WorldWideScience

Sample records for latin america case

  1. Landfills in Latin America: Colombian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, Katia M; Olivero, Jesus T.

    2010-01-01

    The management and disposal of domestic solid waste are critical issues in urban areas of Latin America. In Colombia, in general, the final destination of this waste is its deposition in landfills. This review aims to provide basic information on general conditions of these sites in major cities of the country. Although existing landfills have diversity of operational problems, those most frequently include an inadequate treatment of the leachates, the emission of unpleasant odors and poor management of solid waste coverage. Although it is necessary to improve the operation and maintenance of landfills, it is also urgent to increase the commitment of Health and Environmental Agencies on programs that reduce waste production and promote the sustainable use of those wastes with economic value.

  2. Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America - Case Study Of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    case study of Nicaragua deeper than the previous thesis. It relates a study to the larger, ongoing dialogue in the literature, filling in gaps and...RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICACASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...countries, in which case further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not permissible. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No

  3. Culture and Entrepreneurship: The Case of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández-Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to an increased knowledge of the cultural values and the entrepreneurial activity that are present in countries with different levels of development. Within the group of developing countries, we focus our analysis on the case of Latin America. The study uses data from the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS to measure cultural values, and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM for information regarding entrepreneurship. The results show that cultural variables, together with the rate of entrepreneurial activity, clearly distinguish developing countries from developed ones. Higher entrepreneurial activity is found in countries with lower levels of development; however, the cultural value dimensions of Autonomy and Egalitarianism are associated with higher development levels. In the specific case of Latin America, the results reveal the existence of two groups of countries. Firstly, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela have higher rates of entrepreneurship and, at the same time, a greater prevalence of some cultural values (notably Embeddedness, but also Hierarchy. In contrast, another group of countries in the region—Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Mexico—is characterized by the presence of opposing cultural values (Autonomy and Egalitarianism, more in line with those corresponding to developed countries. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results, including some interesting implications, from both academic and policy perspectives. In the case of Latin America, a certain combination of cultural values (Embeddedness and Egalitarianism may be leading to higher start-up rates. Thus, promoting these values could contribute to entrepreneurship and economic development.

  4. [H syndrome: First reported paediatric case in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca Barriga, Hugo Hernán; Trubnykova, Milana; Polar Córdoba, Victoria; Ramos Diaz, Katherine Joyce; Aviles Alfaro, Nélida

    H Syndrome is an extremely rare genetic disease, with a multisystemic character and which can be identified in early childhood, offering the opportunity of specific treatment and genetic counselling. To present a clinical case with "typical" characteristics of H Syndrome. The case is presented of an 8-year-old male patient who presented with testicular tumours and skin lesions characterised by hyperpigmentation with hypertrichosis, language delay, short stature, and joint deformities. He also presented with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, anaemia, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and bone disorders. Histopathology studies of the skin and testicular masses reported lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Sequencing analysis of gene SLC29A3 showed the homozygote mutation c.1087 C>T (p.Arg363Trp; rs387907067). These findings are consistent with H syndrome, and this is the first reported case in Latin America. The key to the diagnosis is the finding of hyperpigmentation with hypertrichosis. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; Ingen, J. van; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2016-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen.

  6. Lean manufacturing in the developing world methodology, case studies and trends from Latin America

    CERN Document Server

    Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Cortes-Robles, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    This book presents some definitions and concepts applied in Latin America on lean manufacturing (LM), the LM tools most widely used and human and cultural aspects that most matter in this field. The book contains a total of 14 tools used and reported by authors from different countries in Latin America, with definition, timeline with related research, benefits that have been reported in literature, and case studies implemented in Latin American companies. Finally, the book presents a list of softwares available to facilitate the tools' implementation, monitoring and improvement.

  7. World review: Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'

  8. INNOVATION IN LATIN AMERICA: THE CASE OF MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rullán Rosanis, Samantha; Casanova, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Governments and business leaders are increasingly aware of the role that innovation plays in economic growth, development and competitiveness. There are imperative challenges for Latin American countries, among them, poverty, social inclusion, sustainable development, climate change, natural disasters, productivity, improve the quality of education and health. Innovations are essential to drive economic growth and prosperity in the region. According to the Global Innovation Index (2014), Mexi...

  9. THE RELEVANCE OF DUESENBERRY CONSUMPTION THEORY! AN APPLIED CASE TO LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Parada Corrales, Jairo; Bacca Mejia, William

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we examine the to-date relevance of Duesenberry's Consumption Theory through an applied case to four economies in Latin America: Mexico, Brazil, Argentina and Colombia. Using annual time series of these countries we show that some empirical evidence of Duesenberry's theory still holds and should not be discarded in modern macroeconomics as it has happened in regular macro text books in mainstream economics. Duesenberry's theory includes important institutional factors that canno...

  10. Latin America and Beyond: The Case for Comparative Area Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Hoffmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative Area Studies (CAS emerges as a new approach in which scholars of Latin American Studies engage systematically with scholars working on other world regions. Adopting a focus on intra-, inter- and cross area comparisons, CAS builds on the traditional strengths of area studies. At the same time it enables scholars to have a stronger impact on overarching conceptual debates and it may provide new bridges between area studies scholars and the academic communities in the regions studied. However, a comparative area studies approach requires systematic cooperation among scholars of different world regions, and adequate organizational and institutional structures to support them. Resumen: Latinoamérica y más allá: El caso de los estudios regionales comparativos Los Estudios Regionales Comparativos (Comparative Area Studies – CAS surgen como un enfoque nuevo dentro del cual académicos de Estudios Latinoamericanos colaboran sistemáticamente con académicos que investigan sobre otras regiones del mundo. Tomando como punto de partida comparaciones intrarregionales, interregionales y transregionales, los ERC se basan en los puntos fuertes tradicionales de los estudios regionales. Al mismo tiempo, este enfoque permite a los académicos tener un impacto mayor en los debates conceptuales más amplios y puede tender nuevos puentes entre los académicos de estudios regionales y las comunidades académicas de las regiones estudiadas. Sin embargo, un enfoque de estudios regionales comparativos exige una cooperación sistemática entre académicos de distintas regiones del mundo y unas estructuras organizativas e institucionales adecuadas para apoyarles.

  11. An unusual case of bilateral anterior uveitis related to moxifloxacin: the first report in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel, Carlos M.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report a case of bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to oral moxifloxacin.Methods: Case report.Results: A 54-year-old female presented bilateral anterior uveitis following a 10-day course of oral moxifloxacin. She developed a bilateral anterior uveitis associated with pigment dispersion syndrome and iris transillumination.Conclusions: Drug-induced uveitis is one of the causes of anterior uveitis. Uveitis related to fluoroquinolones is a rare entity, there are few cases reported in the literature, this is the first case reported in Latin America.

  12. Building a cooperative digital libary with open source software - the case of CLACSO in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Babini, Dominique

    2006-01-01

    Description of why and how the Latin American Social Science Council (CLACSO-Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales) has developed a cooperative digital library with open source Greenstone software, to build digital collections for its member institutes in 21 countries of Latin America and the Caribbean

  13. Geoparks in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantesso-Neto, V.; Mansur, K.; López, R.; Schilling, M.; Ramos, V.

    2010-01-01

    A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage

  14. Fermilab and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-01-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet

  15. Nuclear options in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-11-01

    An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)

  16. Isotope hydrology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    There are a broad range of nuclear techniques applicable to a variety of hydrological problems and these techniques are becoming recognized as an additional and, in some cases, indispensable tool available to the hydrologist in his quest to meet the increasing demands for water by agriculture, industry and community water supply. In Latin America we find examples of almost all the nuclear hydrological techniques. This article endeavours to give a summary account of the status of isotope hydrology in the region and the types of problems to which these techniques have been applied

  17. POLICY PORT IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Flores

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work achieves a contextual approach the port services market in Latin America, from the document review the legal framework and jurisprudence. It observes and evaluates the phenomenon under study, establishing a correlation between the grant in the shape of the free supply and demand for services and operating in a market of few suppliers, resulting in national legislation and concession contracts defending a free market and on the other hand, case law on market practice indicating that there is no free market to defend.

  18. Rural Poverty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Griffin

    1999-01-01

    The fact that most poor people in Latin America live in urban areas had implied that poverty in the region is regarded as largely an urban phenomenon. However, this document exposes what available data suggest: that rural poverty still is significant in many Latin American countries.

  19. Environmental Governance in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.

    2016-01-01

    The multiple purposes of nature - livelihood for communities, revenues for states, commodities for companies, and biodiversity for conservationists - have turned environmental governance in Latin America into a highly contested arena. In such a recourse-rich region, unequal power relations,

  20. Should Latin America Fear China?

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Lora

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares growth conditions in China and Latin America to assess fears that China will displace Latin America in the coming decades. China`s strengths include the size of the economy, macroeconomic stability, abundant low-cost labor, the rapid expansion of physical infrastructure, and the ability to innovate. China`s weaknesses, stemming from insufficient separation between market and state, include poor corporate governance, a fragile financial system and misallocation of savings. ...

  1. THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS BETWEEN THE EUROPEAN UNION AND LATIN AMERICA. THE PERUVIAN AND MEXICAN CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manrique de LUNA BARRIOS

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has signed a number of free trade agreements with different countries in Latin America because it is aware of the great importance that this region has gained as a destination for its exports and investments. Furthermore, the European Union wishes to reaffirm its ties with countries in the region because it hopes to consolidate its political and economic position as an international player with its presence in those markets. In this paper we will discuss the free trade agreements that the EU has signed with Mexico and later with Peru, because they are two examples where Latin American countries have achieved significant economic growth and where the trade has generated significant benefits. Additionally they are two major trading partners of the European Union and they have allowed the EU to continue to expand its zone of influence in Latin America.

  2. Characterization and comparability of biosimilars: A filgrastim case of study and regulatory perspectives for Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mendoza-Macedo

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: This approach provides support to diminish uncertainty of exhibiting different pharmacological profiles and narrows or even avoids the necessity of comparative clinical studies. Ultimately, this proposal is intended to improve the accessibility to high quality biosimilars in Latin America and other developing countries.

  3. Atomic energy in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-06-15

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  4. Atomic energy in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes

  5. Nuclear governance in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Dawood

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.

  6. Latin America: emerging nuclear market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for nuclear power in Latin American countries is surveyed. It is concluded that Latin America offers the greatest external market for all exporters of nuclear reactors and associated services in the near future. Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia are the only countries with fossil-fuel reserves adequate to meet their requirements in the next 20 to 30 years. Nuclear power is a necessity to maintain or improve the standard of living in the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru

  7. The deregulation of electric industry in Latin America: the cases of Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calahorrano C, Miguel

    2004-02-01

    The development of the electric industry in Latin American countries start in the end of 19. century and it proceed according to three stages. During the first, the service was developed mainly by private sector. The second, started after the second world war and extended up till 1990's (apart from Chile), makes the State the most important agent. The third is in accordance with the present deregulation, which is looking for the return to private the responsibility of the sector. This one means a radical change of the role play by the State in the industry. Certainly, the Pool model has been talked by most of Latin American countries. However, in England, deregulation is looking to install competition over a mature industry in order to gain effectiveness, transparency and to produce a costs decrement. In Latin America, deregulation is looking for attract the foreign investments in order to face up an increasing demand. This doctoral thesis point out this subject. It gives a positive reading concerning the experiences which have been carrying out in Latin America, particularly as far as Chile, Argentina, Colombia and Brazil concern. (author)

  8. Activities of technical cooperation in the countries of Latin America: the case of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis Diaz, L.

    1998-01-01

    The activities of technical cooperation in the region of Latin America, have been promoted by the own countries, and by the International Atomic Energy Agency, since 1957. In Costa Rica from 1969, the Commission of Atomic Energy of Costa Rica, has developed an intense work in the promotion of the pacific uses of nuclear energy, as well as, the coordination and canalization of the international technical cooperation, toward the national executing institutions. (author) [es

  9. JPRS Report, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-28

    to the Gallup company; 18 percent according to a poll conducted by Investigaciones de Chile; 30 percent according to a FLACSO [Latin Amer- ican...that country, Takyoshi Ito, during the official transfer of these installations, which are located on the river banks at San Pedro de Tiquina. Dr...implementation of the agreements signed. At this meeting, the government of Peru was represented by Engs Walter Mercado Zedano and Isidro Velasco

  10. Oil investment in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kielmas, M.

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1990s Latin America became a favoured target for foreign investors as one of the side-effects of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The reason is linked to macroeconomic reforms in Latin America and the failure of equivalent reforms in the former communist countries. Latin American state-owned-oil companies have been welcomed as borrowers on the international financial markets. Simultaneously private sector investment in the oil industry has increased. This chapter examines nationalisation and the state oil companies, the financing of the state sector, privatisation, the boosting of oil exploration and security issues. The sustainability of the economic reforms in the region is discussed. (UK)

  11. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  12. Tuning History in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Albo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-Latin America Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal…

  13. Technical assistance in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oteiza-Quirno, A.

    1976-01-01

    As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable

  14. ¿Publish or perish? The case of Social Sciences and Humanities in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Aguado-López

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to explore the scientific collaborative behavior in the Social Sciences and Humanities in Latin America. To achieve this, Scopus trends (2003-2013, through the analysis done by Plume and Van Weijen, were contrasted with redalyc.org trends (2005-2014, covering a total of 220.200 papers. It revealed that the forms of author grew at a faster pace than the number of published papers; this rise was prompted by collaborative work strategies, with a tendency toward foreign collaboration. Therefore, the study of the characteristics of current scientific output leads inevitably to a discussion of collaboration. This has become one of the properties defining scientific work and is one of the ways that Latin American scientists address the “publish or perish” principle, which is now key to how research performance evaluations operate.

  15. How to Get Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Right? The Case of Vaccine Economics in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Amanda; Cañón, Oscar; Silverman, Rachel

    2016-12-01

    In middle-income countries, vaccines against pneumococcal disease, rotavirus, and human papilloma virus are in general more costly, not necessarily cost saving, and less consistently cost-effective than earlier generation vaccines against measles, diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Budget impact is also substantial; public spending on vaccines in countries adopting new vaccines is, on average, double the amount of countries that have not adopted. Policymakers must weigh the costs and benefits of the adoption decision carefully, given the low coverage of other kinds of cost-effective health and nonhealth interventions in these same settings and relatively flat overall public spending on health as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) over time. This paper considers lessons learned from recent vaccine cost-effectiveness analyses and subsequent adoption decisions in Latin America a, largely under the auspices of the Pro Vac Initiative. The paper illustrates how small methodological choices and seemingly minor technical limitations of cost-effectiveness models can have major implications for the studies' conclusions, potentially influencing countries' subsequent vaccine adoption decisions. We evaluate the ProVac models and technical outputs against the standards and framework set out by the International Decision Support Initiative Reference Case for economic evaluation and consider the practical effects of deviations from those standards. Lessons learned are discussed, including issues of appropriate comparators, GDP-based thresholds, and use of average versus incremental cost-effectiveness ratios as a convention are assessed. The article ends with recommendations for the future. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Multilevel governance in community-based environmental management: a case study comparison from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sattler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze four case studies from Latin America using the concept of multilevel governance to assess at what vertical and horizontal levels and in what roles various state, market, and civil society actors interact for successful community-based environmental management (CBEM. In particular, we address the problem of how a conflict over natural resources with high negative impacts on the livelihoods of the respective communities could be overcome by a governance change that resulted in a multilevel governance arrangement for CBEM. The analysis involves a mixed-methods approach that combines a variety of empirical methods in social research such as field visits, personal interviews, participant observations, and stakeholder workshops. To visualize results, we introduce two schemes to present the composition of the governance structures for cross-case comparison. The first scheme plots the different actors into an arrangement that shows their associations with different societal spheres and at which territorial scales they are primarily involved. The second scheme differentiates these actors based on their complementing governance roles. Active roles are attributed to actors who implement activities on the ground, whereas passive roles are assigned to actors who provide specific resources such as knowledge, funding, legislative framework, or others. All cases involved governance actors from more than one societal sphere who operate on at least three different territorial levels (local to international and in distinct roles. Results show that multilevel governance can strengthen CBEM in different ways. First, the success of CBEM is an outcome of the sum of horizontal and vertical interactions of all involved actors, and there is no most appropriate single level of social organization at which a problem can best be addressed. Only the cooperation of actors from different societal spheres within and across levels ensures accessibility to needed

  17. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-17

    yesterday, the reserved market throughout the country for in- formatics has also been extended to computer software programs. The DIARIO OFICIAL ...Pemex Northern States Price Cuts 97 PARAGUAY Journalists Union Denounces Arrest of Members (EL DIARIO , 25 Oct 86) .....; .. 98 Police...topple the elected government in Man- • agua — including US$200 000 to the anti-San- dinista "Friends of the Democratic Centre in Central America". I

  18. Credit Stagnation in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Barajas; Roberto Steiner

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the recent marked slowdown in bank credit to the private sector in Latin America. Based on the study of eight countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela), the magnitude of the slowdown is documented, comparing it to historical behavior and to slowdown episodes in other regions of the world. Second, changes in bank balance sheets are examined to determine whether the credit slowdown is merely a reflection of a slowdown in bank deposi...

  19. The impact in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.

    1985-01-01

    President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program represented a radical departure from the policy of secrecy and denial that existed during the immediate postwar period, after the rejection of the Baruch Plan for international control of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. Although the genesis and philosophy of the program are well known, the author emphasizes certain general aspects and considers specific situations in Latin America about the purposes and premises of Atoms for Peace

  20. Latin America Report No. 2692

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-14

    monetary, fiscal and other measures including currency devaluation and trade protectionism. Also, some countries, especially in Latin America, having ex...petroleum exporters like Nigeria , Mexico and Venezuela which until a year ago seemed to have unlimited resources, are now confronted with serious...sole responsibility of the Barbados Government, have been carried out with the financial assistance of the IMF . "Despite the ill-informed and

  1. Natural gas in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)

  2. Sustainable cities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Tejerina, Miguel

    2015-11-01

    In the present day, Latin America is the most urbanised region - and also the most inequitable - on the planet, which means that its urban areas amass both huge wealth and huge poverty. Within this context, dealing with climate change is also a chance to increase citizens' well-being. Better public transport and more efficient energy and waste management are, besides being effective measures to reduce emissions, ultimately actions with a strong social component and work towards improving transportation and public health care and generate savings for citizens. Equally, actions geared towards boosting urban resilience represent measures that go beyond adaptation responses to climate change and primarily benefit those that are most vulnerable in the population. In the context of the future new global climate agreement, cities are taking a more prominent role in this new urban era, and gained in importance in the Sustainable Development Goals, LAC has a lot to give in the lessons learned from urbanisation. Rapidly urbanising regions like Asia and Africa, where population growth will be concentrated in cities in the present and near future, could learn a lot from the urbanisation process that has occurred, and continues to occur, in LAC. From the transport industry to energy and water, successful cases are numerous and varied, as are the setbacks, from which valuable lessons can be drawn for the purposes of more effectively facing up to this new global urban reality

  3. Models of development and educational styles in the process of emancipation of Latin America: the case of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dermeval SAVIANI

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the commemoration of the 200 years of Independence of Latin American countries, this paper analyses the models of development and educational styles in the process of the emancipation of Ibero-America, focusing specifically on the Brazilian case. In order to do this, we use two key texts as a reference: Gregorio Weinberg’s Modelos educativos en el desarrollo histórico de América Latina (Models of Education in the Historical Development of Latin America and Germán Rama’s Estilos educacionales (Educational Styles. Both texts elaborate the educational models or styles that took part in the historical development of Latin American societies. Bearing in mind the polarization between tradition and the modernization displayed in the educational models and styles proposed by Weinberg and Rama, this work shows how the process of conservative modernization, which characterized —with different nuances— the general emancipation movement in Ibero-American countries, took place in Brazilian society.

  4. JPRS Report, Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-16

    16 November, accompanied by: the commission’s adviser, Guillermo Clavijo; General Jaime Ayala Mercado , retired; and Captain Orlando Villarroel...election as the mayors of Brazil’s 4,000 municipalities and, as was the case with the elections for the Constituent Assembly, which was elected with the...problems. In others, including state and municipal enterprises, the primary difficulties were: decline in the generation of income, due to the fall

  5. Neurotrauma Research in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Rubiano

    2014-10-01

    It is time to think about how consortium studies related to neurotrauma in Latin America are needed, in order to integrate robust databases that reveal the true variability in the comprehensive care of these patients, including aspects of pre-hospital care, emergency care, surgical and intensive care management, without neglecting fundamental aspects like integral rehabilitation. It is time to develop a Latin American traumatic coma data bank. This initiative should be led by research groups from the region, trying to understand and integrate data analysis in a better fashion, trying to reduce the potential of bias as a result of misunderstanding the dynamic of health systems with limited resources, low capabilities for urgent inter-hospital referral and lack subspecialty training that is still in the process of development.

  6. Fermilab-Latin America collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubinstein, R.

    1994-01-01

    Fermilab's program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory's particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country's development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab's program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as open-quotes big scienceclose quotes, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab's approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab's funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this

  7. Livestock reproduction in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries

  8. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1976-07-01

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  9. Introduction - Latin America and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite

  10. Social sustainability in supply chains: A framework and a Latin America illustrative case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Oliveira Carlos de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social issues are under-represented in sustainability, considering historical predominance of economic and environmental issues. This also applies to Sustainable Supply Chain Management. Even with its definition clarified regarding Triple Bottom Line, research still advances disproportionately in environmental and economic dimensions, facing the social dimension. This research aims to analyze how social sustainability is addressed in focal firms and managed into its supply chain. The study explores the concepts of social issues and governance mechanisms, presenting elements discussed in the literature. A framework for managing social sustainability in supply chains is presented, followed by a case to illustrate the discussed concepts in a Latin American context.

  11. Energy problems in latin america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, J

    1984-03-30

    Present energy consumption patterns, known reserves of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectricity), and the impact of the oil crisis on the oil-importing countries of Latin America are discussed. New approaches to energy use, including improvements on end-use efficiency, fuel substitutions, nonconventional energy sources, and changes in consumption patterns, are important. Of particular significance are the alcohol program in Brazil and the possibilities for increased use of hydroelectricity. Investments needed to sustain a reasonable increase in production from conventional energy sources up to 1990 are presented.

  12. The status of cryptococcosis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Firacative

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal infection caused by the encapsulated yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, acquired from the environment. In Latin America, as occurring worldwide, C. neoformans causes more than 90% of the cases of cryptococcosis, affecting predominantly patients with HIV, while C. gattii generally affects otherwise healthy individuals. In this region, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common presentation, with amphotericin B and fluconazole being the antifungal drugs of choice. Avian droppings are the predominant environmental reservoir of C. neoformans, while C. gattii is associated with several arboreal species. Importantly, C. gattii has a high prevalence in Latin America and has been proposed to be the likely origin of some C. gattii populations in North America. Thus, in the recent years, significant progress has been made with the study of the basic biology and laboratory identification of cryptococcal strains, in understanding their ecology, population genetics, host-pathogen interactions, and the clinical epidemiology of this important mycosis in Latin America.

  13. Latin America; Recent History; Democracy; Historical Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo MIRA DELLI-ZOTTI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article identifies the restoration of the democracy and its persistence as one of the most remarkable facts of the recent history of Latin America. Nevertheless, in the experience of the subcontinent, democracy does not appear like synonymous of democratization. Starting off with the transitions, this article is led toward a periodic analysis of the so-called democratic crossing of Latin America. At the same time, it studies the unequal incidence that the impact of the «historical memory» has had in the public sphere of countries like Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, El Salvador and Guatemala, contrasting with the case of Brazil.

  14. Training centres in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  15. Training centres in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at

  16. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henry; Saenz, Roque; de Almeida Troncon, Luiz E; Lizarzabal, Maribel; Olano, Carolina

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent’s medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined, and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients’ needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities. Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors’ needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved. PMID:21633594

  17. Process Heat Generation Potential from Solar Concentration Technologies in Latin America: The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro Lillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the potential of solar concentration technologies—compound parabolic collector (CPC, linear Fresnel collector (LFC and parabolic trough collector (PTC—as an alternative to conventional sources of energy for industrial processes in Latin America, where high levels of solar radiation and isolated areas without energy supply exist. The analysis is addressed from energy, economic and environmental perspective. A specific application for Argentina in which fourteen locations are analyzed is considered. Results show that solar concentration technologies can be an economically and environmentally viable alternative. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE ranges between 2.5 and 16.9 c€/kWh/m2 and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions avoided range between 33 and 348 kgCO2/(m2·year. CPC technology stands out as the most recommendable technology when the working fluid temperature ranges from 373 K to 423 K. As the working fluid temperature increases the differences between the LCOE values of the CPC and LFC technologies decrease. When 523 K is reached LFC technology is the one which presents the lowest LCOE values for all analyzed sites, while the LCOE values of PTC technology are close to CPC technology values. Results show that solar concentration technologies have reached economic and environmental competitiveness levels under certain scenarios, mainly linked to solar resource available, thermal level requirements and solar technology cost.

  18. Energy conservation and sustainable economic growth: The case of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Soruco Carballo, Claudia Fabiola

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the causal relationships among energy consumption, economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in twenty countries from Latin America and the Caribbean region. The methodology includes the use of Phillips and Perron (PP) tests, a cointegration model with vector error correction modeling (VECM) and vector autoregression (VAR) with Granger causality. The study concludes that of the twenty countries analyzed, only in four of them will it be possible to implement energy conservation polices without affecting their economic growth, four others are not able to consider an energy conservation policy with economic growth, and the other twelve should focus on their economic growth before adopting any conservation policies. Energy efficiency was found in this region, especially in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium. - Highlights: → Only four countries could implement energy conservation polices without affecting economic growth. → Twelve nations should focus on their economic growth before designing any energy conservation policies. → Energy efficiency was found in the countries which have both cointegration and short-term equilibrium.

  19. [The cholera epidemic in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsvik, O

    1992-05-30

    An outbreak of cholera started in Peru in January 1991 and spread through most Latin American countries within a year. This was the first known epidemic of cholera in America for more than a century. In 1991, 321,334 persons were reported to have cholera in Peru, 119,063 were hospitalized, and 2,906 died. Other countries like Ecuador, Colombia, Guatemala, Brazil, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, El Salvador, Venezuela and Honduras were also affected, but these countries combined accounted for only 20% of the cases registered in Peru. In April 1992, all Latin American countries except Uruguay, Paraguay and French Guyana have reported cholera. The mortality rate for the epidemic in Latin America was only 1%, mainly owing to good oral rehydration treatment provided by Local health services and the Pan American Health Organization. The causative organism was Vibrio cholerae, serogroup O1, serotype Inaba (and Ogawa) of the El Tor biotype. Genetic characterization shows this strain to be unique, and the designation is reserved for the Latin American strain, distinguishing it from the other El Tor isolates from the 7th pandemic.

  20. Developing nanotechnology in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R and D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.

  1. Antifungal pharmacodynamics: Latin America's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier M. Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins is discussed.

  2. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.

  3. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  4. Municipal Forest Management in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2004-01-01

    Jan 1, 2004 ... Book cover Municipal Forest Management in Latin America ... forest management schemes we could use as models to develop policies? ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  5. Latin America and the Caribbean | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research focus We believe that research and innovation hold the keys to progress. ... through the skillful interaction of ideas, people, and funding for development ... Located in Montevideo, Uruguay, IDRC's regional office for Latin America ...

  6. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  7. History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

    2010-03-01

    A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.

  8. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona-Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (SLAAI presents a document about the use of immunotherapy (IT in Latin America, where administration patterns, indications and contraindications, effects on health, adverse events and socioeconomic impact are reviewed. Objective: To review publications analyzing the use of IT in Latin America. Methods: A literature review was carried out in order to identify works addressing IT in Latin America. This review was focused on practical scientific information available on IT in the region, and a parallel comparison was made with practices observed in the United States and European countries. Results: Of the 21 Latin American countries included, only 9 had original articles meeting the selection criteria; a total of 82 articles were selected, most of them from Brazil and Mexico. Most widely used allergenic extracts in Latin America tropical and subtropical regions were those of mites and pollen. Conclusion: Although it is true that there are huge challenges for the future of IT in Latin America, studies on subcutaneous IT and sublingual IT are increasing, but most of them are retrospective and some have design bias, and more prospective studies are therefore required, using internationally validated scales for clinical evaluation.

  9. [Prenatal care in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buekens, P; Hernández, P; Infante, C

    1990-01-01

    Available data on the coverage of prenatal care in Latin America were reviewed. In recent years, only Bolivia had a coverage of prenatal care of less than 50 per cent. More than 90 per cent of pregnant women received prenatal care in Chile, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico. Prenatal care increased between the 1970 and 1980 in the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru. The coverage of prenatal care decreased in Bolivia and Colombia. The mean number of visits increased in Cuba and Puerto Rico. The increase of prenatal care in Guatemala and Honduras is due to increased care by traditional birth attendants, compared to the role of health care institutions. We compared the more recent data on tetanus immunization of pregnant women to the more recent data on prenatal care. The rates of tetanus immunization are always lower than the rates of prenatal care attendance, except in Costa Rica. The rates of tetanus immunization was less than half as compared to the rates of prenatal care in Bolivia, Guatemala, and Peru. To improve the content of prenatal care should be an objective complementary to the increase of the number of attending women.

  10. New opportunities offered by Cubesats for space research in Latin America: The SUCHAI project case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M. A.; Zagal, J. C.; Falcon, C.; Stepanova, M.; Valdivia, J. A.; Martinez-Ledesma, M.; Diaz-Peña, J.; Jaramillo, F. R.; Romanova, N.; Pacheco, E.; Milla, M.; Orchard, M.; Silva, J.; Mena, F. P.

    2016-11-01

    During the last decade, a very small-standardized satellite, the Cubesat, emerged as a low-cost fast-development tool for space and technology research. Although its genesis is related to education, the change in paradigm presented by this satellite platform has motivated several countries, institutions, and companies to invest in a variety of technologies, aimed at improving Cubesat capabilities, while lowering costs of space missions. Following that trend, Latin American institutions, mostly universities, has started to develop Cubesat missions. This article describes some of the Latin American projects in this area. In particular, we discuss the achievements and scientific grounds upon which the first Cubesat projects in Chile were based and the implications that those projects have had on pursuing satellite-based research in the country and in collaboration with other countries of the region.

