers were identified in the Estonian cohort and 80 in the Latvian cohort. The combined-cohort standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for all cancers was 1.15 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.34) and for leukemia, 1.53 (95% CI = 0.62-3.17; n = 7). Statistically significant excess cases of thyroid (SIR = 7.06, 95% CI = 2.84-14.55; n = 7) and brain cancer (SIR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.07-3.83; n = 11) were found, mainly based on Latvian data. However, there was no evidence of a dose response for any of these sites, and the relationship to radiation exposure remains to be established. Excess of thyroid cancer cases observed may have been due to screening, the leukemia cases included 2 unconfirmed diagnoses, and the excess cases of brain tumors may have been a chance finding. There was an indication of increased risk associated with early entry to the Chernobyl area and late follow-up, though not statistically significant. Further follow-up of Chernobyl cleanup workers is warranted to clarify the possible health effects of radiation exposure.

  2. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated study of the uppermost Ordovician Porkuni Stage in the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia, has revealed one of the most complete Hirnantian successions in the eastern Baltic region. The interval is characterized by two shallowing upwards depositional sequences that correspond to the Kuldiga and Saldus formations. The whole-rock carbon stable isotope curve indicates a long rising segment of the Hirnantian carbon isotope excursion, with the highest peak in the upper part of the Kuldiga Formation. The bioclast carbon and oxygen curves fit well with the whole-rock carbon data. Micro- and macrofossil data enabled seven combined associations to be distinguished within the Hirnantian strata. The early Porkuni fauna of the Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone, with pre-Hirnantian affinities, is succeeded by an interval with a Hindella–Cliftonia brachiopod association, a specific polychaete fauna, the chitinozoan Conochitina scabra, and the conodont Noixodontus girardeauensis. The middle part of the Kuldiga Formation is characterized by a low-diversity Dalmanella testudinaria brachiopod association, high diversity of scolecodonts, and the occurrence of the chitinozoan Lagenochitina prussica. From the middle part of the Kuldiga Formation the youngest occurrence yet known of the conodont Amorphognathus ordovicicus is reported. Also typical of the Kuldiga Formation is the occurrence of the trilobite Mucronaspis mucronata. The uppermost Hirnantian Saldus Formation contains no shelly fauna, but yields redeposited conodonts and at least partly indigenous chitinozoans and scolecodonts. Palaeontological criteria and stable isotope data enable correlation of the Stirnas section with other Hirnantian successions in the Baltic region and elsewhere.

  3. Protein, Amino Acid and Gluten Content in Oat (Avena Sativa L. Grown in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilmane Laila

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rising attention globally on the use of oats and the beneficial effect of oat compounds in nutrition has also increased interest in oat production in Latvia. The aim of this study was to evaluate protein, amino acid and gluten content in husked and hulless oat grains grown in organic and conventional farming systems. Two hulless oat (Avena sativa L. genotypes - the breeding line '33793' and the variety 'Stendes Emilija' and one husked oat variety 'Lizete' from the State Stende Cereal Breeding Institute - were cultivated in 2013 under conventional farming methods using three nitrogen (N application rates (80, 120, and 160 kg·ha-1 and under organic farming. Protein content was determined by Kjeldahl method, amino acid composition by high-performance liquid chromatography method using Waters AccQ Tag, and gluten content by Sandwich R5 ELISA. The results showed that oat genotype had significant effect p < 0.001 on protein and gluten content, as well as on amino acid composition. The applied amount of fertiliser did not have significant effect on the studied quality parameters, but the growing system did (p < 0.001. Higher content of protein was observed in hulless oat samples, compared to that in husked oat samples. There was also a significant difference (p = 0.01 in the total amount of amino acids between husked and hulless oat samples. In hulless oat variety 'Stendes Emilija' and hulless breeding line '33793' the content of gluten was similar and two times higher than in the husked oat variety 'Lizete'. Further breeding work is necessary to obtain oats with a lower content of gluten-like proteins.

  4. Transmission System Expansion Planning Considering Combined Operation of Wind Farms and Energy Storage Systems%计及风电场和储能系统联合运行的输电系统扩展规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑静; 文福拴; 李力; 王珂; 高超

    2013-01-01

    储能系统可以为电力系统提供调频和备用等辅助服务,与风电场联合运行时还可以平抑风电功率波动,改善系统运行的安全性和经济性.风电场和储能系统(简称风储系统)联合运行已成为一种受推崇的运行模式.因此,在未来的输电系统规划中就需要适当考虑风储系统的联合运行,这正是文中旨在解决的中心问题.首先,以钠硫储能系统为例,分析了储能系统成本与可放电次数的关系;在此基础上,提出了风储系统联合运行策略,在降低储能系统成本和平抑风电功率波动之间进行合理折中.之后,建立了考虑风储系统联合运行的输电系统两层规划模型,综合考虑了输电投资成本和风储运行成本,采用改进粒子群算法求解所建立的优化模型.最后,用18节点和46节点算例系统说明了所提出模型与方法的可行性和有效性.%An energy storage system (ESS) can provide ancillary services such as frequency regulation and reserves, as well as smooth the fluctuations of wind power outputs, and hence improve the security and economics of the power system concerned. The combined operation of a wind farm and an ESS has become a widely accepted operating mode. Hence, it appears necessary to consider this operating mode in transmission system expansion planning, and this is an issue to be systematically addressed in this work. Firstly, the relationship between the cost of the NaS based ESS and its discharging cycle life is analyzed. A strategy for the combined operation of a wind farm and an ESS is next presented, so as to have a good compromise between the operating cost of the ESS and the smoothing effect of the fluctuation of wind power outputs. Then, a transmission system expansion planning model is developed with the sum of the transmission investment costs, the investment and operating costs of ESSs and the punishment cost of lost wind energy as the objective function to be minimized

  5. Formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks, a case study in two cities in Finland and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtola, Markku J; Juhna, Tālis; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Vartiainen, Terttu; Martikainen, Pertti J

    2004-12-01

    The formation of biofilms in drinking water distribution networks is a significant technical, aesthetic and hygienic problem. In this study, the effects of assimilable organic carbon, microbially available phosphorus (MAP), residual chlorine, temperature and corrosion products on the formation of biofilms were studied in two full-scale water supply systems in Finland and Latvia. Biofilm collectors consisting of polyvinyl chloride pipes were installed in several waterworks and distribution networks, which were supplied with chemically precipitated surface waters and groundwater from different sources. During a 1-year study, the biofilm density was measured by heterotrophic plate counts on R2A-agar, acridine orange direct counting and ATP-analyses. A moderate level of residual chlorine decreased biofilm density, whereas an increase of MAP in water and accumulated cast iron corrosion products significantly increased biofilm density. This work confirms, in a full-scale distribution system in Finland and Latvia, our earlier in vitro finding that biofilm formation is affected by the availability of phosphorus in drinking water.

  6. Processes of Localization and Institutionalization of local Managers in Economic Functions in Danish Owned Subsidiaries in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Around the 21st Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    been conducted from 1997 to 2002 among local CEOs, chief accountants and production managers in a Danish SME, using mainly qualitative methods. Data have been compared to primary data from similar companies in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. The study has resulted in establishing a model for comparing...

  7. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  8. [Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940] / Raiko Jäärats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jäärats, Raiko, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Baltic eugenics: Bio-politics, race and nation in interwar Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania 1918-1940 (On the boundary of two worlds. identity, fredom and moral imagination in the Baltics, 35). Hrsg. von Björn M. Felder und Paul J. Weindling. Rodopi, Amsterdam u.a. 2013

  9. ANALYSIS OF THE MAJOR ECONOMIC FACTORS OF THE WIND TURBINES PERFORMANCE BASED ON THE RESULTS OF COMMERCIAL SERVICE EXPERIENCE OF THE WIND-FARMS IN LATVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Rolik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the main aspects of commercial realization of wind-power projects as application part of wind-power industry with the view of evaluating viability and financial feasibility of the specified projects. The paper presents the results of 10 years’ commercial service experience of two wind-farms accomplished on the basis of three wind turbines (WT – NORDEX N54, 1.0 MW capacity each, 60 m tower height, located in settlements Uzava and Alsunga on the coast of the Baltic Sea in the Republic of Latvia. The results were obtained by the way of collation of the site-location wind conditions and the major economic factors of the WT operation in the considered wind farms. The collation included the following estimated figures: annual electricity production, average annual income received during the period under review, electricity prime cost. The WT-site location wind conditions and the site-distance from the coastal line have an effect on the WT-performance economic factors that provide an integral insight into the viability and financial feasibility of the wind energy projects.Based on the analysis of the obtained data, the authors show that the relative produced energy value decreases 10 % with each kilometer wind-farm site distance from the coastal line of the Baltic Sea. They also indicate the effect the surrounding-area wind conditions and the TW-location site remoteness from the costal line have on the prime cost of the electricity generated by the wind farms. There is a good reason to utilize the presented results in the future for the wind-energy potential valuation of a particular region and a wind-farm location choice as well as for making particular managerial decisions in the way of realizing commercial wind-energy projects.

  10. Considering Student Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, James P.

    2014-01-01

    What does student coaching involve and what considerations make sense in deciding to engage an outside contractor to provide personal coaching? The author explores coaching in light of his own professional experience and uses this reflection as a platform from which to consider the pros and cons of student coaching when deciding whether to choose…

  11. Biochemical observations relating to oxidant stress injury in Chernobyl clean-up workers ("liquidators") from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skesters, Andrejs; Zvagule, T; Silova, A; Rusakova, N; Larmane, L; Reste, J; Eglite, M; Rainsford, K D; Callingham, B A; Bake, M-A; Lece, A

    2010-02-01

    To establish if there is further evidence for the long-term oxidant stress injury (as reported previously--Kumerova et al. in Biol Trace Elem Res 77:1-12, 2000) in surviving Chernobyl nuclear power plant (NPP) workers from Latvia. The overall objectives of this study have been to establish if there have been long-term systemic changes in the oxidant/antioxidant status of clean-up workers that might reflect adaptation to the progression of oxidative stress injury. Biochemical analyses of the circulating levels of endogenous oxidants and anti-oxidants were undertaken over two periods (Stage 1 in 1998-1999 and Stage 2 in 2005-2006) at approximately 6-7 years time interval, in order to establish if there have been time-dependent changes in the parameters that may be important for the health of the clean-up workers. The biochemical analyses included (a) plasma levels of the anti-oxidant, selenium, (b) blood and plasma levels of glutathione peroxidase, (c) red blood cell catalase, (d) plasma total oxidant status as lipid peroxides and hydroperoxides, (e) plasma ceruloplasmin, and (f) total blood levels of zinc and copper. The circulating content of lipid peroxides, plasma oxidisability, lipid peroxides, catalase, Zn, and Cu were elevated above normal values at both the stages of this study. Glutathione peroxidase was increased above normal values at Stage 1 but not at Stage 2. The most pronounced changes between Stage 1 and Stage 2 were (a) a reduction by about (1/2) in the content of lipid peroxides and lipid peroxidation, but not in the blood oxidisability and (b) increased plasma selenium. The data show that there may be a partial improvement in the anti-oxidant/oxidant status of the Chernobyl NPP workers over the 7-year period of investigation. The NPP patients may be undergoing progressive reduction in blood oxidants accompanied by adaptation to oxidant stress injury due to the increased anti-oxidant activity measured in their plasma and blood.

  12. Thickness Reconstruction of Layers by 3D Geometrical Model to Characterize Caledonian Tectonic Complex and Data in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukass, J.; Saks, T.; Popovs, K.

    2012-04-01

    In present study we attempt to verify the 3D geological model, which has been built on a variety of heterogeneous data sources for the Baltic Basin (BB). Data describing the displacement along the faults and associated thickness changes of the syntectonic strata is sparse and reflects only regional relevance (Brangulis & Konsins 2002). Borehole logs provide most reliable and comprehensive data source for reconstructing the structural geology of the Latvia sedimentary cover as sufficient quality seismic data is available only for the local scale structures. Based on the thickness analysis of the boreholes rough resolution 3D geological tectonic block model was developed to deconstruct the geological structure of the Latvia Caledonian sedimentary sequence. MOSYS modeling system was used for the geological structure modeling, developed within the PUMA project (Sennikovs et al, 2011). Algorithmic genetic approach was applied to interpolate data of well logs as strata volume and sequentially to reconstruct the post-deformation situation. This approach allows modifying model construction in any step and all processes are fully documented and are repeatable. Geometrical model consists of 33 tectonic blocks bordered by the faults which were distributed by interpreting displacement amount of the blocks along the faults providing an opportunity to characterize common tectonic evolution. The study results indicate insignificant thickness change of the Ordovician and Silurian strata along the faults suggesting that major slip event along the faults occurred during the late Silurian and early Devonian, and some secondary fault reactivation during the middle Devonian Narva time. Uplift of the territory during this time is confirmed by the presence of the regional unconformity. Constructed rough resolution 3D geometrical model suggests shortening along the horizontal axis approximately 10 - 20% but most of the shortening has occurred in the central-west part of Latvia where it

  13. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  14. [Richard C. M. Mole: The Baltic states from the Soviet Union to the European Union. Identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2014-01-01

    Arvustus: Mole, Richard C. M. The Baltic States from the Soviet Union to the European Union : identity, discourse and power in the post-communist transition of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. London ; New York : Routledge, 2012, 2013

  15. Telecommuting. Factors to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arruda, K A

    2001-10-01

    1. Telecommuting is a work arrangement in which employees work part time or full time from their homes or smaller telework centers. They communicate with employers via computer. 2. Telecommuting can raise legal issues for companies. Can telecommuting be considered a reasonable accommodation under the Americans With Disabilities Act? When at home, is a worker injured within the course and scope of their employment for purposes of workers' compensation? 3. Occupational and environmental health nurses may need to alter existing programs to meet the distinct needs of telecommuters. Often, there are ergonomic issues and home office safety issues which are not of concern to other employees. Additionally, occupational and environmental health nurses may have to offer programs in new formats (e.g., Internet or Intranet programs) to effectively communicate with teleworkers.

  16. The prevalence and the socio – economic costs of smoking among the working age population in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kokarevica A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a health problem, the costs of which include sickness, pain, grief and misery. But tobacco use also imposes a significant economic burden on society. One efficient way to assess the adverse health effects of smoking on a society is to translate smoking-caused illnesses, premature mortality, and productivity losses into economic terms, a universal marker for measuring the adverse effects of smoking. Due to the high proportion of smokers, Latvia faces high male mortality from smoking-related diseases; life expectancy for men in the age group 35–64 years is 2.44 years less than for non-smokers in the same age group, losing 37% of total lost years of life and therefore the government loses approximately 45 88346 Euro per year from YPLL from smoking related diseases.

  17. The Recent Chinese Teaching in Latvia%拉脱维亚汉语教学的近况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭飞; 张红

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives a summary of the recent Chinese teaching in Latvia and its Chinese teaching in multi-dimensional ways.With the help of questionnaires and interviews,the researchers analyzed the sources and composition of the students,their motivation for Chinese study,and discussed its pedagogic models,curriculum designs,teaching materials and teachers plus some relevant reflections.%文章介绍了拉脱维亚多个教学机构面向社会、全方位开展汉语教学的最新情况。通过访谈和调查,考察了师资、教材、教学模式和课程设置等各方面的情况,对学生来源、学习动机和学习特点等作了介绍。

  18. Main tasks of social worker in reducing poverty for families with children and social inclusion policy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodele-Dubrovska I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an inability of an individual or a group of persons to integrate into society due to poverty, insufficient education, unemployment, discrimination or other causes in Latvia. Welfare of families is influenced not only by the employment of its members, but also by the amount of their salary. Limited amount of family’s financial resources make a person to refuse himself a lot of things or restrict expenses to minimum thus increasing the risk of exclusion of the household. When finding a solution of social problems faced by families with children it is essential to involve a social worker. Well-being of children must be in focus of social work practice, in addition taking the special care for their safety and welfare.

  19. Ground-penetrating radar study of the Cena Bog, Latvia: linkage of reflections with peat moisture content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karušs, J.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Present work illustrates results of the ground-penetrating radar (GPR study of the Cena Bog, Latvia. Six sub-horizontal reflections that most probably correspond to boundaries between sediments with different electromagnetic properties were identified. One of the reflections corresponds to bog peat mineral bottom interface but the rest are linked to boundaries within the peat body. The radar profiles are incorporated with sediment cores and studies of peat moisture and ash content, and degree of decomposition. Most of the electromagnetic wave reflections are related to changes in peat moisture content. The obtained data show that peat moisture content changes of at least 3 % are required to cause GPR signal reflection. However, there exist reflections that do not correlate with peat moisture content. As a result, authors disagree with a dominant opinion that all reflections in bogs are solely due to changes in volumetric peat moisture content.

  20. Changes in dicot-weeds species composition in spring barley in Latvia during the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaga, I

    2012-01-01

    Dicot weed populations were assessed in spring barley trials carried out in four three-years periods at 5-year intervals: 1990-1992, 1995-1997; 2001-2003 and 2006-2008. The overall aim of this research was to evaluate the changes in dicot-weed infestations in spring barley in fields of one region (Riga) of Latvia in sod-podzolic loamy sand soil. The results of the trials showed that Galeopsis spp, Stellaoria media, Viola orvensis and Chenopodium album were among the most frequent weed species in the periods of 1990-1992 and 1995-1997. The occurrence of C. album and V. arvensis increased during the periods of 2001-2003 and 2006-2008.

  1. The general description of major ion concentrations in groundwater of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvāns, A.; Delina, A.

    2012-04-01

    Latvia is situated at the North central part of the Baltic sedimentary basin where the crystalline basement is found in depth between 0.6 to 2 km. Three large aquifer complexes with distinct chemical composition of groundwater are identified: the stagnant water exchange zone where Na-Ca-Cl brine is found; the slow water exchange zone where Na-Ca-Cl-SO4 brackish water is found and active water exchange zone where the freshwater resides. These are separated by distinct regional aquicludes. The composition of the Cl- dominated brines at the base of sedimentary basin is characterised by shift from Na+ towards Ca++ as dominant cation, partially associated with depth of the aquifer and the strength of the brine. The concentration of SO4-- here is inversely linked to the concentration of Ca++ and, according to geochemical modelling, often is close to the solubility limit of the gypsum. The major ion concentrations in the E and W part of the territory are rather different. Therefore two different initial sources of the formation brine were suggested. Alternatively the observations can be explained by different thermal histories of different parts of the basin, affecting the rate of albitization - exchange of the Na for Ca in the solution due to water-rock interaction. The groundwater composition in the slow exchange zone can be nicely explained by the mixing of freshwater and brine residing deeper in the presence of gypsum during some but no all stages of mixing. In some shallow parts of the zone still bound by the Narva regional aquiclude freshwater is found. The question is posted - could this be a paleogroundwater originating from the extensive continental glaciations that override the territory several times during the Pleistocene? Initial isotope studies presented elsewhere seems to give negative answer to this question. The active water exchange zone is characterised by fresh Ca-Mg-HCO3 water with exceptions in cases where gypsum are abundant in sedimentary rocks and

  2. Modelling the effect of buried valleys on groundwater flow: case study in Ventspils vicinity, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads; Bikse, Janis; Retike, Inga; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta

    2015-04-01

    encourage groundwater recharge from shallower aquifers. Modelling results with and without valleys shows that buried valleys affect piezometric head in narrow zone around valley. Sand and gravel filled buried valleys recharges confined aquifer with relatively "new" water, thus creating high vulnerability zones in the study area. This research is supported by European Regional Development Fund project Nr.2013/0054/2DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007 and NRP project EVIDENnT project "Groundwater and climate scenarios" subproject "Groundwater Research". References: Virbulis, J., Timuhins, A., Klints, I., Seņņikovs, J., Bethers, U., Popovs, K. 2012. Script based MOSYS system for the generation of a three dimensional geological structure and the calculation of groundwater flow: case study of the Baltic Artesian Basin. In: Highlights of groundwater research in the Baltic Artesian Basin. University of Latvia, Riga, pp. 53-74.

  3. The Department of Baltic Philology (1921–1940 established by Jānis Endzelīns at the University of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarma Kļaviņa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of the Department of Baltic Philology of the Faculty of Philology and Philosophy at the University of Latvia. The department was established in the academic year of 1920/1921 by professor Jānis Endzelīns, who also acted as head of the department throughout its existence. Using the documents available at the Latvian State Historical Archives and the Museum of the University of Latvia, as well as published memories, the article provides a characterization of the establishment process of this department as an unprecedented one among the universities around the globe. The article also describes study programmes and their development, students and graduates, academic personnel, international relations of the department and its reputation.

