Macci, E.; Zirpolo, S.; Imparato, A.; Cacace, A.; Parry, D.; Walkden, P.
In June 2000, an agreement was established between Sogin and BNFL to enable the two companies to co-operate, using their specific experiences in the decommissioning field, for the benefit of projects in Italy, the United Kingdom and for third markets. A decommissioning strategy for the Latina NPP was initially developed in a Phase 1 Study which produced a conceptual design for the decommissioning of the reactor. This study was completed in June 2000. Since then, a second study has been completed, which has further developed the strategy and produced preliminary designs for the early dismantling of the core and reactor building at Latina. The engineering and safety data were produced in order to support Sogin in the preparation of a safety case for plant decommissioning. This safety case was submitted to the Italian Regulator, ANPA, in February 2002. (author)
Chiantore, B.; Dubbini, M.; Proto, G.
CIRENE is a heavy-water moderated, boiling water cooled pressure tube reactor. Fuel is natural uranium. A variety of breaks in the primary coolant system have been postulated for the analysis of the CIRENE Latina Plant (now under construction) such as double-end break of inlet header, downcomer, steam line and inlet feeders. The basic tool for analysis is the TILT-N Code which has been purposely developed for simulating the nuclear, thermal and hydrodynamic behaviour of the CIRENE core and associated heat transport system. An extensive full-scale test programme has been carried out by CNEN and CISE which fully confirms the adequacy of the model. The main results of the analysis show that maximum temperatures are far from those leading to significant fuel damage and that adequate core cooling is provided over the whole transient. (author)
Mahaffy, Kimberly A.; Pantoja, Christina
To better understand Latina/o students' needs in a predominantly White institution of higher education with low Latina/o retention rates, semistructured interviews were completed with 30 Latina/o students. The themes that emerged through qualitative analysis of the interviews were: linguistic and financial barriers; a need for unity; availability…
The final report on the operation of the Latina nuclear power station, required under the terms of the contract of participation between ENEL and EURATOM is presented. It covers the first ten years of commercial operation (1 January 1964-31 December 1973) of this power station. Latina uses a British Magnox-type gas-graphite natural uranium reactor with a design thermal capacity of 724 MW. The rated electrical output of the three main turbogenerators was originally 210 MW (3x70), but was reduced to 160 MW in 1971. Construction began in November 1958 and was completed when the reactor first reached criticality in December 1962, the station being connected to the Italian electricity network for the first time in May 1963. The gross rated output of 210 MWe was reached in December 1963 and commercial operation began on 1 January 1964, by which date, however, the power station had already fed 295.5 million kWh into the network
Romero, Andrea J.; Wiggs, Christine Bracamonte; Valencia, Celina; Bauman, Sheri
Latina adolescents experience depression and suicidal ideations in a disproportionate manner compared to their non-Latina counterparts. We investigate suicide and depressive symptoms among a state-wide sample (N = 650) of adolescent Latina girls with a focus on bullying as a predictor. Bullying rates are higher than previous studies have found for…
This article discusses the challenges and rewards, as well as the affective labor, involved in forging a Latina lesbian "translengua," in other words a common language in the context of Latina lesbian organizing. I explore how members of Latina Lesbians en Nuestro Ambiente (LLENA) and Amigas Latinas, Chicago-based Latina lesbian organizations, attempted to foster consensus for collective action in the face of language differences and preferences. Through analysis of archives and interviews with activists, I untangle how LLENA and Amigas Latinas negotiated deeply personal and sensitive issues around language use as they worked to build an inclusive movement. I also identify strategies used to enact a translengua that could bridge linguistic differences within the Latina lesbian community.
López, Mónica E.; Kaplan, Celia P.; Nápoles, Anna M.; Hwang, E. Shelly; Livaudais, Jennifer C.; Karliner, Leah S.
Objective To examine differences in treatment decision-making participation, satisfaction, and regret among Latinas and non-Latina whites with DCIS. Methods Survey of Latina and non-Latina white women diagnosed with DCIS. We assessed women’s preferences for involvement in decision-making, primary treatment decision maker, and participatory decision-making. We examined primary outcomes of satisfaction with treatment decision-making and treatment regret by ethnic-language group. Results Among 745 participants (349 Latinas, 396 white) Spanish-speaking Latinas (SSL) had the highest mean preference for involvement in decision-making score and the lowest mean participatory decision-making score and were more likely to defer their final treatment decision to their physicians than English-speaking Latinas or whites (26%, 13%, 18%, pdecision-making (OR 0.4; CI 95%, 0.2-0.8) and expressed more regret than whites (OR 6.2; CI 95%, 3.0-12.4). More participatory decision-making increased the odds of satisfaction (OR 1.5; CI 95%, 1.3-1.8) and decreased the odds of treatment regret (OR 0.8; CI 95%, 0.7-1.0), independent of ethnicity-language. Conclusion Language barriers impede the establishment of decision-making partnerships between Latinas and their physicians, and result in less satisfaction with the decision-making process and more treatment regret. Practice Implications Use of professional interpreters may address communication-related disparities for these women. PMID:24207116
DeLeone, Felicia Yang; Lichter, Daniel T; Strawderman, Robert L
For Latinos, high rates of nonmarital fertility reinforce economic inequality and slow the pace of social and economic incorporation into American society. Changes in the nonmarital fertility ratio--nonmarital births as a percentage of all births (NMFR)--among women aged 15-44 over the period 1994-2005 were partitioned into three components: changes in marital and in nonmarital fertility, and in the proportion of women who were married. Annual birth data were drawn from the national Natality Detail File, and population estimates were drawn from the Current Population Surveys. Analyses were conducted for blacks, whites and Latinas, as well as for selected subgroups of Latinas; differences in NMFRs between racial and ethnic groups were also calculated. NMFRs were largely unchanged between 1994 and 2002, and then began to rise; they averaged 43% for Latinas, 69% for blacks and 23% for whites over the study period. In 2005, 48% of births to Latinas were nonmarital. Most of the rise in Latinas' NMFR was linked to a decline in marriage. Among foreign-born Latinas, a six-percentage-point increase in the NMFR was due mostly to a rise in nonmarital fertility and a decline in marital fertility, which offset the beneficial effects of a rising marriage rate. The difference between Latinas' and whites' NMFRs was largely attributed to Latinas' higher nonmarital fertility, whereas the difference between blacks' and whites' NMFRs was driven mostly by lower marriage rates among blacks. Efforts to reduce out-of-wedlock childbearing among Latinas are needed, and programs should promote healthy marriages, especially among foreign-born Latinas.
Chesin, Megan S.; Jeglic, Elizabeth L.
Latina college students are one of the fastest-growing segments of the college student population. Although there is evidence suggesting Latina high school students are at increased risk of engaging in suicidal behavior, it is unclear Bwhether this risk continues in college. Over the course of 3 years, 554 Latina college students, the majority of…
Bondy, Jennifer M.
Drawing from interview data collected from high school students in Broward County, Florida, this article explores how eight adolescent Latinas understand citizenship and belonging vis-à-vis circulating images and discourses on Latina/o immigration, immigrant, and Latina. The author examines Latina youths' citizenship identities and belonging using…
Manago, Adriana M.; Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell
This study explores developing conceptions of feminism among Latina adolescents, their prevalence of feminist endorsement, and whether home environment and well-being are related to feminist identity. One hundred and forty Latina girls (Grades 9 to 12, M age = 15) wrote personal narratives of their understanding of feminism and whether they…
Flores, Judith; Garcia, Silvia
Judith Flores and Silvia Garcia (University of Utah) draw from the work of their mentor, Rina Benmayor and "Telling to live: Latina feminist testimonios" to establish an organization for Latinas who are staff, faculty, students, alumni, and community members at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Critical race feminism (CRF),…
Ramírez, A Susana
In general, efforts to target Latinos are made through Spanish-language messages, yet 75% of U.S. Latinos are bilingual or English dominant. Acculturation (adapting mainstream traits) is associated with increased lifestyle-related risk behaviors. Latinos maintain cultural traits and ethnic identification even as they appear to acculturate (e.g., through language). This raises questions about how to communicate health information to more-acculturated Latinos who are not reached by traditional Spanish outreach yet may not identify with general-market messages. This study tested the relative efficacy of English-language messages targeted to Latinas, compared with general-market messages, among highly acculturated Latina women and non-Latina White women. In this pair of online experiments, Latinas (n = 715) and non-Latina White women (n = 704) rated the perceived effectiveness of general-market versus Latina-targeted Pap smear and mammogram public service announcements. In 1 of 2 experiments ethnically targeted messages were rated relatively more effective for the intended audience and equally effective for the general audience. The author discusses implications for how campaigns reach U.S. Latinos across the acculturation spectrum.
Méndez-Morse, Sylvia; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Byrne-Jiménez, Mónica; Hernandez, Frank
This article is based on a national survey of Latina/o principals and assistant principals conducted by the National Latina/o Leadership Project and focuses on the women participants. Included is a description of Latinas' leadership experiences, their career paths, and the influence of racial/ethnic identity on their leadership practice. The…
Notes on the Start-Up of the Latina Power Station; Notes concernant le demarrage de la centrale nucleaire de Latina; Zapusk ehlektrostantsii Latina; Notas sobre la puesta en marcha de la central electrica de Latina
Calabria, G.; Gualtieri, G. [AGIP Nucleare, Milano (Italy)
Information is given on the start-up of the first Italian nuclear power plant, the Latin Power Station, designed for an electrical output of 200 MW, incorporating a natural uranium-gas-graphite reactor. After a brief description of the main characteristics of the station, details are given on die performance of the final tests of the plant, on the fuel loading and on the sequence of commissioning operations, measurements and controls subsequent to the criticality attained. The operations for the start-up and connection of the station to the electrical network are treated. The organization problems relevant to the station operation including personnel preparation and qualification, safety measures, are also illustrated. (author) [French] Le memoire donne des renseignements sur le demarrage de la premiere centrale nucleaire italienne, la centrale de Latina, dont la puissance electrique est de 200 MW et qui fonctionne avec un reacteur du type uranium naturel-gaz-graphite. Apres une breve description des caracteristiques essentielles de la centrale, des explications detaillees sont donnees sur les resultats des derniers essais auxquels elle a ete soumise, sur le chargement du combustible et sur la serie des operations de mise en service, des mesures et des verifications auxquelles il a ete procede lorsque l'etat critique a ete atteint. Les operations de demarrage et de raccordement de la centrale au reseau electrique sont etudiees dans le memoire, ainsi que les problemes d'organisation que pose l 'exploitation de la centrale, notamment en ce qui concerne la formation du personnel et les mesures de securite. (author) [Spanish] Se comunican datos sobre la puesta en marcha de la primera central nucleoelectrica italiana, en Latina, proyectada para desarrollar una potencia de 200 MW (e), que se basa en un reactor de uranio natural moderado por grafito u refrigerado por gas. Despues de describir brevemente las caracteristicas de la central, se dan detalles sobre el
Menchaca, Velma D.; Mills, Shirley J.; Leo, Filomena
This qualitative research examined the journey of renowned female leadership in higher education. Two top level Latina administrators of universities were interviewed extensively to discover their journey to leadership. The theoretical framework used was Latina critical race theory, feminist theory, and counter-storytelling. Themes that surfaced…
Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza el sentido intelectualista de la producción literaria modernista de Latinoamérica. Dicho enfoque es revisado en la obra del escritor argentino Manuel Ugarte (1875-1951 El porvenir de América Latina (1910. Nuestra lectura ofrece algunas líneas para la discriminación de las diversas fuentes ideológicas del intelectualismo en el americanismo literario. Consideramos en tal sentido la perspectiva historicista con la que Ugarte describe la composición social de América Latina.
Full Text Available Rosa Maria Sternberg, Kathryn A Lee University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, Family Health Care Nursing, San Francisco, CA, USA Abstract: Immigrant Latinas may have different cultural attitudes toward menopause and aging, and may experience higher levels of distress associated with adaptation to their new environment. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to describe the frequency of depressive symptoms experienced by premenopausal Latinas (40–50 years of age living in the United States and compare Latinas born in the US with immigrant Latinas on stress and sociodemographic factors that influence depressive symptom experience. Analysis was conducted on a subsample of 94 self-identified Latinas who participated in a longitudinal study and completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D scale at enrollment and 6 months. Immigrant Latinas had a significantly higher CES-D (14.4 ± 11.1 than US-born Latinas (10.0 ± 7.9 and the difference remained at 6 months. There was no difference in age, body mass index (BMI, self-report of general health, or perceived stress. Higher BMI, work-related stress, and insufficient income for essential daily needs were associated with depressive symptom scores in immigrant Latinas. High BMI and less education were associated with depressive symptom scores in the US-born Latinas. Keywords: Hispanic women, Latinas, immigration, depression, midlife, menopause
Galvan, Frank H.; Bazargan, Mohzen
A new report, funded by the Williams Institute, reveals high levels of reported harassment and assault of Latina transgender women by law enforcement agencies and highlights steps that police departments should take to improve relations with the transgender community. The report, “Interactions of Latina Transgender Women with Law Enforcement” is based on interviews with 220 Latina transgender women from the Los Angeles area. BIENESTAR, a non-profit social service organization comm...
The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.
MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.
This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…
Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael Kenneth
Latina hotel housekeepers' social class, gender, race/ethnicity, nationality, and United States immigration status render them particularly vulnerable to workplace mistreatment. We sought to reveal the array of policy- and interpersonal-related mistreatment experienced by Latina hotel housekeepers in the southeastern United States employed at 75 local hotels which included 4-star, 3-star, 2-star, and 1-star properties. This ethnographic study involved 27 in-depth interviews with Latina hotel housekeepers. Using semi-structured in-depth interview guides, participants were interviewed until collected data reached saturation. Data were coded to explore themes and relationships for the housekeepers' work environments, and thick descriptions of these environments were developed. Participants ranged in work experience from 1 to 15 years, with all but one unable to reach full-time status, and were paid between $7.25 and $8.00 per hour. Policy-related phenomena, such as low pay, lack of paid sick leave or overtime, and absence of appropriate cleaning tools or protective equipment were all perceived as forms of mistreatment by Latina hotel housekeepers. Interpersonal mistreatment in the form of supervisor favoritism, unfair work assignments, biased allocation of cleaning supplies, disrespect, and verbal abuse due to ethnicity was also perceived. Latina hotel housekeepers endure mistreatment that impacts their psychosocial and physical occupational health. We provide recommendations to minimize workplace mistreatment and improve well-being of Latina hotel housekeepers.
Bernal, Dolores Delgado; Aleman, Enrique, Jr.; Garavito, Andrea
This article examines the experiences of first-year Latina/o undergraduates at a predominantly white institution. Through a borderlands analysis, the authors explore how these students describe their experiences participating in an ethnic studies course and mentoring Latina/o elementary schoolchildren. The authors find that these experiences…
Olagunju, Tinuke O; Liu, Yihang; Liang, Li-Jung; Stomber, James M; Griggs, Jennifer J; Ganz, Patricia A; Thind, Amardeep; Maly, Rose C
The authors investigated disparities in the survivorship experience among Latinas with breast cancer (BC) in comparison with non-Latinas. A cross-sectional bilingual telephone survey was conducted among 212 Latina and non-Latina women within 10 to 24 months after a diagnosis of BC (AJCC TNM staging system stage 0-III) at 2 Los Angeles County public hospitals. Data were collected using the Preparing for Life as a (New) Survivor (PLANS) scale, Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions Questionnaire (PEPPI), Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) Symptom Checklist, Satisfaction with Care and Information Scale, Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) tool, Charlson Comorbidity Index adapted for patient self-report, and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. Controlling variables included age, stage as determined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system, educational level, and study site in multivariate analyses. The mean ages of Latinas and non-Latinas were 51.5 years and 56.6 years, respectively. Compared with non-Latinas, Latinas reported less BC survivorship knowledge (27.3 vs 30.7; Psatisfaction with BC survivorship care (9.6 vs 8.8; P = .298), or their discussion with physicians (9.6 vs 8.1; P = .07). These ethnic group differences persisted in multivariate analyses, with the exception of PEPPI. Latina survivors of BC experienced disparities in BC knowledge and satisfaction with information received, but believed themselves to be prepared for survivorship and were as satisfied with providers, care received, and discussions with physicians as non-Latinas. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.
The educational experiences of Latinas are affected by the interaction of many factors, including poverty, racism, sexual harassment, and lack of English language proficiency. This Spanish-language digest presents a range of strategies that schools can employ to promote the academic achievement of Latinas. Schools should communicate that Hispanic…
Vetter, Amy M.; Fairbanks, Colleen; Ariail, Mary
Drawing from recent scholarship that examines schooling and the shifting terrain of youth identities, this study examines the identity constructions of Jessica, a Latina high school student. Our portrait of Jessica is part of a larger longitudinal study in which the middle and high school experiences of three Latinas, including Jessica, were…
Hsieh, Yu-Chin Jerrie; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hatzudis, Kiki; Sönmez, Sevil
The poor working conditions of Latina hotel cleaners render them particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards that lead to adverse health outcomes. This article presents a comprehensive review of occupational risks (including physical, chemical, biological, and psychosocial risk factors) and health outcomes (including musculoskeletal disorders, respiratory diseases, dermatological diseases and allergies, and psychological disorders) for Latina hotel cleaners, within their unique sociocultural contexts. Preventive interventions for improving Latina hotel cleaners' work and health conditions are recommended.
Bolla, G.; Macci, E.; Craik, J.F.D.; Walkden, P.
Over the past year, a revised decommissioning programme, drawing upon the combined experience of the two companies, has been developed for the Latina NPP. This has been achieved despite a very demanding time-scale. Theoretical and practical experiences from both Sogin and BNFL's operations in North America and Europe have been used to quantify liabilities and progress the planning process to the point where Sogin have been able to define their funding requirements for Latina with their stakeholders. The project has demonstrated, based on real experience and data, that the Latina NPP can be decommissioned economically for a known cost within the timescale set by the Italian Government. (author)
Estela GARCÍA FERNÁNDEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: La asociación del derecho latino y status municipal parece haber tenido lugar en época de Augusto. Así, la equivalencia de las expresiones oppidum Latinum-municipium latinum y los datos suministrados por la epigrafía permiten retrasar, en principio, la promoción de muchas de las comunidades citadas por Plinio a época cesariana. Sin embargo, la presencia de colonias latinas y no de municipios en la Narbonense, la ausencia de toda referencia directa a la acción «latinizadora» de César en Hispania o la posibilidad de que el cognomem Iulium esté ocultando promociones postcesarianas, invita a pensar en Augusto como el responsable de la aparición primera de los municipio Latina. No se puede descartar tampoco la posibilidad de que este emperador efectuase modificaciones administrativas aisladas con el fin de asimilar el status de algunas colonias latinas existentes en Hispania como Cástulo o Gracchurris a los municipia Latina que estarían surgiendo.SUMMARY: The association of latin right and municipal status seems to have taken place in the Augustan age. The equivalence of the expression and the data supplied by epigraphy, allow us to date back, the promotion of many of the communities mentioned by Plinius to the time of Caesar. Nevertheless, the presence of latin colonies and not municipalities in the Narbonensis, the absence of any kind of direct reference to the «latinization» in Hispania carried out by Caesar or the possibility that the Cognomem Iulium may be concealing postcaesarean promotions leads to the belief that Augustus was responsible for the earliest appareance of the municipia Latina. Neither can we reject that this emperor might have brought about isolated administrative modifications in order to some possible latin colonies established in Hispania like Castulo o Gracchurris should resemble the municipia Latina which were probably arising.
Corcoran, Jacqueline; Dattalo, Patrick; Crowley, Meghan
The high cervical cancer mortality rate among Latinas compared with other ethnic groups in the United States is of major concern. Latina women are almost twice as likely to die from cervical cancer as non-Hispanic white women. To improve Latina cervical cancer screening rates, interventions have been developed and tested. This systematic review…
Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Hernandez, Frank; Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Byrne-Jimenez, Monica
This study sought to further define and inform about the influence of Latina/o principals in schools as an alternative to traditional forms of leadership. The principals' Latina/o identity, their leadership styles and advocacy towards the improvement of student achievement were examined. This research focused on three questions: (a) How did…
Held, Mary L; Cuellar, Matthew
Objective This study examined the direct and mediating effects of maternal social capital on health and well-being for native- and foreign-born Latina mothers and their children. Methods Data were drawn from the baseline and nine-year follow up waves of the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study. The study included a sample of 874 Latina mothers. Mplus7 was used to perform structural equation modeling to determine whether exogenous indicators (age, education, and economic well-being) predicted social capital, whether social capital predicted mother and child well-being, and whether mediating effects helped explain each relationship. Results For native-born Latinas (n = 540), social capital did not predict maternal or child well-being. However, social capital significantly mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal well-being. For foreign-born Latinas (n = 334), social capital was a significant predictor of maternal well-being. Social capital also mediated the effects of age, education, and economic well-being on maternal, but not child well-being. Younger and foreign-born Latinas who report higher educational attainment and economic well-being have greater social capital, and thus better self-reported health. Conclusion Findings suggest that social capital is particularly relevant to the health of foreign-born Latinas. For all Latina mothers, social capital may serve as a protective mitigating factor to better health. Health service providers should evaluate the potential to integrate programs that promote social capital accumulation for Latinas. Further research should examine factors to improve the health of Latinas' children.
Full Text Available This study examines nonmedical injecting drug use (IDU among Latinas aged 12 years and older in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Data from the 1990-1995 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse disclosed 154 Latinas with self-reported histories of IDU out of 18 335 Latinas who responded. Hypotheses about correlates of IDU were tested by using the conditional form of multiple logistic regression to compare the characteristics of these IDUs with those of 602 noninjecting Latinas matched on neighborhood of residence. In the USA, an estimated 1% of Latinas age 12 years and older have injected drugs for non-medical purposes on at least one occasion. IDU was 4.6 to 6.5 times greater for adult Latinas (18-44 years old when compared to Latinas aged either 12 through 17 years (P < 0.05 or older than 44 years. IDU was an estimated 7.1 times greater for Latinas who reported marijuana use and 5.4 times greater for Latinas who reported inhalant use when compared to Latinas not using these drugs (P < 0.01. In light of recent studies indicating that IDU is a serious public health problem for Latinas in the United States, the observed associations represent first steps in an effort to understand the Latina subgroups most affected by IDU and the underlying risk factors or causes of this behavior.
Nelly Rojas Schwan
Full Text Available The underrepresentation of Latinas/os in the social work profession, especially in higher levels of administration, has been amply documented. Successful Latina/o professionals can address the need for Latina/o leadership in the field by mentoring new graduates and supporting their development and career planning as they enter the professional world. This article presents an innovative mentoring program for Latina/o social work professionals conceptualized and led by the Latina/o Network of the Latina/o Network of the Connecticut chapter of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW. The program matches a Latina/o master’s in social work graduating student with a senior Latina/o social work professional. The model of the mentoring program incorporates a coordinator, a liaison to each mentor-mentee dyad, a mentor-mentee developmental relationship, and group gatherings. A key aspect of the model is the attention to and inclusion of Latino cultural values of familismo, personalismo, confianza, and colectivismo, to foster the development of a sense of community. Empirical and anecdotal data illustrate the outcomes of the program. The implementation of the program, the lessons learned, and its applicability to other professionals and cultural groups are discussed.
Full Text Available U.S. Latina/o identity is a complex and panethnic construction. One of the most enduring tropes surrounding Latina women in US culture is that of tropicalism, which by erasing ethnic specificity helps construct homogenous stereotypes such as bright colours, rhythmic music, and brown skin that are represented in visual texts. Tropicalization helps position the Latina body as oversexed as well as sexually available; all that is identified with seductive clothing, curvaceous hips and breasts, long brunette hair or extravagant jewellery. The article concerns Latina images in US media and popular culture and focuses on such stars as Jennifer Lopez and Salma Hayek in order to explore the gendered signifiers surrounding Latinidad and Latina iconicity. The female ethnicity is depicted as other through its categorization and marginalization in relation to dominant constructions of Whiteness and femininity. The article bridges the approaches of gender studies and Latina/o studies with recent research on hybridity and transnational identities.
Bondy, Jennifer M.
This article explores adolescent Latinas' citizenship identities in school from a feminist transnational perspective. Data were drawn from qualitative research studies on Latina youths' educational experiences and from a qualitative project conducted by the author. Cultural citizenship theories were used to analyze the data. The analysis revealed…
San Miguel, Anitza M.; Kim, Mikyong Minsun
Utilizing a phenomenological perspective and method, this study aimed to reveal the lived career mentoring experiences of Latinas in science and engineering and to understand how selected Latina scientists and engineers achieved high-level positions. Our in-depth interviews revealed that (a) it is important to have multiple mentors for Latinas'…
Rosbottom, Steven R.
The purpose and focus of this narrative inquiry case study were to explore the personal stories of four undergraduate Latina students who persist in their engineering programs. This study was guided by two overarching research questions: a) What are the lived experiences of undergraduate Latina engineering students? b) What are the contributing factors that influence undergraduate Latina students to persist in an undergraduate engineering program? Yosso's (2005) community cultural wealth was used to the analyze data. Findings suggest through Yosso's (2005) aspirational capital, familial capital, social capital, navigational capital, and resistant capital the Latina student persisted in their engineering programs. These contributing factors brought to light five themes that emerged, the discovery of academic passions, guidance and support of family and teachers, preparation for and commitment to persistence, the power of community and collective engagement, and commitment to helping others. The themes supported their persistence in their engineering programs. Thus, this study informs policies, practices, and programs that support undergraduate Latina engineering student's persistence in engineering programs.
Celaya, Patricia E.
This study explored the experience of Latinas in doctoral programs in psychology using a qualitative phenomenological methodology. Eleven women who self-identified as Latina and were in the process of working towards a doctoral degree in psychology participated in in-person interviews that were audio-recorded. Participants described experiences…
Luis Humberto Hernández
Full Text Available En el actual escenario conflictivo mundial energético presentamos la siguiente reflexión sobre la situación petrolera de América Latina a partir de su discurrir pasado y la situación actual. Se ubica inicialmente una breve historia regional del petróleo en el mundo a partir de los hechos fundamentales que le dan razón a cada una de las ocho regiones petroleras existentes, concentrando la reseña en América Latina, acompañada de un balance del estado económico y político actual del petróleo en América Latina.
Ruiz, Elsa Cantu
Latinas/os, the largest and fastest growing minority ethnic group in the United States (impels research that focuses on the education of Latinas/os and the need to reduce the achievement gap that persists between Latinas/os and other groups. Such research has gained in popularity; however, it is still very limited. I use my teaching experience…
Pena, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.
In this study, we examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n = 109) and nonattempters (n = 107) were recruited from the New York City area. Latent class analysis revealed three family…
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Zayas, Luis H.
In this article, we explored the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results revealed that Latina teens who attempted suicide la...
Martinez Tyson, Dinorah Dina; Jacobsen, Paul; Meade, Cathy D
This exploratory study provides insights into everyday realities, concerns, and cultural perspectives of Latinas undergoing chemotherapy, and elicits information on stress management and information needs. Informed by a community-based participatory research approach using qualitative methods, we conducted ten interviews with providers, and two focus groups (n = 13) and 20 in-depth interviews with Latinas recently diagnosed with breast cancer. Providers and Latina patients acknowledged multiple physical and emotional stressors associated with cancer treatment, viewed a positive aspect of the cancer experience to include connection with God and enhanced spirituality, saw family as a motivating factor for recovery, and expressed a need to draw on existing coping strategies. Findings show considerable overlap between providers and Latina cancer patients' perceptions of stressors during chemotherapy. However, a few notable differences in perceptions of stress management needs during this treatment period emerged. While Latina cancer patients mentioned similar social/structural stressors (e.g., economic problems, lack of information) they tended to emphasize more of the interpersonal stressors related to family communication and relationships (e.g., providing and caring for family, distance from family), and intrapersonal stressors such as fear, changes in physical appearance, and side effects of chemotherapy. Our study illustrates the importance of including multiple perspectives. The information gained by including both providers and patient perspectives yielded a more complete understanding of the stress management needs of Latinas undergoing chemotherapy. Findings suggest that stress management educational interventions should aim to develop self-care skills, be culturally relevant and language-specific, and build upon stress-reducing strategies Latinas may already employ.
Cavazos, Alyssa Guadalupe
"Latina/os in Rhetoric and Composition: Learning from their Experiences with Language Diversity" explores how Latina/o academics' experiences with language difference contributes to their Latina/o academic identity and success in academe while remaining connected to their heritage language and cultural background. Using qualitative…
Full Text Available La renovación en los países comunistas atrae la atención, el comercio, las inversiones y la ayuda de Estados Unidos, Japón y Europa Occidental. En una primera etapa, ello incidirá negativamente en las relaciones de ese continente con América Latina, es creciente y está en pleno proceso acelerado, la marginación del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Europea. Las inversiones directas no presentan perspectivas. Asegura que a esto se suma la invasión a Panamá, que fue interpretada como que las potencias llegaron a acuerdos en Malta para el reparto del mundo.Con la perestroika la situación de América Latina desmejoró notablemente.
Despite efforts to improve access to prenatal care, emerging adult Latinas in the United States continue to enter care late in their pregnancies and/or underutilize these services. Since little is known about emerging adult Latinas and their prenatal care experiences, the purpose of this study was to identify actual and perceived prenatal care barriers in a sample of 54 emerging adult Latinas between 18 and 21 years of age. More than 95% of the sample experienced personal and institutional barriers when attempting to access prenatal care. Results from this study lend support for policy changes for time away from school or work to attend prenatal care and for group prenatal care. © 2016. All rights reserved.
Romero, Amanda R.
The purposes of this qualitative narrative study were to explore the potential areas of conflict Latina college students experience between their educational goals and traditional cultural gender roles and expectations. Participants were selected utilizing purposeful sampling methods. All participants were first-generation college students.…
Delgadillo, Monica D.
Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the learned experiences, challenges, and leadership pathways of Latinas currently in California community college management positions. Latinas have been underrepresented in community college leadership positions. Currently, women constitute a majority of those attending college, and…
Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.
To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…
Full Text Available This study examines nonmedical injecting drug use (IDU among Latinas aged 12 years and older in a nationally representative sample of U.S. households. Data from the 1990-1995 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse disclosed 154 Latinas with self-reported histories of IDU out of 18 335 Latinas who responded. Hypotheses about correlates of IDU were tested by using the conditional form of multiple logistic regression to compare the characteristics of these IDUs with those of 602 noninjecting Latinas matched on neighborhood of residence. In the USA, an estimated 1% of Latinas age 12 years and older have injected drugs for non-medical purposes on at least one occasion. IDU was 4.6 to 6.5 times greater for adult Latinas (18-44 years old when compared to Latinas aged either 12 through 17 years (P En el presente estudio se examina el uso de drogas inyectables (UDI entre latinas de 12 años de edad y mayores en una muestra nacional representativa de hogares estadounidenses. Datos obtenidos de las Encuestas Nacionales Domiciliarias realizadas de 1990 a 1995 revelaron que 154 de un total de 18 335 latinas encuestadas habían referido tener antecedentes de UDI. Se pusieron a prueba diversas hipótesis sobre las variables relacionadas con el UDI mediante una regresión logística múltiple de tipo condicionado destinada a comparar las características de estas usuarias con las de 602 latinas que no usaban drogas inyectables y que se parearon con las usuarias por lugar de residencia. Se estima que en los Estados Unidos de América 1% de las latinas de 12 años o más han usado drogas inyectables para fines no médicos por lo menos en una ocasión. El UDI fue de 4,6 a 6,5 veces más frecuente entre latinas adultas (de 18 a 44 años al comparar a este grupo con el de latinas de 12 a 17 años (P < 0,05 o de más de 44. El uso estimado de drogas inyectables fue 7,1 veces más frecuente entre las latinas que dijeron haber fumado marijuana y 5,4 más frecuente
Ruff, Valerie A; Acosta, Agaph; Soto-Raices, Oscar; Sierra-Zorita, Radamés; Toro-Torres, Ramón; Rodríguez-Ginorio, Henry; Comulada, Angel; Chiang, Alan Y; Krohn, Kelly; Taylor, Kathleen A
The Direct Assessment of Nonvertebral Fractures in Community Experience (DANCE) study investigated the use of teriparatide in men and women with osteoporosis in the United States (US) and Puerto Rico (PR). In a sub-analysis, we evaluated whether the baseline characteristics of Latinas differed from those of white women in the study population and whether any patient attributes affected physicians' decisions to prescribe teriparatide. We assessed 3 patient cohorts treated with teriparatide 20 microg once daily for up to 24 months: 1) PR Latinas, 2) US Latinas, and 3) white women on the US mainland (white women). We analyzed differences related to ethnicity (Latina vs. white) and geography (PR vs. US mainland). Overall, 302 of the 3243 women (9%) enrolled in DANCE were Latina (205 of these 302 Latinas resided in PR). Significant differences were observed in 7 of 11 baseline characteristics. White women had more prior fragility fractures and family history of hip fracture than Latinas, while PR Latinas were generally older than US Latinas and had more comorbid conditions. A similar proportion of subjects in each cohort had received prior osteoporosis therapy. Physicians prescribed teriparatide more often for Latinas based on multiple risk factors for fracture and intolerance to previous osteoporosis therapy and to white women based on inadequate response to previous therapy or new (incident) fractures. Overall, Latinas were less persistent with teriparatide therapy than white women. We observed significant differences related to ethnicity and geography in the baseline demographics of Latinas enrolled in the DANCE study, criteria cited by physicians for initiating teriparatide therapy, and treatment persistence.
Gulbas, Lauren E; Zayas, Luis H
In this article, we explore the relationships among culture, family, and attempted suicide by U.S. Latinas. We analyzed qualitative interviews conducted with Latina teen suicide attempters (n = 10) and their parents. We also incorporated data collected from adolescents with no reported history of self-harm (n = 10) and their parents to examine why some individuals turned to suicide under similar experiences of cultural conflict. Our results reveal that Latina teens who attempted suicide lacked the resources to forge meaningful social ties. Without the tools to bridge experiences of cultural contradiction, the girls in our study described feeling isolated and alone. Under such conditions, adolescents turned to behaviors aimed at self-destruction. Unlike their peers who attempted suicide, adolescent Latinas with no lifetime history of attempted suicide were able to mobilize resources in ways that balanced experiences of acculturative tension by creating supportive relationships with other individuals. © The Author(s) 2014.
Peña, Juan B.; Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Zayas, Luis H.; Baumann, Ana A.; Gulbas, Lauren; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Nolle, Allyson P.
This study examined the relationship between familism and family environment type as well as the relationship between family environment type and suicide attempts among Latina youth. Latina teen attempters (n=109) and non-attempters (n=107) were recruited from the NYC area. Latent class analysis revealed three family environment types: tight-knit; intermediate-knit; and loose-knit. Tight-knit families (high cohesion and low conflict) were significantly less likely to have teens that attempted...
Latinas currently attain the lowest number of terminal degrees in the United States when compared to White, African American, and Asian American women. While Latina doctoral students share common struggles with other minority/female doctoral students, the unique cultural expectations associated with their racial/ethnic and gender related…
Roncancio, Angelica M; Berenson, Abbey B; Rahman, Mahbubur
Among individuals residing in the United States, the Internet is the third most used source for obtaining health information. Little is known, however, about its use by Latinas. To understand health-related Internet use among Latinas, the authors examined it within the theoretical frameworks of health locus of control and acculturation. The authors predicted that acculturation would serve as a mediator between health locus of control and health-related Internet use, age and health-related Internet use, income and health-related Internet use, and education and health-related Internet use. Data were collected via a 25-minute self-report questionnaire. The sample consisted of 932 young (M age = 21.27 years), low-income Latinas. Using structural equation modeling, the authors observed that acculturation partially mediated the relation between health locus of control and health-related Internet use and fully mediated the relations among age, income, and Internet use. An internal health locus of control (p income (p Internet use. The Internet is a powerful tool that can be used to effectively disseminate information to Latinas with limited access to health care professionals. These findings can inform the design of Internet-based health information dissemination studies targeting Latinas.
Full Text Available Gracias al pionero esfuerzo del doctor Gustavo Cabrera y de otros grandes próceres de la demografía, en América Latina sobrevive un vasto archivo de microdatos censales; sin embargo la mayor parte de ellos se mantiene inaccesible a los investigadores.En la trayectoria académica y científica del profesor Cabrera ha sido constante su preocupación por las fuentes de información. Hoy el proyecto Integrated Public Use ofMicrodata Series para América Latina (IPUMS-AL acomete con ímpetu la difícil tareade integrar los microdatos censales de esta región, haciendo uso intensivo y extensivo delas nuevas tecnologías pero, sobre todo, contagiándose del empeño que instituciones yeminentes demógrafos latinoamericanos han dedicado a mejorar la calidad y a preser-var estos datos, que constituyen sin lugar a dudas los tesoros estadísticos de AméricaLatina. El proyecto IPUMS-América Latina cuenta con el soporte económico necesario para integrar esos microdatos en una única base de datos armonizada que estaría destinadaa la investigación académica y a la que se podría acceder desde Internet. Los microdatos censales de 1960, 1970, 1990 y 2000 de México ya han sido integrados (www.ipums.org/international como resultado del trabajo colectivo desarrollado en el INEGI, socio fundador del proyecto, de destacados demógrafos mexicanos, y del Population Center de la Universidad de Minnesota.
Latina reproduction and fertility have become ground zero in a political war-not just of words, but of public policies and laws. This article builds on a theoretical framework that includes issues of stratified reproduction, which characterize some women as reproductive threats to society. From an examination of the discourse found in 10 national magazines over a 35-year period, beginning in 1965, emerge three interrelated themes concerning Latina reproductive threat: 1) high fertility and po...
Gerchow, Lauren; Tagliaferro, Barbara; Squires, Allison; Nicholson, Joey; Savarimuthu, Stella M; Gutnick, Damara; Jay, Melanie
Obesity disproportionately affects Latinas living in the United States, and cultural food patterns contribute to this health concern. The aim of this study was to synthesize the qualitative results of research regarding Latina food patterns in order to (a) identify common patterns across Latino culture and within Latino subcultures and (b) inform future research by determining gaps in the literature. A systematic search of three databases produced 13 studies (15 manuscripts) that met the inclusion criteria for review. The Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool and the recommendations of Squires for evaluating translation methods in qualitative research were applied to appraise study quality. Authors coded through directed content analysis and an adaptation of the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument coding template to extract themes. Coding focused on food patterns, obesity, population breakdown, immigration, acculturation, and barriers and facilitators to healthy eating. Other themes and categories emerged from this process to complement this approach. Major findings included the following: (a) Immigration driven changes in scheduling, food choice, socioeconomic status, and family dynamics shape the complex psychology behind healthy food choices for Latina women; (b) in Latina populations, barriers and facilitators to healthy lifestyle choices around food are complex; and (c) there is a clear need to differentiate Latino populations by country of origin in future qualitative studies on eating behavior. Healthcare providers need to recognize the complex influences behind eating behaviors among immigrant Latinas in order to design effective behavior change and goal-setting programs to support healthy lifestyles.
Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Núñez, Anne-Marie
In this article, the authors conducted a research metasynthesis of publications by a group of Latina tenure-track faculty participating in a peer mentoring group, the Research for the Educational Advancement of Latin@s (REAL) collaborative, housed in one Hispanic Serving Institution. Due to the small representation of Latinas in the academy, the…
Cortés, Dharma E.; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S.
Objectives. To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. Methods. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Results. Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home. PMID:28323473
Amaro, Hortensia; Cortés, Dharma E; Garcia, Samantha; Duan, Lei; Black, David S
To compare changes in food-purchasing knowledge, self-efficacy, and behavior after viewing nutrition education videos among Los Angeles, California Latinas responsible for household grocery shopping. From February to May 2015, a convenience sample of 113 Latinas watched 1 video (El Carrito Saludable) featuring MyPlate guidelines applied to grocery shopping (1-video intervention) and another convenience sample of 105 Latinas watched 2 videos (El Carrito Saludable and Ser Consciente), the latter featuring mindfulness to support attention and overcome distractions while grocery shopping (2-video intervention). We administered questionnaires before and after intervention. A preselected sample in each intervention condition (n = 72) completed questionnaires at 2-months after intervention and provided grocery receipts (before and 2-months after intervention). Knowledge improved in both intervention groups (P shopping list (both P behavior and mindfulness show promise for improving the quality of foods that Latinas bring into the home.
Hassert, Silva; Kurpius, Sharon E. Robinson
Breastfeeding, additional children, and partner relationship predicted postpartum depression among 59 Latinas who had an infant who was 6 months old or younger. The most powerful predictor was conflict with partner. Counselors working with Latinas experiencing postpartum depression should explore the partner relationship, particularly relationship…
Sy, Susan R.
This study investigates the effect of family obligations and part-time work on Latina adolescents' stress and academic achievement during the transition to college. One hundred seventeen Latina college students from immigrant families completed surveys assessing the mother-daughter relationship, family obligations, work-school conflict, school and…
Rountree, Michele A; Granillo, Teresa; Bagwell-Gray, Meredith
Latina women in the United States are vulnerable to two intersecting public health concerns: intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequent risk for HIV/AIDS infection. Examination of the cultural and contextual life factors of this understudied population is crucial to developing culturally relevant HIV interventions. Focus groups with Latinas (15 monolingual; 10 bilingual) who have experienced IPV were conducted. Monolingual and bilingual Latinas endorsed that they were concerned about HIV infection, naming partner infidelity and experiences of forced and coerced sex as primary reasons for their concern. However, monolingual participants had lower levels of HIV knowledge, spending much time discussing myths of HIV infection, whereas bilingual participants spent more time discussing specific prevention techniques, including challenges related to the violence in their relationships. These findings suggest that HIV/AIDS prevention programs for Latinas need to pay close attention to the different historical, contextual, and cultural experiences of this at-risk group of women. © The Author(s) 2015.
Campo, Shelly; Kohler, Connie; Askelson, Natoshia M; Ortiz, Cristina; Losch, Mary
Little is known about barriers that Latinas in the United States face in preventing unintended pregnancies beyond those of language and cost. This study examined factors inhibiting contraceptive use among 18- to 30-year-old Latinas in the Midwest. Individual interviews (N = 31) were conducted in Spanish with Latinas residing across the state. The interview protocol included questions about contraceptives and unintended pregnancies. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and coded for themes related to barriers. The majority of the barriers were related to communication but not English proficiency. Respondents talked about specific situations and experiences in which communication presented obstacles to using contraceptives. While language and cost are important barriers, attention needs to be paid to the other communication issues that women face related to culture, religion, partners, family, and spontaneity. Health care providers need to address the range of communication barriers that affect Latinas' contraceptive use. © The Author(s) 2014.
Lara, Ma Asunción; Le, Huynh-Nhu; Letechipia, Gabriela; Hochhausen, Laila
The study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their associated risk factors during pregnancy in Latinas in the United States (U.S.) and Mexico. The sample included 108 women in the U.S. whose data were obtained from medical chart reviews in a community clinic in Washington, D.C., and 117 women in Mexico who participated in face-to-face interviews in the waiting rooms of primary care community centers in Mexico City. Variables, chosen to match in both countries for comparisons, were: socio-demographics, pregnancy gestation and order, social support, depressive symptoms, personal history of depression, family psychiatric history, and suicidal thoughts. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 32.4% for pregnant Latinas and 36.8% for Mexicans (CES-D > or = 16), and 15.7% and 23.9% (CES-D > or = 24), respectively, with no differences between groups. Separate multiple logistic regression analyses showed that for U.S. Latinas: (1) being more educated predicted depressive symptoms (CES-D > or = 16), and (2) second trimester, as compared to first, also predicted symptoms (CES-D > or /= 24). (3) History of suicidal thoughts predicted symptoms in Latinas in the U.S. (CES-D > or = 24) and in Mexico (using both definitions of high symptoms), and (4) living with a partner but not formally married and multi-parous condition predicted symptoms (CES-D > or /= 24) among pregnant Mexicans. A high prevalence of depressive symptoms and significant risk factors during pregnancy were found in Latinas in U.S. and Mexico, suggesting increased risk for postpartum major depression. Implications for screening and interventions are discussed.
Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others
The purpose of this guide is to assist teachers in the classroom utilization of "Artes Latinae", the Encyclopaedia Britannica Latin instructional system. This guide is intended as a supplement to the publisher's teacher's manual and presupposes familiarity with it. Stress has been placed on the early units of the textbook, since the inexperienced…
Larrotta, Clarena; Ramirez, Ysabel
This qualitative study reports on a Latina/o parent literacy project teaching literacy lessons in Spanish to Latina mothers and their children enrolled at a public elementary school. The participating mothers study and practice reading strategies to later put them into practice with their children. Data sources include: Parents' reflective…
This article examines the historical and contemporary role of Latina madres in the educational lives of their children and communities. Latinas, in their work as mother-activists, have played critical roles in the schooling lives of their children, seeking educational equality for their communities in general, amidst the growing racial politics…
Luis H. Zayas
Full Text Available National surveys and other research on adolescent Latinas show that adolescent females have higher rates of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts than other ethnic and racial minority youth. Internalizing behaviors and family conflicts are commonly associated with suicidality in research on adolescents. In the case of Latinas, we explore the connection between adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement, mother-adolescent mutuality, internalizing behaviors, and suicidality. This paper presents data from a study of 232 Latinas, some with a recent history of suicide attempts (n=122. The results show that higher adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement was associated with greater mother-daughter mutuality and thus led to reduction in the likelihood of suicide attempts. The relationship between mother-daughter mutuality and suicide attempts among Latinas is mediated by specific internalizing behaviors (withdrawn depressive. Our findings highlight the positive effect that Latino cultural values have in the relationship between Latina adolescent and their mothers and confirm the importance that internalizing behaviors and the mother-daughter relationship have for suicide attempters.
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E
We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.
Latinas are underrepresented within the professorate and within doctoral programs, particularly within Research Intensive Institutions. This dissertation explores how the doctoral socialization process impacts the pipeline from the Ph.D. to scholarly careers for Latinas in Research universities. Given the low numbers of representation and production at the doctoral level for Latinas, what happens when they do enter Ph.D. programs? Their doctoral experience must be marked in one way or anot...
R. A. Yaros
Full Text Available Latinos remain the largest US population with limited health literacy (Andrulis D.P. & Brach, 2007. Concerned with how local media can meet the information needs of underserved audiences, we interviewed Latinas who were pregnant or mothers of young children living in a Spanish speaking community, and surveyed 33 local health professionals. Findings are that Latina women’s most common source of health information was family and friends. They said they tune to Spanish television and radio programs, but gave low grades to news media for health information. Medical professionals agreed that Latinas generally get their health information through friends and family, and rated the media poorly in terms of serving Latinas’ needs. Since the data indicate that the local news media are not serving Latinas’ health information needs as much as they could, we offer recommendations to potentially exploit new technological affordances and suggest expansion of conventional definitions of health literacy.
Lechuga, Julia; Vera-Cala, Lina; Martinez-Donate, Ana
Latina women are at heightened risk of cervical cancer incidence and mortality. The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the principal cause of the majority of cervical cancer cases. A vaccine that protects against HPV was licensed in 2006. Eight years post-licensure, mixed research findings exist regarding the factors that predict vaccine uptake in Latinas. We conducted a population-based phone survey with a random sample of 296 Latinas living in a Midwestern U.S. City. Intention to vaccinate was significantly associated with health care provider recommendations, worry about side effects, knowing other parents have vaccinated, perceived severity of HPV, and worry that daughter may become sexually active following vaccination. Worry that daughter may become sexually active was the only factor related to vaccine uptake. Findings suggest that training providers to discuss the low risk of severe side effects, consequences of persistent HPV, and sexuality related concerns with Latino women may encourage vaccination.
Contextualizing Latina girls' body image development requires an appreciation of mainstream body ideals, Latino/a cultural values, and the process by which Latina girls traverse the borders between them. The current study examines how media use and acculturation act across adolescence to shape the development of body image among Latina girls.…
Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon
This meta-analysis synthesizes the findings of 60 independent samples from 51 studies examining racial/ethnic discrimination against Latina/os in the United States. The purpose was to identify individual-level resources and outcomes that most strongly relate to discrimination. Discrimination against Latina/os significantly results in outcomes…
Minnick, Alyssa M; Cachelin, Fary M; Durvasula, Ramani S
Little is known about personality disorders (PD) and comorbidities among Latinas with eating disorders (ED). The dysregulation and chronicity of PDs can complicate and augment the symptomatology of EDs. This set of analyses provides a preliminary examination of PD and psychopathology in a sample of Latina women with ED. Participants (N = 34) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Eating Disorders Examination, and Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III to assess personality pathology, and questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory-II and Brief Symptom Inventory) to assess psychological functioning. Results indicated the most common clinically significant trait in the sample was depressive personality (50% of the sample had a score of 75 or higher on this trait). For Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED), avoidant (41%) and depressive (65%) personalities, respectively, were the most common clinically significant traits. Anxiety disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses, and 52.9% of the sample reported both clinically significant PD traits and other major psychopathology. There were no significant differences between the BED and BN groups on prevalence of PD traits and psychopathology. This pilot study highlights the need for further examination of PD and psychopathology in Latinas with ED. Unlike previous research with White women, we found no differences on PD and psychopathology between BED and BN, and the most prevalent PDs among Latinas were different than White women. Personality and psychological functioning should be assessed in all patients with ED, with ongoing research focused on identifying patterns in understudied groups such as Latinas, a practice that may improve treatment for this underserved population.
Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.
Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations
Kaplan, C P; Erickson, P I; Stewart, S L; Crane, L A
Latina women have often been portrayed as holding strong traditional family values leading to a greater propensity for rejection of contraception and abortion. Increasingly, the literature has consistently shown that Latina women use contraception effectively when available; however, much less is known about the prevalence of abortion and the factors related to its use in this population. In this article we examine Latinas' use of abortion and identify factors affecting its use among 1,207 ever-pregnant Latina women age 14-24 recruited at two federally-funded family planning clinics in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Only a small proportion of the young women in our sample (7.5%) had ever had an induced abortion. In multivariate analysis the variables significantly associated with past abortion included less traditional attitudes about women's roles, higher gravidity, shorter periods of sexual activity, and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners. We conclude that use of abortion among Latinas is driven by role orientation and reproductive variables.
Vilma Margarete Simão
Full Text Available O artigo analisa a assistência domiciliar em saúde dos três países da América Latina com maior gasto público social per capita no ano de 2013: Brasil, Argentina e Uruguai. Trata-se de estudo documental e bibliográfico sobre o cuidado paliativo em saúde na modalidade de internação domiciliar, tendo em conta as mudanças nas famílias latinas. A análise está estruturada em dois eixos: o contexto socioeconômico das famílias latinas e as características das políticas de desospitalização. Os resultados mostram pequena disponibilidade da mulher latina para o trabalho de cuidado na família e o reforço dessa modalidade de atenção às iniquidades em saúde.
Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Latina/o students' experiences. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, and family importance influenced 128 Latina/o college students' psychological grit. We used the Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Subjective Happiness Scale,…
Lundberg, Carol A.; Kim, Young K.; Andrade, Luis M.; Bahner, Daniel T.
In this study we investigated the extent to which faculty interaction contributed to Latina/o student perceptions of their learning, using a sample of 10,071 Latina/o students who took the Community College Survey of Student Engagement. Findings were disaggregated for men and women, but results were quite similar between the 2 groups. Frequent…
Laughman, Anna Bawtinhimer; Boselli, Danielle; Love, Magbis; Steuerwald, Nury; Symanowski, James; Blackley, Kris; Wheeler, Mellisa; Arevalo, Gustavo; Carrizosa, Daniel; Raghavan, Derek
Objective: This study examined the utility of living room and church-based small group educational sessions on breast cancer and mammography, for under-served Latinas in North Carolina, USA. Design: Non-randomised, single arm design. Setting: A total of 329 self-selected Latinas participated in 31 small group educational classes in church and home…
Christina L. Rush
Full Text Available Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM is used widely in cancer populations, particularly among women, and has shown promise for addressing symptom and functioning outcomes. Few studies to date have evaluated CAM use and associations over time with symptoms and function among Latina breast cancer survivors. We administered a baseline (N = 136 and follow-up (n = 58 telephone survey in Spanish or English assessing Latina breast cancer survivor demographics, physical function, anxiety, depression, fatigue, satisfaction with social roles, and both CAM activities and devotional and spiritual practices. About one-third of our sample (35% baseline; 36% follow-up reported using CAM (yoga, meditation, massage, or herbal/dietary supplements. We assessed devotional and spiritual practices separately from CAM (church attendance, prayer, religious groups, and reading devotional and religious texts; the majority of Latina survivors reported devotional and spiritual practices (80% baseline; 81% follow-up. At baseline, CAM demonstrated a positive association with better physical functioning and lower depression. In contrast, CAM use at the time of follow-up appeared to be related to lower levels of satisfaction with social roles and physical function. In longitudinal analyses, devotional and spiritual practices at baseline significantly predicted lower anxiety, depression, and fatigue at follow-up. Findings suggest CAM plays a complex and not always linear role in symptoms and function outcomes for Latina breast cancer survivors. These findings contribute to the literature on longitudinal CAM use and associations with symptom and functioning outcomes among Latina breast cancer survivors.
Perrotte, Jessica K; Baumann, Michael R; Knight, Cory F
Latina/o college students have been shown to engage in more high risk drinking behavior than students from other ethnic minority groups, and are more likely to experience certain negative alcohol related consequences as a result of drinking. Previous research links stress to drinking among college students and indicates drinking occurs within a gendered context. Although this suggests an effect of gender role socialization, studies exploring these relationships among Latina/os are lacking. To explore potential relationships of stress, gender role prescriptions of the heritage culture, and drinking among Latina/o college students. Specifically, to explore potential interactions between stress and multiple dimensions of machismo and marianismo as related to alcohol use. Latina/o undergraduates (N = 248) completed a questionnaire. Self-reported stress, quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of binge drinking were recorded for all participants. Gender role prescriptions were assessed via endorsement of two dimensions of machismo (men) or two dimensions of marianismo (women). Stress was positively related to general quantity for women. Each dimension of machismo was distinctly related to binge drinking for men. Significant interactions emerged between both machismo and marianismo and stress as related to both alcohol use outcomes. For women, the moderating pattern between marianismo and stress varied according to type of alcohol use. Conclusions/Importance: Gender role beliefs influence the relationship between stress and alcohol use among Latina/o college students. Future research should account for the intersection of gender and culture when considering the stress-alcohol relationship.
Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.
For Latina/o undergraduates, ethnic identity is an important construct linked to self-esteem and educational attainment. Internalized and perceived racism have been hypothesized to hinder ethnic identity development in Latina/o undergraduates. To assess if internalized and perceived racism were inversely related to ethnic identity, the author…
Alemán, Sonya M.
This chapter reviews scholarship using intersectional analyses to assess how Latina/o and Chicana/o youth navigate imbricated systems of privilege and oppression in their educational trajectories. Scholars have explored the navigational tactics Latina/o and Chicana/o students use to negotiate their intersectional identities and the institutional…
Villa, Elsa Q.; Wandermurem, Luciene; Hampton, Elaine M.; Esquinca, Alberto
Less than 20% of undergraduates earning a degree in engineering are women, and even more alarming is minority women earn a mere 3.1% of those degrees. This paper reports on a qualitative study examining Latinas' identity development toward and in undergraduate engineering and computer science studies using a sociocultural theory of learning. Three…
Scheel, John R; Tillack, Allison A; Mercer, Lauren; Coronado, Gloria D; Beresford, Shirley A A; Molina, Yamile; Thompson, Beti
Mobile mammographic services have been proposed as a way to reduce Latinas' disproportionate late-stage presentation compared with white women by increasing their access to mammography. The aims of this study were to assess why Latinas may not use mobile mammographic services and to explore their preferences after using these services. Using a mixed-methods approach, a secondary analysis was conducted of baseline survey data (n = 538) from a randomized controlled trial to improve screening mammography rates among Latinas in Washington. Descriptive statistics and bivariate regression were used to characterize mammography location preferences and to test for associations with sociodemographic indices, health care access, and perceived breast cancer risk and beliefs. On the basis of these findings, a qualitative study (n = 18) was used to explore changes in perceptions after using mobile mammographic services. More Latinas preferred obtaining a mammogram at a fixed facility (52.3% [n = 276]) compared with having no preference (46.3% [n = 249]) and preferring mobile mammographic services (1.7% [n = 9]). Concerns about privacy and comfort (15.6% [n = 84]) and about general quality (10.6% [n = 57]) were common reasons for preferring a fixed facility. Those with no history of mammography preferred a fixed facility (P mobile mammographic services after obtaining a mammogram. Although most Latinas preferred obtaining a mammogram at a fixed facility, positive experiences with mobile mammography services changed their attitudes toward them. These findings highlight the need to include community education when using mobile mammographic service to increase screening mammography rates in underserved communities. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ramos, Athena K; Trinidad, Natalia; Correa, Antonia; Rivera, Roy
The Center for Reducing Health Disparities at the University of Nebraska Medical Center partnered with El Centro de Las Americas, a community-based organization, and various community members to develop a 1-day Spanish-language health conference entitled El Encuentro de La Mujer Sana (Healthy Woman Summit) for immigrant Latinas in Nebraska during May 2013 as part of National Women's Health Week. Design thinking was used to create a meaningful learning experience specifically designed for monolingual Spanish-speaking immigrant Latinas in Nebraska and build a foundation for collaboration between an academic institution, community-based organizational partners, and community members. We used the design thinking methodology to generate ideas for topics and prototyped agendas with community stakeholders that would be relevant and provide culturally and linguistically appropriate health education. By developing community-based health education programs for Latinas with Latinas through a community-engaged co-creation process, organizations and communities build trust, enhance community capacity, and meet identified needs for education and service. Design thinking is a valuable tool that can be used to develop community health education initiatives and enhance civic participation. This method holds promise for health education and public health in becoming more relevant for traditionally marginalized or disenfranchised populations.
Cerezo, Alison; Chang, Tai
In this exploratory study, the authors examined the influence of cultural fit on the achievement of Latina/o college students by testing whether cultural integration factors (i.e., cultural congruity, ethnic identity, connection with ethnic minority peers) predict college GPA (grade point average). Participants were 113 Latina/o students enrolled…
Rivas, Elizabeth D.
This mixed methods study explores the institutionalized master narrative of public institutions and how the mandated policies enacted by public institutions impact Latina social studies teachers when delivering instruction to their students. A socio-transformative constructivist framework guides this study to affirm that knowledge is socially…
Vela, Javier C.; Ikonomopoulos, James; Hinojosa, Karina; Gonzalez, Stacey L.; Duque, Omar; Calvillo, Megan
This manuscript investigated the contributions of individual, interpersonal, and institutional factors on Latina/o college students' life satisfaction. Participants included 130 Latina/o students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution. Results indicated that search for meaning in life, mentoring, and family support were significant predictors…
Luft, Heidi; Larson, Elaine
Latina women in stable relationships have risks for human immunodeficiency virus and other sexually transmitted infections. Improving safe sexual communication (SSC) could enable women to accurately assess and mitigate their risk of infection within their relationship. Literature to identify psychosocial correlates that facilitate or inhibit SSC between Latina women and their partners has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this study was to conduct an integrative review and synthesis of empirical and theoretical research that examines psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women from the United States, Latina America, and the Caribbean with stable male partners. A systematic search of LILACS, EBSCO, and PsychInfo databases was conducted to identify qualitative and quantitative studies that investigated psychosocial correlates of SSC among adult Latina women with a stable male partner. Pertinent data were abstracted and quality of individual studies was appraised. A qualitative synthesis was conducted following Miles and Huberman's method. Five qualitative and three quantitative studies meet eligibility criteria. Factors related to SSC related to three main themes: (1) relationship factors such as length, quality, and power/control, (2) individual factors including attitudes, beliefs, background, behaviors, and intrapersonal characteristics, and (3) partner factors related to partner beliefs and behaviors. The interplay of relationship, individual, and partner factors should be considered in the assessment of SSC for Latina women with their stable partners. To inform future interventions and clinical guidelines, additional research is needed to identify which factors are most related to SSC for this population, and how comparable experiences are for Latina women of different subcultures and living in different countries.
Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
The objectives of this study were to: 1) assessed the face validity of the 18-items US Household Food Security Scale Module (US HFSSM) among low-income pregnant Latinas and 2) adapt the US HFSSM to the target population. This study was conducted in the United States in Hartford, Connecticut where 40% of residents are of Latina descent. Three focus groups (N=14total) were held with pregnant and postpartum Latinas from April – June 2004 to assess the understanding and applicability (face validi...
Daniel-Ulloa, Jason; Ulibarri, M; Baquero, B; Sleeth, C; Harig, H; Rhodes, S D
Compared to White women, Latinas are 4 times more likely to contract HIV. In an effort to determine the overall state of the science meant to address this disparity, we reviewed the current HIV prevention intervention literature for U.S. Latinas. We searched 5 online electronic databases from their inception through July, 2014, for HIV prevention interventions including a majority sample of Latinas. Of 1041 articles identified, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. We documented study designs, participant characteristics, outcomes, theories used, and other intervention characteristics. Overall, HIV knowledge and attitudes were the predominant outcome; a small minority of studies included self-reported condom use or STD incidence. Strategies used to address cultural factors specific to Latinas and HIV included; lay health advisors, using ethnographic narratives, or using the Theory of Gender and Power, however few of the interventions adopted these strategies. This study identified several gaps in the intervention literature that need to be addressed. In addition to including more direct measures of decreased HIV risk (ex. condom use), more systematic use of strategies meant to address gender and cultural factors that may place Latinas at increased risk (e.g., gender inequity, traditional gender role norms such as machismo and marianismo, and relationship power dynamics).
Jimmy Federico Telléz Figueroa
América latina es y ha sido siempre una región, que por sus características en particular socio políticas, no ha generado la mejor de las condiciones para el desarrollo y el fomento del emprendedurismo en todos sus niveles; por el contrario a simple vista nos permite inferir que en mayor o menor grado, dependiendo de los países, las condiciones científicamente ideales para la incubación de emprendimientos no son precisamente las ideales para que los “emprendedores” corran el riesgo de “empren...
Gómez, C A; Hernández, M; Faigeles, B
In 1996, nearly 60% of U.S. AIDS cases among Latinas were attributed to unprotected sex with men. Economic disadvantage, language barriers, and strong cultural gender norms regarding sex exacerbate the risk for HIV infection among Latina immigrant women. Through a collaboration among scientists and providers, this study was designed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted empowerment program for Latina immigrant women on HIV risk behaviors. Women (N = 74) were followed for the first 6 months of their participation and attended up to nine distinct types of activities (e.g., information meetings, friendship circles, and workshops). Although the program was not developed to specifically target HIV risk behaviors, women showed significant increases in sexual communication comfort, were less likely to maintain traditional sexual gender norms, and reported changes in decision-making power. Targeting broader sociocultural issues may increase the necessary skills for Latina women to prevent HIV infection from their sexual partners. Successful collaborations between scientists and providers are critical in developing effective, community-relevant interventions.
Cachelin, Fary M; Thomas, Colleen; Vela, Alyssa; Gil-Rivas, Virginia
Establishing a regular pattern of eating is a core element of treatment for binge eating, yet no research to date has examined meal patterns of Latina women. Compare eating patterns of Latinas who binge eat and those who do not, and examine associations between meal patterns and binge episodes, associated distress and concerns, and body mass index (BMI). One-hundred fifty-five Latinas [65 Binge Eating Disorder (BED), 22 Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 68 with no eating disorder] were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. There were no significant differences in eating patterns between groups. Breakfast was the least and dinner the most consumed meal. For the BED group: greater frequency of lunch consumption was associated with higher BMI while more frequent evening snacking was associated with lower BMI and with less weight importance; more frequent breakfast consumption, mid-morning snack consumption and total meals were associated with greater distress regarding binge eating. For the BN group, evening snack frequency was associated with less dietary restriction and more weight and shape concern; total snack frequency was associated with more weight concern. Regular meal eaters reported more episodes of binge eating than those who did not eat meals regularly. Associations with meal patterns differed by eating disorder diagnosis. Study findings mostly are not consistent with results from prior research on primarily White women. CBT treatments may need to be tailored to address the association between binge eating and regular meal consumption for Latinas. Culturally, appropriate modifications that address traditional eating patterns should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:32-39). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Corona, Rosalie; Rodríguez, Vivian M; McDonald, Shelby E; Velazquez, Efren; Rodríguez, Adriana; Fuentes, Vanessa E
Latina/o college students experience cultural stressors that negatively impact their mental health, which places them at risk for academic problems. We explored whether cultural values buffer the negative effect of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms in a sample of 198 Latina/o college students (70 % female; 43 % first generation college students). Bivariate results revealed significant positive associations between cultural stressors (i.e., acculturative stress, discrimination) and mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depressive, psychological stress), and negative associations between cultural values of familismo, respeto, and religiosity and mental health symptoms. Several cultural values moderated the influence of cultural stressors on mental health symptoms. The findings highlight the importance of helping Latina/o college students remain connected to their families and cultural values as a way of promoting their mental health.
Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Fernandez, Maria E
To develop effective interventions to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas, we should understand the role of cultural factors, such as time perspective, in the decision to be screened. We examined the relation between present time orientation, future time orientation, and self-reported cervical cancer screening among Latinas. A group of 206 Latinas completed a survey measuring factors associated with screening. Logistic regression analyses revealed that future time orientation was significantly associated with self-reported screening. Understanding the influence of time orientation on cervical cancer screening will assist us in developing interventions that effectively target time perspective and screening. © The Author(s) 2013.
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
To understand health disparities, it is important to use an intersectional framework that examines unique experiences of oppression faced by particular groups due to their intersecting identities and social positions linked to societal structures. We focus on Black and Latina women and their experiences with 'gendered racism' - unique forms of oppression due to the intersection of race/ethnicity and gender - to foster understanding of disparities between Black and Latina versus White women in sexual and reproductive health outcomes in the U.S. Specifically, we focus on stereotype-related gendered racism (ongoing discrimination and stereotype threat based on historically-rooted stereotypes about Black and Latina women's sexuality and motherhood) and birth control-related mistrust (ongoing mistrust of the government and medical system related to birth control due to historical and current abuses). We analyzed data from two survey studies with adult women in New York (Study 1: paper-and-pencil community data collection, N = 135, M age = 43.35) and across the U.S. (Study 2: online data collection, N = 343, M age = 29.49) who were currently pregnant or had at least one child and identified as Black, Latina, or White. Black and Latina women reported greater frequency of and concern over stereotype-related gendered racism (F(3,131) = 17.90, p stereotype-related gendered racism was positively associated with pregnancy-specific stress (ß = .40, p gendered racism may play an important role in existing racial/ethnic disparities in women's sexual and reproductive health outcomes, and interventions addressing gendered racism at multiple levels are needed to promote health equity.
de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.
En términos de recursos naturales América Latina es la región más rica del mundo. Las múltiples finalidades de la naturaleza -subsistencia para las comunidades, ingresos para los Estados, commodities para las compañías, y biodiversidad para los conservacionistas- han convertido la gobernanza
Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Gulbas, Lauren; Zayas, Luis H.
Parents’ aspirations and expectations are communicated to their offspring. Children internalize their parents’ aspirations and accept some of the expectations while rejecting others, all part of the developmental process and identity-consolidation. When the aspirations and expectations of youth and parents are incongruent, the outcomes in youths’ behavior can be deleterious, such as when adolescents manifest suicidal behaviors. We examined aspirations expressed by 12 Latina adolescent suicide...
Bordes, Veronica; Sand, Jennifer K.; Arredondo, Patricia; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon
This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Perceived Social Support-Family and Friends Scales, the Family Valuing of Education Scale, and the Mentoring Scale with Latina/o and non-Hispanic White college freshmen. When scores for 112 Latina/o and 597 non-Hispanic White freshmen were examined, strong reliability was found for the…
This study identified the second language acquisition, culture shock, and language stress of adult Latinas in New York as related to language, culture, and education. Participants were eight adult Latinas, for whom Spanish was the first language, who had come to the United States 10-15 years previously and developed some functioning English as a…
Kam, Jennifer A; Pérez Torres, Debora
Utilizing primary socialization theory (PST) and longitudinal survey data from 381 Latina/o sixth- through eighth-grade students, we hypothesized that four types of parent anti-substance use messages (i.e., parents' own past substance use, religious beliefs, respect for family, and peer resistance) would discourage Latina/o students' substance use, particularly when the students perceived their parents' anti-substance use messages were legitimate. The results supported moderation. For Latina/o students who thought that their parents' anti-substance use messages were legitimate, many of the anti-substance use messages were negatively related to substance use, but the associations were positive or nonsignificant for Latina/o students who thought that their parents' anti-substance use messages were not legitimate. The findings extend past work on PST and anti-substance use parent-child communication, highlighting the importance of perceived legitimacy and message content.
Full Text Available Este ensayo hace un recorrido histórico sobre los significados que visibiliza la estructura urbana en América Latina desde la Colonia hasta el presente. Partiendo de la separación entre lo rural y lo urbano heredada del mundo colonial, el ensayo muestra las alteraciones que en la gramática urbana y en el imaginario simbólico, produce la explosión urbana de los años sesenta del siglo pasado, lo que constituye una noción deteriorada de espacio público como signo de la ciudad negada, y la posterior conceptualización del espacio público, durante los noventa, como espacio de la diversidad. Al establecer un vínculo entre las perspectivas políticas y económicas de los diferentes momentos históricos de América Latina y la gramática espacial de la ciudad, los autores afirman que esta relación produce un texto que posibilita la comunicación (o incomunicación entre los ciudadanos y el Estado.
Llamas, Jasmín D; Morgan Consoli, Melissa
Intragroup marginalization refers to the perceived interpersonal distancing by members of the heritage culture when an individual exhibits cultural characteristics of the dominant group. This study expands understanding of the college experience of Latina/o students by examining relationships between intragroup marginalization, college adjustment, resilience, and thriving in a sample of 181 Latina/o college students, ranging from freshman to graduate students. In addition, the role of familial social support is explored to determine any possible mediating effects on the relationship between intragroup marginalization, college adjustment, resilience, and thriving. Findings revealed that intragroup marginalization predicted college adjustment, resilience, and thriving. Familial social support was found to mediate the relationship between intragroup marginalization and thriving. This research highlights the negative impact of intragroup marginalization for Latina/o students, as well as the role of familial support in thriving. The results also shed light on the Latina/o college experience as a means to improving Latina/o students' college outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Although there is a growing body of work on the experiences of girls in juvenile justice and women in prison, still little is known about the experiences of Latinas in the prison pipeline. Accordingly, even less is known about lesbian/queer Latinas in the prison pipeline. Gabriela's case study reveals her experiences in and out of the Juvenile…
13 déc. 2010 ... Protección social en salud en América latina y el Caribe : Investigación y políticas. Couverture du livre Protección social en salud en América latina y el Caribe : Investigación y. Directeur(s) : Amparo Hernández Bello et Carmen Rico de Sotelo. Maison(s) d'édition : Editorial Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, ...
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.
To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to...
Allen, Jennifer D; Pérez, John E; Pischke, Claudia R; Tom, Laura S; Juarez, Alan; Ospino, Hosffman; Gonzalez-Suarez, Elizabeth
Churches are a promising setting through which to reach Latinas with cancer control efforts. A better understanding of the dimensions of religiousness that impact health behaviors could inform efforts to tailor cancer control programs for this setting. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between dimensions of religiousness with adherence to cancer screening recommendations among church-going Latinas. Female Spanish-speaking members, aged 18 and older from a Baptist church in Boston, Massachusetts (N = 78), were interviewed about cancer screening behaviors and dimensions of religiousness. We examined adherence to individual cancer screening tests (mammography, Pap test, and colonoscopy), as well as adherence to all screening tests for which participants were age-eligible. Dimensions of religiousness assessed included church participation, religious support, active and passive spiritual health locus of control, and positive and negative religious coping. Results showed that roughly half (46 %) of the sample had not received all of the cancer screening tests for which they were age-eligible. In multivariate analyses, positive religious coping was significantly associated with adherence to all age-appropriate screening (OR = 5.30, p religious coping could increase the impact of cancer control interventions for Latinas.
Arcury, Thomas A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Quandt, Sara A
Work organization is important for the health of vulnerable workers, particularly women. This analysis describes work organization for Latinas in farmworker families and delineates the associations of work organization with health indicators. Up to 220 Latina women in farmworker families completed interviews from October 2012 to July 2013. Interviews addressed job structure, job demand, job control, and job support. Health measures included stress, depressive symptoms, physical activity, family conflict, and family economic security. Three fifths of the women were employed. Several work organization dimensions, including shift, psychological demand, work safety climate, and benefits, were associated with participant health as expected, on the basis of the work organization and job demands-control-support models. Research should address women's health and specific work responsibilities. Occupational safety policy must consider the importance of work organization in the health of vulnerable workers.
Perez, Georgina; Della Valle, Pamela; Paraghamian, Sarah; Page, Rachel; Ochoa, Janet; Palomo, Fabiana; Suarez, Emilia; Thrasher, Angela; Tran, Anh N; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Recent Latina immigrants are at increased risk of poor mental health due to stressors associated with adapting to life in the United States. Existing social and health care policies often do not adequately address the mental health concerns of new Latino populations. Amigas Latinas Motivando el Alma, a community-partnered research project, seeks to improve immigrant Latinas' mental health outcomes. Using Photovoice methodology, promotoras (lay health advisors) reflected on community factors affecting mental health through photography and guided discussion. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded using content analysis to identify salient themes. Promotoras reviewed codes to develop themes that they presented in community forums to reach local policy makers and to increase community awareness. These forums included an exhibit of the promotoras' photographs and discussion of action steps to address community concerns. Themes included transitioning to life in the United States, parenting, education, and combating racism. Nearly 150 stakeholders attended the community forums and proposed responses to promotoras' photographic themes. Our findings suggest that Photovoice provides an opportunity for Latinas and the larger community to identify issues that they find most important and to explore avenues for action and change by creating sustainable partnerships between the community and forum attendees. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Full Text Available El dossier que aquí presentamos resulta de un trabajo colaborativo iniciado a principios de este año en el marco de la Red Interuniversitaria Educación Superior y Pueblos Indígenas y Afrodescendientes de América Latina (RED ESIAL. Esta red, cuya creación ha sido impulsada y gestionada desde el Programa Educación Superior y Pueblos Indígenas y Afrodescendientes en América Latina (Programa ESIAL del Centro Interdisciplinario de Estudios Avanzados de la Universidad Nacional de Tres de Febrero, cuenta con la participación de cuarenta universidades de América Latina, habiendo sido la Universidad Nacional de Salta una de las primeras en adherir a la misma, por iniciativa del Centro de Investigaciones Sociales y Educativas del Norte argentino (Cisen.
Cordero, Elizabeth D.
Thin-ideal internalization (TII) reflects agreement that thinness equates with beauty. TII is a risk factor for body dissatisfaction and eating pathology; this phenomenon and its correlates, however, are just beginning to be studied in Latina undergraduates. This study examined the ability of self-esteem, social support, and collectivism to predict TII in Latina undergraduates. It was hypothesized that higher levels of self-esteem, social support, and collectivism would predict lower levels of TII. Cross-sectional data were analyzed using multiple regression; the model was significant, p < .01. Although both self-esteem and social support negatively correlated with thin-ideal internalization, only self-esteem accounted for a significant amount of variance. Results indicate that investigations of self-esteem as a protective factor against TII in Latina undergraduates would be fruitful, as would how self-esteem and social support affect the relationship between TII and other variables. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:21147052
Ek, Lucila D.; Chávez, Guadalupe Domínguez
Using theories of figured worlds, we demonstrate how Proyecto Bilingüe, a Master of Arts in Curriculum and Instruction program, constructs a figured world of bilingual education for Latina/o bilingual teachers. We drew from a larger qualitative study to conduct a thematic analysis of interviews with Latina/o bilingual teachers, their written…
Núñez, Anne-Marie; Murakami, Elizabeth T.; Gonzales, Leslie D.
As an alternative to typical top-down mentoring models, the authors advance a conception of peer mentoring that is based on research about collectivist strategies that Latina faculty employ to navigate the academy. The authors advance recommendations for institutional agents to support mentoring for faculty who are members of historically…
Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; McKenney, Kathryn; Di Florio, Arianna; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha
Postpartum depression (PPD), often comorbid with anxiety, is the leading medical complication among new mothers. Latinas have elevated risk of PPD, which has been associated with early breastfeeding cessation. Lower plasma oxytocin (OT) levels have also been associated with PPD in non-Latinas. This pilot study explores associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding, and OT in Latinas. Thirty-four Latinas were enrolled during their third trimester of pregnancy and followed through 8 weeks postpartum. Demographic data were collected at enrollment. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at each time point (third trimester of pregnancy, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum). The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was administered postpartum and EPDS anxiety subscale was used to assess anxiety at each time point. Breastfeeding status was assessed at 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. At 8 weeks, OT was collected before, during, and after a 10-minute breast/bottle feeding session from 28 women who completed the procedures. Descriptive statistics are provided and comparisons by mood and breastfeeding status were conducted. Analyses of variance were used to explore associations between PPD, anxiety, breastfeeding status, and OT. Just under one-third of women were depressed at enrollment. Prenatal depression, PPD, and anxiety were significantly associated with early breastfeeding cessation (i.e., stopped breastfeeding before 2 months) (p < 0.05). There was a significant interaction between early breastfeeding cessation and depression status on OT at 8 weeks postpartum (p < 0.05). Lower levels of OT were observed in women who had PPD at 8 weeks and who had stopped breastfeeding their infant by 8 weeks postpartum. Future studies should investigate the short- and long-term effects of lower OT levels and early breastfeeding cessation on maternal and child well-being.
Lara, Margaret A.
This study discusses the results of a content analysis of 75 Latina biographies for primary and pre-adolescent students that were published over a 16-year period, spanning from 1995 to 2010. Significant to this study was how Latinas were represented in the biographies and what changes can be seen over time. Using a rubric based on research by…
Full Text Available La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermosA telemedicina é uma tendência crescente na prestação dos serviços médicos. Embora a eficácia desta prática não tenha sido ainda bem estabelecida, é provável que os países em desenvolvimento compartilharão este novo paradigma com os países desenvolvidos. Os defensores da telemedicina na América Latina sustentam que esta será uma ferramenta útil para reduzir as disparidades e melhorar a acessibilidade da atenção de saúde. Embora a América Latina, quem sabe se converta num lugar para a pesquisa e pesquisa destes procedimentos em particular, não está claro como a telemedicina poderia contribuir apara melhorar a acessibilidade para as populações desfavorecidas, o co-existir com os sistemas de atenção de saúde públicas cronicamente enfermosTelemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and
Martin, Kathryn R.; Garcia, Lorena
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between unintended pregnancy and intimate partner violence (IPV) before and during pregnancy among Latinas. A cross-sectional interview measuring pregnancy intent, IPV, and acculturation, using the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans (ARSMA-II), was conducted among Latina women…
Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es caracterizar e interpretar la evolución del personaje de la muchacha enamorada en la comedia latina. Específicamente, se consideran aquí los dos momentos más salientes del género: de un lado, la antigua comedia romana de Plauto y Terencio, y, del otro, la así llamada comedia humanística latina, escrita en el temprano Renacimiento europeo. De entre estas últimas piezas, me interesará específicamente examinar los casos de Symmachus y Emporia, dos comedias de Tito Livio Frulovisi que hasta hoy no han sido traducidas a ninguna lengua moderna. The purpose of this work is to characterize and interpret the development of the character of the young girl in love in the Latin comedy. In consequence, the research focuses on the genre’s two most prominent periods: the ancient Roman comedy by Plautus and Terence, and the so-called Latin humanistic comedy from the early European Renaissance. More specifically, this work concentrates on the cases of Symmachus and Emporia, two comedies by Tito Livio Frulovisi which have not been translated to any modern language.
Palazzolo, Sarah L; Yamanis, Thespina J; De Jesus, Maria; Maguire-Marshall, Molly; Barker, Suyanna L
The purpose of this study was to explore the contextual factors that determine or mitigate vulnerability to HIV among Latina transgender women. Documentation status (legal authorization to live in the United States) has been cited by other studies as a barrier to recruitment or engagement in HIV-related care among immigrant Latinos, but not explored as a determinant of HIV risk for transgender immigrant Latinas. We collaborated with a community-based organization to explore these contextual, including social and structural, factors. In-depth interviews in Spanish captured life histories of eight 18- to 29-year-old transgender Latinas, who collectively self-identify as chicas trans. Codes were assigned deductively from the interview guide, and emerging themes were identified throughout data collection. Most participants migrated to the United States from Central America after experiencing discrimination and violence in their countries of origin. Participants emphasized documentation status as a critical factor in three areas related to social and structural determinants of HIV risk: gender identity expression, access to services, and relationship power dynamics. Chicas trans who gained legal asylum reported greater control over sexual relationships, improved access to services, and less risky employment. Documentation status emerged as a key HIV risk factor for this population. For undocumented transgender Latinas, legal asylum appears to be a promising HIV-related protective factor. Further research could assess whether legal assistance combined with wraparound support services affects HIV prevention for this population.
Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katrina Mucha; Greaney, Mary; Wang, Monica L; Davis, Rachel; Peterson, Karen E
Obesity rates remain high among children in the United States (US), but children of low-income, minority families are at particularly high risk. Latinos are the largest and most rapidly growing US population group. Effective strategies will require attention to a wide array of culturally mediated variables that influence child feeding practices through the social contexts in which behaviors take place. This paper presents the design and implementation of a qualitative study examining low-income, Latina mothers' perceptions of child weight status and feeding practices, and their associations with the development of overweight in children. Guided by the social ecologic model and social contextual model on the role of the family in mediating health behavior, the Latina Mother Child Feeding Practices (LMCFP) study provided a systematic exploration of the influence of social class, culture, and environmental factors associated with mothers' perceptions of child overweight on feeding practices and behaviors. The design for this qualitative study consisted of three sequential phases: focus groups, in-depth interviews and cognitive interviews with Latina mothers conducted by Spanish-speaking researchers. Results showed the important role of socio-cultural factors in influencing Latina mothers' child feeding practices. In the short-term, this research yielded information to develop a child-feeding questionnaire appropriate for low-income, Latina mothers. Findings have important implications in developing nutrition education strategies for child health promotion that account for the social and cultural context of minority, low-income caregivers.
Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Damio, Grace; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael
The objectives of this study were to: 1) assessed the face validity of the 18-items US Household Food Security Scale Module (US HFSSM) among low-income pregnant Latinas and 2) adapt the US HFSSM to the target population. This study was conducted in the United States in Hartford, Connecticut where 40% of residents are of Latina descent. Three focus groups (N=14(total)) were held with pregnant and postpartum Latinas from April - June 2004 to assess the understanding and applicability (face validity) of the US HFSSM as well as adapt the US HFSSM based on their recommendations. This was followed by pre-testing (N=7) to make final adaptations to the US HFSSM. Overall, the items in the US HFSSM were clear and understandable to participants, but some questions sounded repetitive to them. Participants felt the questions were applicable to other pregnant Latinas in their community and shared food security related experiences and strategies. Participants recommendations led to key adaptations to the US HFSSM including reducing the scale to 15-items, wording statements as questions, including two time periods, replacing the term "balanced meals" with "healthy and varied", replacing the term "low cost foods" with "cheap foods" and including a definition of the term, and including a coping mechanism of avoiding running out of food. The adapted US HFSSM was found to have good face validity among pregnant Latinas and can be used to assess food insecurity among this vulnerable population.
Minnis, Alexandra M; Marchi, Kristen; Ralph, Lauren; Biggs, M Antonia; Combellick, Sarah; Arons, Abigail; Brindis, Claire D; Braveman, Paula
The decrease in adolescent birth rates in the United States has been slower among Latinas than among other ethnic/racial groups. Limited research has explored how socioeconomic opportunities influence childbearing among Latina adolescents. We conducted in-depth interviews with 65 pregnant foreign- and US-born Latina women (31 adolescents; 34 adults) in two California counties. We assessed perceived socioeconomic opportunities and examined how family, immigration and acculturation affected the relationships between socioeconomic opportunities and adolescent childbearing. Compared with women who delayed childbearing into adulthood, pregnant adolescents described having few resources for educational and career development and experiencing numerous socioeconomic and social barriers to achieving their goals. Socioeconomic instability and policies limiting access to education influenced childbearing for immigrant adolescents. In contrast, family disintegration tied to poverty figured prominently in US-born adolescents' childbearing. Limited socioeconomic opportunities may play a large role in persistently high pregnancy rates among Latina adolescents.
Davila, Liv Thorstensson
This study analyzes the goals and realities of four educated, working, adult Latina, English as a Second language (ESL) students living in North Carolina, a region seeing particularly intense migration of Latino immigrants. The study conceptually frames adjustment issues confronted by these Latina immigrants in terms of gender, language,…
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hamade, Hiam; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Palamisono, Gloria; Zambrana, Ruth E.
Introduction We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Methods Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 20...
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El artículo analiza la situación de la violencia homicida en América Latina, cuál es su ubicación en la situación mundial de violencia y cuáles serían las posibles explicaciones para el lugar que ocupa. Utilizando la base de datos de la Organización Mundial de la Salud se clasifican las regiones por su tasa de homicidios y se ubica a América Latina como la región más violenta. Los países de América Latina son clasificados en cuatro grupos de acuerdo a la relación de su tasa de homicidios con la tasa media mundial y se caracterizan socialmente las víctimas.Para interpretar esa situación se relacionan con los niveles de urbanización y pobreza y se presentan los factores que pueden originar, fomentar y facilitar el incremento o disminución de los homicidios y su potencial utilidad en las políticas públicas.ABSTRACT: This article explores the situation of homicide violence in Latin America, its position within the worlds violence situation and the possible explanations for that position. Using the data bases of the World Health Organization, regions are classified by their homicide rates, which puts Latin America as the most violent region. Latin American countries are set in four groups according to the relation of their homicide rates with the world’s rate, and a social classification of victims is built. For interpreting this situation, those factors are put in relation with the levels of urbanization and poverty, and the possible causes of the increase or decrease of homicides are presented, as well as their potential utility for public policy making.
Chalela, Patricia; Pagán, José A; Su, Dejun; Muñoz, Edgar; Ramirez, Amelie G
Genetic testing for breast cancer may facilitate better-informed decisions regarding cancer prevention, risk reduction, more effective early detection, and better determination of risk for family members. Despite these potential benefits, significant portions of the US population-particularly Latinas-lack awareness of genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility. Among women who are tested, less than 4% are Latina. To uncover reasons for Latinas' low participation, this study explores awareness, attitudes and behavioral intentions to undergo genetic testing among average-risk Latinas along the Texas-Mexico border. Eight focus groups were conducted with 58 Latinas aged 19-69 living in Hidalgo County, a largely Latino region of South Texas. Focus group discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed and analyzed using qualitative content analysis to assess, categorize and interpret them. Two experienced study team members analyzed transcripts to identify major concepts grouped into theme categories. Participants mostly had less than a high-school education (43%), spoke primarily Spanish (52%), were of Mexican-American origin (90%) and had a family income of $30,000 or less (75%). Focus groups found that most participants had positive attitudes and strong interest in genetic testing, yet lacked general awareness and knowledge about genetic testing, its risks, benefits, and limitations. Participants also identified several key cultural-based influencers, such as family, religious beliefs and fear of testing. The delivery of culturally adapted risk information is needed to increase and ensure Latinas' understanding of breast cancer genetic testing during their decision-making processes. Key Latino values-religiosity, importance of family and the influential role of health care providers in health decisions-should also be considered when designing interventions targeting this specific group. Further research is needed to identify effective ways to communicate
After an historical introduction about ancient institutional regime of present Littoria/Latina province (until 1870 organized in Naples kingdom and Papal States), this essay is going to a swift analysis of marshes who reigned all over the land from the periphery of Rome to Fondi, when transient sheperds and woodmen were the only human beings of marshy land. So teachers for that unlettered people came into these lands, and so physicians came to fight against malary, first symbiotic enemy of man. So drainages were tried from Roman's epoch to Medieval and Illuministic one. We'll see Popes, feudal ladies and at last drainage trusts, all working to improve human life before the birth of Latina province. New cities and towns were born just during these trials; after the experiences of Angelo Celli, Italian Red Cross and Istituto per il risanamento antimalarico della regione pontina, many laws looked to medical aid for workers in malaric zones (exactly specified in topographic maps). In 1934 the Comitato provinciale antimalarico was introduced all over italian territory with the R.D.n. 1265.