  11. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  12. Using non-local databases for the environmental assessment of industrial activities: The case of Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osses de Eicker, Margarita; Hischier, Roland; Hurni, Hans; Zah, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    Nine non-local databases were evaluated with respect to their suitability for the environmental assessment of industrial activities in Latin America. Three assessment methods were considered, namely Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and air emission inventories. The analysis focused on data availability in the databases and the applicability of their international data to Latin American industry. The study showed that the European EMEP/EEA Guidebook and the U.S. EPA AP-42 database are the most suitable ones for air emission inventories, whereas the LCI database Ecoinvent is the most suitable one for LCA and EIA. Due to the data coverage in the databases, air emission inventories are easier to develop than LCA or EIA, which require more comprehensive information. One strategy to overcome the limitations of non-local databases for Latin American industry is the combination of validated data from international databases with newly developed local datasets.

  13. Are renewable energy policies upsetting carbon dioxide emissions? The case of Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuinhas, José Alberto; Marques, António Cardoso; Koengkan, Matheus

    2017-06-01

    The impact of renewable energy policies in carbon dioxide emissions was analysed for a panel of ten Latin American countries, for the period from 1991 to 2012. Panel autoregressive distributed lag methodology was used to decompose the total effect of renewable energy policies on carbon dioxide emissions in its short- and long-run components. There is evidence for the presence of cross-sectional dependence, confirming that Latin American countries share spatial patterns. Heteroskedasticity, contemporaneous correlation, and first-order autocorrelation cross-sectional dependence are also present. To cope with these phenomena, the robust dynamic Driscoll-Kraay estimator, with fixed effects, was used. It was confirmed that the primary energy consumption per capita, in both the short- and long-run, contributes to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions, and also that renewable energy policies in the long-run, and renewable electricity generation per capita both in the short- and long-run, help to mitigate per capita carbon dioxide emissions.

  14. Triple Helix and European Union (EU Funding: The case of Latin America, especially Mexico and the Seventh European Framework Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Haberleithner

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following analysis not only seeks to develop new potential intervention models; it also aims to create a detailed analysis of the existing problems with regards to communication among the active participants of Triple Helix (especially in Mexico. The special situation in Latin America with regards to existing corruption, the unequal distribution of power between the government and the private sector, dependence on other economies and other social issues will be analysed in accordance with the main focus of the investigation. The subsequent linking of potential partners to the development of an initiative for submitting a future Triple Helix/FP7 project represent an important contribution to a longer-term perspective on the preceding investigation. The potential partnerships between Europe and Latin America (in addition to other possible world regions, such as, for example, Pacific Asia will create an initial project draft within the scope of the conference.

  15. Contribution of Latin America to pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Juan Camilo; Arango, Victoria E; Einarson, Thomas R

    2006-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance activities have been ongoing for 4 decades. However, little is known (especially outside of the area) about the contribution of Latin America to this field. To review and quantify the published literature on pharmacovigilance in Latin American countries. We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE (1966-2004), EMBASE (1980-2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-2004), Toxline (1992-2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-2004), Sistema de Información Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-2004), and the Pan American Health Organization Web site (1970-2004) for articles on pharmacovigilance or adverse drug reactions in any of the 19 major Latin American countries. Papers were retrieved and categorized according to content and country of origin by 2 independent reviewers. There were 195 usable articles from 13 countries. Fifty-one of the papers retrieved dealt with pharmacovigilance centers (15 national centers, 10 hospitals, 26 other), 55 covered pharmacovigilance itself (21 theoretical papers, 9 with description of models, 25 educational papers), and 89 were pharmacoepidemiologic studies of adverse drug reactions (69 case reports, 13 observational cohorts, 2 cohort studies, 1 randomized clinical trial, 4 clinical papers on adverse reaction management). Studies have increased exponentially since 1980. Five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela) published reports from national centers. No studies were found from 6 countries: Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, or Uruguay. Most studied categories were antiinfectives and drugs affecting the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and musculoskeletal system. Contributions of Latin American countries to the field of pharmacovigilence have been remarkable, considering the constraints on these countries. A need exists for an increased number of formal pharmacovigilance studies and research

  16. New insights into “catastrophic” expenditure in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Jun 15, 2016 ... ... and then for antibiotics…this kind of thing adds up quickly — in some cases to ... Investing in Internet access boosts incomes, concludes Latin American study ... Improving food security in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  17. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  18. The state in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Centeno

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available How capable is the Latin American state? This article analyses tax, civil service, and electoral data as well as performance measurements in the areas of public safety, rule of law, economic regulation and social services, to compare the region with other parts of the world and to define intra-regional differentiation. Generally speaking, the Latin American state is not very strong or effective, but the states of Chile and Brazil are perhaps the best in the region.

  19. The state in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Centeno

    2009-01-01

    How capable is the Latin American state? This article analyses tax, civil service, and electoral data as well as performance measurements in the areas of public safety, rule of law, economic regulation and social services, to compare the region with other parts of the world and to define intra-regional differentiation. Generally speaking, the Latin American state is not very strong or effective, but the states of Chile and Brazil are perhaps the best in the region.

  20. China’s impact on Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhys Jenkins

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available China’s rapid economic growth and increased openness has been one of the most significant developments in the global economy over the past 25 years. This paper analyses China’s impacts on the Latin American economies, and in particular the challenges that China poses for the region. It discusses both the direct impacts arising from bilateral trade and investment flows between China and Latin America, the indirect impacts associated with Chinese competition in export markets and for foreign direct investment, and the positive terms of trade effects resulting from China’s increased demand for raw materials. Challenges identified include the recent rapid increase of competition from Chinese imports in the Latin American market, the concentration of exports to China in a narrow range of primary products and the uneven distribution of profits from trade with China within Latin America.

  1. Potential Opportunities for Investment in Space Technologies in Latin-America: a Case for Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, G.

    2002-01-01

    Student, Master of Space Studies. International Space University. Strasbourg Central The objective of this paper is to analyze the possible commercial benefits that the global manufacturing space industry could obtain by investing in Latin-American countries. Spacecraft manufacturers have recently been complaining about small margins. They claim that customers demand technological advancement at the same time as they push for quick delivery and competitive prices. They also argue that operators (their main customers) do have great profits. Thus, manufacturers would like to raise the prices of their spacecraft (SpaceNews. January 7, 2002. P.17). This may sound logical, but it would be interesting to analyze if the industry could find alternative ways of saving money while remaining competitive. Mexico is a good example of a Latin-American country that has received foreign investment for establishing manufacturing and assembly plants for different industries. This has been mainly due to two special characteristics of the Mexican manufacturing workforce: low labor costs and qualified, reliable human resources. As a result, Mexican manufacturing industry has acquired a solid reputation worldwide. A similar story can be told about other industries such as electronics, computer assembly, clothes, etc. It is probably worth to make an analogy with a labor-demanding industry that already has experience in the Mexican market: the car industry has found a formula to keep manufacturing costs low while maintaining production and quality levels. Mexico currently manufactures and assembles cars for European, Japanese and American companies for the international market. If the same success story could be repeated for the spacecraft manufacturing industry, the benefits would be enormous. Manufacturers could consider relocating their plants to Mexico to manufacture and test parts or entire spacecraft. This would help reduce the cost of human labor, especially because of the long

  2. Progress in the pattern of intra-industrial trade between the European Union and Latin America: The cases of Brazil and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Rodil Marzábal, Óscar; Sánchez Carreira, María del Carmen; López Arévalo, Jorge Alberto; Arrazola Ovando, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines changes in the pattern of intra-industrial trade (exchange of different varieties of the same good) between the European Union (EU) and the countries of Latin America (LA) over the last two decades, paying special attention to the cases of Brazil and Mexico. It focuses on the extent to which these trade relations are changing from a traditional profile based on complementarity (inter-industrial) and on static advantages (provision of resources) to a more modern, competitiv...

  3. Challenges for Scientists in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalergis, Alexis M; Lacerda, Marcus; Rabinovich, Gabriel A; Rosenstein, Yvonne

    2016-09-01

    Despite political turmoil and economical crisis, research in Latin America has considerably advanced over recent decades. The present 'Point of View' outlines our perspectives on the working conditions, successes, difficulties, limitations, and challenges of biomedical scientific communities in four Latin American countries: Argentina (G.A.R.), Brazil (M.L.), Chile (A.K.), and Mexico (Y.R.). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Barriers to Clinical Research in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Chomsky-Higgins, Kathryn; Miclau, Theodore A.; Mackechnie, Madeline C.; Aguilar, Dino; Avila, Jorge Rubio; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Balmaseda, Roberto; Barquet, Antonio; Ceballos, Alfredo; Contreras, Fernando; Escalante, Igor; Elias, Nelson; Vincenti, Sergio Iriarte; Lozano, Christian; Medina, Fryda

    2017-01-01

    Enhancing health research capacity in developing countries is a global health priority. Understanding the orthopedic burden of disease in Latin America will require close partnership between more-developed and less-developed countries. To this end, the Osteosynthesis and Trauma Care Foundation assembled a research consortium of Latin-American orthopedic leaders. Prior to the meeting, we surveyed attendees on perceived barriers to conducting research at their institutions. During the event, wo...

  5. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina Schneider; Patricia Najera; Sylvain Aldighieri; Deise I Galan; Eric Bertherat; Alfonso Ruiz; Elsy Dumit; Jean Marc Gabastou; Marcos A Espinal

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence...

  6. TAX FEDERALISM IN LATIN AMERICA: THE CASES OF MÉXICO, ARGENTINA AND BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Guerreiro Bastos

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The federalism is a unique expression of a political form adopted by the state. Because of that, it is possible to affirm that there is no universal or global model to be adopted by all the countries that aims the federal form. The tax power given to the subnational levels is the key to sustain a federal form because without it the political decentralization might not happen. Because of that, it was decided to develop a focused paper on fiscal federalism in America Latina context with three countries: Mexico, Argentina and Brazil. All three, in their own way, developed huge levels of fiscal centralization. In the end, the results tends to be very close in political terms and consequences to an inefficient fiscal federalism that tends to stifle the autonomy of the federated units.

  7. Promoting PV in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2010-07-01

    The Euro Solar Programme is financed by the European Commission's Office of Cooperation and its main goal is to promote renewable energy in eight Latin American countries: Bolivia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay and Peru. (orig.)

  8. Rural Labour in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Janvry, Alain; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the status of rural labor and the performance of labor markets in Latin American agriculture. Points out the rapidly declining share of agriculture in the total labor force, weak capacity for creating nonagricultural employment, and rapidly increasing migration to towns. (JOW)

  9. Best practices in intercultural health: five case studies in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignone, Javier; Bartlett, Judith; O'Neil, John; Orchard, Treena

    2007-01-01

    The practice of integrating western and traditional indigenous medicine is fast becoming an accepted and more widely used approach in health care systems throughout the world. However, debates about intercultural health approaches have raised significant concerns. This paper reports findings of five case studies on intercultural health in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, and Suriname. It presents summary information on each case study, comparatively analyzes the initiatives following four main analytical themes, and examines the case studies against a series of the best practice criteria. PMID:17803820

  10. Latin America second only to Asia in petrochemical prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenek, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ''next Asia,'' if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region's enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies

  11. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incayawar, Mario; Maldonado-Bouchard, Sioui

    2009-10-29

    Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1) focus activities on what can be done; (2) build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3) consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4) conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. The persistent neglect of the Indigenous Peoples' mental health in Latin America

  12. The forsaken mental health of the Indigenous Peoples - a moral case of outrageous exclusion in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maldonado-Bouchard Sioui

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health is neglected in most parts of the world. For the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America, the plight is even more severe as there are no specific mental health services designed for them altogether. Given the high importance of mental health for general health, the status quo is unacceptable. Lack of research on the subject of Indigenous Peoples' mental health means that statistics are virtually unavailable. To illustrate their mental health status, one can nonetheless point to the high rates of poverty and extreme poverty in their communities, overcrowded housing, illiteracy, and lack of basic sanitary services such as water, electricity and sewage. At the dawn of the XXI century, they remain poor, powerless, and voiceless. They remain severely excluded from mainstream society despite being the first inhabitants of this continent and being an estimated of 48 million people. This paper comments, specifically, on the limited impact of the Pan American Health Organization's mental health initiative on the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America. Discussion The Pan American Health Organization's sponsored workshop "Programas y Servicios de Salud Mental en Communidades Indígenas" [Mental Health Programs and Services for the Indigenous Communities] in the city of Santa Cruz, Bolivia on July16 - 18, 1998, appeared promising. However, eleven years later, no specific mental health program has been designed nor developed for the Indigenous Peoples in Latin America. This paper makes four specific recommendations for improvements in the approach of the Pan American Health Organization: (1 focus activities on what can be done; (2 build partnerships with the Indigenous Peoples; (3 consider traditional healers as essential partners in any mental health effort; and (4 conduct basic research on the mental health status of the Indigenous Peoples prior to the programming of any mental health service. Summary The persistent neglect of

  13. Nuclear technology and Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja Mohan, C.

    1980-01-01

    Developments in nuclear technology in Latin American countries, particularly in Argentina and Brazil, have been surveyed. In their efforts to acquire self-reliance in the nuclear field independently i.e. without seeking help from U.S.A., Argentina and Brazil came to accept stringent foreign controls on their nuclear programmes which envisage having a complete nuclear fuel cycle. Their struggle against the discriminatory nature of the NPT has become more or less theoretical. Moreover, the Latin American countries have signed the Tlatelolco treaty which prohibits testing, use, manufacture or acquisition of nuclear weapons. An encouraging feature is, however, growing bilateral and multilateral cooperation in the nuclear energy sector. It is illustrated by citing the example of the Argentina-Brazil nuclear cooperation agreement. The political significance of this development for the third world is discussed. (M.G.B.)

  14. Humanities in Latin America academies

    OpenAIRE

    Cerutti-Guldberg, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    This article originates from one of the presentations offered in the IV Encuentro de Humanidades “Citizen participation, humanism, and social commitment: between theory and practice”, held in June of 2013 in Liberia, Guanacaste, Costa Rica. This production addresses diverse topics about Humanities, in contrast to the “hard” sciences and their importance in Latin American universities, both from an epistemological and practical perspective. Also, it questions contemporary philosophic education...

  15. Biomass in Latin America -- overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    The paper discusses the interest of the Organization of American States as a participant in this hemispheric conference on biomass, provides an introduction to the Latin American experience in biomass energy through open-quotes snapshotsclose quotes of various country activities, and concludes with a discussion of four conditions that form strong incentives for new north/south and south/north ventures in the biomass energy and chemical arena in this hemisphere

  16. Profession of neuropsychology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.

  17. Urban restructuring and deregulations in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, M.

    1992-01-01

    With this work we continue the debate on the trends of urban restructuring in Latin America. In fact due to the large economic crisis of the 80-ies, the continent has decreased is living standards to that of 12 years ago. The productive potential has increased in 1,3% in circumstances that in the

  18. Generation project development opportunities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation addresses the pitfalls and benefits of developing power generation projects in Latin America. The topics of the presentation include the countries where there is opportunity for development, the opportunities that exist in these countries, the influence of geographic proximity, and competition from the Far East and the European Community

  19. The extractive imperative in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat); Barbara Hogenboom (B.); L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractOne of the main features of contemporary development politics in Latin America is the prominent role of the state. Another feature is the intensification of natural resource extraction. This extractivist drive is especially pronounced in the countries that are part of the ‘turn to the

  20. The extractive imperative in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsel, M.; Hogenboom, B.; Pellegrini, L.

    2016-01-01

    One of the main features of contemporary development politics in Latin America is the prominent role of the state. Another feature is the intensification of natural resource extraction. This extractivist drive is especially pronounced in the countries that are part of the ‘turn to the left’, which

  1. International Development Partnerships and Diffusion of Renewable Energy Technologies in Developing Countries: Cases in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, Inna

    Access to energy is vital for sustainable development and poverty alleviation, yet billions of people in developing countries continue to suffer from constant exposure to open fires and dangerous fuels, such as kerosene. Renewable energy technologies are being acknowledged as suitable solutions for remote rural communities in much of the developing world and international development non-governmental organizations (NGOs) increasingly play important roles in the diffusion of these technologies via development partnerships. While these partnerships are widely promoted, many questions related to their functioning and effectiveness remain open. To advance the theory and practice, this interdisciplinary exploratory research provides in-depth insights into the nature of international NGO-driven development partnerships in rural renewable energy and their effectiveness based on the case studies in Talamanca, Costa Rica and Cajamarca, Peru. The analysis of the nature of development partnerships shows that partnerships in the case studies differ in structure, size and diversity of actors due to differentiation in the implementation strategies, technological complexities, institutional and contextual factors. A multi-theoretical approach is presented to explain the multiple drivers of the studied development partnerships. The research highlights partnership constraints related to the provision of rural renewable energy, the organizational type and institutional environments. Based on the case studies this research puts forward theoretical propositions regarding the factors that affect the effectiveness of the partnerships. In terms of the partnership dynamics dimension, several key factors of success are confirmed from the existing literature, namely shared values and goals, complementary expertise and capacities, confidence and trust, clear roles and responsibilities, effective communication. Additional factors identified are personality match and continuity of staff. In

  2. Information Networks and Social Inclusion in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rapid changes in information networks throughout Latin America may provide new opportunities to address inequalities in the region. ... government and open education, with specific attention paid to women and youth in urban settings; ... optimizes household expenditures : a case study from rural communities in Mexico.

  3. The marketing potential of corporate social responsibility activities: the case of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantani, Daniela; Peltzer, Raquel; Cremonte, Mariana; Robaina, Katherine; Babor, Thomas; Pinsky, Ilana

    2017-01-01

    The aims were to: (1) identify, monitor and analyse the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices of the alcohol industry in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and (2) examine whether the alcohol industry is using these actions to market their products and brands. Nine health experts from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay conducted a content analysis of 218 CSR activities using a standardized protocol. A content rating procedure was used to evaluate the marketing potential of CSR activities as well as their probable population reach and effectiveness. The LEAD procedure (longitudinal, expert and all data) was applied to verify the accuracy of industry-reported descriptions. A total of 55.8% of the actions were found to have a marketing potential, based on evidence that they are likely to promote brands and products. Actions with marketing potential were more likely to reach a larger audience than actions classified with no marketing potential. Most actions did not fit into any category recommended by the World Health Organization; 50% of the actions involving classroom and college education for young people were found to have marketing potential; 62.3% were classified as meeting the definition of risk management CSR. Alcohol industry Corporate Social Responsibility activities in Latin America and the Caribbean appear to have a strategic marketing role beyond their stated philanthropic and public health purpose. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redick, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references

  5. Venezuela and Energy Security of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.

  6. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  7. Development of standardized bioassay protocols for the toxicity assessment of waste, manufactured products, and effluents in Latin America: Venezuela, a Case Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriquez-Grau, J.

    1993-01-01

    The present status of the toxicity assessment of industrial products in Latin America is well below North America/EC standards. As an example, most of Latin America regulatory laws regarding effluent discharge are still based upon concentration limits of certain major pollutants, and BOD/COD measurements; no reference is made to the necessity of aquatic bioassay toxicity data. Aware of this imperative need, the Venezuelan Petroleum Industry (PDVSA), through its R ampersand D Corporative branch (INTEVEP) gave priority to the development of standardized acute/sublethal toxicity test protocols as sound means of evaluating their products and wastes. Throughout this presentation, the Venezuelan case will be studied, showing strategies undertaken to accelerate protocol development. Results will show the assessment of 14 different protocols encompassing a variety of species of aquatic/terrestrial organisms, and a series of toxicity test endpoints including mortality, reproductive, biological and immunological measurements, most of which are currently in use or being developed. These protocols have already yielded useful results in numerous cases where toxicity assessment was required, including evaluations of effluent, oil dispersants, drilling fluids, toxic wastes, fossil fuels and newly developed products. The Venezuelan case demonstrates that the integration of Industry, Academia and Government, which is an essential part of SETAC's philosophy, is absolutely necessary for the successful advancement of environmental scientific/regulatory issues

  8. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  9. Politics and Development: Lessons from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Boschi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article discusses the conditions for the adoption of development strategies in Latin America in the aftermath of the neoliberal reforms, focusing specifically on the role of political institutions as a component of the productive regimes in selected countries. Development is treated as an endogenous process, which is shaped over time in terms of trajectories that are continuously redefined according to specific political conjunctures. Having moved from restricted democracies or authoritarian regimes and autarchic economies to mass democracies operating in the context of open economies after the market-oriented reforms, persistent structural inequalities presently constitute the major axis framing the definition of development policies. More so than in advanced countries where the State is treated as epiphenomenon of their respective productive regimes, in the case of the Latin American semi-periphery the State is the crucial actor for the reversal of vicious circles and negative complementarities stemming from the extreme structural and social inequalities within and between countries in the region. Following a brief discussion on development and economic growth in the definition of the post-neoliberal agenda, the article examines institutional indicators for economic performance of contemporary governmental coalitions in selected countries, focusing on State policies favouring development such as financing, technological innovation, training of labour and social policies. Next, we concentrate on the analysis of political institutions and the role of political elites capable of generating national projects for sustainable development strategies, showing some of the differences between these countries. We conclude with a brief discussion on the adequacy of contemporary political economy approaches to understand processes of capitalist transformation in the periphery, calling attention to the need for a redefined regional perspective

  10. Latin America Report, No. 2755.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-21

    value of the cruzeiro may rise relative to European and Japanese currencies, "thus reducing the competitiveness of our products in those markets." At...The Tourist Office estimates that 21,600 people visited French Guiana in 1982, compared to 20,000 in 1981.* Hotel capacity is concentrated in ...their policy in Central America that has been repre- sented by the existence of the Contadora Group and the Declaration of Cancun . But there is

  11. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhares Alexandre C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  12. Rotavirus vaccines and vaccination in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre C. Linhares

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be

  13. Black Populations and Identity Issues in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wade

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the basis for black identity in Latin America. I begin with a general consideration of the position of black populations in the framework of Latin American nationalism, taking into account the transnational dimensions of this position and then analyzing in theoretical terms the tension between particularism and universalism in ideologies of nationalism and racism. In the second part of the article, I examine some concrete historical cases of Afrodescendent mobilization and/or opening towards racial diversity in order to evaluate these as bases for a Latin American black identity in general (the racial war in Cuba in 1912, the Frente Negra Brasileira of the 1930s, the Creoles in the Sandinista regime in Nicaragua, the official multiculturalism of various Latin American countries in the 1990s, and the image of “Africa” as the basis for Afrodescendant identification.

  14. Internet Use in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Salzman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este documento analiza el desarrollo del uso de Internet en América Latina. Los análisis exploran las expectativas y realidades macro y micro sociales del uso de Internet en la región. Mientras se conjetura tanto acerca de la penetración de Internet en América Latina, este documento establece las tasas reales de penetración, e intenta comprender qué ha fomentado su crecimiento en la región. Diferentes niveles de desarrollo económico, tecnológico y gubernamental impulsan la expansión de la penetración de Internet en la región. Al observar el consumo en un nivel micro, esta investigación emplea datos de encuestas de varios años del Proyecto de Opinión Pública de América Latina (Latin American Public Opinion Project y ofrece un análisis inicial de los factores determinantes del uso de Internet. En comparación con otras formas de consumo de medios de comunicación, los usuarios de Internet son más jóvenes y más escépticos a los medios de prensa locales.

  15. The importance of integrons for development and propagation of resistance in Shigella: the case of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Barrantes

    Full Text Available Abstract In Latin America, the disease burden of shigellosis is found to coexist with the rapid and rampant spread of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The molecular basis of antibiotic resistance lies within genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, integrons, genomic islands, etc., which are found in the bacterial genome. Integrons are known to acquire, exchange, and express genes within gene cassettes and it is hypothesized that they play a significant role in the transmission of multidrug resistance genes in several Gram-negative bacteria including Shigella. A few studies have described antibiotic resistance genes and integrons among multidrug resistant Shigella isolates found in Latin America. For example, in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, class 1 and class 2 integrons have been detected among multidrug resistant strains of Shigella; this phenomenon is more frequently observed in S. flexneri isolates that are resistant to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The gene cassette sul2, which is frequently detected in Shigella strains resistant to the sulfonamides, suggests that the sulfonamide-resistant phenotype can be explained by the presence of the sul2 genes independent of the integron class detected. It is to be noted that sul3 was negative in all isolates analyzed in these studies.The high frequency of sulfonamide (as encoded by sul2 and trimethoprim resistance is likely to be a result of the recurrent use of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole as a popular regimen for the treatment of shigellosis. The observed resistance profiles of Shigella strains confirm that ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are ineffective as therapeutic options. In-depth information regarding antibiotic resistance mechanism in this pathogen is needed in order to develop suitable intervention strategies. There is a pressing need for regional and local antimicrobial resistance

  16. The importance of integrons for development and propagation of resistance in Shigella: the case of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrantes, Kenia; Achí, Rosario

    In Latin America, the disease burden of shigellosis is found to coexist with the rapid and rampant spread of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The molecular basis of antibiotic resistance lies within genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, integrons, genomic islands, etc., which are found in the bacterial genome. Integrons are known to acquire, exchange, and express genes within gene cassettes and it is hypothesized that they play a significant role in the transmission of multidrug resistance genes in several Gram-negative bacteria including Shigella. A few studies have described antibiotic resistance genes and integrons among multidrug resistant Shigella isolates found in Latin America. For example, in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, class 1 and class 2 integrons have been detected among multidrug resistant strains of Shigella; this phenomenon is more frequently observed in S. flexneri isolates that are resistant to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The gene cassette sul2, which is frequently detected in Shigella strains resistant to the sulfonamides, suggests that the sulfonamide-resistant phenotype can be explained by the presence of the sul2 genes independent of the integron class detected. It is to be noted that sul3 was negative in all isolates analyzed in these studies. The high frequency of sulfonamide (as encoded by sul2) and trimethoprim resistance is likely to be a result of the recurrent use of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole as a popular regimen for the treatment of shigellosis. The observed resistance profiles of Shigella strains confirm that ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are ineffective as therapeutic options. In-depth information regarding antibiotic resistance mechanism in this pathogen is needed in order to develop suitable intervention strategies. There is a pressing need for regional and local antimicrobial resistance profiling of Shigella to be

  17. Petroleum industry in Latin America: volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    This first volume of a three-volume series, provided an overview of major economic trends, and energy reserves (i.e. crude oil, natural gas and electricity) in Latin America. Established crude oil reserves were estimated at 125 billion barrels, with Mexico and Venezuela accounting for over 90 percent of the total. Established natural gas reserves were estimated at 249 Tcf, roughly one half of it being in Venezuela. It was noted that since natural gas exploration was still in its infancy in the region, this figure was very likely an underestimate of available resources. The current physical and market characteristics of the petroleum sector in each of the seven Latin American countries were examined in detail, as were the legal, regulatory, fiscal and political environments. Latin American efforts at integration were examined, with emphasis on regional trade agreements and energy integration. The central conclusion of the study was that Latin America appeared poised for a period of sustained economic development, with the energy sector occupying center stage. tabs., figs., refs

  18. Epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capote Negrin, Luis G

    2015-01-01

    The basic aspects of the descriptive epidemiology of cervical cancer in Latin America are presented. A decrease in the incidence and mortality rates has been observed in the period from 2000 to 2012 in all countries across the region, this has not occurred at the same proportions, and in many countries, observed figures of incidence and mortality are among the highest levels in the world. In Latin America, calculating a mean measure of the numbers from the GLOBOCAN data from 2000 to 2012, we can observe a difference of up to fivefold of the incidence (Puerto Rico 9,73 Vs Bolivia 50,73) and almost seven times for mortality (Puerto Rico 3,3 Vs Nicaragua 21,67). A report of the epidemiology, risk factors, and evaluation of screening procedures regarding the possible impact of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine I in the prevention of cervical cancer is presented.

  19. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  20. Is the Supercourse useful for Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of the Supercourse showed that the effort was needed in Latin America. But would a Spanish language version be better for the region? METHODS: Google Analytics was used to determine website usage. A custom evaluation form was created to get user feedback on the usefulness of both the English language and Spanish language Supercouse lectures. RESULTS: Over a year's span from June 2009 to June 2010 there were 257,403 unique visits and 448,939 page views. The overall average rating of lectures was 4.87 with the Spanish language lectures getting even higher ratings. CONCLUSION: Supercourse lectures in Spanish were a great success in Latin America. This success shows the need for this information and similar success could be found in Central Asia.

  1. Three Waves of Populism in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Olga V. Varentsova

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary political regimes in Venezuela and Bolivia led by late Hugo Châvez (now by his successor Nicolas Maduro) and Evo Morales are considered by foreign and Russian scholars as part of the third wave of populism. In the 20th century Latin America already witnessed two waves of populism which coincided with significant political transitions, namely a transition from oligarchy to mass politics accompanied by implementation of import substitution industrialization policies, and a transiti...

  2. Natural gas developments in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faith, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    Natural gas opportunities in Latin America are discussed with reference to the Bolivia to Brazil Gas Pipeline Project. This fully integrated natural gas project extends from reserves development to market consumption and involves cooperation between countries and between the public and private sector. The project's success will depend, it is argued on the thorough integration and cooperation of all stages from reserve exploration, through pipeline construction, and distribution to power generation. (UK)

  3. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  4. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster (“culebrilla” in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil Rampakakis

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: HZ and its sequelae impose a substantial economic burden in Latin America which is expected to rise as the population ages and the number of HZ cases increases. The results support the need for early intervention, preventative strategies and improved disease management to reduce the HZ-associated disease burden in Latin America.

  5. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  6. [The need to develop demographic census systems for Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A

    1987-01-01

    The author presents the case for developing new software packages specifically designed to process population census information for Latin America. The focus is on the problems faced by developing countries in handling vast amounts of data in an efficient way. First, the basic methods of census data processing are discussed, then brief descriptions of some of the available software are included. Finally, ways in which data processing programs could be geared toward and utilized for improving the accuracy of Latin American censuses in the 1990s are proposed.

  7. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.

  8. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  9. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  10. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  11. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  12. Sustainable transport practices in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)

  13. Osteoporosis in Latin America: panel expert review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Clark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.

  14. Epidemic cholera in Latin America: spread and routes of transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthmann, J P

    1995-12-01

    In the most recent epidemic of cholera in Latin America, nearly a million cases were reported and almost 9000 people died between January 1991 and December 1993. The epidemic spread rapidly from country to country, affecting in three years all the countries of Latin America except Uruguay and the Caribbean. Case-control studies carried out in Peru showed a significant association between drinking water and risk of disease. Cholera was associated with the consumption of unwashed fruit and vegetables, with eating food from street vendors and with contaminated crabmeat transported in travellers' luggage. This article documents the spread of the epidemic and its routes of transmission and discusses whether the introduction of the epidemic to Peru and its subsequent spread throughout the continent could have been prevented.