  4. The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the treatment planning of vertebral metastasis considering economic aspects. A cost benefit-analysis; Die Wertigkeit der Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) unter oekonomischen Aspekten bei der Bestrahlungsplanung von Wirbelkoerpermetastasen. Eine Kosten-Nutzen-Analyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prott, F.J.; Schlehuber, E.; Scharding, B.J.; Rinast, E. [Strahlentherapie Wiesbaden, St.-Josefs-Hospital (Germany); Micke, O. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie - Radioonkologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany)

    2002-05-01

    Is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based target volume definition for treatment planning of vertebral metastasis effective under economic considerations.From 1994 to 1999, a total of 137 patients with bone metastases affecting the vertebral column underwent MRI of the cercival, thoracic, or lumbar spine for the treatment planning of palliative radiation therapy. The following radiation treatment consisted in a irradiation of the affected vertebral region up to a total dose of 30-40 Gy.The cost calculation for radiotherapy and magnetic resonance tomography was done using the common tariff model (EBM) of the German Health Insurances.In 73% of patients (101 patients), magnetic resonance imaging resulted in marked corrections of the irradiation fields which would have resulted in the necessity of treatment for recurrence in the case of treatment planning without MRI.Consequently, the higher cost of MRI of 345.00 DEM (176,40 EUR) lead to a saving of 497.00 DEM (254,11 EUR) compared to a recurrence treatment of 10 fractions and of 1,428.00 DEM (730,12 EUR) compared to 20 fractions. The transport expenses for the second treatment could be saved as well.Even under economic considerations MRI is effective. (orig.) [German] Ist eine MRT-gestuetzte Zielvolumendefinition bei der Strahlentherapie von Knochenmetastasen ein sinnvolles Vorgehen unter oekonomischen Gesichtspunkten?1994-1999 wurde bei 137 Patienten mit einem ossaer metastasierenden Tumor und Befall der Wirbelsaeule eine Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) zur Planung einer palliativen Radiatio durchgefuehrt. Die nachfolgende Strahlentherapie bestand aus einer Radiatio des betroffenen Wirbelkoerperabschnitts bis zu einer Gesamtherddosis von 30-40 Gy. Fuer die Berechnung der Kosten wurde der einheitliche Bewertungsmassstab der Deutschen Krankenkassen zugrunde gelegt.Aufgrund der MRT-Untersuchungen wurde bei 73% der Patienten eine Veraenderung des Bestrahlungsfeldes vorgenommen, die im Falle einer nicht MRT

  5. Integrated Planning of Micro-grid for Efficient Utilization of Photovoltaic Generation Considering Complicated Operation Scenarios%考虑复杂预想场景下光伏高效利用的微电网综合规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾博; 欧阳邵杰; 张建华; 赵天阳; 曾鸣

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT:In view of the inadequate consideration of scenario diversity in traditional micro-grid (MG) planning, an integrated MG planning method for efficient photovoltaic (PV) utilization incorporating complicated scenarios was proposed in this paper. Through quantifying the impact of network contingencies on PV output and its corresponding economic expenses, the security risk coefficient was introduced, and based on which a composite evaluation function for indicating photovoltaic (PV) contribution under normal and contingency scenarios was developed. For the logical discrepancy between different optimization objectives, a bi-level integrated planning model of MG was proposed. It co-optimized the allocation of PV and energy storage together with network reconfiguration to minimize the total economic cost as upper objective and maximize the expected PV generation in the lower level. The model was solved by using a hybrid algorithm, which combined harmony search and probabilistic optimal power flow based on point estimation. The results of the case study demonstrate that by applying the proposed methodology, PV under MG can be used flexibly and efficiently, the overall benefits in actual situations can be improved, and the coordinated schemes that properly satisfy different planning motivations can be achied.%针对传统微电网(micro-grid,MG)规划方法未充分计及实际运行工况多样性的缺点,提出一种考虑复杂预想场景下光伏(photovoltaic,PV)高效利用的 MG 综合规划方法。通过分析量化实际条件下网络故障对PV的受迫影响及其经济代价,引入安全风险预期系数,建立可综合反映PV在正常及故障预想场景下对 MG 系统贡献的复合评价函数。鉴于优化目标之间存在的主从逻辑差异,分别以系统投资运行成本最小和全场景下PV效能利用最优作为上、下层目标函数,构建了同时考虑网架重构与PV、储能选址定容的MG双层综合规

  6. Attitudes of Major Soviet Nationalities. Volume II. The Baltics. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    was founded in 1 Tallinn, Estonia. "Estonia was chosen as an experimental for creating a general automatized planning and directing ,2 The first...Lielupe, and the Venta . The republic is, hovever, poorly supplied 4ith mineral deposits. The primary mining products are sand and sandstone, gypsum...social system, but had little time to organize o.vlt style institutions %efore the Nazi invasion of June 1941. There was, however, time to plan and

  7. Distribution Network Intelligent Planning Considering Feeder Line Automatic Layout and Tie-line Wiring Investment%考虑馈线自动布局和联络接线费用的配电网智能规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李游; 常鲜戎

    2012-01-01

    An improved genetic algorithm is adopted to operate distribution network structure layout automation. From the point of view of removing the collection of to-be-selected lines and rationally utilizing planning inforrration for optimization, this paper presents a new real-number encoding based on to-be-planned load nodes number and a new decoding based on short distance feeder line layout to carry out the feeder line automatic layout. Such improved genetic operations as fragment reordering crossover, displacement mutation operator and the /~ + 2. selector are used to search for the optimal radiative structure. Moreover, according to the principle of dosed-loop design and open-loop distribution network operation, the planning mode[ takes into account the heuristic tie-line wiring scheme on the basis of the optimal distribution network to obtain "hand in hand" distribution network that can enhance power supply reliability. It is shown by a case study that the algorithm can greatly reduce the workload of a planner and yield a satisfactory solution in a relatively small number of iterations. Meanwhile, it is shown by calculation results that the algorithm is feasible and of practical value.%采用一种改进遗传算法进行配电网智能规划。从取消待选线路集设定、合理利用规划信息引导寻优等角度出发,提出一种基于待规划负荷节点数的实数编码方式和基于短距离馈线集合的解码方式进行馈线自动布局,并通过片段重组交叉、位移变异算子和μ+λ选择算子等改进型遗传操作对辐射型网络寻优。此外,根据配电网络的闭环设计、开环运行原则,在最优辐射型配电网络基础上考虑了启发式联络接线方案,以得到手拉手配电网络提高地区供电可靠性。经算例验证,所提算法能够大幅减少规划人员工作量,并能在较少迭代次数内得到符合工程要求的满意解。同时,算例结果表明了算法的可行性和实用价值。

  8. 计及用户停电损失的离网光伏与储能系统优化规划%Optimal Planning of Standalone Photovoltaic and Energy Storage System Considering Customer Outage Cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余贻鑫; 孙冰

    2016-01-01

    离网运行的光伏与储能系统的投资,即所需安装的光伏和储能的容量,不仅取决于用户负荷需求的大小,而且与用户对供电可靠性的要求以及系统的控制策略密切相关。为合理计及可靠性成本,通过用户停电损失指标把可靠性货币化,不仅可以通过该指标确定负荷的供电优先级,而且便于以总成本最小为目标进行优化规划。提出了一种具有时间前瞻性的控制策略,该策略的特点是:在储能充电阶段进行前瞻性充电,以保证储能可以在放电阶段向供电优先级高的负荷供电,使用户总成本最小;通过嵌套全生命周期 Monte Carlo 模拟的广度优先搜索策略,迅速锁定最优规划方案。通过算例证明了所提控制策略的优势和规划方法的有效性。%The investment in standalone photovoltaic and energy storage system,or the required installation capacity of photovoltaic and energy storage,is affected by many factors.Customer’s demand size is an obvious factor,while the power supply reliability requirement and system control strategy are also important but easily overlooked fac-tors.Firstly,to account for the reliability cost reasonably,customer outage cost is selected to monetize reliability index in the paper.In this way,the load priority is decided naturally,hence laying a solid foundation for the optimal planning whose target is minimizing the total cost.Then,a novel control strategy with prospective timing is put for-ward.With the strategy,storage system is charged prospectively during the charging stage to ensure that the high priority load can be supplied.In doing so,customer’s total cost is minimized.Lastly,breadth-first search nested by life-cycle Monte Carlo simulation is used to pick up the best planning scheme.A case study is conducted to verify the effectiveness of planning method and the advantage of control strategy.

  9. 考虑负荷类型及停电损失的负荷恢复策略优化%Optimization of load recovery plans considering different load types and outage cost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚男; 顾雪平; 钟慧荣

    2012-01-01

    The full load recovery in the late restoration process of a blackout power system is investigated to build an optimization method for determining the load restoration plans after the network reconfiguration. By dividing the full load recovery process into several sequential restoration stages, the maximized amount of the load restoration in each stage is taken as the objective function, with consideration of the diversity of load types and outage cost at each load bus, the optimization of the load restoration is treated as a 0 ~ 1 knapsack problem, and the backtracking algorithm is used to Bolve it. The proposed approach to determine load restoration plans can make a balance between the quick recovery of the important loads and minimization of the outage cost. The IEEE-30 test system is employed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method and to assess the difference of load restoration for the different reconfigured networks.%研究大停电后系统恢复后期的负荷全面恢复问题,提出了网架重构结束后负荷恢复策略的优化方法.通过将负荷全面恢复过程划分为几个次序进行的恢复阶段,以每阶段的可投入负荷量最大为目标函数,考虑各节点待恢复负荷的类型差异和停电损失的不同,将负荷恢复优化问题转化成一个0-1背包问题,并采用回溯算法进行求解.提出的负荷恢复策略制定方法同时兼顾了重要负荷的快速恢复及减小系统停电损失两方面的要求.以IEEE30节点系统为算例,验证了提出的恢复方法的有效性,并比较了不同网络重构方案下负荷恢复时间和停电损失的差异性.

  10. 计及碳排放的电动汽车充电站多目标规划%Multi-objective Optimal Planning of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Considering Carbon Emission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光; 毛召磊; 李济沅; 王东举; 周浩; 孙可

    2014-01-01

    Rational planning of charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) lays great store upon the development of EVs.A multi-objective model is proposed which provides extra options for locating and sizing of EV charging stations. The optimization goal of the proposed model is to minimize the economic costs of charging station construction and operation,to shorten the time needed for charging EVs and to reduce the carbon emission caused by driving to a charging station.The capacity limit of the charging station is taken as the constraint,and Pareto front is used to compare and estimate the practical value of the current substation locating and sizing plans.A calculation method based on rasterization and Voronoi diagram is proposed to make it clear where the jurisdiction of each charging station ends.Finally,the proposed model and calculation method are verified using a case study.%合理的电动汽车充电站规划是推广应用电动汽车的基础。提出一种计及碳排放的电动汽车充电站多目标选址定容规划模型,模型以充电站建设运行成本、用户充电耗费时间和驶向充电站引起的碳排放为综合优化目标,以充电站的容量限制为约束条件,并采用 Pareto 最优前沿分析可选的选址定容方案。为确定可选站址所服务的区域范围,提出一种基于需求点栅格化和 Voronoi 图求解的计算方法。最后,通过案例分析验证了该规划模型和求解方法的实用性和有效性,为电动汽车充电站的选址定容提供了新的思路。

  11. Uncertainties and Solutions Related to Use of WRB (2007) in the Boreo-nemoral zone, Case of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparinskis, Raimonds; Nikodemus, Olgerts; Rolavs, Nauris

    2014-05-01

    Relatively high diversity of soils groups according to the WRB (2007) classification is observed in forest ecosystems in the boreo-nemoral zone in Latvia. This is due to the geological genesis of area and environmental conditions (Kasparinskis, Nikodemus, 2012), as well as historical land use and management (Nikodemus et al., 2013). Due to the relatively young soils, Albic, Spodic and Cambic horizons are relatively weakly expressed in many cases. Relatively well developed Albic horizons occur in sandy forest soils, but unusually well expressed Spodic features are observed. In some cases there is a Cambic horizon, however location of Cambisols in the WRB (2007) soil classification sequence does not provide an opportunity to classify these soils as Cambisols, but they are classified as Arenosols. This sequence does not reflect the logical sheme of soil development, and therefore raises the question about location of Podzols, Arenosols and Cambisols in the sequence of WRB (2007) soil classification. Soils with two parent materials (abrupt textural change) are relatively common in Latvia, where conceptually on the small scale mapping results in classification as the soil group Planosols, but in many cases there is occurrence of Fluvic materials, as parent material in the upper part of the soil profile is formed by Baltic Ice lake sandy sediments - this leads to question about the location of Fluvisols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. Soil research has found cases, where a relatively well developed Spodic horizon was established as the result of ground water table depth in areas of abrupt textural change. In this case the profile corresponds to the soil group of Podzols, however in some cases - Gleysols not Planosols due to a high ground water table. Therefore there is a need for discussion also about the location of Podzols and Planosols in the sequence of the WRB (2007) soil classification. The above mentioned questions raise

  12. Situation analysis in relation to district heating and CHP in the Baltic Sea Region: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Kaliningrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    The situation analysis embraces chapters on: Estonia, Kaliningrad, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Russia, which experience varying degrees of difficulties with the transition to a market economy, and with integrating into the world market. In the following, the focus is on Lithuania, which has been visited during the project period. Lithuania has specific problems due to the existence of the Ignalina power plant, but has nevertheless characteristics, which apply to Estonia and Latvia as well. The problem with the quality of heat supply is rampant in all the countries, as is legal framework for the sector, except in Poland, which has generally attracted much attention from investors over the last ten years and has experienced a relatively sound political development in the energy sector. The main problem in all countries seem to relate to the policy development. The case of Lithuania confirms this. Following the observations on Lithuania, it is attempted to establish some points of concern, which are relevant to a greater or lesser extent in all countries, as well as some suggestions on how to move towards a solution of those problems. As mentioned Poland is generally in a better position, technically and politically than the three Baltic states, whereas Russia still needs to progress much on those issues. The general recommendations for initiatives in the Baltic countries in question are in brief: Establishing a clear view at governmental level of what the EU and liberalisation will bring, and what needs to be done additionally to secure main energy political objectives. Issues such as security of supply, environmental protection, low cost energy supplies and security of investments need to be thoroughly discussed at national level. It is important to understand that EU Directives provide a framework, not an answer to the future of the energy sector. Reinforcement of governmental bodies that deal with the practical problems of the energy sector. The main task of

  13. 综合考虑配电公司及独立发电商利益的分布式电源规划%Distributed Generators Planning Considering Benefits for Distribution Power Company and Independent Power Suppliers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立梅; 唐巍; 王少林; 赵云军

    2011-01-01

    By referring to the influence of integration of distributed generators (DGs) on distribution networks, candidate solutions for DGs are given by analyzing the power loss, voltage distribution, and customer reliability demand. To balance the benefits between independent power suppliers (IPSs) and power distribution companies (PDCs), a multi-objective planning model is developed that takes both maximum DGs unit cost rate and maximum benefits from the improved grid into account. The model proposed involves cost and benefit, environment improvement, network loss, voltage quality, reliability, delayed network renewal etc. Based on the non-inferior sorting genetic algorithm, the solving method uses the segment chromosome operations to realize simultaneous optimization between type, site and size. The simulation results of an IEEE 69-bus system show that the method proposed is fast, reliable and effective in the determination of the location and capacity of DGs as well as the benefits balance between IPS with DGs and PDC.%结合分布式电源接入对配电网的影响,通过对系统网损、电压分布及用户可靠性要求的综合分析确定出了分布式电源候选安装位置解集.为实现分布式电源独立发电商和配电公司的利益均衡,建立了分布式电源单位成本收益和其接入后改善电网所得收益最大化的多目标规划模型,所建模型考虑了分布式电源的投资成本、卖电收益、环境改善,以及网损、电压质量、可靠性和延缓网络更新等.求解方法基于改进非劣排序遗传算法,通过使用分段式染色体操作实现分布式电源类型、位置和容量的同时优化规划.IEEE 69节点仿真结果表明,该方法可协调拥有分布式电源的独立发电商和配电公司之间的利益问题.

  14. The sedimentary sequence from the Lake Ķūži outcrop, central Latvia: implications for late glacial stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Koff

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sediment samples from an outcrop in the near-shore area of Lake Ķūži (Vidzeme Heights, Central Latvia were investigated using palaeobotanical (pollen and macrofossil analysis and lithological (grain-size analysis methods and accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dating. A dark, organic-rich sediment layer was found below 1.7 m of sandy layers approximately 30 cm above the present lake level. Radiocarbon dating of a wood sample from the lowermost layer (11 050 ± 60 14C BP, 13 107–12 721 cal BP shows that the layer is of late glacial age. The composition of the pollen spectra is characterized by Betula nana, Cyperaceae pollen and spores of Equisetum, confirming that the lowermost sediments were formed during the late glacial. Fossils of obligate aquatic organisms in the upper layer, which include oospores of Characeae and seeds of Potamogeton, indicate an open water environment. Pollen of Myriophyllum and Potamogeton and non-pollen palynomorphs, such as algal Botryococcus and Pediastrum cf. boryanum, confirm this conclusion. The pollen assemblage from the greyish loam layer following this lacustrine phase shows a pattern characteristic of the Younger Dryas vegetation before the start of the real expansion of birch forests at the beginning of the Holocene.

  15. Alteration of the ethnic diversity and ethnic segregation index in Latvia during the first and second independence periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám Németh

    Full Text Available It is a well-known fact that the Baltic area is traditionally one of the most diverse regions of Europe in terms of ethnic concerns; we can observe in many settlements that four or even five religions have their own churches, cemeteries and at least as many ethnic groups are having their schools etc. Regarding geography literature, no generally accepted method has been applied yet to measure the population’s diversity and spatial segregation; in most cases only the number and ratio of ethnic groups were described. This research paper proposes a different approach: the adaptation of the so-called Simpson’s Diversity Index, based on probability theory and originally used by ecologists to measure biodiversity, to human geography. The study seeks the answers to: where, when, why and how has the Ethnic Diversity and Ethnic Segregation Index changed in Latvia during the first and second independence periods? What kind of spatial patterns are possible to observe on the basis of the transformation? The enormous data is processed by modern GIS software products and projected on thematic maps.

  16. Palaeopathological Evidence of Infectious Disease in a Skeletal Population from Late Medieval Riga, Latvia (15Th-17Th Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards Guntis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in the Dome Church (Riga Cathedral Cemetery population, dating from the late medieval period (15th-17th centuries AD. A total of 274 individuals were macroscopically observed for evidence of infectious disease, and seven individuals with lesions possibly associated with a bacterial infection affecting the skeleton were selected for further analysis. Pathological changes on the outer table of the skull and in the long bones of legs characteristic of venereal syphilis were observed in four female and one male individual. Likewise, changes possibly related to late congenital syphilis were observed in a 14-15-year-old non-adult individual. All these individuals were buried in a small area adjacent to the northern wall of the Dome Church, which possibly belonged to a hospital or a shelter. The evidence for venereal syphilis from the cemetery complements historical data about the spread of the disease in Riga during the 16th-17th centuries AD. One adult male individual had destructive changes in the lower spine, which could be associated with tuberculosis (TB. So far, this is the first individual with possible TB from the archaeological populations of Riga. This research provides unique evidence about infectious disease in skeletal populations from the late medieval period in Latvia, and the results will be used as the basis for future research in the subject, including extraction of ancient pathogen DNA.

  17. Self-Rated Health Among Very Old People in European Countries: An Explorative Study in Latvia and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harschel, Anne K; Schaap, Laura A; Iwarsson, Susanne; Horstmann, Vibeke; Tomsone, Signe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore and gain insight into factors related to self-rated health (SRH) among very old people in two European countries. Methods: The study was based on Latvian (n = 301) and Swedish (n = 397) data from the baseline of the Enabling Autonomy, Participation, and Well-Being in Old Age: The Home Environment as a Determinant for Healthy Ageing Survey Study. Besides descriptive statistics, ordinal regression analysis was used to analyze demographic, physical and mental health-related, functional and environmental factors related to SRH in each sample. Results: In both samples, participants with worse perceived physical mobility and more symptoms were significantly more likely to have worse SRH. There were more diverse results regarding other factors in terms of opposite relations to SRH, comparing the two samples. Discussion: Preventive measures and health care should focus on improving and supporting mobility and physical health among older people. Especially in countries with low scores on indicators of health such as Latvia, to minimize health inequalities. More attention should be paid to factors to improve the general health status of the population.

  18. The role of the legislative and regulatory branches in promoting the use of geothermal energy in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skapare, I.; Kreslins, A.; Cers, A.