Aristinete Bernardes Oliveira Neto
Full Text Available El título del trabajo La dimensión subjetiva de la política en América Latina tiene el propósito de despertar a primera vista dos preguntas fundamentales: ¿por qué América Latina? y ¿por qué la subjetividad? Son dos temas que provocan tanto prejuicios como curiosidades en el ámbito académico de la filosofía. La opción por América Latina surgió de una experiencia personal como estudiante de filosofía. Con frecuencia nos sentimos desafortunados al tratar de ajustar los conocimientos adquiridos con las realidades que nos afectan como ciudadanos. La vida académica, sin lugar a dudas, se llena de sentido cuando nos damos cuenta de que es posible llevar al ámbito académico aquellos fantasmas que nos quedan en la mente, abstraídos de las crudas y sanguinarias imágenes de terror que encontramos a lo largo del continente. A través del estudio de la filosofía podemos pensar y soñar en nuevas sociedades humanas. En fin, me decidí por América Latina, porque aquí está mi destino.
Fandino Marino, Juan Mario
O trabalho aborda a questão da violência na América Latina dentro de uma perspectiva histórica ampla. Analisa como o ciclo atual orienta-se para a superação democrática da violência, mas a economia de entorpecentes ameaça desvirtuá-lo pela contaminação do tecido moral em construção pelo crime. Palavras-chave: violência; política e instituições; América Latina. This essay addresses the question of violence in Latin America from a broad historical viewpoint. It analyzes how the existing cycl...
Turner, Caroline Sotello Viernes; Hernandez, Edwin I.; Pena, Milagros; Gonzalez, Juan Carlos
Little progress has been made to increase Latina/o faculty representation in theological education. In this study, 33 interviews with Latina/o theological faculty identify supports and challenges to their scholarly development. Latino critical theory guides the analysis. Narratives reveal faculty experiences with oppression, challenging dominant…
Peralta, Claudia; Caspary, Melissa; Boothe, Diane
This study investigates how Latina/Latino youth resist, conform to, and persist in schooling, and explores their preparation for an education in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields. Using Latino Critical Race Theory as a framework, evidence of the "sticky mess" of racial inequalities (Espinoza and Harris in Calif Law Rev 10:499-559, 1997) and the concept of community cultural wealth (Yosso in Race Ethn Educ 8:69-91, 2005) will be used to understand how Latina/o students successfully persist in college. Quantitative and qualitative findings collected at two public universities in 2007-2012 show that Latina/o parents play a significant role in influencing their children's decision to attend college; family, friend and community support and hard work have also been instrumental in college success. This is evident through parents' encouragement to persist, expectations to do well and students serving as role models for siblings and peers. As policy makers in the educational arena emphasize STEM fields, there is a significant opportunity for Latino students to make valuable contributions.
Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Avent, Tenesha; Martin, Steve S; Varga, Leah M; Cano, Miguel A; O'Connell, Daniel J
Latina women are disproportionately affected by HIV in the US, and account for 30% of all HIV infections in Miami-Dade County, Florida. The main risk for Latina women is heterosexual contact. Little is known about the relational and cultural factors that may impact women's HIV risk perception. This study aims to describe Latina women's perception of their HIV risk within a relational, cultural, and linguistic context. Eight focus groups of Latina women (n = 28), four English speaking groups and four Spanish speaking groups, were conducted between December 2013 and May 2014. Women were recruited from a diversion program for criminal justice clients and by word of mouth. Eligibility criteria included the following: self-identify as Hispanic/Latino, 18-49 years of age, and self-identify as heterosexual. A two-level open coding analytic approach was conducted to identify themes across groups. Most participants were foreign-born (61%) and represented the following countries: Cuba (47%), Honduras (17.5%), Mexico (12%), as well as Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Colombia, and Venezuela (15%). Participant ages ranged between 18 and 49, with a mean age of 32 years. Relationship factors were important in perceiving HIV risk including male infidelity, women's trust in their male partners, relationship type, and getting caught up in the heat of the moment. For women in the English speaking groups, drug use and trading sex for drugs were also reasons cited for putting them at risk for HIV. English speaking women also reported that women should take more responsibility regarding condom use. Findings emphasize the importance of taking relational and cultural context into account when developing HIV prevention programs for Latina women. Interventions targeting English speaking Latina women should focus on women being more proactive in their sexual health; interventions focused on Spanish speaking women might target their prevention messages to either men or couples.
Sussner, Katarina M; Edwards, Tiffany; Villagra, Cristina; Rodriguez, M Carina; Thompson, Hayley S; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis B
Despite the life-saving information that genetic counseling can provide for women at hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) risk, Latinas disproportionately underuse such services. Understanding Latinas' beliefs and attitudes about BRCA genetic counseling may be the key to better health promotion within this underserved, at-risk group. We conducted 12 focus groups (N = 54) with at-risk Latina women in New York City, followed by 30 in-depth interviews among a subset of the focus group women. Both were professionally transcribed, translated where applicable and data analysis was completed by two coders trained in qualitative methods. Results revealed personal and community knowledge about BRCA genetic counseling was relatively low, although women felt largely positive about counseling. The main motivator to undergo genetic counseling was concerns about learning family members' cancer status, while the main barrier was competing demands. Generational differences were apparent, with younger women (approximately machismo, fatalismo, destino) to undergoing genetic counseling. Participants were largely enthusiastic about educational efforts to increase awareness of genetic counseling among Latinos. Revealing the beliefs and attitudes of underserved Latinas may help shape culturally appropriate educational materials and promotion programs to increase BRCA genetic counseling uptake within this underrepresented community.
Dixon-Gray, Lesa A; Mobley, Allison; McFarlane, Julie M; Rosenberg, Kenneth D
To develop, and implement, a social marketing campaign to increase preconception health knowledge among second-generation Latinas in Oregon. Social marketing demonstration project. Latino communities in five Oregon counties. Target populations included young Latinas (18-29 years old) born in the United States of immigrant parents in five Oregon counties, and their family members. Intervention. A radionovela, Amor y Salud, was developed that featured a Latina and her fiancé preparing for marriage and family. Social media, Web sites, and culturally relevant print materials promoted the radio campaign. Process data, social media metrics, Google analytics, online and intercept surveys were collected. Basic frequencies and descriptive statistics were used. Twelve episodes were produced in English and Spanish and played on nine radio stations a total of 2098 times. The Facebook page was viewed 11,000 times, and radionovela episodes were played a total of 776 times. Amor y Salud used mixed media--radio, social media, print materials--to encourage Latinas to consider their preconception health. Anecdotally, we heard positive comments from community members and local media regarding the radionovela; however, evaluation challenges prevent us from saying conclusively that knowledge on this topic increased.
Utilizing the exploratory case study methodology, the author examines the conditions that support and limit a Latina-based student organization at a predominately White institution of higher education. Seven organizational structures were found to influence the organization's ability to advance its aims, from interviews, documents, observations,…
Sleight, Alix G
This qualitative study examined the experience of occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors and suggests the potential for occupational therapy practitioners to improve health outcomes in this vulnerable and underserved population. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 9 participants. Inductive analysis was used to code for themes and patterns related to occupational engagement and quality of life (QOL). Lack of occupational engagement negatively affected QOL, but participation in occupations such as religious activity and caregiving promoted well-being. Financial concerns and communication barriers decreased QOL. Breast cancer can have a negative impact on occupational engagement in low-income Latina breast cancer survivors; however, some occupations may increase QOL. Socioeconomic status and cultural values influence occupational engagement and QOL. Occupational therapy practitioners can improve health outcomes in this population through awareness of relevant sociocultural factors and attention to appropriate patient communication. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.
Gustavo Ernesto Emmerich
Full Text Available Este ensayo se ocupa de la evolución histórica de la democracia y la participación política en América Latina, y delinea algunas posibilidades futuras al respecto. Primeramente examina algunos rasgos de la cultura de sumisión y de la profunda desigualdad social y política que desde la Colonia (e incluso antes caracterizó a muchas naciones de la región, y los compara con algunos aspectos de la cultura política predominante en Estados Unidos de América y Canadá. Luego, señala que en los ultimos años del siglo XX en América Latina se han fortalecido tanto las instituciones democráticas como una nueva cultura de participación, aunque considera necesario fundar nuevos pactos sociales que contribuyan a crear condiciones económicas y sociales más equitativas, como base y finalidad de la democracia y la participación.. Finalmente, sugiere que el liberalismo social, el socialismo democrático y el humanismo cristiano son las principales familias filosófico-políticas que podrían aportar -desde sus diversas perspectivas- a la consolidación de la democracia y a la creación de sociedades más participativas y más equitativas en América Latina.
Wingood, Gina M; DiClemente, Ralph J; Villamizar, Kira; Er, Deja L; DeVarona, Martina; Taveras, Janelle; Painter, Thomas M; Lang, Delia L; Hardin, James W; Ullah, Evelyn; Stallworth, JoAna; Purcell, David W; Jean, Reynald
We developed and assessed AMIGAS (Amigas, Mujeres Latinas, Inform andonos, Gui andonos, y Apoy andonos contra el SIDA [friends, Latina women, informing each other, guiding each other, and supporting each other against AIDS]), a culturally congruent HIV prevention intervention for Latina women adapted from SiSTA (Sistas Informing Sistas about Topics on AIDS), an intervention for African American women. We recruited 252 Latina women aged 18 to 35 years in Miami, Florida, in 2008 to 2009 and randomized them to the 4-session AMIGAS intervention or a 1-session health intervention. Participants completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at baseline and follow-up. Over the 6-month follow-up, AMIGAS participants reported more consistent condom use during the past 90 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; P < .001) and 30 (AOR = 3.14; P < .001) days and at last sexual encounter (AOR = 2.76; P < .001), and a higher mean percentage condom use during the past 90 (relative change = 55.7%; P < .001) and 30 (relative change = 43.8%; P < .001) days than did comparison participants. AMIGAS participants reported fewer traditional views of gender roles (P = .008), greater self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex (P < .001), greater feelings of power in relationships (P = .02), greater self-efficacy for using condoms (P < .001), and greater HIV knowledge (P = .009) and perceived fewer barriers to using condoms (P < .001). Our results support the efficacy of this linguistically and culturally adapted HIV intervention among ethnically diverse, predominantly foreign-born Latina women.
Lopez-Class, Maria; Perret-Gentil, Monique; Kreling, Barbara; Caicedo, Larisa; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Graves, Kristi D
Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Latinas. This study examined social, cultural, and health care system factors that impact the quality of life and survivorship experiences of Latina immigrant breast cancer survivors. We interviewed Latina breast cancer survivors (n = 19) and, based on the interview findings, conducted two focus groups (n = 9). Research staff translated transcripts from Spanish into English. Two trained raters reviewed the content and identified themes. Thematic content analysis was used to categorize and organize data. Participants were largely monolingual in Spanish, predominantly from Central and South America and most (68%) had lived in the U.S. for ten or more years. All women were diagnosed and treated in the U.S. and were an average of 3.1 years from diagnosis. Women's survivorship experiences appeared to be shaped by cultural beliefs and experiences as immigrants such as secrecy/shame about a breast cancer diagnosis, feelings of isolation, importance of family support (familism), challenges with developing social relationships in the U.S. (less personalismo), and, for some, their partner's difficulty with showing emotional support (machismo). Navigating the U.S. medical system and language barriers were additional challenges in the participants' health care interactions. Latina breast cancer survivors adhere to certain cultural values and face unique issues as immigrants, potentially influencing overall quality of life and doctor-patient communication. Efforts to improve Latina immigrant breast cancer survivors' quality of life could include increased assessment of psychosocial functioning and referral to social support services, culturally sensitive navigation programs, and consistent use of appropriately trained interpreters.
Se utiliza un panel desbalanceado de medio centenar de países para el período 1985-2003 con el objeto de evaluar la vulnerabilidad del gasto público social (en educación y salud) frente a las variables fiscales corrientes y la deuda pública en América Latina en comparación con el resto del mundo en desarrollo. El gasto social es significativamente más bajo en América Latina (aunque absorbe una proporción mayor del gasto primario) y es más vulnerable frente a mayores pagos de intereses de la d...
DOI: 10.12957/geouerj.2013.3873O presente artigo faz um resgate histórico da problemática habitacional na América Latinae traz como exemplos o Brasil e o Chile, países que apresentaram políticas interessantes para tentarresolver o problema da habitação. A partir do século XIX, com a industrialização e,consequentemente,o aumento da urbanização, as cidades da América Latina passaram a sofrer com osproblemas urbanos. Entre eles, a questão habitacional se destaca por ser um problema que afeta nos...
Hopfer, Suellen; Garcia, Samantha; Duong, Huong T.; Russo, Jennefer A.; Tanjasiri, Sora P.
Disparities in cervical cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination persist among Vietnamese and Latina women. Through a partnership with Planned Parenthood of Orange and San Bernardino Counties (PPOSBC) in Southern California, we conducted in-depth interviews with young adult Latina (n = 24) and Vietnamese (n = 24) women, and PPOSBC staff…
Soto, Sandra H; Arredondo, Elva M; Haughton, Jessica; Shakya, Holly
To examine the association between characteristics of social support for exercise and moderate-to-vigorous leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among Latinas. This cross-sectional study used baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted in 16 churches located in San Diego County. Participants (N = 436) were Latinas between 18 and 65 years old who did not self-report >150 minutes or did not exceed 250 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per week measured by accelerometer. Latinas listed up to 6 individuals who had provided support for exercise within the past 6 months, including their gender, relationship with the respondent, types of support provided, and respondent's satisfaction with support. Self-reported LTPA was dichotomized (none vs any). We generated dyads between Latinas who named ≥1 supporter (n = 323) and each supporter they named (n = 569 dyads). Logistic regression analyses were conducted using generalized estimating equations to adjust for multiple observations per participant. Having an exercise partner (odds ratio [OR]: 2.16; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-4.62), help with household duties (OR: 2.70; 95% CI: 1.35-3.38), being "very much" satisfied with support (OR: 2.33; 95% CI: 1.26-4.30), and naming >2 supporters (OR: 2.57; 95% CI: 1.06-6.25) was positively associated with LTPA. Findings suggest specific aspects of support for exercise that should be targeted in future interventions to promote LTPA.
Full Text Available Los participantes en la Primera Reunión de Institutos de Comunicación de América Latina, Instituto Latinoamericano de Comunicación Educativa (ILCE Federación Latinoamericana de Facultades de Comunicación Social (FELAFACS, Asociación Latinoamericana de Investigadores de la Comunicación (ALAIC, Centro de Telecomunicaciones para el Tercer Mundo (CETTEM, Centro Regional para el fomento del Libro de América Latina y el Caribe (CERLAL, y el Centro Internacional de Estudios Superiores de Comunicación para América Latina (CIESPAL, reunidos en la ciudad de Quito, Ecuador, en los días 13 y 14 de octubre, intercambiaron opiniones y experiencias de trabajo y reconocieron áreas prioritarias sobre las cuales debe reflexionarse y desarrollar mecanismos de cooperación. En la Reunión participó como observador UNESCO.
Agne, April A; Daubert, Rebecca; Munoz, Maria L; Scarinci, Isabel; Cherrington, Andrea L
This study used focus group methodology to examine perceptions of obesity and weight management among Latina immigrant women in Alabama. Four focus groups (N = 25) were conducted in Spanish as part of a participatory intervention development process. Participants were obese/overweight Latina immigrant women (BMI > 25) primarily recruited from a community hospital. The majority of participants were from Mexico. Participants described obesity in the context of short-term effects such as physical symptoms and aesthetics. Perceived weight gain was related to lifestyle changes since moving to the US. Social isolation, depression, and stress were reported to contribute to weight gain. Participants expressed interest in weight loss but emphasized a desire for programs that preserve traditional foods and include family. Weight-management programs designed for Latina immigrants should address their perceptions of obesity. This data also suggests that those interventions that preserve culture and incorporate family may have increased community buy-in.
Full Text Available This phenomenological study investigates the cultural meaning of femininity to immigrant Latina women and its significance in the consideration of decisions related to maintaining breast health. Theories of culture and health promotion support the concern for women’s need for access to health care in relation to breast health and the cultural barriers that interface between the connections of femininity, body image, and mental health. For Hispanic women, breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer generating distress for the individual, partner, and family. The importance of best practices in health promotion and risk reduction strategies in the early screening of women is emphasized in the literature. However, the voice of immigrant Latina women in describing their perspective of femininity and breast health and how it may affect choice and decision making related to breast self-care practices has not been studied. Five themes emerged from the data analysis conducted with Giorgi’s phenomenological method leading to an unfolded description of femininity: power of feminine identity through motherhood, hardiness is sustainability to overcoming adversity, connection to self and others, satisfaction meeting cultural gender-role expectations, and contemplative prevention to maintain breast integrity. The findings of this study will contribute to the increasing body of evidence-based practice related to understanding the impact of culture related to breast health. While the concept of femininity can be challenged not only by a diagnosis of breast cancer but also by other diseases and life conditions, understanding the cultural meaning of femininity to Latina women is pivotal to health care professionals as they partner with Latina women and community support groups to develop empowerment strategies and programs that promote choice and decision making involving breast health.
Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Girdler, Susan S; Grewen, Karen; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha
In this review, we offer a conceptual framework that identifies risk factors of postpartum depression (PPD) in immigrant and U.S.-born Latinas in the United States by focusing on psychosocial and neuroendocrine factors. Although the evidence of the impact psychosocial stressors have on the development of PPD has been well-documented, less is known about the biological etiology of PPD or how these complex stressors jointly increase the risk of PPD in immigrant and U.S.-born Latinas in the United States. Using PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase, we reviewed the literature from 2000 to 2015 regarding psychosocial and physiological risk factors associated with PPD to develop a conceptual model for Latinas. Our search yielded 16 relevant studies. Based on our review of the literature, we developed a biopsychosocial conceptual model of PPD for Latinas in the United States. We make arguments for an integrated model designed to assess psychosocial and physiological risk factors and PPD in a high-risk population. Our framework describes the hypothesized associations between culturally and contextually relevant psychosocial stressors, neurobiological factors (e.g., hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis response system and oxytocin signaling), and PPD in Latinas in the United States. Future studies should evaluate prospectively the impact psychosocial stressors identified here have on the development of PPD in both immigrant and U.S-born Latinas while examining neuroendocrine function, such as the HPA axis and oxytocin signaling. Our conceptual framework will allow for the reporting of main and indirect effects of psychosocial risk factors and biomarkers (e.g., HPA axis and oxytocin function) on PPD in foreign- and U.S.-born postpartum Latinas. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
White, Kari; Garces, Isabel C; Bandura, Lisa; McGuire, Allison A; Scarinci, Isabel C
Breast and cervical cancer are common among Latinas, but screening rates among foreign-born Latinas are relatively low. In this article we describe the design and implementation of a theory-based (PEN-3) outreach program to promote breast and cervical cancer screening to Latina immigrants, and evaluate the program's effectiveness. We used data from self-administered questionnaires completed at six annual outreach events to examine the sociodemographic characteristics of attendees and evaluate whether the program reached the priority population - foreign-born Latina immigrants with limited access to health care and screening services. To evaluate the program's effectiveness in connecting women to screening, we examined the proportion and characteristics of women who scheduled and attended Pap smear and mammography appointments. Among the 782 Latinas who attended the outreach program, 60% and 83% had not had a Pap smear or mammogram, respectively, in at least a year. Overall, 80% scheduled a Pap smear and 78% scheduled a mammogram. Women without insurance, who did not know where to get screening and had not been screened in the last year were more likely to schedule appointments (P < .05). Among women who scheduled appointments, 65% attended their Pap smear and 79% attended the mammogram. We did not identify significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics associated with appointment attendance. Using a theoretical approach to outreach design and implementation, it is possible to reach a substantial number of Latina immigrants and connect them to cancer screening services.
Silva Ch., Paola; Alvarez, Susana; Cambría, Celeste; Sala, Mariella; de Ochoa, Regina; Corral, Thais; Olivera, Maria del Carmen; González, Nhelsyr; Solís, Vivienne; Rossato, Verónica; Pérez, Magdalena
1. Mujer y medio ambiente en América Latina y el Caribe: los desafíos hacia el año 2.000. 2. Políticas de población vigentes en los países de América Latina y el Caribe. La mujer como protagonista del desarrollo sustentable. Política de población en Perú: la relación mujer y medio ambiente. Población, mujer y medio ambiente en Honduras. Medio ambiente y población: una visión crítica. 3. La mujer en el manejo de los recursos naturales y tecnologías apropiadas. Participación de la mujer campe...
Full Text Available Este ensayo, en parte historia de las ideas y en parte historia de las relaciones internacionales, examina la relación del Brasil con América Latina en perspectiva histórica. Durante más de un siglo, con posterioridad a la independencia, ni los intelectuales ni los gobiernos hispanoamericanos consideraron al Brasil como parte de "América latina". En cuanto a los intelectuales y los gobiernos brasileños, excepto por su relación con el Río de la Plata, sólo tenían ojos para Europa y, cada vez más después de 1889, los Estados Unidos. Cuando, en especial durante la Guerra Fría, los Estados Unidos, y por extensión el resto del mundo, comenzaron a tratar al Brasil como parte de América Latina, los gobiernos brasileños y los intelectuales brasileños, con la excepción de algunos de izquierda, seguían sin pensar al Brasil como parte integral de esta región. Desde el fin de la Guerra Fría, el Brasil ha comenzado a poner en práctica por primera vez una política de compromiso con sus vecinos en América del Sur.This essay, part history of ideas and part history of international relations, examines Brazil's relationship with Latin America in historical perspective. For more than a century after independence neither Spanish American intellectuals nor Spanish American governments considered Brazil part of 'America Latina'. For their part, Brazilian intellectuals and Brazilian governments, except for the Rio de la Plata, only had eyes for Europe and increasingly, after 1889, the United States. When, especially during the Cold War, the United States, and by extension the rest of the world, began to regard and treat Brazil as part of 'Latin America', Brazilian governments and Brazilian intellectuals, except some on the Left, still did not think of Brazil as an integral part of it. Since the end of the Cold War Brazil has for the first time pursued a policy of engagement with its neighbours -in South America.
Hsieh, Yu-Chin; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Sönmez, Sevil
Hotel housekeepers are exposed to a plethora of disproportionately high work-induced hazards that can lead to adverse health consequences. Latina hotel housekeepers are rendered particularly vulnerable to elevated occupational hazards and resultant health strains due to their socioeconomic status, immigration status, language barriers, and lack of access to healthcare services. The findings from the 27 interviews with Latina hotel housekeepers indicated that the interviewees were exposed to physical, chemical, and social hazards in the workplace and suffered musculoskeletal injuries. In terms of psychological wellness, the time pressure of cleaning rooms quickly and work-related stress stemming from workplace mistreatment emerged as major work-related stressors. Recommendations are made for the introduction of multilevel interventions designed to prevent work-related injuries and illnesses and to promote healthier workplaces.
Ana Cristina Lindsay
Full Text Available Latinos are the largest minority population group in the United States (U.S., and low-income Latina women are at elevated risk of depression and obesity. Thus, the prevention of these two problems is a pressing public health concern in this population. Both depressive symptoms and obesity are modifiable factors that can be addressed by culturally relevant interventions. However, the association between depressive symptoms and obesity in Latina immigrant women is not well understood. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the association between depressive symptoms and obesity among Latina women of childbearing age (15–44. Participants (n = 147 were low-income, predominantly immigrant Latina mothers enrolled in the Latina Mothers′ Child Feeding Practices and Style Study. Women were eligible to participate if they self-identified as Latina; were enrolled in or eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children program; had a child between ages two and five years; and were living in the U.S. for at least one year, and residing in Rhode Island. Enrolled participants completed a survey in their language of preference (English or Spanish administered by bilingual interviewers. About one-third (34% of participants were classified as having obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, 28.3% had elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16, and 70.1% were immigrants. Women with elevated depressive symptoms had increased odds of having obesity (odds ratio (OR = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.24–6.33. Additionally, among immigrants, length of U.S. residency was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.09. Findings underscore the need for screening and culturally relevant interventions designed to address both depressive symptoms and obesity among low-income Latina women of childbearing age. Furthermore, findings highlight the importance of taking into account the length of residency in
Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Wright, Julie A; Hunt, Anne T
Latinos are the largest minority population group in the United States (U.S.), and low-income Latina women are at elevated risk of depression and obesity. Thus, the prevention of these two problems is a pressing public health concern in this population. Both depressive symptoms and obesity are modifiable factors that can be addressed by culturally relevant interventions. However, the association between depressive symptoms and obesity in Latina immigrant women is not well understood. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the association between depressive symptoms and obesity among Latina women of childbearing age (15-44). Participants ( n = 147) were low-income, predominantly immigrant Latina mothers enrolled in the Latina Mothers' Child Feeding Practices and Style Study. Women were eligible to participate if they self-identified as Latina; were enrolled in or eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children program; had a child between ages two and five years; and were living in the U.S. for at least one year, and residing in Rhode Island. Enrolled participants completed a survey in their language of preference (English or Spanish) administered by bilingual interviewers. About one-third (34%) of participants were classified as having obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²), 28.3% had elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), and 70.1% were immigrants. Women with elevated depressive symptoms had increased odds of having obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-6.33). Additionally, among immigrants, length of U.S. residency was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09). Findings underscore the need for screening and culturally relevant interventions designed to address both depressive symptoms and obesity among low-income Latina women of childbearing age. Furthermore, findings highlight the importance of taking into account the length of residency in the U.S. when
This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women's labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict.
Carlos Alberto Téllez Valencia
Full Text Available Es sorprendente cómo América Latina continua siendo una región de la cual se pueden extraer cuantiosos beneficios económicos, muy a pesar de tantos años de extracción de sus recursos. Esto al margen de cualquier sentido viseral. No hace falta manejarse en un discurso con términos como imperialismo, neocolonialismo, capitalismo rabioso o cualquier otro que pueda ser interpretado como síntoma de radicalismo. Es un hecho, se siguen extrayendo enormes cantidades de riqueza de América Latina, aun a pesar de que los países de esta región no logran sostener sus niveles de productividad, de llevar sus cuentas con déficit comercial, de no controlar sus tasas de inflación, de padecer de recurrentes devaluaciones, de sufrir de migraciones por falta de oportunidades de empleo, de que no alcanzar a desarrollarse a los niveles de los países centrales. Aun así, esta región es tierra de oportunidades para la obtención de altos rendimientos por parte de las empresas trasnacionales, incluidas aquellas de origen latinoamericano. A pesar de tan cuantiosos recursos con los que cuenta América Latina, resulta imposible que se desarrolle, pues lo que se desarrolla es el sistema-mundo-capitalista (Wallerstein, 1995, con grandes turbulencias para los países de esta región. Esta es una de las grandes críticas que se le puede hacer a esta teoría, aparentemente no ofrece alternativas de desarrollo para América Latina, pero ¿acaso es posible? Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la relación que guardan las altas finanzas (Arellanes, 2005, a través de las instituciones financieras internacionales, con las opciones de desarrollo para América Latina, incluida una posible vía geopolítica latinoamericana, en donde más allá de la malversación de esta centenaria estrategia de poder de estado (expresado particularmente como fuerza militar, bien resulta como instrumento de consolidación de los Estado-nación latinoamericanos, ya sea
This narrative describes how my educational journey led me to become a Latina feminist community psychologist. My experiences as a Central American woman living in the United States has made me deeply committed to feminist community values and the importance of social justice. Throughout the journey, I connect how immigration status, culture, and…
Olivas, Margarita Refugia
Research on U.S. "Greek" sororities has typically addressed issues dealing with White women in higher education. In contrast, this case study sought to identify the cultural behaviors and group norms that serve to enhance academic achievement and reinforce personal growth among members of a Latina sorority. In fall 1993, interviews were…
Seth, Sarah Guerra; Goka, Thomas; Harbison, Andrea; Hollier, Lisa; Peterson, Susan; Ramondetta, Lois; Noblin, Sarah Jane
Given the complex array of emotional and medical issues that may arise when making a decision about amniocentesis, women may find that their spiritual and/or religious beliefs can comfort and assist their decision-making process. Prior research has suggested that Latinas' spiritual and/or religious beliefs directly influence their amniocentesis decision. A more intimate look into whether Latinas utilize their beliefs during amniocentesis decision-making may provide an opportunity to better understand their experience. The overall goal of this study was to describe the role structured religion and spirituality plays in Latinas' daily lives and to evaluate how religiosity and spirituality influences health care decisions, specifically in prenatal diagnosis. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eleven women who were invited to describe their religious beliefs and thoughts while considering the option of amniocentesis. All participants acknowledged the influence of religious and/or spiritual beliefs in their everyday lives. Although the women sought comfort and found validation in their beliefs and in their faith in God's will during their amniocentesis decision-making process, results suggest the risk of procedure-related complications played more of a concrete role than their beliefs.
Bostean, Georgiana; Gillespie, Brian Joseph
Family relationships, widely recognized as core to Latino cultures, are known to vary for Latina/o immigrants based on time in the United States. Less is known about (a) how acculturation explains differences in family relationships by time in the US, and (b) whether acculturative stressors influence different aspects of immigrants' family relationships. Drawing on an expanded acculturation framework, we explore whether and how attitudinal familism, family contact, and family conflict among immigrant Latina/os vary based on acculturation and acculturative stressors. Using nationally representative data on foreign-born Latina/os (National Latino and Asian American Study; N = 1,618), ordered logistic and OLS regression analyses examined whether differences in family relationships by time in the US are explained by acculturation factors, and whether acculturative stressors are associated with family relationships when controlling for other important sociodemographic factors. Accounting for acculturation reduces the effect of time in the US on attitudinal familism and family conflict to nonsignificance. Spanish language proficiency and ethnic identity are associated with higher attitudinal familism, while English proficiency is associated with increased family conflict. Additionally, acculturative stressors (involuntary context of exit, hostile context of reception, limited origin country ties) are associated with lower attitudinal familism and higher conflict. Results highlight the importance of (a) examining the ways that migration influences multiple aspects of family relationships, (b) adopting a more comprehensive acculturation framework. Particularly novel are our findings on how acculturative stressors are associated with different family outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Mann, Emily S; Cardona, Vanessa; Gómez, Cynthia A
Despite the fact that the US teenage birth rate has declined dramatically in recent years, teen births among Latinas are higher than any other racial/ethnic group. Most studies focus on the causes and consequences of early motherhood among Latina teenagers, neglecting other important dimensions of the issue. This study examines how Latina/o teenage parents living in California narrate their experiences with unintended pregnancy resolution. Qualitative analysis reveals three central themes. First, participants expressed shock upon learning they or their partner was pregnant, followed by acceptance about their impending parenthood. Second, participants' views of abortion and adoption largely foreclosed these options as pathways by which to resolve their unintended pregnancies. Third, participants recounted numerous stories of the messages they received from parents, other family members and male partners that were frequently directive regarding how to resolve their pregnancies. These findings have implications for young people's reproductive health and rights, and for reproductive justice more broadly.
Alcantara, Minosca Victoria
In the United States, the education and skill levels of the American population are not measuring up to the growing demands of the STEM workplace. The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) (2007) projects that over the next 20 years, there will be an estimated shortage of 21 million skilled workers. STEM professions (those in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics), will continue to lead this workforce growth. However, fewer students are majoring in these areas of critical need, particularly women and minorities. Only a small fraction of U.S.-born scientists and engineers training to fill these positions are members of underrepresented minorities (Latino, Black, and American Indian/Native Alaskan students), yet this same population is expected to experience the greatest growth over the next several decades. Using qualitative methods, I explore the role formal and informal communities of practice play in either motivating or hindering Latinas' interest in STEM career. I use the narratives of 16 low-income, urban Latina high school seniors to provide a counternarrative as to the reasons for these underrepresentation. Teachers in the U.S. play a significant role in the reproduction of the culturally prototypical conception of math and science students; the best and brightest in the school. Teachers' role in positioning Latina students in honors/gifted programs based on their perceptions of students' characteristics and their recommendations for placement in honors classes/ programs, STEM extracurricular activities and summer programs are critical to Latina's "good student" identity formation which has a significant role in their motivation or erasure of STEM identities. Latinas in this study strongly identified with their school and were very concerned in maintaining their good student identities. They defined academic success based on the grades they obtained and the colleges they were accepted into. I propose an identity model, L-STEM which highlight the power
Ana Luíza Matos de Oliveira
Full Text Available Este artículo derivado de investigación analiza el concepto de Desarrollo desde sus orígenes, presentando la crítica ecológica a este concepto, en especial por parte de la teoría del decrecimiento, muestra algunas contribuciones de los pueblos originarios a las constituciones de países de tendencia de izquierda en América Latina en los años recientes y problematiza la actual inserción de América Latina en el comercio internacional. Se encontró que contrarrestar a la fuerza económica, política y discursiva del agronegocio y del “progreso”, apoyado en el “desarrollo” no es algo simple. En América Latina hay tensiones entre el concepto de desarrollo convencional e intentos por construir un nuevo camino, un camino latinoamericano. Hay resistencias entre la (reprimarización y la inserción internacional de América Latina, también existen tensiones en el campo, conuna disputa entre el agronegocio como modelo de desarrollo, modernidad y progreso y otras formas de relacionarse con el medio ambiente y con el otro. Se concluye que desde América Latina es posible crear un nuevo camino, no necesariamente en aras de imitar el mundo desarrollado, sino considerando los limites ecológicos y sociales del capitalismo y las contribuciones de los pueblos originarios.
Carolina Elena Luengo-Martínez
Full Text Available Antecedentes: actualmente, América Latina requiere profesionales en Enfermería cuyo perfil de egreso pueda responder a los cambios que ha traído consigo la globalización. Se sabe que la formación del licenciado en Enfermería es disímil en los países de América Latina e, incluso, al interior de estos. Objetivo: describir la formación del licenciado en Enfermería en América Latina en términos de plan de estudio, reglamentación u organismos regulatorios, tiempo, requisitos de egreso y perfil del licenciado. Materiales y método: revi- sión bibliográfica de las páginas web de universidades latinoamericanas que forman licenciados en Enfermería; los criterios de inclusión fueron: ranking de universidades del país (cuando existía, universidades con página web actualizada y disponibilidad de la información. Conclusión: se constata la heterogeneidad en la formación del licenciado en Enfermería en América Latina, que puede ser un factor de debilitamiento para la disciplina así como para la profesión. Se sugiere un consenso sobre una formación curricular común en la región, que apunte a un perfil profesional apropiado, que proporcione la capacidad de enfrentar y satisfacer las necesidades que traen consigo los desafíos de nuestro tiempo.
Felipe Hevia de la Jara
Full Text Available Una de las características del proceso de democratización en América Latina es la incorporación de mecanismos de democracia directa como el plebiscito, la iniciativa legislativa y la revocación del mandato. Este artículo analiza específicamente uno de ellos: la Iniciativa Legislativa Popular (ILP, definida como el derecho de los ciudadanos a presentar proyectos de ley al Parlamento y/o exigir una consulta popular para aprobar o rechazar leyes o reformas legales. El artículo incluye una discusión sobre los mecanismos de democracia directa en América Latina, una comparación de las leyes y reglamentos que regulan la ILP a nivel internacional, nacional y subnacional, un análisis sobre el uso de estos instrumentos en cuatro países (Uruguay, Colombia, Argentina y México, y una serie de conclusiones orientadas a identificar algunos factores críticos para su implementación y utilización.
Christensen, Steen Fryba; Cancino, Hugo
continuidad y también de ruptura de los fenómenos sociales, políticos, ideológicos y económicos de América Latina. Nuestro punto de partida es la irreversibilidad de los procesos de globalización después de más de una década de debates entre globalistas y antiglobalistas. En este contexto, insertamos el...... análisis de los actores sociales, étnicos políticos, en sus discursos y acciones en esta última década en cuyo momento final irrumpe la crisis financiera internacional que en deferentes modos e intensidades influye los países de América Latina. Palabras claves: globalización, modernidad, modernizaciones...
Prevention Researcher, 2004
Recently, Dr. Brindis and her colleagues compared four communities with high poverty and lower than average birth rates among Latina adolescents, with four communities which also had high poverty but had higher than average birth rates among Latina adolescents. Their goal was to examine the social capital and cultural norms within these…
Zayas, Luis H; Gulbas, Lauren E
The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multi-faceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions.
Full Text Available El estudio que se presenta tiene como objetivo principal clasificar cronológicamente los restos de epigrafía latina procedentes de los principales focos alaveses, en relación, sobre todo, a sus formulismos funerarios.
Females and underrepresented ethnic minorities earn a small percentage of engineering and computer science bachelor's degrees awarded in the United States, earn an even smaller proportion of master's and doctoral degrees, and are underrepresented in the engineering workforce (Engineering Workforce Commission, , as cited in National Science Foundation, 2012; United States Department of Education, , as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009a; United States Department of Education, , as cited in National Science Foundation, 2009b). Considerable research has examined the perceptions, culture, curriculum, and pedagogy in engineering that inhibits the achievement of women and underrepresented ethnic minorities. This action research study used a qualitative approach to examine the characteristics and experiences of Latina students who pursued a bachelor's degree in the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering at Arizona State University (ASU) as part of the 2008 first-time full-time freshman cohort. The researcher conducted two semi-structured individual interviews with seven undergraduate Latina students who successfully persisted to their fourth (senior) year in engineering. The researcher aimed to understand what characteristics made these students successful and how their experiences affected their persistence in an engineering major. The data collected showed that the Latina participants were motivated to persist in their engineering degree program due to their parents' expectations for success and high academic achievement; their desire to overcome the discrimination, stereotyping, and naysayers that they encountered; and their aspiration to become a role model for their family and other students interested in pursuing engineering. From the data collected, the researcher provided suggestions to implement and adapt educational activities and support systems within the Ira A. Fulton Schools of Engineering to improve the retention and graduation rates
Mojica, Cynthia M; Flores, Bertha; Ketchum, Norma S; Liang, Yuanyuan
Cancer screening reduces mortality rates for breast, cervical, and colon cancer. Yet cancer screening rates for Latina women are lower than for non-Latino Whites, and below Healthy People 2020 goals. Additionally, Latinos face many health care access barriers. This study examined health care access and utilization in relation to cancer screening among low-income Latina women recruited from a high-risk area and enrolled in a navigation-plus-education intervention. Latina women considered rarely or never screened for breast, cervical, or colorectal cancer were recruited from community-based organizations and events (N = 691). We gathered self-reported survey data on insurance status, usual source of care, health care utilization, and cancer screening behavior. We conducted multivariable logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios of receipt of at least one cancer screening test. Overall, 28% of women received at least one cancer screening test. Results indicated that women without insurance (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08; confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 3.98) and without a doctor's visit in the past year (OR = 2.02; CI = 1.28, 3.18), compared with their counterparts, had greater odds of receiving at least one screening test. Findings highlight the continued need to explore ways to support uninsured individuals' screening efforts and further investigate barriers among insured women who are not up-to-date with screenings.
Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Illes, Roseanne
This article addresses the re-founding of the National Hispanic Psychological Association into the National Latina/o Psychological Association. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the National…
Morales, Amanda R.; Shroyer, M. Gail
This qualitative multiple case study focused on eleven non-traditional, bilingual, Latinas within a teacher education program. The study explored various factors that influenced participants' desire to pursue and ability to persist as pre-service teachers. The overarching theme identified among participant discourse was personal agency inspired by…
Valdez, Verónica E.
Grounded in new language policy studies (McCarty, Collins, & Hopson, 2011), this qualitative study examines two bilingual Latina preschool teachers' language views, experiences, skills, and goals in a Texas/Mexico border community to determine how these factors mediate their choice to use Spanish/English in their instructional practices with…
Cavazos, Alyssa G.
Emphasis placed on academic writing in English may create challenges for multilingual academics as they negotiate diverse languages. Based on personal interviews with bilingual Latina/o academics in rhetoric and composition, this study reveals that their language practices reflect diverse resilient qualities at various stages in their academic…
Rocca, Corinne H; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S; Hubbard, Alan E; Minnis, Alexandra M
The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. Prospective, time-varying data from 2001-2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low power in a sexual relationship with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. Copyright © 2010 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Rocca, Corinne H.; Doherty, Irene; Padian, Nancy S.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Minnis, Alexandra M.
CONTEXT The extent to which pregnancy intentions mediate the relationship between individual, familial and cultural characteristics and adolescent pregnancy is not well understood. The role of intentions may be particularly important among Latina teenagers, whose attitudes toward pregnancy are more favorable than those of other groups and whose pregnancy rates are high. METHODS Prospective, time-varying data from 2001–2004 were used to investigate whether two measures of pregnancy intentions, wantedness and happiness, mediated associations between risk factors and pregnancy among 213 Latina adolescents in San Francisco. Participants were tested for pregnancy and interviewed about pregnancy intentions, partnerships, family characteristics and activities every six months for two years. Associations and mediation were examined using logistic regression. RESULTS Neither pregnancy intention variable mediated relationships between participant characteristics and pregnancy. After adjustment for other measures, wantedness was strongly associated with pregnancy (odds ratio, 2.6), while happiness was not. Having a strong family orientation was associated with happiness (3.7) but unrelated to pregnancy. Low sexual relationship power with a main partner was associated with an elevated risk of pregnancy (3.3). If the pregnancy intentions of all participants were changed to definitely not wanting pregnancy, the estimated decline in pregnancy risk would be 16%. CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy intentions were important not as mediators but rather as independent risk factors for pregnancy. Differences in pregnancy rates between groups of Latinas may be less a function of intentional choice than of situational factors. Interventions and research should focus on identifying and targeting factors that hinder effective contraceptive use among teenagers who want to avoid pregnancy. PMID:20887287
Héctor Pérez Brignoli
Full Text Available El artículo de la sección Archivos en este número de la revista fue presentado por Héctor Pérez-Brignoli en la IV Conferencia Latinoamericana de Población celebrada en México en 1993 y cuyo tema central fue la transición demográfica en América Latina y el Caribe. Tal como lo señalaron los comentaristas de entonces, aún después de transcurridos más de 15 años, puede decirse que constituye una agenda para la investigación sobre la historia de la población de América Latina. El trabajo sugiere una serie de temas que todavía hoy requieren de mayor investigación.En primer lugar señala un conjunto de problemas propios de la historia latinoamericana que se encuentran inexorablemente ligados al cambio demográfico y sin cuyo análisis resulta difícil comprender los cambios en el largo plazo. Dos de ellos se refieren a la historia colonial de América Latina: la catástrofe demográfica y el mestizaje. Si bien sobre ambos existe una abundante producción de investigaciones y amplios consensos, aún hay temas no resueltos. En particular aquellos que se refieren a la dinámica demográfica y al peso relativo que distintos factores tuvieron en su evolución. Igualmente, las particularidades de estos dos procesos en distintas regiones de América Latina requieren de esfuerzos de comparación, tal como lo apunta Mássimo Livi Bacci en un artículo reciente sobre la catástrofe demográfica en América Latina .Otras tres particularidades se refieren a las migraciones, la frontera, y las densidades de población. Particularmente en el siglo XIX, cada uno de estos procesos se encuentra íntimamente ligado a la relación cambio demográfico y crecimiento económico en la etapa de formación de las economías y de los estados nacionales de los países de América Latina. Pero además, si bien son temas presentes en la historia latinoamericana desde el siglo XVI, también son temas contemporáneos como lo evidencian la creciente importancia de
Ramirez, Amelie G; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Talavera, Gregory A; Penedo, Frank J; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernandez, Maria E; Muñoz, Edgar; Long Parma, Dorothy; Holden, Alan Ec; San Miguel de Majors, Sandra; Nápoles, Anna; Castañeda, Sheila F; Gallion, Kipling J
Time delay after an abnormal screening mammogram may have a critical impact on tumor size, stage at diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and survival of subsequent breast cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate disparities between Latina and non-Hispanic white (NHW) women in time to definitive diagnosis of breast cancer after an abnormal screening mammogram, as well as factors contributing to such disparities. As part of the activities of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded Redes En Acción research network, clinical records of 186 Latinas and 74 NHWs who received abnormal screening mammogram results were reviewed to determine the time to obtain a definitive diagnosis. Data was obtained from participating clinics in six U.S. cities and included demographics, clinical history, and mammogram characteristics. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to test differences in median time to definitive diagnosis by ethnicity after adjusting for clinic site, demographics, and clinical characteristics. Time-to-event analysis showed that Latinas took 2.2 times longer to reach 50% definitively diagnosed with breast cancer relative to NHWs, and three times longer to reach 80% diagnosed (p=0.001). Latinas' median time to definitive diagnosis was 60 days compared to 27 for NHWs, a 59% gap in diagnosis rates (adjusted Hazard Ratio [aHR] = 1.59, 95% CI = 1.09, 2.31; p=0.015). BI-RADS-4/5 women's diagnosis rate was more than twice that of BI-RADS-3 (aHR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.18, 3.78; p=0.011). Disparities in time between receipt of abnormal screening result and definitive diagnosis adversely affect Latinas compared to NHWs, and remain significant after adjusting for demographic and clinical variables. With cancer now the leading cause of mortality among Latinos, a greater need exists for ethnically and culturally appropriate interventions like patient navigation to facilitate Latinas' successful entry into, and progression through, the cancer care
Nelson Arteaga Botello
Full Text Available El incremento de los delitos de diverso tipo y de la violencia criminal en los últimos diez años en América Latina ha propiciado la extensión de los mecanismos de seguridad en las sociedades de la región. De esta forma, no sorprende que a finales del siglo pasado se haya observado un aumento en la demanda de los servicios públicos y privados de seguridad. Este proceso no es solamente el resultado de la exportación hacia América Latina de cierta lógica de seguridad establecida por los Estados Unidos luego de los atentados a las Torres Gemelas. Más bien, este evento vino a acelerar y reforzar un proceso que en gran parte de los países de América Latina ya se venía consolidando; proceso determinado por la implementación de dispositivos de control sobre aquellos sectores que, se piensa, son responsables de la violencia delictiva: los excluidos y marginados de los espacios urbanos de las grandes ciudades latinoamericanas.
Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda; Ramirez, Gerardo; Greenfield, Patricia M
Around the world, people migrate from poorer countries with less educational opportunity to richer ones with greater educational opportunity. In this journey, they bring their family obligation values into societies that value individual achievement. This process can create home-school cultural value conflict-conflict between family and academic obligations-for the children of Latina/o immigrants who attend universities in the United States. We hypothesised that this conflict causes cognitive disruption. One-hundred sixty-one Latina/o first-generation university students (called college students in the United States) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental prompts; thereafter, the students engaged in an attentional control task (i.e., the Stroop test). For Latina/o students living close to home, prompting a home-school cultural value conflict was more deleterious to attentional control than the other conditions. In addition, across all Latina/o students, a comparison of performance before and after President Trump's election and inauguration showed that prompting family obligation (without mention of conflict) led to a significantly greater loss of attentional control after Trump was elected and inaugurated, compared with before Trump. We hypothesise that this effect resulted from Trump's threats and actions to deport undocumented Latina/o immigrants, thus making fear about the fate of family members more salient and cognitively disruptive. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.
Maas, Grayson Ford
This dissertation is an investigation into the American public education system at the elementary school level. It highlights important factors that shape the organizational structure of schools and classrooms, and in turn, how they engender disparities in the ways students experience education, namely, in the opportunities made available to them to achieve and succeed at a high level. This dissertation operates at the confluence of notions about class, gender, language, and race, especially as they revolve around public education and the hegemonic meritocratic discourse on which it is founded. This dissertation engages and contributes to scholarship within the following areas: The political economy of education; discourse and the dialectical relationship between agency and structure; cultural perspectives on identity, voice, and learning; and, Latinas/os in science education. The data that serve as the basis for the findings presented in this dissertation were collected throughout a three-phase yearlong ethnographic study of the two tracked fifth-grade classrooms at Amblen Elementary School, serving a socioeconomically disadvantaged Latina/o student population in Santa Barbara, California. In classrooms all across the nation, while it remains true that Latina/o students disproportionally take up space in the lower-tracked courses and not in the higher ones, this study does not examine inequality in tracking assignments made along ethnic/racial lines (as 100% of the students that participated in this research identify as Latina/o), rather, it investigates the consequences of what happens when Latina/o students are tracked according to symbolic markers of their ethnic/racial identity, that is, their varying levels of English language competency. Using data from participant observation, semi-structured interviews, students' drawings, as well as free-list and rank-order exercises, I was able to answer the following central research questions: In what ways do the
Zayas, Luis H.; Gulbas, Lauren E.
The high rates of suicide attempts among adolescent Hispanic females in the United States have been well established by epidemiological and clinical studies. In this paper, we review the research history of Latina suicide attempts and their characteristics. Then we apply multifaceted conceptual and empirical criteria found in the anthropological and psychiatric literature about cultural idioms of distress to the suicide attempts of young Latinas. We contrast the suicide-attempt phenomenon to the well-known ataque de nervios and propose that the phenomenon may reflect a developmental or cultural variant of the ataque. The attempt-as-idiom proposition is intended to invite discussion that can deepen our understanding of the cultural roots of the suicide attempts and their possible designation as cultural idiom. Establishing the meaning of suicide attempts within a cultural perspective can assist psychological and psychiatric research and clinical interventions. PMID:23075802
This article borrows from the intersectionality literature to investigate how legal status, labor market position, and family characteristics structure the labor supply of immigrant Latinas in Durham, NC, a new immigrant destination. The analysis takes a broad view of labor force participation, analyzing the predictors of whether or not women work; whether and how the barriers to work vary across occupations; and variation in hours and weeks worked among the employed. I also explicitly investigate the extent to which family constraints interact with other social characteristics, especially legal status, in shaping women’s labor market position. Results highlight that immigrant Latinas experience multiple, interrelated constraints on employment owing to their position as low-skill workers in a labor market highly segregated by gender and nativity, to their status as members of a largely undocumented population, and as wives and mothers in an environment characterized by significant work-family conflict. PMID:26843783
Terri L. Rodriguez
Full Text Available This article focuses on one Latina prospective teacher’s act of resisting negative stereotypes regarding attire imposed upon her by a white female principal. The event is embedded within a larger life history study that explores the experiences of bilingual Latino prospective teachers in the elementary education program of a large Midwestern university. The selected narrative is contextualized in relation to resistance narratives. Patricia Morales tells about her experiences in U.S. schools. It explores how Patricia’s life history is marked by experiences of discrimination, yet how her constructions of these events represent “counterstories” (Delgado, 2000; Solorzano & Yosso, 2002 through which she “talks back” (hooks, 1989 to distorted images and stereotypes. Patricia’s narratives are shown to constitute creative acts of resistance through which she negotiates a positive and affirming identity (Suarez-Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 2001 as a Latina prospective teacher.
Martin, Anika; Negron, Rennie; Balbierz, Amy; Bickell, Nina; Howell, Elizabeth A
Minority women are often not adequately represented in randomized controlled trials, limiting the generalizability of research trial results. We implemented a recruitment strategy for a postpartum depression prevention trial that utilized patient feedback to identify and understand the recruitment barriers of black and Latina postpartum women. Feedback on patients' reasons for trial refusal informed adaptations to the recruitment process. We calculated weekly recruitment rates and analyzed qualitative and quantitative data from patient refusals. Of the 668 women who were approached and completed the consent process, 540 enrolled in the trial and 128 declined participation. Over 52-weeks of recruitment, refusal rates decreased from 40% to 19%. A taxonomy of eight reasons for refusal derived from patient responses identified barriers to recruitment and generated targeted revisions to the recruitment message. A recruitment strategy designed to incorporate and respond to patient feedback improved recruitment of Black and Latina women to a clinical trial.
Full Text Available EN EL MES DE NOVIEMBRE DEL 2004, SE DESARROLLÓ EN LA UNIVERSIDAD Centroamericana (UCA el Congreso Anual de FLACSO-CLACSO-CROP con la participación de renombrados sociólogos de América Latina, quienes debatieron sobre pobreza y migraciones. El evento clausuró con una Mesa Redonda donde se presentaron ponencias sobre pobreza y migraciones. Este trabajo trata de ser una recopilación de lo dicho en esa reunió, más algunas reflexiones acerca de la focalización versus servicios universales; y por qué América Latina ha fracasado en crear empleo.
Martinez, Danny C.
This article addresses teachers' uptake of Black and Latina/o youth linguistic repertoires within the official space of an English Language Arts (ELA) classroom and how youth respond to corrective feedback that is focused on the form of their messages, rather than their function. Corrective feedback offered by one Latina teacher indexed larger…
Rojas-Guyler, Liliana; King, Keith A.
This study investigated sexuality topics discussed by parents, sources of sexuality education, sexual risk behaviors, and attitudes about who should educate children about sexuality among a sample of 204 adult Latinas. Nearly half of sexually active women (having ever had sex) reported condom use and 36.7% reported discussing sexual history with…
McDonough, A Manuela; Vargas, Marcela; Nguyen-Rodriguez, Selena; Garcia, Melawhy; Galvez, Gino; Rios-Ellis, Britt
Although cervical cancer can be prevented through screening and follow-up, Latinas' rate of Pap tests remains low due to knowledge gaps and cultural and attitudinal factors. This study used a single-group pre-/post-test design to evaluate the effectiveness of Mujer Sana, Familia Fuerte (Healthy Woman, Strong Family), an intervention intended to improve Latinas' cervical cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy to obtain a Pap test, and intention to get tested. The intervention is delivered through a single session by promotores de salud, who use a culturally competent, linguistically appropriate toolkit. A total of 5,211 Latinas participated in the study. The evaluation indicated that participants had increases in knowledge, positive attitudes, self-efficacy, and intention to test. Latinas have a low rate of cervical cancer screening but a high rate of cervical cancer, and Mujer Sana, Familia Fuerte shows promise as a public health practice for use with this population.
McWhirter, Ellen Hawley; Ramos, Karina; Medina, Cynthia
Latina/o high school students without documentation face a challenging situation when they graduate from high school, with pathways to work and postsecondary education stymied by their immigration status. We examined the effects of anticipated barriers associated with immigration status, age, and sex on the dependent variables of vocational outcome expectations, anticipated external and internal barriers, and postsecondary schooling plans in a sample of 475 Latina/o high school students. Findings include that students anticipating immigration status problems had lower vocational outcome expectations and anticipated more external barriers to pursuing their postsecondary plans. Latina girls and older high school students anticipating immigration status problems were more likely to plan to attend 2-year rather than 4-year colleges, and less likely to plan on postsecondary education, respectively. Implications for practice, policy, and research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.
Cano, Miguel Angel; Castillo, Linda G.
This study investigated the relationship of acculturation, enculturation, and White attitudinal marginalization with distress among 214 Latina college students. Results showed that 12% of the variance in perceived distress was accounted for by all predictor variables with only behavioral enculturation and White attitudinal marginalization being…
Wilkinson-Lee, Ada M.; Russell, Stephen T.; Lee, Faye C. H.
This study examined practitioners' understandings of cultural sensitivity in the context of pregnancy prevention programs for Latina teens. Fifty-eight practitioners from teen pregnancy prevention programs in California were interviewed in a guided conversation format. Three themes emerged in our analysis. First, practitioners' definitions of…
Carbajal, Sandy C.
Drawing from Latino/a Critical Race Theory and the related Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) model, I concentrate on three forms of CCW---aspirational, navigational, and resistance capital---for this qualitative study on the undergraduate experience of Latina students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors, focusing on strategies and achieving baccalaureate attainment. I interviewed ten Latina students and asked them questions regarding their educational experiences in STEM majors, what contributed to their degree completion, and the strategies they employed for achieving baccalaureate attainment. I identified and described six themes within the study (the underrepresentation of Latinas in STEM majors, the lack of preparation by academic programs for upper division courses, motivators, involvement, time management, and support networks) that, when combined, contributed to participants' degree attainment. This study concludes with implications for policy and practice that would allow universities to better assist Latinas in STEM majors to achieve baccalaureate attainment.
Diana Soto Arango
El trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la responsabilidad ética-científico-social del profesor universitario en América Latina desde su ejercicio docente en una institución como es la universidad que presenta cambios estructurales en el siglo XXI. Se aborda la investigación desde la pregunta ¿si la universidad en América Latina ha formado su cuerpo docente con capacidad profesional de liderar la transformación cultural- educativa, y de liderar los cambios científicos-tecnológicos-sociales de...
Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette
The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.
Stein, Rachel S.
Latino/as are an increasingly large subset of the United States population; however, they continue to be underrepresented in science careers. Because of this increase, research regarding Latino/as has improved, but there are still many gaps in regards to gender-specific predictors to pursue science careers. To address this lack of literature, the purpose of this study is to extend previous research and to develop a model of variables that significantly contribute to science career choice among Latino and Latina students when they graduate from high school. In particular the study addressed the following research questions: (1) What are the differences in science outcomes for Latino and Latina students? (2) What are the differences in factors involved in science outcomes for Latino and Latina students? (3) For Latino and Latina students what are the differences in the factors that predict students' choice to pursue a science degree and/or high scores on the Future Plans in Science Scale? (4) What are the differences in how Latino and Latina students experience science, which account for high achieving students to choose to pursue a science major? This study utilized an explanatory mixed-method approach to examine how cognitive, institutional, and motivational factors may be interrelated and play a role in Latino/as choice to pursue science. The first phase of the study incorporated the collection of survey and database information from 12th grade students at two Southern California high schools. The second phase of the study utilized follow-up focus group interviews to explore the specific differential experiences and views of Latino and Latina students. The results of the study demonstrated multiple significant predictors. Science self-concept and views towards science outside of school were the most significant predictors of students' choice to pursue science. Male students also had major predictors of Spanish proficiency, teacher encouragement, religious views
Villenas, Sofia A.
Inspired by Delgado-Gaitan's work with Latina mothers' stories of transformation, this commentary engages scholarship on the communal "mujer-" or womanist-oriented spaces of teaching and learning. The author explores themes of "convivencia" (communalism) centered on faith, spirituality, and humor central to creating compassionate spaces of…
Viladrich, Anahí; Tagliaferro, Barbara
Based on a focus group study conducted in New York City (NYC), this paper examines the traditional staples (i.e., nostalgic foods) that Latinas regularly consume in the U.S., along with their beliefs regarding the impact of such foods on weight gain and related body image. Our research findings highlight the "double-bind" of nostalgic foods, defined by Latinas' retention of highly caloric familiar items along with their progressive abandonment of fresh produce and fruits. Despite participants' efforts to eat healthy staples from their homelands, they mostly kept foods perceived as unhealthy (e.g., fatty meats, fried foods). This phenomenon was informed by the "same-food paradox," represented by Latinas' beliefs that the same traditional foods that would make them lose weight in their native countries would lead them to gain weight in the U.S. Our qualitative data show that participants' concerns about their weight gain in the U.S. is in tune with their general body dissatisfaction, as indicated by our quantitative results. Finally, our findings reveal the role of stress in promoting Latinas' deleterious daily habits, including their consumption of fat-saturated snacks. Overall, these results speak to the cultural and structural barriers to healthy eating that financially strapped study participants experienced in NYC. In order to design successful public health interventions targeting Latinas, the nostalgic aspects of food preferences should be considered in conjunction with the barriers that keep them from engaging with healthier lifestyles in the U.S. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Livingston Crawford; Pamela Flores
Este ensayo hace un recorrido histórico sobre los significados que visibiliza la estructura urbana en América Latina desde la Colonia hasta el presente. Partiendo de la separación entre lo rural y lo urbano heredada del mundo colonial, el ensayo muestra las alteraciones que en la gramática urbana y en el imaginario simbólico, produce la explosión urbana de los años sesenta del siglo pasado, lo que constituye una noción deteriorada de espacio público como signo de la ciuda...
Mendoza, Hadrian; Masuda, Akihiko; Swartout, Kevin M.
The study examined whether mental health stigma and self-concealment are uniquely related to various dimensions of attitudes toward seeking professional psychological services (i.e., help-seeking attitudes) in Latina/o college students. Data from 129 Latina/o undergraduates (76% female) were used in the analysis. Results revealed that mental…
Terri L. Rodriguez
Full Text Available This article focuses on one Latina prospective teacher’s act of resisting negative stereotypes regarding attire imposed upon her by a white female principal. The event is embedded within a larger life history study that explores the experiences of bilingual Latino prospective teachers in the elementary education program of a large Midwestern university. The selected narrative is contextualized in relation to resistance narratives. Patricia Morales tells about her experiences in U.S. schools. It explores how Patricia’s life history is marked by experiences of discrimination, yet how her constructions of these events represent “counterstories” (Delgado, 2000; Solorzano & Yosso, 2002 through which she “talks back” (hooks, 1989 to distorted images and stereotypes. Patricia’s narratives are shown to constitute creative acts of resistance through which she negotiates a positive and affirming identity (Suarez-Orozco & Suarez-Orozco, 2001 as a Latina prospective teacher. Keywords: preservice teachers; teacher education; Latino critical race theory; narrative inquiry
Schwingel, Andiara; Linares, Deborah E; Gálvez, Patricia; Adamson, Brynn; Aguayo, Liliana; Bobitt, Julie; Castañeda, Yvette; Sebastião, Emerson; Marquez, David X
Despite the burgeoning U.S. Latino population and their increased risk of chronic disease, little emphasis had been placed on developing culturally sensitive lifestyle interventions in this area. This article examines older Latinas' sociocultural context relative to health with the goal of developing a culturally sensitive health behavior intervention. Photo-elicitation indicated two emerging themes that influenced lifestyle choices: family caregiving and religion. Researchers partnered with a faith-based organization to develop and implement a 6-month lifestyle intervention for Latinas ages 50 and older: Abuelas en Acción (AEA). At completion, interviews were conducted to understand women's experiences and the influence AEA had on their lifestyles and health. Findings suggest that religious content empowered and deeply affected women; however, the intergenerational content presented significant challenges for instruction, retention, and implementation. We discuss findings in relation to the health intervention literature and provide suggestions for future interventions drawing on religion, family, and health behavior change. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jandorf, Lina; Ellison, Jennie; Shelton, Rachel; Thélémaque, Linda; Castillo, Anabella; Mendez, Elsa Iris; Horowitz, Carol; Treviño, Michelle; Doty, Bonnie; Hannigan, Maria; Aguirre, Elvira; Harfouche-Saad, Frances; Colon, Jomary; Matos, Jody; Pully, Leavonne; Bursac, Zoran; Erwin, Deborah O.
Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among Latinas in the United States. In addition, Latinas experience a disproportionate burden of cervical cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality compared with non-Hispanic White women. Lower use of breast and cervical cancer screening services may contribute to these disparities. To address the underutilization of breast and cervical cancer screening among diverse subgroups of Latinas, a peer-led education program called Esperanza y Vida (“Hope and Life”) was developed and administered at 3 sites (2 in New York and 1 in Arkansas). Immigrant Latina women and their partners were educated about the importance of breast and cervical cancer screening, with the goals of increasing their knowledge about these cancers and their screening behavior. An analysis of the intervention’s findings at baseline among female participants demonstrated significant sociodemographic, interpersonal, cultural, health care system, and program variability in 3 distinct geographic regions in the United States. These data indicate the need for and feasibility of customizing cancer outreach and educational programs for diverse Latina subgroups living in various U.S. regions, with implications for informing the expansion and replication of the program in other regions of the country. PMID:22059729
Full Text Available La crisis financiera internacional del 2008-2009 puso de manifiesto las fortalezas y debilidades del paradigma prevaleciente en materia de desarrollo en América La-tina. Éste se basa en una cuenta de capitales liberada que a su vez ha mejorado de manera importante las condiciones macroeconómicas. Este artículo proporciona lecciones provenientes de la crisis, no solamente para la región, sino para otros paí-ses en desarrollo que buscan conseguir crecimiento económico en un contexto de mayor integración a los mercados internacionales de capital. Algunas de las lec-ciones no son nuevas pero han sido reforzadas con la crisis, como la necesidadde que América Latina diversifique sus exportaciones (no sólo de productos sino de socios comerciales. Otras lecciones desmitifican otros elementos, como por ejem-plo la imposibilidad de aplicar políticas contracíclicas, al menos del lado moneta-rio. Otras lecciones incluyen i el papel relativo de la banca nacional y extranjera como amortiguadores de los choques financieros externos, y ii el costo potencial de adoptar regulaciones financieras internacionales que no tomen en consideración el desarrollo de cada país. Tomadas en conjunto, las lecciones arrojan un nuevo sentido de optimismo para el crecimiento de América Latina.
Juan Cepeda H.
Full Text Available El problema del ser plantea algunos interrogantes específicos cuando se le estudia desde América Latina: ¿los pueblos precolombinos se preguntaron por el ser?, ¿cómo se nos enseñó metafísica en el periodo colonial?, ¿desde Latinoamérica se han hecho propuestas originales en metafísica y ontología?, y hacia futuro ¿se nos posibilita develar una ontología propiamente latinoamericana? Este artículo evidencia algunos avances de las probables respuestas a los citados interrogantes, fruto del desarrollo del Proyecto de Investigación Problemas de Metafísica en América Latina (2008-2010.
Dillon, Frank R.; Rojas, Patria; Schwartz, Seth J.; Duan, Rui
Associations among mother-daughter attachment, mother and daughter substance abuse, and daughter’s sexual behavior under the influence of drugs and alcohol were investigated among 158 adult U.S. Latina daughters. Latina daughters were sampled from four mother–daughter dyad types: substance abusing mother and daughter, substance abusing mother only, substance abusing daughter only, and nonsubstance-abusing mother and daughter. Substance abusing daughters with substance abusing mothers, and daughters who were less strongly attached to their mothers, reported more sex under the influence of drugs. Age, marital status, substance abuse, and mother’s substance abuse all influenced the daughter’s sex under the influence of alcohol. An unexpected positive association between attachment and sex under the influence of alcohol was found for daughters who were more closely attached to a substance abusing mother. Implications for future research, and HIV/AIDS and drug prevention and treatment programs for Latinas are discussed. PMID:19399605
Dentro de la salud pública, y con vistas a contribuir en los procesos de cambio de ... la PSS en el marco de las reformas de la salud en América Latina y el Caribe. ..... neoliberal” en tanto extiende la racionalidad mercantil a todas las esferas de la ... Excluyentes como El Salvador, Honduras, Bolivia, Ecuador y Guatemala.
La homosexualidad debe ser un desafío y no un tabú para la Ciencia. Es pues el objetivo de romper el silencio y tabú que rodea el amor entre personas del mismo sexo en nuestro continente, que he decidido tratar de la historia y la antropología de la homosexualidad en América Latina.
Full Text Available Das Konzept der Landschaft setz sich zusammen aus verschiedenen Bezugspunkten und Interpretationen, je nach dem Blickpunkt, und ihre Wahnehrung veraendert sich je nach der verschiedenartigen Brille mit der man sie sieht. Der Artikel, geht von der Definition der Landschaft aus, wie sie in der Eurpaischen Konvention zitiert ist :“ Ein Teil des Landes, wie es von seinen Volk gesehen ist, dessen Charakter geformt ist aus naturlichen und menschlichen Faktoren und deren Wechselverhaeltnis”. Er wird fortgefuehrt mit der Identifikation der Landschaftsbereiche der Provinz Latina, die angesehn werden sollen als klimatisch, litologisch und morphologisch aenliche Landschaftsportionen, in denen erstens die Merkmale der Flora und Fauna klar werden und an zweiter Stelle, durch den Gebrauch des Territoriums und die Veraendungen mit denen er es gezeichnet hat, das Tun des Menschen. Die Methodik ruht teilweise auf der Klassifizierung des Territoriums, ausgearbeitet von C.Blasio und dem Konkretfall angeglichen.
Cavazos Vela, Javier; Castro, Veronica; Cavazos, Leticia; Cavazos, Michelle; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee
One-hundred nineteen Latina/o college students provided perceptions of presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and subjective happiness. Perceptions of meaning in life and daily spiritual experiences were significant predictors of subjective happiness. A discussion regarding the importance of these…
Using Hipolito-Delgado and Lee's empowerment theory for the professional school counselor as a framework, this qualitative study explored the techniques employed by school counselors to facilitate the empowerment of Chicana/o and Latina/o students in large California urban high schools. The qualitative methodology included in-depth interviews…
Garriott, Patton O.; Love, Keisha M.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Thomas, Deneia M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa R.; Brown, Carrie L.
The present study examined the influence of attachment relationships on the psychological adjustment of Latina/o university students (N = 80) attending predominantly White institutions of higher education. A path analysis conducted to test a hypothesized model of parent and peer attachment, self-esteem, and psychological distress indicated that…
Garza, Jennifer M.
The purpose of this study is to inform and further the discussion of academic (i.e. teachers and school counselors) and non-academic (i.e. parents, family, friends, etc.) validating agents on Latina students' mathematics and science self-concepts. This study found a relationship between Latina students' interactions with academic and non-academic validating agents and their math and science self-concept at the K-12 level. Through the review of the literature the researcher addresses identifiable factors and strategies that inform the field of education in the areas of validation theory, family characteristics, and access to STEM fields for Latina students. The researcher used an established instrument designed, administered, and validated through the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). For purposes of this study, a categorical subset of participants who self-identified as being a Latina student was used. As a result, the total subset number in this study was N=1,882. To determine if academic and non-academic validating agents had an observable statistically significant relationship with Latina students' math and science self-concept, a series of one-way ANOVAs were calculated to compare differences in students' math and science self-concept based on academic and non-academic validating agents for the weighted sample of Latinas for the HLS:09 survey. A path analysis was also employed to assess the factors involved in Latina students' math and science self-concepts. The findings are consistent with previous research involving the influence that academic and non-academic validating agents have on the math and science self-concept of Latina students. The results indicated that students who had teachers that believed in the students, regardless of family background, social economic status or home environment influences had higher math and science self concepts than those who did not. Similarly, it was found that students who had counselors that set high
Las relaciones entre China y América Latina han tenido más implicaciones estratégicas en la actual transición de poder político y económico internacional, en particular, sus vínculos energéticos han sido testigos de grandes avances de cooperación entre industrias de petróleo y gas. La cooperación energética de China con América Latina se compone, en una parte nada despreciable, de cambios en curso en energía en el occidente del hemisferio. Las compañías petroleras chinas recurren a diferentes...
Full Text Available El presente estudio comparado concibe una serie de reflexiones generales desde la perspectiva social, pobreza para el analisis de la Responsabilidad Social, incorpornado la relacion políticas gubernamentales o estadp y empresa, que facilite la implementacion de la resposabilidad social empresarial en América Latina y el Ecuador como respuesta a la globalizacion considerándose un desafio para la sociedad internacional, los paises de America Latina se encuentra en etapa de confusion debido a que no existe un consenso en q ue consiste la repsonsabilidad social empresarial que permita una adecuada aplicacion de la misma a nivel internacional con el propósito de contribuis al desarrollo socioeconómico de la region mejorando la calidad de v ida de la sociedad.
This theoretical paper is based on a larger study focused on understanding the experiences of Latina community college students. The purpose of this paper is to expand upon the Silence to Resilience Model, which involves four phases that Latinas encounter upon or throughout their transition to community college including: (1) Racism on campus, (2)…
Camacho, Álvaro; Cordero, Elizabeth D; Perkins, Tara
Anxious-depression symptomatology is frequently encountered among Latina/o individuals. There is a dearth of studies that examine this mixed class of anxiety and depression symptomatology, especially among Latina/o college students by the US-Mexico border. A total of 505 participants from rural institutions of higher education completed the DASS21. Psychometric properties were measured by means of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted to determine gender differences in depression, anxiety and stress. Among women, 18 % reported at least moderate levels of depressive symptoms, 33.1 % reported at least moderate levels of anxiety symptoms, and 16.4 % reported at least moderate levels of stress. In men, 15.9 % reported at least moderate levels of depressive symptoms, 34.1 % reported at least moderate levels of anxiety symptoms, and 12.9 % reported at least moderate levels of stress. The EFA supported a one dimension factor (anxious/stress-depression) among this sample of Latina/o college students (Bartlett's test = 4960.9; df = 210; p ≤ 0.01; Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = 0.95). The MANOVA found no significant gender differences in depression, anxiety symptomatology and stress [Wilks'Λ = 0.99; F = (3, 500) = 2.41; p = 0.07]. The DASS-21 showed a one dimensional construct of anxious/stress-depression symptomatology in a Latina/o rural undergraduate sample, raising awareness to the need to screen and monitor this constellation of symptoms.
Price, James H; Khubchandani, Jagdish
Suicidal ideation and suicide attempts are more common in Latina adolescents than White or African-American adolescents. Several health risk behaviors have been identified as being associated with Latina adolescent suicides. However, to date, no study has identified the consistency and stability of these risk behaviors over time. This study utilized the national Youth Risk Behaviors Survey from 2001 to 2013 to estimate the prevalence of suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors in Latina adolescents. Our analysis found the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempts varied significantly over the 13-year study span, decreasing from 2001 to 2009 and increased from 2011 to 2013. The analyses found 11 health risk behaviors that were significantly associated with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts that did not vary over time. The stability of these 11 health risk behaviors associated with suicidal behaviors could be useful to school personnel to identify early at risk Latina adolescents who may benefit from school and community mental health resources.
Full Text Available Desde fin del siglo XX el sistema económico, político y social a nivel global ha entrado en un proceso de cambios, que en varios países de América Latina, parecía podría haber sido de oportunidades en varios ámbitos, sin embargo no han tenido los beneficios esperados. Si bien varios gobiernos de la región emergieron con un discurso nacional y popular con aspiraciones de crecimiento económico con distribución de la riqueza, aspiración democrática y bienestar social, poco a poco se fue desvaneciendo en gran medida por una serie de políticas públicas en el ámbito económico, político y social. Lo que está caracterizando el capitalismo del siglo XXI en América Latina.
Full Text Available Transnational indigenous Latino immigrants today seem to live multiple lives across multiple borders. Based on a 3-year Mix methods research study that took place in a new immigrant-receiving community in North Carolina, the manuscript describes the experiences of Indigenous Latina Immigrants (ILIs living in the United States, specifically pedagogies of survival based on fluid social identities. The indigenous women who took part in this study had to adopt fluid unknown identities both in the home for cultural survival, and also outside the home (external identities for physical and social survival, often in hostile environments. In addition, it raises questions about the ways multilingualism affects border mobility and transnationality as well as how indigenous Latina immigrants become Camaleónas guerreras (Chameleon Warriors who use “critical survival tools” as a transnational bridge to facilitate their survival in a hostile US environment, the community, and in schools.
Full Text Available El interés de América Latina por la cuestión palestina se ha hecho visible a nivel internacional sólo recientemente con la ola de reconocimientos del Estado palestino entre diciembre de 2010 y marzo de 2011. La incorporación de esta temática en las políticas exteriores de los Estados latinoamericanos no es nueva, sin embargo. Si bien América Latina nunca desempeñó un papel sustancial en la mediación internacional del conflicto en el Medio Oriente, la centralidad del tema en las Naciones Unidas y la necesidad para Israel como para los palestinos de diversificar sus alianzas internacionales, hizo que los Estados latinoamericanos fueran regularmente convocados para tomar partido. Proponemos analizar las posiciones latinoamericanas a lo largo de los sesenta y cinco últimos años (1947-2012.
Page, Robin L; Chilton, Jenifer; Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Matthews, Debra; Nava, Angeles
Latina immigrant women are vulnerable and may experience higher levels of interpersonal or intimate partner violence (IPV) due to their immigrant status and cultural emphasis on familism. The concept of empowerment within the cultural context of Latina immigrant women experiencing IPV was analyzed using a modified version of Walker and Avant's concept analysis technique. The technique considers usage and definitions in the literature, antecedents, attributes, empirical referents, and the inclusion of a model and contrary case. This analysis encompasses a comparative approach and includes a discussion of how the definition of empowerment compares across the nursing literature. Defining attributes include reciprocal relationships, autonomy, and accountability. Antecedents comprise willingness to learn and motivation to create change. Consequences encompass self-esteem, self-efficacy, and competence for making life decisions. Empowerment has the potential to improve total well-being, having a positive and profound impact on the lives of women experiencing IPV.
Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza América Latina como entorno estratégico, de acuerdo con la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional: un proyecto compartido, aprobada el 31 de mayo de 2013. Existe un consenso generalizado sobre la importancia de América Latina para España. Sin embargo, lo que debería considerarse como un punto de partida, fundamentado en una historia común, en valores compartidos, en los lazos culturales, económicos, políticos y personales establecidos, se ha llegado a convertir en un fin en sí mismo, haciendo muy difícil identificar y discutir los intereses específicos de seguridad. España tiene importantes intereses estratégicos en América Latina. Estos incluyen los análisis de impacto de las actuales transformaciones globales en el entorno específico de seguridad regional; la emergencia de Brasil como potencia regional y global; la consolidación en el poder de regímenes neo-populistas y autoritarios; la presencia en la región de potencias extrarregionales como China y Rusia; las nuevas modalidades y evolución de las amenazas transnacionales; la seguridad energética, además de los desafíos relacionados con la desigualdad y la violencia estructural. Este trabajo trata de identificar los principales errores de planteamiento estratégico en la aproximación a América Latina.
Drewry, Jonathan; Sen, Bisakha; Wingate, Martha; Bronstein, Janet; Foster, E Michael; Kotelchuck, Milton
The 2002 "unborn child ruling" resulted in State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) expansion for states to cover prenatal care for low-income women without health insurance. Foreign-born Latinas who do not qualify for Medicaid coverage theoretically should have benefited most from the policy ruling given their documented low rates of prenatal care utilization. This study compares prenatal care utilization and subsequent birth outcomes among foreign-born Latinas in six states that used the unborn child ruling to expand coverage to those in ten states that did not implement the expansion. This policy analysis examines cross-sectional pooled US natality data from the pre-enactment years (2000-2003) versus post-enactment years (2004-2007) to estimate the effect of the UCR on prenatal care utilization and birth outcome measures for foreign-born Latinas. Then using a difference-in-difference estimator, we assessed these differences across time for states that did or did not enact the unborn child ruling. Analyses were then replicated on a high-risk subset of the population (single foreign-born Latinas with lower levels of education). The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy expansion increased PNCU over time in the six enacting states. Foreign-born Latinas in expansion enacting states experienced increases in prenatal care utilization though only the high-risk subset were statistically significant. Birth outcomes did not change. The SCHIP unborn child ruling policy was associated with enhanced PNC for a subset of high-risk foreign-born Latinas.
Gauss, Julie W.; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia
BACKGROUND Understanding women’s psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among Black, Latina and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. METHODS Data on 420 women, a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. RESULTS At baseline, 30.3% of Black and 35.5% of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2% of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (Odds ratio = 0.58, 95% Confidence interval: 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women’s perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P-valuetest is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of Black, Latina and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women. PMID:23288606
Moreno, Patricia I; Bauer, Margaret R; Yanez, Betina; Jorge, Alexandra; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda; Stanton, Annette L
Coping processes directed toward avoiding and approaching stressor-related thoughts and emotions predict psychological adjustment. However, few studies have examined how the relationship between dispositional emotional tendencies and stressor-specific coping affects outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the association of dispositional emotional expressivity (i.e., the propensity to experience and express emotions strongly) with cancer-specific coping through avoidance and emotional approach to predict intrusive thoughts and depressive symptoms in Latinas with breast cancer. Recently diagnosed Latina breast cancer patients receiving treatment completed standardized assessments via interview at 2 time points: within 18 months of diagnosis (Time 1; N = 95) and 3 months later (Time 2; N = 79). Most women were immigrants (93%), reported a combined household income of $20,000 or less (75%), did not graduate from high school (59%), and primarily spoke Spanish (88%). In path analyses, more recent immigration was associated with greater dispositional expressivity, which in turn was associated with coping with the cancer experience using both greater avoidance and emotional approach strategies. Only avoidance-oriented strategies predicted an increase in intrusive thoughts at 3 months. No significant effects on depressive symptoms were observed. Findings suggest that Latina breast cancer patients who have a propensity to experience and express emotions strongly may be initially overwhelmed by their cancer-related emotions and consequently turn to avoidance-oriented and emotional approach strategies to cope with their diagnosis. Avoidance-oriented coping in turn may uniquely predict an increase in cancer-related intrusive thoughts 3 months later. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa
Anxiety in pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes. Relatively few studies have investigated how acculturation affects mental health in pregnancy among Latinas. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with anxiety over the course of pregnancy in a sample of predominantly Puerto Rican women. Women were recruited in pregnancy for participation in Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Latina women (n = 1412). Acculturation was measured via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference and generation in the USA. Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Instrument. Linear and logistic multivariable regressions were used to investigate associations. After adjustment, women with bicultural identification had significantly lower trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = -3.62, SE = 1.1, p acculturated women. Women with higher levels of acculturation as indicated by English-language preference (β = 1.41, SE = 0.7, p = 0.04) and second or third generation in the USA had significantly higher trait anxiety scores in early pregnancy (β = 1.83, SE = 0.6, p acculturation was associated with lower trait anxiety in early pregnancy, while English-language preference and higher generation in the USA were associated with higher trait anxiety in early pregnancy.
Prieto, Linda; Villenas, Sofia A.
This article describes a process of testimonial co-creation between two teacher educators. We created "testimonios" in dialogue to examine who we are, how we "know," and how we teach as Chicana/Latina educators of prospective teachers in predominantly white institutions (PWIs). An active exploration of our lived experiences growing up as…
José de Jesús Ibarra Cárdenas
Full Text Available La existencia de ciertos rasgos autoritarios que afectan a los derechos de participación política y al cumplimiento de los acuerdos democráticos, ha sido motivo de crisis y colapso de varios gobiernos en América Latina. La importancia de la función judicial radica en que siempre y cuando mantenga la "independencia" y la "imparcialidad" como principios que le caracterizan, puede reforzar la cooperación entre agentes políticos y sociales por medio de: a el desarrollo de una cultura jurídica de respeto y promoción de los derechos, y b un poder judicial que establezca una relación estable entre comportamiento humano y prescripción normativa, es decir, que en la justificación de sus decisiones articule de manera satisfactoria el código de valores socialmente construido, y el marco normativo establecido por la regla de reconocimiento del sistema jurídico.
Luis F. López-Calva
Full Text Available A partir de una definición de clase media que incluye a personas con baja probabilidad de caer en pobreza, este artículo presenta algunas tendencias para América Latina. El porcentaje de personas en clase media ha aumentado de 21.9% en 2000 a 34.3% en 2012, y desde el 2009 el tamaño de la clase media es mayor que el porcentaje de personas en pobreza. No obstante, formar parte de la clase media en América Latina sigue siendo una posición privilegiada. Los grupos en pobreza y vulnerabilidad concentran aún alrededor de dos terceras partes de la población total de la región. En este sentido, la región no se puede considerar una sociedad de clase media, al menos no por el momento.
Racial and ethnic groups remain underrepresented in undergraduate health profession education programs and careers, such as nutrition and dietetics (Sullivan, 2004). Overwhelmingly, 82 percent of dietitians are White, three percent are Latino/Latina, and less than three percent are Black (Commission on Dietetic Registration, 2016). While the calls to increase recruitment of underrepresented minorities are plentiful and federal dollars are allotted to the effort, a critical lens is necessary to investigate the complexity of factors that impact the decision to pursue a career within dietetics. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how Latina and Black women enrolled in an undergraduate Health Career Opportunity Program (HCOP) narrated and reflected upon the dietetics profession. Through the lens of Critical Race Theory and situated learning, I sought to understand the sociocultural and historical underpinnings that hinder or promote career selection. Data collection methods included participant observation, interviews, artifacts, and reflexive journaling. Data were analyzed using inductive coding techniques. My findings revealed the ways in which Latina and Black women believed dietitians must match the socially constructed role model for body image, physical fitness, and healthy eating to be effective in practice. Using a critical media analysis to confront the stereotypical images of dietitians, the women used cliche messages as a selected discourse to mask perceptions of barriers to the dietetics field. Finally, the women believed a dietitian's professional role was to give diet advice which presented a barrier to the profession. Based on my findings I support early introduction to nutrition science as a means to empower individuals to support their health and the health of their community. Recruitment efforts must explicitly address the culture of dietetics which has embraced the stereotypical image. Collectively, the dietetics field must
Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Harris, Donna Marie; Dache-Gerbino, Amalia
Background/Context: The experiences of Latina youth in the United States are embedded within a larger social context influenced by gender, ethnic/racial identity, socioeconomic status, language, and sociospatial and political characteristics that can negatively impact their daily lived experiences. Given the challenges that young Latinas…
Durand, Tina M.
Few studies have examined the link between children's early school achievement and parents' at-home practices exclusively among Latino groups. This study examined the relation between Latina mothers' reported at-home practices regarding school preparation and their children's literacy skills. Participants included 56 kindergarten children and…
Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Museus, Samuel D.; Vega, Blanca E.
This chapter highlights the factors that hinder or contribute to the success of Latino and Latina students at predominantly White institutions. The Culturally Engaging Campus Environments (CECE) Model is offered as a framework from which to create environments for Latino/a students to thrive in college.
Ballesteros, Jorge L.; Hilliard, Robert C.
The purpose of the study was to examine the attitudes of Latina/o college students in the U.S. toward online counseling, with particular attention to the role of gender, self-stigma, perceptions of stigma by others, and acculturation within a sample of 231 college students. This cross-sectional survey used the "Perceived Stigmatization by…
Risco, Cristina M.; Duffy, Ryan D.
The current study explored the work values, career decidedness, and career choice comfort of 236 Latina/o incoming college students. Of a possible 13 work values, students placed more importance on work enjoyment, genuine interest in the field, and job security and less importance on family expectations, having free time, and working without close…
Christopher Howard Birkbeck
Full Text Available El empleo reciente de términos como "warehouse prison" en Estados Unidos y "campo de concentración" en América Latina parecería indicar que las condiciones de privación de la libertad son distintas en ambas regiones. El análisis presentado aquí explora esas diferencias. Se comparan los establecimientos penales en América del Norte y América Latina a través de seis dimensiones relacionadas entre sí: la organización interna de los espacios, la vigilancia, el aislamiento, la supervisión, el control administrativo y la formalización de los procedimientos. En América del Norte, el control es asiduo (persistente, intrusivo y casi permanente; en América Latina, el control es somero (esporádico, indiferente y superficial. Si en América del Norte se habla de prisiones y encarcelamiento, en América Latina parece mejor hablar de internados judiciales e internación.
Ponencia para el Primer Congreso de Estudiantes de Psicología Profesional en Latinoamérica.Elegí este tópico para discutirlo ante este grupo interesado en el porvenir de la psicología en la América Latina, con la esperanza de que sea motivo de posteriores reuniones para tratar de solucionar en forma adecuada el problema del entrenamiento clínico para los estudiantes de psicología en la América Latina.
In spite of the economic growth experienced in the region, this disparity has ... Book cover Los derechos económicos, sociales y culturales en América latina ... in Physicians for Human Rights (USA) and a professor at Harvard University.
La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos. Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems. PMID:21625326
La telemedicina es una tendencia creciente en la prestación de los servicios médicos. Aunque la eficacia de esta práctica no ha estado bien establecida, es probable que los países en desarrollo compartirán este nuevo paradigma con los desarrollados. Los defensores de la telemedicina en América Latina sostienen que será una herramienta útil para reducir las disparidades y mejorar la accesibilidad de atención de salud. Aunque América Latina quizá se convierta en un lugar para la investigación e investigación de estos procedimientos, no está claro cómo la telemedicina podría contribuir a mejorar la accesibilidad para las poblaciones desfavorecidas, o coexistir con sistemas de atención de salud públicos crónicamente enfermos.Telemedicine is a growing trend in the provision of medical services. Although the effectiveness of this practice has not been well established, it is likely that developing countries will share this new paradigm with developed ones. Supporters of telemedicine in Latin America maintain that it will be a useful tool for reducing disparities and improving health care accessibility. Although Latin America might become a place for research and investigation of these procedures, it is not clear how telemedicine could contribute to improving accessibility for disadvantaged populations, or coexist with chronically ill-funded public healthcare systems.
Full Text Available Extractamos las conclusiones y recomendaciones del Encuentro sobre Diseño Gráfico e Industrial de América Latina organizado por el Centro Imagen Latinoamericana, Sao Paulo, Brasil, 1986.
Castañeda, Donna Marie
In a sample of 114 Latina/o emerging adults, ages 18 to 29, this study investigated the frequency of sexting, and gender differences in this behavior, and if sexting was related to a range of sexuality variables, including sexual satisfaction, sexual experience, sexual pleasure, and sexual permissiveness. Results show that a total of 63 (55.26%)…
Frazer, Andrew L.; Rubens, Sonia; Johnson-Motoyama, Michelle; DiPierro, Moneika; Fite, Paula J.