  15. Risk Prioritization Tool to Identify the Public Health Risks of Wildlife Trade: The Case of Rodents from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, I; Smith, K M; Sampedro, F; Machalaba, C C; Karesh, W B; Travis, D A

    2016-06-01

    Wildlife trade (both formal and informal) is a potential driver of disease introduction and emergence. Legislative proposals aim to prevent these risks by banning wildlife imports, and creating 'white lists' of species that are cleared for importation. These approaches pose economic harm to the pet industry, and place substantial burden on importers and/or federal agencies to provide proof of low risk for importation of individual species. As a feasibility study, a risk prioritization tool was developed to rank the pathogens found in rodent species imported from Latin America into the United States with the highest risk of zoonotic consequence in the United States. Four formally traded species and 16 zoonotic pathogens were identified. Risk scores were based on the likelihood of pathogen release and human exposure, and the severity of the disease (consequences). Based on the methodology applied, three pathogens (Mycobacterium microti, Giardia spp. and Francisella tularensis) in one species (Cavia porcellus) were ranked as highest concern. The goal of this study was to present a methodological approach by which preliminary management resources can be allocated to the identified high-concern pathogen-species combinations when warranted. This tool can be expanded to other taxa and geographic locations to inform policy surrounding the wildlife trade. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Analysis of renewable energy incentives in the Latin America and Caribbean region: The feed-in tariff case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, David; Marzolf, Natacha; Paredes, Juan Roberto; Rickerson, Wilson; Flynn, Hilary; Becker-Birck, Christina; Solano-Peralta, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Renewable energy is becoming a priority for Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) countries because of energy challenges such as demand growth, high dependence on imported fossil fuels, and climate change. As of 2010, 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. Some of the LAC countries, namely Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. FITs are long-term, guaranteed purchase agreements for green electricity at a price that can provide project developers a reasonable return on investment. FITs are increasingly popular because if designed well, they can mitigate investor risk in renewables. This article presents a low-risk FIT design and then uses this design to benchmark the existing LAC region FITs. - Highlights: ► 12 LAC countries have implemented formal targets for renewable energy deployment. ► Argentina, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, are using feed-in tariffs (FITs) to promote renewables. ► Low-risk FIT design of feed-in tariffs in the LAC region can be improved

  17. Building Alternative-Energy Partnerships with Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bernreuther, David

    2007-01-01

    .... Concurrently, the U.S. faces a range of strategic challenges in Latin America including poor economic environments which promote problems including illegal immigration, drug trafficking, and instability...

  18. Population pressures in Latin America. [Updated reprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, T W

    1991-04-01

    This publication examines the main demographic changes in Latin America since World War II, and considers their social and economic impact on the region. The paper looks at the following demographic trends: population growth, fertility, death rate, internal migration, international migration, and age structure. It also examines other factors such as marriage and family structure, and employment and education. Furthermore, the publication provides a discussion of the relationship between population growth and economic development from both a neo-Malthusian and Structuralist view. Finally, the paper considers the region's current population policies and future population prospects. From 1950-65, annual population growth averaged 2.8%, which decreased moderately to 2.4% from 1965-85. The report identified 3 population growth patterns in the region: 1) countries which experienced early and gradual declines in birth and death rates and generally lower population growth rates (the group includes Argentina, Cuba, Uruguay, with Chile and Panama also closely fitting the description); 2) countries which underwent rapid declines in birth rate during the 1950s and which began experiencing declines in the birth rate after 1960 (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela, with Ecuador and Peru as borderline cases); and 3) countries which didn't begin to experience declines in mortality rates until relatively late and which lag behind in fertility declines (Bolivia, Haiti, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua). Although population growth has slowed and will continue to fall, UN projections do not expect the population to stabilize until late in the 21st Century.

  19. Privatization of oil companies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.

    1995-01-01

    Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)

  20. Is the Supercourse useful for Latin America?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza; Faina Linkov; Eugene Shubnikov; Ronald E. LaPorte; Rosalina Diaz-Guerrero

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The success of the Supercourse showed that the effort was needed in Latin America. But would a Spanish language version be better for the region? METHODS: Google Analytics was used to determine website usage. A custom evaluation form was created to get user feedback on the usefulness of both the English language and Spanish language Supercouse lectures. RESULTS: Over a year's span from June 2009 to June 2010 there were 257,403 unique visits and 448,939 page views. The overall aver...

  1. Eradication of cervical cancer in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Xavier Bosch

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices.   DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777

  2. Sustainable development strategies in international business: The case of resource-based firms in the Andean Region of Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Percy Luis

    This research possesses four relevant characteristics with a potential to contribute to the international business literature. First, it was conducted in three Latin American countries: Peru, Chile and Ecuador (emerging economies) where little research in international business, in comparison with other regions, has been conducted. Second, it was conducted in two industries: mining and oil and gas, which have different ways of organizing and operating in comparison with production and manufacturing industries. Third, it was conducted in remote and sensitive environmental and social areas, where stakeholders and their concerns are different from those of production and manufacturing industries. And fourth, it integrates sustainable development strategies into the field of international business. This thesis provides an in-depth discussion of three case studies and presents conclusions and implications for theory development, managers, and policy makers. The purpose of this research is to contribute to mainstream of the literature on international business by describing and analyzing the incorporation of sustainable development into management strategies.

  3. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  4. Asthma control in Latin America: the Asthma Insights and Reality in Latin America (AIRLA) survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffen, Hugo; Fritscher, Carlos; Schacht, Francisco Cuevas; Levy, Gur; Chiarella, Pascual; Soriano, Joan B; Mechali, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    The aims of this survey were (1) to assess the quality of asthma treatment and control in Latin America, (2) to determine how closely asthma management guidelines are being followed, and (3) to assess perception, knowledge and attitudes related to asthma in Latin America. We surveyed a household sample of 2,184 adults or parents of children with asthma in 2003 in 11 countries in Latin America. Respondents were asked about healthcare utilization, symptom severity, activity limitations and medication use. Daytime asthma symptoms were reported by 56% of the respondents, and 51% reported being awakened by their asthma at night. More than half of those surveyed had been hospitalized, attended a hospital emergency service or made unscheduled emergency visits to other healthcare facilities for asthma during the previous year. Patient perception of asthma control did not match symptom severity, even in patients with severe persistent asthma, 44.7% of whom regarded their disease as being well or completely controlled. Only 2.4% (2.3% adults and 2.6% children) met all criteria for asthma control. Although 37% reported treatment with prescription medications, only 6% were using inhaled corticosteroids. Most adults (79%) and children (68%) in this survey reported that asthma symptoms limited their activities. Absence from school and work was reported by 58% of the children and 31% of adults, respectively. Asthma control in Latin America falls short of goals in international guidelines, and in many aspects asthma care and control in Latin America suffer from the same shortcomings as in other areas of the world.

  5. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  6. Where Does Human Plague Still Persist in Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I.; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. Aims The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Methods Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Results Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899–2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Discussion Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested. PMID:24516682

  7. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru.The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention.Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties. Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described.Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012. Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level.Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  8. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Maria Cristina; Najera, Patricia; Aldighieri, Sylvain; Galan, Deise I; Bertherat, Eric; Ruiz, Alfonso; Dumit, Elsy; Gabastou, Jean Marc; Espinal, Marcos A

    2014-02-01

    Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties). Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012). Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  9. Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR Network. Couverture du livre Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR Network. Auteur(s) : Ed Weber (CRDI), Bernard Bridier (CIRAD) et Raul Fiorentino (IFAD). Maison(s) d'édition : CRDI. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Épuisé.

  10. Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Book cover Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Auteur(s) : Stephen Baranyi, Carmen Diana Deere, and Manuel Morales. Maison(s) d'édition : North-South Institute, IDRC. 1 janvier 2004. ISBN :.

  11. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  12. Scaling open data for development in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling open data for development in Latin America. Latin America is the most unequal region in the world and faces complex development challenges. Among these is the unprecedented number of corruption scandals in the region, which demonstrates the need to develop new approaches to foster accountability, ...

  13. A SMARCA2 Mutation in the First Case Report of Nicolaides-Baraitser Syndrome in Latin America: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isabel Sánchez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome (NCBRS is a rare and well-recognized entity that was first described in 1993, with a prevalence that is currently not known. It is recognized as a distinctive entity, with some variability in its signs and symptoms. The most important characteristics include intellectual disability, peculiar facial features including sparse scalp hair, coarse facial features, low frontal hairline, and microcephaly, and seizures. Additional features may include epicanthic folds, thin upper lip vermilion with thick lower lip vermilion, skeletal abnormalities, and severe language impairment. The disorder is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner caused by de novo mutations in the SMARCA2 gene, with most being missense mutations. We report a young adult patient with NCBRS and, to our knowledge, the first case report of the syndrome in Latin America with a confirmed molecular diagnosis and a mild-to-moderate phenotype.

  14. Nutrition status of children in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, M. L.; Jones‐Smith, J.; Lutter, C. K.; Miranda, J. J.; Pedraza, L. S.; Popkin, B. M.; Ramirez‐Zea, M.; Salvo, D.; Stein, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight and obesity is rapidly increasing among Latin American children, posing challenges for current healthcare systems and increasing the risk for a wide range of diseases. To understand the factors contributing to childhood obesity in Latin America, this paper reviews the current nutrition status and physical activity situation, the disparities between and within countries and the potential challenges for ensuring adequate nutrition and physical activity. Across the region, children face a dual burden of undernutrition and excess weight. While efforts to address undernutrition have made marked improvements, childhood obesity is on the rise as a result of diets that favour energy‐dense, nutrient‐poor foods and the adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Over the last decade, changes in socioeconomic conditions, urbanization, retail foods and public transportation have all contributed to childhood obesity in the region. Additional research and research capacity are needed to address this growing epidemic, particularly with respect to designing, implementing and evaluating the impact of evidence‐based obesity prevention interventions. PMID:28741907

  15. Three Waves of Populism in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Varentsova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary political regimes in Venezuela and Bolivia led by late Hugo Châvez (now by his successor Nicolas Maduro and Evo Morales are considered by foreign and Russian scholars as part of the third wave of populism. In the 20th century Latin America already witnessed two waves of populism which coincided with significant political transitions, namely a transition from oligarchy to mass politics accompanied by implementation of import substitution industrialization policies, and a transition from authoritarian rule to democracy during the third wave of democratization which triggered neoliberal reforms inspired by Washington Consensus. This article presents common characteristics of Latin American populist regimes that emerged in different historical periods which help identify the origins as well as distinctive features of Venezuelan and Bolivian political regimes. It is stated that the Châvez and Morales left populist regimes resemble classic populist regimes in that they rely on incendiary anti-establishment discourse. Therefore, left populist regimes are characterized by high levels of polarization as well as weak institutionalization and class or indigenous orientation. Election of left populist leaders may lead to institutional deadlock, uneven playing field and transition to competitive authoritarianism.

  16. Latin America: a development pole for phenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyela Valentina Camargo Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to a climate that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving towards a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN which focuses on LAC’s economically important crops. LatPPN’s key strategies to achieve its main goal are: 1 training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, 2 establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, 3 develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, 4 share equipment and infrastructure, 5 disseminate data and research results, 6 identify funding opportunities and 7 develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN’s relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward towards the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC.

  17. New physics schools in Latin America

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From left to right : Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF, John Ellis, Egil Lillestøl, and Professor Roger Cashmore, Director for Collider Programmes. On Monday 29 January, Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF (Centro LatinoAmericano de Fisica), visited CERN to join Professor Roger Cashmore, in signing an agreement concerning a new programme of CERN-CLAF Schools in Latin America. The inaugural school will take place in Itacuruca, Brazil, in May 2001, and has been supported by Spain, Portugal, France and Italy. The signing was attended by John Ellis (the Director General's Non-Member State Advisor), Egil Lillestøl (Director of the Physics Schools), and Claire Earnshaw (School Administrator).

  18. Hepatitis B seroprevalence in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thêmis R. Silveira

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of hepatitis B was investigated in over 12 000 subjects in six countries of Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. Each study population was stratified according to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc were measured in order to determine hepatitis B infection. The highest overall seroprevalence was found in the Dominican Republic (21.4%, followed by Brazil (7.9%, Venezuela (3.2%, Argentina (2.1%, Mexico (1.4%, and Chile (0.6%. In all the countries an increase in seroprevalence was found among persons 16 years old and older, suggesting sexual transmission as the major route of infection. In addition, comparatively high seroprevalence levels were seen at an early age in the Dominican Republic and Brazil, implicating a vertical route of transmission.

  19. Crime and criminal justice in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo

    Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.

  20. Political Violence in Latin America. A Cross-Case Comparison of the Urban Insurgency Campaigns of Montoneros, M-19, and FSLN in a Historical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Blanc, J.H.C.

    2012-01-01

    The investigation reconstructs and examines the processes of escalation and de-escalation of political violence in internal conflicts in Latin America. The study analyses and compares the urban insurgent campaigns of the Argentinean Montoneros, the Colombian Movement 19 April (M-19) and the

  1. Sovereignty and regional integration in Latin America: a political conundrum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto de Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an inherent contradiction between the regional integration projects in Latin America, albeit rhetorically conducted, and the staunch defense by most countries of their national sovereignty, which restricts and opposes many liberalization mechanisms implicit in, and necessary to, the integration processes, based on the rendition of sovereignty in some areas of economic relevance, including, and especially, trade and industrial policies, as well as other sectorial measures. The dilemma is historically compounded by a juridical tradition that places the retraction into an introverted version of the sovereignty principle into the context of conceptual elaborations well known in the international law, such as Calvo doctrine and the Drago principle. Brazil is one of the most resolute promoters of the national sovereignty principle among Latin American countries, clearly expressed in its constitutional chart and foreign policy stances, since the Second Hague peace conference of 1907. Other Latin American countries, mainly in Central America and the Caribbean, are much more motivated by real concerns over recurrent United States interventionism in the regional, in some cases by military means. This framework has somewhat infringed on integration projects, which is also hindered by economic nationalism and state interventionism.

  2. Why has Latin America sped up ahead of the Philippines in economic and political reform?

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso i Terme, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares trends in key economic, political and social development outcomes in the Philippines with those of Latin America, particularly since the 1990s. To do so, it uses standard indicators of development, including measures of institutional quality and good governance. The paper finds that Latin America is not only at a higher level of development, but has also made faster progress in most areas than the Philippines. This is especially the case as regards GDP per capita, poverty,...

  3. The natural gas as integration element in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Maria Elizabeth; Dutra, Luis Eduardo; Rosa, Luiz Pinguelli

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following global aspects of natural gas development: natural gas and worldwide energetic integration; natural gas consumption rates in the world; natural gas industry development in Latin America; and natural gas industry in Brazil. The article concludes that the natural gas can integrate Latin-american economies since the Governments adopt coherent energetic politicians articulated to each other

  4. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Luna

    Full Text Available The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin America

  5. Open Business Models (Latin America) - Phase I | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They will endeavor to demonstrate the innovative character and economic superiority of ... Open business models (Latin America) : final technical report, Mar. ... Organization for Women in Science for the Developing World (OWSD), IDRC is ...

  6. Competitive Grants for Digital Innovation in Latin America and the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Competitive Grants for Digital Innovation in Latin America and the Caribbean - Phase II ... and funded 26 research projects developed by institutions in 13 countries. ... information and communication technologies (ICTs), and help formulate the ...

  7. Professionalization of the editorial work of journals in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editores Biblios

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Ana María Cetto and José Octavio Alonso Gamboa, Latindex coordinators: Regional Cooperative Online Information System for Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain, and Portugal.

  8. Professionalization of the editorial work of journals in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Editores Biblios

    2013-01-01

    Interview with Ana María Cetto and José Octavio Alonso Gamboa, Latindex coordinators: Regional Cooperative Online Information System for Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain, and Portugal.

  9. Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Canada-Latin America and the Caribbean Research Exchange Grants Program ... and LAC researchers opportunities for joint research on development issues of ... academics (graduate students and professors) to support their professional ...

  10. Thirsty Cities: Urban Environments and Water Supply in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Many cities in Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing a water crisis as sources become exhausted or degraded. Urbanization, deteriorating infrastructures with a lack of funds for repairs, and inadequate polices are conspiring to cause water shortages.

  11. Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America ... Brazil, Colombia and Mexico, this project will examine youth crime, relations with the police ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  12. Rights and Justice and the Social Web Movement (Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rights and Justice and the Social Web Movement (Latin America) ... mounted to raise public awareness of the importance of privacy as a human right on the Internet. ... conference of McGill's Institute for the Study of International Development.

  13. Impact of Tobacco Tax Increases in Latin America | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Although most evidence on the impact of such taxes is being generated in other regions, several studies in ... an overview that will quantify all the expected effects of cigarette price increases in Latin America. ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  14. Influencing pro-poor telecommunications policy in Latin America ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-24

    Jun 24, 2016 ... Research conducted by DIRSI (Regional Dialogue on the Information ... In Brazil, DIRSI research findings were taken up in the design of the National ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America.

  15. Building equitable health systems in Latin America | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The region's segmented health systems make it difficult to provide equal access to ... to reorganize healthcare systems in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. ... Involving urban communities in controlling dengue fever in Latin America.

  16. Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... ... in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. The Canadian Institutes for Health Research and the International Development ... understand the causes and effects of the the virus, and ultimately prevent its ...

  17. China and Latin America: strategic partners or competitors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Gil Barragán

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This document has as main objective to discuss the dual role that China is playing in Latin America, on one hand, a strategic trade partner in Asia, source of foreign direct investment (FDI and key ally in the international arena, on the other hand, China is a formidable competitor particularly in the manufacturing sector. To reach the main objective, we make a brief description of the international trade relation between China and Latin America for the last 15 years, also, a review of the investment flows in different economic sectors, and lastly, a description of the political and diplomatic relation between Latin America and China. From this, it can be inferred that the bilateral relation is prominently framed by the trade of commodities from Latin America to China and the Chinese investment in the sourcing of natural resources.

  18. Nuclear debate and its implications in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz V, J M

    1977-09-01

    The controversy associated with nuclear power has been grouped into three areas: safety, economics, and availability of uranium. Implications of these factors are discussed in terms of their effects on Third World countries, particularly in Latin America.

  19. Environmental governance in Latin America: towards an integrative research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, M.; de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    Latin America plays an important international role with regard to environmental governance. Knowledge generated by empirical and theoretical studies on environmental challenges can support the renewed efforts in the region to achieve equitable and sustainable natural resource use. Although link

  20. Economic Burden of Herpes Zoster ("culebrilla") in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampakakis, Emmanouil; Pollock, Clare; Vujacich, Claudia; Toniolo Neto, Joao; Ortiz Covarrubias, Alejandro; Monsanto, Homero; Johnson, Kelly D

    2017-05-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) is characterized by debilitating pain and blistering dermatomal rash. The most common complication of HZ is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), a persistent pain that can substantially affect patients' quality of life. HZ has significant impact on patients' lives with considerable implications for healthcare systems and society. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) and medical costs associated with HZ in Latin America. We conducted a pooled-analysis of three prospective cohort studies of HZ patients ≥50 years of age in Argentina (n=96); Brazil (n=145) and Mexico (n=142). Patients were recruited at different time-points during their HZ episode and were followed for six months. The incidence of PHN was defined as a worst ZBPI pain score of ≥3, persisting or appearing more than 90 days after the onset of rash. Work effectiveness was measured on a 100-point Likert scale where 100 was described as completely effective (able to work like before HZ began) and 0 as not effective at all. Direct costs included costs due to use of antiviral medications and all medical services used to treat HZ. Indirect cost was based on foregone earnings from patients due to work loss and presenteeism, and work loss by family caretakers. One-way sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the impact on total costs. All costs are reported in 2015 USD currency. 383 HZ patients were included and PHN incidence was 38.6%. The most commonly used resources were visits to the doctor's office (79.1% of patients), the emergency room (48.8%) and a specialist (37.9%); hospitalization was reported for 5.7% of patients. The overall direct cost per case was $763.19 USD, indirect cost was $701.40, for a total of $1,464.59 per HZ episode in Latin America. Total cost associated with HZ in patients with PHN was markedly higher compared to patients without PHN ($2,001.13 vs. $867.72, respectively) with indirect costs accounting for the most part

  1. Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B. Labruna

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries, R. prowazekii (7 countries, R. typhi (6 countries, R. rickettsii (6 countries, R. amblyommii (5 countries, and R. parkeri (4 countries. The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands. For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes

  2. Latin America as new PV market opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    It is important to recognize solar energy as an international and strategic opportunity for the European market to expand. The objective of this paper is to apply the methodology created during the PV Parity project for analyzing PV Competitiveness in the emerging residential PV market in Brazil, using information from the State of Rio de Janeiro. The dynamic competitiveness analysis was performed considering the price with and without taxes in order to assess the year when PV will reach grid parity in Rio de Janeiro and how the taxes impact on the results. Results are divided into 3 scenarios: Optimistic, Conservative, and Conservative Moderate. The LCOE of residential systems will likely become competitive with the residential electricity tariffs between 2020 and 2030, assuming the residential tariffs in Rio de Janeiro. This is an indicator that PV energy business opportunities are increasing in Brazil and, with the adequate policy support, its market competitiveness could be improved. We are also looking in other markets of Latin America. (full text)

  3. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allende, R; Morales, D; Avendano, G; Chabert, S

    2007-01-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the 'state-of-the-art' of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones

  4. Contagion effect in Latin America big three

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos C. Holanda

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the occurrence of contagion among the three main economies of Latin America during the second half of the 90's. The investigation is based on the Brady Bonds market for Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. Three methodologies are applied to quantify the contagion effect: correlation of Brady Bonds price, analyses of residuals of estimated regressions and signal extraction analyses through the Kalman filter.O artigo estuda a ocorrência de contágio entre as três principais economias da América Latina na segunda metade dos anos 90. O estudo baseia-se na análise do mercado de Brady Bonds do Brasil, México e Argentina. Três metodologias são aplicadas para medir o efeito contágio: correlação dos preços dos Bradies, análise do comportamento dos resíduos de regressões estimadas e extração de sinal a partir do filtro de Kalman.

  5. Nuclear medicine in the countries of Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, Eh.

    1987-01-01

    The role of nuclear medicine in protection of health in Latin America states is shown. Nuclear medicine methods are applied in Latin America countries for diagnosis of coronary disease, cancer, malfunctioning of separate organs and transplants, kidney transplants in particular. The present situation in protection of health in the region is evaluated. It is emphasized that nuclear medicine should play its role in the course of public health improvement in those countries

  6. Understanding Interface Design and Mobile Money Perceptions in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Chiang, Chun-Wei; Anderson, Caroline; Flores-Saviaga, Claudia; Arenas, Eduardo Jr; Colin, Felipe; Romero, Mario; Rivera-Loaiza, Cuauhtemoc; Chavez, Norma Elva; Savage, Saiph

    2018-01-01

    Mobile money can facilitate financial inclusion in developing countries, which usually have high mobile phone use and steady remittance activity. Many countries in Latin America meet the minimum technological requirements to use mobile money, however, the adoption in this region is relatively low. This paper investigates the different factors that lead people in Latin America to distrust and therefore not adopt mobile money. For this purpose, we analyzed 27 mobile money applications on the ma...

  7. Archaeology in Latin America, by Gustavo G. Politis and Benjamin Alberti, editors, 1999, Routledge, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Browman

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available The two editors argue in their preface to the volume that the particular sociopolitical context of Latin America has led to a regionalism not seen in North America or Europe, resulting in a unique variety of archaeology. They particularly conceive "Latin American archaeology" in this case to he only that archaeology done by individuals who are citizens of the countries of the region, and they ex­clude from consideration as being considered "Latin American archaeology" the work of foreign scholars such as North Americans and Europeans who do research in the region.

  8. Women and Politics in Latin America: Perspectives and Limits of the Institutional Aspects of Women's Political Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, Esther

    2005-01-01

    This article attempts to offer a general panorama of some issues related to political representation of women in Latin America. Specifically, it analyzes the advances made in the representation of women in politics during the 1990s. It offers a descriptive analysis of national cases in Latin America from an institutional focus. In spite of the…

  9. Rainbow revolution in Latin America: The battle for recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Gianella-Malca, Camila; Wilson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    In a surprising turn of events, a “rainbow revolution” has blossomed in Latin America. In spite of the region’s long history of deep-rooted patriarchy, machismo, homophobia, and political and social marginalization of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transsexual (LGBT) people, Latin America is currently home to twenty five percent of the world’s countries with same sex marriage laws. This CMI Brief examines the fight for legal equality in two Latin American countries, Costa Rica and Colombia, expl...

  10. Present status and perspectives of nuclear power in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the present status of nuclear power in Latin America, giving an analysis of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Mexico - the countries that have committed themselves to nuclear power undertakings. The historical development of the energy sector is studied and analysed, comparing Latin America with developed countries and groups of countries. Projected data are also studied and analysed, defining the present status of nuclear power in Latin American and its future possibilities. The region's future needs are analyzed on the basis of various indicators and the most important conclusions are highlighted. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs, 21 tabs

  11. The politics of avoidable blindness in Latin America--surgery, solidarity, and solutions: the case of Misión Milagro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrison, Tanya L; Armada, Francisco; Rai, Nanky; Muntaner, Caries

    2012-01-01

    Avoidable blindness, especially when caused by cataracts, is a disease primarily of the economically disadvantaged sectors of the population. With a focus on Latin America and the Caribbean, this paper focuses on the program Misión Milagro within its historical, political, and economic contexts. This initiative, led by the governments of Cuba and Venezuela, covers close to 35 countries across Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Africa. It is well-known throughout Latin America as close to 2 million patients have undergone free screening, corrective surgery, and rehabilitation since its inception in 2004. Misión Milagro shows that implementation of a massive initiative to curb avoidable blindness caused by cataracts in a relatively short time is feasible. The program is also built upon a unique model of international cooperation, which stresses social objectives and solidarity rather than hegemonic international initiatives built on commercial relationships. It also provides elements that could be applied to other public health issues of global or national relevance, not only to other low-middle-income countries, but also to high-income countries such as Canada.

  12. Latin America Region: Between Dependence and Autonomy in Regional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Vaca Hernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The space called Latin America has a particular history marked by centuries of colonialism and coloniality. The latter concept implies that the basic structure of the colonial system has not changed even though formal independence has been achieved. For this reason, the subcontinent has fluctuated between dependence and the quest for autonomy. These successive cycles have manifested themselves both in the internal configurations and in the regional schemes that have been undertaken. This paper analyzes the construction and evolution of the idea of a region: Latin America and the Caribbean. To that end it examines the concepts of region, regionalism, what Latin America and the Caribbean implies, and what are the transformations in these ideas that have emerged from the regional configurations of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC as plural organisms with broad objectives.

  13. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    . Addressing a broad variety of historical, political, economic, social, cultural and legal issues, the book offers unique insights into the enormous opportunities and challenges the region presents for implementing effective marketing strategies. Macro marketing issues such as regional integration, foreign......Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America provides a much needed analysis of business and marketing in Latin America. The book highlights the diverse characteristics of the Latin American business and marketing environment as well as the dynamic nature of regional and country markets...... trade and direct investment are considered within the context of specific countries, as are the micro aspects of a company's marketing activities. The book is an extremely valuable resource for academics, practitioners and anyone interested in doing business in or with Latin America....

  14. Latin America and Caribe according to the Vatican diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antón M. Pazos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Holy See begun to take interest in Latin America at the end of the last century. The aim was to articulate a continental Church. This article analyse the correspondence between the Holy See and Bishop from America.

  15. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, Rainer, E-mail: rainer.janssen@wip-munich.de [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany); Rutz, Dominik Damian [WIP Renewable Energies, Sylvensteinstrasse 2, 81369 Munich (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: > This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. > Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. > Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. > Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. > Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  16. Sustainability of biofuels in Latin America: Risks and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, Rainer; Rutz, Dominik Damian

    2011-01-01

    Several Latin American countries are setting up biofuel programmes to establish alternative markets for agricultural commodities. This is mainly triggered by the current success of Brazilian bioethanol production for the domestic market and for export. Furthermore, the global biofuel market is expected to increase due to ambitious biofuel programmes in the EU and in the USA. Colombia, Venezuela, Costa Rica and Guatemala are focusing on bioethanol production from sugarcane whereas biofuel production in Argentina is based on soy biodiesel. Recent developments of the biofuel sector take place extremely rapid especially in Argentina, which became one of the five largest biodiesel producers in the world in 2008. Till date no specific biofuel sustainability certification systems have been implemented in Latin American, as well as on global level. This fact and the predominant use of food crops for biofuel production raise concerns about the sustainability of biofuel production related to environmental and social aspects. This paper provides an overview of the hotspots of conflicts in biofuel production in Latin America. It investigates presently available sustainability tools and initiatives to ensure sustainable biofuel production in Latin America. Finally, it provides an outlook on how to integrate sustainability in the Latin American biofuel sector. - Research Highlights: → This study investigates risks and opportunities of biofuels in Latin America. → Latin American countries are setting up programmes to promote biofuel development. → Strong biofuel sectors provide opportunities for economic development. → Potential negative impact includes deforestation and effects on food security. → Sustainability initiatives exist to minimise negative impact.

  17. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  18. China's Growing Interest in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry; Sullivan, Mark P

    2005-01-01

    .... Some also believe Beijing's additional goal is to isolate Taiwan by luring the 12 Latin American and Caribbean nations still maintaining diplomatic relations with Taiwan to shift their diplomatic recognition to China...

  19. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  20. Latin America: Essays Interpretating Colonial Legacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pia López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A large part of the Latin–American literature of the 19th and 20th century tried to deal with the national question intertwining different dimensions: the weight of colonial legacy, the cultural peculiarity of the nation and the inner relations between social classes and ethnic groups. Thinking the nation implied, in any case, to think the difference and the conflict with others, as well as the inner conflict and the logic of local colonialism. Analyzing some of these essays that played a central role in such process of recasting the origin of the nation, the author moves around three main axes: the formulation of dualist writings (colonial/national; white /indigenous; civilization/wilderness, the issue of language (the language inherited from the colonial experience versus the multilingual nature of indigenous Latin American societies, and the hypothesis about the birth of the nation – appointed to different groups – and its normal functioning as legitimization of the order sprung from independences.

  1. Multinational experience with hypersensitivity drug reactions in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jares, Edgardo José; Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Cardona-Villa, Ricardo; Ensina, Luis Felipe; Arias-Cruz, Alfredo; Gómez, Maximiliano; Barayazarra, Susana; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Serrano, Carlos D; Cuello, Mabel Noemi; Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; De Falco, Alicia; Cherrez-Ojeda, Iván

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic drug allergy data from Latin America are scarce, and there are no studies on specific procedures focusing on this topic in Latin America. To assess the clinical characteristics and management of hypersensitivity drug reactions in different Latin American countries. An European Network of Drug Allergy questionnaire survey was implemented in 22 allergy units in 11 Latin American countries to report on consecutive patients who presented with a suspected hypersensitivity drug reaction. Each unit used its own protocols to investigate patients. Included were 868 hypersensitivity drug reactions in 862 patients (71% of adults and elderly patients were women and 51% of children were girls, P = .0001). Children presented with less severe reactions than adults and elderly patients (P Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Democratic survival in Latin America (1945-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal PÉREZ-LIÑÁN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.