    2016-09-01

    Latvia currently is self-sufficient in energy resources up to approximately 35 %. Annual fossil energy prices rise and risks of security of energy supply promote the development legislation in the matter of renewable resources. One of the Latvian Ministry of Economics' recent products is a new draft law called the "Renewable Energy Law", which has been created due to one of the European Union and Latvian national energy policy objectives: to increase the share of renewable energy up to 40 % by 2020 (Moore and Vanags, 2012). Currently, geothermal energy potential is assessed at 1 × 1013 kWh; nevertheless, it is difficult for geothermal energy to compete with other renewable energy resources in the Latvian energy market. A great job has been done in recent years at the legislative branch to choose the right methods for supporting the use of renewable energy resources. This paper aims is analysis of current situation and assessment of Latvian legislation possibilities to promote the use of geothermal energy.

  19. Truth-telling and the Asymmetry of the Attitude to Truth-telling to Dying Patients in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivars Neiders

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with concerns related to truth-telling in interaction between the doctor and the dying patient, exploring such issues as conflicting duties of veracity and non-maleficence, truthfulness and deception, and reasons behind physicians' decisions either to withhold or to disclose information about patients' diagnoses and prognoses. It focuses on various attitudes to truth-telling to dying patients, such as symmetry and asymmetry, both of which can be positive and negative. The empirical part of the article reports on the methods and results of the qualitative study carried out in Latvia during the summer of 2012. This study was based on the assessment of three case scenarios from the quantitative instrument designed by Dalla-Vorgia et al. in 1992. By means of semi-structured and focus-group interviews, evidence was gathered about physicians' and medical students' attitudes towards truth-telling, which allows the drawing of conclusions about the presence of asymmetry and symmetry in both cases. Additionally, an insight about the standards used for making decisions in case scenarios was gained and the origins of these standards were explored, revealing the aftermath of a gradual evolution from the ethics of the Soviet era to modern standards of medical ethics.

  20. Temporal evolution, petrography and composition of dolostones in the Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage, southern Estonia and northern Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kleesment

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Upper Devonian Plavinas Regional Stage in southern Estonia and northern Latvia is represented by dolostones containing interlayers of dolomitic marlstones and limestones. Petrographic, cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe and isotope techniques were used to investigate diagenetic evolution of dolostones. The rock succession has been affected by multiple dia­genetic events. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, six dolomite textures were identified. The crystal size (5–1200 μm and morphology of dolomites are variable. Commonly, dolomites are close to the stoichiometric composition, with low iron and manganese content. Their stable isotope composition (δ13C, δ18O differs greatly from that of dolomite precipitated from Frasnian seawater. Dolomitization is more pronounced in the lower part of the studied sequence, in the Snetnaya Gora Formation and Lower Pskov unit where carbonates are completely dolomitized, whereas upwards in the section the dolomite content decreases. Voids and pores of the Lower Pskov unit are mainly open, but partly or completely occluded in the Upper Pskov unit. Void-filling dolomite has slightly and void-filling calcite notably depleted stable isotope signatures. Major dedolomitization and calcite-filling processes took place during the final uplift and emergence of the northern part of the Baltic basin, connected with the migration of karst-related meteoric waters into previously dolomitized horizons within carbonate rocks.

  1. Mutations in the rpoB and katG genes leading to drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracevska, T; Jansone, I; Broka, L; Marga, O; Baumanis, V

    2002-10-01

    To characterize the genetic basis of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Latvia, mutations involved in rifampin (rpoB gene) and isoniazid (katG gene) resistance in DNA from 19 drug-susceptible and 51 multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis complex isolates were analyzed. The most frequent rpoB gene mutations found by the Line Probe assay were the S531L (14 of 34 isolates), D516V (7 of 34), H526D (4 of 34), and D516Y plus P535S (4 of 34) mutations. Direct sequencing of seven isolates with unclear results from Line Probe assay showed the presence of the L533P mutation and the Q510H plus H526Y (1 of 34) and D516V plus P535S (4 of 34) double mutations, neither of which has been described previously. Single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis showed strand mobility differences between the rifampin-susceptible and -resistant samples for the D516V, H526D, and D516Y plus P535S mutations but not for the S531L mutation. Nucleotide substitution at codon 315 (AGC-->ACC) of the katG gene was found in 48 of 51 multidrug-resistant samples by sequencing. Furthermore, katG gene restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis with endonuclease AciI confirmed the nucleotide change in codon 315.

  2. Cumulative Small Effect Genetic Markers and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Poland, Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serrano-Fernandez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The continued identification of new low-penetrance genetic variants for colorectal cancer (CRC raises the question of their potential cumulative effect among compound carriers. We focused on 6 SNPs (rs380284, rs4464148, rs4779584, rs4939827, rs6983267, and rs10795668, already described as risk markers, and tested their possible independent and combined contribution to CRC predisposition. Material and Methods. DNA was collected and genotyped from 2330 unselected consecutive CRC cases and controls from Estonia (166 cases and controls, Latvia (81 cases and controls, Lithuania (123 cases and controls, and Poland (795 cases and controls. Results. Beyond individual effects, the analysis revealed statistically significant linear cumulative effects for these 6 markers for all samples except of the Latvian one (corrected P value = 0.018 for the Estonian, corrected P value = 0.0034 for the Lithuanian, and corrected P value = 0.0076 for the Polish sample. Conclusions. The significant linear cumulative effects demonstrated here support the idea of using sets of low-risk markers for delimiting new groups with high-risk of CRC in clinical practice that are not carriers of the usual CRC high-risk markers.

  3. Multi-Agent Planning with Planning Graph

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, The Duy; Jamroga, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we consider planning for multi-agents situations in STRIPS-like domains with planning graph. Three possible relationships between agents' goals are considered in order to evaluate plans: the agents may be collaborative, adversarial or indifferent entities. We propose algorithms to dea

  4. Searching for solutions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by agricultural policy decisions — Application of system dynamics modeling for the case of Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dace, Elina, E-mail: elina.dace@rtu.lv [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Muizniece, Indra; Blumberga, Andra [Institute of Energy Systems and Environment, Riga Technical University, Azenes 12/1, Riga LV1048 (Latvia); Kaczala, Fabio [Department of Biology and Environmental Science, Faculty of Health & Life Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-39182 Kalmar (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    European Union (EU) Member States have agreed to limit their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from sectors not covered by the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (non-ETS). That includes also emissions from agricultural sector. Although the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established a methodology for assessment of GHG emissions from agriculture, the forecasting options are limited, especially when policies and their interaction with the agricultural system are tested. Therefore, an advanced tool, a system dynamics model, was developed that enables assessment of effects various decisions and measures have on agricultural GHG emissions. The model is based on the IPCC guidelines and includes the main elements of an agricultural system, i.e. land management, livestock farming, soil fertilization and crop production, as well as feedback mechanisms between the elements. The case of Latvia is selected for simulations, as agriculture generates 22% of the total anthropogenic GHG emissions in the country. The results demonstrate that there are very limited options for GHG mitigation in the agricultural sector. Thereby, reaching the non-ETS GHG emission targets will be very challenging for Latvia, as the level of agricultural GHG emissions will be exceeded considerably above the target levels. Thus, other non-ETS sectors will have to reduce their emissions drastically to “neutralize” the agricultural sector's emissions for reaching the EU's common ambition to move towards low-carbon economy. The developed model may serve as a decision support tool for impact assessment of various measures and decisions on the agricultural system's GHG emissions. Although the model is applied to the case of Latvia, the elements and structure of the model developed are similar to agricultural systems in many countries. By changing numeric values of certain parameters, the model can be applied to analyze decisions and measures in other countries. - Highlights:

  5. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geipele I.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.

  6. The Development of Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials Industry in Science and Entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and Technical Indicators. A Case Study of Latvia (Part Two)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Geipele, S.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.

    2016-10-01

    Part two of the in-depth scientific study clarifies the significant social and technical indicators of the development of nano-field at the macro, micro, and meso development levels of the economic environment in Latvia in the framework of the given theme. The analytical assessment of numerical change in socioeconomic and technical factors clearly demonstrates the interaction of nano-field with the development of science and manufacture, as found out in the study. The identified indicators are proposed to use for research, comparison and implementation in any other country of the world.

  7. Using satellite data to monitor land-use land-cover change in North-eastern Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonji, Simon Foteck; Taff, Gregory N

    2014-01-01

    Land-use and land-cover change (LULCC), especially those caused by human activities, is one of the most important components of global environmental change (Jessen 3(rd) edition: 1-526 2005). In this study the effects of geographic and demographic factors on LULCC are analyzed in northeastern Latvia using official estimates from census and vital statistics data, and using remotely sensed satellite imagery (Landsat Thematic Mapper) acquired from 1992 and 2007. The remote sensing images, elevation data, in-situ ground truth and ground control data (using GPS), census and vital statistics data were processed, integrated, and analyzed in a geographic information system (GIS). Changes in six categories of land-use and land-cover (wetland, water, agriculture, forest, bare field and urban/suburban) were studied to determine their relationship to demographic and geographic factors between 1992 and 2007. Supervised classifications were performed on the Landsat images. Analysis of land cover change based on "change-to" categories between the 1992 and 2007 images revealed that changes to forest were the most common type of change (17.1% of pixels), followed by changes to agriculture (8.6%) and the fewest were changes to urban/suburban (0.8%). Integration of population data and land-cover change data revealed key findings: areas near to roads underwent more LULCC and areas far away from Riga underwent less LULCC. Range in elevation was positively correlated with all LULCC categories. Population density was found to be associated with most LULCC categories but the direction of effect was scale dependent. This paper shows how socio-demographic data can be integrated with satellite image data and cartographic data to analyze drivers of LULCC at multiple spatial scales.

  8. Should we adjust health education methodology to low-educated employees needs? Findings from Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Korzeniowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The presented study explored health beliefs and experiences as well as health education needs of low-educated employees (LEEs (incomplete primary, primary, lower secondary and basic vocational education in comparison to those with higher education (secondary and tertiary education in four European countries: Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain. The main aim was to identify a specificity of low-educated employees (LEEs by capturing their opinions, experiences, attitudes and needs concerning health education. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 1691 individuals with the status of an employee (approximately 400 respondents in each of 4 countries participating in the project. The respondents were aged 25-54 (both the control group and the target group consisted in 1/3 of the following age groups: 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54. The respondents were interviewed during the years 2009 and 2010 with a structured questionnaire concerning their health, health behaviours as well as educational needs concerning health education. Results: The study revealed substantial differences in the attitudes of people from this group concerning methodology of health education. LEEs prefer more competitions and campaigns and less written educational materials in comparison to those with higher education. Additionally, they more often perceive a fee, longer time, necessity to take part in a knowledge test and a concern that their health will be checked as factors that can discourage them from taking part in a health training. On the other hand, LEEs can by encouraged to take part in such a training by a media broadcast concerning the event, snacks or lottery during the training, or financial incentives. Conclusions: The results of the study proved the need for specific health education guidelines to conduct health education for low-educated employees. These guidelines should take in account the sources of health education preferred by LEEs as well as the

  9. Should we adjust health education methodology to low-educated employees needs? Findings from Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof; Goszczyńska, Eliza; Pyżalski, Jacek

    2014-06-01

    The presented study explored health beliefs and experiences as well as health education needs of low-educated employees (LEEs) (incomplete primary, primary, lower secondary and basic vocational education) in comparison to those with higher education (secondary and tertiary education) in four European countries: Latvia, Poland, Slovenia and Spain. The main aim was to identify a specificity of low-educated employees (LEEs) by capturing their opinions, experiences, attitudes and needs concerning health education. The sample consisted of 1691 individuals with the status of an employee (approximately 400 respondents in each of 4 countries participating in the project). The respondents were aged 25-54 (both the control group and the target group consisted in 1/3 of the following age groups: 25-34, 35-44 and 45-54). The respondents were interviewed during the years 2009 and 2010 with a structured questionnaire concerning their health, health behaviours as well as educational needs concerning health education. The study revealed substantial differences in the attitudes of people from this group concerning methodology of health education. LEEs prefer more competitions and campaigns and less written educational materials in comparison to those with higher education. Additionally, they more often perceive a fee, longer time, necessity to take part in a knowledge test and a concern that their health will be checked as factors that can discourage them from taking part in a health training. On the other hand, LEEs can by encouraged to take part in such a training by a media broadcast concerning the event, snacks or lottery during the training, or financial incentives. The results of the study proved the need for specific health education guidelines to conduct health education for low-educated employees. These guidelines should take in account the sources of health education preferred by LEEs as well as the factors that can encourage/discourage their participation in trainings

  10. ENERGY GENERATION EXPANSION PLANNING MODEL CONSIDERING EMISSIONS CONSTRAINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIEGO ADOLFO MEJIA GIRALDO

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El problema de expansión de la generación consiste en determinar el tipo de tecnología, dimensionamiento, ubicación y momento en el cual nuevas plantas de generación deben ser integradas al sistema, en un horizonte de planeamiento dado, para satisfacer la demanda de energía pronosticada. En los últimos años, debido a un creciente interés en asuntos medioambientales, varias metodologías para resolver el problema de expansión de la generación han incluido algún tipo de política medioambiental, típicamente basada en restricciones de emisiones. Este artículo presenta un modelo lineal en una versión dinámica para resolver el problema de planeamiento de expansión de la generación. La principal diferencia entre el modelo propuesto y la mayoría de los trabajos presentados en la literatura especializada es la forma en que la política medioambiental ha sido contemplada. Tal política incluye: i impuestos sobre las emisiones de CO2, ii una reducción anual de emisiones en todo el sistema y iii el retiro gradual de plantas de generación ineficientes. El modelo propuesto ha sido aplicado al caso de expansión de los Estados Unidos para encontrar el portafolio de energía más rentable y sostenible en los próximos 20 años, considerando 11 regiones y 10 tipos diferentes de tecnología.

  11. The importance of considering external influences during presuppression wildfire planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc R. Wiitala; Andrew E. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    Few administrative units involved in wildland fire protection are islands unto themselves when it comes to wildfire activity and suppression. If not directly affected by the wildfire workload of their neighbors, they are affected by the availability of nationally shared resources impacted by wildfire activity at the regional and national scale. These external...

  12. 50 CFR 86.137 - What variables should I consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What variables should I consider? 86.137...) PROGRAM How States Will Complete the State Program Plans § 86.137 What variables should I consider? You should consider the following variables: (a) Location of population centers, (b) Boat-based recreation...

  13. Internal audit consider the implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Grant D; Hamilton, Angela

    2004-06-01

    Internal audit can not only allay external and internal concerns about appropriateness of business operations, but also help improve efficiency and the bottom line. To get an internal audit function under way, healthcare organizations need to obtain board buy-in, form an audit committee of the board, determine resources needed, perform a risk assessment, and develop an internal audit plan.

  14. Identity of Innovative Multifunctional Material Manufacturing Business in Latvia / Inovatīvu Daudzfunkcionālo Materiālu Ražotāju Identitāte Latvijā

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geipele, I.; Staube, T.; Ciemleja, G.; Zeltins, N.; Ekmanis, Yu.

    2015-08-01

    The publication comprises the results from the practical scientific investigation to define the profile and distinctions of the Latvian innovative multifunctional material manufacturing industry. The research is carried out by a holistic approach, including expert interviews, qualitative analysis of the official register data, practical survey, and financial data analysis. The paper seeks to give the detailed data on a technological profile of the mentioned representative companies, if there is a synergy or tough competition in the Latvian market. The current research is topical, because it is unique and does not have analogues in Latvia, and the research is timely due to correspondence with recently stated Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation in Latvia. The main findings are associated with recognition of the factors that make impact on commercialisation of the finished goods, obtained financial results and planned directions of development of the respondent companies. Publikācija sniedz veiktā zinātniski praktiskā pētījuma rezultātus, kura ietvaros tika noteikts Latvijas inovatīvu daudzfunkcionālo materiālu ražotāju darbības profils un identitāte. Pētījumā tika izmantota kompleksās analīzes metode, kas ietvēra ekspertu intervijas, uzņēmumu oficiāli reģistrēto datu kvalitatīvo analīzi, zinātniski praktisko aptauju, kā arī pētāmo uzņēmumu finanšu darbības rezultātu analīzi. Zinātniskais darbs sniedz izsmeļošu informāciju par mērķa uzņēmumu tehnoloģisko profilu un pēta, vai Latvijas mērķa ražošanas nozarē ir sinerģijas vai sīvās konkurences pazīmes. Šim zinātniskajam pētījumam ir noteikta aktualitāte saskaņā ar tā unikalitāti Latvijas valsts mērogā un atbilstība Viedās specializācijas stratēģijai. Pētījuma galvenie secinājumi ir saistīti ar uzņēmumu produkcijas komercializācijas ietekmējošo faktoru apzināšanu, sasniegtajiem finansiālajiem rezultātiem un pl

  15. Considering the sanitary aspects in regional plans for air quality. Situation of sanitary impacts of urban air pollution studies; Prise en compte des aspects sanitaires dans les Plans regionaux pour la qualite de l'air. Bilan des etudes d'impact sanitaires de la pollution atmospherique urbaine realisees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-15

    The law on air and the rational use of energy of the 30. september 1996 forecasts the setting up of regional planning for the air quality that have to rely on the support of an evaluation of sanitary effects of air pollution. To help the local sanitary authorities in this mission, the National Institute of Sanitary Surveillance and the C.I.R.E. have realised a methodological guide on evaluation of sanitary impact of urban air pollution in different contexts. (N.C.)

  16. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  17. 计及风电不确定性的多目标电网规划期望值模型与算法%The Expected Model and Algorithm of Multi-Objective Transmission Network Planning Considering the Uncertainty of Wind Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡源; 别朝红; 宁光涛; 高玉洁

    2016-01-01

    在多目标电网规划模型的基础上,提出利用基于三点估计的概率潮流考虑风电不确定性的方法,采用三点估计原理计算风电场的出力,从而在多目标电网规划中将含有风电的不确定性多目标规划期望值模型转换为可求解的确定性模型.该方法对原始输入信息要求低,易于和多目标规划模型相结合,同时具有计算量适中、准确度高和适用范围广泛等优点,从而为考虑风电场出力的不确定性提供了一种有效的工具.使用IEEE 24节点测试系统验证了所提方法的正确性和有效性.%This paper presented a three-point estimation method to calculate the probabilistic power flow, considering the uncertainty of wind power in multi-objective transmission network expansion planning. Herein, the power outputs of wind farm were sampled, and the uncertain multi-objective transmission network planning model was transformed into a solvable deterministic model. Compared with other algorithms of probabilistic power flow, such as algorithms based on Monte Carlo simulation and analytical method, the presented method needs less input information, and can easily combine with the multi-objective transmission network planning model. Besides, this method also has the advantages of low computational amount, high accuracy and wide generalization. Therefore, the presented method is effective to deal with the uncertainty of wind power in transmission network planning. Finally, the IEEE 24-bus test system was adopted to verify the presented method and algorithm.

  18. Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaagus, Jaak; Briede, Agrita; Rimkus, Egidijus; Remm, Kalle

    2014-10-01

    Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951-2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.

  19. Psychological variables underlying political orientations in an old and a new democracy: A comparative study between Sweden and Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimdins, Girts; Sandgren, Maria; Montgomery, Henry

    2016-10-01

    This study examines in detail the psychological variables underlying ideological political orientation, and structure and contents of this orientation, in Sweden and Latvia. Individual political orientation is conceptualized on two dimensions: acceptance vs. rejection of social change and acceptance vs. rejection of inequality. Swedish (N = 320) and Latvian (N = 264) participants completed measures of political orientation, Social Dominance Orientation (SDO), Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA), self vs. other orientation, tolerance for ambiguity, humanism and normativism, core political values, system justification, as well as moral foundations questionnaire and portrait values questionnaire. The results showed that the relation among the measured variables was similar in both samples. Swedish participants showed stronger endorsement of egalitarian attitudes and social values, whereas we found more self-enhancing and socially conservative values and attitudes among the Latvian participants. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Influence of climate changes on the blooms and toxin production of cyanobacteria in the lakes of Latvia (north-eastern Baltic Sea region)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briede, Linda; Barda, Ieva; Purina, Ingrida

    2016-04-01

    Global climate changes have influenced lakes ecosystems resulting in prolonged vegetation season. Long term data shows the earlier warming of water in spring and later cooling in autumn. These modifications are promoting the changes of phytoplankton community from diatom and chrysophytes dominated communities towards cyanobacteria dominated communities. Cyanobacteria are well known as procariotic ancient organisms involved in the production of oxygen, however nowadays they are better known as producers of potent toxins. Long term dynamic of cyanobacterial communities were investigated in lakes Burtnieku and Aluksnes (northern Latvia). Most common cyanobacterial genus were Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Microcystis, Planktothrix as well as Gloeotrichia known to produce hepatotoxins and neurotoxins. Seasonal toxin production of cyanobacteria was screened using ELISA kits in year 2015. Implications of prolonged cyanobacterial blooms and toxin production on lakes ecosystem are discussed.