Background: Two risk factors for negative outcomes in Latina/o youth are acculturation dissonance (i.e., discrepant family cultural orientations) and the endorsement of an assimilation strategy of acculturation (i.e., valuing dominant mainstream culture over culture of origin). Though these have been uniquely studied as risk factors for…
Gautreau, Cynthia; Brye, Michelle VanderVeldt; Lunceford, Christina
The purpose of this study was to investigate mathematics-related anxiety and attitudes among Latina preservice teachers. Three sections from the Inventory of Mathematics Attitudes, Experience, and Self Awareness were administered to preservice teachers enrolled in a curriculum and instruction mathematics course during the 1st semester of a…
Colomer, Soria Elizabeth
Based on a qualitative study documenting how Spanish teachers bear an especially heavy burden as unofficial translators, interpreters, and school representatives, this article documents how some Latina high school Spanish teachers struggle to form social networks with Latino students in new Latino school communities. Employing social frameworks,…
This article examines how Chicana/o and Latina/o youth employed their political-historical knowledge to "talk back" to the xenophobia and political contradictions that underlie the (im)migration "debate." A literacy unit that honed bilingual students' everyday translating created opportunities for students to utilize this political-historical…
Full Text Available Scholarship in the area of cross-racial organizing between Latina/o and African Americans has increased substantially over the past ten years. Within that literature, scholars have identified many reasons why cross-racial coalitions both succeed and fail. Among the factors most often cited is the issue of trust. Despite the recognition of the crucial role trust plays in cross-racial organizing, little attention has been paid to what contributes to actually building trust between African Americans and Latina/o. I argue that one factor contributing to the distrust of Latinas among African American women involved in cross-racial organizing in Atlanta is the perceived discrepancy between Latinas’ own asserted identity and the identity assigned to them by African American women organizers. Using data gathered from six years of participant observation and forty interviews conducted with African American women and Latinas organizing in Georgia, I discuss the consequences of identity construction for cross-racial organizing. I find that within cross-racial organizing spaces in Atlanta, perceived racial identities are used by African American women as proxies for determining Latina organizers’ commitment to social justice and, correspondingly, how much individual Latinas can be trusted. Specifically, I find that African American respondents view Latina identity as optional and potentially white. Latina respondents, on the other hand, assert strong identities and contend that their perceived “optional” identities are a function of what Anzaldúa calls a mestiza consciousness or the straddeling of multiple identities. I argue that understanding how these identities are assigned and asserted by Latinas and African American women is a crucial and often-overlooked component to building trust, and by extension, to building sustainable cross-racial coalitions.
Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Trejo, Grisel; Schiemann, Elizabeth; Quandt, Sara A; Daniel, Stephanie S; Sandberg, Joanne C; Arcury, Thomas A
This analysis describes the work organization and domestic work experienced by migrant Latinas, and explores the linkage between work and health. Twenty Latina workers in North Carolina with at least one child under age 12 completed in-depth interviews focused on their work organization, domestic responsibilities, work-family conflict, health, and family health. Using a systematic qualitative analysis, these women described a demanding work organization that is contingent and exploitative, with little control or support. They also described demanding domestic roles, with gendered and unequal division of household work. The resulting work-family conflict affects their mental and physical health, and has negative effects on the care and health of their families. The findings from this study highlight that work stressors from an unfavorable work organization create work-family conflict, and that work-family conflict in this population has a negative influence on workers' health and health behaviors.
Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others
This guide, a supplement to the "Artes Latinae Level One Teacher's Manual," prepared for use in the School District of Philadelphia, focuses primarily on how to adapt this course, intended for individualized instruction, to group instruction. Discussion of the multisensory instructional system includes remarks concerning the use of films, study…
Maes, Johanna B.
The Latina population in the United States is one of the largest of all racial and ethnic groups, and it is expected to grow exponentially within the next forty years. Despite these large numbers of Latinas in the U.S., there is a disparity with this population who are leading our nation's four-year colleges and universities. A reason for…
Santos, José L.; Sáenz, Victor B.
The authors paint a national portrait of Latina/o trends over more than 30 years in terms of demographic and financial concerns that pertain to access at 4-year institutions. Using a multiple policy streams framework, the authors contend that growing numbers of Latina/os are in the eye of the perfect storm in a global economy that calls for more…
Osuna, Diego; Barrera, Manuel; Strycker, Lisa A; Toobert, Deborah J; Glasgow, Russell E; Geno, Cristy R; Almeida, Fabio; Perdomo, Malena; King, Diane; Doty, Alyssa Tinley
Because Latinas experience a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and its complications, there is an urgent need to reach them with interventions that promote healthful lifestyles. This article illustrates a sequential approach that took an effective multiple-risk-factor behavior-change program and adapted it for Latinas with type 2 diabetes. Adaptation stages include (a) information gathering from literature and focus groups, (b) preliminary adaptation design, and (c) preliminary adaptation test. In this third stage, a pilot study finds that participants were highly satisfied with the intervention and showed improvement across diverse outcomes. Key implications for applications include the importance of a model for guiding cultural adaptations, and the value of procedures for obtaining continuous feedback from staff and participants during the preliminary adaptation test.
Keller, Colleen; Records, Kathie; Ainsworth, Barbara; Belyea, Michael; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean; Vega-López, Sonia; Nagle-Williams, Allison
Weight gain in young women suggests that childbearing may be an important contributor to the development of obesity in women. Depressive symptoms can interfere with resumption of normal activity levels following childbirth or with the initiation of or adherence to physical activity programs essential for losing pregnancy weight. Depression symptoms may function directly to promote weight gain through a physiologic mechanism. Obesity and its related insulin resistance may contribute to depressed mood physiologically. Although physical activity has well-established beneficial effects on weight management and depression, women tend to under participate in physical activity during childbearing years. Further, the mechanisms underpinning the interplay of overweight, obesity, physical activity, depression, and inflammatory processes are not clearly explained. This report describes the theoretical rationale, design considerations, and cultural relevance for "Madres para la Salud" [Mothers for Health]. Madres para la Salud is a 12 month prospective, randomized controlled trial exploring the effectiveness of a culturally specific intervention using "bouts" of physical activity to effect changes in body fat, systemic and fat tissue inflammation, and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary postpartum Latinas. The significance and innovation of Madres para la Salud includes use of a theory-driven approach to intervention, specification and cultural relevance of a social support intervention, use of a Promotora model to incorporate cultural approaches, use of objective measures of physical activity in post partum Latinas women, and the examination of biomarkers indicative of cardiovascular risk related to physical activity behaviors in postpartum Latinas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Escontrias, Gabriel, Jr.
Latinas and Latinos are currently underrepresented in terms of our 21 st century student academic attainment and workforce, compared to the total U.S. Hispanic population. In a field such as mathematical sciences, Hispanic or Latino U.S. citizenship doctoral recipients only accounted for 3.04% in 2009--2010. While there are various initiatives to engage underrepresented STEM populations through education, there is a need to give a voice to the experiences of Latinas and Latinos engaged in such programs. This study explored the experiences of seven Arizona State University undergraduate Latina and Latino Joaquin Bustoz Math-Science Honors Program (JBMSHP) participants as well as examined how the program enhanced their math and science learning experiences. Participants attended either a five-week or eight-week program and ranged in attendance from 2006 to 2011. Students were provided an opportunity to begin university mathematics and science studies before graduating high school. Through a demographic survey and one-on-one guided interview, participants shared their personal journey, their experience in the JBMSHP, and their goals. Using grounded theory, a qualitative research approach, this study focuses on the unique experiences of Latina and Latino participants. Four major themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Each participant applied to the program with a foundation in which they sought to challenge themselves academically through mathematics and/or science. Through their involvement it the JBMSHP, participants recognized benefits during and after the program. All participants recognized the value of these benefits and their participation and praised the program. Overall, the JBMSHP provided the students the resources to grow their academic capital and if they chose seek a STEM related bachelor degree. The results of this study emphasize the need to expand the JBMSHP both within Arizona and nationally. In addition, there is a need to explore the other
Garza, Jennifer M.
The purpose of this study is to inform and further the discussion of academic (i.e., teachers and school counselors) and non-academic (i.e., parents, family, friends, etc.) validating agents on Latina students' mathematics and science self-concepts. This study found a relationship between Latina students' interactions with academic and…
Castañeda, Sheila F; Giacinto, Rebeca E; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Brongiel, Ilana; Cardona, Olga; Perez, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A
This collaborative study sought to address Latina breast cancer (BC) disparities by increasing health literacy (HL) in a community health center situated on the US-Mexico border region of San Diego County. An academic-community partnership conducted formative research to develop a culturally tailored promotora-based intervention with 109 individuals. The Spanish language program, entitled Nuestra Cocina: Mesa Buena, Vida Sana (Our Kitchen: Good Table, Healthy Life), included six sessions targeting HL, women's health, BC risk reduction, and patient-provider communication; sessions include cooking demonstrations of recipes with cancer-risk-reducing ingredients. A pilot study with 47 community health center Latina patients was conducted to examine the program's acceptability, feasibility, and ability to impact knowledge and skills. Pre- and post-analyses demonstrated that participants improved their self-reported cancer screening, BC knowledge, daily fruit and vegetable intake, and ability to read a nutrition label (p < 0.05). Results of the pilot study demonstrate the importance of utilizing patient-centered culturally appropriate noninvasive means to educate and empower Latina patients.
Full Text Available El objetivo de ese estudio es conocer las características socio demográficas de la discapacidad en América Latina y evaluar la metodología utilizada en las encuestas poblacionales para el análisis de la discapacidad. Es un estudio descriptivo que analiza los datos y la metodología de las encuestas de discapacidad de los países de América Latina realizadas después del 2001. Ha sido observado una grande diferencia en la prevalencia de la discapacidad encontrada en las encuestas que utilizaron la CIF para el análisis estadístico de las personas con discapacidad. Además ha sido verificado que en América Latina la discapacidad motora es la más prevalente y acomete mas los hombres con más de 65 años y con bajo nivel educacional. La principal causa es la enfermedad crónica. Concluyese que la CIF es una buena herramienta metodológica para la elaboración de encuestas de discapacidad.
Torres, Rosamar; Kehoe, Priscilla; Heilemann, MarySue V
Little is known of late adolescent Texas Latinas' prenatal care perceptions or how these perceptions predict timely prenatal care initiation or adequate utilization. Hence, the purpose of this study is to describe and compare these perceptions between participants with timely versus late prenatal care initiation and adequate, intermediate, and inadequate prenatal care utilization; and to determine predictors of timely prenatal care initiation and adequate utilization. Fifty-four postpartum Latinas were recruited through social media. Eligibility criteria were 18 to 21 years old, Texas-born, primiparous, uncomplicated pregnancy/delivery, and English literate. Prenatal care perceptions were measured with the Revised Better Babies Survey and Access Barriers to Care Index. Participants had favorable views of prenatal care benefits; however, not living with the baby's father predicted inadequate prenatal care, Wald χ 2 (1) = 4.93, p = .026. Perceived benefits of timely and adequate prenatal care predicted timely prenatal care initiation, χ 2 (1) = 7.47, p = .006. Self-reported depression during pregnancy predicted timely entry into prenatal care, χ 2 (1) = 4.73, p = .03. Participants' positive prenatal care perceptions did not predict adequate prenatal care utilization, indicating that barriers serve as powerful obstacles in late adolescent Texas Latinas.
De Jesus, Maria
The study examines how religiosity shapes the health perceptions and health-related behaviors of 50 Latina immigrants from El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Bolivia. Between May and August 2011, focus groups were conducted with participants representing each country of origin. Qualitative content analysis was the analytic strategy adopted in the study. The meta-theme, Religiosity Contributes to Positive Perceptions of Health and Health-Promoting Behaviors, is associated with six emerging themes: (1) Religiosity promotes a sense of personal responsibility for one's health; (2) Religiosity promotes a holistic view of health; (3) Religiosity promotes the view that health is a priority; (4) Religiosity promotes the view that health enables one to perform necessary tasks; (5) Religiosity promotes health-seeking behavior; and (6) Religiosity provides intrinsic health benefits. Findings do not follow the clear-cut dichotomy of the health locus of control model and challenge simplified notions that Latinas hold a purely external health locus of control toward their health and health care. Latinas rely on both God and themselves in managing their health and engaging in health-promoting actions, which are prompted in large part by their religiosity. Implications for culturally appropriate health communication and interventions are discussed.
Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una visión general de la actividad que en el campo educativo ha desarrollado la radio en América Latina, destacando el modelo puesto en práctica por ACPO en Sutatenza, Colombia, imitado por otras emisoras católicas latinoamericanas que posteriormente se constituyeron en el eje fundamental para la creación de la Asociación Latinoamérica de Educación Radiofónica, ALER, convertida hoy en el sistema satelital más importante de América y del cual forma parte el Instituto Radiofónico Fe y Alegría (IRFA, organismo que con su red de emisoras, ha llevado adelante una serie de estrategias comunicacionales que le han servido para enfrentar los retos y exigencias de su acción en la educación popular. Para lograr el objetivo propuesto se hizo una revisión de varios investigadores que se han dedicado al estudio de este tema, entre los que se cuentan Lewis y Booth, Bernal, Figueroa, Geerts y Van Oeyen, García, O'Sullivan y Correa. Los resultados permiten concluir que ha sido muy importante la labor de las emisoras para la educación en América Latina.
Weitzman, Patricia Flynn; Caballero, A Enrique; Millan-Ferro, Andreina; Becker, Anne E; Levkoff, Sue E
The purpose of this study was to examine how attitudes and practices related to bodily aesthetic ideals and self-care might inform the engagement of Latinas with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Focus groups were used to collect qualitative data concerning bodily aesthetic ideals and diabetes management, including help-seeking experiences, from Latina women with T2DM (n = 29) receiving care through Latino Diabetes Initiative at the Joslin Diabetes Center. Focus groups were conducted in Spanish, audiotaped, transcribed, and content analyzed. Four main themes emerged: (1) a preference among participants for a larger than average body size, although perceptions of attractiveness were more closely linked to grooming than body size; bodily dissatisfaction centered on diabetes-induced skin changes, virilization, and fatigue rather than weight; (2) diabetic complications, especially foot pain, as a major obstacle to exercise; (3) fatalistic attitudes regarding the inevitability of diabetes and reversal of its complications; and (4) social burdens, isolation, and financial stressors as contributing to disease exacerbation. Interventions that emphasize reduced body size may be less effective with Latinas who have T2DM than those that emphasize the benefits of exercise and weight loss for skin health, energy levels, and reduced virilization.
In the period under review, the Latina power plant produced 1009,07 million kWh with a utilization factor of 72% and an availability factor of 80,51%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to the shutdown of the plant owing to trade union strife. The reasons for non-availability (19,49%) were almost all related to the functioning of the conventional part and the general servicing of the plant (18 September-28 October). During the shutdown for maintenance, an inspection of the steel members and parts of the core stabilizing structure was made in order to check for the familiar oxidation phenomena caused by CO 2 ; the results of the inspection were all satisfactory. Operation of the plant during 1974 was marked by numerous power cutbacks as a result of outages of the steam-raising units (leaks from the manifolds) and main turbines (inspection and repairs to the LP rotors). Since it was first brought into commercial operation, the plant has produced 13,4 thousand million kWh
Kanamori, Mariano; De La Rosa, Mario; Diez, Stephanie; Weissman, Jessica; Trepka, Mary Jo; Sneij, Alicia; Schmidt, Peter; Rojas, Patria
Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida-particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work-have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV prevention intervention Progreso en Salud (Progress in Health). Among the 114 Latina seasonal farmworker participants, there were significant increases from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the percentages of overall condom use, HIV testing, HIV/AIDS-related communications with friends, HIV knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and correct use of condoms. Lessons learned from this study can be used to inform future HIV intervention strategies to improve the adoption and maintenance of HIV risk reduction behaviors among high-risk Latina seasonal workers and other high-risk underserved populations. Future research is needed to support our findings.
Mirabal, Nancy Raquel
During the 1990s and early 2000s, working-class and poor neighborhoods in San Francisco underwent dramatic economic and racial changes. One of the most heavily gentrified neighborhoods was the Mission District. As a result of local politics, housing and rental policies, real estate speculation, and development, thousands of Latina/o families were displaced. Using oral historical and ethnographic methodologies, print media, archival sources, and policy papers, this article traces the gentrification of the Mission District from the perspective of the Latina/o community. It also examines how gentrification was articulated as a positive turn within the larger public discourse on space and access.
Crookes, Danielle M; Shelton, Rachel C; Tehranifar, Parisa; Aycinena, Corina; Gaffney, Ann Ogden; Koch, Pam; Contento, Isobel R; Greenlee, Heather
Little is known about Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks or their perceived social support to achieve and maintain a healthy diet. This paper describes the social networks and perceived support for healthy eating in a sample of breast cancer survivors of predominantly Dominican descent living in New York City. Spanish-speaking Latina breast cancer survivors enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored dietary intervention. Social networks were assessed using Cohen's Social Network Index and a modified General Social Survey Social Networks Module that included assessments of shared health promoting behaviors. Perceived social support from family and friends for healthy, food-related behaviors was assessed. Participants' networks consisted predominantly of family and friends. Family members were more likely than other individuals to be identified as close network members. Participants were more likely to share food-related activities than exercise activities with close network members. Perceived social support for healthy eating was high, although perceived support from spouses and children was higher than support from friends. Despite high levels of perceived support, family was also identified as a barrier to eating healthy foods by nearly half of women. Although friends are part of Latina breast cancer survivors' social networks, spouses and children may provide greater support for healthy eating than friends. Involving family members in dietary interventions for Latina breast cancer survivors may tap into positive sources of support for women, which could facilitate uptake and maintenance of healthy eating behaviors.
Caplan, Susan; Whittemore, Robin
In spite of successful treatment options for depression, the majority of Americans with severe depression do not receive treatment. Latinos are even less likely to engage in treatment than non-Hispanic Whites. The purpose of this study is to explore barriers to treatment engagement and, more specifically, how childhood adversity and gender-based violence (GBV) contribute to a lack of perceived support for treatment engagement. Experiences of GBV and childhood adversity can call into question deeply held family, cultural, and religious values, and affect the perceived quality of the therapeutic relationship and attitudes about depression treatment. A qualitative descriptive methodology was used to understand the experiences of a sample of 12 Latinas who were part of a diabetes prevention study (n = 67) and had been referred for treatment because of elevated symptoms of depression. Results indicate that the often-cited barriers to mental health care (i.e., language barriers, economic considerations, and lack of illness recognition) did not serve as deterrents for Latinas in this study. Participants recognized that they were depressed and agreed with the assessment of depression. However, none of the women followed up on the recommendation to seek care. What has emerged from this study is how cultural values, such as familismo and marianismo, and the lack of responsiveness from family and religious leaders in the context of exposure to GBV and childhood adversity created significant barriers to treatment engagement. This study highlights the need for nurses to screen for these exposures and to engage in shared decision making about treatment.
Matos, Jennifer M. D.
This article utilizes Yosso's (2005) community cultural framework and the six forms of cultural capital (aspirational, familial, linguistic, navigational, resistant, social) as corrective reframes of the cultural deficit model. Although the prevailing literature on Latina/o parents and families portray this population as being unmotivated and…
Otiniano Verissimo, Angie Denisse; Gee, Gilbert C; Ford, Chandra L; Iguchi, Martin Y
This study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance abuse among Latina/os, and further examines whether this relationship differs by gender and type of discrimination. Analyses focus on the Latina/o respondents (n = 1,039 men; n = 1,273 women) from the National Latino and Asian American Study carried out from 2002-2003. Outcomes were alcohol abuse and drug abuse measured using DSM-IV definitions and criteria. Additional covariates included immigrant characteristics and demographics. Analyses were completed using gender-stratified multinomial logistic regression. Men reported more discrimination (39.6% vs. 30.3%) and had higher prevalence of alcohol abuse (16.5% vs. 4.5%) and drug abuse (9.5% vs. 2.3%) than women. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased risk of alcohol abuse for women and increased risk of drug abuse for men. Men and women also varied in the types of discrimination (e.g., racial vs. gender) reported, and in the associations between these types of discrimination and substance abuse. These data indicate that discrimination is associated with different substance abuse outcomes between genders. Future research should consider the mechanisms that explain these differences.
Full Text Available Este artículo reflexiona en torno a los cambios producidos en las políticas internacionales y estatales de seguridad nacional de los Estados Unidos de América, y analiza esta circunstancia con la situación de la seguridad en los países de América Latina.
Ayón, Cecilia; Messing, Jill T; Gurrola, Maria; Valencia-Garcia, Dellanira
Despite Latinos being the largest growing population in the United States, research has not examined the impact of social structures on the well-being of Latina immigrants; negative social discourse and restrictive laws exacerbate inequality and discrimination in this population. Through combined inductive/deductive analysis of in-depth semistructured interviews, we examined immigrant Mexican mothers' ( N = 32) descriptions of oppression in the United States. All five forms of oppression, described in Young's oppression framework are evident: exploitation, violence, marginalization, cultural imperialism, and powerlessness. Discrimination places a high burden on Latinas due to the intersection of forms of oppression and nondominant identities.
Informed by research studies that demonstrate a positive relationship between parent engagement and student academic attainment, state and national parent outreach initiatives have aimed to bridge the gap between Latina/o parents and schools. Such was the case with the Latina/o Family, School and Community "Avanzando" Project, which…
Estela García Fernández
Full Text Available El presente artículo pretende demostrar la existencia de la condición latina y la necesidad de su introducción en el análisis onomástico referido a las ciudades del Occidente del Imperio, limitado habitualmente a la identificación de población romana o peregrina. El análisis de la onomástica de los ediles de Andelo podría indicar la condición latina de estos magistrados.This article aims to demonstrate the existence of the Latin condition and the need for its implementation in the onomastic analysis of the cities of the Western Empire, which is usually limited to identifying cives Romani or peregrini. The onomastic analysis of Andelo aediles could indicate the Latin condition of these magistrates.
Full Text Available A lo largo del siglo se produce en América Latina una importante operación literaria, ideológica y social de resultas de la cual muchos de los límites y de las barreras impuestas por la así llamada "alta cultura" -la representación de lo mejor de Occidente- se derrumban, y una serie de factores considerados "vulgares, de mal gusto, indignos del mínimo a precio", ocupan un sitio fundamental en las determinaciones culturales.
Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F.
Adolescent girls' and their mothers' expectations for their daughters' college attainment, mother-daughter communication about education, and daughters' early childbearing attitudes were examined in 146 U.S.-raised Latina girls (mean age = 14.4 years) and their mostly immigrant mothers. Through structural equation modeling, we…
Vela, Javier Cavazos; Smith, Wayne D.; Whittenberg, James F.; Guardiola, Rebekah; Savage, Miranda
Latina/o college students (N = 130) provided perceptions of psychological grit, presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, life satisfaction, and mindfulness. Hope and mindfulness were significant predictors of psychological grit. A discussion regarding the importance of these findings and implications for counselors are…
Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Alvarez-Sanchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report…
Browne, Irene, Ed.
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
Villar, Maria Elena; Concha, Maritza
The paper aims to further explore the role that culture plays in the provision and assimilation of sex education among Latina immigrants in the USA. To accomplish this, researchers conducted focus groups and interviews with 30 women from Central and South America who have lived in the USA for at least five years. Participants were asked to reflect…
K. Biekart (Kees)
textabstractIntroducción: Durante la década pasada han tenido lugar en América latina algunos cambios que han afectado gradualmente las prioridades y las políticas de ayuda de la comunidad internacional de donantes. El impacto de la globalización, la crisis de la ortodoxia neoliberal (véase la
Reid, Allecia E; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R
Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.
Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321
Full Text Available Throughout the past decade, HIV rates in Florida—particularly South Florida, where many Latina seasonal farmworkers reside and work—have ranked among the highest in the nation. In this brief report, we delineate important lessons learned and preliminary findings from the implementation of the HIV prevention intervention Progreso en Salud (Progress in Health. Among the 114 Latina seasonal farmworker participants, there were significant increases from baseline to 6-month follow-up in the percentages of overall condom use, HIV testing, HIV/AIDS-related communications with friends, HIV knowledge, condom use self-efficacy, and correct use of condoms. Lessons learned from this study can be used to inform future HIV intervention strategies to improve the adoption and maintenance of HIV risk reduction behaviors among high-risk Latina seasonal workers and other high-risk underserved populations. Future research is needed to support our findings.
Jaime Peña Novoa
Full Text Available La autora relata la historia de las Relaciones Públicas y dice que surgieron y se desarrollaron para legitimar ante el público los intereses económicos y políticos de quienes detentan el poder. Se cuestiona sobre el por qué no aplicar las relaciones públicas, en organizaciones populares, para que mejoren su publicación y orienten sus propósitos de desarrollo. El tema que aborda las Políticas culturales en América Latina acopia un extracto de lo más trascendente de los ensayos del libro editado por Néstor García Canclini. Sobre la telenovela se afirma que esta ha llegado a ser uno de los instrumentos más importantes de la comunicación popular: por ella desfilan las identidades de las más variadas culturas brasileñas. Y en cuanto a la caricatura se relata lo que ocurrió en el Seminario taller " Caricatura y Periodismo", realizado el(9-11 de Nov.- 1987 en el CIESPAL. El estudio sobre el mercado del vídeo se ve dificultado por la imprecisión de los datos obtenidos. Los datos oficiales no siempre se aproximan a la realidad, pues el mercado de vídeo se instauró en América Latina partiendo de una lógica totalmente diversa de los equipos de sonido e imagen.
Linton, Kristen F; Kim, Bum Jung
Latinas/os with traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) and their caregivers experience worse outcomes than others. The study aimed to assess the acceptability and promise of Trabajadora de Salud on the functional abilities, hospital readmission, rehabilitation, employment, depression, somatic symptoms, and caregiver burden among Latinas/os with TBIs and their caregivers. A pre-posttest experimental pilot study was conducted. A total of eight Latina/o adult patients (50% female) with mild or moderate TBI and six of their caregivers (66.7% female) were randomized to receive Trabajadora de Salud or a telephone only control group. Trabajadora de Salud, a three-month, in-home intervention administered by bilingual lay health workers, focused on: 1) providing empathy and validation of TBI symptoms, 2) addressing basic needs, 3) goal setting, and 4) improving communication with healthcare providers. Trabajadora de Salud was widely accepted by patients, caregivers, and health professionals. The functional, depression, and somatic symptoms of the patients as well as the somatic symptoms and caregiver burden of the caregivers improved more for participants in the intervention group than the control group. Trabajadora de Salud demonstrated promise in improving outcomes of Latinas/os with TBIs and their caregivers and should be further studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wasserberg, Martin James
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American and Latina/o children (N = 81) when tested together at an urban elementary school in Miami, Florida. Design/methodology/approach: To analyze the effect of stereotype threat on participants' reading test…
Lando, Jennifer Rose
The purpose of this narrative study was to explore how Latina cultural brokers understand their role in translating and interpreting complex, adult situations for their families, called cultural brokering, and how that background shapes their collegiate experiences. While much of the higher education literature in recent years has focused on the…
Gulbas, Lauren E.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; De Luca, Susan M.; Tyler, Tee R.; Zayas, Luis H.
To date, there is little research to validate empirically differences between non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI) and attempted suicide among Latina adolescents. Understanding the characteristics and contextual features of self-harmful behaviors among Latina teens is a critical public health and social justice matter given the disproportionate rates of attempted suicide and anticipated population growth of this vulnerable group. In this article, we draw on an ecodevelopmental model to focus attention on factors in the sociocultural environment that shape suicidal and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors. Through analysis of qualitative interviews conducted with girls who used NSSI (n = 18), attempted suicide (n = 29), used NSSI and attempted suicide (n = 8,) and had no reported lifetime history of self-harm (n = 28), we describe the sociocultural factors that shaped psychosocial vulnerabilities and gave rise to decisions to use NSSI or attempt suicide. Our analysis revealed that adolescents who engaged in NSSI perceived their negative feelings as something that could be controlled through self-injurious acts, whereas powerlessness was a theme underlying the emotional states of girls who attempted suicide. When NSSI ceased to function as a mechanism for control, girls came to sudden decisions to attempt suicide. Most teens identified specific, and often multiple, situations that induced these intense affective states and shaped decisions to inflict self-harm. Two situational experiences emerged as particularly salient and promising for subsequent studies on self-harmful behaviors among Latina adolescents: transnational stress and bullying. We describe each of these and offer suggestions for future research and practice. PMID:26052816
Cammarota, Julio; Romero, Augustine F
The article reports on Latina/o high school students who conducted participatory action research (PAR) on problems that circumscribe their possibilities for self-determination. The intention is to legitimize student knowledge to develop effective educational policies and practices for young Latinas/os. PAR is engaged through the Social Justice Education Project, which provides students with all social science requirements for their junior and senior years. The mandated curriculum is supplemented with advanced-level readings from Chicana/o studies, critical race theory, critical pedagogy, and, most important, PAR. The intention is for students to meet the requirements for graduation and to develop sophisticated critical analyses to address problems in their own social contexts.
Villavicencio Rodríguez, Tatiana Jackeline
La presente tesis busca realizar un acercamiento a la relación entre desigualdad y gasto social en América Latina para el periodo 1990-2013. Primeramente nos proponemos verificar si existe simultaneidad o doble causalidad entre las variables del gasto social y la desigualdad medida a través del índice de Gini. En caso afirmativo se analizará el efecto que las variables de gasto social (educación, salud, seguridad social, vivienda y otros) tienen sobre la desigualdad y el efecto que la desigua...
Felipe Hevia de la Jara
Una de las características del proceso de democratización en América Latina es la incorporación de mecanismos de democracia directa como el plebiscito, la iniciativa legislativa y la revocación del mandato. Este artículo analiza específicamente uno de ellos: la Iniciativa Legislativa Popular (ILP), definida como el derecho de los ciudadanos a presentar proyectos de ley al Parlamento y/o exigir una consulta popular para aprobar o rechazar leyes o reformas legales. El artículo incluye una discu...
Merz, Erin L.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Riley, Natasha; Sadler, Georgia Robins
Depression is a significant problem for ethnic minorities that remains understudied partly due to a lack of strong measures with established psychometric properties. One screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), which was developed for use in primary care has also gained popularity in research settings. The reliability and validity of the PHQ-9 has been well established among predominantly Caucasian samples, in addition to many minority groups. However, there is little evidence regarding its utility among Hispanic Americans, a large and growing cultural group in the United States. In this study, we investigated the reliability and structural validity of the PHQ-9 in Hispanic American women. A community sample of 479 Latina women from southern California completed the PHQ-9 in their preferred language of English or Spanish. Cronbach’s alphas suggested that there was good internal consistency for both the English- and Spanish-language versions. Structural validity was investigated using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results support a similar one-factor structure with equivalent response patterns and variances among English- and Spanish-speaking Latinas. These results suggest that the PHQ-9 can be used with confidence in both English and Spanish versions to screen Latinas for depression. PMID:21787063
Garcia, Andrea; Gaddes, Amy
A decade ago, the subtractive schooling of many Latino youth in the United States resulted in a devaluing of cultural identity and heritage as resources to support learning. Today, educators are urged to revalue cultural resources toward literacy development. This study explores the experiences of Latina adolescent students as writers during an…
Rodríguez, Mariela A.
Personal narrative essays were used to analyze the experiences of four Latina doctoral students who completed their first year in an educational leadership doctoral program in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) in the southwestern U.S. Four themes emerged from their "testimonios" 1) "Con todo el corazón"; 2) "Somos como…
Full Text Available En 1995 la OPS/OMS llevó a cabo una encuesta postal para investigar las características del uso del tratamiento por electrochoques (TEC en América Latina y en el Caribe de habla inglesa y holandesa. Según los resultados de la encuesta, el uso del TEC difiere en las dos subregiones. La técnica se utiliza ampliamente en América Latina y solo esporádicamente en el Caribe. Asimismo, su uso varía dentro de cada país y ha sufrido cambios a lo largo del tiempo. Solamente la mitad de los países de América Latina tienen normas técnicas para la aplicación del TEC. La administración de anestesia y de relajantes musculares durante el mismo y la obtención de consentimiento informado todavía no son prácticas reglamentarias en las instituciones psiquiátricas de América Latina. La toma de medidas para subsanar estos déficit ayudará a borrar la estereotípica imagen negativa que esta intervención suele evocar.
Padilla, Alejandro; Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.
A qualitative research study was conducted with 15 school counselors to identify the strategies they used to empower Chicana/o and Latina/o high school students. The findings of this study revealed that participants facilitated student empowerment by developing personal relationships with students, involving alumni, building sociocultural…
Background/Context: Explanations for the relatively low numbers of Latinas pursuing higher education have tended to focus on socialization into traditional gender roles. However, recent scholarship has challenged this view, suggesting that gender roles--particularly among recent immigrants--are mutable and subject to constant renegotiation.…
Full Text Available La prolongada crisis económica de los países de la región y las políticas de ajuste macro económico han generado una situación económica y social que produce inequidades profundas. La década de los 90 mostró niveles de deterioro de las condiciones de salud de la mayoría de la población y en su acceso desventajoso a servicios de salud. Al momento son 200 millones de personas, en América Latina, que viven en la pobreza; e decir, 50 millones más que en 1980.
Otiniano Verissimo, Angie Denisse; Gee, Gilbert C; Iguchi, Martin Y; Ford, Chandra L; Friedman, Samuel R
Based on a stress-coping framework, the present study investigates the relationship between discrimination and substance use, and the moderating effects of gender. This cross-sectional study analyzes data from Latina/o young adults aged 18-25 (N = 401) from Brooklyn, New York. Multinomial logistic regression was used to test the association between discrimination and substance use. Discrimination was significantly associated with increased odds of substance use adjusting for covariates (e.g. age, education). Gender was a moderator. Discrimination was associated with increased risk of alcohol/cannabis and hard drug use among young Latina women. However, discrimination was associated with decreased risk of alcohol/cannabis use and increased risk of hard drug use among young Latino men. These findings suggest that discrimination is generally associated with risk for substance use, but further that the outcomes vary by gender. Future research should explore gender-specific dimensions of discrimination and their associations with other outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Klein, Charles H; Kuhn, Tamara; Altamirano, Midori; Lomonaco, Carmela
This article describes the development and evaluation of C-SAFE (Sexual Awareness for Everyone), a computer-delivered sexual health promotion program for Latinas. We first describe the process of adapting an evidence-based, group-level intervention into an individually administered computer-delivered program. We then present the methods and results of a randomized control trial with 321 Latinas in California and Florida to test C-SAFE's preliminary efficacy in reducing sexual health risk. We found no statistically significant differences between the two conditions at a six-month follow-up in terms of sexual behaviors or attitudes toward sexually transmitted infections and condoms, although C-SAFE women reported fewer days in the past month when their mental health was not good (p = .02). C-SAFE condition women also reported more satisfaction than control condition women in their assessment of information presentation (on a scale of 1 = poor and 5 = excellent; C-SAFE = 4.45 vs. control = 4.25, p = .053) and having learned something new (C-SAFE = 95.1% vs. control = 79.3%, χ 2 importance of teachable moments, matching of delivery modalities to implementation contexts, and possible directions for evidence-based sexual health promotion programs given the current sexual health landscape.
Rivera-Ramos, Zully A.; Oswald, Ramona F.; Buki, Lydia P.
In response to the call for new and innovative methods of assessing campus climate (Worthington, 2008), the current study is the first to examine the readiness of a Latina/o campus community to address lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) concerns. Using the Community Readiness Model, data were collected through individual interviews with a total of…
Andrés Valdez Zepeda
Full Text Available El escrito aborda el desarrollo de las cibercampañas en América Latina a la luz de las transformaciones políticas de cuño democrático de las últimas décadas y de la socialización de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y las telecomunicaciones (NTIC que se ha observado en la región. Se analiza el caso de seis países de este subcontinente (Argentina, Brasil, Chile, Colombia, México y Venezuela que han incorporado las NTIC como parte central de las estrategias de campaña en las elecciones generales. Se analizan también las potencialidades y limitantes de este tipo de campañas. Se concluye que las cibercampañas llegaron para quedarse en América Latina, ya que su nivel de socialización tecnológica avanza a pasos agigantados. Sin embargo, este tipo de campañas tiene sus limitantes para lograr sus objetivos ante un electorado con bajos niveles educativos y cada día más decepcionado de la clase política.
Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Vega-López, Sonia; Keller, Colleen S
This study assessed the concurrent validity of the English and a linguistic Spanish translation of the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (SBAS) with pedometer-measured physical activity (PA) among postpartum Latinas. Latinas (n 97) completed the SBAS in either English (n 47) or Spanish (n 50) and wore pedometers 7 days at three different assessment periods. The English version demonstrated significant trends (p .01) for differentiating aerobic walking steps (AWS) and aerobic walking time (AWT) across SBAS intensity categories at two of the three assessment periods. The Spanish version showed marginally significant trends for differentiating AWS (p .048) and AWT (p .052) across SBAS intensity categories at only one assessment period. The English version of the SBAS is effective in assessing PA status among Latinas; however, the Spanish version indicates a need for research to further explore cultural and linguistic adaptations of the SBAS.
Acevedo-Gil, Nancy; Santos, Ryan E.; Alonso, LLuliana; Solorzano, Daniel G.
This qualitative study examines the experiences of Latinas/os in community college English and math developmental education courses. Critical race theory in education and the theory of validation serve as guiding frameworks. The authors find that institutional agents provide academic validation by emphasizing high expectations, focusing on social…
Gonzalez-De Jesus, Naydeen Tyffane
Glass ceilings have been identified by scholars throughout the past 20 years as barriers to the upward career mobility of women and of people of color. There is an indication that glass ceiling barriers exist in the higher education sector. Latinas, as a subgroup of women of color, occupy many of the mid-level administrative positions in community…
These tests are designed to measure the achievement of each pupil at the approximate midpoint of each unit in "Artes Latinae," Level 1, Book 1. They were produced in response to the need expressed by many teachers to provide a means of more frequent evaluation of pupil progress. Tests for 13 units are provided. They supplement the unit tests…
Kam, Jennifer A; Marcoulides, Katerina M; Merolla, Andy J
With survey data from 243 Latina/o early adolescent language brokers, latent profile analyses were conducted to identify different types (i.e., profiles) of brokers. Profiles were based on how often Latina/o early adolescents brokered for family members, as well as their levels of family-based acculturation stress, negative brokering beliefs, parentification, and positive brokering beliefs. Three brokering profiles emerged: (1) infrequent-ambivalents, (2) occasional-moderates, and (3) parentified-endorsers. Profile membership was significantly predicted by ethnic identification and brokering in a medical context. Respect, brokering at school, and brokering at home did not significantly predict profile membership. In addition, parentified-endorsers had more frequent perceived ethnic/racial discrimination and depressive symptoms than other profiles. In contrast, infrequent-ambivalents engaged in risky behaviors less frequently than other profiles. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2017 Society for Research on Adolescence.
La década de los años 90 ha sido la década del fin de la crisis de la deuda de América Latina y del inicio de la crisis de la deuda asiática. En ambos casos, frente al problema de balanza de pagos relacionados a acumulaciones de vencimientos de refinanciaciones, con calendarios originales de créditos de largo plazo, sumados a créditos de corto plazo, los saldos en cuenta corriente de las balanzas de pagos se han visto estrangulados. La solución mágica en América Latina fue el cambio radical e...
Ortiz, Alexis; Tirado, Maribel; Hughes, Daniel C; Gonzalez, Velda; Song, JaeJoon; Mama, Scherezade K; Basen-Engquist, Karen
To report baseline data from a physical activity (PA) intervention for Latina breast cancer survivors, and assess the relationship between PA, fitness, and disability. Eighty-nine Latina breast cancer survivors from San Juan, PR and Houston, TX (age: 55.4 ± 9.9 years; BMI: 29.87 ± 5.62 kg/m 2 ; ≥ 3 months post-treatment) participated in this study. At baseline participants completed fitness testing (six-minute walk test [6MWT], 30-second sit-stand; grip strength, lower and upper extremity and low back strength, shoulder range of motion, balance testing), and assessment of physical activity (PA) and disability. PA was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A subsample (n = 27) received an accelerometer to compare objective versus self-reported PA. Participants exhibited low PA (M = 76.5 MET·minutes/week; SD = 183.4), poor fitness (6MWT M = 436.4 meters, SD = 99.1; 30s sit-stand, M = 11.6 stands, SD = 3.1), and no detectable disability. In an adjusted model lower extremity fitness was associated with PA, with a one repetition increase in sit-to-stand associated with 49 additional minutes of self-reported PA plus walking per week. The correlation between IPAQ moderate-vigorous PA and accelerometer was 0.38 (p = 0.047). Latina breast cancer survivors have low physical activity and fitness levels that increase their risk of disability, cardiometabolic comorbidities, and potential cancer recurrence.
Patel, Sita G.; Barrera, Alinne Z.; Strambler, Michael J.; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Macciomei, Erynn
This study compares life stressors and school outcomes among newcomer immigrant adolescents from Latin America, Asia, and the Caribbean. Participants attended a predominantly low-income, urban international public high school in the northeast. The Latina/o students were exposed to more life stressors and had lower attendance and achievement than…
De Luca, Susan M.; Wyman, Peter; Warren, Keith
Associations between suicidal behavior and social-ecological variables were examined among 1,618 Latina high school students (mean age = 15) from the nationally representative Add Health sample (68% were U.S.-born). Ideations were associated with having a suicidal friend, lower perceived father support, and overall parental caring. Attempts were…
Eduardo M. Andere
Full Text Available Este trabajo pretende demostrar la hipótesis de que América Latina tiene un futuro sombrío en los regímenes de comercio exterior e inversion extranjera directa pues no se encuentra preparada desde el punto de vista de educación y conocimiento para enfrentar los desafíos de un mundo globalizado y fuertemente competitivo. La visión de los finales de la década de los 80 y de los 90 de parte de los postulados de política económica internacional respecto de la necesidad de abrir y desregular las economías para asegurarles un desarrollo consistente ha sido ampliamente rebasada por la realidad competitiva que apenas está empezando a enfrentar América Latina y que enfrentarán con mayor crudeza en los años próximos. América Latina no está preparada para la globalización y la competencia internacional. This article attempts to demonstrate that Latin America faces a somber future in its external trade and external investment because it doesn?t support education and knowledge production and distribution as key strategies in a highly competitive global world. This article will contend that Latin America is not ready for global and international competition, and that the strategy of opening the national economies and their deregulation were not enough to create a model of sustainable development.
Latina/o Americans are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections and adolescent pregnancies. Needed urgently are innovative health promotion approaches that are engaging and culturally sensitive. East Los High is a transmedia edutainment program aimed at young Latina/o Americans. It embeds educational messages in entertainment narratives across digital platforms to promote sexual and reproductive health. We employed online analytics tracking (2013–2014), an online viewer survey (2013), and a laboratory experiment (El Paso, TX, 2014) for season 1 program evaluation. We found that East Los High had a wide audience reach, strong viewer engagement, and a positive cognitive, emotional, and social impact on sexual and reproductive health communication and education. Culturally sensitive transmedia edutainment programs are a promising health promotion strategy for minority populations and warrant further investigation. PMID:27077336
Heredia, Dagoberto, Jr.; Sanchéz Gonzalez, Mayra L.; Rosner, Christine M.; He, Xiao; Castillo, Linda G.; Ojeda, Lizette
This study examined associations of loneliness and relationships (e.g., teacher/student relationships, peer support, and family support) with wellbeing among Latina/o middle school students. A hierarchical regression analysis demonstrated that age and loneliness predicted wellbeing; older students and students with high levels of loneliness…
This study examines the experiences of Latinas in state residential academies of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). Goals of this project focused on understanding their experiences and identifying factors leading to the decision to enroll, along with issues contributing to retention. These schools represent powerful opportunities…
Gabriel Anzola Gómez
Full Text Available Acabo de terminar la lectura del último libro de Germán Arciniegas publicado por la Editorial Suramericana. Se trata de la Historia de la cultura en la América Latina. Como todas sus obras anteriores, esta despierta también en el lector la avidez por su lectura. El eminente escritor colombiano no ha perdido la frescura de su estilo, brillante por la riqueza y la variedad de imágenes, en medio de las cuales los conceptos rescatan su significación.
MARIA A DE VILLA
Full Text Available Research on Multilatinas has underexplored multinationals from Colombia and their corporate-level international strategy choices to develop into Global Latinas. Building on interviews, documents, and archival data about Grupo Nutresa -Colombia's most international firm in manufactured goods-, this study unveils and discusses this firm's corporate-level international strategy choices between 1960 and 2014. A prevailing notion is that most multinationals from Latin America continue to target international operations to focus mainly on their home region through an export, multidomestic or transnational corporate-level international strategy. In contrast, data show that Grupo Nutresa chose to evolve through a sequential approach from an export to a transnational corporate-level international strategy while its international operations were able to transcend its home region to reach North America, Asia, Europe, Africa, and Oceania. These results add to international business research on emergent market multinational companies (EMNCs from Latin America by unveiling the corporate-level international strategy choices of a Colombian origin Multilatina that transformed into a Global Latina.