  3. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  4. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  5. China and Latin America: strategic partners or competitors?

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Manuel Gil Barragán; Andrés Aguilera Castillo

    2017-01-01

    This document has as main objective to discuss the dual role that China is playing in Latin America, on one hand, a strategic trade partner in Asia, source of foreign direct investment (FDI) and key ally in the international arena, on the other hand, China is a formidable competitor particularly in the manufacturing sector. To reach the main objective, we make a brief description of the international trade relation between China and Latin America for the last 15 years, also, a review of the i...

  6. Development of a simple screening tool for opportunistic COPD case finding in primary care in Latin America: The PUMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Varela, Maria Victorina; Montes de Oca, Maria; Rey, Alejandra; Casas, Alejandro; Stirbulov, Roberto; Di Boscio, Valentina

    2016-10-01

    Opportunistic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) case finding approaches for high-risk individuals with or without symptoms is a feasible option for disease identification. PUMA is an opportunistic case finding study conducted in primary care setting of Argentina, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay. The objectives were to measure COPD prevalence in an at-risk population visiting primary care for any reason, to assess the yield of this opportunistic approach and the accuracy of a score developed to detect COPD. Subjects attending routine primary care visits, ≥40 years of age, current or former smokers or exposed to biomass smoke, completed a questionnaire and performed spirometry. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator (post-BD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 )/forced vital capacity (FVC) 50 years, heavy smokers (>30 pack-years), with dyspnoea, and having prior spirometry. A simple score and a weighted score constructed using the following predictive factors: gender, age, pack-years smoking, dyspnoea, sputum, cough and spirometry, had a mean accuracy for detecting COPD (post-BD FEV1 /FVC tool to select subjects for spirometry in primary care. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  7. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  8. A New Strategy for Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    resulted in six significant racial groups; Indians, Europeans, Mestizo (Indians & Europeans); Black, Mulattoes (Black & Europeans), and Zambos (Indians...slice of the budget pie , a priority ranking of these countries would establish where the best benefits lie for US national security. As discussed, Latin

  9. Science Education Research Trends in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Jerez, William

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey and report on the empirical literature at the intersection of science education research in Latin American and previous studies addressing international research trends in this field. Reports on international trends in science education research indicate that authors from English-speaking countries are major…

  10. Educational Neuromyths among Teachers in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Lira Luttges, Benjamin; Salvarezza, Florencia; Campos, Anna Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Neuroscientific knowledge has undeniably gained interest among educators worldwide. However, not all "brain facts" believed by teachers are supported by science. This study sought to evaluate the belief in these so-called "neuromyths" among 3,451 Latin American teachers. We found that, consistent with prior research among…

  11. MUNICIPAL FOREST MANAGEMENT IN LATIN AMERICA

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    National Library of Indonesia Cataloging – in-Publication Data: ..... with both the threat of specific population sectors or elites monopolizing local power and the .... These units have been quite active in delimiting municipal forest areas; many .... in the health and education sectors than those in other Latin American countries.

  12. The Reforms to the Presidential Re-election in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilka Treminio Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the topic of the constitutional changes regulating the presidential re-election in Latin America. It establishes historical segments of change and it deals particularly with the so-called 21st century’s “Re-election Wave”. The main objective of the present work is to develop a characterization of the cases that have taken place according to the type of re-election reform outcome and the decision process preceding it. This approach is intended to clarify the routes followed in achieving a certain constitutional result and shed light on the factors that shape this new political trend in Latin America.

  13. FUTURE INNOVATION TRENDS IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Pospelova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article off ers an analysis of innovation activities in three Latin American countries. Such components as the role of science, business communities, and public policies in the transition to a knowledge-based economy are analyzed. Based on the Gibbons Model, innovative models that are being implemented inBrazil,Chile, andMexicoare compared. The data obtained may be used as a practical tool in developing countries.

  14. Assistance Focus: Latin America/Caribbean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from the Latin American/Caribbean region are featured here.

  15. Anticommunism Versus Nonintervention in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    insistence of the Latin governments, another conference of American states was called at Chapultepec , near Mexico City, in 1945. There, the principles...overthrown in 195^ by an anti-Communist liberation army led by Colonel Carlos Castillo Armas. Castillo Armas became Provisional President in...contributed to the success of Castillo Armas’ liberation army in bringing about the downfall of tho Arbenz regime. The United States, as the leader

  16. Conditional Income Transfers in Latin America: Palliatives for poverty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gepherson Macêdo Espínola

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This text discusses the implementation of conditional income transfer programs in Latin America as a strategy to confront poverty in the region. It synthetically contextualizes Latin American development over time, using statistical data to reveal not only the high levels of poverty, but also educational and health conditions. These programs, as a rule, seek to alleviate and overcome poverty through monetary disbursements and fulfillment of health and educational agendas that, in thesis, increase the human capital of the poor and allow overcoming poverty in the long term. It concludes that despite the benefits for the families, the conditional income transfer programs of Latin America, on their own, are still not capable of confronting the structural poverty that marks the region, and are promoting palliatives for the poor living conditions, without overcoming them.

  17. Proceedings of the heavy oil Latin America congress 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This conference brought experts together to explore the challenges faced and opportunities available in the dynamic emerging market for heavy oil which Latin America offers. The conference was attended by over 700 delegates from around the world representing official and private agencies, Latin American governments, national oil companies and service companies in heavy oil producing countries. These participants were given the opportunity to learn about the entire value chain of Latin America's heavy oil industry, with emphasis on balancing challenging environmental and social issues with operational best practices, and they also the opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise with their peers. 17 of the 29 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  18. Influencing policy through impact evaluation in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And there are growing concerns about the ethics of implementing some types of IE. This paper explores recent IE practice in Latin America and reviews more than 300 impact evaluations in 21 countries. It examines the policy issues covered and methodologies used; the research actors and implementing agencies involved; ...

  19. Digitalizing Urban Latin America : A New Layer for Persistent Inequalities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, F.; Segura, R.

    2016-01-01

    Digitalization refers to a multifaceted process which has experienced a vertiginous expansion on a global scale in the last few decades. This issue of CROLAR aims to explore one these facets: digitalization of urban space in Latin America. Thus, the contributions submitted discuss how the advances

  20. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  1. [Governance and health: meaning and implications in Latin America].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, C.; Lamothe, L.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Haggerty, J.

    2010-01-01

    The term governance is used more and more often in the formulation, implementation, and evaluation of public policies. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to shed light on its meaning, and to study its applicability for the study of recent public health policies in Latin America. After discussing

  2. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  3. The Global Financial Crisis and currency crises in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonman, Tjeerd M.; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.; Kuper, Gerard H.

    2012-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis (GFC) has aected many regions including Latin America. This paper focuses on currency crises in Argentina, Brazil and Mexico. We estimate an Early Warning System, consisting of a dynamic factor model and an ordered logit model, with monthly data for 1990-2007. Ex ante

  4. Development and evaluation of addiction treatment programs in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Navarrete, Rodrigo; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Pérez-López, Alejandro; Horigian, Viviana E

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present a state-of-the-art review of the scientific studies that have evaluated healthcare systems, services and programs for addiction treatment in Latin America. As a secondary aim, this article presents a brief description and analysis of the addiction prevention and treatment resources and programs available in Latin America, based on information from the ATLAS on Substance Use (ATLAS-SU) project led by the WHO. Substance use disorders (SUDs) are among the main causes associated with global burden of disease. Around the world, many initiatives have been proposed to promote policies to reduce substance use and reduce the impact of SUD, including integrating treatments into healthcare systems, increasing access to treatment programs and impacting outcome measures. In Latin America, multiple efforts have been implemented to improve addiction services and programs, although little is known about the impact they have generated. International studies report the availability of strategies and public inicitatives on prevention and treatment of addiction in Latin America. These studies also report established networks of public and private services that include prevention and detoxification programs, outpatient and residential treatment, and also social reintegration initiatives. However, despite these advances, information on the evaluation of the progress, results and impact of these programs is limited.

  5. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  6. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  7. Introduction: Environment and Society in Contemporary Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.; de Castro, F.; Hogenboom, B.; Baud, M.

    2016-01-01

    Societal change in Latin America is intimately related to nature and natural resources. In this resource-rich region, nature–society relations provide both opportunities and challenges in achieving more fair, equitable and sustainable development. Nearly half of the world’s tropical forests are

  8. The Catholic Church, Moral Education and Citizenship in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaiber, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The Catholic Church, with deep roots in the history of Latin America, exercises considerable influence on all levels of society. Especially after the Second Vatican Council and the bishops' conference at Medellin (1968) the Church took up the banner of human rights and the cause of the poor. During the dictatorships and in the midst of the…

  9. Rural Agroindustry in Latin America: An Evaluation of the PRODAR ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Rural Agroindustry in Latin America: An Evaluation of the PRODAR Network ... by other donors in the region linked up with the IDRC-supported projects to form a network, ... IDRC, Tim Hortons, and Cenicafé joining forces in a new partnership.

  10. The Administration of Educational Development in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera, Carlos E.

    Based on the realization that 20 years of educational development efforts in Latin America have had little result, this author identified problems in educational administration at the national and regional levels that are largely responsible for the lack of progress. A number of structural and legal problems were identified, including the…

  11. Productivity in services in Latin America and the Caribbean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias Ortiz, E.; Crespi, G.A.; Rasteletti, A.; Vargas, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies productivity in Latin America and the Caribbean, with an emphasis on the service sector. It shows that the low levels of productivity observed in the region are not only a consequence of low productivity at the firm level, but also of misallocation of workers across firms. These

  12. Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Resilient Cities Initiative on Climate Change in Latin America and the Caribbean ... and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen decision-making and ... represent a serious threat for fast-growing small- and medium-sized cities. ... guidance on how to integrate gender practices into climate resilient plans for ...

  13. Does Africa grow slower than Asia and Latin America?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Paap (Richard); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we address the question whether countries on the African continent have lower average growth rates in real GDP per capita than countries in Asia and Latin America. In contrast to previous studies, we do not aggregate the data, nor do we a priori assign countries to

  14. The Education of Indigenous Citizens in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Regina, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This groundbreaking volume describes unprecedented changes in education across Latin America, resulting from the endorsement of Indigenous peoples' rights through the development of intercultural bilingual education. The chapters evaluate the ways in which cultural and language differences are being used to create national policies that affirm the…

  15. Asthma in Latin America: the dawn of a new epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitrez, Paulo M; Stein, Renato T

    2008-10-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease with high morbidity worldwide. Unlike the low prevalence of asthma and allergy found in many developing countries, especially in rural settings, its prevalence in Latin America is high. In these sites, nonatopic asthma seems to be the most common phenotype observed among school-age children. Therefore, it seems that asthma in Latin America has some particular characteristics that will be presented and discussed in this article. The prevalence of asthma-like symptoms in childhood is high in many populations studied in Latin America with similar frequencies to those reported in more developed countries. However, the mechanisms and risk factors associated with nonatopic asthma, which is the most prevalent phenotype in this region, have been scarcely studied. The better understanding of asthma phenotypes that prevail in Latin America and the investigation of determining factor studies may help establish new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. These findings should affect public health policies for this new asthma epidemic through the combination of the atopic and nonatopic phenotypes. We hope that this article sheds some new light into these important and most relevant questions.

  16. Meaning and repercussions of the Tlatelolco Treaty for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriefer, D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper addresses the meaning and repercussions of the TLATELOLCO Treaty for Latin America and the caribbean, as part of the major efforts regarding . A nuclear weapons-free zone, It also describes the role of the OPANAL and that of the IAEA article 13 of the treaty, as well as regional and international safeguards are also highlighted

  17. Introduction: the worst forms of child labour in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieten, G.K.; Lieten, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    Child labour, despite a broadly accepted understanding that it must be eradicated, and despite the International Conventions, national legislation and various time-bound programmes, lingers on in many parts of the world, including Latin America, which albeit has a much higher GDP than countries in

  18. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayrton R. Massaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region.

  19. Inclusive education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa BLANCO GUIJARRO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is known for being the most socially unequal in the world and for this has highly segmented societies, which affects the education, integration and social cohesion of the population. Expanding opportunities for everyone to have access to quality education and developing more inclusive schools, which would educate within and for diversity, stand out as two powerful strategies in a move towards more just and democratic societies in Latin America. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the educational situation in the region from the perspective of rights and inclusion, with particular attention paid to those individuals and groups that suffer most from the impact of inequality, exclusion and marginalization. This analysis begins with an assessment the progress and challenges still to be made regarding access, attendance, quality and equity of education in Latin America. In the second part it addresses the major issues on the agenda of Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  20. Latin America Today: An Atlas of Reproducible Pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Eagle, Inc., Wellesley, MA.

    A profile of Latin America (defined as consisting of the countries of Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, and Venezuela) emerges from this collection of black and white illustrative maps, tables, and…

  1. Laboratory for Latin America; Labor fuer Lateinamerika

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2011-05-15

    Uruguay intends to become South America's leader in the renewables sector. The country is currently in a period of economic success, which facilitates restructuring of the power supply sector. (orig.)

  2. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha Tourinho-Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

  3. Finance, growth and social fairness : Evidence for Latin America and Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sucre Reyes, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This PhD thesis explores the role of finance in promoting economic growth and social fairness. Our case studies concentrate on Latin America and the Caribbean, and on Bolivia, a developing region and a country for which the relationship between finance, growth, and social fairness turns out to be

  4. The sexual history of the global South: sexual politics in Africa, Asia and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, S.; Sívori, H.

    2013-01-01

    The Sexual History of the Global South explores the gap between sexuality studies and post-colonial cultural critique. Featuring twelve case studies, based on original historical and ethnographic research from countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, the book examines the sexual investments

  5. Collaborative Economy in Tourism in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Helene Balslev; Velázquez, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This chapter addresses how fundamentally different rationales and structures underpin the collaborative phenomena in four different Latin American countries arguing that for centuries a range of economic, sociopolitical and cultural practices have been intimately linked to what Western societies...... have named the collaborative economy. Acknowledging the importance of Web 2.0, we will discuss how the digital technologies have brought about new collaborative consumption patterns and finally, we will address the question of whether the technology-induced collaborative economy can create new economic...

  6. Navigating the hydro market in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yermoli, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    The governments of most Latin American countries have yet to establish clear policies about the future ownership of existing generation assets, but they do expect future capacity to be largely developed by the private sector. There were at one time plans for many government-financed hydro projects in the area, but these projects produced much paper and little electricity. Present trends will take the area toward independent power projects, both hydro projects and thermal power projects. This article is a review of those present trends

  7. Psychology, Ethics and Globalitation in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Mario Flores Osorio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present communication has the intention of helping to the realization of the dream of a Latin-American psychology, structured throw the word and maybe poetry ,because both of them contains the main postulated of one ethic of liberation that permits to valorize the process of the modern capitalism who expands threw the world like a irreversible history, so it results to the professional psychology practice, to understand the place that the psychology must play and in particular the collective function on concrete reality.

  8. Municipal Governments and Development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Victory

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The processes of democratization, State reforms and administrative de-concentration that have marked the last 15 years of Latin American societies have brought about a reevaluation of the role of municipalities. The decentralization of the State has been put forth as basic objective and the economic productive restructuring happening around the world calls for a response from local initiatives: that is to say, initiatives to effect a new strategy of development “from the bottom up” that values territory as a geographic space bounded by a community of interests. One of the important actors in these local initiatives are the municipal governments who, as a first government resort, must respond to the vast demands of the population. These institutions are not consolidated, however. Instead, they are generally weak, with little economic, political and ideological power, and are limited in their autonomy, authority, legitimacy and capacity for management. In the first part of the article, and in an effort to characterize the political autonomy of the region’s municipalities, their distinct elements are analyzed – the system of representative democracy, competencies and resources, etc.. The most notorious deficiencies of Latin American municipalities are also studied. The second section analyzes the roles that these municipalities should take on to overcome these deficiencies, and goes on to offer action proposals towards creating a new model for municipal management, new ways of making policy from the municipality, and an analysis of the different instruments for promoting the local economy.

  9. Reformas eleitorais na América Latina: grandes expectativas, poucos casos, resultados perversos Electoral reforms in Latin America: great expectations, few cases, perverse outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Marenco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto pretende realizar um balanço de reformas eleitorais nas regras para a escolha de cadeiras legislativas na América Latina a partir da terceira onda da democracia. Na primeira parte, é feita uma revisão dos estudos sobre sistemas eleitorais, considerando, em particular, os efeitos políticos provocados pelas regras de conversão de votos em mandatos eletivos e os fatores que contribuem para a realização de reformas eleitorais. Na segunda parte, são examinadas as reformas eleitorais promovidas na América Latina, buscando identificar fatores que tenham contribuído para sua realização. Na terceira seção, foram analisadas as consequências provocadas pelas mudanças nos sistemas eleitorais, especialmente aquelas relacionadas ao grau de competição partidária, volatilidade eleitoral e a desestruturação dos sistemas partidários após a implementação das reformas.This article seeks to compare electoral reforms aimed at changing the rules for the choice of legislative seats in Latin America, since the third wave of democracy. In the first section, it is presented a literature review on electoral systems studies, considering especially the political effects of the rules on how seats are distributed according to votes, and the factors that contribute to induce electoral reforms as well. In the second section, the electoral reforms promoted in Latin America are analyzed with the purpose of identifying the factors that contributed to produce such reforms. In the third section, the consequences of changes in the electoral systems are analyzed, focusing those associated to the degree of party competition and electoral volatility.

  10. Can Latin America fill the U.S. polyolefin deficit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagel, E.

    2006-01-01

    Strategic issues for the North American polyolefin industry were discussed with reference to oil and gas price forecasts, oil capacity increases, and high density polyethylene production and ethylene integration costs. The overall polyolefin trade balance in North America was also explored. It was cautioned that unless a significant amount of new capacity is built in the United States, it is anticipated that by 2008, the United States will become a net importer of polyolefin resins. Currently exported product will be used increasingly in the domestic market to meet demand growth. This shift from being a net exporter of resins can be attributed to the high cost of feedstocks and the lack of investment in new capacity throughout the region. In contrast, there have been several proposals for new capacity in Latin America in the past several years. Since there is already an important level of commerce and trade between North and South America, countries with access to the Caribbean basin, are logistically well situated to serve the North American market. The availability of low cost feedstocks in countries such as Trinidad, Venezuela and Bolivia add to the attractiveness of the region for the development of new petrochemical capacity. This paper examined the status of the different proposed projects in Latin America and analyzed the potential opportunities that exist for North American producers to collaborate in those projects. The general trade balance of the continent was reviewed in order to verify if the traditional seclusion of America's polyolefin market can be maintained in the future. It was concluded that even if all projects in Latin America are launched, the Americas will still be in a net deficit position. Under the right circumstances, the Middle East will be the global supplier of commodity polyolefins that could extend to the Americas. It was emphasized that companies should be prepared for feedstock advantaged investments, alliances, acquisitions and

  11. Hierarchical capitalism in Latin America: Comparative analysis with other economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar J. Saucedo A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to compare the three largest economies in Latin America (Brazil, Mexico and Argentina with other economies that have another type of capitalism, in that way we can extract some effects of the hierarchical capitalism in Latin America Design/methodology/approach – The data were taken from World Economic Outlook (IMF, The Global Innovation Index (INSEADand the Democracy Index (The Economist. The selected countries are: Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, Spain and Croatia. We establish a comparison among countries in the following dimensions: economic growth, innovation and democracy. Findings – The comparison shows that Argentina, Brazil and Mexico have lower level of economic growth, innovation performance and democracy level than South Korea, Spain and Croatia. The variety of capitalism in Latin America (hierarchical has lower performance than others kinds of capitalism in other regions of the world. Research limitations/implications – We have compared Latin American countries with countries from other regions of the world. However, a comparison may include more countries and results could vary. Originality/value – The results tend to support the idea that hierarchical capitalism has poor results in comparison with other varieties of capitalism.

  12. Current trends in Latin America and the Argentine perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laredo, V.G. [SOCMA Americana, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1992-12-31

    The authors discusses the changes that are taking place in Argentina as well as in all of Latin America today -- privatization, deregulation, and the modernization of the economy, changes which will serve to strengthen the governments and provide a better quality of life for all of them. He gives an insight into the factors which helped bring about these changes, the support they are receiving, the problems which persist, and the measures that still must be taken so that these positive changes remain in place. He offers some useful information that will perhaps contribute to their understanding of the vast area which he refers to as Latin America, and more specifically, gives a thumbnail sketch of what is happening today in the Republic of Argentina. For many years now, Latin American leaders have travelled to other parts of the world and spoken about the plans and expectations for the region`s future. When these well-intentioned projects and plans never materialized, partners and supporters in the United States and other countries were frustrated and disappointed by the failure to make things work. The author`s intention here today is to describe things as they are, not as they might be, to tell about what is already happening in the sphere of business and growth of the economies in Latin America.

  13. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people (≥60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection

  14. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.

  15. The Internet and the Ability to Innovate in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Micco; Alberto E. Chong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide an overview of the situation of the Internet in Latin America and argue that, although latecomers, Latin American countries could in principle catch up at a faster pace and a lower cost. But that will depend on the environment for innovation in the countries; in that respect, the adoption of the Internet may prove to be no different than other technological changes. The paper also discusses how the degree of innovativeness in a country helps explain the extent to whic...

  16. Global crisis and the Europe-Latin America migration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana M. Sassone

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses some of the changes in the connections of the European-Latin American migration system over the past decades. First, we analyse the changing trends and re-routing of the flows between the two ends of the system. Then, we address the complex rearrangements of immigration policies, which in both spaces are again beginning to turn inwards. Lastly, we briefly review the partnerships that are being established between Europe and Latin America via Spain. Within this framework, we wonder whether we are entering a new phase of the globalisation of migration, the dynamic of which is a pendulum with global and regional effects.

  17. PISA TESTS IN LATIN AMERICA: RESULTS IN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Tiramonti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The educational reforms implemented in Latin America in the ‘90s introduced changes in the modes of regulation of educational systems based on the adoption of mechanisms for assessing student achievement. Since 2000, eight Latin-American countries (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Colombia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Mexico and Peru are involved in the PISA tests. The article presents a brief review of the social and educational situation of the Region, relevant for the interpretation and comparative analysis of the results of these tests that is presented below.

  18. The role of the state oil company in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    ARPEL (Asistencia Reciproca Petrolera Estatal Latinoamericana -Latin America State Oil Companies Association for Mutal Assistance) is a private organization working for the benefit of its 20 member companies as well as promoting the economic integration of their respective countries. The Latin American State Oil Companies (LASOCs) are responsible for 80% of petroleum activities in the region, which in 1990 amounted to 7.4 mbd or 11.4% of the world's production. Mexico and Venezuela are responsible for 2/3 of the output. The LASOCs, besides filling domestic needs and seeking country self-sufficiency, look for opportunities for participation in international markets and to attract external investment. (authors)

  19. The future of nuclear power in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future prospects of nuclear power in Latin America. As part of the developing world, Latin America has a great potential for energy growth. Although there are substantial differences among the different countries of the area, one common denominator is the relatively low per-capita energy consumption. As in many other regions of the world, nuclear power makes sense to complement hydro and fossil-fueled power generation. One of the main restrictions to the growth of nuclear power has been the relatively small size of some electric system. As in most developing countries, the damage to the environment due to the energy-producing systems is very important. In countries like Cuba, nuclear power is clearly the most economical source, since the country lacks indigenous energy resources and the need to import primary energy sources favors nuclear power. The problem of the Latin American region is a severe shortage of financial resources. Standardization has been recognized as one of the better mechanisms to lower nuclear power costs. Argentina has been proposing the construction of CANDU-type reactors as the basis for their standard program, and some years ago Mexico took steps to launch a program for the installation of ∼20 identical units. As in the whole world, the general public is reluctant to accept nuclear power. So far, nuclear power plants have been important to Latin America, with varying levels of local participation, but with imported technology. Unless a major scientific breakthrough takes place, nuclear power will constitute an important component of the energy system in Latin America

  20. Do authoritarians vote for authoritarians? Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie J. Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.

  1. Income inequality, distributive fairness and political trust in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmerli, Sonja; Castillo, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    In the wake of rising levels of income inequality during the past two decades, widespread concerns emerged about the social and political consequences of the widening gap between the poor and the rich that can be observed in many established democracies. Several empirical studies substantiate the link between macro-level income inequality and political attitudes and behavior, pointing at its broad and negative implications for political equality. Accordingly, these implications are expected to be accentuated in contexts of high inequality, as is the case in Latin America. Despite these general concerns about the consequences of income inequality, few studies have accounted for the importance of individual perceptions of distributive fairness in regard to trust in political institutions. Even less is known about the extent to which distributive fairness perceptions co-vary with objective indicators of inequality. Moreover, the research in this area has traditionally focused on OECD countries, which have lower indexes of inequality than the rest of the world. This study aims at filling this gap by focusing on the relevance of distributive fairness perceptions and macro-level inequality for political trust and on how these two levels interact in Latin American countries. The analyses are based on the Latinobarometer survey 2011, which consists of 18 countries. Multilevel estimations suggest that both dimensions of inequality are negatively associated with political trust but that higher levels of macro-level inequality attenuate rather than increase the strength of the negative association between distributive fairness perceptions and political trust. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Geothermal investigations with isotope and geochemical techniques in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) for Latin America on the Use of Isotope and Geochemical Techniques in Geothermal Exploration started in 1984. The first activity carried out was a Seminar on isotope and geochemical techniques in geothermal exploration, which took place in June 1984 in Morelia, Mexico. During the seminar, which was attended by representatives of the institutions which later took part in the programme, the objectives, main research lines, and geothermal fields to be studied during the CRP were discussed. The first research contracts were awarded towards the end of 1984. The field work started in 1985 and continued through 1990. During the implementation of the CRP a considerable number of geothermal fields were studied in the nine participating countries. The investigations carried out were geochemically quite comprehensive in most cases, but in some others they were still in a reconnaissance stage when the CRP ended: the latter studies are not reported in these proceedings, but the data obtained are in principle available from the relevant national institutions. While investigations with conventional geochemical techniques had already started in several fields before 1985, isotope methods were applied for the first time in all cases during this CRP. Due to the remoteness and high elevation of many of the fields studied and the adverse meteorological conditions during long periods of the year, the investigations could not proceed rapidly: this is the main reason for the unusually long duration of the CRP, which could be concluded only after more than five years after its inception

  3. The molecular epidemiology of cholera in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, I K; Evins, G M; Fields, P I; Olsvik, O; Popovic, T; Bopp, C A; Wells, J G; Carrillo, C; Blake, P A

    1993-03-01

    To explain the sudden appearance and rapid spread of cholera in Latin America in January 1991, molecular techniques were used to define Vibrio cholerae O1 isolates from around the world. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms of rRNA and ctxA genes, DNA sequence of cholera toxin B subunit gene ctxB, and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis data were used to characterize 197 isolates. Worldwide, there are at least four distinct toxigenic El Tor V. cholerae O1 clones: the seventh pandemic (Eastern Hemisphere), US Gulf Coast, Australian, and Latin American. Nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 previously isolated in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru are unlike current toxigenic isolates. The Latin American clone probably represents an extension of the seventh pandemic into the Western Hemisphere, while the US Gulf Coast clone most likely evolved separately. These data will be useful in monitoring the spread of cholera, determining the origin of outbreaks in both hemispheres, and implicating specific vehicles of transmission.

  4. News Media Consumption and Political Behavior in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Salzman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available News media are an important factor in any democratic society. Research focused on developed democracies has paved the way for analysis in the context of less well-developed democracies. The project endeavors to continue that investigation into whether and how news media consumption affects democratic behavior among individuals in a region comprised of developing democracies: Latin America. Employing rich survey data available from the 2008 Latin American Public Opinion Project, traditional analyses are used to test one of the most basic questions for political communication researchers: Does news media consumption motivate or depress political participation? The results indicate that, on average, news media mobilize political participation, albeit to different degrees per medium and participation type. This seems to happen because those media socialize Latin Americans to value political participation.

  5. Spent fuel management options for research reactors in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    Research reactors (RRs) have been operated in Latin America since the late 1950s, and a total of 23 RRs have been built in the region. At the time of writing (November 2005), 18 RRs are in operation, 4 have been shut down and 1 has been decommissioned. The number of operating RRs in Latin America represents around 6% of the existing operational RRs worldwide and around 21% of the RRs operating in developing countries. Common to all RRs in the region is a consistent record of safe and successful operation. With the purpose of carrying out a collaborative study of different aspects of the management of spent fuel from RRs, some countries from the region proposed to the IAEA in 2000 the organization of a Regional Project. The project (IAEA TC Regional Project RLA/4/018) that was approved for the biennium 2001-2002 and extended for 2003-2004 included the participation of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru. The main objectives of this project were: (a) to define the basic conditions for a regional strategy for managing spent fuel that will provide solutions compatible with the economic and technological realities of the countries involved; and (b) to determine what is needed for the temporary wet and dry storage of spent fuel from the research reactors in the countries of the Latin American region that participated in the project. This TECDOC is based on the results of TC Regional Project RLA/4/018. This project was successful in identifying and assessing a number of viable alternatives for RRSF management in the Latin American region. Options for operational and interim storage, spent fuel conditioning and final disposal have been carefully considered. This report presents the views of Latin American experts on RR spent fuel management and will be useful as reference material for the Latin American RR community, decision making authorities in the region and the public in general

  6. Nuclear energy and sustainability in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterner, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    The concept of sustainability has been given numerous interpretations, some overlapping or complementary, some contradictory. Thus it is difficult to judge whether the nuclear industry does, or does not, meet sustainability criteria; particularly as the present nuclear technologies are not renewable. Uranium resources appear to be of the same order of magnitude as oil and gas resources. This implies that they are a transitional source of energy. There are also other potential arguments against the sustainability of nuclear power: its pollution, risks and costs. Environmental damage may come from various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. Two types of risk will be discussed: first the risk of major accidents and thereby exceptional environmental damage, and second the risks associated with the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Each of these factors, as well as the pure economic cost of nuclear electricity, ought to be compared to the environmental damage, risks and costs of the available alternatives. Only the Latin American experience will be considered. For example, the need for Mexico to use nuclear power when it has large oil and gas supplies, is considered. (author)

  7. The role of the state oil company in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the Latin American state oil companies (LASOCs) in establishing national industries to fuel economic development is discussed. LASOCs are represented internationally in an organization called ARPEL (Asistencia Reciproca Petrolera Estatal Latinoamericana) which is aimed to foster interchange, cooperation, and mutual assistance among its 20 member companies, as well as to promote economic integration of Latin America through its petroleum sector. State oil companies in Latin America date from 1922, when the oldest LASOC was created in Argentina. LASOCs are responsible for ca 80% of petroleum activities in Latin America. As of 1990, Latin American oil reserves, including gas liquids, amounted to ca 122 billion bbl or 12.2% of the world total. Regional oil production averaged 7.4 million bbl/d in 1990. Refining capacity is ca 7.7 million bbl/d, of which 80% is operated directly by LASOCs. Natural gas reserves are 7.3 trillion m 3 , ca 6% of the world total, and production averaged 360 million m 3 in 1990. LASOCs were generally created and developed under strong nationalistic climates and worked in regulated markets. They grew strongly during the 1960s and 1970s and also organized to work both in upstream and downstream operations. LASOC strategies varied according to the needs of the individual countries, but generally included promotion of long range plans to develop the local manufacturing and service industries. The larger LASOCs have developed important new technologies. In the 1980s, economic crises and financial manipulation by governments brought LASOCs into a serious crisis, and the latest trend is toward deregulation and an opening to foreign investment to encourage economic recovery. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Network support for e-Science in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanton, M.; Macahdo, I.; Faerman, M.; Moura, A. L.