  1. MIRU-VNTR genotype diversity and indications of homoplasy in M. avium strains isolated from humans and slaughter pigs in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvisa, Adrija; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Silamikelis, Ivars; Skenders, Girts; Broka, Lonija; Zirnitis, Agris; Jansone, Inta; Ranka, Renate

    2016-09-01

    Diseases which are caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasing problem in the developed countries. In Latvia, one of the most clinically important members of NTM is Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated from several lung disease patients and tissue samples of slaughter pigs. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of the M. avium isolates in Latvia and to compare the distribution of genotypic patterns among humans and pigs. Eleven (Hall and Salipante, 2010) clinical M. avium samples, isolated from patients of Center of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (years 2003-2010), and 32 isolates from pig necrotic mesenterial lymph nodes in different regions (years 2003-2007) were analyzed. The majority (42 of 43) of samples were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis; one porcine isolate belonged to M. avium subsp. avium. MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 13 distinct genotypes, among which nine genotype patterns, including M. avium subsp. avium isolate, were newly identified. IS1245 RFLP fingerprinting of 25 M. avium subsp. hominissuis samples yielded 17 different IS1245 RFLP patterns, allowing an efficient discrimination of isolates. Clusters of identical RFLP profiles were observed within host species, geographical locations and time frame of several years. Additional in silico analysis on simulated MIRU-VNTR genotype population datasets showed that the MIRU-VNTR pattern similarity could partly arise due to probabilistic increase of acquiring homoplasy among subpopulations, thus the similar MIRU-VNTR profiles of M. avium strains even in close geographical proximity should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Global rebounds boost Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Läti peaminister Valdis Dombrovskis leiab, et riigi majanduspoliitika on õigel teel ja et majanduskriis on peagi möödas. Läti riigikontrolöri Inguna Sudraba ja rahanduminister Einars Repse arvamused

  3. Kononov v. Latvia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mälksoo, Lauri, 1975-

    2011-01-01

    17. mail 2010 tegi Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu suurkoda otsuse asjas Kononov vs. Läti, otsustades, et Läti ei rikkunud Euroopa inimõiguste ja põhivabaduste kaitse konventsiooni artiklit 7, kui mõistis Vassili Kononovi süüdi Teise maailmasõja ajal Lätis toimepandud sõjakuriteos

  4. Considering PTSD for DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Matthew J; Resick, Patricia A; Bryant, Richard A; Brewin, Chris R

    2011-09-01

    This is a review of the relevant empirical literature concerning the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Most of this work has focused on Criteria A1 and A2, the two components of the A (Stressor) Criterion. With regard to A1, the review considers: (a) whether A1 is etiologically or temporally related to the PTSD symptoms; (b) whether it is possible to distinguish "traumatic" from "non-traumatic" stressors; and (c) whether A1 should be eliminated from DSM-5. Empirical literature regarding the utility of the A2 criterion indicates that there is little support for keeping the A2 criterion in DSM-5. The B (reexperiencing), C (avoidance/numbing) and D (hyperarousal) criteria are also reviewed. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest that the latent structure of PTSD appears to consist of four distinct symptom clusters rather than the three-cluster structure found in DSM-IV. It has also been shown that in addition to the fear-based symptoms emphasized in DSM-IV, traumatic exposure is also followed by dysphoric, anhedonic symptoms, aggressive/externalizing symptoms, guilt/shame symptoms, dissociative symptoms, and negative appraisals about oneself and the world. A new set of diagnostic criteria is proposed for DSM-5 that: (a) attempts to sharpen the A1 criterion; (b) eliminates the A2 criterion; (c) proposes four rather than three symptom clusters; and (d) expands the scope of the B-E criteria beyond a fear-based context. The final sections of this review consider: (a) partial/subsyndromal PTSD; (b) disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS)/complex PTSD; (c) cross- cultural factors; (d) developmental factors; and (e) subtypes of PTSD. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Why Thailand should consider promoting neonatal circumcision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Grimes, Richard M

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision (MC) has been proven to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. The WHO and UNAIDS jointly recommend the international community consider MC as an HIV prevention measure. MC reduces the risk of acquiring other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men, urinary tract infections among children and penile cancer. Lowering the prevalence of STIs in men may reduce the incidence of STIs among women. High levels of adult MC are difficult to achieve in cultures where it has not been customary. Adult MC is associated with a high prevalence of post-operative complications. Neonatal male circumcision (NC) is simpler, safer, and cheaper. Higher coverage with MC can be achieved through NC. Thailand is a good country to promoting NC for the following reasons: most HIV infections are contracted through heterosexual transmission, there is a low MC rate, most newborn deliveries occur in hospitals, there is a relatively strong health care infrastructure and Thailand has well developed HIV care services. Issues of concern regarding promoting NC include length of time before seeing benefits, cost effectiveness of the intervention, the burden to the health care delivery system and concerns about children's rights. NC is an efficacious HIV prevention strategy that should be considered by those involved in HIV/AIDS prevention planning in Thailand. Further studies are needed to determine whether NC should be promoted in Thailand.

  6. 考虑多种分布式电源及其随机特性的配电网多目标扩展规划%Multi-objective Expansion Planning of Active Distribution Systems Considering Distributed Generator Types and Uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐念; 夏明超; 肖伟栋; 钟亚娇

    2015-01-01

    为了增强新建配电网环网转供能力,提高供电可靠性,同时减小投资和运行维护成本,提出了一种分布式电源(DG)选址定容和多供电途径的网状新建配电网协调规划方法。该方法建立了考虑经济性、可靠性和稳定性的多目标优化模型,优化求解采用两层嵌套的粒子群算法。在规划中考虑了风电、光伏、燃气轮机、储能电池4种 DG 的选址和定容。针对输出功率不确定的 DG,建立了概率模型,利用多状态系统理论,将随机性问题转化为确定性问题。最后以某开发区的实际配电系统为例,验证了所提模型和方法的合理性。%In order to enhance the ability of load transfer of the new meshed network and improve power supply reliability while reducing cost,this paper presents an integrated methodology for expansion planning of the active distribution network based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm.The method proposed deals with the coordinated planning of distributed generator(DG) units and a meshed distribution network with multiple power supply paths by taking into consideration the uncertainty related to renewable DG output power.A multi-objective optimization model is proposed considering economic efficiency,reliability and stability.Double nested PSO is used to solve the optimization problem.The siting and sizing of four types of DG, including wind power, photovoltaic solar energy, gas turbine and energy storage battery are reviewed. Uncertainties related to demand and power supplied by DG units are represented through multi-state probability models.Then in each state,the expectation of output power is used instead of random values.The rationality of the method proposed is verified by results concerning an actual test system in a certain development zone.

  7. Learning for Classical Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Chrpa, Lukáš

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is mainly about classical planning for articial intelligence (AI). In planning, we deal with searching for a sequence of actions that changes the environment from a given initial state to a goal state. Planning problems in general are ones of the hardest problems not only in the area of AI, but in the whole computer science. Even though classical planning problems do not consider many aspects from the real world, their complexity reaches EXPSPACE-completeness. Nevertheless, there ...

  8. 考虑V2G模式的含多个电动汽车充电站有源配电网规划研究%Study of the Active Distribution Network Planning Considering Multiple Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Participating in V2G Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾圣芳; 林湘宁; 万云飞; 熊小萍

    2013-01-01

    Since large-scale electric vehicles (EVs) charging would have a significant impact on power grid, it should be taken into consideration in the process of the distribution networks planning. This paper used the statistical model of the charging power demand to determine the capacity of the EV charging stations in the regions to be planned, then applied the combination weighing method including the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and deviation maximization to determine the weight coefficients of candidate addresses. The difference between 1 and the weight coefficient was treated as the cost coefficient of charging station. Considering the impact of vehicle-to-grid (V2G), the reasonable electricity price volatility was utilized to guide the EV users rational and orderly charging or discharging in the peak-load periods. The corresponding operating weight coefficient when the EV charging stations operating as load and power source were defined to calculate the integrated operational cost of the distribution network. The objective function of distribution network planning optimal model was the minimum total cost comprising the fixed investments, the maintenance costs and the operational costs of the substations, charging stations and feeders, and besides the interest of annuity loan and the optimal model was solved by the ordered optimization algorithm. Furthermore, the results of the case study of IEEE 54-node model verified the effectiveness of the proposed model.%规模化电动汽车充电将对电网产生一定的影响,因此在电网规划时需要考虑电动汽车的影响。按照电动汽车功率需求的统计模型确定待规划区域充电站容量,运用综合了层次分析法和离差最大化方法的组合赋权方法,确定备选充电站站址权系数,并以1与权系数之差作为充电站成本系数。考虑电动汽车接入电网(vehicle-to-grid,V2G)技术作用,建立合理的电价机制,引导电动汽车用户在负荷

  9. Hierarchical incremental path planning and situation-dependent optimized dynamic motion planning considering accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xue-Cheng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies a hierarchical approach for incrementally driving a nonholonomic mobile robot to its destination in unknown environments. The A* algorithm is modified to handle a map containing unknown information. Based on it, optimal (discrete) paths are incrementally generated with a periodically updated map. Next, accelerations in varying velocities are taken into account in predicting the robot pose and the robot trajectory resulting from a motion command. Obstacle constraints are transformed to suitable velocity limits so that the robot can move as fast as possible while avoiding collisions when needed. Then, to trace the discrete path, the system searches for a waypoint-directed optimized motion in a reduced 1-D translation or rotation velocity space. Various situations of navigation are dealt with by using different strategies rather than a single objective function. Extensive simulations and experiments verified the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  10. Crop production structure optimization with considering risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Nagy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of global climate change are occurring more and more sharply, and because of it – amongst the indisputable genetic and technological development – the yield fluctuation has increased in the crop production past years. Otherwise, this sector is one of the riskiest, so it is obvious to consider risk during the planning, in the phase of decision preparation. Risk programming models are usually applied in agriculture, which take the attitude of the decision-maker to risk into consideration, i.e. these are utility maximization models. First of all, in case of risk programming models the character of risk must be decided. For determining the degree of risk – among others – dispersion indicators are also suitable. If financial portfolios are optimized, most frequently risk is given by the variance of the portfolio. Variance is also applied in the expected value – variance (E-V models. If variance is minimized, the model has a quadratic object function. An alternative for variance in the linear programming model is the application of mean absolute deviation (MAD. The purpose of this article is to present the application of a portfolio model for optimizing crop production structure and minimizing risk that is generally used in financial investment calculations."

  11. Consumer perception: attributes considered important in packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Medianeira Stefano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Packaging has been considered the main vehicle for sales, brand building and product identity, since it is the first contact with the product that the consumer has, it is fundamental when choosing and buying a product. In this sense, the packaging is a silent salesperson, because it is up to the package to attract attention, create interest and desire, show the quality of the product and close the sale within seconds. Packaging has contributed to corporate communication with consumers; it provides product protection, storage and convenience, as products move through the value chain. Thinking about it, the product cannot be planned separately from its packaging, and it should not be defined based only on engineering, marketing, communications or economics. The packaging concept has expanded and gained product status; packaging is able to communicate the same language of convenience wherever it goes. Today, packaging industries are taking advantage of this opportunity to differentiate their products through packaging, finding that it is not enough for the package to be beautiful, unbreakable, or preserve the flavor and freshness of foods. Within this context, the objective of this research is to analyze, from the point of view of consumers, the most important product packaging attributes at the time of purchase. For this purpose, the data obtained in this study was run through the Statistica 8.0 and SPSS 16 (Statistical Package Social Sciences software’s.

  12. Major histocompatibility complex class I chain related (MIC) A gene, TNFa microsatellite alleles and TNFB alleles in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients from Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitina Zake, Liene; Cimdina, Ija; Rumba, Ingrida; Dabadghao, Preethi; Sanjeevi, Carani B

    2002-05-01

    In order to analyze involvement of major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA) and tumor necrosis factor a (TNFa) microsatellite polymorphisms as well as TNFB gene in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), we studied 128 patients divided into groups according to clinical features [monoarthritis (n = 14), oligoarthritis (n = 58), polyarthritis (n = 50), and systemic (n = 6)], and 114 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from Latvia. DNA samples were amplified with specific primers and used for genotyping of MICA and TNFa microsatellite. Typing for a biallelic NcoI polymerase chain reaction RFLP polymorphism located at the first intron of TNFB gene was done as follows: restriction digests generated fragments of 555bp and 185bp for TNFB*1 allele, and 740bp for TNFB*2 allele. The results were compared between cases and controls. We found significant increase of MICA allele A4 (p = 0.009; odds ratio [OR] = 2.3) and allele TNFa2 (p = 0.0001; OR = 4.4) in patients compared with controls. The frequency of allele TNFa9 was significantly decreased (p = 0.0001; OR = 0.1) in patients with JIA. No significant differences of TNFB allele frequency were found. Our data suggest that MICA and TNFa microsatellite polymorphisms may be used as markers for determination of susceptibility and protection from JIA.

  13. Tax Planning for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Weiqing

    2011-01-01

    @@ Tax planning is legal planning activities for tax savings, meaning tax payers make operation plans within the national policy framework and choose operation programs favorable to tax savings.Along with a maturing socialist market economy system in China, tax planning is becoming an integral part of enterprise management and operation.For a better tax planning, enterprises have to fully understand the meaning, get proficient at relevant strategies, and apply these methods to save taxes and realize the maximization of enterprise value while considering the actual situation.

  14. The instruments of financial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Durnov, V.

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes financial planning efficiency for enterprise management improvement. The author describes the system of financial tools and considers in detail financial planning methods, their strengths and weaknesses

  15. Subjects of Financial Planning at an Enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Оверчук, Алла Василівна

    2016-01-01

    Subjects of financial planning have been considered, users of financial planned information have been determined as well as the analysis of information support of financial planning at an enterprise has been carried out.

  16. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  17. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  18. Discrete event simulation of Maglev transport considering traffic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moo Hyun Cha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A magnetically levitated vehicle (Maglev system is under commercialization as a new transportation system in Korea. The Maglev is operated by an unmanned automatic control system. Therefore, the plan of train operation should be carefully established and validated in advance. In general, when making a train operation plan, statistically predicted traffic data is used. However, a traffic wave often occurs in real train service, and demand-driven simulation technology is required to review a train operation plan and service quality considering traffic waves. We propose a method and model to simulate Maglev operation considering continuous demand changes. For this purpose, we employed a discrete event model that is suitable for modeling the behavior of railway passenger transportation. We modeled the system hierarchically using discrete event system specification (DEVS formalism. In addition, through implementation and an experiment using the DEVSim++ simulation environment, we tested the feasibility of the proposed model. Our experimental results also verified that our demand-driven simulation technology can be used for a priori review of train operation plans and strategies.

  19. Fire Management Plan 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan considers fire on Erie as a tool for management and as a potential problem to be dealt with. This document discusses environmental impacts and alternatives...

  20. Fermilab Program and Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, Dmitri [Fermilab

    2014-01-01

    This article is a short summary of the talk presented at 2014 Instrumentation Conference in Novosibirsk about Fermilab's experimental program and future plans. It includes brief description of the P5 long term planning progressing in US as well as discussion of the future accelerators considered at Fermilab.

  1. Living in Latvia after stroke: the association between functional, social and personal factors and the level of self-perceived disability-a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bērziņa, Guna; Smilškalne, Baiba; Vētra, Anita; Stibrant Sunnerhagen, Katharina

    2016-06-24

    To investigate how functional, social and personal factors are associated with self-perceived level of disability in the chronic phase of stroke in a Latvian stroke population. The consequences of stroke can vary greatly and often leads to long-term disability that, according to the WHO definitions, depends on the interaction between the person and his/her context. Cross-sectional study with retrospective data gathering. Community-dwelling persons who received specialised in-patient rehabilitation after stroke in Latvia. Of 600 persons after stroke who were identified through hospital register and selected for the study, 255 were included in the analysis. The medical information and discharge data of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) was extracted from medical records. Participants filled out a questionnaire on sociodemographic information and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), either in Latvian or Russian, depending on their wish when contacted for their oral agreement to participate. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find a model that best explains the variance in WHODAS 2.0 scores. The models explained 23-43.5% of variance in outcomes. The best explained WHODAS 2.0 domains were 'mobility' and 'self-care'. The significant factors were level of independence in 'self-care', 'locomotion' and 'communication' according to FIM, as well as working status, time since rehabilitation, age, gender, living alone or in family and preferred language. Functional, social and personal factors are of similar importance when explaining self-perceived disability in the chronic phase of stroke. Some, but not all, of the factors are modifiable by the healthcare system. Therefore, a complex approach and involvement of medical, social and political systems is needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Landmarks in Hybrid Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elkawkagy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although planning techniques achieved a significant progress during recent years, solving many planning problem still difficult even for modern planners. In this paper, we will adopt landmark concept to hybrid planning setting - a method that combines reasoning about procedural knowledge and causalities. Land-marks are a well-known concept in the realm of classical planning. Recently, they have been adapted to hierarchical approaches. Such landmarks can be extracted in a pre-processing step from a declarative hierarchical planning domain and problem description. It was shown how this technique allows for a considerable reduction of the search space by eliminating futile plan development options before the actual planning. Therefore, we will present a new approach to in¬tegrate landmark pre-processing technique in the context of hierarchical planning with landmark technique in the classical planning. This integration allows to incorporate the ability of using extracted landmark tasks from hierarchical domain knowledge in the form of HTN and using landmark literals from classical planning. To this end, we will construct a transformation technique to transform the hybrid planning domain into a classical domain model. The method¬ologies in this paper have been implemented successfully, and we will present some experimental results that give evidence for the consid-erable performance increase gained through planning system.

  3. Improvement of the financial planning on a railway transport

    OpenAIRE

    Bogomolova, N.; Kravchenko, O.

    2011-01-01

    In the article are considered approaches to the determination of financial planning, are chose defects of ukrainian financial planning system, is conducted analysis of financial planning and budgeting, are offered directions to improvement of financial planning in railroad transport.

  4. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  5. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  6. Consider the Connections. Global Issues Education Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Amy E.

    The old ways of doing things are no longer suitable to some of the current conditions faced by the world, such as overpopulation, environmental degradation, unstable economic development, and wasteful consumption of natural resources. In order to achieve a sustainable future, nations must develop better long range planning through combining…

  7. Consider the Connections. Global Issues Education Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Amy E.

    The old ways of doing things are no longer suitable to some of the current conditions faced by the world, such as overpopulation, environmental degradation, unstable economic development, and wasteful consumption of natural resources. In order to achieve a sustainable future, nations must develop better long range planning through combining…

  8. Research on High-Dimensional Motion Planning of Agile and Autonomous on-Orbit Servicing Spacecraft Considering Time%考虑时间状态的敏捷自主在轨服务航天器高维运动规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王平; 郭继峰; 陈诚; 崔乃刚

    2011-01-01

    针对敏捷自主在轨服务航天器自身和所在复杂空间环境等特点,研究其在轨灵巧、精确服务的运动规划问题,提出了以平动、转动和时间为状态的改进的快速搜索随机树高维运动规划方法.仿真算例检验了该规划方法的有效性,结果表明它不仅满足敏捷自主在轨服务航天器在一定约束条件下按照指定时间到达指定地点的高维运动要求,而且对离线与在线规划两种模式也具备较强的适应性.%An improved Rapidly-exploring Random Trees-based High-dimensional motion planning algonthm for an agile and autonomous on-orbit servicing spacecraft in complicated space environment is studied. This planner satisfies the requirement for agile and autonomous spacecraft maneuvering under complex constraints. The results show that this high-dimensional motion planner can be used to abtain the feasible motion trajectories and adapt to the two modes of on and off line planning.

  9. Plan Ecuatoriano de Educacion (Ecuadoran Educational Planning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Educacion Publica, Quito (Ecuador).

    This book provides background information of the educational system in Ecuador and describes the Ecuadoran plan for educational improvement. The first part considers the general conditions of the country and discusses geographic, economic, social, and demographic aspects along with the educational system. The book discusses the social function of…

  10. Considering the cultural context in psychopathology formulations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-02

    Mar 2, 2013 ... principles, affect the manner in which people perceive and react. [3] Further, Reber and ... significance of considering cultural aspects in the understanding ..... interpersonal relationships within it, and the nature of being.

  11. 23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and... long-range statewide transportation plan should include capital, operations and management strategies... transportation system. The long-range statewide transportation plan may consider projects and strategies that...