Full Text Available La autora muestra las diversas complicidades que se tejen entre el género literario novelístico, el nacionalismo y los procesos de construcción nacional en los países de América Latina. ¿Por qué las novelas nacionales y promovidas por el Estado para nacionalizar sus heterogéneas poblaciones suelen versar sobre el amor romántico? A través de un análisis innovador, basado en la obra de Foucault, la teoría feminista, el psicoanálisis y la nueva narratología, este artículo muestra el nacimiento de una suerte de erótica de la política nacional en América Latina. Sommer muestra la utilidad de su marco teórico para estudiar no solo a los clásicos del siglo XIX de la literatura latinoamericana, sino asimismo a los más recientes autores del boom
Full Text Available Family types continue to expand in the U.S., yet normative patterns of endogamy and the privileging of nuclear families persist. To understand how professional women of color navigate endogamy and family ideals, I draw on 40 in-depth interviews of professional Black women and Latinas to ask how they construct partner preferences. I find that professional Latinas and Black women prefer same-race, similarly educated partners but report significant barriers to satisfying these desires. Respondents’ experiences with racism, the rejection of ethno-racial and cultural assimilation, gendered racism from men of color, and the college gender gap emerge as mechanisms for endogamous preferences. These preferences resist and support hegemonic family formation, an ideological and behavioral process that privileges, white, middle class, endogamous, heteronormative ideals for families comprising courtship, marriage, and biological childbearing. By challenging the racial devaluation of people of color while preferring the normativity that endogamy offers, the women in this study underscore the fluidity embedded in endogamy.
Claudat, Kimberly; White, Emily K; Warren, Cortney S
The overarching purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among acculturative stress, self-esteem, and eating pathology in Asian American and Latina female college students. Participants (N = 638, mean age = 19.88) completed self-report measures of the variables of interest online. Bivariate correlations indicated that for women of both ethnic groups, acculturative stress was negatively correlated with self-esteem and positively correlated with eating pathology. Multigroup structural equation modeling indicated that for Asian American and Latina women, self-esteem partially mediated the relationship between acculturative stress and eating pathology. However, self-esteem did not serve as a significant moderator of this relationship for either ethnic group. Overall, data suggest that acculturative stress is associated with increased eating pathology and self-esteem may mediate this relationship. These relationships suggest that assessment of eating pathology and self-esteem may be indicated for women presenting clinically with acculturative stress concerns. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dika, Sandra L.; Martin, Julie P.
This study employs the notion of bridging social capital to investigate the extent to which different forms and quantity of interactions with educators predict intentions to persist in engineering among a sample of Latina/o engineering majors from five public 4-year institutions in the United States. Different forms of capital were effective for…
Kuhlberg, Jill A.; Pena, Juan B.; Zayas, Luis H.
Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as…
Monzó, Lilia D.
Drawing on a Chicana feminist epistemology, the author, a Latina immigrant, presents how she used her cultural intuition to engage in a two-year ethnography with Latino immigrant families. She argues that for her engaging in ethnography with her "own community" is an endeavor that calls to the fore her homegrown epistemologies and her…
Jimmy Federico Telléz Figueroa
Full Text Available América latina es y ha sido siempre una región, que por sus características en particular socio políticas, no ha generado la mejor de las condiciones para el desarrollo y el fomento del emprendedurismo en todos sus niveles; por el contrario a simple vista nos permite inferir que en mayor o menor grado, dependiendo de los países, las condiciones científicamente ideales para la incubación de emprendimientos no son precisamente las ideales para que los “emprendedores” corran el riesgo de “emprender”.Podemos empezar el análisis desde México hasta Argentina pasando por supuesto por Brasil y todos los demás países, y podríamos concluir que de alguna manera, incluso las legislaciones y normativas están en la mayoría de los casos pensados para las grandes corporaciones industriales, comerciales y de servicios generadores de altos niveles de empleo, exceptuando esta en casos muy particulares, pero que no necesariamente generan un efecto multiplicador que influya en la economía de los países y menos aun en la reducción de sus indicadores de pobreza.
Full Text Available Las miasis nosocomiales son infestaciones por larvas de mosca que se producen después de la hospitalización del paciente. Para analizar la información disponible sobre miasis nosocomiales en América Latina y el Caribe, se realizó una búsqueda de casos publicados en los últimos 52 años. Se encontraron nueve casos clínicos en Brasil, Costa Rica, Guayana Francesa, Honduras y Jamaica. También existen dos publicaciones con datos agregados que mencionan 139 casos en El Salvador y alrededor de 32 en Colombia. Los pacientes y el entorno descritos en los casos presentaron condiciones que predisponen a este tipo de infestaciones. Las miasis nosocomiales en América Latina y el Caribe no suelen ser de declaración obligatoria, por lo que es probable que exista un importante subregistro. Es necesario crear conciencia y mejorar el registro de estas miasis en la región para tomar las medidas más adecuadas de prevención, que beneficien el cuidado del paciente durante su hospitalización.
This paper brings together ethnographic data and testimonies from a group of Latina mother activists with critical race theories, to challenge dominant views of home-school relations and re-envision the "homeplace" as a site of radical resistance (Hooks (1990) "Yearning: race, gender and cultural politics" (Boston, MA, South…
Guided by symbolic interactionism and cultural historical activity theory this study investigated how four bilingual Latina/o pre-service teachers use language (Spanish and English) and culture, defined as social practices, as instructional resources in mathematics. The setting of the study was an after-school bilingual mathematics program, namely…
Willamy Fernandes Gonçalves
Full Text Available Neste artigo, apresentamos o uso expressivo da mimese de conteúdo em um trecho de Ovídio. Avaliamos diversas traduções poéticas do trecho para a língua portuguesa para verificar se os tradutores cuidaram da reprodução desse aspecto da poética latina, refletimos sobre as dificuldades que a mimese impõe para o tradutor lusófono e, por fim, oferecemos nossa tradução do trecho estudado.
Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Chen, Haiying; Mora, Dana C; Quandt, Sara A
We sought to describe work organization attributes for employed immigrant Latinas and determine associations of work organization with physical health, mental health, and health-related quality of life. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 319 employed Latinas in western North Carolina (2009-2011). Measures included job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, psychological demand), decision latitude (skill variety, job control), support (supervisor control, safety climate), musculoskeletal symptoms, mental health (depressive symptoms), and mental (MCS) and physical component score (PCS) health-related quality of life. Three fifths reported musculoskeletal symptoms. Mean scores for depression, MCS, and PCS were 6.2 (SE = 0.2), 38.3 (SE = 0.5), and 42.8 (SE = 0.3), respectively. Greater job demands (heavy load, awkward posture, greater psychological demand) were associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms and worse MCS. Less decision latitude (lower skill variety, job control) was associated with more musculoskeletal and depressive symptoms. Greater support (supervisor's power and safety climate) was associated with fewer depressive symptoms and better MCS. Work organization should be considered to improve occupational health of vulnerable women workers. Additional research should delineate the links between work organization and health among vulnerable workers.
Universidad y calidad en América Latina en perspectiva comparada: Interrogantes y desafíos Universidade e qualidade na América Latina em perspectiva comparada: interrogações e desafios University and quality in Latin America in comparative perspective: questions and challenges
Norberto Fernández Lamarra
Full Text Available A partir de una serie de interrogantes y desafíos que se plantean inicialmente sobre los procesos de evaluación de la calidad, se caracterizan las políticas neoliberales en materia de educación superior desarrolladas en la mayoría de los países de América Latina y sus consecuencias sobre los sistemas universitarios y su evolución. Luego se analizan diversas concepciones teórico-metodológicas sobre calidad y sobre su evaluación y acreditación. También se consideran estos procesos en perspectiva comparada, analizando los desarrollados en Estados Unidos y Canadá, en Europa y en América Latina. Finalmente se plantean críticamente las principales tendencias registradas en América Latina en cuanto a evaluación y acreditación de la calidad de la educación superior, sus logros y limitaciones y, particularmente, sus desafíos.A partir de uma série de interrogações e desafios postos inicialmente sobre os processos de avaliação da qualidade, são caracterizadas as políticas neoliberais em matéria de educação superior desenvolvidas na maioria dos países da América Latina e suas consequências sobre os sistemas universitários e sua evolução. Em seguida são analisadas diversas concepções teórico-metodológicas sobre qualidade e sobre sua avaliação e acreditação. Também são considerados estes processos na perspectiva comparada, analisando os desenvolvidos nos Estados Unidos e Canadá, na Europa e na América Latina. Finalmente são apresentadas criticamente as principais tendências registradas na América Latina relativamente à avaliaçao e à acreditação da qualidade da educação superior, seus êxitos e limitações e, particularmente, seus desafios.Based on a series of questions and challenges posed initially on processes of quality evaluation, the text characterizes the neoliberal policies in higher education as developed in most Latin American countries and their impact on university systems and their
Este artículo compara las condiciones de crecimiento económico de China y de América Latina con el fin de evaluar los temores de que la economía china desplace a la latinoamericana en las próximas décadas. Las fortalezas de China se basan en el tamaño de su economía, su estabilidad macroeconómica, la abundante mano de obra barata, la rápida expansión de la infraestructura física y la capacidad para innovar. Las debilidades de China tienen su origen en la poca separación que existe entre el me...
Mariângela Moreira Nascimento
Full Text Available O presente artigo traz, de forma modesta, algumas reflexões sobre a mulher imigrante latina no Brasil. Apresenta o fluxo migratório como um movimento de geração de diferenças e identidades que exige nova base teórica e empírica para ser compreendido. Dessa forma, procura compreender o fenômeno da migração em outra base teórico-metodológica permitindo-nos investigar a condição da mulher imigrante no contexto social brasileiro como sujeito ativo, contrariando o estereótipo da mulher migrante como dependente e passiva.
Deere, Carmen Diana; León, Magdalena
Este texto es el resultado de un estudio sobre la condición femenina en América Latina, tendiente a resaltar cómo la igualdad legal que ha alcanzado la mujer en los años recientes poco o nada se refleja en su relación con el desarrollo económico y social.
Stevenson, Alma D.; Gallard Martínez, Alejandro José; Brkich, Katie Lynn; Flores, Belinda Bustos; Claeys, Lorena; Pitts, Wesley
This article highlights how the preservation of heritage languages is essential in the construction of three Georgia Latina participants' cultural identities and the creation of support networks that allow them to develop resiliency and achieve academically. We conceptualize resiliency as a strategy developed by the Latina participants using contextually mitigating factors during their STEM education. The findings presented in this manuscript are part of a larger, ongoing study of Latina resiliency and their paths to success in STEM fields in two states: Georgia and Texas. Following James Spradley's guidelines, data were collected via three separate semi-structured interviews with each participant. Intrinsic, multiple case studies were used to find both commonalities and differences, as well as to deepen our understanding of the role of the participants' heritage language in their development of resiliency in each particular case. The findings presented here were not part of a preconceived research hypothesis, but rather a theme that emerged while analyzing data collected in the state of Georgia. Georgia is not home to a long-established Hispanic/Latino population, but rather is part of the New Latino Diaspora (Wortham, Murillo and Hamann in Education in the new Latino diaspora: policy and the politics of identity. Ablex Publishing, New York, 2002), and therefore local natives do not necessarily perceive Latino immigrants and the Spanish language either as long-standing or permanent features of the state. In fact, in response to the growing diversity of the state during the past generation, Georgia has implemented multiple educational policies hostile toward immigrants and linguistic diversity (Beck and Allexsaht-Snider in Education in the new Latino diaspora: policy and the politics of identity. Ablex Press, Westport, 2002). Our findings suggest that the Latina participants' heritage languages allow them to engage in cultural traditions, encouraged by their
Harris, Donna M.; Kiyama, Judy Marquez
This study documents the important role school and community-based programs have for sustaining the persistence of Latina/o high school students in an urban, low achieving school district. Consensus among student participants revealed these programs provided a safe space where students were able to develop "confianza" (mutual trust) with…
Benitez, Tanya J.; Dodgson, Joan E.; Coe, Kathryn; Keller, Colleen
Latina adults in the United States have a disproportionately higher prevalence of chronic diseases related to low physical activity levels than non-Hispanic women. Literature indicates that acculturation may be a contributing factor to being physically active, but the extent of this association remains unclear. An integrative review of literature…
Ledesma, María C.
The purpose of this article is to highlight the power of popular discourse in shaping public policy debates concerning educational access and opportunity for historically marginalized and minoritized students, especially for Latinas/os. I argue that proponents of race-conscious policies would do well to challenge the elimination of affirmative…
Cavazos Vela, Javier; Lerma, Eunice; Lenz, A. Stephen; Hinojosa, Karina; Hernandez-Duque, Omar; Gonzalez, Stacey L.
We investigated the contributions of positive psychology and familial factors as predictors of hope and academic performance among 166 Latina/o college students enrolled at a Hispanic Serving Institution of Higher Education. The results indicated that presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, daily spiritual experiences, and…
Ovidio González Gómez
Full Text Available Ante la amplitud y generalización de las propuestas gubernamentales sobre las nuevas aglomeraciones industriales en América Latina, que se derivan de diversas corrientes de pensamiento en el medio académico, este artículo realiza una revisión crítica de la literatura en la región. El eje rector que guía esta crítica es la perspectiva centro-periferia de Immanuel Wallerstein y los circulacionistas, así como las recientes aportaciones sobre las cadenas de valor de Gary Gereffi. Con base en la revisión crítica, se esbozan los elementos de una propuesta explicativa, no acabada, sobre la territorialización de la manufactura reciente en América Latina, en el marco de la probable salida temporal a la crisis, que marca el capital.
Nápoles, Anna María; Ortíz, Carmen; Santoyo-Olsson, Jasmine; Stewart, Anita L; Gregorich, Steven; Lee, Howard E; Durón, Ysabel; McGuire, Peggy; Luce, Judith
We evaluated a community-based, translational stress management program to improve health-related quality of life in Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer. We adapted a cognitive-behavioral stress management program integrating evidence-based and community best practices to address the needs of Latinas with breast cancer. Spanish-speaking Latinas with breast cancer were randomly assigned to an intervention or usual-care control group. Trained peers delivered the 8-week intervention between February 2011 and February 2014. Primary outcomes were breast cancer-specific quality of life and distress, and general symptoms of distress. Of 151 participants, 95% were retained at 6 months (between May 2011 and May 2014). Improvements in quality of life from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention than the control group on physical well-being, emotional well-being, breast cancer concerns, and overall quality of life. Decreases from baseline to 6 months were greater for the intervention group on depression and somatization. Results suggest that translation of evidence-based programs can reduce psychosocial health disparities in Latinas with breast cancer. Integration of this program into community-based organizations enhances its dissemination potential.
Dr. Raymond Colle
Full Text Available With more than ten years of life, Revista Latina de Comunicación Social has become an important showcase of thought and of Ibero-American research in the field of social communication. Retrieving the keywords or, failing that, the titles of articles published, we have analyzed the issues covered and their evolution. The methodology is based on statistics of words (originals, of the conceptual discussed and the coocurrences of these fields in the description of each article fields in which they were regrouped to identify the topics. Through eleven years, attention was most payed on the press, journalism, television and new digital technologies (Internet.Con más de diez años de vida, Revista Latina de Comunicación Social se ha transformado en una importante muestra del pensamiento y de la investigación iberoamericana en materia de comunicación social. Recuperando las palabras clave o, en su defecto, los títulos de los artículos publicados, hemos analizado la temática cubierta y su evolución. La metodología se basa en estadísticas: de palabras (originales, de los campos conceptuales en que se han de reagrupar para aislar los temas tratados y de las coocurrencias de dichos campos en la descripción de cada artículo. En los once años transcurridos, la atención se ha dirigido principalmente hacia la prensa y el periodismo, la televisión y las nuevas tecnologías digitales (Internet.
Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Garriott, Patton O.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Cho, Seonghee; Groves, James
The present study explored the work experiences, job satisfaction, and work behaviors of Latina/o restaurant workers. A total of 10 semistructured focus group (N = 75) interviews were conducted in the Midwest and Southwest. Data were analyzed using a combination of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill, Thompson, &…
This article describes a parent organizing effort with Latina/o immigrant parents in a large, high-poverty, racially and linguistically diverse urban school district. Drawing from ethnographic research and the theoretical framework of "mujerismo," it examines the relational processes of community building and radical healing that…
Brown, Christia Spears; Leaper, Campbell
The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls' (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls' reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls' abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism.
Amaro, Hortensia; Magno-Gatmaytan, Cielo; Meléndez, Michael; Cortés, Dharma E; Arevalo, Sandra; Margolin, Arthur
Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) is a weekly 8-session, mindfulness-based, manual-guided, individual intervention targeting addiction and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors that integrates cognitive behavioral strategies with Buddhist principles and clients' religious/spiritual beliefs. 3-S is efficacious for reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors among mixed-gender, methadone-maintained outpatients. The study goal was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of 3-S therapy among urban, low-income Latinas (n = 13) in residential addiction treatment. Data gathered via in-person interviews (baseline, 8 and 20 weeks postentry) showed high rates of 3-S acceptability and positive changes in a number of outcomes relevant to recovery from addiction and to HIV prevention, including impulsivity, spirituality, motivation for change, and HIV prevention knowledge. The study findings are promising; however, a controlled study with longer follow-up is needed to rigorously assess the efficacy of 3-S therapy with Latinas in substance abuse treatment.
Manuel Alcántara Sáez
Full Text Available El artículo analiza el concepto de calidad de la democracia, contemplando la aplicación de distintos índices a la realidad política de los países de América Latina; a saber: Freedom House, IDD (Fundación Konrad Adenauer, The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU y el elaborado por Levine y Molina.
Zayas, Luis H.; Bright, Charlotte L.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Thyria; Cabassa, Leopoldo J.
We examined the role of acculturation, familism and Latina mother-daughter relations in suicide attempts by comparing 65 adolescents with recent suicide attempts and their mothers to 75 teens without any attempts and their mothers. Attempters and non-attempters were similar in acculturation and familistic attitudes but attempters report significantly less mutuality and communication with their mothers than non-attempters. Mothers of attempters reported lower mutuality and communication with t...
Heilemann, MarySue V; Soderlund, Patricia D; Kehoe, Priscilla; Brecht, Mary-Lynn
Latinos report higher rates of depression and anxiety than US whites but are less likely to receive care. Transmedia storytelling interventions accessible on the Internet via smartphones, tablets, and computers hold promise for reducing reluctance to explore or get help for symptoms because they are private, convenient, and can reach large numbers of people, including Latinas with mental health needs. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a mental health transmedia intervention for Latinas with elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both. A total of 28 symptomatic English-speaking Latina women aged 21 to 48 years participated in a 6-week study using a within-group design. All aspects of the study were completed via telephone or Internet. Participants used their personal devices to engage the Web-based transmedia intervention (in English) that included story-based videos, a data-informed psychotherapeutic video, an interactive video sequence, and a blog written from the point of view of one of the characters with links to mental health resources. Perceived confidence to get help and perceived importance for seeking immediate help were both measured using single-item questions. Participants completed surveys at baseline (via telephone) and 1 and 6 weeks after media engagement that measured various factors, including depression (Patient Health Questionnaire; PHQ-9 and PHQ-8) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale; GAD-7). A telephone interview was conducted within 72 hours of media engagement. Action taken or intentions to get help (single-item question) and talking about the videos with others (single-item question) were measured 1 and 6 weeks after media engagement. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess change in depression (PHQ-8) and anxiety (GAD-7) before transmedia engagement and 1 and 6 weeks after. Spearman correlations evaluated the association of confidence and
Vielma, Karina I.
Research points to the many obstacles that first-generation, Latina students face when attempting to enter fields in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, STEM. This qualitative, case study examined the personal and educational experiences of first-generation Latina women who successfully navigated the STEM educational pipeline earning bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees in various fields of engineering. Three research questions guided the study: (1) How does a first-generation Latina engineer and scientist describe her life experiences as she became interested in STEM? (2) How does she describe her educational experiences as she navigated the educational pipeline in the physics, mathematics, and/or engineering field(s)? (3) How did she respond to challenges, obstacles and microaggressions, if any, while navigating the STEM educational pipeline? The study was designed using a combination of Critical Race Theory frameworks---Chicana feminist theory and racial microaggressions. Through a life history case study approach, the women shared their stories of success. With the participants' help, influential persons in their educational paths were identified and interviewed. Data were analyzed using crystallization and thematic results indicated that all women in this study identified their parents as planting the seed of interest through the introduction of mathematics. The women unknowingly prepared to enter the STEM fields by taking math and science coursework. They were guided to apply to STEM universities and academic programs by others who knew about their interest in math and science including teachers, counselors, and level-up peers---students close in age who were just a step more advanced in the educational pipeline. The women also drew from previous familial struggles to guide their perseverance and motivation toward educational degree completion. The lives of the women where complex and intersected with various forms of racism including
Full Text Available Estudio sobre el sistema de protección social en América Latina, con destaque a los sistemas de pensiones. La protección social y las reformas de la Seguridad Social son contextualizadas en el ámbito de las transformaciones productivas, con destaque al proceso de globalización y a la financerización de la economía. Se destacan la intervención masiva y directa del Estado en la economía, en la protección social y su frágil participación en la gestión de la fuerza de trabajo, considerando las particularidades del Estado en América Latina, señalando, aún, la transformación de su papel. Para fundamentación, se utiliza el enfoque “derivacionista” a partir del centro y de la periferia, para destacar los límites de la intervención del Estado para a más de la función de acumulación y legitimación. Se atribuye relieve a la separación de la ciudadanía política de la ciudadanía social, con destaque al desarrollo de la democracia y el avanzo de la pobreza y de la precarización del trabajo.En ese contexto, son inscritas las reformas de la protección social en América Latina, marcadas por la reducción de la solidaridad vertical y horizontal, con fragmentación de las medidas de protección social e ineficiencia el Estado Social, concluyendo con una problematización sobre la relación salarial directa/salarial indirecta.
Koval, Alejandra E; Riganti, Alicia Alemán; Foley, Kristie Long
To evaluate knowledge and attitudes that affect cervical and breast cancer screening among uninsured Hispanic women. Cross-sectional, descriptive study of uninsured Latino women in Forsyth County, North Carolina. A convenience sample of Hispanic women who immigrated to the United States within the last ten years, primarily from Mexico (N = 70). Two trained lay health advisors (promotoras) administered in-person, structured surveys to 70 women in the community. All interviews were conducted in Spanish. Additionally two focus groups were conducted in Spanish to elucidate cultural beliefs and barriers to cancer screening not otherwise captured in the standardized surveys. Quantitative data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. Qualitative data were transcribed and analyzed using a multi-step framework approach to identify and validate themes. Of 70 women, 42 (60%) reported a Pap smear within the last year; 26 (37%) reported two exams within the past three years. Among women aged 40 and older, 10 of 18 (56%) reported ever having a mammogram. Being married (OR = 4.05, CI 1.07-15.25) and having the same healthcare provider (OR 5.64, CI 1.04-30.56) predicted better Pap smear screening in multivariate analyses. Limited knowledge about breast cancer and needing an interpreter to communicate reduced the likelihood that women received a mammogram. Qualitative results indicated that women had poor prior experiences with Pap smears, held several misconceptions about cancer etiology and risk factors, and expressed distinct gender roles for Latina women and men that may affect healthcare utilization. Screening rates for cervical and breast cancer are low among uninsured Latina women. Therefore, community and clinic-based interventions are needed to improve underutilization of and satisfaction with cancer screening practices among uninsured Latina women.
Manuel W. Mallardi
Full Text Available El presente artículo socializa resultados de investigación sobre las tendencias en las políticas sociales en América Latina, haciendo especial referencia a las consideraciones que éstas tienen en torno a la familia y las relaciones sociales que en su interior se desarrollan. Para ello, el trabajo sintetiza el análisis de los principales mecanismos que adquiere la intervención contemporánea sobre la “cuestión social” en los Programas de Transferencia de Renta Condicionada: la corresponsabilidad, la familiarización y la maternalización de la política social. El análisis se centra en la revisión de producciones y documentos emanados de organismos internacionales cuyas posturas presentan relevancia e influencia en materia de política social en América Latina: la Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL y el Banco Mundial. Ambos organismos presentan una fructífera producción sobre los Programas de Transferencia de Renta Condicionada, como así también mecanismos de incidencia en las agendas nacionales, lo cual otorga relevancia al análisis de los mencionados documentos.
Romo, Laura F.; Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Lopez-Tello, Gisselle
American children gain more autonomy as they progress through adolescence, however, autonomy-granting for Latina adolescent girls from immigrant families is a relatively unexplored question. In this study, we identified behaviors that Mexican mothers and their daughters deemed to be appropriate when they reach the age of "La…
Kuhlberg, Jill A; Peña, Juan B; Zayas, Luis H
Adolescent Latinas continue to report higher levels of suicide attempts than their African-American and White peers. The phenomenon is still not understood and is theorized to be the result of the confluence of many cultural, familial, and individual level factors. In Latino cultures, belief in the importance of the family, the value known as familism, appears to protect youth's emotional and behavioral health, but parent-adolescent conflict has been found to be a risk factor for suicide attempts. The role of familism in relation to parent-adolescent conflict, self-esteem, internalizing behaviors, and suicide attempts has not been studied extensively. To address this question, we interviewed 226 adolescent Latinas, 50% of whom had histories of suicide attempts. Using path analysis, familism as a cultural asset was associated with lower levels of parent-adolescent conflict, but higher levels of internalizing behaviors, while self-esteem and internalizing behaviors mediated the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict and suicide attempts. Our findings point to the importance of family involvement in culturally competent suicide prevention and intervention programs. Reducing parent-daughter conflict and fostering closer family ties has the added effect of improving self-esteem and shrinking the likelihood of suicide attempts.
Full Text Available El aumento de la población Latina rural en EEUU representa un reto para la provisión de servicios de salud mental adecuados. B arreras de acceso como el aislamiento geográfico , limitaciones en el transporte público , escasez de proveedores /as de servicios y su limitada competencia cultural son particularmente marcadas . La psicología comunitaria puede hacer contribuciones significat ivas para resolver este grave problema de salud pública. En este artículo , nos basamos en nuestra experiencia investigativa y de extensión con inmigrantes Latinos y Latinas en áreas rurales de la región centr o - occidental de los EEUU para ilustrar percepcio nes sobre su situación de salud mental y su necesidad de servicios. También hacemos recomendaciones acerca de los cambios necesarios para aumentar la capacidad técnica de provisión de servicios en salud mental que respondan a las necesidades de esta poblac ión. Esto incluye el desarrollo de nuevos programas para responder a las prioridades comunitarias, el entrenamiento de promotores de salud o enlaces comunitarios para facilitar el acceso y la navegación en el sistema de salud, y realizar abogacía.
Chavira, Gabriela; Cooper, Catherine R.; Vasquez-Salgado, Yolanda
Drawing on sociocultural and related theories, 4 questions examined career and educational aspirations and expectations among 24 immigrant Latina/o early adolescents and their parents as predictors of students' grades. First, adolescents' career aspirations and expectations were correlated, and both parents and adolescents held educational…
Villenas, Sofia A.
This article invites imaginings of democracy and education with and through "other" knowledges. It argues for the possibilities of working across difference as articulated in the transnational, border, and decolonial perspectives of Chicana/Latina feminisms. Specifically, it explores Gloria Anzaldúa's notions of…
Colegrove, Kiyomi Sánchez-Suzuki; Adair, Jennifer Keys
This article documents what happened in a first grade classroom when young Latina/o children of immigrants had consistent classroom-based opportunities to use their agency in their learning. Applying theoretical constructs from development economics to data from the Agency and Young Children ethnographic project, we explore three forms of agency…
Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports (0704-0188), 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302...have the disease.3,5 Latina perceptions of heredity and vulnerability have operated within a framework of uneven and delayed screening encompassing...levels of awareness of these tests across racial and ethnic groups. According to the 2000 National Health Interview Survey ( NHIS ), 49.9% of non-Hispanic
Full Text Available L'articolo analizza, a partire dai sistemi di tratta internazionale a scopo di sfruttamento lavorativo e caporalato, il caso, originale quanto complesso, della comunità punjabi della provincia di Latina. Uomini e sempre più spesso anche donne costrette a vivere condizioni prossime alla riduzione in schiavitù per via di una consorteria criminale punjabi-pontina composta da trafficanti indiani, caporali, alcuni proprietari di aziende agricole pontine e liberi professionisti.
Carlos M Luna
Full Text Available The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin AmericaA propagação global de Staphylococcus aureus resistente à meticilina (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA significa que se trata agora de um patógeno de interesse para a saúde pública mundial. Na América Latina, o MRSA é altamente prevalente, com a proporção de S. aureus resistente à meticilina em ascensão, no entanto os recursos para o tratamento da infecção são limitados. Embora existam várias diretrizes para o tratamento de infecções por MRSA, muitas são elaboradas para a América do Norte ou a Europa e precisam ser adaptadas para sua utilização na América Latina. Neste artigo, procuramos destacar a importância do tratamento adequado do MRSA nas unidades de saúde e na comunidade na América Latina. Apresentamos um resumo das diretrizes e dos antibióticos disponíveis, e discutimos considerações específicas para os médicos que tratam de MRSA na América Latina.
The study investigated Latina and European American adolescent girls’ (N = 345, M = 15.2 years, range = 13 to 18) experiences with academic sexism in mathematics and science (M/S) and their M/S perceived competence and M/S value (liking and importance). M/S academic sexism was based on girls’ reported experiences hearing sexist comments about girls’ abilities in math and science. Older European American adolescents, and both younger and older Latina adolescents, who experienced several instances of academic sexism felt less competent in M/S than girls who experienced less sexism (controlling for M/S grades). In addition, among older girls (regardless of ethnicity), those who experienced several instances of academic sexism valued M/S less than girls who experienced less sexism. PMID:21212810
CHEYRE ESPINOSA, JUAN EMILIO
El proyecto Fondef D07I1048 consistió en diseñar una metodología para el conocimiento y la toma de decisiones de actores sociales relevantes sobre América Latina. La aplicación de esta metodologia es de utilidad para ejecutivos y empresarios, que tienen interés en invertir (IED) en países de América Latina en el largo plazo, como así mismo a otros tomadores de decisión. Esta metodología creada está compuesta por un estudio de antecedentes cualitativos y cuantitativos que se constr...
Hueso Fibla, Silvia
Esta tesis doctoral consta de tres capítulos cuyo recorrido pretende ilustrar que la puerta de entrada a la Estética Camp pasa por una mirada diferente sobre los productos culturales de masas y que su puerta de salida en América Latina atraviesa la Estética Neobarroca; por tanto, el Camp resulta tanto física como conceptualmente central en el trabajo. Se inserta el análisis de tres novelas y una obra teatral para mostrar cuáles son los mecanismos que el Camp adopta en América Latina: Tengo mi...
J. Jesús Orozco Henríquez
Full Text Available Proporciona un panorama sobre los sistemas de justicia electoral en América Latina y expone algunos de los principales estándares interamericanos sobre el respeto y la protección de los derechos políticos con perspectiva de género. La instauración, estructura y competencia de este tipo de tribunales electorales se ha traducido en un factor importante para los procesos de transición y consolidación democrática en varios de los países de la región, pudiéndose considerar como una de las aportaciones más importantes de América Latina a la ciencia política y al derecho electoral.
Domech González, Armando Antonio
En el presente trabajo se aborda de manera sucinta, el estado de la cartografía aplicada a los estudios medioambientales en América Latina, con énfasis en lo que deberá constituirse, en opinión del autor, en un nuevo paradigma en los estudios geográficos y medioambientales: la Cartografía Geográfica.La situación de América Latina en este nuevo siglo continúa las sombrías proyecciones emitidas a finales del siglo XX: Un crecimiento de la población por encima de la media mundial, cuyo número ...
Oppland-Cordell, Sarah B.
In this article, the author presents a qualitative multiple case study that explored how two urban Latina/o undergraduate students' emerging mathematical and racial identity constructions influenced their participation in a culturally diverse, Emerging Scholars Program, Calculus I workshop at a predominately White urban university. Drawing on…
Varelas, Maria; Pieper, Lynne; Arsenault, Amy; Pappas, Christine C.; Keblawe-Shamah, Neveen
In this study, we examined opportunities for reasoning and meaning making that read-alouds of children's literature science information books and related hands-on explorations offered to young Latina/o students in an urban public school. Using a qualitative, interpretative framework, we analyzed classroom discourse and children's writing…
Full Text Available Las implicaciones bioéticas de la genética en América Latina: se analizan las relaciones entre el poder científico y los derechos humanos en las condiciones particulares de este continente. En particular, el mito de la salud perfecta que rodea a la genética permite abusos de los derechos de las personas en sociedades poco democráticas. El análisis de las recomendaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud para la consejería genética y las pruebas genéticas muestra que la bioética debe estar vigilante en su aplicaciónAs implicações bioéticas da genética na América Latina: são analisadas as relações entre o poder científico e os direitos humanos nas condições particulares deste continente. Em particular, o mito da saúde perfeita que rodeia a genética permite abuso dos direitos das pessoas em sociedades pouco democráticas. A análise das recomendações da Organização Mundial da Saúde para o Conselho Genético e as provas genéticas mostra que a bioética deve estar vigilante na sua aplicaçãoThe relations between genetics and bioethics in Latin America are analyzed through the relations between scientific power and human rights in the particular conditions of this continent. Particularly, the myth of genetics’power to reach perfect health is allowing abuses of human rights in poor democratic societies. The analysis of the recommendations of the World Health Organization for genetic counseling and genetic probes shows that bioethics must be vigilant in its applications
Carlos Alberto FLORIA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El siglo termina, para la mayoría de los países de América Latina, exhibiendo experiencias desiguales, entre democracias relativamente consolidadas, democracias precarias y regímenes más cercanos al autoritarismo o al totalitarismo que a la democracia. Este análisis revela dos cosas: que la democracia permanece en América Latina como principio de legitimidad dominante, pero que en la mayoría de los países latinoamericanos se sitúan en las categorías intermedias "on the democratic-nondemocratic continuun", desde una posición preocupada por la calidad de las democracias, que es la nuestra. Por tanto, es un objetivo necesario aún en tiempos difíciles, la búsqueda de congruencia entre la "constitución política", la "constitución económica" y la "constitución moral" en las democracias latinoamericanas.ABSTRACT: For most of the countries of Latin America the century is drawing to a close in the midst of diverse experiencies, with more or less consolidated democracries, insecure democracies or regimes more akin to authoritarianism or totalitarianism than to democracy. This analysis reveals two facts: that in Latin America democracy is still the principie that predominantly bestows legitimacy; but the majority of Latin American countries fall into intermediato categories along the democratic/non-democratic continuum. Therefore, the quest for congruence between the "political constitution", the "economic constitution" and the"moral constitution" in Latin American democracies is a necessary objective even in hard times.
Gonzáles-Figueroa, Evelyn; Young, Angela M
This study examined ethnic identity and mentoring (a known strategy to promote career success and advancement) in a sample of 103 Latina women with professional roles in the areas of business, academia, policy, and politics. Other variables examined included traditional gender roles and perceptions of professional success. Findings indicated that the women's ethnic identity was consistent with a bicultural profile; some received mentoring and, if given a choice, would prefer to be mentored by someone of similar ethnicity. This finding is critical and can allow researchers, service providers, and policy developers to apply culturally responsive strategies in communities and in organizations. Other hypotheses were not supported. A discussion of the findings, implications, and suggestions for future research are presented. (c) 2005 APA
Maker, Azmaira H; Shah, Priti V; Agha, Zia
The present study examined the prevalence, characteristics, beliefs, and demographic predictors of parent-child physical violence among South Asian, Middle Eastern, East Asian, and Latina women in the United States. Two hundred fifty-one college-educated women from a middle to high SES (South Asian/Middle Eastern, n = 93; East Asian,n = 72; Latina,n = 86) completed a self-report survey on childhood experiences and beliefs regarding physical abuse. Seventy-three percent of the South Asian and Middle Eastern sample, 65% of the East Asian sample, and 78% of the Latina sample reported experiencing at least one type of physical abuse. Significant differences in characteristics and perpetrators of abuse were found across groups. Demographic factors did not predict physical abuse. Experiencing physical abuse was the only predictor for acceptance of physical discipline and as a parental privilege or right across groups. Implications of alternate cultural models of family violence based on beliefs and exposure to violence are discussed.
Full Text Available América Latina es una región bastante activa en cuanto a la investigación científica, en particular con respecto al estudio de macroinvertebrados de agua dulce. La presente es una introducción al número especial que incluye proyectos recientes en América Latina. Como parte de esta introducción, realizamos un análisis de la literatura publicada en los últimos 14 años, la cual tiene un aumento continuo en las publicaciones sobre macroinvertebrados. La mayoría de los estudios en el periodo 2000-2013 fueron realizados en Brasil, Colombia, Argentina, y Costa Rica; y se enfocaron en la taxonomía y temas relacionados con la biodiversidad y la distribución. Se observó una tendencia a publicar en revistas de bajo impacto, pero también se encontraron publicaciones de alto impacto. El número especial incluye 18 trabajos de ocho países. Los temas principales fueron ecología e historia natural de los macroinvertebrados acuáticos y su uso en la evaluación de impactos antropogénicos sobre los ecosistemas acuáticos. Usando la revisión y las publicaciones de este suplemento discutimos algunas necesidades de investigación para la región, principalmente: (1 continuar con los estudios taxonómicos, (2 determinar los mecanismos responsables por los cambios en biodiversidad, (3 evaluar el papel de los macroinvertebrados en los procesos ecológicos, (4 llevar los esfuerzos de biomonitoreo más allá de los métodos unimétricos, (5 implementar una visión de ecosistema, y (6 establecer estudios a largo plazo. Este suplemento representa un esfuerzo inicial para mejorar nuestro conocimiento sobre los macroinvertebrados de agua dulce de América Latina.
Maribel Villarreal Buitrago
Full Text Available El presente artículo tiene como finalidad reflexionar acerca de la necesidad de los pueblos de América Latina de promover el desarrollo político, económico y social para el mejoramiento de la calidad de vida de sus habitantes. En este sentido, presenta el panorama de la situación actual de la región, desde el pensamiento Cepalino, destacando la Doctrina Social de la Iglesia Católica como alternativa para mitigar estas realidades. Los autores insisten en la necesidad de implementar acciones desde la política y la religión que favorezcan el desarrollo humano integral. Concluyen que América Latina será distinta cuando los gobiernos y los ciudadanos en general vuelvan la mirada sobre la dignidad de la persona humana y busquen para sí el bien común
Gabriel Ernesto Andrade
Este trabajo elabora un diagnóstico de las posibilidades de crecimiento del Islam en América Latina, considerando las oportunidades y dificultades para su expansión y crecimiento. En este sentido, se analiza como oportunidades de crecimiento la búsqueda de nuevas identidades, las difíciles condiciones sociales latinoamericanas, el paralelismo entre el Islam y elmarxismo y el apoyo financiero proveniente de naciones islámicas. Como dificultades se analiza la rigidez cultural ...
Shelton, Rachel C.; Goldman, Roberta E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Sorensen, Glorian; Allen, Jennifer D.
Understanding factors that promote or prevent adherence to recommended health behaviors is essential for developing effective health programs, particularly among lower-income populations who carry a disproportionate burden of disease. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews (n=64) with low-income Black and Latina women who shared the experience of requiring diagnostic follow-up after having an abnormal screening mammogram. In addition to holding negative and fatalistic cancer-related bel...
Maricela López-Ornelas, M.A.
Full Text Available This article presents the results of a metrics study performed the Revista Latina de Comunicación Social (Latina Journal of Social Communication from January 1998 to December 2009. The quantitative analysis explores the communication processes registered in 878 articles, through five bibliometric indicators: gender, academic degree, country of origin, co-authorship and institutional affiliation. This last criterion was applied only to Spanish authors as they account for 55% of the scientific production in the Revista Latina de Comunicación Social (hence RLCS. The results indicate that there are 1,047 authors, of which 44% are women and 56% are men. This study addresses the position of RLCS in Latin America and highlights the academic contribution of countries such as Argentina, Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Cuba, and Chile. Moreover, the study addresses the participation of 42 Spanish universities in RLCS, which is also Spanish. So of these universities stand out because they have registered more than 20 authors each (e.g. the University of Seville, the Autonomous University of Barcelona, the Complutense University of Madrid, the University of the Basque Country, the University of Santiago de Compostela, the University of Malaga, and the Rey Juan Carlos University. Finally, the article identifies the institutional affiliation of 285 (27% authors who published in co-authorship, and classifies the types of collaboration of the Spanish authors in three categories: intra-institutional, inter-institutional and international.
Marinho, Paloma Abelin Saldanha; Gonçalves, Hebe Signorini
A partir de uma breve apresentação a respeito dos debates que embasam o conceito de empoderamento e da inserção do termo na perspectiva dos estudos de gênero, o artigo apresenta uma revisão bibliográfica a respeito das práticas de empoderamento feminino, realizadas e registradas na América Latina, entre os anos 2000 e 2012. A respeito das práticas de empoderamento encontradas, os três eixos principais de análise foram: o empoderamento ancorado na renda feminina, as práticas de empoderamento o...
Alfredo Pintor Villarroel
En este artículo se establece que la modernización en América Latina ha sido generada por diversos factores como el proceso de urbanización y crecimiento rápido de los centros urbanísticos principales; la irrupción de medios masivos de comunicación productores de una cultura de masas; y la escuela como institución que cumple un papel importante en la construcción de la identidad. Se analiza la relación entre Sociedad y Educación y se estudian algunos antecedentes de la ident...
Halim, May Ling; Moy, Keith H; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu
Perceiving ethnic discrimination can have aversive consequences for health. However, little is known about whether perceiving language-based (how one speaks a second language) discrimination poses the same risks. This study examined whether perceptions of language-based and ethnic discrimination are associated with mental and physical health. Among 132 Mexican and Dominican immigrant women, perceiving ethnic and language-based discrimination each predicted psychological distress and poorer physical health. When examined together, only ethnic discrimination remained a significant predictor. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how perceived ethnic and language-based discrimination play an integral role in the health of Latina immigrant women.
José Luis Benavides Passos
Full Text Available En el mundo en general, y en América Latina en particular, convieneprofundizar el análisis de organizaciones en función de la composición demográfica. Dicha composición constituye un eje fundamental en el presente trabajo, que pretende propiciar un primer acercamiento a la reflexión de la demografía como una variable poco reconocida en el análisis organizacional. Entre las razones más importantes para ello se tienen las transformaciones que experimentan las organizaciones con la inversión en la pirámide poblacional, y los flujos migratorios de personas, crecientemente numerosos. Para ello, en primer lugar, se aborda brevemente el análisis en contexto de la demografía organizacional, a la par de la formulación de unos interrogantes válidos frente a la realidad actual de las organizaciones. En segundo lugar, se establece un marco conceptual que relaciona la demografía y la organización, términos que fundamentan el concepto de la demografía organizacional. Como terceraspecto se encuentra la realidad que vive América Latina en función de lademografía organizacional, teniendo en cuenta factores como: fuerza detrabajo diversificada, tendencias demográficas, la población y el empleo,la familia, la discriminación laboral y el papel de la mujer en el ámbito detrabajo. Finalmente, se presentan algunas conclusiones sobre demografíaorganizacional en entidades de América Latina.
Luis Miguel Uharte Pozas
Full Text Available En América Latina, en las tres últimas décadas, han surgido diversas corrientes teóricas que han abordado el tema de la democracia desde diferentes visiones, algunas de ellas francamente antagónicas. El objeto de este trabajo es -asumiendo la “trascendencia conceptual” de la democracia- realizar un recorrido desde los años ochenta hasta la actualidad, mostrando las distintas tendencias de la teoría política latinoamericana. Pretendemos, por tanto, un acercamiento a las distintas corrientes teóricas que en los últimos tiempos han abordado el tema de la democracia en América Latina.___________ABSTRACT:During the last three decades, many theoric currents analyzing the theme of democracy from different perspectives, have raised in Latin America; some of them clearly antagonistic. The object of this work is –assuming the conceptual transcendence of democracy- to realize a panorama from 1980 to today, showing the different tendencies of the south-american political theory. We tried to find a common factor in all the many theoric currents that in the latest years have focused on the theme of Latin America.