    2007-01-01

    Computer networks in Latin America have connected scientists in the region to their peers in other parts of the world since 1986. Starting with the creation of Internet2 in 1996, a new global research network has been extended throughout the world, providing communications infrastructure for large-scale international scientific collaboration. With the creation of the RedCLARA network and its links to Europe and the US between 2004 and 2005, this global network reached the majority of Latin America countries, setting the stage for much closer collaboration between scientists in Latin America and their counterparts in other countries. In this article we describe the development of the research networking infrastructure currently available within the region together with its inter-regional connections, and how this infrastructure is being used for support of e-science. Particular attention is given to the role of the national research and education networks (NRENs) in the region, and of their association, CLARA, in providing networking support for e-science projects. CLARA and Latin American NRENs are active partners in the EU-supported EELA and RINGrid projects, and also are making significant supporting contributions to the success of other international projects with Latin American partners, in fields such as High-Energy Physics, Astronomy and Astrophysics and Space Geodesy, to single out the early adopters of advanced networking technologies. These contributions are described in the article. The article concludes describing future trends in networking infrastructure in the region, in order to meet foreseeable demands for e-science support. These include the widespread adoption of optical networking and support for grid-based applications, as well as the provisioning of significantly higher international bandwidth to meet the declared needs for international collaboration in a number of fields including those mentioned above. (Author)

  9. Latin America: how a region surprised the experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1993-02-01

    In 1960-1970, family planning specialists and demographers worried that poverty, limited education, Latin machismo, and strong catholic ideals would obstruct family planning efforts to reduce high fertility in Latin America. It had the highest annual population growth rate in the world (2.8%), which would increase the population 2-fold in 25 years. Yet, the UN's 1992 population projection for Latin America and the Caribbean in the year 2000 was about 20% lower than its 1963 projection (just over 500 vs. 638 million). Since life expectancy increased simultaneously from 57 to 68 years, this reduced projection was caused directly by a large decline in fertility from 5.9 to 3. A regression analysis of 11 Latin American and Caribbean countries revealed that differences in the contraceptive prevalence rates accounted for 90% of the variation in the total fertility rate between countries. Thus, contraception played a key role in the fertility decline. The second most significant determinant of fertility decline was an increase in the average age at first marriage from about 20 to 23 years. Induced abortion and breast feeding did not contribute significantly to fertility decline. The major socioeconomic factors responsible for the decline included economic development and urbanization, resulting in improvements in health care, reduced infant and child mortality, and increases in female literacy, education, and labor force participation. Public and private family planning programs also contributed significantly to the decline. They expanded from cities to remote rural areas, thereby increasing access to contraception. By the early 1990s, Brazil, Mexico, and Colombia had among the lowest levels of unmet need (13-24%) in developing countries. Other key factors of fertility decline were political commitment, strong communication efforts, and stress on quality services. Latin America provides hope to other regions where religion and culture promote a large family size.

  10. [Epidemiological transition in Latin America: a comparison of four countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albala, C; Vio, F; Yáñez, M

    1997-06-01

    In the last decade, Latin America has experienced important transformations in its health conditions, due to demographic changes and a rapid urbanization process. To analyze socioeconomic, demographic and epidemiological changes in Chile, Guatemala, Mexico and Uruguay and relate them to the different stages in the demographic and epidemiological transition of these countries. Data was obtained from official information of local and international organizations such as Pan-American Health Organization, United Nations, Latin American Center for Demography (CELADE) and World Bank. Guatemala is in a pre-transition stage with a high proportion of communicable diseases as causes of death (61%) as compared with Mexico (22%), Chile (13%) and Uruguay (7%). Mexico is in a prolonged transition situation and Chile is close to Uruguay in a post-transitional stage. Despite decreasing rates of mortality, the proportion of deaths represented by chronic diseases and injuries has increased to over 30% in all countries, except Uruguay. Adjusted mortality rates for cardiovascular diseases are lower in Latin American countries, as compared to Canada. However, excepting Guatemala, there are differences in the pattern of cardiovascular disease, with a higher mortality due to cerebrovascular and a lower mortality due to coronary artery diseases. An increment in non communicable diseases is expected for the next decades in Latin America. Analysis of demographic and epidemiological transition is crucial to define health policies and to adequate health systems to the new situations.

  11. International Financial Reporting Standards and Earnings Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Augusto Timm Rathke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyzes the level of IFRS earnings management regarding the first and main Latin American countries applying IFRS (Brazil and Chile, when compared to the main Anglo-Saxon countries with IFRS tradition (United Kingdom and Australia, and with the main Continental European economies (France and Germany. The results show that Latin American firms present a higher level of earnings management than Continental European and Anglo-Saxon firms, and this opportunistic behavior remains significant when only global players with cross-listing in the United States are analyzed. Thus, even with a unique set of high quality accounting standards (IFRS and strong reporting incentives, countries’ specific characteristics still play an important role in the way IFRS is implemented in each country.

  12. Brazilian human resources in a polarized Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Fátima Rosa Veloso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of human resource strategies employed by Brazilian companies in a polarized region of Latin America. Firstly, we highlighted the concerns of Brazilian managers in respect to the coming years, and to identify the current strategic approach of prominent companies in the Brazilian market. Secondly, we identified possible strategies for internationalization, particularly in the context of Latin America. The results of two surveys were used: one prospecting management trends by 2015 and another consisting of a sample of 541 companies that participate in a national survey in which HR managers answered a questionnaire. Among the results, it is noteworthy that the main issues of concern for Brazilian managers in the coming years. We found most the companies concerned with these challenges in the industries of information technology, iron and steel, and health services. Forty-nine of a total of 541 companies intend to internationalize, 17 of them towards Latin American. Their profile characterization allowed us to divide them into two groups: those focusing on the local needs of Latin American, and those looking to meet the expanding needs of Brazil or the country of their parent company.

  13. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Review of Maritime Health research gab in latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    for research in this part of the world. Materials and Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, Pan American Journal of Public Health, Medicina Maritima and other relevant journals in Latin America in the Spanish and English languages were searched. Results 57 peer......-reviewed articles on fishermen´s health and safety and none for the seafarers were included. Brazil counted for the main part n =39, while each of the other countries had 0-4 studies. The study objectives include occupational injuries, divers disease, skin diseases, hearing loss and other issues. The cross......Background So far the maritime health and safety research for seafarers and fishermen mainly comes from the industrial developed countries with sparse contributions from the developing countries. The aim was to give an overview of the peer reviewed research in Latin America to point out the needs...

  15. An overview of raptor conservation in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.

    1986-01-01

    Prior to the last decade, biological studies of raptorial birds in Latin America were almost nonexistent. For many species little more was known than their general range and habitat type. The last few years have seen the opening of a door to what will surely be a flood of scientific investigations. Ultimately, the survival of raptor communities in Latin America depends not only on research but also on several other equally significant conservation efforts. These typically appear in the following order: first, appropriate legislation must be enacted and enforced to provide legal protection; second, the public must be educated concerning the value of wildlife; third, substantial blocks of favourable habitat must be identified and preserved; fourth, economic incentives must be generated so that the local human populations actually benefit from the preservation of vulnerable wildlife and natural habitats; and finally, the long-term success of all of these efforts in each nation depends on the attainment of political, economic and social stability.

  16. Reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.T.; Barnabe, R.C.; Morales, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The review describes the commonly practised systems of milk production in sample countries within the five major topographical/climatological subregions of Latin America, viz. Central America, the Caribbean, the South American subtropics, the Andes and the Temperate Zone. The state of development and importance of the dairy industry to the economy of each country are discussed. Production and reproduction indices are quoted, as are the genetic make-up of the dairy herds, husbandry practices and the quality of livestock management. It is clear that there is an enormous capacity for improvement in the efficiency of milk production systems in the Latin American region as a whole; to achieve this improvement, there is an urgent need to pursue on-farm based research aimed at identifying constraints to the performance of dairy cattle and the implementation of low cost management/nutritional/health control measures. (author)

  17. Planning diabetic retinopathy services – lessons from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gomez-Bastar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization encourages the promotion and development of programmes for the prevention, detection, and management of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Such programmes must identify effective strategies and technology so that they can be adapted to the situation in each part of the world. Programmes must also be monitored and continuously improved.The guidelines discussed in this article were developed by experts brought together during workshops hosted by the VISION 2020 Latin America technical subcommittee on DR and technical support was provided by the Pan-American Asociation of Ophthalmology (PAAO. Although these guidelines have been developed for Latin America, we hope that the principles they contain will provide a good starting point for the planning of DR services in other low- and middle-income countries.

  18. Multinational fuel-cycle proposal for Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, JR, W C

    1980-03-01

    The growth of energy demand projected for Latin America could be met by nuclear generated electricity if a multinational arrangement can be set up to meet the proliferation containment requirements and develop economies of scale that are satisfactory to all parties. A regionalized fuel-cycle center is outlined as a possible prototype for Latin America. A satisfactory operation there would indicate export feasibiltiy of the concept to other developing areas. The international strategies already in place have a heavy emphasis on weapons proliferation and have not been adequate. A multinational fuel-cycle concept with co-location technologies has the advantages of cost sharing, acceptable safeguards, and institutional barriers to proliferation. Security and cooperation between participants could be problems. 17 references. (DCK)

  19. Environment and development in Latin America: the politics of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, David; Redclift, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The terms sustainability and sustainable development are used to refer to sustainable levels of both production and consumption taking environmental considerations into account. However, there are different interpretations of the terms, and the first chapter of this book considers these and looks at various aspects of sustainable development in Latin America. In this region sustainability has often been systematically devalued, missed altogether or simply lost. The remaining nine chapters of the book address debt, hunger, genetic resources, forestry management, acroecology and green issues of the Amazon. Costa Rica is the subject of one of the chapters and the environmental problems of Mexico City another. The chapter on nuclear energy and sustainability in Latin America is indexed separately. (UK)

  20. Geographic thougth in Latin America: A retrospective and general balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements that we think characterize the current situation of LAG.

  1. Diverging Trade Strategies in Latin America: An Analytical Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Aggarwal, Vinod K.; Espach, Ralph H.

    2003-01-01

    Although there is increasing divergence among the trade policies of various Latin American nations, overall the last twenty years have seen a dramatic shift away from protectionism towards liberalization. Focusing on case studies of four Latin American nations — Brazil, Mexico, Chile and Argentina — the authors use an analytical framework to explain the rationales behind divergent policies. The analytical approach used considers the combination of economic, political and strategic objectives ...

  2. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Iqra Anugrah; Department of Political Science, Northern Illinois University

    2014-01-01

    "Three recent works provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies." (author's abstract). Review of: 1. Ford, Michele (ed.): Social Activism in Southeast Asia. Series: Routledge Contemporary Southeast Asia. London, New York: Routledge 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-63059-7. 2. Petras, James...

  3. Scaling up Agroecological Approaches for Food Sovereignty in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A Altieri; Clara I Nicholls

    2008-01-01

    As the expansion of agroexports and biofuels continues unfolding in Latin America, the concepts of food sovereignty and agroecologically based production systems gain increasing attention. Miguel A. Altieri and Clara I. Nicholls suggest that the key importance will be the involvement of farmers directly in the formulation of the research agenda and on their active participation in the process of technological innovation and dissemination through models that focus on sharing experiences, stren...

  4. Authoritarian Inheritance and Conservative Party-Building in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, James Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s, with the onset of the third wave of democratization, a host of new conservative parties emerged in Latin America. The trajectories of these parties varied tremendously. While some went on to enjoy long-term electoral success, others failed to take root. The most successful new conservative parties all shared a surprising characteristic: they had deep roots in former dictatorships. They were "authoritarian successor parties," or parties founded by high-level in...

  5. Trade finance and Latin America's lost decade: The forgotten link

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Sebastian; Flores Zendejas, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Great recession has brought back to foreground the link between trade credit international trade and economic growth. Scholars have recently found that the effects of the fall in trade finance are strong and accurately explain the recent fall in international trade. We argue that the lost decade that followed Latin America's debt crisis is a useful comparative benchmark to recognize the scope of impact on international trade stemming from a sharp decline in trade finance. The years that f...

  6. Forest landscape restoration in the drylands of Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, Adrian C.; Del Castillo, Rafael F.; Echeverría, Cristian; Geneletti, Davide; González Espinosa, Mario; Malizia, Lucio R.; Premoli, Andrea C.; Rey Benayas, José María; Smith Ramírez, Cecilia; Williams Linera, Guadalupe

    2012-01-01

    Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR) involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted t...

  7. U.S. Drug Policy: Shaping Relations With Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    90  Figure 12.  Management levels within Colombian wheel network. ...................................91  x THIS PAGE... environmental and community damage in Latin America, citing coca eradication programs that have an adverse effect on community ecosystems. The effects of U.S...favor of drug policy change but endorse arbitrary or minuscule legislation that would not pose a great political risk to their careers. MacCoun and

  8. Sovereign Credit Risk in Latin America and Global Common Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Agosin Trumper; Juan Díaz Maureira

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the importance of global common factors in the evolution of sovereign credit risk in a group of emerging economies (15 countries in Latin America for which daily data are available on sovereign credit spreads and CDS quotations from the beginning of 2007 until February 2012). We arrive at three principal results. First, there is robust evidence for the existence of a common factor in the evolution of the two measurements of sovereign credit risk that we use. Second, the com...

  9. Articulations of eroticism and race: Domestic service in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Wade, Peter

    2013-01-01

    'Service', particularly 'domestic service', operates as a specific articulation or intersection of processes of race, class, gender and age that reiterates images of the sexual desirability of some women racially marked by blackness or indigeneity in Latin America. The sexualisation of racially subordinated people has been linked to the exercise of power. This article focuses on an aspect of subordination related to the condition of being a servant, and the 'domestication' and 'acculturation'...

  10. Electric systems expansion in Latin America: the financier restriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Junior, H.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to discuss the financing problems in the electric supply industries of the Latin America Countries in the long-run. The paper examines the economics aspects of the investments in the power sector, shows how the financial structure has degenerated and concludes with a discussion about the role of the new financial alternatives to increase the electricity generation. (author)

  11. Asthma: epidemiology of disease control in Latin America ? short review

    OpenAIRE

    Sol?, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those ...

  12. Assistance Focus: Latin America and the Caribbean Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-17

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Latin America and the Caribbean.

  13. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  14. Mexico and Latin America: Their Progress in Globalizing Information Services

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Jesús

    1998-01-01

    Information development in Latin America has evolved, despite the costly economic, social and political adjustments carried out in most countries in the last two decades. New open market policies and technological developments has helped the region to increase their links with the rest of the world. Libraries can now use faster and more reliable telephone services and can acquire computer and network technology with less import barriers. Information demand is assumed to be greater in quali...

  15. Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Mascayano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stigma toward individuals with mental disorders has been studied extensively. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, the past decade has been marked by a significant increase in information on stigma toward mental illness, but these findings have yet to be applied to mental health services in Latin America. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies relating to stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors specifically considered differences in this region as compared with manifestations reported in Western European countries. Methods: A systematic search of scientific papers was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SciELO, LILACS, Imbiomed, and Bireme databases. The search included articles published from 2002 to 2014. Results: Twenty-six studies from seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean were evaluated and arranged into the following categories: public stigma, consumer stigma, family stigma, and multiple stigmas. Conclusion: We identified some results similar to those reported in high-income settings. However, some noteworthy findings concerning public and family stigma differed from those reported in Western European countries. Interventions designed to reduce mental illness-related stigma in this region may benefit from considering cultural dynamics exhibited by the Latino population.

  16. Stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascayano, Franco; Tapia, Thamara; Schilling, Sara; Alvarado, Rubén; Tapia, Eric; Lips, Walter; Yang, Lawrence H

    2016-03-01

    Stigma toward individuals with mental disorders has been studied extensively. In the case of Latin America and the Caribbean, the past decade has been marked by a significant increase in information on stigma toward mental illness, but these findings have yet to be applied to mental health services in Latin America. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of studies relating to stigma toward mental illness in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors specifically considered differences in this region as compared with manifestations reported in Western European countries. A systematic search of scientific papers was conducted in the PubMed, MEDLINE, EBSCO, SciELO, LILACS, Imbiomed, and Bireme databases. The search included articles published from 2002 to 2014. Twenty-six studies from seven countries in Latin America and the Caribbean were evaluated and arranged into the following categories: public stigma, consumer stigma, family stigma, and multiple stigmas. We identified some results similar to those reported in high-income settings. However, some noteworthy findings concerning public and family stigma differed from those reported in Western European countries. Interventions designed to reduce mental illness-related stigma in this region may benefit from considering cultural dynamics exhibited by the Latino population.

  17. The new left and democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Panizza

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Without embarking on a theoretical debate over the meaning of the term, it is obvious that the left is on the rise in Latin America. However, we should not ignore the fact that the coming to power of left-wing and centre-left parties and movements presents a certain amount of paradoxes and questions. One of the most important of the many paradoxes is the fact that, in spite of the leftwards electoral shift in the region, there is no evidence that the electorate of Latin America has moved to the left in a significant manner. As for the questions, these concern the connection between left-wing governments and democracy, and especially the future challenges that these governments must face to preserve and develop democracy. In an attempt to unravel the paradox and answer these questions, this article examines the roots, contexts and political challenges of left-wing governments in Latin America. To this end, the author analyses a number of issues, such as the tensions between different logics of political representation and their implications for democracy, in addition to discussing the conditions under which the tensions between the different logics of political representation can contribute (or not to the developing of democracy in the region.

  18. "THE ALEPH LATIN AMERICAN" The simultaneity as a symptom for literary criticism in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Franco Castaño

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of literary criticims in latin America along with the dialogue other disciplines, such as the mass media role and the popular discourses, have provoked firts, a line of work whit resilient proposal towards the totalization, radicalism and monological responses, where the literature situation is shown as an objet of culture comprehension. And second, the cultural context as a principle for the aesthetics understanding hang this in mind. The purpose of this article is to digin on how those phenomen of cultural criticism in Latin America, have been oriented, in the last decade, and how their different and eclectic proposals offer a vission of what national and national literature, are in a time in which globalization, simultaneity and hybridation still being the reference for literature discourses.

  19. [Burden of mortality due to diabetes mellitus in Latin America 2000-2011: the case of Argentina, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Dávila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto

    2015-03-05

    To analyze trends in mortality in Argentina, Chile, Colombia and Mexico, between 2000 and 2011, by sex and 5-year age groups (between 20 and 79 years of age). Mortality vital statistics and census data or projected population estimates were used for each country. Age-specific mortality rates and the years of life lost were calculated. Among the countries analyzed, Mexico had the highest mortality rate and lost the most years of life due to diabetes. Between 2000 and 2011, Mexicans lost an average of 1.13 years of life, while Colombia (0.24), Argentina (0.21) and Chile (0.18) lost considerably fewer life years. In general, deaths from diabetes were higher in men than in women except in Colombia. Nearly 80% of years of life lost due to diabetes occurred between 50 and 74 years of age in the four countries. Diabetes is a huge challenge for Latin America, especially in Mexico where mortality due to diabetes is accelerating. Even though the proportion of deaths due to diabetes in Argentina, Chile and Colombia is smaller, this disease figures among the main causes of death in these countries. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Asthma: epidemiology of disease control in Latin America - short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those published in PubMed referenced journals during the last 20 years, using the following keywords: "asthma control" combined with "Latin America", " epidemiology", "prevalence", "burden", "mortality", "treatment and unmet needs", "children", "adolescents", and "infants". There was a high prevalence and severity of asthma during the period analyzed, especially in children and adolescents. Wheezing in infants was a significant reason for seeking medical care in Latin American health centers. Moreover, the frequent use of quick-relief bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids by these patients indicates the lack of a policy for providing better care for asthmatic patients, as well as poor asthma control. Among adults, studies document poor treatment and control of the disease, as revealed by low adherence to routine anti-inflammatory medications and high rates of emergency care visits and hospitalization. In conclusion, although rare, studies on asthma control in Latin America repeatedly show that patients are inadequately controlled and frequently overestimate their degree of asthma control according to the criteria used by international asthma treatment guidelines. Additional education for doctors and patients is essential for adequate control of this illness, and therefore also for reduction of the individual and social burden of asthma.

  1. Assisted reproductive techniques in Latin America: The Latin American Registry, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers-Hochschild, Fernando; Schwarze, Juan Enrique; Crosby, Javier A.; Musri, Carolina; Urbina, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Multinational data on assisted reproduction techniques undertaken in 2014 were collected from 159 institutions in 15 countries in Latin America. Treatments included IVF/ ICSI, FET, OD, PGD and fertility preservation (FP). 41.34% of IVF/ICSI cycles were performed in women aged 35 to 39 years and 23.35% in women aged 40 and older. After removing cases with total freezing, delivery rate per oocyte retrieval was 25.05% for ICSI and 27.41% for IVF. Multiple births included 20.78% twins and 0.92 % triplets and over. In OD, twins reached 28.93% and triplets 1.07 %. Preterm deliveries reached 16.4% in singletons, 55.02% in twins and 76% in triplets. Perinatal mortality in 18,162 births was 23 per 1000 in singletons, 35 per 1000 in twins, and 36 per 1000 in high-order multiples. Elective single embryo transfer (eSET) represented only 2.63 % of fresh transfers, with a delivery rate of 32.15% per transfer. Elective double embryo transfer (eDET) represented 23.74% of transfers, with a delivery rate of 41.03% per transfer. Among babies born during this period 11,373 (62.6%) were singletons; 6,398 (35.2%) twins, and 391 (2.2%), triplets and more. Given the effect of multiple births on prematurity, morbidity and perinatal mortality, reinforcing the existing trend of reducing the number of embryos transferred is mandatory PMID:28837023

  2. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  3. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe & Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-31

    will be con- therapy in cases where there is a choice of therapeutic cluded with the Institute of Plant Physiology imeni treatments. Further research...formulated and experimentally estab- [Answer] One of the factors in the environment to which lished of the role of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase

  4. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  5. Characterization of individuals at high risk of developing melanoma in Latin America: bases for genetic counseling in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Susana; Potrony, Miriam; Cuellar, Francisco; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Aguilera, Paula; Nagore, Eduardo; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Kumar, Rajiv; Landman, Gilles; Costa Soares de Sá, Bianca; Gargantini Rezze, Gisele; Facure, Luciana; de Avila, Alexandre Leon Ribeiro; Achatz, Maria Isabel; Carraro, Dirce Maria; Duprat Neto, João Pedreira; Grazziotin, Thais C; Bonamigo, Renan R; Rey, Maria Carolina W; Balestrini, Claudia; Morales, Enrique; Molgo, Montserrat; Bakos, Renato Marchiori; Ashton-Prolla, Patricia; Giugliani, Roberto; Larre Borges, Alejandra; Barquet, Virginia; Pérez, Javiera; Martínez, Miguel; Cabo, Horacio; Cohen Sabban, Emilia; Latorre, Clara; Carlos-Ortega, Blanca; Salas-Alanis, Julio C; Gonzalez, Roger; Olazaran, Zulema; Malvehy, Josep; Badenas, Celia

    2016-07-01

    CDKN2A is the main high-risk melanoma-susceptibility gene, but it has been poorly assessed in Latin America. We sought to analyze CDKN2A and MC1R in patients from Latin America with familial and sporadic multiple primary melanoma (SMP) and compare the data with those for patients from Spain to establish bases for melanoma genetic counseling in Latin America. CDKN2A and MC1R were sequenced in 186 Latin American patients from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, and Uruguay, and in 904 Spanish patients. Clinical and phenotypic data were obtained. Overall, 24 and 14% of melanoma-prone families in Latin America and Spain, respectively, had mutations in CDKN2A. Latin American families had CDKN2A mutations more frequently (P = 0.014) than Spanish ones. Of patients with SMP, 10% of those from Latin America and 8.5% of those from Spain had mutations in CDKN2A (P = 0.623). The most recurrent CDKN2A mutations were c.-34G>T and p.G101W. Latin American patients had fairer hair (P = 0.016) and skin (P < 0.001) and a higher prevalence of MC1R variants (P = 0.003) compared with Spanish patients. The inclusion criteria for genetic counseling of melanoma in Latin America may be the same criteria used in Spain, as suggested in areas with low to medium incidence, SMP with at least two melanomas, or families with at least two cases among first- or second-degree relatives.Genet Med 18 7, 727-736.

  6. Obesity and hypertension in Latin America: Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruilope, L M; Nunes Filho, A C B; Nadruz, W; Rodríguez Rosales, F F; Verdejo-Paris, J

    In the countries of Central America, South America and the Caribbean, there has been a dramatic rise in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in the last few decades. Epidemiological evidence highlights a consistent correlation between obesity and hypertension, and the presence of obesity predisposes an individual to a greater risk of hypertension although the mechanisms remain unclear. Obesity and hypertension are two key drivers of the cardio-renal disease continuum, and patients with uncontrolled cardiovascular risk in their mid-life will likely have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular and renal outcomes in old age. This article summarizes the current status for the prevalence and consequences of obesity and hypertension in Latin America, with the aim of initiating a call to action to all stakeholders for greater implementation of primary prevention strategies, particularly in the young. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: More than 60 of the world's leading cancer experts are being brought together in Buenos Aires, 23-27 April 2007, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess Latin America's growing cancer burden. Poor medical facilities and lack of trained personnel and funding are limiting countries' ability to expand cancer care services and treat patients, while cancer rates are expected to double by 2020. More than 70 per cent of all cancer deaths occur in low and middle income countries and globally cancer kills more people than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. Through its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) the IAEA is using funds, awarded for the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize, to sponsor training workshops, such as the Buenos Aires event, that alert policy makers and health experts to the pressing need for national cancer control plans and programmes. 'I hope that this event in Latin America is the first of many that will enable us to work together to help combat this dreadful disease and provide quality of life to our fellow human beings,' said Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. 'Cancer is a disease that is spreading very fast in the developing world and we have come to realise that we have to do much more to combat it in this part of the world.' In Latin America, there are an estimated 450,000 cancer deaths annually. The most commonly occurring cancers in men are prostate, stomach, lung, and colorectal and in women the most commonly occurring cancers are breast, cervix, stomach and colorectal. Breast and cervical cancer can be prevented through screening and early detection and can be cured in the early stages with effective treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that cancer will soon reach epidemic proportions, causing up to 10 million deaths a year by 2020. Yet at least one third of all cancers are preventable. A further one third of cases can be effectively treated if detected early. PACT was

  8. IAEA Nobel Prize money fights cancer crisis in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: More than 60 of the world's leading cancer experts are being brought together in Buenos Aires, 23-27 April 2007, by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to assess Latin America's growing cancer burden. Poor medical facilities and lack of trained personnel and funding are limiting countries' ability to expand cancer care services and treat patients, while cancer rates are expected to double by 2020. More than 70 per cent of all cancer deaths occur in low and middle income countries and globally cancer kills more people than AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis combined. Through its Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT) the IAEA is using funds, awarded for the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize, to sponsor training workshops, such as the Buenos Aires event, that alert policy makers and health experts to the pressing need for national cancer control plans and programmes. 'I hope that this event in Latin America is the first of many that will enable us to work together to help combat this dreadful disease and provide quality of life to our fellow human beings,' said Director General of the IAEA, Dr. Mohamed ElBaradei. 'Cancer is a disease that is spreading very fast in the developing world and we have come to realise that we have to do much more to combat it in this part of the world.' In Latin America, there are an estimated 450,000 cancer deaths annually. The most commonly occurring cancers in men are prostate, stomach, lung, and colorectal and in women the most commonly occurring cancers are breast, cervix, stomach and colorectal. Breast and cervical cancer can be prevented through screening and early detection and can be cured in the early stages with effective treatment. The World Health Organization (WHO) warns that cancer will soon reach epidemic proportions, causing up to 10 million deaths a year by 2020. Yet at least one third of all cancers are preventable. A further one third of cases can be effectively treated if detected early. PACT was

  9. Thinking social sciences from Latin America at the epochal change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Antonio Preciado Coronado

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the legacy of an original disciplinary approach, as the Dependence theory and its Marxian critics, or the neo-structural economic theory founded by The Economic Commission for Latin America (ECLA, the Latin-American social sciences deny the Anglo-European centered approaches, in the way of reaffirming its own critical thinking, including the neo-colonial practices. The challenge for this critical thinking is to be, simultaneously, cosmopolitan and Latin American’s one. In this process, the Latin-American social thinking is regaining its own originality and its vigorous proposals, thanks to a rich south-south dialogue, that implies a global character of its reflections and the questioning of its universal references. Although neither classical nor western Marxism are hegemonic within critical theory, the (neo Marxism enriched with criticism of the coloniality of power, the theory of World-System, critical geopolitics and political ecology recover the field of critical theory in key founder of an epochal thinking time. Epistemological debates with post-structuralism and postmodern approaches configure various recent developments in critical theory

  10. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Juliana Zimmermann; Fortes Filho, João Borges; Tartarella, Marcia Beatriz; Zin, Andrea; Jornada, Ignozy Dorneles

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to review the studies published over the last 10 years concerning the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Latin American countries, to determine if there was an improvement in ROP prevalence rates in that period, and to identify the inclusion criteria for patients at risk of developing ROP in the screening programs. A total of 33 studies from ten countries published between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Prevalence of any ROP stage in the regions considered ranged from 6.6% to 82%; ROP severe enough to require treatment ranged from 1.2% to 23.8%. There was no routine screening for ROP, and there was a lack of services for treatment of the disease in many countries. Inclusion criteria for patients in the studies ranged between birth weight ≤ 1500 g and ≤ 2000 g and gestational age ≤ 32 and <37 weeks. Use of different inclusion criteria regarding birth weight and gestational age in several Latin American studies hindered comparative analysis of the published data. Highly restrictive selection criteria for ROP screening in relation to birth weight and gestational age should not be used throughout most Latin American countries because of their different social characteristics and variable neonatal care procedures. The studies included in this review failed to provide adequate information to determine if the prevalence of ROP has decreased in Latin America.