  12. Transmission expansion in an oligopoly considering generation investment equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taheri, S. Saeid; Kazempour, Jalal; Seyedshenava, Seyedjalal

    2017-01-01

    Transmission expansion planning (TEP) is a sophisticated decision-making problem, especially in an oligopolistic electricity market in which a number of strategic (price-maker) producers compete together. A transmission system planner, who is in charge of making TEP decisions, requires considering...... the future generation investment actions. However, in such an oligopolistic market, each producer makes its own strategic generation investment decisions. This motivates the transmission system planner to consider the generation investment decision-making problem of all producers within its TEP model....... This paper proposes a tri-level TEP decision-making model to be solved by the transmission system planner, whose objective is to maximize the social welfare of the market minus the expansion costs, and whose constraints are the transmission expansion limits as well as the generation investment equilibrium...

  13. USGS considers moving Menlo Park programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    U.S. Interior Secretary Bruce Babbitt has instructed the U.S. Geological Survey to examine options to relocate staff and programs at the agency's 16-acre Menlo Park Facilities within 5 years. The agency was directed on August 21 to submit a preliminary action plan by September 25.A memo from USGS Director Gordon Eaton states that Babbitt is concerned about high real estate costs in the Menlo Park area and the need for the agency to locate near other Interior and federal offices.

  14. Offshore Structural Control Considering Fluid Structure Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Myung KIM; Dong Hyawn KIM; Gyu Won LEE

    2006-01-01

    Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) was applied to an offshore structure to control ocean wave-induced vibration. In the analysis of the dynamic response of the offshore structure, fluid-structure interaction is considered and the errors, which occur in the linearization of the interaction, are investigated. For the investigation of the performance of TMD in controlling the vibration, both regular waves with different periods and irregular waves with different significant wave heights are used. Based on the numerical analysis it is concluded that the fluid-structure interaction should be considered in the evaluation of the capability of TMD in vibration control of offshore structures.

  15. Framework for Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, C. Guedes; Duarte, J. Caldeira; Garbatov, Y.;

    2010-01-01

    The present document presents a framework for maintenance planning. Maintenance plays a fundamental role in counteracting degradation effects, which are present in all infrastructure and industrial products. Therefore, maintenance planning is a very critical aspect to consider both during...... the design and during the whole life span of operational use, within an integrated framework founded on risk and reliability based techniques. The document addresses designers, decision makers and professionals responsible for or involved in establishing maintenance plans. The purpose of this document...... is to present maintenance as an integrated approach that needs to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled by proper qualitative and quantitative techniques. This document outlines the basic premises for maintenance planning and provides the general philosophies that can be followed and points to a best...

  16. Framework for Maintenance Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte, J. Caldeira; Garbatov, Y.; Zio, E.

    2010-01-01

    The present document presents a framework for maintenance planning. Maintenance plays a fundamental role in counteracting degradation effects, which are present in all infrastructure and industrial products. Therefore, maintenance planning is a very critical aspect to consider both during...... the design and during the whole life span of operational use, within an integrated framework founded on risk and reliability based techniques. The document addresses designers, decision makers and professionals responsible for or involved in establishing maintenance plans. The purpose of this document...... is to present maintenance as an integrated approach that needs to be planned, designed, engineered, and controlled by proper qualitative and quantitative techniques. This document outlines the basic premises for maintenance planning and provides the general philosophies that can be followed and points to a best...

  17. The Project of Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1986-01-01

    This article contains an interview with John Friedmann. The interview covers two core areas in John Friedmann's work: (a) The history of planning, from the beginning of the industrial era till today and (b) radical planning and social mobilization. In relation to radical planning and social...... mobilization the utopian aspects of John Friedmann's work are discussed together with the forces of social development, that must be counted on to make the utopian visions and radical planninge materialize. Finally, the role of radical planner is considered....

  18. The Project of Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    1986-01-01

    This article contains an interview with John Friedmann. The interview covers two core areas in John Friedmann's work: (a) The history of planning, from the beginning of the industrial era till today and (b) radical planning and social mobilization. In relation to radical planning and social mobil...... mobilization the utopian aspects of John Friedmann's work are discussed together with the forces of social development, that must be counted on to make the utopian visions and radical planninge materialize. Finally, the role of radical planner is considered....

  19. Biosimilars: what do patients need to consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skingle, Diana

    2015-01-01

    A view from the EULAR Standing Committee of People with Arthritis/Rheumatism in Europe (SCPARE) on some of the issues that patients might wish to consider about biosimilars in shared decision-making discussions with their rheumatologist. The paper also points to the need for more information on biosimilars being made available in lay language. PMID:26535149

  20. Selective Maintenance Model Considering Time Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Le Chen; Zhengping Shu; Yuan Li; Xuezhi Lv

    2012-01-01

    This study proposes a selective maintenance model for weapon system during mission interval. First, it gives relevant definitions and operational process of material support system. Then, it introduces current research on selective maintenance modeling. Finally, it establishes numerical model for selecting corrective and preventive maintenance tasks, considering time uncertainty brought by unpredictability of maintenance procedure, indetermination of downtime for spares and difference of skil...

  1. Access, Consider, Teach: ACT in Your Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Pokey; Reeves, Stacy

    2007-01-01

    University teachers who are teacher educators cannot connect to "The Millennial Generation" of today's preservice learners by using chalk and dull outdated textbooks. When university professionals access the technology available, consider the curriculum, and teach with technology (ACT) undergraduate teacher candidates acquire the vision of…

  2. Tempo curves considered harmful (part 1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1991-01-01

    A column (the first of a series of three) constitutes an abridged and adapted version of Tempo curves considered harmful . Two friends, an amateur mathematician (M) and a would-be psychologist (P), invited a retired pianist to do some experiments with their new sequencer program. As musical material

  3. Tempo curves considered harmful (part 2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1991-01-01

    A column (the second of a series of three) constitutes an abridged and adapted version of Tempo curves considered harmful . M (an amateur mathematician) and P (a would-be psychologist) incorporated some generative models for expressive timing in their sequencer program. This proved partially succesf

  4. Planning of Innovation in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collingwood, Vaughn

    1979-01-01

    Considers the planning of innovation in higher education from four viewpoints: the nature of the innovation, the planning process, educational planning, and higher education. In the absence of external pressures to change attitudes, planning of innovation seeks to create a favorable environment through altered organizational structures and…

  5. Analysis of multicomopnent groundwater flow in karst aquifer by CFC, tritium, tracer test and modelling, case study at Skaistkalnes vicinity, Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikshe, Janis; Babre, Alise; Delina, Aija; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    three different sources of groundwater occur characterized by different flow velocity, recharge age and chemical composition. Although CFC's has been degraded, it is possible to use the results to distinguish groundwater different components and even to estimate groundwater flow velocity because of near located recharge and discharge areas. Tritium results doesn't show considerable variations along flow path with 6 TU in average confirming conclusions based on CFC's. Tracer test approve very high groundwater velocity zones in study area that supposedly doesn't mix with groundwater in matrix. References Delina A., Babre A., Popovs K., Sennikovs J., Grinberga B. 2012. Effects of karst processes on surface water and groundwater hydrology at Skaistkalne vicinity, Latvia. - Hydrology Research, 43(4), IWA Publishing, pp. 445-459, doi:10.2166/nh.2012.123. This study is supported by ERAF project Nr. 1013/00542DP/2.1.1.1.0/13/APIA/VIAA/007

  6. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquharson, B. [Gemcom Software International (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The paper explains how Colombian coal producer and exporter, Carbones del Cerrejon, has increased recovered coal with an end-to-end mine planning solution. It was Gemcon's Minex software for geology and mine planning. 4 photos.

  7. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  8. Planning Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  9. Unknown Latvia / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    Hiljuti ilmunud raamatu "Riga - the Civilization of Nobody" filosoofist autor Arvydas Juozaitis kohtus Vilniuses lugejatega. Raamatus käsitletakse tänapäeva Läti poliitikat, kultuuri, demograafiat ja ajalugu

  10. Latvia deemed thoroughly corrupt state

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Saksa ettevõtted tajuvad majanduse stabiliseerumist Baltimaades ja tahavad sinna lisainvesteeringuid teha, kuid Saksa saatkond Lätis on saatnud peaminister Valdis Dombrovskisele kirja, mis sisaldas Saksa ettevõtete kaebusi Läti ettevõtluskliima kohta

  11. Latvia, Estonia differ on sugar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti põllumajandusministri Martins Roze sõnul ei toeta Läti Euroopa Komisjoni reformikava suhkruturu liberaliseerimiseks, samal seisukohal näib olevat suhkrutootmisega tegelev Leedu. Eesti põllumajandusministeerium reformile vastu ei seisa

  12. Latvia, Estonia differ on sugar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Läti põllumajandusministri Martins Roze sõnul ei toeta Läti Euroopa Komisjoni reformikava suhkruturu liberaliseerimiseks, samal seisukohal näib olevat suhkrutootmisega tegelev Leedu. Eesti põllumajandusministeerium reformile vastu ei seisa

  13. Unknown Latvia / Rokas M. Tracevskis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tracevskis, Rokas M.

    2011-01-01

    Hiljuti ilmunud raamatu "Riga - the Civilization of Nobody" filosoofist autor Arvydas Juozaitis kohtus Vilniuses lugejatega. Raamatus käsitletakse tänapäeva Läti poliitikat, kultuuri, demograafiat ja ajalugu

  14. Considering the Problem of Insider IT Misuse

    OpenAIRE

    Steven Furnell; Aung Htike Phyo

    2003-01-01

    In recent years the Internet connection has become a frequent point of attack for most organisations. However, the loss due to insider misuse is far greater than the loss due to external abuse. This paper focuses on the problem of insider misuse, the scale of it, and how it has effected the organisations. The paper also discusses why access controls alone cannot be used to address the problem, and proceeds to consider how techniques currently associated with Intrusion Detection Systems can po...

  15. Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Zénó

    2011-01-01

    In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

  16. Total Site Heat Integration Considering Pressure Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kew Hong Chew

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure drop is an important consideration in Total Site Heat Integration (TSHI. This is due to the typically large distances between the different plants and the flow across plant elevations and equipment, including heat exchangers. Failure to consider pressure drop during utility targeting and heat exchanger network (HEN synthesis may, at best, lead to optimistic energy targets, and at worst, an inoperable system if the pumps or compressors cannot overcome the actual pressure drop. Most studies have addressed the pressure drop factor in terms of pumping cost, forbidden matches or allowable pressure drop constraints in the optimisation of HEN. This study looks at the implication of pressure drop in the context of a Total Site. The graphical Pinch-based TSHI methodology is extended to consider the pressure drop factor during the minimum energy requirement (MER targeting stage. The improved methodology provides a more realistic estimation of the MER targets and valuable insights for the implementation of the TSHI design. In the case study, when pressure drop in the steam distribution networks is considered, the heating and cooling duties increase by 14.5% and 4.5%.

  17. GVD compensation schemes with considering PMD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiying Yang(杨爱英); Anshi Xu(徐安士); Deming Wu(吴德明)

    2003-01-01

    Three group velocity dispersion (GVD) compensation schemes, i.e., the post-compensation, pre-compensation and hybrid-compensation schemes, are discussed with considering polarization mode disper-sion (PMD). In the 10- and 40-Gbit/s non-return-zero (NRZ) on-off-key (OOK) systems, three physicalfactors, Kerr effect, GVD and PMD are considered. The numerical results show that, when the impactof PMD is taken into account, the GVD pre-compensation scheme performs best with more than 1 dBbetter of average eye-opening penalty (EOP) when input power is up to 10 dBm in the 10-Gbit/s system.However the GVD post-compensation scheme perforns best for the case of 40 Gbit/s with input power lessthan 13 dBm, and GVD pre-compensation will be better if the input power increased beyond this range.The results are different from those already reported under the assumption that the impact of PMD isneglected. Therefore, the research in this paper provide a different insight into the system optimizationwhen PMD, Kerr effect and GVD are considered.

  18. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  19. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  20. Considering the Problem of Insider IT Misuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Furnell

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the Internet connection has become a frequent point of attack for most organisations. However, the loss due to insider misuse is far greater than the loss due to external abuse. This paper focuses on the problem of insider misuse, the scale of it, and how it has effected the organisations. The paper also discusses why access controls alone cannot be used to address the problem, and proceeds to consider how techniques currently associated with Intrusion Detection Systems can potentially be applied for insider misuse detection. General guidelines for countermeasures against insider misuse are also provided to protect data and systems.

  1. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  2. (ReConsidering American Studies in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Detsi-Diamanti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In writing about American studies in Greece, one is tempted to consider for a moment the fact that the field, ever since it placed itself on the international academic map, has been in a constant process of self-discovery and self-becoming. Its openness, which may be taken as evidence for its vibrant existence and its ability to reconstruct and deconstruct itself, has led to new areas of research, new formulations, new critiques, as well as to an essential paradox  : although we currently wit...

  3. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  4. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  5. Aspects of Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2000-01-01

    framework for updating of the reliability of components and systems on the basis of inspection results is outlined. Systems representative for inspection planning of different engineering systems subjected to typical deterioration processes are presented. Numerical simulation studies are performed......Inspection planning for systems is considered with special emphasis to the effect of the quality of inspections on the system reliability and the probability of repair. Inspection quality is described and discussed in terms of inspection reliability and inspection coverage where the latter is set...... in relation to the correlation between the failure modes of the considered system. The inspection planning problem is described in general terms taking basis in the Bayesian decision theory. Practical applicable approaches are derived from the more general but also more involving formulations. The theoretical...

  6. Aspects of Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M. H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2000-01-01

    Inspection planning for systems is considered with special emphasis to the effect of the quality of inspections on the system reliability and the probability of repair. Inspection quality is described and discussed in terms of inspection reliability and inspection coverage where the latter is set...... in relation to the correlation between the failure modes of the considered system. The inspection planning problem is described in general terms taking basis in the Bayesian decision theory. Practical applicable approaches are derived from the more general but also more involving formulations. The theoretical...... framework for updating of the reliability of components and systems on the basis of inspection results is outlined. Systems representative for inspection planning of different engineering systems subjected to typical deterioration processes are presented. Numerical simulation studies are performed...

  7. Considering Resilience: Steps Towards an Assessment Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kallaos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available As threats from climate change related hazards increase in cities around the world, communities are faced with an urgent requirement for self-evaluation. It is essential to expose and assess potential hazards facing cities, as well as to consider potential impacts and responses. While the promotion of efficiency and promise of protection have been common approaches to hazards in the past, recent events have exposed weaknesses in existing tactics. It has also become more apparent that existing mitigation efforts will be insufficient to prevent some level of climate change, associated hazards, and impacts. Complete protection against all threats is not only impossible but potentially hazardous, as extreme or unanticipated events can exceed the capacity for defence, potentially resulting in catastrophic failures. From this realization of the fallibility of the existing paradigm, resilience has emerged as a useful concept for framing the response of cities to an expanding collection of potential threats. The aim of this article is to consider resilience as it applies to cities, their architecture and infrastructure systems, subsystems, and components, as well as their inhabitants. Resilience characteristics are identified and considered in order to inform the eventual development of a resilience framework with which to assess architecture and infrastructure resilience. This state of the art is instrumental to determine the conditions under which architecture and infrastructure resilience can be defined and measured, in order to guide the consideration of attributes and determine suitable criteria to select and elaborate indicators to help guide future actions and investments.   Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm

  8. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  9. Stochastic Power Grid Analysis Considering Process Variations

    CERN Document Server

    Ghanta, Praveen; Panda, Rajendran; Wang, Janet

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of interconnect and device process variations on voltage fluctuations in power grids. We consider random variations in the power grid's electrical parameters as spatial stochastic processes and propose a new and efficient method to compute the stochastic voltage response of the power grid. Our approach provides an explicit analytical representation of the stochastic voltage response using orthogonal polynomials in a Hilbert space. The approach has been implemented in a prototype software called OPERA (Orthogonal Polynomial Expansions for Response Analysis). Use of OPERA on industrial power grids demonstrated speed-ups of up to two orders of magnitude. The results also show a significant variation of about $\\pm$ 35% in the nominal voltage drops at various nodes of the power grids and demonstrate the need for variation-aware power grid analysis.

  10. The car following model considering traffic jerk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-Xia; Zheng, Peng-jun; Wang, Wei; Cheng, Rong-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Based on optimal velocity car following model, a new model considering traffic jerk is proposed to describe the jamming transition in traffic flow on a highway. Traffic jerk means the sudden braking and acceleration of vehicles, which has a significant impact on traffic movement. The nature of the model is researched by using linear and nonlinear analysis method. A thermodynamic theory is formulated to describe the phase transition and critical phenomenon in traffic flow. The time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation and the modified Korteweg-de Vries (mKdV) equation are derived to describe the traffic flow near the critical point and the traffic jam. In addition, the connection between the TDGL and the mKdV equations are also given.

  11. Cannabis arteritis: ever more important to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rui Pedro; Resende, Cristina Isabel Pinho; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2017-03-13

    Cannabis arteritis (CA) is a major and underdiagnosed cause of peripheral arterial disease in young patients. A 34-year-old man, daily smoker of 20 cigarettes and two cannabis cigarettes for 14 years, presented with a necrotic plaque of left hallux for 3 weeks. The Doppler ultrasound and angiography were compatible with severe Buerger's disease. Submitted to a revascularisation procedure and hypocoagulation with rivaroxaban. He had ceased smoking but maintained consumption of cannabis. Owing to the persistence of distal necrosis, amputation of the hallux was performed with good evolution. CA is a subtype of Buerger's disease. It is poorly known but increasingly prevalent and manifests in cannabis users regardless of tobacco use. The drug is considered at least a cofactor of the arteriopathy. The most effective treatment is cessation of consumption. Being cannabis one of the most consumed drugs, its mandatory to ask about its use in all young patients with arteriopathy.

  12. Considering Subcontractors in Distributed Scrum Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzki, Jakub; Hammouda, Imed; Mikkola, Tuomas; Mustonen, Karri; Systä, Tarja

    In this chapter we present our experiences with working with subcontractors in distributed Scrum teams. The context of our experiences is a medium size software service provider company. We present the way the subcontractors are selected and how Scrum practices can be used in real-life projects. We discuss team arrangements and tools used in distributed development teams highlighting aspects that are important when working with subcontractors. We also present an illustrative example where different phases of a project working with subcontractors are described. The example also provides practical tips on work in such projects. Finally, we present a summary of our data that was collected from Scrum and non-Scrum projects implemented over a few years. This chapter should provide a practical point of view on working with subcontractors in Scrum teams for those who are considering such cooperation.

  13. Tunnel design considering stress release effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Van-hung DAO

    2009-01-01

    In tunnel design,the determination of installation time and the stiffness of supporting structures is very important to the tunnel stability.This study used the convergence-confinement method to determine the stress and displacement of the tunnel while considering the counter-pressure curve of the ground base,the stress release effect,and the interaction between the tunnel lining and the rock surrounding the tunnel chamber.The results allowed for the determination of the installation time,distribution and strength of supporting structures.This method was applied to the intake tunnel in the Ban Ve Hydroelectric Power Plant,in Nghe An Province,Vietnam.The results show that when a suitable displacement u0 ranging from 0.0865 m to 0.0919 m occurrs,we can install supporting structures that satisfy the stability and economical requirements.

  14. Considering a possible future for Digital Journalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark DEUZE

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments shaping digital journalism seem to speeding up at the start of the 21st century. Social media enable radical new ways to gather and verify sources and information. Hardware and software power innovative storytelling formats, combining platforms and channels, adding interactivity to the news experience. And the global news industry is quickly becoming a networked industry, with startups and other forms of entrepreneurial journalism springing up all over the world. In this essay, I consider a possible future for digital journalism by briefly reviewing first findings from a series of case studies of 21 new small-sized journalism enterprises operating in 11 countries (spread across 5 continents. The overarching research question: seen through their eyes, what does the future of (digital journalism look like? The answers are hopeful.

  15. PROJECT MANAGEMENT CONSIDERED IN A 2014 PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRAPĂ ADELINA-ROXANA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Project Management has come of age, yet multiple surveys and reports confirm the fact that the majority of projects are challenged. Given the more demanding and strict financial constraints associated with the current fiscal climate, project management is regarded as a tool that can deliver more with less. The literature on Project Management shows that, in spite of advancement in Project Management processes, tools and systems, project success has not significantly improved. This problem raises questions about the value and effectiveness of Project Management and Project Management systems. Programs and projects are considered as strategic assets for the majority of businesses, therefore, the trend of these organizations is to embrace a management by projects culture. The main objective of Project Management nowadays is to ensure programs and projects aligned to a certain strategy and also to provide for every member of an organization the ability to take proactive actions creating additional benefits.