Kieffer, Edith C; Welmerink, Diana B; Sinco, Brandy R; Welch, Kathleen B; Rees Clayton, Erin M; Schumann, Christina Y; Uhley, Virginia E
We evaluated the effectiveness of a community-based healthy lifestyle intervention in improving dietary behaviors of pregnant Latinas from 2004 to 2006 in Detroit, Michigan. The 11-week, culturally tailored, Spanish-language Healthy Mothers on the Move (MOMs) intervention offered home visits, group classes, related activities, and social support from trained community health workers (CHWs) and peers. Dietary behaviors were measured by food frequency questionnaire. Linear mixed models estimated pre- and post-intervention changes, within and between MOMs intervention and minimal intervention (MI) groups. MOMs (n = 139) and MI (n = 139) participants had similar baseline characteristics and dietary intake. Post-intervention, MOMs participants showed significant improvement in all dietary behaviors, except fruit and fiber consumption. Compared with MI participants, MOMs participants had significantly decreased consumption of added sugar (P = .05), total fat (P < .05), saturated fat (P < .01), percentage of daily calories from saturated fat (P < .001), solid fats and added sugars (P < .001), and had increased vegetable consumption (P < .001). Their increase in fiber consumption (P < .05) was significant relative to MI participants' decrease in fiber intake. We confirmed the hypothesis that a community-planned, CHW-led healthy lifestyle intervention could improve dietary behaviors of low-income Latina women during pregnancy.
Larkey, Linda K; Lopez, Ana Maria; Minnal, Archana; Gonzalez, Julie
In a low socioeconomic-status population of Latina women, we evaluated the potential of storytelling (ST) as a culturally aligned narrative method to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention and screening, compared to a risk tool (RT)-based intervention. Seventy-eight women were randomized in this pilot study to one of two brief interventions to communicate CRC risk reduction options: ST or an RT. Measures of behavioral intentions relative to CRC prevention and screening were obtained following the intervention. Mean scores for intent to obtain and recommend endoscopy to others were significantly better for participants receiving ST than RT (P = .038 and P = .011, respectively). All participants expressed intent to increase fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity in response to interventions. Post-intervention perceptions of cancer risk and fear of CRC were not significantly different for participants receiving ST compared with RT. Pre- to post-intervention perceptions of risk increased in ST and decreased in RT, while decreases in fear were similar across both intervention groups. Storytelling may be an effective approach for changing CRC risk-related behavioral intentions among Latinas. Mediating factors (such as perceived risk or fear) often used to predict behavior change may not adequately explain the potential persuasive mechanisms of storytelling.
R. Todd Jewell; Máximo Rossi; Patricia Triunfo
Haciendo uso de los datos de la Encuesta sobre Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento, este trabajo analiza el estado de salud de las personas mayores a 60 años en cinco países de América Latina: Argentina, Brasil, Chile, México y Uruguay. Empleando modelos probit ordenados fue posible investigar los efectos de variables socioeconómicas sobre el estado de salud auto-reportado. Los resultados indican que la autopercepción de la salud está relacionada positivamente con una buena nutrición, una mayor...
Verdin, Dina; Godwin, Allison F; Morazes, Jennifer
Latina undergraduates pursuing an engineering degree continue to be an underrepresented group at four-year universities. Compared to their male counterparts, fewer women enter the field of engineering; however, of those Latino/as who do matriculate, they have the same likelihood of persisting as their White counterparts. Furthermore, a dearth of underrepresented students such as Latino/as and first-generation college students enter or remain in the field of engineering. The need for increased...
Daniel H. LEVINE
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los estudios sobre la democracia en América Latina han ido más allá del análisis de las transiciones y la consolidación para preocuparse por hacer una evaluación comparativa y confiable de la calidad de la democracia. Esto requiere entender la democracia en términos multidimensionales. Así la calidad de la democracia es un continuo que varía con base al nivel alcanzado en cinco dimensiones interrelacionadas: decisión electoral, participación, respuesta a la voluntad popular, responsabilidad y soberanía. Con base en estas dimensiones el trabajo propone un índice específico para la calidad de la democracia en América Latina que permite no sólo comparar la calidad entre los países de América Latina y confrontarla con un objetivo ideal, sino que también hace posible determinar las fortalezas y debilidades específicas de cada país de la región con respecto a los elementos que conforman cada una de las dimensiones de la calidad de la democracia. Los indicadores utilizados para la construcción del índice incluyen evaluación de expertos, datos estadísticos agregados y encuestas de opinión pública.ABSTRACT: Studies on democracy in Latin America have gone beyond attention to transitions and consolidation to a concern with developing reliable comparative assessments of the quality of democracy. This requires conceptualization of democracy in multidimensional terms. Quality of democracy is a continuum that varies along a range of related dimensions: electoral decision, participation, responsiveness, accountability and sovereignty. Working with these dimensions, it is developed an index of quality of democracy in Latin America which allows comparing different countries as well as determining specific strengths and weaknesses of the quality of
Madrigal-Garcia, Yanira I.; Acevedo-Gil, Nancy
This qualitative study examined the distribution of inequitable resources, a culture of control, and implications for postsecondary pathways for Latinas/os in five California high schools. This study integrated critical race theory in education, school culture, and the concept of "panopticon" to examine school structures, climate, and…
Aleman, Enrique, Jr.
Utilizing a critical race theory (CRT) framework, I conduct a rhetorical and discursive analysis of data from a study of Utah Latino/a educational and political leaders. In analyzing how participants advocate closing the achievement gaps that affect Latina/o and Chicana/o students, I find that participants' political discourse is shaped by…
Humensky, Jennifer L.; Gil, Rosa M.; Mazzula, Silvia; Diaz, Samantha; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto
Life is Precious (LIP) was developed to help reduce suicidal behavior in Latina adolescents. As part of an external evaluation of the LIP program, we conducted focus groups with adolescent participants and mothers to learn whether participants and families believe that the activities of LIP address risks for suicidal behavior. Four focus groups…
Gutiérrez, Leticia Alvarez
This article describes a community-based participatory action research project (PAR), "Voces Diversas e Importantes" [Diverse and Important Voices] that the intergenerational Family School Partnership (FSP) collective enacted to support citizenship participation and increase the possibilities undocumented Latina/o students and families…
Full Text Available Este artículo expone los resultados sobre las técnicas más utilizadas en la medición de la movilidad educativa intergeneracional y la evidencia empírica encontrada hasta el año 2012 para América Latina y Colombia. Los métodos empleados para el proceso de pesquisa de la bibliografía científica fueron la consulta en revistas de sociología, economía y educación, en bases de datos (Jstor, EBSCOhost, Redalyc, Scielo y reservorios de información. Los resultados señalan que no hay un consenso en la medición; sin embargo, los métodos más utilizados son las matrices de transición, modelos Markov e índices sintéticos. La evidencia muestra que la movilidad absoluta ha aumentado en América Latina. No obstante, la movilidad relativa es baja en comparación con los países desarrollados. Los vínculos entre el nivel educativo de padres e hijos continúan siendo muy fuertes, tanto en América Latina como en Colombia.
Marcus, Bess H; Hartman, Sheri J; Pekmezi, Dori; Dunsiger, Shira I; Linke, Sarah E; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Rojas, Carlos
Internet-based interventions show promise as an effective channel for promoting physical activity. However, a paucity of research has been conducted among underserved groups despite recent increases in Internet access and physical activity-related health disparities in these communities. Thus, the current randomized controlled trial will test the efficacy of an individually tailored, Internet-based physical activity intervention for Latinas. This program was culturally and linguistically adapted for the target population through extensive formative research. Two hundred eighteen sedentary Latinas were randomly assigned to the Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or the Wellness Contact Control Internet Group. The Physical Activity Internet Intervention, based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model, utilizes a website with features including self-monitoring, goal setting, discussion forum, links to online resources, individually tailored and motivation-matched physical activity feedback reports, and exercise tip sheets. Participants receive regular emails over the first 6months with a tapered dose during the second 6months (maintenance phase) to alert them to new content on the website. The main outcome is differences in minutes/week of moderate to vigorous physical activity at six months as measured by the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall and accelerometer data. High reach, low cost, culturally relevant Internet-based interventions that encourage physical activity among Latinas could help reduce health disparities and thus have a substantial positive impact on public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fitts, Shanan; McClure, Greg
In this article, we examine the social networks of immigrant Latinas from two women's groups in northwestern North Carolina. We explore how participants built social capital and confidence in self through sharing knowledge and experiences in intimate, "mujerista" spaces. We argue that traditional analyses of social capital, framed in…
K. Voorend (Koen); J.M. Franzoni
textabstractINTRODUCCIÓN: El papel de las mujeres y de las relaciones de género se ha instalado en el debate público sobre la política social en América Latina. El detonante han sido los programas de transferencias condicionadas (TMC): dinero a cambio de que las madres envíen a sus niños/as a la
C. Kay (Cristóbal)
textabstractEn este breve artículo presento de manera muy general y esquemática algunos aspectos sobre la concentración de la tierra en América Latina. No pretendo hacer un análisis detallado y completo sobre la problemática de la tierra en la región. Pero espero poder resaltar algunos factores que
Dr. Rogelio Rivera Fernández; email@example.com
Full Text Available In this written, was done a description and analysis over the mediatic covering directed to Barack Obama as elected president of the United States of America in the main national journals from Latin America. In particular between November 2008 and January 2009, were checked the journals: Clarín from Argentina, El Mercurio from Chile, Ultimas Noticias de Venezuela, and Excélsior, Reforma and Milenio from Mexico In this article were explained causes that have generated Obama as has been converted in mediatic phenomenon around the world with characteristics of political celebrity in Latin America. As conclusion Latin American press has been covered only the actions and movements related to Obama and his family and many of this very close to trivial and anecdotal, transforming in certain way critical sense maintained for journal lines press over the last presidents of United States. En el escrito se hace una descripción y análisis, a la luz de la teoría de media setting, sobre la cobertura mediática que tuvo Barack Obama como presidente electo de los Estados Unidos en los principales diarios nacionales de América Latina. En lo particular, se revisaron los diarios Clarín, de Argentina; El Mercurio, de Chile; Últimas Noticias, de Venezuela, y los diarios Excélsior, Reforma y Milenio, de México, entre noviembre de 2008 y enero de 2009. Se explican, también, las causas que han generado que Obama se haya convertido en un fenómeno mediático mundial y las características que ha tomado la cobertura informativa sobre esta celebridad de la política en América Latina. Se concluye que la cobertura mediática sobre los movimientos y acciones de Obama y su familia fue muy amplia y complaciente, generando miles de historias y notas periodísticas, muchas de ellas rayando en cuestiones triviales y anecdóticas, trasformando, de cierta forma, el sentido crítico que tradicionalmente había prevalecido en la prensa latina sobre los mandatarios de los
Rodríguez, Charo; Lamothe, Lise; Barten, Françoise; Haggerty, Jeannie
El término gobernanza es cada vez mas utilizado en la formulación, implementación y evaluación de políticas públicas. El propósito de este artículo es de clarificar su significado y de estudiar su utilidad en el estudio de las recientes políticas de salud de la América Latina. Después de discutir de las diferencias existentes entre gobernanza y los conceptos conexos de gestión, gobernabilidad y gobierno, proponemos la noción de la dualidad de la estructura social de Giddens para una mejor com...
Maria do Rosário de Fátima e Silva
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1414-49802014000100011 O artigo tem por objetivo percorrer o processo de constituição e concretização do sistema de proteção social na América latina e nele localizar as medidas específicas de proteção social, adotadas pelo governo brasileiro, no atendimento das demandas da população idosa. Escolheu-se como marco histórico de análise da realidade latino-americana, a I Conferência Intergovernamental sobre Envelhecimento na América Latina e Caribe, realizada pela Comissão Econômica Para a America latina e Caribe - CEPAL, em novembro/2003, em Santiago no Chile, como síntese das medidas de proteção social que vem sendo destinadas pelos países do continente ao segmento social idoso. Para a experiência brasileira elegeu-se como marco as prerrogativas legais relacionadas aos direitos dos idosos e à Seguridade Social implementadas a partir dos anos de 1990. São abordadas as concepções sobre proteção social e envelhecimento, encaradas como direito e conquista da civilização humana no século 21.
Luzia Neide Coriolano
Full Text Available Este estudio analiza territorios solidarios de turismo comunitario en países de América Latina como un contrapunto al turismo convencional, de los mega emprendimientos transnacionales. Cambios en el modelo socioeconómico con movimientos de resistencia a la supuesta hegemonía de los países ricos, superposiciones de megaempresas a la de pequeña escala, en relación al turismo global, convencional, dedicado a los mega emprendimientos vinculados con la especulación inmobiliaria. Verifica como países fortalecen territorios de economías solidarias, comunitarias. Como se crean sinergias, socialización de conocimientos en territorios como una forma de reducir las disparidades espaciales y las desigualdades sociales. Identifica experiencias con referencia de políticas de inclusión social, que promueven pequeñas ciudades, barrios, suburbios y comunidades, mitigan distancias entre ricos y pobres. Articulaciones entre aspectos políticos e institucionales para gestiones participativas y estrategias como cuestiones ambientales y de sostenibilidad socio-económica y desarrollo de comunidades que buscan soluciones económicas y sociales por el turismo, en América Latina.
Sanjay G. Reddy
¿Cuál es el nivel de pobreza de ingresos en América Latina? ¿Ha estado disminuyendo? ¿Son fiables las estimaciones actuales? El enfoque más influyente para medir la pobreza de ingresos a nivel regional y mundial es él utilizado por el Banco Mundial, que establece líneas internacionales de pobreza de ?un dólar al día? y ?dos dólares al día? por persona. El banco utiliza factores de ?paridad del poder adquisitivo? (PPA) para transformar estas líneas internacionales en monedas locales. (...)...
Full Text Available Este ensayo revisa las nuevas direcciones en la investigación sobre ¿enclaves extranjeros¿ en América Latina, centrándose particularmente en las regiones bananeras de la United Fruit Company (UFCO en el Caribe y Centroamérica. Explora las preguntas y aproximaciones que orientan la ¿nueva historia de los enclaves¿ producida en universidades norteamericanas en los últimos quince años, las críticas que han surgido a dichos estudios y el giro contemporáneo en la mirada a las luchas por los recursos naturales.
El presente artículo analiza la industria petrolera como un sector globalizado y ubica al Ecuador en el marco de la geopolítica del petróleo en América Latina, recalcando cual ha sido la evolución de la industria petrolera en la región hasta la fecha. En una primera parte, exponemos que desde la década del cincuenta se diseñó un escenario de dependencia económica y tecnología externa, con la prepotencia de las empresas multinacionales estadounidenses como telón de fondo. En una segunda parte,...
Virgínia Maria Coelho de Holanda; Francélia Loureiro Nery; Marta Barrozo Azevedo; Tânia Cristina Botelho Mendes
Respeitando recomendações da OMS, foi feito estudo retrospectivo comparativo das Legislações de 16 Países da América Latina, a saber Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Chile, Cuba, Equador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana e Venezuela, do período de 1963 a 1992, enfatizando-se os aspectos éticos referentes a doação, determinação da morte, conflito de interesses, seleção do receptor, comercialização e intercâmbio internacional de órgãos. ...
Timothy J. Power
Full Text Available Este trabalho examina o contexto, as causas e as conseqüências da desconfiança nos políticos no atual período democrático da América Latina. Em termos de contexto, demonstramos que a confiança muito baixa nos políticos da América Latina é meramente um dos aspectos de uma síndrome de baixa confiança generalizada. Em termos das causas da desconfiança, examinamos três características proeminentes do desenvolvimento democrático nos últimos quinze anos: fraco desempenho econômico da maioria das novas democracias da região, escândalos de corrupção e o uso instrumental das instituições políticas pelos governantes. Em termos de conseqüências, examinamos o apoio fraco e desigual à democracia em toda a região, que parece estar relacionado causalmente com a desconfiança nos políticos. No entanto, evitamos o alarmismo sustentando que esses resultados devem ser contextualizados à luz da citada síndrome de baixa confiança multidimensional da América Latina. Ademais, o reservatório de atitudes autoritárias entre os indivíduos é fragmentário e raramente se expressa de forma coerente na ação política. Além disso, como a pesquisa sobre democracias tanto avançadas como emergentes demonstrou recentemente, os cidadãos estão cada vez mais dispostos a separar suas avaliações dos governantes (com freqüência, negativas da avaliação da democracia como tipo de regime.This paper reviews the context, causes, and consequences of mistrust of politicians in Latin America's current democratic era. In terms of context, we demonstrate that the very low trust in politicians in Latin America is merely one aspect of a syndrome of low trust across the board. In terms of causes of mistrust, we review three prominent features of democratic development over the past 15 years: poor economic performance affecting most new democracies in the region, corruption scandals, and the instrumental use of political institutions by incumbents
Full Text Available A notável variedade étnica da América Latina contemporânea òbviamente evoluiu durante o processo histórico que principiou em 1492. Há, talvez, tentação de interpretar tôda a história da Amé-rica Latina em têrmos de relação de raças . Ainda que acreditemos ser isto um absurdo, temos que admitir que as relações de raças influiram em alguns aspectos de sua história. Esta esfera de in-fluência é fàcilmente definida .
Margolis, Kate L.; Dunn, Dena M.; Herbst, Rachel Becker; Bunik, Maya; Buchholz, Melissa; Martinez, Dailyn; Talmi, Ayelet
Culturally informed health interventions for linguistic minorities are crucial in promoting optimal child development. "Mi Bebé y Yo" is a primary care group for Spanish-speaking, Latina/o caregivers and their babies during their first year. Group visits occur in conjunction with well-baby checks and are designed to support families with…
A growing body of research indicates that when parents are engaged in their children's learning and development, their children do better in school. This brief reports on what was learned through recent interviews with Latina immigrant mothers about the techniques they used to support their children's education at the most malleable stage of…
En el mundo y particularmente en América Latina, la minería no mecanizada o manual ha sido utilizada como medio de sustento por los pobladores rurales o migrantes de ciudades que van a trabajar a estas zonas y que la llevan a cabo en condiciones sociales desfavorables por lo que resulta importante conocer los aspectos socio-jurídicos que envuelven la actividad. Con el fin de llevar a cabo lo anterior, se realizó una investigación de tipo descriptivo sobre tres variables dependientes: conceptu...
Jordan Angelov Baev
Full Text Available O estudo baseia-se em arquivos do pós-guerra búlgaros e discute pela primeira vez muitos episódios ainda desconhecidos das relações búlgaras com países da América Latina na época da Guerra Fria. O estabelecimento e desenvolvimento das relações diplomáticas e políticas entre um pequeno estado balcânico como a Bulgária com a América Latina é vista como um estudo de caso da política dentro do bloco soviético, em geral, para o hemisfério ocidental dentro do modelo do confronto bipolar. O estudo consiste em quatro dos acontecimentos políticos e sociais mais significativos nos anos da Guerra Fria: Revolução Cubana, o Governo da Unidade Popular e a Revolução Sandinista na Nicarágua, que levou para o confronto armado na América Central, na última década da Guerra Fria.
Full Text Available En la mayoría de los países de América Latina la tasa de homicidios es mucho mayor que en los países desarrollados. En algunos países aumenta mientras en otros disminuye o bien se estabiliza. Se incrementa considerablemente en algunas grandes ciudades pero decrece significativamente en otras, desde inicios del año 2000. Los narcotraficantes y la evolución de las organizaciones criminales inciden de manera especial en todo ello. Las causas del aumento y la reducción de la violencia son múltiples y se entrecruzan. Reducir la violencia una vez que ha alcanzado el nivel que presenta en varios países de América Latina es un poco como tratar de “encontrar la cuadratura del círculo”. Eso da una idea del grado de dificultad. Algunas condiciones previas son necesarias para mejorar la cohesión social y para reducir la violencia: disminuir de manera sustancial las desigualdades socioeconómicas, favorecer una redistribución más equitativa de los ingresos, desarrollar una educación primaria, secundaria y profesional de calidad, inventar políticas de la ciudad, mejorar la calidad de las instituciones –sobre todo de la justicia y de la policía–, desarrollar una política de la ciudad; tal como se hizo en Bogotá y como empieza a hacerse en las “favellas pacificadas” en Brasil, y contrariamente a lo que se observa en México, donde se privilegia la represión y donde es tan alta la corrupción, incluso en las esferas más altas de la política y de la policía.
Full Text Available El tema social se halla actualmente en el centro del escenario histórico de América Latina. Se suceden desde las más variadas fuentes los llamados de alerta sobre la magnitud y profundidad de los problemas que sacuden a la región en el campo social. La mayor reunión de Presidentes del Continente, la cumbre hemisférica (Santiago de Chile, 1998 consignó en su declaración final, suscrita por todos los mandatarios, que “superar la pobreza continúa siendo el mayor desafío confrontado por nuestro Hemisferio”. Caracterizando algunos de los principales problemas existentes, los Presidentes indicaron “estamos decididos a remover las barreras que deniegan a los pobres el acceso a nutrición adecuada, servicios sociales, un medio ambiente saludable, créditos y títulos legales sobre su propiedad”. El Secretario General de la CEPAL, José A. Ocampo resaltó (1998 sobre la situación que “siguen aumentando los niveles de pobreza absoluta, los niveles de desigualdad no muestran mejoría y sigue aumentando el empleo en el sector informal”. El Presidente del BID, Enrique V. Iglesias ha destacado (1997 que “el proceso de cambio ha dejado sin resolver en la gran mayoría de los países un tema central: la pobreza crítica y la mala distribución del ingreso”. El Banco Mundial ha hecho continuos señalamientos sobre la gravedad del problema: “América Latina es notable como una región en la que la pobreza, particularmente la pobreza absoluta, no registra mejora alguna” (Burki, 1996, e indicó en reciente conferencia internacional sobre la región (Chile, 1999, los riesgos que corría la democracia en tales condiciones.
Jorge Martínez Pizarro
Full Text Available Luego de una década de intenso crecimiento de las remesas, cuya magnitud relativa es insoslayable en varios países, se evalúan sus posibles impactos macrosociales a nivel nacional en países de América Latina. Se presenta una breve alusión teórica al fenómeno de las remesas y se sintetizan las inquietudes que rodean a este fenómeno en la región: la estimación de su volumen, los costos de transferencia y las posibilidades para generar externalidades productivas en las áreas de recepción de estos recursos. Además, se pone atención en las asociaciones de migrantes que envían remesas colectivamente. Después se examinan sus impactos macrosociales contrastados con información empírica disponible sobre la pobreza, la distribución del ingreso y el gasto social en países seleccionados. Al hablar de migración, remesas y desarrollo conviene examinar científicamente esas relaciones con el bienestar y no únicamente emplear una visión optimista en función de su aumento y la magnitud absoluta y relativa que han alcanzado
Full Text Available El presente artículo busca aportar elementos para un debate informado sobre las políticas de inserción a la Docencia en América Latina. Se parte del supuesto que el logro en los aprendizajes de los estudiantes, se relaciona entre otros, con la preparación que los docentes reciben a lo largo de su vida profesional y fundamentalmente en los primeros años de ejercicio laboral. Como primer acercamiento a la temática, se evalúan brevemente las políticas educativas implementadas en las últimas décadas en América Latina para la formación y preparación de docentes. Se destaca la incidencia que tiene la falta de continuidad en el tiempo de dichas políticas (por cambios en los Ministerios o en los Gobiernos y las dificultades para impulsar estrategias a largo plazo que puedan generar transformaciones positivas en materia de inducción a la docencia. Este escrito continúa con un detallado análisis del "ser" y del "hacer" docente, primero desde la perspectiva de la construcción de una "identidad" docente y luego, desde la valoración que se hace de la profesión en la actualidad. Luego, se reflexiona en torno a las etapas de formación que deben transitar los docentes. El ejercicio docente y la realidad social en la que opera, presupone muchas veces, un distanciamiento entre las teorías a partir de las cuales son formados los maestros y las experiencias prácticas que ellos enfrentan al comienzo de su vida profesional. Esto trae frustración y desmotivación a los docentes nóveles lo que muchas veces redunda en un deterioro en la capacidad de enseñar. En este sentido, el artículo describe y analiza diferentes modelos de inserción docente que podrían servir como marco referencial para pensar estrategias y políticas que favorezcan y mejoren dicho proceso. Por último, se reflexiona sobre estas herramientas y la posibilidad de adecuarlas a la realidad de América Latina.
Julio César César Valdés
Full Text Available Como resultado de una serie de eventos y acontecimientos que en el orden económico tuvieron lugar a lo largo de la historia y que incidieron en la conducción política de los países, es que surge el interés de muchos continentes, regiones y países en diseñar una unión monetaria. El objetivo que se plantea para la presente investigación es analizar las condiciones existentes en América Latina para la posible implementación de una unión monetaria, para el desarrollo del objetivo nos apoyamos en el criterio de autores de relevante trayectoria internacional en las áreas de la economía y las finanzas como fueron Bayoumi y Eichengreen (2000, Powell y Sturzenegger (2003, también fueron consultados los premios nobel de economía Joseph Stiglitz (2016 y Robert Mundell (1965,sus significativos contribuciones resultaron de gran aporte para la presente investigación. La metodología empleada fue la realización de un análisis retrospectivo y transversal de la realidad de América Latina para implementar la unión monetaria. Tanto el objetivo planteado como la metodología, unida a otras técnicas de investigación nos permiten plantear como principales resultados, que los países latinoamericanos cuentan con insuficiencia en su capacidad para obtener la cantidad de divisas suficientes para mantener y/o estabilizar sus balanzas de pagos y cerrar sus cuentas internacionales, se plantea que el uso de numerosas monedas crea múltiples dificultades para el intercambio comercial regional. Se concluye como consideraciones finales que América Latinaaún no reúne las condiciones necesarias para que circule una moneda única ya que los modelos económicos de los diferentes países de la región son totalmente divergentes entre sí.
Manuel ALCÁNTARA SÁEZ
Full Text Available RESUMEN: El argumento principal del artículo es mostrar que los partidos y sistema de partidos de América Latina son más estables de lo que en términos generales se suele sostener. A pesar de la hostil percepción de los electores sobre los partidos, los sistemas de partidos presentan ciertos niveles de estabilidad en América Latina, más allá de casos como Venezuela y Perú, que parecen ser más la excepción que la regla. Se realiza una tipología de cuatro escenarios en la que se compara la oferta partidista en la elección fundacional postransición y en la última elección legislativa realizada en cada sistema. Se analizan tres características sistémicas de los sistemas de partidos a fines del siglo xx: el formato numérico del sistema de partidos (lo que muestra cierta tendencia al multipartidismo; el nivel de polarización ideológica (relativamente alto y el apoyo social que los mismos reciben (variable que debe ser matizada por la consideración de una serie de indicadores.ABSTRACT: The principal argument of this article is to show that the parties and the Latin American party system are more stable of which in general term usually it is maintained. In spite of the electorate hostile perception about the parties, the party system presents some level of stability in Latin America, with the exception of Venezuela and Peru. A four-dimension tipology is realizated to compare the partidist offer in the fundational post-transition election and in the last legislative election in each system. The three characteristics of the party system in the final of the Twentieth Century are analysed: the numeric format of the party system (which tends to multipartidism; the ideological polarization level (high and its social support (which depends on a serie of indicators.
Silvia Gabriela Fernández Soto
Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo problematizar las recientes estrategias de protección social en América Latina, observando la expansión e institucionalización de los programas de transferencia de renta condicionada. Se basa en un estudio exploratorio, bibliográfico y documental. Es en el contexto de crisis y conflictividad social de fines de siglo XX y principios de siglo XXI, en un contexto de desocupación y extensión de las condiciones precarias de trabajo; que cobran relevancia los Programas de Transferencias de Renta Condicionadas (PTRC. Se han instalado en el repertorio de políticas sociales desarrollados por la mayoría de los países en América Latina para el contingente creciente de desocupados y pobres, configurando estrategias político- institucionales que se hacen masivas a inicios del Siglo XXI, institucionalizándose en los formatos de protección social emergentes. Estos programas se identifican por estar focalizados hacia los hogares pobres, con el objetivo de mejorar las condiciones de vida de las familias con niños y niñas en “situación de vulnerabilidad”, con una perspectiva de “capital humano”, incluyendo condicionalidades en educación y salud. Se enmarcan en el debate de la protección social centrada en un tipo de "universalismo" adjetivado como “mínimo/básico”, que pretende romper el “círculo intergeneracional de la pobreza”. Analizamos el sentido socio-histórico que adquieren estos programas en relación a transformaciones sociales más generales.
Buendía-Martínez, Inmaculada; Carrasco, Inmaculada
El mundo rural está en transformación. El desarrollo rural requiere cambios que permitan la revalorizaciónde las áreas rurales sobre nuevas fuentes de renta. La participación activa y formal de las mujeres en estamutación resulta clave, aunque se necesitan instrumentos económicos para fomentar su empoderamiento. Lafinalidad de este artículo es analizar las relaciones entre empoderamiento femenino, actividad empresarialy desarrollo rural en América Latina. Para ello, se ha realizado un Modelo ...
Rojas, Patria; Huang, Hui; Li, Tan; Ravelo, Gira J; Sanchez, Mariana; Dawson, Christyl; Brook, Judith; Kanamori, Mariano; De La Rosa, Mario
Few studies have examined the sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behavior trajectories among adult Latinas. To longitudinally examine the link between sociocultural determinants of risky sexual behaviors, we followed a sample of adult Latina mother-daughter dyads ( n = 267) across a 10-year span through four waves of data collection. The present study investigates how risky sexual behavior (operationalized as sex under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, sex without a condom, or multiple sex partners) is affected by: (a) socioeconomic conditions; (b) mental health; (c) medical health; (d) acculturation to U.S. culture; (e) interpersonal support; (f) relationship stress; (g) mother-daughter attachment; (h) intimate partner violence; (i) religious involvement; and (j) criminal justice involvement. Results indicate the following factors are negatively associated with risky sexual behavior: drug and alcohol use, treating a physical problem with prescription drugs, religious involvement, and mother-daughter attachment. The following factors are positively associated with risky sexual behavior: higher number of mental health symptoms, being U.S.-born, and criminal justice involvement. We discuss implications for the future development of culturally relevant interventions based on the study findings.
Claudia Maria Leal Leon
Full Text Available Como invenção moderno-colonial, a América Latina por séculos foi vista como “espaço” puro, um continente vazio a ser preenchido. Pretensamente impelidos e agraciados pela vontade divina, os europeus viam a si mesmos como agentes históricos no duplo sentido da expressão, ou seja, como atores e escritores do drama da colonização. Com suas armas, sua biota e suas letras, os colonizadores ao mesmo tempo criaram e preencheram o “espaço” americano – exterminando e substituindo as populações nativas (humanas e não-humanas, geometrizando a representação da terra e registrando alfabeticamente uma história regional sob a perspectiva dos invasores...
Alejandro Schnarch Kirberg
Full Text Available América Latina y El Caribe, se caracterizan por una alta tasa de emprendimiento entre su población activa, según destaca cada año el informe Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM. De hecho, la actividad empresarial total es incluso mayor que en el caso de países desarrollados. Sin embargo, el porcentaje de fracasos continúa, siendo bastante elevado, y el crecimiento de la productividad ha sido en promedio históricamente muy bajo. En este contexto, hay tres aspectos que resultan fundamentales para comenzar bien y adecuadamente un proceso emprendedor y que pueden ser el origen de muchas frustraciones, reveses y errores: el no saber diferenciar ideas de oportunidades, carecer de un modelo de negocio y no utilizar las herramientas del marketing.
Virgínia Maria Coelho de Holanda
Full Text Available Respeitando recomendações da OMS, foi feito estudo retrospectivo comparativo das Legislações de 16 Países da América Latina, a saber Argentina, Bolívia, Brasil, Colômbia, Costa Rica, Chile, Cuba, Equador, Guatemala, Honduras, México, Panamá, Paraguai, Peru, República Dominicana e Venezuela, do período de 1963 a 1992, enfatizando-se os aspectos éticos referentes a doação, determinação da morte, conflito de interesses, seleção do receptor, comercialização e intercâmbio internacional de órgãos.
Litewka, Sergio; Goodman, Kenneth; Braunschweiger, y Paul
El Programa CITI (Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative) es un curso basado en Internet y desarrollado por voluntarios, que brinda material educacional sobre protección de sujetos humanos en investigaciones biomédicas y de conducta, buenas prácticas clínicas, conducta responsable de la investigación y trato humanitario a animales de laboratorio. Es un esfuerzo conjunto del Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center y la Universidad de Miami. Con la colaboración de expertos locales, gran parte del contenido se ha adaptado para América Latina, se ha traducido al español y portugués y se han establecido acuerdos de colaboración con instituciones especializadas en bioética en Chile, Brasil, Costa Rica y Perú. Los autores presentan una metodología accesible para la capacitación en ética de la investigación y una justificación de su uso y difusión en América Latina PMID:21687817
Full Text Available El objetivo de este documento es presentar un resumen de los principales eventos e interpretaciones, concernientes al desarrollo de las economías de América Latina desde 1960. El aspecto principal de esta presentación es establecer un estudio comparativo desde el punto de vista histórico con relación a los aspectos principales que caracterizaron las condiciones externas e internas de las economías latinoamericanas. Durante ese tiempo América Latina ha pasado desde condiciones relativamente estables durante la década de los sesentas, al surgimiento del problema de la deuda en los setentas y a los escenarios dominados por la recesión y la inflación de los ochentas, para finalmente arribar a las condiciones actuales de principios del siglo XXI. En la actualidad lo fundamental se centra en la continuidad de la aplicación de los planes de ajuste estructural, a la vez que se ha generado ya cierto crecimiento económico en varios países. El análisis de los aspectos sociales va más allá de los alcances que se ha fijado este estudio, pero es importante subrayar que las variables sociales han tenido un retroceso significativo en la región. Por lo tanto, aún cuando los países latinoamericanos hayan podido experimentar algún tipo de estabilidad actual, los índices de pobreza y de marginalidad sociales para importantes sectores de la población continúan siendo desafíos prioritarios por enfrentar.
Molina, Kristine M; Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi
Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity.
Salazar, Maria del Carmen; Martinez, Lisa M.; Ortega, Debora
The purpose of this study is to address how spaces in school and out of school support or constrain undocumented Latina/o youths' development as critical multicultural citizens. We draw on data from a multi-phase, qualitative study to present findings indicating that the youths persevered through academic and civic engagement. Ultimately, the…
Mercuri, Sandra Patricia
This qualitative research looks at the effects that language choices and cultural practices have on identity development in the education of minority students in the United States. It examines the educational journey of Irma, a Latina educator. Through the analysis of interviews with the participant, this paper intends to show the effects of…
Full Text Available Este artículo contiene un análisis sistemático del papel desempeñado por la administración electoral en 19 países de América Latina y de sus efectos sobre elecciones presidenciales democráticas aceptables desde 1980, o bien, a partir de la primera elección transcendental que marcó la transición a la democracia. Se utilizan dos maneras distintas de medir la administración de elecciones, así como otros factores importantes, probando modelos logit ordenados de probabilidades proporcionales parciales para pronosticar la posibilidad de que ocurra un proceso electoral aceptable, defectuoso o inaceptable. Los resultados muestran que los organismos electorales independientes y profesionales desempeñan un papel positivo e importante en los procesos electorales en América Latina, aun controlando para otros factores socioeconómicos y políticos
Armin von Bogdandy
Full Text Available El Ius Constitutionale Commune en América Latina (ICCAL se refiere a un enfoque regional sobre el constitucionalismo transformador. Dicho enfoque se nutre de la inquietante experiencia respecto de condiciones de vida inaceptables y apunta a la transformación de la realidad política y social de América Latina por medio del fortalecimiento concertado de la democracia, el Estado de derecho y los derechos humanos. Los problemas comunes a los países latinoamericanos, tales como la exclusión de amplios sectores de la sociedad y la débil normatividad del derecho, son temas centrales de este enfoque. El ICCAL no apuesta por la integración funcional de la región, sino más bien por un constitucionalismo regional de los derechos con garantías supranacionales. Como resultado de esto último, los representantes del ICCAL reconocen la muy estrecha relación que existe entre el derecho constitucional, el derecho internacional y el derecho comparado. La apertura de los ordenamientos jurídicos nacionales de numerosos países latinoamericanos hacia el derecho internacional, y en particular hacia el sistema interamericano de protección de los derechos humanos, es de especial importancia y constituye el núcleo normativo del iccal. La presente contribución analiza los elementos centrales de dicho enfoque y describe sus contornos específicamente latinoamericanos.
Ramirez, Amelie; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Penedo, Frank; Talavera, Gregory; Carrillo, J Emilio; Fernández, María; Holden, Alan; Munoz, Edgar; San Miguel, Sandra; Gallion, Kipling
The interaction of clinical and patient-level challenges following a breast cancer diagnosis can be a significant source of health care disparities. Failure to address specific cultural features that create or exacerbate barriers can lead to less-than optimal navigation results, specifically in Hispanic/Latino women. To address these disparities, the study leaders in San Antonio, Texas, and 5 other regional partners of the federally-funded Redes En Acción: The National Latino Cancer Research Network developed a culturally-tailored patient navigation intervention model for Latinas with breast cancer. Compared with control patients, a higher percentage of navigated subjects initiated treatment within 30 days (69.0% versus 46.3%, P = .029) and 60 days (97.6% versus 73.1%, P = .001) following their cancer diagnosis. Time from cancer diagnosis to first treatment was lower in the navigated group (mean, 22.22 days; median, 23.00 days) than controls (mean, 48.30 days; median, 33.00 days). These results were independent of cancer stage at diagnosis and numerous characteristics of cancer clinics and individual participants. Successful application of patient navigation increased the percentage of Latinas initiating breast cancer treatment within 30 and 60 days of diagnosis. This was achieved through navigator provision of services such as accompaniment to appointments, transportation arrangements, patient telephone support, patient-family telephone support, Spanish-English language translation, and assistance with insurance paperwork. © 2013 American Cancer Society.
Guimarães, Daniel Monfort de Alencastro
Nesta dissertação analisamos se o ambiente institucional relacionado ao nível de proteção dos investidores dos países da América Latina contribuiu para uma redução na prática de gerenciamento de resultados das empresas. Utilizamos quatro modelos para detectar a prática de gerenciamento de resultados (Jones Model, Modified Jones Model, Modified Jones Model with ROA e o Kang & Sivaramakrishna Model). A nossa amostra é formada pelas empresas de capital aberto e listada em bolsa nos países da Ar...
Portugal, Ana María; Saa, María Antonieta; Hiriart, Berta; Bravo, Rosa
No nos llevó mucho tiempo decidir que el N° 5 de nuestras Ediciones Isis Internacional de las Mujeres debía dar cuenta del desarrollo del Movimiento Feminista en América Latina y el Caribe en estos últimos 15 años. Después de asistir al III Encuentro Feminista y palpar el crecimiento cualitativo y cuantitativo de las feministas y los feminismos de los diversos países, y a no nos cupo duda alguna. Por otra parte, en estos años, producto de múltiples razones, en casi todos los países de nuestra...
Full Text Available Alors que les développements structuralistes et post-structuralistes ont favorisé la “textualisation” de la littérature médiévale, l’auteur suggère que la recontextualisation de la réception du roman médiéval passe par un retour aux manuscrits. Appliquée au manuscrit du Vatican, Regina Latina 1725, cette hypothèse de recherche révèle une technique de contrepoint que permet la juxtaposition de différents romans et dont, en dernier recours, le lecteur est toujours un peu juge.
Perry, Cynthia K; McCalmont, Jean C; Ward, Judy P; Menelas, Hannah-Dulya K; Jackson, Christie; De Witz, Jazmyne R; Solanki, Emma; Seguin, Rebecca A
To describe our use of intervention mapping as a systematic method to adapt an evidence-based physical activity and nutrition program to reflect the needs of rural Latinas. An intervention mapping process involving six steps guided the adaptation of an evidence based physical activity and nutrition program, using a community-based participatory research approach. We partnered with a community advisory board of rural Latinas throughout the adaptation process. A needs assessment and logic models were used to ascertain which program was the best fit for adaptation. Once identified, we collaborated with one of the developers of the original program (StrongWomen - Healthy Hearts) during the adaptation process. First, essential theoretical methods and program elements were identified, and additional elements were added or adapted. Next, we reviewed and made changes to reflect the community and cultural context of the practical applications, intervention strategies, program curriculum, materials, and participant information. Finally, we planned for the implementation and evaluation of the adapted program, Mujeres Fuertes y Corazones Saludables, within the context of the rural community. A pilot study will be conducted with overweight, sedentary, middle-aged, Spanish-speaking Latinas. Outcome measures will assess change in weight, physical fitness, physical activity, and nutrition behavior. The intervention mapping process was feasible and provided a systematic approach to balance fit and fidelity in the adaptation of an evidence-based program. Collaboration with community members ensured that the components of the curriculum that were adapted were culturally appropriate and relevant within the local community context.
Ana Cristina Lindsay
Full Text Available Latina women in the United States (U.S. are disproportionately affected by obesity and are more likely to begin pregnancy overweight and gain excessive weight during pregnancy. The prenatal care period represents a window of opportunity for women to access the healthcare system and receive preventive services, education, nutritional support, and other social services to improve pregnancy outcomes. Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG has numerous negative short- and long-term consequences for both the mother and newborn. We explored nulliparous Latina women’s perceptions about their experiences communicating with their primary healthcare provider about GWG and physical activity (PA to identify possible intervention targets using in-depth, semi-structured interviews. Bilingual, trained research staff conducted 23 interviews with first-time pregnant Latinas between 22 and 36 weeks of gestation. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Salient text passages were extracted, shortened, coded, and grouped into categories. Women, including those who self-identified as being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy, reported receiving limited or no advice from their healthcare providers about GWG or PA. Additionally, analysis revealed that although participants value information received from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program counselors, they would like to receive more information from their primary healthcare providers about adequate GWG. Furthermore, study findings indicate that some participants received conflicting information regarding PA during pregnancy. Study findings suggest the need for increased integration of communication and counseling about GWG and PA into prenatal care services to promote healthy weight gain and PA among low-income Latina women.
Lic. Vivian Jara
Full Text Available 'La Ilustración Española y Americana' es, probablemente, la más sobresaliente publicación semanal que se conserva de la época, una de las de mayor tirada y de mayor difusión, tanto en el Viejo como en el Nuevo Continente, y probablemente también una de las de mayor perdurabilidad en el tiempo. Se publicaba en Madrid y era distribuida a todos los países de habla hispana. Para realizar este trabajo la autora trabajó con los ejemplares de La Ilustración Española y Americana desde 1876 y hasta 1881, inclusive, y con los Almanaques de La Ilustración conservados en la Biblioteca de la Universidad de La Laguna. El trabajo consistió en el relevamiento de imágenes de y/o referidas a América Latina. Con tal fin y bajo la dirección y tutoría del profesor Adrián Alemán de Armas, se elaboró una ficha de investigación que condensó los aspectos esenciales de dichas imágenes. Asimismo, se realizaron simultáneamente observaciones acerca de algunos aspectos más sobresalientes, en los artículos referidos a América Latina. Estos son los primeros resultados de dichas observaciones. Por supuesto, aún queda mucho por releer, re-analizar y elaborar. En principio, hemos tratado de determinar, desde una perspectiva cuantitativa, el porcentual de espacio asignado a América Latina, en las páginas de La Ilustración Española y Americana.
Buendía-Martínez, Inmaculada; Carrasco, Inmaculada
El mundo rural está en transformación. El desarrollo rural requiere cambios que permitan la revalorización de las áreas rurales sobre nuevas fuentes de renta. La participación activa y formal de las mujeres en esta mutación resulta clave, aunque se necesitan instrumentos económicos para fomentar su empoderamiento. La finalidad de este artículo es analizar las relaciones entre empoderamiento femenino, actividad empresarial y desarrollo rural en América Latina. Para ello, se ha realizado un Mod...
Montoya Jhon Williams
Full Text Available En este ensayo se examina el comportamiento del sistema de ciudades latinoamericano, teniendo como contexto los procesos recientes de globalización económica y usando como perspectiva el discurso de ciudad mundial. El documento contiene una corta disertación sobre globalización, cambio urbano y procesos de ciudad global. Se desarrolla luego una evaluación general del sistema global de ciudades, para profundizar sobre la posición y reorganización del sistema de ciudades de América Latina.