  11. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Juliana Zimmermann; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Tartarella, Marcia Beatriz; Zin, Andrea; Jornada, Ignozy Dorneles

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to review the studies published over the last 10 years concerning the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Latin American countries, to determine if there was an improvement in ROP prevalence rates in that period, and to identify the inclusion criteria for patients at risk of developing ROP in the screening programs. A total of 33 studies from ten countries published between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed. Prevalence of any ROP stage in the regions considered ranged from 6.6% to 82%; ROP severe enough to require treatment ranged from 1.2% to 23.8%. There was no routine screening for ROP, and there was a lack of services for treatment of the disease in many countries. Inclusion criteria for patients in the studies ranged between birth weight ≤1500 g and ≤2000 g and gestational age ≤32 and <37 weeks. Use of different inclusion criteria regarding birth weight and gestational age in several Latin American studies hindered comparative analysis of the published data. Highly restrictive selection criteria for ROP screening in relation to birth weight and gestational age should not be used throughout most Latin American countries because of their different social characteristics and variable neonatal care procedures. The studies included in this review failed to provide adequate information to determine if the prevalence of ROP has decreased in Latin America. PMID:22174577

  12. Application of environmental isotopes in water resources studies in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, Ramon

    2001-01-01

    The development of urban centers and economical activities, such as agriculture and mining, in Latin America are intimately linked to the availability of water resources. The increasing demand for water and the risks associated to contamination have generated numerous studies related to the evaluation of water resources in this region. In the specific case of groundwater studies, environmental isotopes have played a significant role in these studies ( 18 O, 2 H, 14 C, 13 C). Groundwater provides about 50-60 % of the water resources used in Latin America. Large urban centers such as Lima (Peru), Managua (Nicaragua) and San Jose (Costa Rica) depend mainly on groundwater as a water supply for the population. The agriculture sector is also a major user of groundwater. The Isotope Hydrology Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency based in Vienna has mainly promoted the application of isotope techniques in Latin America. Most of these applications have focussed on the evaluation of the origin and residence time of the groundwater. The groundwater origin is intimately linked to recharge areas whose evaluation is key for the water balance of the aquifer. The evaluation of the groundwater residence time provides information that is relevant for the management of the groundwater system. This presentation will discuss the basic principles of the application of environmental isotopes in hydrology and it will review the current application of isotope techniques in Latin America. Case studies from different Latin American countries will be used to illustrate the main type of application of isotope techniques in groundwater studies in this region (au)

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology Europe & Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-26

    Brazil’s Plasma Physics Program Described [Antonio Monies Filho, Ricardo Magnus Osorio Galvao; ESPACIAL , May 87p 7] 33 JPRS-ELS-88-003 ^ D T...these offset by equivalent sales of products or services. An exception was Itau Tecnologia S.A., one of the few, if not the only, firms to show a...a Scopus — In the case of Scopus Tecnologia , the first semester was terrible, with high costs and weak sales. During the second trimester, sales

  14. The role of tramadol in pain management in Latin America: a report by the Change Pain Latin America Advisory Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Garcia, Joäo Batista; Lech, Osvandré; Campos Kraychete, Durval; Rico, María Antonieta; Hernández-Castro, John Jairo; Colimon, Frantz; Guerrero, Carlos; Sempértegui Gallegos, Manuel; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Flores Cantisani, José Alberto; Amescua-Garcia, César; Guillén Núñez, María Del Rocío; Berenguel Cook, María Del Rosario; Jreige Iskandar, Aziza; Bonilla Sierra, Patricia

    2017-09-01

    Change Pain Latin America (CPLA) was created to enhance chronic pain understanding and develop pain management improving strategies in this region. During its seventh meeting (August 2016), the main objective was to discuss tramadol's role in treating pain in Latin America. Furthermore, potential pain management consequences were considered, if tramadol was to become more stringently controlled. Key topics discussed were: main indications for prescribing tramadol, its pharmacological characteristics, safety and tolerability, effects of restrictions on its availability and use, and consequent impact on pain care quality. The experts agreed that tramadol is used to treat a wide spectrum of non-oncological pain conditions (e.g. post-surgical, musculoskeletal, post-traumatic, neuropathic, fibromyalgia), as well as cancer pain. Its relevance when treating special patient groups (e.g. the elderly) is recognized. The main reasons for tramadol's high significance as a treatment option are: its broad efficacy, an inconspicuous safety profile and its availability, considering that access to strong analgesics - mainly controlled drugs (classical opioids) - is highly restricted in some countries. The CPLA also agreed that tramadol is well tolerated, without the safety issues associated with long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) use, with fewer opioid-like side effects than classical opioids and lower abuse risk. In Latin America, tramadol is a valuable and frequently used medication for treating moderate to severe pain. More stringent regulations would have significant impact on its availability, especially for outpatients. This could cause regression to older and frequently inadequate pain management methods, resulting in unnecessary suffering for many Latin American patients.

  15. Energy policy issues in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Sierra, G.

    1994-01-01

    Whilst recognising that the reduction of poverty levels in developing countries takes precedence to the improvement and protection of the environment, the author comments that any efforts geared to fostering socioeconomic development will indirectly address the environment issue. The aims of a broad strategy and a more specific energy strategy geared at fostering sustainable development in Latin America are discussed. It is suggested that development of hydropower should continue, that the share of natural gas in the regional energy balance be increased and that efforts be put into increasing energy efficiency and improving utilization technologies. Promotion of energy projects that generate employment, promotion of projects for the use of biomass as an energy source, and implementation of a series of joint ventures are ideas advocated. Possibilities of cooperation between the Latin American Energy Organization (OLADE) and the Dutch government are aired

  16. Next generation of individual account pension reforms in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, Barbara E; Kay, Stephen J; Sinha, Tapen

    2011-01-01

    Latin America led the world in introducing individual retirement accounts intended to complement or replace defined benefit state-sponsored, pay-as-you-go systems. After Chile implemented the first system in 1981, a number of other Latin American countries incorporated privately managed individual accounts as part of their retirement income systems beginning in the 1990s. This article examines the subsequent "reform of the reform" of these pension systems, with a focus on the recent overhaul of the Chilean system and major reforms in Mexico, Peru, and Colombia. The authors analyze key elements of pension reform in the region relating to individual accounts: system coverage, fees, competition, investment, the impact of gender on benefits, financial education, voluntary savings, and payouts.

  17. The effects of the global economic crisis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Guillén R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the current phase of the global crisis and the way it has manifested itself in Latin America. The global crisis is the most important capitalist crisis since World War II. It is a new type of debt-deflation crisis, highlighting the limits of the finance-dominated regime of accumulation and characterized by securitization. Latin American countries have not been immune to the global crisis. Since it sets limits on globalization, the impossibility of maintaining export-driven accumulation sustained by restrictive monetary and fiscal policies becomes clear. This time, there will be no way out in external markets for any country. That fact will force them to restructure productive systems and search for a way out in domestic markets and in regional spaces for integration.

  18. Indigenous land tenure and tropical forest management in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.H. (The World Bank, Environment Department, Washington DC (United States)); Wali, A. (University of Maryland, College of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Department of Anthropology, College Park, MD (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Indigenous peoples have received much attention as potential resource managers of threatened tropical forest ecosystems. Using data from Latin America, this article argues that fundamental changes need to take place in the legal recognition and demarcation of indigenous territories in order for this potential to be fulfilled. A comparison is made between different national land-tenure models for forest-dwelling indigenous peoples and a new model proposed by Latin American indigenous organizations. This comparison suggests that not only do indigenous peoples need to be provided with some degree of control over their territories and resources, but there needs to be a new type of partnership among indigenous peoples, the scientific community, national governments and international development agencies for the management of tropical forests. 37 refs, 3 tabs

  19. [Key points for the management of dermatitis in Latin America. The SLAAI Consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jorge; Páez, Bruno; Macías-Weinmann, Alejandra; De Falco, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of atopic dermatitis in Latin America, as in other regions, has been increasing in recent years. The SLAAI consensus is based on a systematic search for articles related to dermatitis, with focus in the pathophysiology and treatment and its impact on Latin America, and reviewed using the Delphi methodology (Revista Alergia Mexico 2014;61:178-211). In this article we highlight the key points of consensus and particular considerations in Latin America.

  20. How Can Latin America Help the World to Cope with Climate Change?

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Galiani; Manuel Puente; Federico Weinschelbaum

    2013-01-01

    Latin America has a comparative advantage in deforestation compared to other forms of climate change mitigation. Thus, to the extent that Latin America should engage in mitigation, the optimal climate change policy should manage these advantages by generating incentives in Latin America to deal with forestry. This paper describes the problem of deforestation and studies the market failures that arise in relation to forestry emission problems, analyzing them from a global public good perspecti...

  1. Hispanophone culture. Meeting point between Latin America and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Solange Okome Beka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabon since its independence in 1960, adopted the teaching of Spanish as second foreign language. Since then, three major objectives were pursued: the linguistic, communicative and cultural, being the later the most prominent one. The (IPN National Pedagogical Institute recommends in its 1996 Guidance Letter, the cultural grounding of the Gabonese student, in order to contribute to their balanced development and their social and cultural integration, making them thoughtful citizens. For this aim, the teacher has the role of transmitting and developing students intercultural values. However, in Gabon, teaching of Spanish as second foreign language is done through manuals conceived in Spain or France. The contents are based on the European cultural view of the world, hiding other realities like Latin American or African ones. Even, when these are shown they are in a  very stereotypical way: drugs, misery, poverty, illegal immigration to the United States or Europe. Very few media offer further background on Afromerican or latinamerican indigenous contexts, even if there are quite noticeable similarities between Africa and America, as regards their cultures and beliefs. Students must know both the history and daily present of Latin America and Africa. Therefore, the latest gabonese educational reforms advocate towards introducing the intercultural perspective in teaching. Nevertheless, without promoting real contact and knowledge between the peoples of these areas, it will be totally unrealistic. Therefore, we favor a pedagogy in which the teaching of Spanish could be a meeting point between America and Africa.

  2. Environmental governance in Latin America: Towards an integrative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Baud

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Latin America plays an important international role with regard to environmental governance. Knowledge generated by empirical and theoretical studies on environmental challenges can support the renewed efforts to achieve equitable and sustainable natural resource use in the region. Although linkages between social and environmental dimensions have been academically explored since the 1990s, new trends in environmental governance in Latin America deserve a comprehensive analytical approach. This Exploration presents relevant emerging research topics and provides a brief overview of relevant elements and ‘cross-overs’ for an integrative analysis. The authors argue that in order to enhance ‘Latin American perspectives’ to solving socioenvironmental dilemmas, several research streams need to be brought together in integrative frameworks that can address complex questions related to interactions between state, civil society and market actors at multiple scales. With a consortium of ten Latin American and European institutions, they aim to contribute to the development of such frameworks through the project Environmental Governance in Latin America and the Caribbean: Developing Frameworks for Sustainable and Equitable Natural Resource Use (ENGOV.Resumen: Gobernanza ambiental en América Latina: Hacia un programa integrado de investigaciónAmérica Latina juega un importante papel internacional en el ámbito de la gobernanza ambiental. El conocimiento generado por estudios teóricos y empíricos sobre retos ambientales puede sostener renovados esfuerzos por llegar a un uso equitativo y sostenible de los recursos naturales en la región. Aunque las conexiones entre las dimensiones social y ambiental han sido estudiadas en la academia desde los años noventa, nuevas tendencias en gobernanza ambiental en América Latina merecen un enfoque analítico comprehensivo. Esta Exploración presenta nuevos y relevantes temas de investigación y ofrece una

  3. Inequality, Zika epidemics, and the lack of reproductive rights in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Ana Cristina González; Diniz, Simone G

    2016-11-01

    It is well-documented that structural economic inequalities in Latin America are expressed through and reinforce existing gender gaps. This article aims to look at the relationship between structural inequalities and reproductive health in the case of the Zika epidemic. The consequences of the epidemic will continue to affect the same women whose access to comprehensive reproductive health services, including safe abortion, is restricted at best. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence of Anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujica-Coopman, María F; Brito, Alex; López de Romaña, Daniel; Ríos-Castillo, Israel; Coris, Héctor; Olivares, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, anemia has been a public health problem that affects mainly women of childbearing age and children under 6 years of age. However, the current prevalence of anemia in this region is unknown. To examine the latest available prevalence data on anemia in Latin America and the Caribbean. A systematic review was conducted in 2011 and updated in 2014. Studies determining the prevalence of anemia conducted in apparently healthy populations with national or regional representativeness were included in the review. The lowest prevalence rates of anemia among children under 6 years of age were found in Chile (4.0%), Costa Rica (4.0%), Argentina (7.6%), and Mexico (19.9%). In Nicaragua, Brazil, Ecuador, El Panama, and Honduras, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging Salvador, Cuba, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru, from 20.1% to 37.3%. Anemia was a severe public health problem in Guatemala, Haiti, and Bolivia. The prevalence of anemia among women of childbearing age was lowest in Chile (5.1%). In Colombia, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Honduras, and Argentina, anemia was a mild public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 7.6% to 18.7%. In Guatemala, Brazil, the Dominican Republic, and Bolivia, anemia was a moderate public health problem, with prevalence ranging from 21.4% to 38.3%. Panama and Haiti had the highest reported prevalence rates (40.0% and 45.5%, respectively), and anemia was considered a severe public health problem in those countries. Anemia remains a public health problem in children under 6 years of age and women of childbearing age in most Latin America and Caribbean countries for which data are available.

  5. Cinema and Literature in Latin America: Mario Bellatin's interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Leonel Cherri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last turn of the century, literature and cinema produced in Latin America have insisted on represent, in many ways, social violence. This phenomenon has been described as an aestheticized "boom" of violence and, at the same time, as a reflection on the marginality of certain subjects and the biopolitical relations that they expose. This work focuses on certain literary and audiovisual productions by Mario Bellatin such as Salón de Belleza, Bola negra – el musical de Ciudad Juárez and La escuela del dolor humano de Sechuán in order to address such matter.

  6. Student Workload and Degree Profiles: the experience of CLAR credit in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alarcón

    2014-04-01

    applied in 18 countries, 189 universities and 15 subject areas. This paper shows the major results that were brought out by 10,086 questionnaires, which were responded to by students and university professors. As a result of this survey, the student workload of a full-time study programme in Latin America amounts to around 1,440 to 1,980 hours per year and in those cases one credit stands for around 24 to 33 working hours.

  7. The epidemiology of conjoined twins in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, E E; Lopez-Camelo, J S; Orioli, I M; Sánchez, O; Paz, J E

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-three cases of symmetrical conjoined twins were registered by the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC) in 1,714,952 births, which were observed during the 1967-1986 period in 95 maternity hospitals distributed in eleven Latin-American countries. This results in a birth prevalence rate of about 1/75,000 births. The secular and geographic distribution of this material do not depart from random in spite of one hospital with three cases, and two hospitals with two cases each, within a short time period. These 23 cases include one diprosopus, 3 dicephalus, one ischiopagus, 5 pygopagus, none dipygus, 3 syncephalus, none craniopagus, 9 thoracopagus, one omphalopagus, and one rachipagus. Sex distribution is even, with 12 male and 11 female cases.

  8. MoMA’s strategies in the latest exhibition devoted to Latin America: “Latin America in Construction: Architecture 1955-1980”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Reyno Capurro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The subject of our research is the curatorial strategy behind the project for the last major exhibition devoted to Latin America by the New York Museum of Modern Art. The show is understood itself as a project, where each of the implicated agents—the institution, curators and the works themselves—relate to each other in building an action, a narrative, and in the best of cases, contributing to critical thinking. We will analyze the mass information strategies used by the museum in selecting the works, designing the spaces and advertising the exhibition.

  9. Job flexibility in Latin America: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ibarra Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies about labor flexibility show a partial image of the situation of Latin America labor markets. They are limited to confirm, the existence of high degrees of rigidity and the necessity to conduct labor reforms to the margin of specific national circumstances. The design of a synthetic labor rigidity indicator using methodology considered by the oecd, through a factor analysis for countries of IberoAmerica, allows obtaining certain advances in relation to this debate. The results establish the high importance of the rigidity in the procedures of collective dismissal, over normative aspects related to fixed term contracts. Finally, it is establish the little relation between flexibility levels and results in terms of economic development, putting into question the assertions that try to extrapolate strategies of flexibilization like isolated measurement to facilitate the economic progress of a country.

  10. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Latin America and therapy perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Tovar A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America, visceral leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania infantum. In this geographical area, main vectors associated with transmission are Lutzomyia longipalpis and Lutzomyia evansi, with dogs being incriminated as the main reservoir involved in transmission of the disease. This pathology primarily affects children between 0 - 5 years, a highly susceptible population where socio-economic, environmental and nutritional factors affects the pathological outcome and increase the likelihood of vector-human contact. According to the World Health Organization (WHO recommended treatment for Visceral Leishmaniasis is liposomal amphotericin B, a drug with a limited and variable availability between countries depending on market prices, which leaves pentavalent antimonial as the most widely used treatment despite the associated toxic effects. In the Americas, evidence on the efficacy of single-dose (monotherapy and combination therapies as options for treating these parasites is required.

  11. Energy situation in Latin America and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinchuk, D.; Deluchi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The stage of economic development and the standard of living of individuals in a given region strongly influence the link between economic growth and energy demand. Advanced economies with high living standards have a relatively high level of energy use per capita. (Fig 1). Some 1.6 billion people one-quarter of the world population have no access to electricity. Four out of five people without electricity live in rural areas of the developing world. Electricity generation in the world is expected to nearly double between 2006 and 2025, from around 14.500 billion KWh to 26.000 billion KWh. The strongest growth in net electricity consumption is projected for the emerging economies of the world, averaging 4.0 percent per year (1). Although the nations of Central and South America are on favourable economic growth paths, the region's growth rate remains well below potential. Energy consumption induced by economic growth shows an increasing tendency in Latin America characterized by rapidly growing primary energy demand. Both residential and industrial electricity consumption had an increasing tendency in Latin America. In the last 15 years the increase was 60% and 74%, respectively. (2) Twelve countries in the region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela, comprise 87% of the population and 93% of its installed electricity generating capacity. (2). (Fig 2). Latin America is a region rich in primary energy resources, where hydro-generation, especially in Brazil, has been dominating the power industry over the past decades. However, it is important to highlight the decreasing tendency of the share of hydroelectricity in total generation, which was reduced from 63% in 1990 to 55% in 2003,(2). At the same time, the most dynamically emerging primary energy resource is, at present, natural gas. These increasing tendency imply a growing reliance on non renewable fossil fuel utilization and a rising

  12. High rates of obesity and non-communicable diseases predicted across Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Webber

    Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as cardiovascular disease and stroke are a major public health concern across Latin America. A key modifiable risk factor for NCDs is overweight and obesity highlighting the need for policy to reduce prevalence rates and ameliorate rising levels of NCDs. A cross-sectional regression analysis was used to project BMI and related disease trends to 2050. We tested the extent to which interventions that decrease body mass index (BMI have an effect upon the number of incidence cases avoided for each disease. Without intervention obesity trends will continue to rise across much of Latin America. Effective interventions are necessary if rates of obesity and related diseases are to be reduced.

  13. Strategies to reduce mortality and morbidity due to AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E. Vidal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is the region with the third most AIDS-related cryptococcal meningitis infections globally. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has reduced the number of infections; however, the number of deaths and the case-fatality rate continues to be unacceptable. In this review, we focus on the burden of AIDS-related cryptococcosis in Latin America and discuss potential strategies to reduce early mortality from Cryptococcus. In this review, we highlight the importance of: (1 earlier HIV diagnosis and HAART initiation with retention-in-care to avoid AIDS; (2 pre-HAART cryptococcal antigen (CRAG screening with preemptive fluconazole treatment; (3 better diagnostics (e.g. CRAG testing; and (4 optimal treatment with aggressive management of intracranial pressure and induction therapy with antifungal combination. Implementation of these strategies can reduce cryptococcal-related deaths, improve care, and reduce healthcare costs.

  14. Social Medicine Then and Now: Lessons From Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, Howard; Iriart, Celia; Estrada, Alfredo; Lamadrid, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of “health–illness,” and its stance on causal inference. A “golden age” occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice—a combination known as “praxis.” Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma. PMID:11574316

  15. Social medicine then and now: lessons from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitzkin, H; Iriart, C; Estrada, A; Lamadrid, S

    2001-10-01

    The accomplishments of Latin American social medicine remain little known in the English-speaking world. In Latin America, social medicine differs from public health in its definitions of populations and social institutions, its dialectic vision of "health-illness," and its stance on causal inference. A "golden age" occurred during the 1930s, when Salvador Allende, a pathologist and future president of Chile, played a key role. Later influences included the Cuban revolution, the failed peaceful transition to socialism in Chile, the Nicaraguan revolution, liberation theology, and empowerment strategies in education. Most of the leaders of Latin American social medicine have experienced political repression, partly because they have tried to combine theory and political practice--a combination known as "praxis." Theoretic debates in social medicine take their bearings from historical materialism and recent trends in European philosophy. Methodologically, differing historical, quantitative, and qualitative approaches aim to avoid perceived problems of positivism and reductionism in traditional public health and clinical methods. Key themes emphasize the effects of broad social policies on health and health care; the social determinants of illness and death; the relationships between work, reproduction, and the environment; and the impact of violence and trauma.

  16. Education and populist movements in Latin America: a failed emancipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel SOMOZA RODRÍGUEZ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Populist movements, particularly those of Latin America, have been perceived as an intellectual problematic object since its appearance. In several occasions they introduced in the public discourse the issue of «emancipation» of Latin American nations from foreign guardianships or oligarchic national minorities, and implemented nationalist state policies. This article examines aspects of the education policies of the governments of Getúlio Vargas in Brazil and Juan D. Perón in Argentina, especially the reform and expansion of technical-vocational education boosted by both of them. The study highlights the connection between these reforms and the groups and social classes which provided support to these governments and with the strategies of the application of power. The article briefly revises the different interpretations that populism has generated and refers to the current academic debate on the subject. The conclusion points at the fact, that populist governments present contradictory stages in their social and educational policies, perhaps as an expression of the difficult conflicts that still hit Latin American societies.

  17. Inequality gaps in nanotechnology development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Foladori

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has been spurred by science, technology and innovation policies in most Latin American countries since the last decade. Public policies and funding have been accompanied by a common rhetoric, highlighting the potential of nanotechnology for increasing competitiveness and growth and providing the region with more efficient and innovative products. Based on an assessment of nanotechnology policies and capabilities in nine countries this article highlights three characteristics of nanotechnology in Latin America that might hinder its contribution to an equitable development within the region. The first characteristic is the conspicuous trend towards an intra-regional gap in capacity building as a result of the unequal historical development of science and technology among these countries and the large differences in equipment and financial resources devoted to nanotechnology.  The second characteristic is the strength of “international signals” vis-à-vis the national needs in the orientation of nanotechnology. On the one hand, nanotechnology is main and foremost oriented to achieve international competitiveness, which may lead its development to international market demands. On the other hand, nanotechnology research in Latin American countries has been configured within internationalized academic networks, which may influence local research agendas towards foreign research priorities. The third characteristic is the absence of research on potential impacts of nanotechnology on human health and the environment, as well as other societal implications, which may generate new forms of unequal distribution of benefits and risks.

  18. Prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrion JZ

    2011-12-01

    has decreased in Latin America.Keywords: retinopathy of prematurity, prevalence, incidence, Latin America

  19. Evolución e impacto de la regulación bancaria internacional hasta Basilea III: el caso de América Latina = Evolution and impact of international banking regulation until Basel III: The case of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gutiérrez López

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available La crisis financiera ha cuestionado la efectividad de los Acuerdos de Basilea como herramienta de regulación y supervisión bancaria a nivel internacional, especialmente por la coincidencia temporal de Basilea II y los problemas del sector bancario. En el caso de América Latina, esto se une tanto a las particularidades de su sistema financiero, que ha afrontado reformas muy significativas en los últimos años, como a la forma diferencial en que la crisis financiera se ha manifestado.El artículo revisa las características del esquema de regulación bancaria internacional hasta llegar al nuevo Acuerdo de Basilea III y su previsible adaptación al caso latinoamericano, con especial interés sobre los efectos en la financiación y prociclicidad.The financial crisis has questioned Basel Accords effectiveness as regulatory and supervisory tools in the international banking area, especially because Basel II was firstly applied when banking problems started. In the Latin America case, this happens in a particular financial system, which has suffered significant reforms over the last years, and where the financial crisis has behaved in a different way.The paper analyses the main characteristics of the international banking regulatory framework until current Basel III Accord. It also addresses its foreseeable adaptation to the Latin American context, with special emphasis on funding and pro-cyclicality

  20. Chapter 10. Professional migration from Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    From NGO to multilateral organisation and government involvement: three case studiesFernando Lema Executive summary In this chapter we present three case studies of the Latin American diaspora: one on the experience of non-profit organisations (NGO) in France (AFUDEST and ALAS), one on work in an international organisation (UNESCO) and one about field work with a government agency, Argentina's Secretariat for Science, Technology and Productive Innovation (SETCIP). The three experiences took p...

  1. Towards a New Developmental State: Challenges for Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Zurbriggen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The political map of Latin America experienced some significant changes during the first decade of the 21st century. After a long period of political and social hegemony of right-wing coalitions, progressive parties assumed office in many countries. Their programs criticised the neoliberal model and underlined the role of the State in the development process. In that context, the 2008 world economic crisis strengthened the debate on the role of the State, particularly in what regards to its rapport with elites and foreign capital, as well as its capacity to lead a development strategy towards more prosperous and just societies. This article revisits two theoretical paradigms (the Neoliberal State and the Developmental State in the light of new approaches from different disciplinary grounds (Political Science, Economic History, Political Economy of Development. We argue the greatest challenge of a new theory and practice of the State in Latin America is to build broad developmental coalitions that are able to counter the centrifugal interests of local elites and transnational corporations. 

  2. Suicide in Latin America: a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascayano, Franco; Irrazabal, Matias; D Emilia, Wyatt; Vaner, Sidney Jane; Sapag, Jaime C; Alvarado, Ruben; Yang, Lawrence Hsin; Sinah, Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Suicide has become an international public mental health challenge, resulting in a need for interventions to address it as an individual, family, and community levels. The current scope review assesses trends regarding suicide within Latin America and the Caribbean: risk factors, protective factors, and mediators of suicidal ideation and behavior. Body: Our review is split into three sections, as a way of addressing the complex topic of suicide in an organized, comprehensive manner: (i) epidemiology of suicide in Latin America and Caribbean; (ii) factors associated to suicide ideation and attempts; and (iii) cultural factors as a predictors and mediators of suicide. Further, proper evidence about the association between suicide and cultural dimensions such as Familismo, Machismo/Marianismo, Religion and Acculturation is provided. Upon analyzing trends of and factors associated with suicide, we offer recommendations regarding future studies and intervention programs. We conclude that interventions and research should be based on and in response to cultural values and norms related to suicide within each community, in order to make more culturally-specific programs.

  3. The Problems of Integration and Security in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza Gutierres del Sid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of Latin America, associated with the geopolitical changes after the collapse of the bipolar system and change the balance of power in favor of the United States. G-20, which involved three countries in the region, did not led to radical changes in the reform of global governance. The development of integration processes and regional coordination has undergone a major transformation. Regional coordination in matters of the defense and security within the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR is expanding, it focuses on the revision of defense projects. Variety regionalization processes (MERCOSUR, ALBA, ACH, SELAC, new trade unions (Alliance Pacific, Trans-Pacific Partnership, the idea of a transatlantic partnership, the change in the US strategy in the region lead to the fragmentation of Latin America. Countries in the region are faced with the choice of an effective strategy of development in terms of new centers of power (China, Russia, primarily in the Asia Pacific

  4. Commentary: improving the health of neglected populations in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones Danielle

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Neglected diseases encompass a group of pathologies that disproportionally affect resource-constrained areas of the world. In tropical and subtropical areas in Latin America, the vicious cycle of poverty, disease and underdevelopment is widespread. The burden of disease associated to neglected diseases in this region is mainly expressed through diseases such as malaria, dengue, intestinal parasitic infections, Chagas' disease, and many others. These maladies have burdened Latin America throughout centuries and have directly influenced their ability to develop and become competitive societies in the current climate of globalization. Therefore, the need for a new paradigm that integrates various public health policies, programs, and a strategy with the collaboration of all responsible sectors is long overdue. In this regard, innovative approaches are required to ensure the availability of low-cost, simple, sustainable, and locally acceptable strategies to improve the health of neglected populations to prevent, control, and potentially eliminate neglected diseases. Improving the health of these forgotten populations will place them in an environment more conducive to development and will likely contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in this area of the globe.