  16. Sources of the Radio Background Considered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singal, J.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Stawarz, L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U. /Jagiellonian U., Astron. Observ.; Lawrence, A.; /Edinburgh U., Inst. Astron. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U.; Petrosian, V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-22

    We investigate possible origins of the extragalactic radio background reported by the ARCADE 2 collaboration. The surface brightness of the background is several times higher than that which would result from currently observed radio sources. We consider contributions to the background from diffuse synchrotron emission from clusters and the intergalactic medium, previously unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of radio sources, and faint point sources below the flux limit of existing surveys. By examining radio source counts available in the literature, we conclude that most of the radio background is produced by radio point sources that dominate at sub {mu}Jy fluxes. We show that a truly diffuse background produced by elections far from galaxies is ruled out because such energetic electrons would overproduce the observed X-ray/{gamma}-ray background through inverse Compton scattering of the other photon fields. Unrecognized flux from low surface brightness regions of extended radio sources, or moderate flux sources missed entirely by radio source count surveys, cannot explain the bulk of the observed background, but may contribute as much as 10%. We consider both radio supernovae and radio quiet quasars as candidate sources for the background, and show that both fail to produce it at the observed level because of insufficient number of objects and total flux, although radio quiet quasars contribute at the level of at least a few percent. We conclude that the most important population for production of the background is likely ordinary starforming galaxies above redshift 1 characterized by an evolving radio far-infrared correlation, which increases toward the radio loud with redshift.

  17. Microgrid management architecture considering optimal battery dispatch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Tim George

    Energy management and economic operation of microgrids with energy storage systems at the distribution level have attracted significant research interest in recent years. One of the challenges in this area has been the coordination of energy management functions with decentralized and centralized dispatch. In this thesis a distributed dispatch algorithm for a microgrid consisting of a photovoltaic source with energy storage which can work with a centralized dispatch algorithm that ensure stability of the microgrid is proposed. To this end, first a rule based dispatch algorithm is formulated which is based on maximum resource utilization and can work in both off grid and grid connected mode. Then a fixed horizon optimization algorithm which minimizes the cost of power taken from the grid is developed. In order to schedule the battery based on changes in the PV farm a predictive horizon methodology based optimization is designed. Further, the rule based and optimization based dispatch methodologies is linked to optimize the voltage deviations at the microgrid Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The main advantage of the proposed method is that, an optimal active power dispatch considering the nominal voltage bandwidth can be initiated for the microgrid in both grid connected or off grid mode of operation. Also, the method allows the grid operator to consider cost based optimal renewable generation scheduling and/or the maximum power extraction based modes of operation simultaneously or separately based on grid operating conditions and topologies. Further, the methods allows maintaining PCC voltage within the limits during these modes of operation and at the same time ensure that the battery dispatch is optimal.

  18. The UK National Infrastructure Plan 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, James

    2010-01-01

    The challenges of infrastructure finance need to be considered in the context of long-term infrastructure planning. This article outlines the UK's new integrated approach to infrastructure planning to meet large investment needs against the backdrop of fiscal consolidation. The UK National Infrastructure Plan for the first time sets our a broad, integrated, corss-sectoral vision and plan for the substantial infrastructure investment required to underpin the UK's economic growth. This plan wil...

  19. Planning as an Iterative Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Activity planning for missions such as the Mars Exploration Rover mission presents many technical challenges, including oversubscription, consideration of time, concurrency, resources, preferences, and uncertainty. These challenges have all been addressed by the research community to varying degrees, but significant technical hurdles still remain. In addition, the integration of these capabilities into a single planning engine remains largely unaddressed. However, I argue that there is a deeper set of issues that needs to be considered namely the integration of planning into an iterative process that begins before the goals, objectives, and preferences are fully defined. This introduces a number of technical challenges for planning, including the ability to more naturally specify and utilize constraints on the planning process, the ability to generate multiple qualitatively different plans, and the ability to provide deep explanation of plans.

  20. Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Considering FACTS Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail MAROUANI

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Because their capability to change the network parameters with a rapid response and enhanced flexibility, flexible AC transmission system (FACTS devices have taken more attention in power systems operations as improvement of voltage profile and minimizing system losses. In this way, this paper presents a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA to solve optimal reactive power dispatch (ORPD problem with FACTS devices. This nonlinear multi-objective problem (MOP consists to minimize simultaneously real power loss in transmission lines and voltage deviation at load buses, by tuning parameters and searching the location of FACTS devices. The constraints of this MOP are divided to equality constraints represented by load flow equations and inequality constraints such as, generation reactive power sources and security limits at load buses. Two types of FACTS devices, static synchronous series compensator (SSSC and unified power flow controller (UPFC are considered. A comparative study regarding the effects of an SSSC and an UPFC on voltage deviation and total transmission real losses is carried out. The design problem is tested on a 6-bus system.

  1. Orbital Epidermoid Cysts: A Diagnosis to Consider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania A. Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Orbital epidermoids form a rare pathological entity that is separate from dermoid cysts. They have variable clinical and radiological presentations and they should be considered in the differential diagnosis of orbital cystic lesions. This work describes the various clinical and radiological presentations of 17 cases of epidermoid cysts and the surgical outcome. Method. A prospective interventional study was conducted on 17 patients diagnosed with epidermoid cysts. Patients’ symptoms and signs were recorded; CT scan was done for all patients. All lesions were removed through anterior orbitotomy and histopathological diagnosis confirmed. Results. Mean age of patients was 16.3 years ±  10.54. Main complaints were lid swelling, masses, ocular dissimilarity, chronic pain, and ocular protrusion. Clinical signs varied from lid swelling and masses in all cases to proptosis, globe displacement, limitation of ocular motility, and scars. Radiological findings ranged from homogenous hypodense masses (58.8% to homogenous radiolucent (17.6% and heterogenous masses (23.5%. No recurrences following surgeries were reported throughout the follow-up (mean 18.8 months ±  0.72. Conclusion. Deep orbital epidemoid cysts are a separate entity that can behave like deep orbital epidermoid; however, they usually present at a relatively older age. They can be associated with increased orbital volume but not necessarily related to bony sutures.

  2. Payment Risk Estimation in the Markets of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia Mokėjimų rizikos įvertinimas Lietuvos, Latvijos ir Estijos rinkose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Grigonytė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available

    According to difficult business situation, payments to business partners, clients or suppliers are delayed more than usual. That could be a serious threat to enterprises. In this article solvency importance to all business units as well as company‘s ability to pay their debts to other market units (partners, suppliers, etc. in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia are discussed. The data used in this article are taken from Intrum Justitia OY EPI (European Payment Index research. Payment index in three Baltic region countries, harm that can be done to enterprises, and company‘s behaviour according to payment delays are analysed. At the end of the article there are recommendations of actions needed to be taken in order to prevent company‘s solvency.

    Keywords: paying capacity, payment risk, payment index.

    Industrinį pasaulį veikia didžiausias ekonominis nuosmukis nuo Didžiosios depresijos laikų. Grynųjų pinigų srautų išlaikymas ir stiprinimas šiuo metu yra gyvybiškai svarbus verslui, tiek stambiajam, tiek smulkiajam. Bankai

  3. A Parallel Probabilistic Load Flow Method Considering Nodal Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of more and more random factors in power systems, probabilistic load flow (PLF has become one of the most important tasks for power system planning and operation. Cumulants-based PLF is an effective algorithm to calculate PLF in an analytical way, however, the correlations among the nodal injections to the system level have rarely been studied. A novel parallel cumulants-based PLF method considering nodal correlations is proposed in this paper, which is able to deal with the correlations among all system nodes, and avoid the Jacobian matrix inversion in the traditional cumulants-based PLF as well. In addition, parallel computing is introduced to improve the efficiency of the numerical calculations. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated by numerical tests on the standard IEEE-14 system, comparing with the results from Correlation Latin hypercube sampling Monte Carlo Simulation (CLMCS method. And the efficiency and parallel performance is proven by the tests on the modified IEEE-300, C703, N1047 systems with distributed generation (DG. Numerical simulations show that the proposed parallel cumulants-based PLF method considering nodal correlations is able to get more accurate results using less computational time and physical memory, and have higher efficiency and better parallel performance than the traditional one.

  4. Steel Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  5. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  6. Considering social accountability in rehabilitation therapy school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAJAR SHIEH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As you know, there is increasing attention in social accountability concept for medical and other health professional schools. Despite the uniqueness of the concept of social accountability, it has different definitions in various fields. The World Health Organization (WHO has described social accountability generally as follows: “the obligation to direct education, research and service activities toward addressing the priority health concerns of community, region, or nation”(1. Applied to health professional schools, the idea of social accountability recognizes it’s prospective for transforming community by acting throughout the educational, research and healthcare delivery, on a mixture of social determinants of health factors and for helping to make a proficient and equitable health system. One of the health professional schools in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is the School of Rehabilitation Therapy. This school is committed to lead and stimulate positive changes that improve quality of lives through rehabilitation education, research and practice. As part of this commitment, the mission of this school is to teach occupational therapists, physiotherapists and physiotherapy scientists who contribute to wellbeing and welfare of the community. This school is recognized for excellent social accountability. In a qualitative study, we developed the indicators for assessing the concept of social accountability in this school based on the extensive literature review and expert opinions. Finally, 57 indicators were determined for assessing the social accountability and used for assessment of social accountability in this school (2. The results showed that considering the healthcare needs of the community for education and research, provision of interdisciplinary education for students, addition of the idea of social accountability in the accreditation system, teaching professionalism to students before the clinical courses, and

  7. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  8. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  9. Capitalizing strategic planning costs to recognize future value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeting, D T; Luecke, R W

    1995-04-01

    As healthcare organizations devote more resources to strategic planning, financial managers should consider capitalizing, rather than expensing, planning costs. Traditionally, healthcare organizations have absorbed these costs in the year a plan is developed. However, a strategic plan may be viewed as an intangible asset that provides the organization with future benefits. Therefore, its costs can be amortized over the plan's life.

  10. Spatial Perception and Cognition Review. Considering Geotechnologies as Urban Planning Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Júnia Borges; Camila Zyngier; Karen Lourenço; Jonatha Santos

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a review of the spatial cognition and perception principles, referring to the definition proposed by Cullen and Lynch, through the geotechnology tools. It presents a case study to be analyzed through Geographical Information Systems (GIS), 3D Modeling, Spatial Analysis and Data Base Structure. This proposition presents reflections about the concepts and values of the early foundations of the spatial perception and cognition theories as a base to promote participative pla...

  11. A Lexicographic Approach to Postdisaster Relief Logistics Planning Considering Fill Rates and Costs under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Liu

    2014-01-01

    feasibility of the proposed bi-objective stochastic model has been demonstrated empirically, and the effectiveness of the developed solution algorithms has also been evaluated and compared to that of commercial mixed-integer optimization software.

  12. Considering Vulnerability in Disaster Risk Reduction Plans: From Policy to Practice in Ladakh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Le Masson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In Ladakh, India, a mountainous region prone to natural hazards, particularly floods, it is critical to adapt disaster risk reduction (DRR measures to the local environment. The floods that struck Ladakh in 2010 created momentum for local authorities and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs to engage in DRR initiatives in order to better prepare people to cope with and recover from emergencies. This paper analyzes the way DRR approaches in Ladakh, from the central government to the district level, take both vulnerability and capacity into account. National and state policies are integrated and reflect the vulnerability concept quite well. However, as the case of Ladakh shows, establishing policies does not guarantee that appropriate practices will follow. Although NGOs' relief efforts in 2010 were praised for building on local communities' context and capacities, most practitioners still view DRR through a hazard-focused lens. Likewise, the policy framework for DRR does not yet address the socioeconomic construction of disasters and is not translated into adequate interventions that build on lessons learned during the 2010 emergency. Development obstacles, such as corruption, may also compromise efforts to translate DRR policies into appropriate and sustainable practices. However, local development projects that enhance the resilience of local mountain communities exist and could be valued as effective DRR. Emphasis should be placed on the practical integration of DRR in sustainable development efforts in order to better tackle disasters.

  13. Planning for reliable coal quality delivery considering geological variability: A case study in polish lignite mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naworyta, W.; Sypniowski, S.; Benndorf, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of coal quality control in coal mines is to supply power plants daily with extracted raw material within certain coal quality constraints. On the example of a selected part of a lignite deposit, the problem of quality control for the runof-mine lignite stream is discussed. The main goal is t

  14. Theoretical and behavioral features to be considered when planning and implementing a pbl curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D' Ottavio, Alberto Enrique

    2016-01-01

    This work complements former articles about an Argentinean PBL curriculum after twelve years of development. In this context, it points out determined inflexible features linked to its theoretical-pedagogical basis and certain counter-productive behaviors detected in some planners, teachers and students during its design and/or enduring implementation. Hence, reflections are made on learning and adult learning (andragogy) theories. Furthermore, related questions and some aspects to be overcome are presented and analyzed. In this way, it also intends to honestly and responsibly warn well-trained curriculum planners and executors to be cautious when choosing and managing learning theories. Likewise, it complementarily highlights the need of refocusing teachers that, pretending to be forward-looking ones, end up harming what at first proclaimed to benefit: the students.

  15. Planning for Reliable Coal Quality Delivery Considering Geological Variability: A Case Study in Polish Lignite Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Naworyta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of coal quality control in coal mines is to supply power plants daily with extracted raw material within certain coal quality constraints. On the example of a selected part of a lignite deposit, the problem of quality control for the run-of-mine lignite stream is discussed. The main goal is to understand potential fluctuations and deviations from production targets dependent on design options before an investment is done. A single quality parameter of the deposit is selected for this analysis—the calorific value of raw lignite. The approach requires an integrated analysis of deposit inherent variability, the extraction sequence, and the blending option during material transportation. Based on drill-hole data models capturing of spatial variability of the attribute of consideration are generated. An analysis based on two modelling approaches, Kriging and sequential Gaussian simulation, reveals advantages and disadvantages lead to conclusions about their suitability for the control of raw material quality. In a second step, based on a production schedule, the variability of the calorific value in the lignite stream has been analysed. In a third step the effect of different design options, multiple excavators and a blending bed, was investigated.

  16. Planning for reliable coal quality delivery considering geological variability: A case study in polish lignite mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naworyta, W.; Sypniowski, S.; Benndorf, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of coal quality control in coal mines is to supply power plants daily with extracted raw material within certain coal quality constraints. On the example of a selected part of a lignite deposit, the problem of quality control for the runof-mine lignite stream is discussed. The main goal is

  17. Why we should consider pragmatics when planning treatment for children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Amy L

    2004-01-01

    Pragmatics, the use of language in context, has been investigated only recently in the language used by children who stutter (CWS). Historically researchers compared the length and complexity of the syntactic constructions produced by these children with those of children who do not stutter (CWNS) and generally found the CWS to be relatively deficient. More recently, some investigators have begun to address how the language and fluency of CWS are influenced in different communicative settings. This article describes several findings concerning the pragmatic competencies of CWS set against the traditional famework of pragmatic language development. Most studies have shown no significant differences between the CWS and CWNS groups, although some aspects of pagmatic language use have yielded an exacerbation of stuttering for CWS. These findings have suggested specific ways of incorporating a pragmatic focus in the treatment programming for CWS where the degree of difficulty of language use is increased gradually.

  18. Incremental Contingency Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  19. Planning practices in Galicia: How communities compensate the lack of statutory planning using bottom up planning initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Marlies; Díaz-Varela, E.; Cardín-Pedrosa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Planning practices performed by non-governmental actors are often not considered as part the spatial planning domain. Spatial planning is generally associated with governmental activity: coordination that is aimed at a formal regulation of land uses and distribution of public goods. Nevertheless, th

  20. GRIPS Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    The GRIPS (Geothermal Resources Impact Projection Study) Commission was established by a Joint Powers Agreement between the California Counties of Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma. The objectives of GRIPS are primarily to develop and use a cooperative environmental data collection and use system including natural, social, and economic considerations to facilitate their independent decisions and those of State and Federal agencies related to the environmental effects of geothermal development. This GRIPS Plan was prepared from a wide range of studies, workshops, and staff analyses. The plan is presented in four parts: summary and introduction; environmental data status report; planned programs; and budget. (MHR)

  1. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  2. 10 CFR 436.43 - Procurement planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement planning. 436.43 Section 436.43 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Agency Procurement of Energy Efficient Products § 436.43 Procurement planning. (a) Agencies should consider the...

  3. Are Planning Students becoming Transformational Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research asks us to consider the intersection of three major themes in the pedagogy of teaching Planning students: sustainable community theories, transformational leadership and community engagement. The intersection, a critical Planning pedagogy, should be a part of any Planning program, embedded within the curriculum of higher education.…

  4. Lifetime oriented maintenance planning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straub, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we set up a framework for lifetime oriented maintenance planning as an outcome and input for strategic housing stock management. The maintenance planning holds maintenance activities and costs in the longer term. We consider the maintenance planning as a tool to calculate and implement

  5. 76 FR 69188 - Indian Tribal Governmental Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Treasury Department and IRS are considering proposing relating to the determination of whether a plan of an... in, employee benefit plans of Indian tribal governments. DATES: Written or electronic comments must... would provide guidance relating to the determination of whether a plan of an Indian tribal government,...

  6. 29 CFR 5.28 - Unfunded plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Unfunded plans. 5.28 Section 5.28 Labor Office of the... the Davis-Bacon Act § 5.28 Unfunded plans. (a) The costs to a contractor or subcontractor which may be... commitment to carry out a financially responsible plan or program, are considered fringe benefits within the...

  7. Are Planning Students becoming Transformational Leaders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This research asks us to consider the intersection of three major themes in the pedagogy of teaching Planning students: sustainable community theories, transformational leadership and community engagement. The intersection, a critical Planning pedagogy, should be a part of any Planning program, embedded within the curriculum of higher education.…

  8. Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  9. Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Tamarac...

  10. Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Radošinská, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with the processing of a business plan to establish a tour operator, which will offer tours to Puerto Rico. Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part explains what is business and related terms. Defines the tourism business and the procedure for the establishment of tour operators. There are also theoretically explained individual chapters of a business plan. The practical part is dedicated to the establishment of tour operator, where is ...

  11. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  12. 21 CFR 822.16 - What will you consider in the review of my submission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What will you consider in the review of my submission? 822.16 Section 822.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... qualifications and experience to conduct the surveillance and whether the surveillance plan will result in...

  13. DENTAL CLINICIAN’S CRITICAL ROLE WHEN CONSIDERING FIXED AND REMOVABLE DENTAL PROSTHESES FOR THE PACIENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Georgieva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes the most common as well as the most severe complications due to outdated prosthetic restorations. It is based on 38 clinical cases, examined at Faculty of Dental Medicine - Varna. The conclusions outline the mistakes which cause such dramatic results and the leading role of the dental clinician in considering the treatment prosthetic plan.

  14. Optimum profit model considering production, quality and sale problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Lu, Chih-Lun

    2011-12-01

    Chen and Liu ['Procurement Strategies in the Presence of the Spot Market-an Analytical Framework', Production Planning and Control, 18, 297-309] presented the optimum profit model between the producers and the purchasers for the supply chain system with a pure procurement policy. However, their model with a simple manufacturing cost did not consider the used cost of the customer. In this study, the modified Chen and Liu's model will be addressed for determining the optimum product and process parameters. The authors propose a modified Chen and Liu's model under the two-stage screening procedure. The surrogate variable having a high correlation with the measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the first stage. The measurable quality characteristic will be directly measured in the second stage when the product decision cannot be determined in the first stage. The used cost of the customer will be measured by adopting Taguchi's quadratic quality loss function. The optimum purchaser's order quantity, the producer's product price and the process quality level will be jointly determined by maximising the expected profit between them.