Tradicionalmente, el acceso a la información científica a nivel mundial ha sido exclusivo de grupos selectos, entre ellos los maestros, los investigadores y los estudiantes universitarios. En América Latina, la situación ha tenido algunas variables adicionales, entre ellas el costo de subscripción y la falta de contenido en español en revistas académicocientíficas. Afortunadamente, los avances en las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación están modificando positivamente la divulgació...
Vélez, William; Antrop-González, René
This study uses mixed methods to identify the factors linked to varying levels of academic performance among Latina/o students enrolled in an alternative high school. Results from the quantitative analyses suggest students who had highly educated fathers and who reported high levels of English literacy are very likely to be classified as academic…
Javier Esteinou Madrid
Full Text Available Las tesis modernizadoras que sostienen la privatización, la desregulación, la globalización y la transnacionalización, están transformando la estructura y la dinámica de la comunicación en América Latina. El autor analiza cómo las leyes del mercado han influido en la investigación de la comunicación regional y detalla cinco principios que rigen el proyecto neoliberal de investigación vigente.
Aldo Olano Alor
Full Text Available Este artículo revisa los componentes teóricos de la estrategia de desarrollo por sustitución de importaciones promovida por la Cepal, con base en documentos de la Comisión y de sus altos funcionarios. La implantación del modelo desarrollista, que no tuvo en cuenta la evolución histórica ni las particularidades de América Latina, fue un compromiso con las entidades que lo promovían a escala global.
Alfredo Pintor Villarroel
Full Text Available En este artículo se establece que la modernización en América Latina ha sido generada por diversos factores como el proceso de urbanización y crecimiento rápido de los centros urbanísticos principales; la irrupción de medios masivos de comunicación productores de una cultura de masas; y la escuela como institución que cumple un papel importante en la construcción de la identidad. Se analiza la relación entre Sociedad y Educación y se estudian algunos antecedentes de la identidad en el contexto latinoamericano, revisando aspectos indispensables para una profundización en el plano investigativo y de reflexión desde las ciencias sociales.
Maria da Glória Gohn
Full Text Available Este texto destaca formas de ações coletivas civis organizadas em movimentos sociais ou redes sociais que participam de programas e projetos sociais institucionalizados na América Latina, com destaque para o caso brasileiro na última década. As questões investigadas são: Quem são os atores sociais que protagonizam essas ações associativas? Que público e demandas representam? Que impactos essas demandas geraram na sociedade e no poder público? Que respostas elas têm obtido? Ao final, desenvolvem-se algumas considerações sobre as manifestações sociais ocorridas em junho de 2013 no Brasil, no contexto dos cenários apresentados ao longo do texto.
Full Text Available El artículo analiza la evolución del regionalismo en América Latina desde los años noventa. Expone las opciones que se plantean a los países en sus políticas exteriores frente a las iniciativas de Estados Unidos y los cambios en el sistema internacional. Se expone la importancia funcional de las potencias emergentes (PEMS y las regiones en la fase actual del capitalismo. Finalmente el artículo analiza las perspectivas del regionalismo en América Latina tanto en el sistema internacional como en la construcción de un modelo de gobernanza regional.
Este artículo explora las posibilidades de concretar resultados de una de las principales iniciativas del presidente venezolano Hugo Chávez: aumentar la cooperación entre las mayores compañías petroleras de América Latina. Así, se presenta una mirada global de la industria petrolera, un perfil de cada una de estas industrias de América Latina y luego se examinan los obstáculos y los potenciales que presenta esta iniciativa, así como también los pasos necesarios que deben adelantarse para la c...
C. Kay (Cristóbal)
textabstractResumen: Este artículo investiga el surgimiento a mediados de la década de los noventa de un nuevo enfoque para los estudios del desarrollo rural en América Latina. Se abordan las diferentes interpretaciones y contradicciones de este acercamiento así como los debates resultantes.
Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Herrmann, Stephen; Belyea, Michael; Records, Kathryn; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Vega-López, Sonia; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean V
To describe the physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors of postpartum Latinas who are overweight or obese before initiating Madres para la Salud, a social support-mediated walking intervention to promote postpartum weight loss. One hundred thirty-nine postpartum women (13.6 ± 7.7 wk since childbirth, age = 28.3 ± 5.6 yr, BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg · m(-2); mean ± SD), recruited from organizations serving Latino residents in the Phoenix, Arizona, area completed the Stanford Brief Activity Survey and concurrently wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph) and a pedometer for 7 d and kept a PA record. Most were classified as inactive and lightly active on the Stanford Brief Activity Survey (51% inactive, 37% light, 11% moderate). Most time was spent in sedentary (512.0 ± 169.9 min · d(-1)) and light-intensity PA (242.4 ± 51.4 min · d(-1)) with less time in moderate-intensity lifestyle (78.3 ± 39.9 min · d(-1)), moderate-intensity walking (16.6 ± 14.4 min · d(-1)), and vigorous-intensity PA (0.34 ± 1.5 min · d(-1)). Pedometer steps per day were low (total = 4973 ± 2202 steps, aerobic = 412 ± 774 steps), with most participants rated as sedentary (61%) or low active (28.1%). Consistent with objective PA measures, PA records showed more time spent in light-intensity PA such as home care, cooking, child care and self-care tasks, occupation, religious events, and watching television. By and large, the postpartum Latinas enrolled spent most of their day in low-intensity activity levels with little time spent in health-enhancing PA levels/behaviors. This demographic should be the focus of PA interventions to increase PA to health-enhancing levels.
Maria de Jesus Daiane Rufino Leal
Full Text Available RESUMO A cobertura internacional é um dos conteúdos mais presentes no Jornal Nacional, da emissora TV Globo. O estudo investigou qual o lugar dos países latino-americanos nesta cobertura em relação ao espaço ocupado, às temáticas abordadas, aos formatos mais frequentes e à autoria dos conteúdos. Para tanto foi realizada uma Análise de Conteúdo do telejornal recorrendo-se as teorias do Agenda Setting, Espiral do Silêncio e estudos de Newsmaking como suporte para interpretar os resultados da análise. Constatou-se que o espaço destinado a América Latina é restrito e que os formatos não favorecem o conteúdo. Identificou-se ainda uma super-representação dos Estados Unidos e de alguns países europeus no telejornal. Palavras-chave: Jornalismo, Cobertura Internacional, América Latina. ABSTRACT International coverage is one of the most content present in the Jornal Nacional of broadcaster TV Globo. The study investigated what the place of Latin American countries in this coverage in relation to the space occupied, the themes, the most common formats and the authorship of the contents. For both a content Analysis of television news using the theories of Agenda Setting, Espiral do Silêncio and Newsmaking studies as support for interpreting the results of the analysis. It was noted that the space for Latin America is restricted and that do not favor the content formats. Identificou-se ainda uma super-representação dos Estados Unidos e de alguns países europeus no telejornal. Key words: Journalism, International Coverage. Latin America.
Juan SANTOS YANGUAS
Full Text Available RESUMEN: En este artículo damos a conocer seis nuevas inscripciones latinas de la mutalla de Segovia. Se trata de cuatro estelas de granito y dos bloques de caliza. Estas inscripciones están muy deterioradas y hemos utilizado para leerlas papel-aluminio, en el cual, al contacto con la piedra, quedan impresas las letras. Unicamente está completa, aunque borrada en parte, una de ellas, de la cual ofrecemos el testimonio de dos fotografías.ABSTRACT: In this article are published six new roman inscriptions from the wall at Segovia. They are four granite stellae and two limestone blocks. As all they are very damaged it was necessary to use a sheet of aluminium-paper; when the sheet is pressed over the stone-surface, the few traces of the letters are more easier to be read. Two fotogtaphs illustrate on the only inscription which is wholy conserved, being its icxt unfortunately partly disappeared.
Various methods for calculation of neutron flux in power reactors are discussed. Some mathematical models used to describe transients in nuclear reactors and techniques for the reactor kinetics' relevant equations solution are also presented
Everaldo Batista da Costa
Full Text Available Los grave s problemas de orden social en América Latina -desde la intolerancia etnocultural hasta la precariedad laboral e indigencia- producen ‘territorios de excepción’ como locus de la vida, paradójicamente, segmentada y pujante, de los subalternizados por la modernidad/colonialidad del poder. En este sentido, el objetivo del artículo es escribir notas teóricas y metodológicas para la activación popular del denominado ‘patrimonio-territorial’ situado en territorios de excepción latinoamericanos. Se adoptaron dos procedimientos analíticos principales: a el patrimonio territorial se aborda como resistencia, en la lógica de la división social y espacial del trabajo latinoamericano; b la activación popular del patrimonio-territorial se discute con propuestas metodológicas en términos de niveles, escalas y temporalidades, para la elaboración de ‘itinerarios patrimoniales utópicos’. Datos recientes de la Cepal sobre la urbanización, trabajo, pobreza y turismo en América Latina, acompañan y justifican la propuesta.
Althoff, Meghan D; Grayson, Cary T; Witt, Lucy; Holden, Julie; Reid, Daniel; Kissinger, Patricia
The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of behavioral interventions in reducing risky sexual behavior and incident sexually transmitted infections (STI) among Latina women living in the United States. Studies were found by systematically searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsychInfo databases without language restriction. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts and full texts of articles to find randomized control trials testing the effects of behavioral interventions aimed at changing risky sexual behavior among Latinas. Articles were selected using prespecified inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted data from the included trials in duplicate using a standardized data extraction form. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria for a total of 2,909 participants. Using random effects models with inverse variance weighting, we found a protective effect of the behavioral intervention on reported risky sexual behavior (odds ratio = 0.52; 95% confidence interval = 0.42, 0.64) and on incident nonviral STI (odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval = 0.46, 0.93). Behavioral interventions targeted toward Latina populations are effective in reducing risky sexual behaviors and incident STI and should be considered by policymakers as a potential tool for HIV/STI prevention in this population. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Agueda Parra Pérez
Full Text Available España tiene la oportunidad de desempeñar un papel importante en el proceso de internacionalización de las empresas chinas hacia Europa y América Latina gracias a la histórica experiencia de las multinacionales españolas en estas regiones. Puesto que las relaciones diplomáticas entre España y China gozan de buena sintonía, si España aprovecha la posición de privilegio respecto al resto de economías europeas, el gigante asiático podría estar interesado en el apoyo de España en América Latina, propiciando así la implantación de iniciativas de cooperación entre los tres polos. Los puntos clave para construir una relación win-win en clave triangular es la importancia de un socio local para profundizar en su despliegue internacional en América Latina, que las empresas chinas requieren, además del expertise y know-how necesarios en los procesos operativos, siendo en estos ámbitos las empresas españolas las mejor posicionadas.
Masumi, Ryoji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.
In a reactor core in FBR type reactors, a portion of homogenous fuels constituting the homogenous reactor core is replaced with multi-region fuels in which the enrichment degree of fissile materials is lower nearer to the axial center. This enables to condition the composition such that a reactor core having neutron flux distribution either of a homogenous reactor core or a heterogenous reactor core has substantially identical reactivity. Accordingly, in the transfer from the homogenous reactor core to the axially heterogenous reactor core, the average reactivity in the reactor core is substantially equal in each of the cycles. Further, by replacing a portion of the homogenous fuels with a multi-region fuels, thereby increasing the heat generation near the axial center, it is possiable to reduce the linear power output in the regions above and below thereof and, in addition, to improve the thermal margin in the reactor core. (T.M.)
Luque, John S; Tarasenko, Yelena N; Reyes-Garcia, Claudia; Alfonso, Moya L; Suazo, Norma; Rebing, Laura; Ferris, Daron G
This study examined the feasibility and efficacy of Salud es Vida-a promotora-led, Spanish language educational group session on cervical cancer screening (Pap tests)-self-efficacy (belief in ability to schedule and complete a Pap test), and knowledge among immigrant Hispanic/Latina women from farmworker backgrounds. These women are disproportionately burdened with cervical cancer, with mortality rates significantly higher than non-Hispanic whites. The two-arm, quasi-experimental study was conducted in four rural counties of Southeast Georgia in 2014-2015. Hispanic/Latina immigrant women aged 21-65 years and overdue for a Pap test were included as intervention (N = 38) and control (N = 52) group participants. The intervention was developed in partnership with a group of promotoras to create the toolkit of materials which includes a curriculum guide, a brochure, a flipchart, a short animated video, and in-class activities. Twelve (32 %) intervention group participants received the Pap test compared to 10 (19 %) control group participants (p = 0.178). The intervention group scored significantly higher on both cervical cancer knowledge recall and retention than the control group (p < 0.001). While there was no statistically significant difference in cervical cancer screening self-efficacy scores between the group participants, both groups scored higher at follow-up, adjusting for the baseline scores. The group intervention approach was associated with increased cervical cancer knowledge but not uptake of Pap test. More intensive interventions using patient navigation approaches or promotoras who actively follow participants or conducting one-on-one rather than group sessions may be needed to achieve improved screening outcomes with this population.
Jackson, Benita; Rivera-Olmedo, Noemi
Background Prior research suggests that stronger racial/ethnic identification offsets negative effects of discrimination on substance use. Yet research in this area and on whether gender modifies this association is limited for Latina/os. Purpose The purpose of the present study is to examine whether different sources of discrimination (everyday and racial/ethnic) are associated with substance use (alcohol use disorder, smoking), if racial/ethnic identity buffers this association, and the potential moderating role of gender among these variables. Methods We present cross-sectional, US population-based data from the Latina/o adult sample (1427 females and 1127 males) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Respondents completed self-reported measures of everyday and racial/ethnic discrimination, racial/ethnic identity, smoking status, and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) lifetime alcohol use disorder. Results Weighted logistic regression analyses showed that before inclusion of three-way interactions and adjusting for covariates, everyday discrimination predicted increased risk for any DSM-IV lifetime alcohol use disorders. Moderation analyses revealed that the effect of everyday discrimination on the risk of being a current smoker was strongest for Latino men with high levels of racial/ethnic identity compared to those with low racial/ethnic identity. No differences were noted among Latino women. There were no main or interaction effects of racial/ethnic discrimination for any substance use outcome. Conclusions Findings suggest differential associations for type of discrimination and outcome and that the role of racial/ethnic identity is gender-specific for smoking, appearing particularly detrimental for Latino men reporting high levels of racial/ethnic identity. PMID:26489844
Rios-Aguilar, Cecilia; Deil-Amen, Regina
Social network analyses, combined with qualitative analyses, are examined to understand key components of the college trajectories of 261 Latina/o students. Their social network ties reveal variation in extensity and the relevance. Most ties facilitate social capital relevant to getting into college, fewer engage social capital relevant to…
Maria da Glória Gohn
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7984.2014v13n28p79 O artigo focaliza a produção teórica sobre os movimentos sociais na América Latina com destaque para a produção brasileira. Ele se divide em duas partes. A primeira sistematiza diferentes eixos e suportes teórico-metodológicos que configuram as abordagens sobre os movimentos sociais a partir dos da década de 1960, contextualizando fatos e abordagens. Resgatam-se autores, teorias, conceitos e as categorias utilizadas que deram suporte aos estudos realizados nas décadas de 1970-1990, especialmente as teorias da identidade coletiva e da Mobilização Política. No caso brasileiro, destaca-se o papel da ANPOCs. A segunda apresenta um panorama geral sobre as teorias contemporâneas que têm predominado na América Latina na atualidade, incluindo as referências presentes nos protestos e manifestações que ocorreram em 2013 no Brasil. Sistematizam- se cinco abordagens: a humanista, teorias pós-coloniais, teorias marxista e pós-marxista, os autonomistas e os institucionalistas.
Full Text Available El éxito del desarrollo económico de China es quizá uno de los fenómenos más importantes de finales del siglo XX y lo que va del presente y los países de América Latina son parte de esta realidad. En poco tiempo China se ha convertido en el principal o uno de los principales socios comerciales de los países de América Latina. El acercamiento político, el intercambio comercial y la cooperación con el hemisferio americano se han incrementado desde la llegada de Hu Jintao al poder y ante el aumento de la demanda de materias primas y recursos naturales. Sin embargo esta creciente relación tiene dos aristas, por un lado casi todos los países guardan un superávit comercial con China, no obstante la mayoría de ellos se apoyan en la exportación de energéticos y de un número reducido de materias primas y alimentos. Esta situación puede crear una dependencia comercial con potenciales efectos negativos dado lo volátil de los precios de estas mercancías y del poder de compra internacional que guarda China.
Ford, Sabrina; Meghea, Cristian; Estes, Tamika; Hamade, Hiam; Lockett, Murlisa; Williams, Karen Patricia
We evaluated a randomized controlled treatment, utilizing Community Health Workers (CHW) to deliver breast and cervical cancer education intervention to African American, Latina, and Arab women in Detroit and Dearborn, Michigan. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) examine fidelity and consistency of treatment delivery and (2) assess qualitative elements of the intervention. We surveyed 305 women who received the intervention and 16 CHWs Survey included questions regarding the treatment integrity, treatment received, and training provided. Surveys included both quantitative and questions. The intervention group (n = 305) was made up of 48% Black, 11% Latina, and 41% Arab women. Almost all (≥ 90%) women agreed that they received the treatment in the way that it was intended. Sixteen CHWs responded affirmatively as well. Both participants and CHWs indicated that the program was mutually rewarding, indicating that there was "cross fertilization and cross benefit" of working with each other. These benefits served to endorse and confirm that CHWs are a very important mechanism in increasing health literacy in the community and referring underserved individuals to health providers. Second, with strong treatment fidelity the Kin Keeper(SM) program and has the potential to be replicated for a number of diseases in a variety of venues especially for those facing health disparities.
Full Text Available A mundialização do capital gerou muitos desafios para os países latino-americanos, especialmente para as comunidades tradicionais e indígenas que inseriram no mercado global. Este artigo traça um debate preliminar sobre o turismo comunitário, ferramenta do capital, que passou a integrar as atividades econômicas das comunidades tradicionais e indígenas na América Latina. Trata-se de uma pesquisa qualitativa realizada por meios bibliográficos, documentais e com coleta de dados em três comunidades indígenas em Puerto Iguazu na Argentina. Conclui-se que o turismo se apropria e comercializa o “exótico” das comunidades e também contribui com a economia local. No entanto, o diálogo entre os atores envolvidos (Estado, empresas, ONG´S e comunidades precisa ser aprofundado, numa construção onde os protagonistas sejam as próprias comunidades para evitar a expropriação de suas culturas. Na América Latina as comunidades têm se organizado em redes e o turismo comunitário teve participação no reconhecimento das mesmas a partir de ações e criação de políticas públicas. Em Puerto Iguazu as três experiências conhecidas retratam três formas distintas de atuação do turismo e apenas uma delas vincula-se diretamente os princípios do turismo comunitário.
Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America / Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina
Adolfo Benito Narváez Tijerina
Full Text Available Book Review Imaginary modernity and tradition. Architecture of the twentieth century in Latin America Reseña del Libro Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. Ettinger, Catherine R. (coord. (2015. Imaginarios de modernidad y tradición. Arquitectura del siglo XX en América Latina. México: Miguel Ángel Porrúa, 259 páginas. ISBN: 978-6074019681.
Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann
The objective of this study was to examine the association between inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish among low-income Latinas aged 40 and older and cervical cancer screening knowledge and behavior. Spanish-speaking Latinas aged 40-78 of various nationalities (n = 205) participated in a study that included a survey on cervical cancer knowledge and behavior administered in Spanish and the Spanish version of the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults. Compared to those with adequate and marginal health literacy, women with inadequate functional health literacy in Spanish were significantly less likely to have ever had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test (odds ratio, 0.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.04-0.37) or in the last three years (odds ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18-0.68) and were significantly more likely to have had their last Pap test at a local public hospital (odds ratio, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.18-4.97). Even when controlling for other factors, women with inadequate health literacy were 16.7 times less likely (adjusted odds ratio, 0.06; 95% CI, 0.01-0.55) to have ever had a Pap test. Almost half of the population we studied will have difficulty interpreting written medical materials, even in Spanish. When developing efforts to reach women who have not been screened, programs and service providers need to be aware that the women most in need of information about screening may be more likely to be unable to read any written materials provided to them, regardless of the language or level of simplicity of the materials. Programs and strategies need to be implemented to increase screening prevalence and to minimize the identified gaps in regular screening for Latinas who have low health literacy.
Full Text Available América Latina es considerada la región más desigual del planeta. Es el Continente donde, según múltiples fuentes, las polarizaciones son mayores en diversos campos, y el acceso a las oportunidades es marcadamente disímil para los diferentes sectores sociales. ¿Cómo impacta la inequidad latinoamericana el fundamental campo de la salud? ¿Qué problemas determina en esta área decisiva de la vida de las sociedades, y qué obstáculos y trabas pone al avance de los esfuerzos para mejorar la salud?.A pesar de su clara relevancia, este tema ha sido limitadamente puesto a foco. El objetivo de este trabajo es llamar la atención sobre el mismo, y contribuir a estimular este debate tan necesario. Para ello se subraya, en primer término, el papel central de la salud para el desarrollo, se reseñan las amplias brechas que existen, a pesar de ello, a nivel mundial entre países, y a su interior, se encaran ciertos difundidos mitos sobre cómo superar los problemas en salud, se exploran algunos de los principales impactos de la desigualdad de América Latina sobre aspectos básicos del campo de la salud y, finalmente, se sugieren algunas líneas de la gran tarea por realizar para enfrentar el peso de la inequidad sobre la salud pública.
Isabel Guzmán Arias
Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el panorama general en materia de planificación de los recursos hídricos que se está implementando en América Latina. Para llegar a ello, se acude a un marco conceptual que permita enterar al lector del funcionamiento e importancia del recurso hídrico en todas las fases de su ciclo y algunos elementos básicos para su gestión. Las situaciones que particularmente impulsan la problemática en este tema, son: el crecimiento de la población y el desarrollo económico, constituidos en factores de presión sobre los recursos naturales y el ambiente, la expansión de la frontera agrícola, la deforestación, la minería, la industrialización y el desarrollo urbano, que se constituyen en las actividades que generan los impactos ambientales más significativos sobre la oferta ambiental, cuando estas no se desarrollan de una manera acorde con la capacidad de carga de los ecosistemas. Y cada una de ellas demanda del suministro o abastecimiento y disponibilidad de grandes volúmenes de agua, tanto para consumo humano como para el desarrollo de actividades agropecuarias, industriales y en general todas aquellas relacionadas con el desarrollo económico. A partir de este escenario, se presentan algunas de las iniciativas que se han generado en América Latina para hacerle frente.
Carlos Felipe Jaramillo; Thomas Kelly
En el presente documento se analiza la vinculación entre los derechos de propiedad y la deforestación en América Latina. Según ese análisis, hay dos esferas separadas en que las cuestiones relacionadas con la tenencia inciden sobre el interés en el desmonte, a saber, la seguridad de los derechos de propiedad individual sobre las tierras agrícolas establecidas y sus efectos sobre la producción y el empleo agrícolas, y los regímenes de tenencia sobre las áreas forestadas y sus efectos sobre el ...
Murillo Torrecilla, Francisco Javier; Román, Marcela
El artículo analiza y compara los resultados del desempeño escolar de estudiantes de los últimos cursos de Educación Primaria y primeros grados de Educación Secundaria de 15 países América Latina. Lo hace desde la información y datos obtenidos de los reportes que han elaborado las propias unidades de evaluación de los Ministerios de Educación de los respectivos países para trabajar y difundir los resultados. El estudio analiza, en primer lugar, la situación actual del rendimiento escolar a pa...
Del 22 al 25 de abril de 2014, en las instalaciones de la Alianza Francesa de Lima, se llevó a cabo el coloquio internacional «Pensar las cárceles de América Latina» que reunió a 25 expositores, oriundos de México, El Salvador, Colombia, Venezuela, Perú, Argentina, Brasil y Francia. Organizado por Chloé Constant y Chloé Paux, el evento se realizó gracias al Servicio de Cooperación Regional para los Países Andinos de la Embajada de Francia en el Perú, al Instituto Francés de Estudios Andinos (...
Rodríguez C, Guadalupe C; Lizarazo O, Cristian
La oncocercosis es una enfermedad exclusiva del ser humano, caracterizada por prurito intenso, lesiones dérmicas y daño ocular que puede llegar a la ceguera. Las regiones endémicas están limitadas a zonas con latitud, relieve, temperatura y humedad relativa óptimas para el desarrollo del parásito y el insecto vector. Estas zonas se encuentran en el oeste de África, Yemen y algunos países de América latina. El parásito es transmitido a través de la mordedura de una mosca del género Simulium, q...
Gurman, Tilly A; Becker, Davida
Due to the influx of Latino immigration in the United States, health care services are faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of this growing population. In this qualitative study, we explored Latina immigrants' experiences with maternal health care services. We found that despite enduring language barriers and problems, Spanish-speaking women expressed satisfaction with their care. Factors influencing women's perceptions of care included sociocultural norms (respeto, personalismo, and familismo), previous experiences with care in their countries of origin, having healthy babies, and knowledge about entitlement to interpreter services. We offer recommendations for public health practice and research.
Nasir, Ambareen; Heineke, Amy J.
This study investigates how early clinical experiences impact teacher candidates' learning and experiences with Latina/o English learners in a field-based program housed in a multilingual, urban elementary school. We draw on multiple-case study design and use discourse analysis to explore cases of three candidates. Findings reveal exploration of…
Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo.
In BWR type reactors, improvement for the reactor shutdown margin is an important characteristic condition togehter with power distribution flattening . However, in the reactor core at high burnup degree, the reactor shutdown margin is different depending on the radial position of the reactor core. That is , the reactor shutdown margin is smaller in the outer peripheral region than in the central region of the reactor core. In view of the above, the reactor core is divided radially into a central region and as outer region. The amount of fissionable material of first fuel assemblies newly loaded in the outer region is made less than the amount of the fissionable material of second fuel assemblies newly loaded in the central region, to thereby improve the reactor shutdown margin in the outer region. Further, the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower portion of the first fuel assemblies is made smaller than the ratio between the amount of the fissionable material in the upper region and that of the fissionable material in the lower region of the second fuel assemblies, to thereby obtain a sufficient thermal margin in the central region. (K.M.)
Paulina Beato; Antonio Vives
Este documento presenta los obstáculos al desarrollo empresarial que han sido identificados por los actores de la región y el impacto de los mismos sobre el crecimiento y la competitividad utilizando para ello trabajos previamente realizados. Su objetivo es iniciar y promover una discusión ordenada de los obstáculos al desarrollo empresarial en América Latina con el fin de recabar sugerencias de los actores para el diseño e implantación de políticas para aumentar la competitividad y el crecim...
Full Text Available Este artículo surge de un interés personal de expandir los estudios de medios en idiomas minoritarios al contexto de América Latina. Al mismo tiempo, surge de un deseo de presentar algunos de los logros de la Comunicación para el Cambio Social en América Latina a la comunidad académica de estudios mediáticos en Europa, que no los conocen a fondo. Para lograr esto, este artículo presenta los elementos comunes entre las dos áreas de estudio. Llama la atención sobre el hecho de que el idioma es tan sólo uno de los varios aspectos culturales bajo los cuales las comunidades indígenas y étnicas son marginadas tanto del acceso a los medios de comunicación principales, como a través de los contenidos de estos. El artículo instiga a que la investigación sobre medios en idiomas minoritarios en América Latina opte por una aproximación contextual que estudie los procesos de negociación de identidad y la capacidad participativa, definidas bajo los conceptos de hibridación y convergencia. También exige que en las investigaciones exista un incremento en la participación de los sujetos de éstas. Por último, ambos aspectos son presentados como el diálogo fundamental para extender a América Latina los estudios de medios en idiomas minoritarios y proveer así de retroalimentación para su continuo desarrollo en Europa.
Full Text Available Este artículo compara las revoluciones francesa y estadounidense del último tercio del siglo XVIII con la independencia y la revolución en la América Latina de inicios del siglo XIX, bajo una perspectiva teórica particular. Centrándose principalmente en las etapas iniciales de estos eventos revolucionarios, se demostrará que a en los tres casos, el camino hacia un quiebre revolucionario con el viejo régimen no fue predeterminado y b particularmente en las Américas, el tema de la Nación no fue del todo resuelto por los revolucionarios. Ésta es una de las explicaciones más importantes de por qué, en adelante, la construcción de la Nación –y del Estado– en América Latina y Norteamérica no fue un proceso cómodo ni linear.
García Chourio José Guillermo
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García Chourio, José Guillermo. "De la Primera a la Segunda Generacion de Reformas del Estado en America Latina: Giro Ideologico y Cambio Conceptual", Cuadernos de Economía, V. XXII, n. 38, Bogota, 2003, paginas 95-125.
Este trabajo explora la orientacion ideologica y conceptual que ha guiado el proceso de reformas economicas en America Latina, diferenciando la puesta en marcha de las medidas en dos generaciones. Partimos de la idea de que la transicion entre generaciones obedece a las reformas iniciales, producto de las experiencias del fracaso y oposicion que han tenido los ajustes. Se concluye que existio un giro conceptual, expresado por el paso del enfoque de las expectativas racionales, el cual sustento una politica de choques externos mediante medidas de ajuste y de reduccion del estado para disciplinar a los agentes economicos, al enfoque neoinstitucional, que concibe las reformas como un proceso de creacion de instituciones acordes para el buen funcionamiento del mercado, reconociendose ahora al Estado como mecanismo basico para reducir los costos de transaccion de dichos agentes en el mercado.
Maria E. Fernandez
Full Text Available Little is known about the factors influencing screening among low-income Hispanic women particularly among recent immigrants. A sample of 148 low-income, low-literate, foreign-born Hispanic women residing in the Washington DC metropolitan area participated in the study. The mean age of the sample was 46.2 (SD = 11.5, 84% reported annual household incomesEste estudo determinou os fatores que influenciam a conduta de mulheres latinas de baixa renda nos EUA, em face do monitoramento pela mamografia (MM e por meio do teste de Papanicolau (TP, em uma amostra de 148 mulheres latinas, residentes na região metropolitana de Washington DC. A idade média na amostra foi de 46,2 anos (desvio padrão 11,5, e 84% relatavam renda familiar anual menor que quinze mil dólares. Todas as mulheres falavam espanhol e apresentavam níveis reduzidos de aculturação; 96% destas informavam ter realizado TP, mas 24% não relatavam adesão às normas recomendadas de rastreamento. Entre aquelas com quarenta anos ou mais, 62% haviam realizado MM, mas somente 33% de acordo com as normas de rotina. A freqüência de conceitos equivocados sobre o câncer neste grupo de mulheres foi maior que a observada para mulheres latinas em outros estudos. Modelos logísticos multivariados para variáveis correlacionadas à conduta no rastreamento pelo TP e MM indicam que fatores como o medo do teste, vergonha e desconhecimento tiveram influência. Concluiu-se que as mulheres nesse estudo apresentaram menor freqüência de rastreamento por MM que mulheres não latinas, além de apresentarem também níveis mais reduzidos de adesão às normas de rastreamento por TP e MM.
Engmann, Natalie J; Ergas, Isaac J; Yao, Song; Kwan, Marilyn L; Roh, Janise M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Kushi, Lawrence H; Fejerman, Laura
Background: The U.S. Hispanic/Latino population is heterogeneous both socioculturally and by the proportion of European, Indigenous American, and African ancestry of the regions from which individuals originate. A previous study reported that genetic ancestry was associated with breast cancer survival among Latinas, independent of sociodemographic and tumor characteristics, suggesting that a genetic factor associated with ancestry may affect breast cancer survival. Methods: We evaluated the association of genetic ancestry with breast cancer outcomes among 506 Latina women with invasive breast cancer in the Pathways Study, a cohort study within Kaiser Permanente, an integrated health care delivery system. Proportional hazards models were used to assess the effect of ancestry on breast cancer recurrence (53 events), breast cancer-specific mortality (31 events) and all-cause mortality (54 events), with a mean follow-up time of 6 years. Results: Indigenous American ancestry was not associated with breast cancer recurrence [HR = 1.00 per 10% increase; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-1.16], breast cancer mortality (HR = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.77-1.17), or all-cause mortality (HR = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.80-1.08). Adjustment for sociodemographic variables, tumor characteristics, and treatment did not alter the associations. Conclusions: Our results suggest that previously reported differences in breast cancer survival by genetic ancestry may be overcome by improving health care access and/or quality. Impact: Improving health care access and quality may reduce breast cancer disparities among U.S. Latinas. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1466-9. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.
The education and training of nuclear reactor operators is important to guarantee the safe operation of present and future nuclear reactors. Therefore, a course on basic 'Nuclear reactor physics' in the initial and continuous training of reactor operators has proven to be indispensable. In most countries, such training also results from the direct request from the safety authorities to assure the high level of competence of the staff in nuclear reactors. The aim of the basic course on 'Nuclear Reactor Physics for reactor operators' is to provide the reactor operators with a basic understanding of the main concepts relevant to nuclear reactors. Seen the education level of the participants, mathematical derivations are simplified and reduced to a minimum, but not completely eliminated
Hayashi, Hideyuki; Ichimiya, Masakazu.
A reactor core is a homogeneous reactor core divided into two regions of an inner reactor core region at the center and an outer reactor core region surrounding the outside of the inner reactor core region. In this case, the inner reactor core region has a lower plutonium enrichment degree and less amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction, and the outer reactor core region has higher plutonium enrichment degree and greater amount of neutron leakage in the radial direction. Moderator materials containing hydrogen are added only to the inner reactor core fuels in the inner reactor core region. Pins loaded with the fuels with addition of the moderator materials are inserted at a ratio of from 3 to 10% of the total number of the fuel pins. The moderator materials containing hydrogen comprise zirconium hydride, titanium hydride, or calcium hydride. With such a constitution, fluctuation of the power distribution in the radial direction along with burning is suppressed. In addition, an absolute value of the Doppler coefficient can be increased, and a temperature coefficient of coolants can be reduced. (I.N.)
Hartman, Sheri J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Bock, Beth C; Larsen, Britta A; Linke, Sarah; Pekmezi, Dori; Marquez, Becky; Gans, Kim M; Mendoza-Vasconez, Andrea S; Marcus, Bess H
Spanish-speaking Latinas have some of the lowest rates of meeting physical activity guidelines in the U.S. and are at high risk for many related chronic diseases. The purpose of the current study was to examine the maintenance of a culturally and individually-tailored Internet-based physical activity intervention for Spanish-speaking Latinas. Inactive Latinas (N = 205) were randomly assigned to a 6-month Tailored Physical Activity Internet Intervention or a Wellness Contact Control Internet Group, with a 6-month follow-up. Maintenance was measured by assessing group differences in minutes per week of self-reported and accelerometer measured moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at 12 months after baseline and changes in MVPA between the end of the active intervention (month 6) and the end of the study (month 12). Potential moderators of the intervention were also examined. Data were collected between 2011 and 2014, and were analyzed in 2015 at the University of California, San Diego. The Intervention Group engaged in significantly more minutes of MVPA per week than the Control Group at the end of the maintenance period for both self-reported (mean diff. = 30.68, SE = 11.27, p = .007) and accelerometer measured (mean diff. = 11.47, SE = 3.19, p = .01) MVPA. There were no significant between- or within-group changes in MVPA from month 6 to 12. Greater intervention effects were seen for those with lower BMI (BMI × intervention = -6.67, SE = 2.88, p = .02) and lower perceived places to walk to in their neighborhood (access × intervention = -43.25, SE = 19.07, p = .02), with a trend for less family support (social support × intervention = -3.49, SE = 2.05, p = .08). Acculturation, health literacy, and physical activity related psychosocial variables were not significant moderators of the intervention effect during the maintenance period. Findings from the current study support the efficacy of an Internet
Full Text Available El propósito del artículo es establecer un análisis del avance que presenta la gobernanza fiscal abierta en América Latina. A partir del estudio de los compromisos vinculados con el uso de los recursos públicos, las acciones inscritas en planes implementados por los países de la región en el marco de la Alianza por el Gobierno Abierto (AGA, se concluye con la necesidad de aprovechar el conocimiento y aprendizaje generado en los procesos de gobernanza fiscal con el uso de los recursos públicos, para movilizar una agenda enfocada en la resolución de los principales problemas que afectan a los ciudadanos y obstaculizan lograr resultados de desarrollo.
After some remarks on the nuclear fuel, on the chain reaction control, on fuel loading and unloading, this article proposes descriptions of the design, principles and operations of different types of nuclear reactors as well as comments on their presence and use in different countries: pressurized water reactors (design of the primary and secondary circuits, volume and chemistry control, backup injection circuits), boiling water reactors, heavy water reactors, graphite and boiling water reactors, graphite-gas reactors, fast breeder reactors, and fourth generation reactors (definition, fast breeding). For these last ones, six concepts are presented: sodium-cooled fast reactor, lead-cooled fast reactor, gas-cooled fast reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor, supercritical water-cooled reactor, and molten salt reactor
Francisco ROJAS ARAVENA
Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los atentados del 11-S subrayan que las respuestas a las nuevas amenazas requieren de la integración de políticas de Estado en cursos de acción efectivos. Por ello, este trabajo analiza, por un lado, los factores que dificultan el que América Latina participe en el diseño y formulación de las nuevas reglas del sistema internacional. Y, por otro lado, propone un nuevo concepto de seguridad basado en una perspectiva holística que relacione de manera efectiva los componentes de «seguridad internacional, seguridad estatal y seguridad humana».ABSTRACT: The September 11 attacks showed that the importance of the responses to new threats requires integration of the policies of the State for effective action. Therefore, this paper analyzes, on one side, the factors that complicate Latin America’s participation in the design and formulation of the new international system rules. And, on the other side, it proposes a new concept of security based on a holistic perspective that effectively relates the components of international security, state security, and human security.
Kilanowski, Jill F.
Introduction The purpose of the study was to learn preferences of Latina migrant farmworker (MFW) mothers’ in the presentation of health education materials by discussing the strengths and weaknesses of numerous mixed-media samples. Method This community-based participatory study was qualitative and descriptive in design. Focus groups were conducted in Spanish in four Midwest migrant camps with a convenience sample of mothers (n=31). Adult learning and cultural care theories guided the study. Various modes of educational materials on various topics were presented. Results Mothers preferred comic book-style handouts, games, food replicas, text in English/Spanish, and DVDs, but almost all did not have media-playing equipment. They did not like black-and-white photos, or cartoon-like illustrations. Identified themes of importance were colored illustrations, sizes mothers could easily carry in purses, and limited verbiage on a page. Discussion Learned knowledge will be used to customize health promotion interventions that are sensitive to MFW preferred learning styles. The findings from this study can inform other interventions with Latino populations and serve as a prototype for other populations of immigrant non-English speaking mothers. PMID:23611456
Alceu Dias Lima
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A distinção fonética x fonologia é decisiva no estudo da prosódia latina, pois propicia o estudo dos versos dessa língua sem recurso à pronúncia em voz alta dos seus fonemas. Assim, para que o a inicial da Eneida cumpra seu papel, basta contar-se com que ele contém, por sua abertura máxima, todas as vogais da língua. O tempo, como unidade da língua, é importante na constituição do verso latino. Mas é preciso insistir em que tempo, aí, não é sílaba, portanto o verso latino t em constituição diferente do verso em idiomas modernos. Por isso, em latim, versos são realidade em grande parte psíquica, pouco importando se, para os romanos, eram também física. Só no conceito greimasiano de efeito de ou dos sentidos é que se tem um indicador seguro para a leitura de versos latinos.
Bazargan, Mohsen; Galvan, Frank
This study examines exposure to perceived discrimination and its association with depression among low-income, Latina male-to-female transgender women as well as evaluates the impact of sexual partner violence and mistreatment on depression. A total of 220 Latina male-to-female transgender women who resided in Los Angeles, California, were recruited through community based organizations and referrals. Participants completed individual interviews using a structured questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Perceived discrimination was assessed using a fifteen-item measure that was designed to assess the experiences of maltreatment of transgender individuals. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the association between perceived discrimination and depression after controlling for the presence of other variables. Of the sample, 35% reported significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 15). Additionally, one-third of the participants indicated that in the two weeks prior to the interviews they had thought either of hurting themselves or that they would be better off dead. The extent of perceived discrimination in this population was extensive. Many of the participants experienced discrimination on a daily basis (14%) or at least once or twice a week (25%) as demonstrated by a positive response to at least 7 of 15 items in the measure of perceived discrimination. Almost six out of ten participants admitted that they had been victims of sexual partner violence. Those who reported more frequent discrimination were more likely to be identified with severe depression. There was also a notable association between self-reported history of sexual partner violence and depression severity. A significant association between depression severity and perceived discrimination was identified. How exposure to discrimination leads to increased risk of mental health problems needs additional investigation. Models
Full Text Available El artículo parte de la década de los ochenta, necesaria para una transición progresiva de ciertos regímenes dictatoriales a las nuevas democracias, para analizar la solidez de la democracia en América Latina, los nuevos procesos de crecimiento económico y la justicia social que late (o no bajo los mismos.
Masumi, Ryoji; Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi; Bando, Masaru; Watari, Yoshio.
Purpose: To reduce the power distribution fluctuations and obtain flat and stable power distribution throughout the operation period in an LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: In the inner reactor core region and the outer reactor core region surrounding the same, the thickness of the inner region is made smaller than the axial height of the reactor core region and the radial width thereof is made smaller than that of the reactor core region and the volume thereof is made to 30 - 50 % for the reactor core region. Further, the amount of the fuel material per unit volume in the inner region is made to 70 - 90 % of that in the outer region. The difference in the neutron infinite multiplication factor between the inner region and the outer region is substantially constant irrespective of the burnup degree and the power distribution fluctuation can be reduced to about 2/3, by which the effect of thermal striping to the reactor core upper mechanisms can be moderated. Further, the maximum linear power during operation can be reduced by 3 %, by which the thermal margin in the reactor core is increased and the reactor core fuels can be saved by 3 %. (Kamimura, M.)
Elizabeth Fox De Cardona
Full Text Available Las ganancias netas provenientes de la venta de programación enlatada y otros servicios de televisión de los Estados Unidos, han aumentado de 15 millones de dólares a cien millones en 1970. Diversas fuentes norteamericanas estiman que las ventas de programas para Latinoamérica en 1970 fue de 22 millones de dólares; mientras que otros aseguran que, como región, América Latina gasta más de 80 millones en la importación de programas. Los más importantes intereses norteamericanos en la etapa de promoción de la televisión en Latinoamérica fueron las cadenas ABC, CBS y NBC y posteriormente inició su penetración Time Inc. El papel inicial de estas cadenas fue la asistencia técnica ; luego venía la inversión de capital, pues era importante poner el canal a funcionar antes que invertir fuertemente en sus negocios.
Daniel Zovatto Garetto
Full Text Available Analiza la reforma política electoral en América Latina como parte del proceso de consolidación democrática de la región, resaltando la importancia de brindar atención a las exigencias de representación, participación y gobernabilidad de la ciudadanía. Inicia con un estudio de la reforma constitucional llevada a cabo en la Tercera Ola Democrática en la región, desde el cual aborda la reforma del régimen de gobierno, del sistema electoral y de los partidos políticos, siendo que en este último aparte trata temas de reciente data, tales como: participación política de la mujer, candidaturas independientes y transfuguismo político. Describe, asimismo, la tendencia de la reforma en América Latina, desarrollando la incorporación de los mecanismos de democracia directa y semidirecta y el fortalecimiento de las instituciones electorales
Full Text Available El presente trabajo propone un nuevo marco analítico para el estudio de los regímenes políticos en América Latina. El núcleo de dicho marco lo constituye la distinción entre dos grupos de instituciones estatales: las instituciones de acceso al poder político versus las instituciones de ejercicio del poder político. El trabajo también pone a prueba la utilidad de caracterizar las formas de acceso por medio de la pareja conceptual autoritarismo-democracia y las formas de ejercicio con la pareja patrimonialismo-burocracia. El propósito central de este marco analítico es facilitar la inferencia causal en el estudio de los elementos determinantes a largo plazo de los llamados problemas de "calidad" de los regímenes políticos contemporáneos en América latina.
S.M. Borras jr. (Saturnino); J.C. Franco (Jennifer); C. Kay (Cristóbal); M. Spoor (Monique)
markdownabstractEste volumen continúa la discusión surgida de los antecedentes recogidos en la investigación presentada en el libro “Dinámicas del mercado de la tierra en América Latina y el Caribe: concentración y extranjerización”, publicado por la Oficina Regional de la FAO en junio de