  5. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Machismo and Virginidad: Sex Roles in Latin America. Discussion Paper 79-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinones, Julio

    The purpose of this paper is to present a view of Latin American males and females that describes the situation in Latin America more accurately than the current stereotypical view accepted in the United States. The author discusses the roots of the North American misconception, citing differences between Latin American and North American cultures…

  7. Advances in volcano monitoring and risk reduction in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCausland, W. A.; White, R. A.; Lockhart, A. B.; Marso, J. N.; Assitance Program, V. D.; Volcano Observatories, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    We describe results of cooperative work that advanced volcanic monitoring and risk reduction. The USGS-USAID Volcano Disaster Assistance Program (VDAP) was initiated in 1986 after disastrous lahars during the 1985 eruption of Nevado del Ruiz dramatizedthe need to advance international capabilities in volcanic monitoring, eruption forecasting and hazard communication. For the past 28 years, VDAP has worked with our partners to improve observatories, strengthen monitoring networks, and train observatory personnel. We highlight a few of the many accomplishments by Latin American volcano observatories. Advances in monitoring, assessment and communication, and lessons learned from the lahars of the 1985 Nevado del Ruiz eruption and the 1994 Paez earthquake enabled the Servicio Geológico Colombiano to issue timely, life-saving warnings for 3 large syn-eruptive lahars at Nevado del Huila in 2007 and 2008. In Chile, the 2008 eruption of Chaitén prompted SERNAGEOMIN to complete a national volcanic vulnerability assessment that led to a major increase in volcano monitoring. Throughout Latin America improved seismic networks now telemeter data to observatories where the decades-long background rates and types of seismicity have been characterized at over 50 volcanoes. Standardization of the Earthworm data acquisition system has enabled data sharing across international boundaries, of paramount importance during both regional tectonic earthquakes and during volcanic crises when vulnerabilities cross international borders. Sharing of seismic forecasting methods led to the formation of the international organization of Latin American Volcano Seismologists (LAVAS). LAVAS courses and other VDAP training sessions have led to international sharing of methods to forecast eruptions through recognition of precursors and to reduce vulnerabilities from all volcano hazards (flows, falls, surges, gas) through hazard assessment, mapping and modeling. Satellite remote sensing data

  8. [Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick De Weiss, S; Vargas-trujillo, E

    1990-01-01

    The Latin American literature on adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior is reviewed to provide professionals in the area with more relevant findings. The data demonstrates that sexually active adolescents of both gender are increasing and starting sexual activity at an earlier age. For example in Panama one out of every 5 births is from an adolescent 15-19 with 25% of these out of wedlock; in Chile, 44% of live births are illegitimate. Factors that are affecting these changes are the media, peer groups and other sources of information competing with parental discipline (TV, movies, music). In spite of the high incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies, the majority of pregnancies among adolescents in Latin America and the Caribbean take place in marriage with the average age of marriage at 20, with variation between the rural and urban areas. In 1978 the total fertility rate of El Salvador's urban areas was 3.3 as against 8.4 in the rural. Young girls in developing countries have few options for education, retaining their virginity and marriage, so when presented with the change early on, they marry and get pregnant. Cuba remains the only Latin American Country where abortion is offered (up to 10 weeks) within the context of health services; while illegal abortion in the majority of Latin American countries continues to increase. The proportion of complications due to abortion for those under 20 ranges from 11-20% in the region. Illegal abortions has become a major cause of maternal mortality constituting from 12-53% of deaths among the majority of women 15-24. Significant data is given for pregnancy, factors that influence knowledge and use of contraception, and available sex education programs, an extensive bibliography in these areas is included.

  9. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling, A.

    1998-01-01

    Support for scientists and their endeavours in developing countries by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is provided through FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects (TCPs). Using these mechanisms the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agricultural aims to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in developing countries to identify and resolve problems connected with improving livestock productivity and health. In 1986, the Section introduced and animal health component into its Project. The initial support was for five years but in 1991 this was extended for a further three years and linked with the support available from the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Project through national and regional TCPs and ARCAL activities in Latin America dealing with diagnosis of animal diseases. Central to this overall project ws the use of ELISA for the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases. FAO/IAEA CRPs are developed around a well defined research topic on which between 15 and 20 national institutes collaborate - the topic itself being defined through consultation with national authorities in developing and developed countries and international agricultural research centers and organizations. The primary role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in such programmes is to ensure that the inputs and efforts under these programmes are co-ordinated and that the results are published. The studies being reported in this IAEA TECDOC were initiated in 1991 and whilst the focus was on three major disease affecting livestock in the region (foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), brucellosis and babesiosis) the approach taken by individual Research Control holders was different and thus in some cases research concentrated on assay validation whilst in other cases the focus was on the

  10. Management of anaphylaxis in Latin America: current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Cardona

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaphylaxis is a systemic and severe allergic reaction, which can be fatal. The first-line treatment of choice, according to international guidelines, is intramuscular adrenaline. However, different studies show that the performance of health professionals managing anaphylaxis is often inadequate Objective: To assess the current resources available in Latin American countries for the diagnosis and treatment of anaphylaxis. Methods: Online survey promoted by the Latin American Society of Allergy and Immunology to representatives of the national allergy societies of Latin American countries. Results: Responses were received from 10 countries out of the 14 countries invited to participate. Only five of the countries have clinical practice guidelines in anaphylaxis. Adrenaline autoinjectors are available only in two countries, Argentina and Brazil, but are not subsidized by public health systems. In all countries, adrenaline is available in ampoules, which is the presentation usually prescribed to patients for self-administration. The use of adrenaline was estimated to be less than 50 % of cases in five countries, while antihistamines and corticosteroids are almost always used. The determination of serum tryptase is possible in some health centers, often private, in five of the countries surveyed. Conclusion: It is necessary to improve resources related to the diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis in Latin American countries.

  11. 331 Asthma Management in Latin America: Learnings from the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) Survey of Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Maspero, Jorge; Jardim, Jose; González-Díaz, Sandra; Aranda, Alvaro; Tassinari, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background In 2003, the Asthma Insights and Reality in Latin America (AIRLA) survey assessed, in part, perception, knowledge, and attitudes related to asthma.1 In 2011 the Latin America Asthma Insight and Management (LA AIM) survey was designed to ascertain the realities of living with asthma, disconnect between expectations in asthma management and patient experience, and unmet needs. Using results from our survey, we investigated the advances made in asthma care and the challenges that rema...

  12. Systematic Review of Research on Educational Leadership and Management in Latin America, 1991-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Felipe Aravena; Hallinger, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to further our understanding of educational leadership and management (EDLM) knowledge production in Latin America. We conducted a "topographical review" of 48 articles from Latin America published in eight "core" EDLM journals published between 1991 and 2017. Data analysis focused on…

  13. National Identity and Language in Multi-Ethnic Latin America. Occasional Papers, 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    A discussion of the relationship between national identity and language in Spanish-speaking Latin America focuses on issues concerning indigenous languages, education, and literacy. The sociolinguistic history and configuration Spanish-speaking Latin America are outlined briefly, noting the influences of indigenous populations, non-Spanish…

  14. Research on Child and Adolescent Development and Public Policy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narea, Marigen

    2016-01-01

    This commentary discusses the implication of child and adolescent development research for public policy in Latin America. As illustrated by the articles in this special issue, even though the research of child and adolescent development in Latin America is making significant progress, still more research is needed. Developmental research in the…

  15. Poverty and Malnutrition in Latin America. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: A Report to the Ford Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, Ernesto; And Others

    This book presents a comprehensive review of empirical research on early childhood education and human development in Latin America. Commissioned in 1976 by the Office of Latin America and the Caribbean, part of the International Division of the Ford Foundation, New York, the study was two-faceted. First, researchers were instructed to review…

  16. Trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma vivax in ruminants in Latin America: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwinger, R.H.; Hall, M.J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The history and the present situation of T. vivax infections in Latin America are reviewed. Clinical signs, diagnostic aspects, therapy and control of the disease are briefly discussed. In view of the recent emergence of bovine trypanosomosis in areas where it previously never existed, it is advisable to invest in improving the diagnosis and control of the disease in Latin America. (author)

  17. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  18. Implantation aspects of small and medium nuclear power plant in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, S.; Cosentino, J.; Eibenschutz, J.; Gasparian, A.E.; Lepecki, W.P.S.; Spitalnik, J.

    1984-01-01

    The nuclear energy policy adopted by the Latin America is commented. The nuclear power plants in planning are presented. An analysis about the nuclear legislation, licensing and nuclear regulation, quality assurance and formation of human resources for Latin America is done. (E.G.) [pt

  19. Nuclear energy and non-proliferation in Latin America: the constitution of Tlatelolco system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armanet, P.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear energy as alternative energy resource and its military use are analysed. Then the main characteristics of the Tratelolco treaty and non-proliferation in Latin America are discussed. Finally the importance of the nuclear-weapons-free zone in Latin America is shown. (A.B.T.) [pt

  20. Use of Third Line Antiretroviral Therapy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Jenkins, Cathy A.; Ghidinelli, Massimo; Castro, Jose Luis; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Cortes, Claudia P.; Padgett, Denis; Crabtree-Ramirez, Brenda; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Fink, Valeria; Duran, Adriana; Sued, Omar; McGowan, Catherine C.; Cahn, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known. Methods Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet) sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART. Results Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3%) failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8%) received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.00, p = 0.001), younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86–4.10, p<0.001), and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62–2.90, p<0.001). Conclusions Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted. PMID:25221931

  1. Dengue in Latin America: Systematic Review of Molecular Epidemiological Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ramos-Castañeda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue, the predominant arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is caused by one of four distinct serotypes (DENV-1, -2, -3 or -4. A literature analysis and review was undertaken to describe the molecular epidemiological trends in dengue disease and the knowledge generated in specific molecular topics in Latin America, including the Caribbean islands, from 2000 to 2013 in the context of regional trends in order to identify gaps in molecular epidemiological knowledge and future research needs. Searches of literature published between 1 January 2000 and 30 November 2013 were conducted using specific search strategies for each electronic database that was reviewed. A total of 396 relevant citations were identified, 57 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All four dengue virus serotypes were present and co-circulated in many countries over the review period (with the predominance of individual serotypes varying by country and year. The number of countries in which more than one serotype circulated steadily increased during the period under review. Molecular epidemiology data were found for Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, the Caribbean region, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico and Central America, Paraguay, Peru and Venezuela. Distinct lineages with different dynamics were found in each country, with co-existence, extinction and replacement of lineages occurring over the review period. Despite some gaps in the literature limiting the possibility for comparison, our review has described the molecular epidemiological trends of dengue infection. However, several gaps in molecular epidemiological information across Latin America and the Caribbean were identified that provide avenues for future research; in particular, sequence determination of the dengue virus genome is important for more precise phylogenetic classification and correlation with clinical outcome and disease severity.

  2. Use of third line antiretroviral therapy in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    Full Text Available Access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART is expanding in Latin America. Many patients require second and third line therapy due to toxicity, tolerability, failure, or a combination of factors. The need for third line HAART, essential for program planning, is not known.Antiretroviral-naïve patients ≥18 years who started first HAART after January 1, 2000 in Caribbean, Central and South America Network (CCASAnet sites in Argentina, Brazil, Honduras, Mexico, and Peru were included. Clinical trials participants were excluded. Third line HAART was defined as use of darunavir, tipranavir, etravirine, enfuvirtide, maraviroc or raltegravir. Need for third line HAART was defined as virologic failure while on second line HAART.Of 5853 HAART initiators followed for a median of 3.5 years, 310 (5.3% failed a second line regimen and 44 (0.8% received a third line regimen. Cumulative incidence of failing a 2nd or starting a 3rd line regimen was 2.7% and 6.0% three and five years after HAART initiation, respectively. Predictors at HAART initiation for failing a second or starting a third line included female sex (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00, p = 0.001, younger age (HR = 2.76 for 20 vs. 40 years, 95% CI 1.86-4.10, p<0.001, and prior AIDS (HR = 2.17, 95% CI 1.62-2.90, p<0.001.Third line regimens may be needed for at least 6% of patients in Latin America within 5 years of starting HAART, a substantial proportion given the large numbers of patients on HAART in the region. Improved accessibility to third line regimens is warranted.

  3. A call to arms: time to do cognitive science in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; School of Psychology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia.

    2015-01-01

    Previous theoretical reviews about the development of Psychology in Latin America suggest that Latin American psychology has a promising future. This paper empirically checks whether that status remains justified. In so doing, the frequency of programs/research domains in three salient psychological areas is assessed in Latin America and in two other regions of the world. A chi-square statistic is used to analyse the collected data. Programs/research domains and regions of the world are the i...

  4. [The demographic consequences of austerity in Latin America: methodological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkert, R

    1991-01-01

    This work reviews evidence in the literature of possible demographic effects of the austerity programs imposed on Latin American countries in the 1980s. The work focuses on methodological problems involved in assessing demographic changes and ascertaining that they were indeed attributable to the economic crisis. An introductory section describes the recession of the 1980s in Latin America, the declines in employment and living standards, and the health and social consequences of the deepening poverty. But the author argues that evaluation of health conditions, levels of nutrition, and especially factors such as infant mortality, fertility, marriage patterns, and migration as indicators of the impact of the economic depression is full of pitfalls that are not always obvious. Few Latin American countries have civil registration systems capable of providing accurate and up-to-date mortality and fertility data. Indirect methods currently in use were intended to analyze longterm levels and trends and are of little use for short-term fluctuations. Data on internal migration are scarce even in developed countries. Even when recent data are available it is often difficult or impossible to obtain data for comparison. Infant mortality and malnutrition levels, for example, are serious problems in many parts of Latin America, but series of data capable of demonstrating that they are truly consequences of the economic crisis are lacking. Another challenge is to separate the demographic effects of the debt crisis from longterm structural processes. The possibility of time lags and of different time frames may increase confusion. Almost a year must pass before effects on birth rates can be expected, for example. Neutralizing mechanisms may obscure the effects sought. Thus, the most impoverished urban sectors may return to the countryside to seek refuge in subsistence agriculture; their departure would in some measure diminish the consequences of recession in the urban economy

  5. Nasal allergies in the Latin American population: results from the Allergies in Latin America survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffen, Hugo; Mello, Joao F; Sole, Dirceu; Naspitz, Charles K; Dodero, Alberto Eduardo; Garza, Héctor León; Guerra, Edgard Novelo; Baez-Loyola, Carlos; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Allergies in Latin America is the first cross-national survey that describes the symptoms, impact, and treatment of nasal allergies (NAs) in individuals >or=4 years old in Latin America (LA). In total, 22,012 households across the Latin American countries of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela were screened for children, adolescents, and adults with a diagnosis of NA and either symptoms or treatment in the past 12 months. A total of 1088 adults and 457 children and adolescents were included and the sample was probability based to ensure valid statistical inference to the population. Approximately 7% of the LA population was diagnosed with NAs with two of three respondents stating that their allergies were seasonal or intermittent in nature. A general practice physician or otolaryngologist diagnosed the majority of individuals surveyed. Nasal congestion was the most common and bothersome symptom of NAs. Sufferers indicated that their symptoms affected productivity and sleep and had a negative impact on quality of life. Two-thirds of patients reported taking some type of medication for their NAs, with a roughly equal percentage of patients reporting taking over-the-counter versus prescription medications. Changing medications was most commonly done in those reporting inadequate efficacy. The most common reasons cited for dissatisfaction with current medications were related to inadequate effectiveness, effectiveness wearing off with chronic use, failure to provide 24-hour relief, and bothersome side effects (e.g., unpleasant taste and retrograde drainage into the esophagus). Findings from this cross-national survey on NAs have confirmed a high prevalence of physician-diagnosed NAs and a considerable negative impact on daily quality of life and work productivity as well as substantial disease management challenges in LA. Through identification of disease impact on the LA population and further defining treatment gaps, clinicians in

  6. Hospital malnutrition in Latin America: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Maria Isabel T D; Perman, Mario Ignacio; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2017-08-01

    Disease-related malnutrition is a major public health issue in both industrialised and emerging countries. The reported prevalence in hospitalised adults ranges from 20% to 50%. Initial reports from emerging countries suggested a higher prevalence compared with other regions, with limited data on outcomes and costs. We performed a systematic literature search for articles on disease-related malnutrition in Latin American countries published between January 1995 and September 2014. Studies reporting data on the prevalence, clinical outcomes, or economic costs of malnutrition in an adult (≥18 years) inpatient population with a sample size of ≥30 subjects were eligible for inclusion. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed by two independent reviewers using published criteria. We identified 1467 citations; of these, 66 studies including 29 ,474 patients in 12 Latin American countries met the criteria for inclusion. There was considerable variability in methodology and in the reported prevalence of disease-related malnutrition; however, prevalence was consistently in the range of 40%-60% at the time of admission, with several studies reporting an increase in prevalence with increasing duration of hospitalisation. Disease-related malnutrition was associated with an increase in infectious and non-infectious clinical complications, length of hospital stay, and costs. Disease-related malnutrition is a highly prevalent condition that imposes a substantial health and economic burden on the countries of Latin America. Further research is necessary to characterise screening/assessment practices and identify evidence-based solutions to this persistent and costly public health issue. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A balance to the philosophy of education in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Joaquim Severino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to present a first approach to the philosophical-educational thought in Latin America, as it has been expressed today. Along this balance, necessarily preliminary, of this field´s production, it seeks to raise  a discussion on theorethical or paractical challenges that arise  for the Philosophy of Education, in the socio-historical-cultural context of the continent. Hightlights therefore the debate on the nature of this reflection considering the conceptual requirement for the consolidation of the rigorous research field on the educational reality, putting forth the question of the identity of this knowledge´s field and its inclusion, not only on cultural universe in general but also on its own educacional practice, taking into account also its demand as a major component, both in teaching and that of cultural formation. Pleads a systematic research program that can account for the presence of  education theme in Latin American philosophical discourse as well as the presence of philosophical reflection in education specific discourse. In highlighting the presence of a philosophy of educacion in the production of both philosophers and theorists of education, it seeks to present the efforts already being made and challenges faced by Latin American thinkers in the educational field in order to prepare theorethical tools able to give sense to educational  practice, from its own building in act, i.e, as an active presence in a given society at a given historical time.

  8. Globalization and Land-Use Transitions in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ricardo. Grau

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Current socioeconomic drivers of land-use change associated with globalization are producing two contrasting land-use trends in Latin America. Increasing global food demand (particularly in Southeast Asia accelerates deforestation in areas suitable for modern agriculture (e.g., soybean, severely threatening ecosystems, such as Amazonian rain forests, dry forests, and subtropical grasslands. Additionally, in the coming decades, demand for biofuels may become an emerging threat. In contrast, high yields in modern agricultural systems and rural-urban migration coupled with remittances promote the abandonment of marginal agricultural lands, thus favoring ecosystem recovery on mountains, deserts, and areas of poor soils, while improving human well-being. The potential switch from production in traditional extensive grazing areas to intensive modern agriculture provides opportunities to significantly increase food production while sparing land for nature conservation. This combination of emerging threats and opportunities requires changes in the way the conservation of Latin American ecosystems is approached. Land-use efficiency should be analyzed beyond the local-based paradigm that drives most conservation programs, and focus on large geographic scales involving long-distance fluxes of products, information, and people in order to maximize both agricultural production and the conservation of environmental services.

  9. Managing Abundance to Avoid A Bust in Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicolas Eyzaguirre

    2011-01-01

    @@ Latin American (LA) economies today are at a challenging juncture as key global conditions have aligned in very exceptional ways, representing a double tailwind for many countries of the region.These countries must figure out how to best respond to a sustained period of unusually easy foreign financing conditions and large capital inflows.At the same time, they face high world prices for their commodity exports, another source of abundance that is likely to be persistent but not permanent.Such conditions are, of course, in many ways favorable, creating opportunities with important upsides.But such conditions can also lead to an accumulation of important vulnerabilities for the future.There are challenges both while these conditions persist and during the transition after they end because severe dislocations and crises may arise if the good times are improperly managed.Indeed, some of Latin America's own past experiences with the "problems of plenty" have illustrated that good times can be followed by bad endings.

  10. Radio broadcasting: a conceptual challenge in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelia R. Del Bianco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present the partial results of research carried out by the Observatory of Public Radio Broadcasting of Latin America on the changes occurring in the public radio and TV systems in 10 Latin American countries, under the aspects of functioning models, management, financing, and social participation. After the rising to power of governments linked to parties from the left, we verified that communication policies are being established, which aim at closing the gap between traditional state broadcasting stations and the notion of public. This considers the principles that characterize the action of this media, determined by UNESCO (2001: universality, diversity, independence, and differentiation of content in the programming. A hundred and forty broadcasting stations were analyzed from the perspective of being public based on two criteria: those that are under the control of the State direct or indirectly, by means of concessions for use without profit for foundations, companies, and public universities; and those that receive public financing. Based on the analysis of the data, five trend tendencies were observed: the construction of a new regulatory framework; the creation of public companies instead of legal centralized state structures; the institution of relatively autonomous deliberative councils responsible for overseeing the management of the stations; the diversification of funding sources in an attempt to reverse the dependence on government resources; and the renewal of the programming with the opening for independent production.

  11. E-government in the tax administrations of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Católico Segura, Diego Fernando

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the e-government has become relevant in the public sector and is set in an oriented transformation of governments in the framework of New Public Management (NPM strategy as it allows greater access to information, improving citizen participation in public affairs, it makes more efficient way to provide services and contributes in a two-way communication between the state and citizens from the use of information and communications technology. In this sense, public institutions in Latin America have not been alien to this trend and, in particular, their tax administrations have been affected by this strategy. This article analyzes the degree of progress of electronic government in these institutions with respect to access to information, considering that published on the websites of the tax administrations of Latin Amercia. The results show that the degree of access to information of the entities under study is biased as a note midlevel is obtained, indicating a possible risk of corruption given the lack of transparency in its management and limited surrender accounts, preventing effective social control.

  12. Indigenous Territories and REDD in Latin America: Opportunity or Threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris van Dam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An important proportion of Latin America’s forests are located in indigenous territories, and indigenous peoples are the beneficiaries of about 85% of the area for which local rights to land and forest have been recognized in Latin America since the 1980s. Nevertheless, many of these areas, whether or not rights have been recognized, are subject to threats from colonists, illegal loggers, mining and oil interests and others, whose practices endanger not only the forests but also indigenous people’s territory as a whole. In this context, REDD could constitute a new threat or intensify others, particularly in places where indigenous tenure rights have not been recognized, but REDD could also offer new opportunities. This article describes the limitations of thinking only in terms of communities, rather than territories, and examines the extent to which REDD has been conceived considering the characteristics of this new territorial configuration. It also identifies the challenges that REDD may face with this new ‘stakeholder’, such as numerous specific characteristics of territories, given their heterogeneity, in the context of past experiences regarding ‘forest options’. This paper analyses the situation in already-titled indigenous territories in particular, and also discusses problems facing territories in the titling process.

  13. The teaching of geophysics in Latin America: An updated assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencio, Daniel A.; Schneider, Otto

    The situation of geophysics in developing countries has been the subject of discussions and analysis by diverse international organizations. It was also discussed in some articles in Eos [e.g., Lomnitz, 1982; Urrutia Fucugauchi, 1982; Bolt, 1982]. We have been requested to contribute a current evaluation of the problem, with particular reference to geophysical education in Latin America.In the following report on specialized training of geophysicists in Latin American countries, we consider the “exact earth sciences” in the broader sense, i.e., the mathematical and physical (and, to a certain extent, chemical) aspects of the planet earth as a whole, including its fluid portions, as opposed to the more restricted concept of just solid earth geophysics. In other words, our inquiry follows the scope of both AGU and the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG), so geodesy, although not explicitly covered, will still be mentioned occasionally. We will also consider the applied branches, especially exploration geophysics, since these areas furnish powerful motivation for fostering our sciences, both in the governmental circles of developing countries and among the young people looking for a promising professional future.

  14. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, João M; Lansingh, Van C; Carter, Marissa J; Milanese, María F; Peña, Brenda N; Ghersi, Hernán A; Bote, Paula L; Nano, María E; Silva, Juan C

    2012-01-01

    We review what is known in each country of the Latin American region with regards to blindness and visual impairment and make some comparisons to Hispanic populations in the United States. Prevalence of blindness varied from 1.1% in Argentina to 4.1% in Guatemala in people 50 years of age and older, with the major cause being cataract. Diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma are starting to make serious inroads, although epidemiological data are limited, and age-related macular degeneration is now a concern in some populations. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis are quickly diminishing. Although progress has been made, retinopathy of prematurity remains the major cause of childhood blindness. If VISION 2020 is to succeed, many more epidemiological studies will be needed to set priorities, although some can be of the Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness design. Developing the infrastructure for screening and treatment of ophthalmic disease in Latin America continues to be a challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Issues of Political Development: Fragile Democracies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Albuquerque

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The political development, as research field, had its origins in the second half of the last century. From the 60s, when he began to flourish, now constitutes a conceptual border with comparative politics. In subsequent decades there were many advances in the analysis of problems related to the political institutions, state structures, the rule of law, civil society, stability and crises of democratic regimes, among others. From this issue, will be made to this article, supported by the Democracy Index, analyzing the causes of one of the main shortcomings of the political development in Latin America, namely, the low quality of their democracies and the consequent non-consolidation of the same.

  16. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  17. [Research on causes of death in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackiel, J

    1987-08-01

    The use of vital statistics data to study causes of death in Latin America is examined. It is shown that reliable data are available for Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, and Uruguay and that relatively good data are available for Guatemala, Mexico, and Venezuela. Consideration is given to different approaches to the analysis of such data in order to provide additional information concerning the diseases that contribute to mortality. The possiblity of using the data in conceptual models in order to identify the socioeconomic and biological factors affecting mortality is noted. Consideration is also given to how the analysis of data on causes of death can be used to improve mortality projections by sex and age.

  18. Latin America's Decontamination and Decommissioning Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, J.V.; Lagos, L.E.; Ebadian, M.A.; Mayerle, M.

    1998-10-20

    Throughout this project, the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology's (HCET) goal was to initiate a comprehensive research program on sustainable development, environmental protection, and the market for environmental technologies in Latin America and the Caribbean. The data resulting from the work associated with this project has been entered into an information system which supplies useful and accurate data knowledge to interested parties. When relevant information has been found to be insufficient and/or not readily available, HCET has investigated, conducted research, and subsequently made this information available to the public. During FY96, HCET completed numerous tasks to contribute to this body of knowledge. This initiative will continue throughout 1997. Highlights of FY96 are described.

  19. Petroleum in Latin America: Poised for political debottlenecking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The 1980s are viewed as a 'lost decade' for Latin America by many economists and politicians. Industrialists, too, bemoan the underachievement of many goals that deprived them of financial opportunities. Some of the countries' most critical observers cite the waste of petrodollars and short-sighted management as having deprived populations of longer term benefits from their oil industries. Recent trends of political-economic restructuring, however, point to a brighter future. This issue reviews the above and details some changes in the petroleum industries of a few selected countries. This issue also presents the following: (1) the ED Refining Netback Data Series for the US Gulf and West Coasts, Rotterdam, and Singapore as of August 7, 1992; and (2) the ED Fuel Price/Tax Series for countries of the Western Hemisphere, August 1992 Edition

  20. Public hearings and environmental management in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer de Lemos, Chelen

    2002-01-01

    The study attempts to review comparative environmental public hearings, regulation regions in four Latin America countries: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Colombia. It seeks the similarities and differences, advances and limits from public participation on decision making and environmental management process. The main characteristics of the normative instruments are looking for the following aspects: who requests and who convokes the hearings, which are the objectives and the matters of the hearings, when they occur and which are its legal effects. Four summaries of public hearings are presented to illustrate the analysis. The analysis follows two approaches: the first one is based on the instrumental conception of the public hearings for social conflicts control and the second stress that new forms of subjectivity and participation can arise in the process of public hearings accomplishment

  1. Traditional and modern cohabitation in Latin America: A comparative typology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Covre-Sussai

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The existence of cohabitation is a historical feature of nuptiality in Latin America. Traditionally, cohabitation was common in less developed regions, among the lower social classes. But today its occurrence is increasing and in social groups and regions in which it was not common. The features of this latter type of cohabitation remain unclear. Objective: We differentiate types of cohabitation in Latin America on the basis of relationship context at its outset and its outcomes in terms of childbearing. The comparability of these types over countries is attested, as well as their evolution over time and the educational and age profiles of cohabitants. Methods: Demographic and Health Survey data for the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s for up to eight countries are analyzed by means of Multiple Group Latent Class Analysis. Results: Three types of cohabitation are found. The traditional type includes young and lower-educated women who start to cohabit during adolescence. They have more children at younger ages. The remaining two types of cohabitation included higher-educated women and are considered modern. The innovative type groups women from all age groups, with fewer children born at a higher age and never as a single woman. Blended cohabitation refers to older women, who could negotiate a marriage, but do not. They start to cohabit during adulthood, but always after single pregnancy. Conclusions: The persistence of historical trends is attested. Traditional cohabitation is related to socioeconomic deprivation and prevails in Central American and Caribbean countries.However, two modern types of cohabitation are emerging in the region. They are concentrated in the South and related to women's independence.

  2. The World of Work between the Personal and the Collective: A Demand for Social Justice and Guidance for Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Julio Gonzalez; Chacón, Omaira

    2015-01-01

    The struggle for justice has been permanent for a very long period of time. In this sense, it could be said that since Plato conceived it as one of the fundamental virtues, justice has constituted a goal to achieve for any society. In the case of justice, related to social aspects, the situation has been overwhelming in Latin America. Based on a…

  3. Nuclear energy prospects and uranium resources in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polliart, A.J.; Barretto, P.M.C.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear power and other major technological applications of nuclear energy will become of interest to a growing number of Latin American countries as their demand for electricity rises because of the expansion of industry. Nevertheless, for many years to come, the chief benefits that atomic energy can bring to Latin America will take the form of applying nuclear science techniques in medicine, water resources development and agricultural research. The medical applications are widely known and the water resources applications are highly specialized. The agricultural applications are many, but generally less well known, and this is one reason why the Agency is devoting a special meeting of the Conference to a review of the use of nuclear science techniques in agricultural research, food production and food preservation. Latin America is the only region of the world in which substantial progress has been made towards what is now known as a nuclear-weapon-free zone - in other words, a zone in which no country possesses or seeks to possess the capacity to make nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, or permits such weapons on its territory. This has been achieved partly by the operation of Treaties and partly by the policy of individual Governments. The nuclear-weapon-free status is partly reflected in safeguards agreements with the Agency. In this way, the countries of the region are avoiding the vast waste of scarce resources that a nuclear weapons programme entails and, particularly, of scarce scientific manpower and technological skill, which they urgently need for their own peaceful development. The Agency safeguards thus provide international assurance that the nuclear programmes of the countries concerned will not be diverted to nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosives. In this way the Agency's safeguards contribute to security and peace in the region. It is obviously of interest to all countries in the region that this de facto nuclear

  4. Rethinking imperialist theory and US imperialism in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Petras

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo criticamos la teorización contemporánea sobre el imperialismo por su reducción al ámbito económico y su carencia de un análisis de clase e institucional específico dentro del estado imperialista. En el contexto de este argumento, establecemos la importancia del análisis de clase para aprovechar las dinámicas de cambio del poder imperialista procediendo a argumentar la alineación de las fuerzas de clase en el mundo de la economía, en sus interacciones con la configuración del poder imperialista, dejando la realineación del poder económico en el sistema mundial capitalista que constituye el mayor cambio para el imperialismo estadounidense en sus operaciones en América Latina. En la sección final del artículo explicamos las discontinuidades y continuidades en las relaciones imperialistas estadounidenses con Latinoamérica, y las potencialidades y contrastes de estas relaciones en el crecimiento económico y el desarrollo.Palabras clave: teoría imperialista, imperialismo estadounidense, Latinoamérica_____________________Abstract:In this paper we criticize contemporary theorizing about imperialism for its economic reductionism and a lack of class analysis and institutional specificity regarding the imperial state. In the context of this argument we establish the importance of class analysis for grasping the changing dynamics of imperial power before proceeding to argue how specific alignments of class forces in the world economy, in their interactions with existing imperial power configurations, is leading to a realignment of economic power in the world capitalist system that constitutes a major challenge for US imperialism in its Latin American operations. In the final section of the paper we point to the discontinuities and continuities in US imperial relations with Latin America, and the potentialities and constraints of these relations on economic growth and development.Keywords: Imperialism Theory, US

  5. Re-ordering the Region? China, Latin America and the Western Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Philips

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available – China in Latin America: The Whats and Wherefores, by R. Evan Ellis. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009.– Latin America Facing China: South-South Relations beyond the Washington Consensus, edited by Alex E. Fernández Jilberto and Barbara Hogenboom. New York & Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2010.– The Dragon in the Room: China and the Future of Latin American Industrialization, by Kevin P. Gallagher and Roberto Porzecanski. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2010.– China and Latin America: Economic Relations in the Twenty-First Century, edited by Rhys Jenkins and Enrique Dussel Peters. Bonn: Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik, 2009.– China’s Expansion into the Western Hemisphere: Implications for Latin America and the United States, edited by Riordan Roett and Guadalupe Paz. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution, 2008.