  15. Network planning under uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Shing; Cheung, Kwok Wai

    2008-11-01

    One of the main focuses for network planning is on the optimization of network resources required to build a network under certain traffic demand projection. Traditionally, the inputs to this type of network planning problems are treated as deterministic. In reality, the varying traffic requirements and fluctuations in network resources can cause uncertainties in the decision models. The failure to include the uncertainties in the network design process can severely affect the feasibility and economics of the network. Therefore, it is essential to find a solution that can be insensitive to the uncertain conditions during the network planning process. As early as in the 1960's, a network planning problem with varying traffic requirements over time had been studied. Up to now, this kind of network planning problems is still being active researched, especially for the VPN network design. Another kind of network planning problems under uncertainties that has been studied actively in the past decade addresses the fluctuations in network resources. One such hotly pursued research topic is survivable network planning. It considers the design of a network under uncertainties brought by the fluctuations in topology to meet the requirement that the network remains intact up to a certain number of faults occurring anywhere in the network. Recently, the authors proposed a new planning methodology called Generalized Survivable Network that tackles the network design problem under both varying traffic requirements and fluctuations of topology. Although all the above network planning problems handle various kinds of uncertainties, it is hard to find a generic framework under more general uncertainty conditions that allows a more systematic way to solve the problems. With a unified framework, the seemingly diverse models and algorithms can be intimately related and possibly more insights and improvements can be brought out for solving the problem. This motivates us to seek a

  16. Who plans for health improvement? SEA, HIA and the separation of spatial planning and health planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Alan, E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [InteREAM (Interdisciplinary Research in Environmental Assessment and Management), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cave, Ben, E-mail: ben.cave@bcahealth.co.uk [Ben Cave Associates Ltd., Leeds (United Kingdom); Ballantyne, Rob, E-mail: robdballantyne@gmail.com [Planning and Health Consultant, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-15

    This study examines whether there is active planning for health improvement in the English spatial planning system and how this varies across two regions using a combination of telephone surveys and focus group interviews in 2005 and 2010. The spatial planning profession was found to be ill-equipped to consider the health and well-being implications of its actions, whilst health professionals are rarely engaged and have limited understanding and aspirations when it comes to influencing spatial planning. Strategic Environmental Assessment was not considered to be successful in integrating health into spatial plans, given it was the responsibility of planners lacking the capacity to do so. For their part, health professionals have insufficient knowledge and understanding of planning and how to engage with it to be able to plan for health gains rather than simply respond to health impacts. HIA practice is patchy and generally undertaken by health professionals outside the statutory planning framework. Thus, whilst appropriate assessment tools exist, they currently lack a coherent context within which they can function effectively and the implementation of the Kiev protocol requiring the engagement of health professionals in SEA is not to likely improve the consideration of health in planning while there continues to be separation of functions between professions and lack of understanding of the other profession. -- Highlights: ► Health professionals have limited aspirations for health improvement through the planning system. ► Spatial planners are ill-equipped to understand the health and well-being implications of their activities. ► SEA and HIA currently do not embed health consideration in planning decisions. ► The separation of health and planning functions is problematic for the effective conduct of SEA and/or HIA.

  17. Recce mission planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  18. Modulation index for VMAT considering both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Jung In [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ye, Sung Joon [Program in Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Seoul National University Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Wu, Hong Gyun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Nyoun [Graduate School of Information, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The mechanical uncertainty of multi-leaf collimator (MLC) movements, gantry rotations and beam control systems as well as inaccurate dose calculations of small or irregular fields result in discrepancies between planned dose distributions as intended to be delivered to the patient, and the actual delivery to the patient. In this study, we designed a weighting factor which considers the size and irregularity of field apertures at each control point (CP) by utilizing the thinning algorithm, an image processing technique. After that, we combined this weighting factor with the previously suggested MIt, which considers the mechanical uncertainty of VMAT. In doing so, we attempted to design a modulation index which considers both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties due to excessive modulation of VMAT plans. The MI{sub c} (f = 0.5) demonstrated considerable power to predict VMAT delivery accuracy showing strong correlations to various measures of VMAT delivery accuracy.

  19. Program and Evaluation Planning Light: Planning in the Real World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus J. RANDOLPH

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many high-quality models for program and evaluation planning, these models are often too intensive to be used in situations when time and resources are scarce. Additionally, there is little added value in using an elaborate and expensive program and evaluation planning procedure when programs are small or are planned to be short-lived. To meet the need for simplified models for program and evaluation planning, we describe a model that includes only what we consider to be the most essential outcomes-based program and evaluation planning steps: (a how to create a logic model that shows how the program is causally expected to lead to outcomes, (b how to use the logic model to identify the goals and objectives that the program is responsible for; (c how to formulate measures, baselines, and targets from the goals and objectives; and (d how to construct program activities that align with program targets.

  20. Natural Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  1. Planning for integrated mine closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda Starke (ed.)

    2008-07-01

    This document presents an Integrated Mine Closure Planning Toolkit for the mining and metals sector. The toolkit is intended to be used to promote a more disciplined approach to integrated closure planning and to increase the uniformity of good practices across the sector. The concepts apply equally well to both large and small companies. The document is not intended to be prescriptive; it provides a suite of tools that can be brought to bear in formulating well-considered decisions when planning for closure. It uses a risk and opportunity based process to guide the practitioner through the iterative process of preparing for planned closure. The first section, with head office and mine management personnel as the primary audience, describes the participants of effective closure planning. Sections 2 and 3 provide the frameworks for a conceptual closure plan and a detailed plan. The key audiences for these two sections are mine management and head office personnel, financial modellers and estimators, governments, academics and non-governmental organizations. The forth section addresses decommissioning and post closure planning, and Section 5 draws together the conclusions and outlines several unresolved issues. The five narrative sections are followed by Section 6 which outlines 13 tools, some of which are already available in earlier ICMM publications, member practices and other sector-affiliated publications. Others have been developed to cover identified gaps. These tools provide the practitioner with practical work processes, examples and contexts within which to apply closure planning discipline.

  2. Motor Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. MARKETING PLAN FOR HOTEL KAKSLAUTTANEN

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yueyuan

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to make a marketing plan for Hotel Kakslauttanen to increase its sales and profit, to improve the satisfaction of customers and to promote popularity and reputation. The quantitative research method was considered to be the most appropriate for this research. In the theoretical part, the study was focused on internal and external marketing environment analysis, marketing strategies management, planning, marketing mix and segmentation. The empirical part in...

  4. Modulation index for VMAT considering both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Min; Park, So-Yeon; Kim, Hyoungnyoun

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to present a modulation index considering both mechanical and dose calculation uncertainties for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). As a modulation index considering only mechanical uncertainty of VMAT, MIt has been previously suggested. In this study, we developed a weighting factor which represents dose calculation uncertainty based on the aperture shapes of fluence maps at every control point of VMAT plans. In order to calculate the weighting factor, the thinning algorithm of image processing techniques was applied to measure field aperture irregularity. By combining this weighting factor with the previously suggested modulation index, MIt, comprehensive modulation index (MIc) was designed. To evaluate the performance of MIc, gamma passing rates, differences in mechanical parameters between plans and log files and differences in dose-volume parameters between plans and the plans reconstructed from log files were acquired with a total of 52 VMAT plans. Spearman’s correlation coefficients (rs) between the values of MIc and measures of VMAT delivery accuracy were calculated. The rs values of MIc (f = 0.5) to global gamma passing rates with 2%/2 mm, 1%/2 mm and 2%/1 mm were  -0.728,-0.847 and  -0.617, respectively (p  VMAT delivery accuracy showing strong correlations to various measures of VMAT delivery accuracy.

  5. Machine learning methods for planning

    CERN Document Server

    Minton, Steven

    1993-01-01

    Machine Learning Methods for Planning provides information pertinent to learning methods for planning and scheduling. This book covers a wide variety of learning methods and learning architectures, including analogical, case-based, decision-tree, explanation-based, and reinforcement learning.Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with an overview of planning and scheduling and describes some representative learning systems that have been developed for these tasks. This text then describes a learning apprentice for calendar management. Other chapters consider the problem of temporal credi

  6. Pipeline rehabilitation planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer-Jones, Roland; Hopkins, Phil; Eyre, David [PENSPEN (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    An operator faced with an onshore pipeline that has extensive damage must consider the need for rehabilitation, the sort of rehabilitation to be used, and the rehabilitation schedule. This paper will consider pipeline rehabilitation based on the authors' experiences from recent projects, and recommend a simple strategy for planning pipeline rehabilitation. It will also consider rehabilitation options: external re-coating; internal lining; internal painting; programmed repairs. The main focus will be external re-coating. Consideration will be given to rehabilitation coating types, including tape wraps, epoxy, and polyurethane. Finally it will discuss different options for scheduling the rehabilitation of corrosion damage including: the statistical comparison of signals from inspection pigs; statistical comparison of selected measurements from inspection pigs and other inspections; the use of corrosion rates estimated for the mechanisms and conditions; expert judgement. (author)

  7. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Maris

    2016-01-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about...

  8. Energy planning and management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This paper contains printed copies of 60FR 53181, October 12, 1995 and 60 FR 54151. This is a record of decision concerning the Western Area Power Administration`s final draft and environmental impact statement, and Energy Planning and Management Program.

  9. Plan Repair using a Plan Library

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Krogt, R.P.J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Plan library's have proven their added value to the efficiency of planning. In this paper, we present results on the use of a plan library to plan repair. We show that using a relatively simple library, we can already obtain significant improvements in efficiency compared to plan repair without a li

  10. Planning Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    While traces and techniques of power and contestation around the understanding and production of spaces are clearly recognized in the sociological and planning research literature, there has been little rigorous attention to how socio-spatial inequality is put at stake in strategic mobilization...... around particular spatial imaginaries. In an analysis of the German Spatial Planning Report, the paper examines how inequalities are represented in relation to space and movement in spatial strategy. The analysis shows how, in the report, the spatial dimension of the social is represented...... as a territorial container, in which the social merges into regional and national entities. Correspondingly, movement is only interpreted as a derived demand, ignoring its integrative aspect as precondition of participation and part of network capital. On the other hand, the spatiality of the economy...

  11. VOYAGE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz SKÓRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sea voyage can be divided into three parts with varying degrees of risk: - from the berth at the port of departure to the pilot disembarkation point - from the pilot disembarkation to another pilot embarkation point near the port of call/destination - from the pilot embarkation point to the berth Results of statistical research into ship accidents at sea point to an increased number of incidents and accidents, including groundings, especially in restricted areas. Such areas are often narrow and have limited depths, while their short straight sections require frequent course alterations, often in varying hydrometeorological conditions. Due to all these factors, the voyage has to be carefully planned and all watchkeeping officers have to be well prepared to conduct the ship safely. The article presents the objectives, scope, legal basis and stages in the process of voyage planning. The compliance with the outlined principles will reduce the level of risk in maritime transport.

  12. Limerick Clare Energy Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Dubuisson, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Considering the security of supply concerns relating to the Irish energy system at present and the significant renewable energy resource available, many initiatives and policies have been developed to encourage the transition to renewable energy. These objectives are almost exclusively set...... at a national level, but they need to be supplemented by local plans also, since the most successful renewable energy projects to date are at a local level. For example, it is evident from the transition to renewable energy in Denmark, that 100% renewable energy systems can already be implemented at a local...... level. Hence, by initiating local action, national targets can be met and exceeded, while also creating a template for a wider transition to renewable energy. Accordingly, the primary goal of the project is: To develop a local energy plan for Limerick and Clare which is based on a quantified assessment...

  13. Planned place of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Coxon, Kirstie; Stewart, Mary

    Title Planned place of birth: issues of choice, access and equity. Outline In Northern European countries, giving birth is generally safe for healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, and their babies. However, place of birth can affect women’s outcomes and experiences of birth. Whilst tertiary...... centres provide appropriate medical supervision to women with complex pregnancies, the likelihood of receiving interventions including surgical birth is increased for low risk women in these settings. In this symposium, we consider issues of choice, access and equitable care for women in the context...... in Denmark Coxon K et al: Planned place of birth in England: perceptions of accessing obstetric units, midwife led units and home birth amongst women and their partners. How these papers interrelate These papers draw upon recent research in maternity care, undertaken in Denmark and in England. In both...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1872 - Who is considered a student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is considered a student. 416.1872 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Relationship Who Is Considered A Student for Purposes of the Student Earned Income Exclusion § 416.1872 Who is considered a student. We consider you to be a student if you are under 22...

  15. Ten rules for asset protection planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkisson, Jay D; Keller, Lawrence B

    2013-12-01

    Asset protection planning is a highly technical area of legal planning. Because of the fraudulent transfer laws, asset protection planning must be done in advance of any claim, be technically sound, not rely upon secrecy, and avoid any number of critical mistakes including keeping personal and business assets separate. Physicians who engage in asset protection planning must avoid critical mistakes, and not count on bankruptcy to provide relief from creditors. General rules and cautions for those who are considering the creation of an asset protection plan for their personal assets.

  16. Multiemployer Pension Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — This spreadsheet lists the active multiemployer pensions plans insured by PBGC. Plans are identified by name, employer identification number (EIN) and plan number...

  17. Living Well with Lupus: Can I Still Plan a Pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well with lupus Can I still plan a pregnancy? Pregnancy is no longer considered an impossibility if ... History or presence of antiphospholipid antibodies Planning Your Pregnancy Although many lupus pregnancies will have no complications, ...

  18. The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    engagement processes, support, ... Carel Schoeman • The alignment between spatial planning, transportation planning and environmental ..... NDOT: Public Transport Strategy (2007) .... Community Land Reform Act 28 of 1996 (CLARA).

  19. Planning Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandersheid, Katharina; Richardson, Tim

    2011-01-01

    around particular spatial imaginaries. In an analysis of the German Spatial Planning Report, the paper examines how inequalities are represented in relation to space and movement in spatial strategy. The analysis shows how, in the report, the spatial dimension of the social is represented...... as a territorial container, in which the social merges into regional and national entities. Correspondingly, movement is only interpreted as a derived demand, ignoring its integrative aspect as precondition of participation and part of network capital. On the other hand, the spatiality of the economy...

  20. Vision, Plan and Reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai

    of achieving what it is aiming at, something must be wrong with it. Thus, the basic argument of the thesis is, that the answer to this question must be sought within urban design itself, rather than within the context in which it operates. In order to approach the research question, the thesis is organized......, the theoretical study is organized as a threefold investigation of urban design theory, planning theory, as well as urban theory. As urban design in practice must consider what the built environment should be like as well as how it is developed, it must include normative as well as procedural considerations. Thus...

  1. Regional Modelling for Optimal Allocation of Agricultural Crops Considering Environmental Impacts, Housing Value and Leisure Preferences.

    OpenAIRE

    Haruvy, Nava; Shalhevet, Sarit

    2006-01-01

    Regional planning should consider the impact of agricultural crops on housing value and leisure, as well as on the local environment. We designed an optimization model for allocating agricultural crops based on farmers profits as well as the impact on these three factors. Each crop creates a different landscape, as well as a different effect on shading and noise reduction. These in turn influence the value of nearby housing and the regional leisure opportunities. Each crop also has a positive...

  2. Simulation Model of the Future Nordic Power Grid Considering the Impact of HVDC Links

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Even Strand

    2016-01-01

    As Europe is shifting to an increasingly larger share of non-dispatchable renewable energy sources, the cross-border power flow changes. This thesis considers further development of an existing PowerFactory simulation model designed to fit with new power flow situations influencing the Nordic power system. Today, there are many HVDC links connecting Europe to the Nordic grid, and there are several new links being built and planned. The thesis work is a continuation of an earlier specialisatio...

  3. Solid Biomass Consumption in Households and Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction in Latvia / CIETĀS Biomasas PATĒRIŅŠ un SILTUMNĪCEFEKTA GĀZU Emisiju SAMAZINĀŠANAS PERSPEKTĪVA Latvijas MĀJSAIMNIECĪBĀS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrenickis, I.; Klavs, G.

    2013-12-01

    Utilisation of biomass is an important factor in reducing emission of greenhouse gases (GHG); at the same time, high efficiency of biomass combustion technologies is to be ensured to minimise the methane (CH4) emission thus achieving the most efficient reduction in the total GHG emission. The authors analyse the GHG emission breakdown in Latvia among the sectors not included in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), and, in the context of emission reduction, evaluate the energy supply in the Latvian household sector, the types of combustion technologies and the used fuels. The trend is considered for the CH4 emission factor during 1990-2010 in the household sector of EU countries, and the numerical index is calculated which illustrates decoupling the consumption of biomass fuel from CH4 emission. To evaluate the perspective of CH4 emission reduction in the Latvian household sector, two scenarios are investigated for efficiency improvement as related to the central heating equipment based on wood fuel. Biomasas izmantošana ir viens no principiālajiem virzieniem siltumnīcefekta gāzu (SEG) emisiju samazināšanā. Maksimāla SEG emisiju samazinājuma panākšanai ir nepieciešams nodrošināt biomasas sadedzināšanas iekārtu augstu efektivitāti, lai minimizētu ar biomasas kurināmā patēriņu saistīto metāna (CH4) emisiju pieaugumu. Autori raksturo Eiropas Savienības (ES) Emisiju kvotu tirdzniecības sistēmas (ETS) un tajā neietilpstošo sektoru (ne-ETS) nozīmi Latvijas SEG emisiju veidošanā, SEG emisiju relatīvo sadalījumu atbilstoši dažādiem ne- ETS sektoriem un SEG emisiju samazināšanas kontekstā analizē Latvijas mājsaimniecību sektora energoapgādi, patērēto kurināmo un izmantotās kurināmā sadedzināšanas tehnoloģijas. Rakstā ir demonstrēta SEG emisiju inventarizācijā pielietotā CH4 emisiju specifiskā faktora mājsaimniecību sektora koksnes kurināmajam skaitlisko vērtību dinamika 1990-2010 gados dažādās ES valst

  4. Performance Expectations of Small Firms Considering Radical Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Performance expectations influence business decisions such as investment decisions, and demand for supplies, particularly in small firms with limited strategic planning. Despite widespread use of performance expectations by firms and governments when making sales forecasts and economic outlooks,

  5. Performance Expectations of Small Firms Considering Radical Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhees, F.J.H.M.; Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Performance expectations influence business decisions such as investment decisions, and demand for supplies, particularly in small firms with limited strategic planning. Despite widespread use of performance expectations by firms and governments when making sales forecasts and economic outlooks, sur

  6. Creativity, planning and organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.M.J.; Aarts, M.N.C.; Grip, de K.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the relationship between creativity and planning perspectives. Design/methodology/approach ¿ Creativity is considered to be the source of new and competitive ideas through which an organization positions itself in its environment. A distinction is

  7. NIE Planning Status, July 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, Harry F.

    This paper summarizes the current status of the National Institute of Education (NIE) plans for programs and organization as of the beginning of the 1973 fiscal year. The author considers the purpose of NIE as outlined in the NIE enabling legislation, lists the goals of education, and examines the problems that arise in trying to achieve those…

  8. Analyses of Heliport System Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    transport is considered. The obvious potential societal and economic benefits connected with airplane travel, not to mention the romance and sense of...heliport planning documents were the first of a new genre of aviation study. The planners who did them were breaking new ground,I with no established

  9. Consider long-term care as service alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, L S

    1987-04-01

    The increasing demand for elderly care services, pressures on inpatient average length of stay and payment levels, and potential financial rewards from providing additional services, makes long-term care look attractive to hospitals. Long-term care, however, is not for every hospital. Before deciding to establish long-term care services, management should examine how the service fits within the hospital's strategic plan. The action plan below provides guidance in evaluating a decision to use hospital facilities for long-term care. Examine how long-term care services fit within the hospital's strategic plan. Study area demographics and competitors to assess the need and supply of long-term care services. Survey the medical staff, consumers and payers to determine attitudes, perceptions and interests regarding long-term care services. Develop a facility plan that identifies areas of excess capacity that can be most easily converted into long-term care with minimal effects on hospital operations. Prepare a financial feasibility analysis of the contribution margin and return on investment attributable to long-term care services. Include an impact analysis on hospital operations. Establish a management task force to develop a detailed implementation plan including assigned individual responsibilities and related timetable. Develop an effective marketing plan designed to generate increased patient market share.

  10. Strategic planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Lipan; Govindan, Kannan; Li, Chunfa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a two-echelon reverse supply chain with dual-recycling channels where the recyclable dealer acts as a Stackelberg game leader and the recycler acts as a follower. Due to the price competition between these two channels, the dominant dealer always faces a challenge on ho...

  11. Simplified Approach to Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, Allan; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.

    2000-01-01

    A simplified and practically applicable approach for risk based inspection planning of fatigue sensitive structural details is presented. The basic idea behind the approach is that the fatigue sensitive details are categorized according to their stress intensity factors and their design fatigue l...... of steel structures. The validity of the proposed approach is illustrated through a study regarding inspection planning of offshore structures....... life to service life ratio, i.e. the fatigue design factor (FDF) and SN curve. When the reserve strength ratio (RSR) and the corresponding probability of total structural failure given fatigue failure of the considered detail is known it is possible to make a generic description of fatigue sensitive...... structural details and thereby develop pre-made inspection plans in tables which depend on relative cost of inspections, repairs and failures. Due to the simplicity of the format of the developed inspection plans the proposed approach has a high potential in code making for the design and maintenance...

  12. Developing a reproductive life plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Files, Julia A; Frey, Keith A; David, Paru S; Hunt, Katherine S; Noble, Brie N; Mayer, Anita P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is 2-fold: to emphasize the importance of a reproductive life plan and to define its key elements. We review the 2006 recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) regarding ways to improve the delivery of preconception health care to women in the United States, with particular focus on encouraging individual reproductive responsibility throughout the life span and on encouraging every woman to develop a reproductive life plan. We propose recommendations for the content of a reproductive life plan and explore ways to incorporate the guidelines from the CDC into clinical practice. By encouraging women to consider their plans for childbearing before they become pregnant, clinicians have the opportunity to influence behavior before pregnancy, which may decrease the incidence of unintended pregnancies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  13. THE ORGANIZATION OF AIR TRAFFIC PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Akimov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of civil aviation aircraft flights delays, because of the lack of efficiency of the air traffic planning. As a result, airports and airlines have financial losses. Analysis of delays at Moscow aerodromes, Tegel and Munich aerodromes are given. The principles of organization of air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation are described, as well as recommendations the use of which will improve the efficiency of the air traffic planning system in the Russian Federation.

  14. Planning under uncertainties; Planejamento sob incertezas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenstin, Boris Garbati; Novella, Pedro di; Costa, Joari Paulo da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Paciomik, Newton [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    This article presents a methodology for planning the expansion of interconnected hydro-thermal power generation systems considering uncertainty factors. Its utilization implies in structural changes in the planning process which begins to make use of expansion strategies instead of the traditional expansion plans. The main characteristics of such methodology are presented and an example of its application to the Brazilian power system is given 1 ref., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Factors to consider in the transition to digital radiological imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacDonald, David

    2009-02-01

    The dentist considering adopting digital radiological technology should consider more than the type of detector with which to capture the image. He\\/she should also consider the mode of display, image enhancement, radiation dose reduction, how the image can be stored long term, and infection control.

  16. 42 CFR 408.68 - When premiums are considered paid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When premiums are considered paid. 408.68 Section 408.68 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....68 When premiums are considered paid. (a) Payment by check. The premium is considered paid if...

  17. 27 CFR 53.103 - Lease considered as sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease considered as sale... Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.103 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an article by a manufacturer, producer, or importer shall be considered a...

  18. Human Resource Planning for Equity and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ann M.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the factors which must be considered for effective human resource planning. These factors include a grasp of regional reindustrialization, social and demographic changes, and social and economic priorities.

  19. Planning documents: a business planning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaehrle, P A

    2000-06-01

    Strategic planning and business plan development are essential nursing management skills in today's competitive, fast paced, continually changing health care environment. Even in times of great uncertainty, nurse managers need to plan and forecast for the future. A well-written business plan allows nurse managers to communicate their expertise and proactively contribute to the programmatic decisions and changes occurring within their patient population or service area. This article presents the use of planning documents as a practical, strategic business planning strategy. Although the model addresses orthopedic services specifically, nurse managers can gain an understanding and working knowledge of planning concepts that can be applied to all patient populations.

  20. Bicycle Promotion Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, G. A.

    1981-03-09

    The objective of this Bicycle Promotion Plan is to outline a set of recommendations and supporting strategies for implementation by the US DOE toward increased use of the bicycle for energy conservation. The recommendations are designed in such a way as to function in concert with: (1) bicycle programs administered by other Federal government agencies; and (2) related programs and activities already sponsored by DOE. The approach to preparation of the Plan involved a review of all current and planned bicycle promotion programs at the Federal level as well as a review of the array of lierature on the subject. The UniWorld project staff also interacted with several DOE program offices, in order to determine the extent to which they might appropriately contribute to the implementation of bicycle promotional efforts. A synthesis of all the information gathered was published in January of 1981 as a part of the project (The Bicycle Program Review). Based upon this information and an examination of the barriers to bicycle use identified by bicycle transportation specialists in the field, UniWorld developed a series of the most potentially effective recommendations and program strategies for implementation by DOE. The recommendations address activities that could be undertaken in conjunction with existing DOE programs, new developments that might be considered to fulfill critical needs in the field, and interagency efforts that DOE could play a role in.

  1. School Marketing: Plans, Practice and Perseverance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebler, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Reviews four essential factors to consider in a school marketing plan: the message, the audit, the committee, and the time frame. Argues that central to developing a marketing plan is the creation of focus groups composed of a diverse cross-section of the community to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the school. (JDI)

  2. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  3. School Marketing: Plans, Practice and Perseverance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keebler, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Reviews four essential factors to consider in a school marketing plan: the message, the audit, the committee, and the time frame. Argues that central to developing a marketing plan is the creation of focus groups composed of a diverse cross-section of the community to discuss the strengths and weaknesses of the school. (JDI)

  4. 12 CFR 345.27 - Strategic plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not considered for more than one institution. (d) Public participation in plan development. Before... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strategic plan. 345.27 Section 345.27 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY COMMUNITY...

  5. Language Planning for Literacy: Issues and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    Language planning for literacy has typically focused on models of provision of print-based literacy programmes in order to develop widespread literate capabilities in reading and writing. This paper argues that contemporary literacy planning needs to consider more than models of delivery and engage with issues related to defining the nature of…

  6. The Student Business Plan: Useful or Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Colin; Penaluna, Andy; Matlay, Harry; Penaluna, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a critical discussion of the role of the business plan in current enterprise educational practice. In addition to reviewing recent work that considers the "for" and "against" arguments about the use of business plans in higher education, the authors suggest that the context of student learning is largely…

  7. Plan Representations for Distributed Planning and Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Representation Planning is commonly associated with intelligent behavior in agents [Russell and Norvig , 2003]. The activity of planning can be defined...formulation [Russell and Norvig , 2003], is essential for enabling efficient problem-solving though search [Amarel, 1968]. The Planning Domain Definition... Norvig , 2003]. Preprocessing of planning domains is a technique that has been used to speed up the planning pro- cess [Dawson and Siklossy, 1977]. Perhaps

  8. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  9. Information technology planning: critical for implementing advanced manufacturing automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, M.; Brogden, I. [EDS Canada Management Consulting Services, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes the major components of information technology planning that, although developed for manufacturing companies, apply to mining companies. The major components of a fully integrated plan are discussed: strategic business planning, business process reengineering, corporate technology policy, application planning, information and data planning, infrastructure planning, and resource management. The factors that are critical to the success of information technology planning are discussed. Effective management for change must consider the following key components: corporate strategy, organizational structure, business process, people, culture, and technology. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A bio-chemostratigraphical test of the synchroneity of biozones in the upper Silurian of Estonia and Latvia with some implications for practical stratigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Kaljo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the reliability of different biozones in terms of their synchroneity when crossing facies boundaries within a sedimentary basin. Graptolite biozones are the most trusted ones, but also biozones based on conodonts, chitinozoans and less ‘authoritative’ groups like ostracodes and vertebrates are used. The integration of bio- and chemostratigraphy aids the understanding of the pattern and timing of fossil distribution. Despite different environments most of the analysed biozones are in general synchronous units and in the majority of cases their time signals do not contradict each other. The much discussed Ozarkodina crispa (and its two morphs has a stratigraphical range in the East Baltic that is longer than commonly recognized elsewhere. Its first occurrences in Estonia have been reported from shallow-water facies below the Mid-Ludfordian Carbon Isotope Excursion. The geographical distribution of Oz. crispa is much wider in the upper Ludfordian open shelf rocks and a few occurrences are also known in the lowest Přídolí in the East Baltic. Analogous ecostratigraphical trends are characteristic of some other fossil species. The analysis demonstrates that, when properly studied, all of the fossil groups considered can provide useful biostratigraphical information. The subdivision of the Přídolí Series into two stages is discussed. Bio-chemostratigraphical data confirm the late Ludfordian age of the Kuressaare Formation and its correlatives. The bio- and chemostratigraphical testing of biozonal indices suggests some tentative correlations with other areas, in particular the type Ludlow area, and enables identification of the Silurian–Devonian boundary in the East Baltic.

  11. The influence of vegetation structure on spider species richness, diversity and community organization in the Apšuciems calcareous fen, Latvia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štokmane, M.; Spuņģis, V.

    2016-07-01

    Calcareous fens are considered to be among the most threatened ecosystems of Europe. They are also one of the most diverse habitats as they support an incredibly rich and diverse range of plant and animal species. However, in spite of their diversity, calcareous fens are still poorly investigated, especially when referring to fen invertebrates, such as spiders. Because spiders are good bioindicators, knowledge of their ecology in rare and threatened habitats is of interest. The aim of this study was to document the composition and diversity of spider species, families and foraging guilds in the ground– and grass–layers of the Apšuciems calcareous fen, and to evaluate the influence of vegetation structure on spider community organization. In summer 2012, we collected ground–dwelling spiders using pitfall traps and grass–dwelling spiders using sweep–netting. A total of 2,937 spider individuals belonging to 19 families and 80 species was collected in the Apšuciems fen. Our results indicate that spider species and families tend to be stratified across the vertical structure of the habitat; the spider composition in the ground stratum differed from that in the grass stratum. On the contrary, however, the spider foraging guild structure between the ground–layer and the grass–layer was similar. Each of the two studied strata presented similar guilds in similar proportions. Our results also showed that spider composition differed considerably between fen parts and that much of this variability could be explained by the architectural properties of the habitat. More diverse vegetation generally supported a higher number of spider species. (Author)

  12. The influence of vegetation structure on spider species richness, diversity and community organization in the Apšuciems calcareous fen, Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štokmane, M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Calcareous fens are considered to be among the most threatened ecosystems of Europe. They are also one of the most diverse habitats as they support an incredibly rich and diverse range of plant and animal species. However, in spite of their diversity, calcareous fens are still poorly investigated, especially when referring to fen invertebrates, such as spiders. Because spiders are good bioindicators, knowledge of their ecology in rare and threatened habitats is of interest. The aim of this study was to document the composition and diversity of spider species, families and foraging guilds in the ground– and grass–layers of the Apšuciems calcareous fen, and to evaluate the influence of vegetation structure on spider community organization. In summer 2012, we collected ground–dwelling spiders using pitfall traps and grass–dwelling spiders using sweep–netting. A total of 2,937 spider individuals belonging to 19 families and 80 species was collected in the Apšuciems fen. Our results indicate that spider species and families tend to be stratified across the vertical structure of the habitat; the spider composition in the ground stratum differed from that in the grass stratum. On the contrary, however, the spider foraging guild structure between the ground–layer and the grass–layer was similar. Each of the two studied strata presented similar guilds in similar proportions. Our results also showed that spider composition differed considerably between fen parts and that much of this variability could be explained by the architectural properties of the habitat. More diverse vegetation generally supported a higher number of spider species.

  13. Analyzing Landslide Damage Cost and Adaptation Benefit and Cost Considering Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, H. G.; Heo, H. K.; Lee, D. K.; Sungho, K.; Sung, S.; Mo, Y.; Park, C.; Myung-Kyoon, L.

    2016-12-01

    Damages due to climate change have increased in various fields. Especially, extreme weathers related to climate change such as typhoon and heavy rainfall are the most important reason of damages in Republic of Korea (ROK). Seventy percent of ROK were mountainous area, thus landslide is one of the biggest natural disaster caused by extreme weathers. The study site, Gangwon-do has the largest mountainous area in ROK and is vulnerable to landslide damages. We must establish adaptation plan for landslide to prevent loss of properties and lives in Gangwon-do. To support establishment of adaptation plan, many researchers used spatial distribution models (SDMs) to find landslide susceptible areas. Spatial priority can be good information for decision makers. Meanwhile, there are many items and fields related to climate change issue. Therefore, we also should consider priority among various items and fields. Economic cost can support decision making process very effectively. However, a few articles analyzed damage cost and few articles analyzed adaptation benefit and cost of landslide. The objective of this study is analyzing landslide susceptible areas and economic damage cost and benefit and cost of adaptation plans. We found landslide susceptible areas by using SDM and estimated damage cost by using past damage records for 12 years. To assess adaptation benefit, we assessed adaptation effect by using modified model with modified variables and analyzed reduction of damage cost according to application of adaptation plans. Finally we analyzed adaptation benefit / cost for landslide in Gangwon-do. Decision makers can use the results of this study to compare priority among adaptation plans and establish effective adaptation plans. Additionally, researchers can refer the framework of this study to estimate damage cost and adaptation benefit / cost for landslide.

  14. Facial Grading System: Physical and Psychological Impairments to Be Considered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Meng-yao; FENG Guo-dong; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In the past half century, more than twenty facial grading systems have been developed to assess the facial nerve function after the onset of facial nerve paralysis and during rehabilitation. Patients' selfevaluation on disability caused by facial paralysis and its impact on quality of life are also useful information in planning treatment strategies and defining outcomes.

  15. To Boost Data Center Efficiency, Consider UPS Consolidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ In data center upgrade planning,backup power is often among the last considerations and the first budget item redlined.Many companise an uninterruptible power system (UPS (UPS))only as they add equipment-- what we call a segmented approach.

  16. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Guide for surface coal mine reclamation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    The purpose of the guide is to provide a framework for Nova Scotia's coal mining community to consult during reclamation planning and environmental assessment. The guide describe the best management practices for application to surface mine reclamation. Principles of reclamation, standard submission requirements for a reclamation plan, planning for reclamation, landscape design, and revegetation, and methods for site preparation, monitoring, and maintenance are discussed. Backfilling, flooded excavation management, and other options are outlined. The reclamation plan must consider decommissioning of equipment and infrastructure, water retention and treatment ponds, acid rock drainage control and monitoring, site monitoring, watercourse management, and public safety. A glossary is included.

  18. The Rise of the Financial Planning Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Cull

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial planning industry in Australia has experienced significant reform in the lastdecade. This reform has not only made a considerable impact on financial planners but also onother groups such as the accounting profession, regulators, the financial services industry,educators and consumers. Although consumer protection was at the heart of this reform, it hasalso prompted the industry and other groups to consider financial planning as a profession.This paper begins with a definition of financial planning, followed by a discussion of thehistorical origins of financial planning. Several examples are used to illustrate how the industryhas developed and changed over time considering the impact of social, cultural, institutional,political and economic factors. Particular attention is given to the role of the accountingprofession and government regulation in Australia. The paper concludes with a discussion of theprofessionalisation of financial planning in light of the increased pressure for changes inremuneration practice in the industry.

  19. Plan Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noam Chomsky

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia recibe más ayuda militar de Estados Unidos que el resto de América Latina y el Caribe unidos, y esta situación puede profundizarse con la ejecución del Plan Colombia, fundamentado en la lucha antidrogas. Sin embargo, el pais ha sido calificado con el récord en violación de derechos humanos. En este contexto se aplica la reforma económica más significativa en la década de los noventa, generando condicionantes en los procesos de integración con sus vecinos. En concordancia con el secretario de Defensa, Henry Stimson, desde los años 60 Estados Unidos estaba autorizado para controlar su propio sistema regional, mientras todos los demás intenlos serian desmantelados. La presentación ambigua de esta política del gobierno estadounidense en Colombia es cómo disociar esta guerra contra la droga y la lucha irregular contrainsurgente En Estados Unidos hay otra opinión que debe conocerse para comprender las divergencias en e! interior de dicho país. Este artículo del prestigioso profesor universitario del MU, Noam Chomsky, es un referente obligado en términos de opinión pública y académica de dimensión internacional, por el inmenso respeto que infunde tanto en América como en Europa

  20. Distributed energy resources scheduling considering real-time resources forecast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, M.; Sousa, T.; Ramos, S.

    2014-01-01

    grids and considering day-ahead, hour-ahead and realtime time horizons. This method considers that energy resources are managed by a VPP which establishes contracts with their owners. The full AC power flow calculation included in the model takes into account network constraints. In this paper...

  1. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  2. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  3. 26 CFR 48.4217-1 - Lease considered as sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Lease considered as sale. 48.4217-1 Section 48... Taxes § 48.4217-1 Lease considered as sale. For purposes of Chapter 32 of the Code, the lease of an... “lease” means a contract or agreement, written or verbal, which gives the lessee an exclusive,...

  4. 29 CFR 1990.132 - Factors to be considered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... definition of a potential occupational carcinogen; (6) Whether there are substitutes that pose a lower risk... social and economic costs of regulation would be small; and (7) OSHA will also consider its responsibilities for dealing with other health and safety hazards and will consider the actions being taken...

  5. Performance measure for image fusion considering region information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; L(U) Xue-qin

    2007-01-01

    An objective performance measure for image fusion considering region information is proposed. The measure not only reflects how much the pixel level information that fused image takes from the source image, but also considers the region information between source images and fused image. The measure is meaningful and explicit. Several simulations were conducted to show that it accords well with the subjective evaluations.

  6. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  7. Drug Plan Coverage Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... get about Medicare Lost/incorrect Medicare card Report fraud & abuse File a complaint Identity theft: protect yourself ... drug plan How Part D works with other insurance Find health & drug plans Drug plan coverage rules ...

  8. DASH Eating Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NHLBI on Twitter. Description of the DASH Eating Plan DASH is a flexible and balanced eating plan that helps create a heart-healthy eating style for life. The DASH eating plan requires no special foods and instead provides daily ...

  9. Plan by Increments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    The think big; paint an elephant" philosophy of planning is appealing in theory but appalling in practice. Too often, making no small plans results in making no plans at all. (11 references) (Author/NH)

  10. Maintenance Business Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matt

    2002-01-01

    Discusses maintenance business plans, statements which provide accountability for facilities maintenance organizations' considerable budgets. Discusses the plan's components: statement of plan objectives, macro and detailed description of the facility assets, maintenance function descriptions, description of key performance indicators, milestone…

  11. Calfornia General Plans Rural

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  12. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  13. My Reproductive Life Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Information For... Media Policy Makers My Reproductive Life Plan Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... to achieve those goals is called a reproductive life plan . There are many kinds of reproductive life plans. ...

  14. Calfornia General Plans

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We undertook creating the first ever seamless statewide General Plan map for California. All county general plans and many city general plans were integrated into 1...

  15. Developing a Personal Financial Planning Program: More than Just Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles L., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Personal financial planning is considered one of the major growth professions of the coming decade. Besides providing an opportunity for employment, a major in personal financial planning can open the door to a rewarding and challenging career. Career opportunities in the personal financial planning field include opening a private practice or…

  16. Developing a Personal Financial Planning Program: More than Just Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charles L., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Personal financial planning is considered one of the major growth professions of the coming decade. Besides providing an opportunity for employment, a major in personal financial planning can open the door to a rewarding and challenging career. Career opportunities in the personal financial planning field include opening a private practice or…

  17. Environmental Management System Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Robert; Thorson, Patrick; Horst, Blair; Speros, John; Rothermich, Nancy; Hatayama, Howard

    2009-03-24

    Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management establishes the policy that Federal agencies conduct their environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities in a manner that is environmentally, economically and fiscally sound, integrated, continually improving, efficient, and sustainable. The Department of Energy (DOE) has approved DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program and DOE Order 430.2B, Departmental Energy, Renewable Energy and Transportation Management as the means of achieving the provisions of this Executive Order. DOE Order 450.1A mandates the development of Environmental Management Systems (EMS) to implement sustainable environmental stewardship practices that: (1) Protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources potentially impacted by facility operations; (2) Meet or exceed applicable environmental, public health, and resource protection laws and regulations; and (3) Implement cost-effective business practices. In addition, the DOE Order 450.1A mandates that the EMS must be integrated with a facility's Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS) established pursuant to DOE P 450.4, 'Safety Management System Policy'. DOE Order 430.2B mandates an energy management program that considers energy use and renewable energy, water, new and renovated buildings, and vehicle fleet activities. The Order incorporates the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007. The Order also includes the DOE's Transformational Energy Action Management initiative, which assures compliance is achieved through an Executable Plan that is prepared and updated annually by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL, Berkeley Lab, or the Laboratory) and then approved by the DOE Berkeley Site Office. At the time of this revision to the EMS plan, the 'FY2009 LBNL Sustainability Executable Plan' represented the most

  18. Waste minimization and pollution prevention awareness plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-31

    The purpose of this plan is to document the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program. The plan specifies those activities and methods that are or will be employed to reduce the quantity and toxicity of wastes generated at the site. The intent of this plan is to respond to and comply with (DOE's) policy and guidelines concerning the need for pollution prevention. The Plan is composed of a LLNL Waste Minimization and Pollution Prevention Awareness Program Plan and, as attachments, Program- and Department-specific waste minimization plans. This format reflects the fact that waste minimization is considered a line management responsibility and is to be addressed by each of the Programs and Departments. 14 refs.

  19. Handbook factory planning and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wiendahl, Hans-Peter; Nyhuis, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This handbook introduces a methodical approach and pragmatic concept for the planning and design of changeable factories that act in strategic alliances to supply the ever-changing needs of the global market. In the first part, the change drivers of manufacturing enterprises and the resulting new challenges are considered in detail with focus on an appropriate change potential. The second part concerns the design of the production facilities and systems on the factory levels work place, section, building and site under functional, organisational, architectural and strategic aspects keeping in mind the environmental, health and safety aspects including corporate social responsibility. The third part is dedicated to the planning and design method that is based on a synergetic interaction of process and space. The accompanying project management of the planning and construction phase and the facility management for the effective utilization of the built premises close the book. -        Concise overview o...

  20. Atchafalaya Alligator Harvest Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — 1988 Alligator Harvest Plan for Atchafalaya National Wildlife Refuge including management plan, environmental assessment, and public notice documents.