  6. Avian influenza in Latin America: A systematic review of serological and molecular studies from 2000-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Afanador-Villamizar

    Full Text Available Avian influenza or bird flu is a highly contagious acute viral disease that can occur in epidemics and cross-border forms in poultry and wild birds. The characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs allow the emergence of new viral variants, some with zoonotic and pandemic potential. AIVs have been identified in Latin America; however, there is a lack of understanding of these viruses at the regional level. We performed a systematic literature review on serological or molecular evidence of AIVs circulation in Latin America. Methods were designed based on the PRISMA and STROME guidelines. Only peer-reviewed studies published between 2000 to 2015 and data was analysed based on country, viral subtype, avian species, and phylogenetic origins. From 271 studies initially found only twenty-six met our inclusion criteria. Evidence of AIVs infection was found in most Latin American countries, with Mexico as the country with the largest number of conducted studies and reported cases during the period analysed, followed by Chile and Argentina. Most of the AIVs were early reported through surveillance systems and at least 14 different subtypes of influenza viruses were reported in birds, and the presence of both low (92.9% and high (7.1% pathogenic AIVs was shown in Latin America. Of the reported AIVs in Latin America, 43.7% belong to migratory birds, 28.1% to local wild birds, and 28.1% to poultry. The migratory bird population mainly comprises families belonging to the orders Anseriformes and Charadriformes. We highlight the importance of epidemiological surveillance systems and the possible role of different migratory birds in the transmission of AIVs within the Americas. Our findings demonstrate the limited information on AIVs in Latin America and highlight the need of more studies on AIVs at the regional level, particularly those focused on identifying the endemic subtypes in regional wild birds.

  7. [Social protection in Latin America and the Caribbean: changes, contradictions, and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Ana Luiza d'Avila; Fonseca, Ana Maria Medeiros da; Silva, Hudson Pacifico da

    2017-07-27

    Recent studies suggest that governments in the majority of Latin American and Caribbean countries were able to expand social investments and introduce innovations in social protection policies in the last two decades with positive results in the actions' coverage and impact. However, the restrictions imposed by the current fiscal crisis and the rise of governments more ideologically aligned with the neoliberal discourse in various countries in the region point to a new retreat of the state from the social area, thereby compromising recent advances. The article aims to discuss the changes, contradictions, and limits of recent social protection standards in Latin America and the Caribbean. The discussion includes three items: a description of the history of social protection in the region, seeking to identify its principal historical periods and characteristics (benefits, target public, and financing); the social protection models that have been implemented in the region; and the specific case of health. We argue that although countries have adopted different solutions in the field of social protection, the policies' hybrid nature (with extensive private sector participation in the financing, supply, and management of services) and the prevalence of segmented models (with differential access according to individuals' social status) have been predominant traits in social protection in Latin America and the Caribbean, thus limiting the possibilities for greater equity and social justice.

  8. The Zika epidemic and abortion in Latin America: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Mabel; Austin, Nichole; King, Nicholas B; Kaufman, Jay S

    2018-01-01

    Latin America presently has the world's highest burden of Zika virus, but there are unexplained differences in national rates of congenital malformations collectively referred to as Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) in the region. While Zika virulence and case detection likely contribute to these differences, policy-related factors, including access to abortion, may play important roles. Our goal was to assess perspectives on, and access to, abortion in Latin America in the context of the Zika epidemic. We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published between January 2015 and December 2016, written in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French. We searched PubMed, Scielo, and Google Scholar for literature on Zika and/or CZS and abortion, and used automated and manual review methods to synthesize the existing information. 36 publications met our inclusion criteria, the majority of which were qualitative. Publications were generally in favor of increased access to safe abortion as a policy-level response for mitigating the impact of CZS, but issues with implementation were cited as the main challenge. Aside from the reform of abortion regulation in Colombia, we did not find evidence that the Zika epidemic had triggered shifts in abortion policy in other countries. Abortion policy in the region remained largely unchanged following the Zika epidemic. Further empirical research on abortion access and differential rates of CZS across Latin American countries is required.

  9. World heat impact and its importance for Latin america

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Sánchez-Yáñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today there is an universal concern related to origin and consequences of world heat (WH on development of urban human communities as well as those who live at the country side regarding its dependence from fossil fuels, which are supporting city transport, its industry and progress of the main urban populations of the world. However a lack to respect for preventing rules related with soil changing use which is causing disorganized urban growth and destroying its green areas or lungs, including surface and underground water recharging. Including conventional and common agriculture based in to apply chemicals inputs like inorganic fertilizers and pesticides with environmental pollution. Related to public health WH has changed that natural distribution of vector insects of humans diseases those are increasing its negative impact due its biological cycles in the past were limited by year seasons, today became a problem during the 12 months of the year an example of this are diseases transmited by insect Diptera belonging to Aedes genus which makes worse pandemic diseases as like as malaria, dengue fever and chikungunya, etc. Reported with in plagues and vegetal diseases, those complicate its prevention increasing cost to control them in order to keep an sustainable agronomic production. While the anachronistic model of animal production involving in generation of greenhouse gases. Actually this problematic condition is getting worse by the poor environmental and formal education in Latin american countries, that have not changed according its needs in this time of globalised world. This is an apocalyptic view due natural resources lost and depredation as consequence we face poverty, misery, diseases and social unbalance. This unlucky reality in Latin america has been showed in some science fiction films like well known “The solyent green”. However there is a hope for environment and natural resources in our countries necessary for its surviving

  10. Construcción social de repositorios institucionales: el caso de un repositorio de América Latina y el Caribe Social Construction of Institutional repositories: The case of a Latin America and the Caribbean repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Babini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los repositorios institucionales -bibliotecas o archivos digitales que reúnen la producción académica y científica de una institución- desde la perspectiva de la construcción social de la tecnología, lo cual permite conocer los principales grupos sociales relevantes a tener en cuenta en el diseño e implementación de un repositorio. Se presenta el caso del repositorio institucional del Consejo Latinoamericano de Ciencias Sociales (CLACSO, repositorio que cumplió una década de servicios, analizando los grupos involucrados en su desarrollo, principalmente bibliotecas, editores de revistas, área académica y área publicaciones de los centros de investigación y docencia.This article presents an analysis of institutional repositories -digital libraries and archives with collections of institutional academic and scientific output- from the "social construction of technology" perspective, which provides information on the relevant social groups whose needs must be taken into consideration when the design and implementation of institutional repositories takes place. The case of the Latin America and the Caribbean Social Science Council (CLACSO 10 year old institutional repository is introduced from this perspective. A descripton of social groups involved in this case, mainly librarians, journal editors, academic and publishing sections of teaching and research institutions is included.

  11. The later evolution of modern sport in Latin America: the North American influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbena, J L

    2001-01-01

    American impact on modern sports in Latin America overlaps geographically and chronologically with the European, especially British, impact. Principally baseball in the Caribbean basin, more recently basketball and volleyball across the hemisphere and occasionally American football in more limited areas illustrate a north-to-south movement executed by businessmen, educators, missionaries, military personnel, returning travelers (often students), sports entrepreneurs and television. Often initially supported by promoters of development within Latin America, this transfer has altered local recreational patterns and attracted Latin athletes to pursue careers in North America, provoking accusations of cultural imperialism and exploitation.

  12. Economic and demographic effects on working women in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psaharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z

    1993-01-01

    This analysis of women's work conditions in Latin America includes a description of general trends in female labor force participation in 15 Latin American countries based on census data between 1950 and 1990. Also examined are pay differentials by gender and whether gender alone or individual characteristics of women workers accounted for the sex-wage gap. More extensive treatment is available in the author's other 1992 publications. Trends indicate that marriage and children were important factors determining whether women were in the labor force or not. The probability of being in the labor force was reduced by 50% for married women, and each child reduced the probability by 5%. When marriage and children were controlled for, age had a positive effect on probability of participation. Urban female heads of household had a positive effect on women's labor force participation. The higher a woman's educational qualification, the greater the probability of being in the work force. Earnings increased with increased educational level. An increase of 1 year of schooling for women contributed to an increase in female earnings of 13.1. Investment in education for women has a higher yield for women than for men. Policies that directly or indirectly improve women's employment opportunities, particularly when families are being formed, can have wide distributional effects. Also unresolved was an explanation for why female participation increased during periods of recession and why women are rewarded more for educational effort than men. The suggestion was that public sector employment, which included many women in the labor force, is distorting results.

  13. Study of the scientific production on leishmaniasis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilla-Gonzalez, Yuliana; Gomez-Suta, Daniela; Delgado-Osorio, Nathalia; Hurtado-Hurtado, Natalia; Baquero-Rodriguez, Juan D; Lopez-Isaza, Andres F; Lagos-Grisales, Guillermo J; Villegas, Soraya; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a highly relevant neglected tropical disease. It has important consequences in affected populations, including a high fatality rate in its visceral form. It is present in Latin America, then it is necessary to promote more research on it. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American scientific production in leishmaniasis was done. Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index. At SCI, 2857 articles were found (17.7% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (58.1%), followed by Colombia (9.9%) and Venezuela (5.6%); the region received 41186 citations, 54.2% of Brazil (H index=62), 12.1% Colombia (H index=30) and 4.5% of Venezuela (H index=25). At Scopus, there are 3681 (14.7% of the total), 53.2% Brazil, 6.8% Colombia and 6.0% Venezuela; 38.46% at Brazil were from Fundação Oswaldo Cruz; 30.6% of Colombia corresponded to Universidad de Antioquia; 31.34% at Venezuela were from Universidad Central de Venezuela. At Medline there are 4525 records (60.6% of Brazil). At SciELO there are 1068 records (67.5% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1740 records (56.0% Brazil). Scientific production of Brazil predominates in the region, with one single institution generating more articles than Colombia and Venezuela together. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is still relatively low, and the disease neglected when compared to other tropical conditions such as dengue and malaria.

  14. Latin America's present and future challenges in toxicology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, M.

    2005-01-01

    Industrialization that Latin America has experienced during the past 50 years, the increase of population and the growth of chemical-related industries has generated a variety of environmental problems that must be addressed. After assessing these profound changes, greater emphasis should be placed on the study of environmental health and toxicology. Latin American countries face many problems that are common to other developing nations. Therefore, there is a demand for safety assessment and regulatory control of chemicals that create a need for increasing numbers of toxicologists. To meet this demand, educational programs in toxicology have to be designed. This paper utilizes a consultation questionnaire that includes toxicology-network members, scientists and educational institutions where toxicology is taught. An analysis of the information collected is made, with an emphasis on what we currently lack and on future challenges for toxicology professionals. Although the response from the study institutions was 65% (13 countries out of 20), the paper aims to assess the present situation of toxicology. The convenience for a certification/recognition for toxicologists is also evaluated. Action needs to be taken to promote scientific development based on regional specific needs that require increasing at the number of toxicology programs, and promoting of cooperation between academics and researchers. Among the limitations we have are the variability of curricula, objectives and priorities. The increasing globalization of markets and regulations requires the harmonization of graduate/postgraduate programs to ensure that risk assessment and management are dealt with uniformly. Cooperation among our countries and international assistance should play a more prominent role in the promotion of regional integration and the more efficient utilization of international experience in defining educational policies

  15. The two main approaches of moral diplomacy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo A. Torrealba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the international political phenomena which in the twentieth century were defined by certain scientific communities and governments of the world as ldquomoral diplomacyrdquo. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods formallogical systemic. Results the concept of ldquomoral diplomacyrdquo is considered from different points of view. The sources of information analyzed in this work ascertain that there is a relationship between the concept of laquomoral diplomacyraquo and the two main approaches to its consideration. Despite the small amount of information on the subject we managed to gather a sufficient number of documents in which the term ldquomoral diplomacyrdquo is applied to both certain types of foreign policy and some diplomatic strategies. We attempted to provide actual historical facts and identify the main scientific conceptions on the matter as well as to form new ideas and concepts that would help to distinguish between different modern political scenarios. One of these concepts is ldquoContemporary moral diplomacyrdquo that the U.S. government used as a diversion in an attempt to strengthen and extend their domination over Latin America. Scientific novelty the information presented in the article helps to understand one of the types of modern diplomatic strategies used in the activities of the United States aimed to retain control in Latin American countries and the possible actions that countries can take to defend themselves from this strategy. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching for the consideration of various contemporary political scenarios. In particular the understanding of moral and immoral diplomatic strategies may be

  16. [Ruling of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights, the Case of Artavia Murillo et al (in vitro fertilization) v. Costa Rica; new hopes for the reproductive freedom in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Modern reproductive technology has not been completely accepted and, especially in-vitro fertilization, IVF has generated serious social, political and legal controversies in Latin America. We may distinguish two trends that show us the oppositions; on one hand, the primacy of the embryo's live and its protection during artificial reproductive process and on the other, the primacy of liberal access to assisted reproduction techniques. The debate came to the fore, after a ruling by the Costa Rica's Constitutional Chamber who banned de IVF in 2000. The damaged couples after fulfilling the process toward the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, present a petition to the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. The Court's sentence and its arguments will be the subject of these comments as well that will allow to considered that both of them should be considered as a very important step towards the construction of a secular liberal vision over the assisted reproduction in Latin America.

  17. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1988-12-01

    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  18. Argentina, regional training center on radiation protection for Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrado, Carlos A.; Menossi, Carlos A.

    2008-01-01

    Argentina has an extensive background in education and training on Radiation Protection. Since the beginning of the nuclear activity in the country, prominence was given to the aspects related to radiation protection and training of the personnel involved in the use of ionizing radiation. These educative activities have been delivered for more than 50 years, having accumulated an important experience in the field. The Nuclear Regulatory Authority has the statutory obligation to address, among other matters, the control of the aspects of nuclear safety and radiation protection on the whole country, to protect the people of the harmful effects of ionizing radiation resulting from the nuclear activities. This includes the responsibility to develop and enforce the regulations, standards and other requirements, particularly, establishing the requests and promoting activities regarding education and training on radiation protection. Argentina, currently through the Nuclear Regulatory Authority, has performed postgraduate courses on radiation protection and nuclear safety at inter regional and regional level for 28 years without interruption. This important experience has been valued and exploited to form a Regional Center on Education and Training for Latin America and the Caribbean, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The Regional Center that in fact has been running in Argentina, trained 404 foreign participants and 327 local participants since 1980, totalizing 731 graduates from our annual post graduate courses. Our commitment is that all the effort made in education and training on radiation protection and nuclear safety contributes to a better use of the benefits of nuclear development. Since 2001 the International Atomic Energy Agency raised the need to develop plans and establish agreements to ensure a long-term sustainability of the education and training programs, allowing a better use of the resources in this area. In order to achieve this goal

  19. Burden of disease from atrial fibrillation in adults from seven countries in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cubillos L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Luz Cubillos,1 Alexandra Haddad,2 Andreas Kuznik,3 Joaquin Mould-Quevedo41Medical Affairs, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA; 2Gerente Médico Portafolio Cardiovascular, Dirección Médica, Pfizer Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 3Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA; 4Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Latin America and Primary Care, Pfizer Inc., New York, NY, USA The affiliations given here are those from at the time the research was done.Background: While some international studies have published epidemiologic overviews of atrial fibrillation (AF for the Latin America region, detailed data at the national level are lacking. The aim of this study was to estimate the burden of disease and morbidity associated with AF in adults over 40 years of age in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru, and Venezuela.Methods: National healthcare system databases for each country in the analysis were used to identify cases of AF during 2010 based on ICD-10 codes. Patient comorbidities and treatment patterns in each country were assessed based on available data and extrapolation from relevant published information where local data were incomplete or unavailable. The prevalence of AF in each country was estimated using country-specific, national census data, and assumptions based on a review of the available literature.Results: Patients in outpatient or hospital care represented over half of the estimated total cases of AF, of whom around 60% were treated as outpatients. Across the seven countries analyzed, 74.5% of AF cases were adults ≥60 years old. However, with increasing age, the proportion of individuals with AF receiving treatment within the national healthcare systems decreased overall across all seven countries. The most commonly reported comorbidities associated with AF included arterial hypertension (51%–57%, heart failure (14.5%–30%, diabetes (12%–36.5%, and stroke (3%–12.7%.Conclusion

  20. Natural gas integration in Latin America: end of a dream?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho dos Santos, E.; Oxilia Davalos, V.E.; Tadeu Werneck Faga, M.

    2007-01-01

    Throughout the 1990's to year 2000, energy integration, and particularly natural gas integration, was seen as a major goal in the southern cone of South America. The regional perspective for energy was related to an even more challenging objective - Latin American economic integration, which was quickly moving forward by the constitution of Mercosur, the free trade zone built by Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, and also having Bolivia and Chile as special partners. Mercosur was getting stronger and becoming a successful political project. Trade conflicts existed, but they were considered normal and nobody would disagree about the viability of Mercosur. By the beginning of the 21. century, the economic integration process in South America was already advancing timidly as compared to the impetus from the beginning of 1990's. Mercosur started facing complex and almost insurmountable challenges after the numerous global financial crises (from 1998 to 2003) had affected the economic balances in the region. Energy and gas integration in South America has equally lost perspective as fast as the importance of economic integration has declined. The economic crises in the region and poor energy policies have discourage energy companies to invest. The paper presents this recent history of rise and fall in the concept of economic and energy integration in the southern cone of South America. Despite the abundance of energy resources, and particularly the plethora of recently discovered natural gas, the region has been experiencing systematic and important energy shortages, which may threaten its economic recovery. A stronger energy integration policy would help all the partner countries to reduce energy supply risks. Yet, energy (and gas) integration in the southern cone is still a complex long-term political project, which must involve all countries, but whose future perspective is unclear. It seems almost impossible to keep pushing forward this project without

  1. Natural gas integration in latin america: forward or backwards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho Dos Santos, E.; Oxilia Davalos, V.E.; Tadeu Werneck Faga, M.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout the 1990's to Year 2000, energy integration, and particularly natural gas integration, was seen as a major goal in the Southern Cone of South America, The regional perspective for energy was related to an even more challenging objective - Latin American economic integration, which was quickly moving forward by the constitution of MERCOSUR, the free trade zone built by Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay, and also having Bolivia and Chile as special partners. MERCOSUR was getting stronger and becoming a successful political project. Trade conflicts existed, but they were considered normal and nobody would disagree about the viability of MERCOSUR. By the beginning of the 21. Century, the economic integration process in South America was already advancing timidly as compared to the impetus from the beginning of 1990's. MERCOSUR started facing complex and almost insurmountable challenges after the numerous global financial crises (from 1998 to 2003) which had affected the economic balances in the region. Energy and gas integration in South America has equally lost perspective as fast as the importance of economic integration has declined. The economic crises in the region and poor energy policies have discouraged energy companies to invest. The paper presents this recent history of rising and falling in the concept of economic and energy integration in the Southern Cone of South America. Despite the abundance of energy resources, and particularly the plethora of recently discovered natural gas, the region has been experiencing systematic and important energy shortages, which may threaten its economic recovery. A stronger energy integration policy would help all the partner countries to reduce energy supply risks. Yet, energy (and gas) integration in the Southern Cone is still a complex long-term political project, which must involve all countries, but whose future perspective is unclear. It seems almost impossible to keep pushing forward this project

  2. Children?s Health in Latin America: The Influence of Environmental Exposures

    OpenAIRE

    Laborde, Amalia; Tomasina, Fernando; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Brun?, Marie-Noel; Buka, Irena; Comba, Pietro; Corra, Lilian; Cori, Liliana; Duffert, Christin Maria; Harari, Raul; Iavarone, Ivano; McDiarmid, Melissa A.; Gray, Kimberly A.; Sly, Peter D.; Soares, Agnes

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases are increasing among children in Latin America. Objective and Methods To examine environmental risk factors for chronic disease in Latin American children and to develop a strategic initiative for control of these exposures, the World Health Organization (WHO) including the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the Collegium Ramazzini, and Latin American scientists reviewed regional and relevant global data. Results Industrial development and urbanization are pr...

  3. Teams explore water supplies in Latin America: Interest raised in isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonfiantini, R.

    1984-01-01

    Latin American countries are particularly interested in applying isotope techniques in hydrology and other fields of earth sciences. Ten research contracts already have been awarded under the IAEA's Co-ordinated Research Programme on the Application of Isotope Techniques in Hydrology in the Latin American Region. In July 1984, IAEA and UNESCO sponsored a regional seminar for Latin America on the use of isotope techniques in water resources management in Buenos Aires

  4. Regulating human genetic research in Latin America: a race to the top or a race together?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Isasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Balancing the therapeutic potential of genetic science with the adoption of policies that reflect social values has proven to be a formidable task for Latin American countries. This essay presents some reflections on human genetics research policy in Latin America and explores a path forward for policy development.

  5. Enhancing stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean small-scale fisheries : challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasalla, M.A.; de Castro, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thematic series, entitled “Enhancing Stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean Small-Scale Fisheries”, emerged as part of a joint effort to bridge Latin-American scholars interested in networking on small-scale fisheries in the region. Built on results presented at two meetings (‘Too Big to

  6. A Note on the Development of Social Sciences in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yocelevsky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Social Sciences in Latin America since the end of the Secondis examined through a periodization establishing three paradigms considered dominantperiod; these are defined within the context of their ideological relevance and theirover the policies applied in the Latin American countries during this period.

  7. Amendments to the treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America (Tlatelolco Treaty)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The document reproduces the amendments to the Tlatelolco Treaty approved on 26 August 1992 by the Special Session of the General Conference of the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean

  8. Geothermal energy in the new competitive electric sector of Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos, Maria Elena; Coviello, Manlio

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to analyze the problem of the allocation of risks in private or mixed geothermal projects, within the framework of the new competitive electric sector being structured in Latin America. (The author)

  9. U. S. National Security Implications of Chinese Involvement in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellis, R. E

    2005-01-01

    In this monograph, the author argues that China's pursuit of longterm strategic objectives is leading the country to increase its presence in Latin America, with serious national security implications...

  10. Contribution the ARCAL/IAEA project to the development the radiological protection in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina Gironzini, Eduardo

    1998-01-01

    In this work is shown the radiological protection development in the Latin America region and the direct incidence that has had on the same one the technical cooperation impelled by the IAEA with ARCAL projects ARCAL

  11. Globalizing the history of disease, medicine, and public health in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Mariola

    2013-12-01

    The history of Latin America, the history of disease, medicine, and public health, and global history are deeply intertwined, but the intersection of these three fields has not yet attracted sustained attention from historians. Recent developments in the historiography of disease, medicine, and public health in Latin America suggest, however, that a distinctive, global approach to the topic is beginning to emerge. This essay identifies the distinguishing characteristic of this approach as an attentiveness to transfers of contagions, cures, and medical knowledge from Latin America to the rest of the world and then summarizes a few episodes that demonstrate its promise. While national as well as colonial and neocolonial histories of Latin America have made important contributions to our understanding, works taking the global approach have the potential to contribute more directly to the decentering of the global history of disease, medicine, and public health.

  12. About Nation, Race, and Ethnicity in Latin America in the 19th and 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Jalil Paier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliographic outline of the following book:APPELBAUM, Nancy P., Anne S. Macpherson and Karin A. Rosemblatt (Eds. (2003. Race and Nation in Modern Latin America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 329 pp.

  13. Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ribando, Clare M

    2007-01-01

    .... In recent years, people of African descent in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America - also known as "Afro-Latinos" have been pushing for increased rights and representation...

  14. Afro-Latinos in Latin America and Considerations for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seelke, Clare R

    2008-01-01

    .... In recent years, people of African descent in the Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking nations of Latin America - also known as "Afro-Latinos" - have been pushing for increased rights and representation...

  15. Natural rubber latex: past, present and future in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugao, A.B.; Miranda, A.; Mindrisz, A.C.; Andrade e Silva, L.G. de

    1996-01-01

    The origin of the Hevea braziliensis tree was the Amazonian region in South America, particularly the Brazilian jungle. The rubber expansion at the end of 9th century brought prosperity and determined the borders of Amazonian countries. In spite of that, the Brazilian government has failed in establishing a successful policy for improving the NR production in the jungle. However, rubber plantations were successfully introduced recently near marginal areas of the humid forest in the Amazon due to the absence of the fungus Microcyclos ulei. Both, extraction of wild rubber and plantation have a key role in the maintenance of the forest health. The market for dipping products is small but is growing very fast and is expected to follow this pattern as the sanitary conditions are improved by the health authority. The history of the Brazilian NR products industry is contemporary and is based on the policy of market protection and on the lack of investments due to extremely high interest rates. As a result, the industry was not competitive. It was concluded that, in order to cope with the future challenge, the industry is required to invest in very modern technologies to produce first class goods with international acceptance. Latin America would follow the world trend for nitrosamine and protein free products. The radiation vulcanization of natural rubber latex could prove itself as a profitable solution and not only a quality solution. It was also concluded that both wild rubber and rubber plantations in Brazil have their future coupled with the future of a regional dipping industry. Moreover, the buildup of the dipping industry will be beneficial to the protection of the humid forest and the recovery of degraded areas

  16. Burden of allergic rhinitis: allergies in America, Latin America, and Asia-Pacific adult surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Eli O; Blaiss, Michael S; Naclerio, Robert M; Stoloff, Stuart W; Derebery, M Jennifer; Nelson, Harold S; Boyle, John M; Wingertzahn, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR; also nasal allergies or "hay fever") is a chronic upper airway inflammatory disease that affects ∼60 million adults and children in the United States. The duration and severity of AR symptoms contribute to a substantial burden on patients' quality of life (QoL), sleep, work productivity, and activity. This study was designed to examine symptoms, QoL, productivity, comorbidities, disease management, and pharmacologic treatment of AR in United States and ex-U.S. sufferers. Allergies in America was a comprehensive telephone-based survey of 2500 adults with AR. These data are compared and contrasted with findings from the Pediatric Allergies in America, Allergies in Latin America, and Allergies in Asia-Pacific telephone surveys. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed AR was 14% in U.S. adults, 7% in Latin America adults, and 9% in Asia-Pacific adults. Nasal congestion is the most common and bothersome symptom for adults. Approximately two-thirds of adults rely on medication to relieve intolerable AR symptoms. Incomplete relief, slow onset, <24-hour relief, and reduced efficacy with sustained use were commonly reported with AR medications, including intranasal corticosteroids. One in seven U.S. adults reported achieving little to no relief with AR medications. Bothersome adverse effects of AR medications included drowsiness, a drying feeling, medication dripping down the throat, and bad taste. Perception of inadequate efficacy was the leading cause of medication discontinuation or change and contributed to treatment dissatisfaction. These findings support the assertion that AR burden has been substantially underestimated and identify several important challenges to successful management of AR.

  17. Leptospirosis on captive wild animals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Anahi S; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2017-12-01

    Leptospirosis is a worldwide bacterial infection, being more prevalent in tropical regions. Human beings, domestic animals and wildlife species are susceptible to a wide variety of serovars. Zoos have a great importance in keeping endangered species, increasing populations and accumulating knowledge on these species. Although some studies describe the occurrence of leptospirosis in captivity animals, a systematic review regarding the infection in these animals in tropical areas has never been conducted. Thus, the objective of this study was to systematically gather and analyze data regarding leptospirosis among captive wild animals in Latin America. A total of 141 species were studied, 93 genus, 44 families and 15 orders from three classes. Median seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 52% and predominant serogroups were Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae for mammalian, and Sejroe for reptiles. One important outcome is that, when kept on zoos, wildlife is more frequently infected by incidental strains instead of adapted strains. Preventive measures should consider periodic serosurvey of all animal species in captivity, as well as the use of commercial vaccines to reduce leptospiral infection and its hazards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga-Fajuri, Alejandra

    2014-03-01

    The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic) abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  19. Forest Landscape Restoration in the Drylands of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian C. Newton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR involves the ecological restoration of degraded forest landscapes, with the aim of benefiting both biodiversity and human well-being. We first identify four fundamental principles of FLR, based on previous definitions. We then critically evaluate the application of these principles in practice, based on the experience gained during an international, collaborative research project conducted in six dry forest landscapes of Latin America. Research highlighted the potential for FLR; tree species of high socioeconomic value were identified in all study areas, and strong dependence of local communities on forest resources was widely encountered, particularly for fuelwood. We demonstrated that FLR can be achieved through both passive and active restoration approaches, and can be cost-effective if the increased provision of ecosystem services is taken into account. These results therefore highlight the potential for FLR, and the positive contribution that it could make to sustainable development. However, we also encountered a number of challenges to FLR implementation, including the difficulty of achieving strong engagement in FLR activities among local stakeholders, lack of capacity for community-led initiatives, and the lack of an appropriate institutional and regulatory environment to support restoration activities. Successful implementation of FLR will require new collaborative alliances among stakeholders, empowerment and capacity building of local communities to enable them to fully engage with restoration activities, and an enabling public policy context to enable local people to be active participants in the decision making process.

  20. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency's initiatives to tackle this problem is the Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project, a worldwide project relying on the regional co-operation between countries. A team from the Brazilian nuclear research institute Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) was chosen as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since December 1996 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala, Ecuador and Paraguay. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,897 mg of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries

  1. Spent sealed radium sources conditioning in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta

    1999-01-01

    The management of spent sealed sources is considered by the IAEA one of the greatest challenges faced by nuclear authorities today, especially in developing countries. One of the Agency's initiatives to tackle this problem is the 'Spent Radium Sources Conditioning Project', a worldwide project relying on the regional cooperation between countries. A CDTN team was chooses as the expert team to carry out the operations in Latin America; since Dec 96 radium sources have been safely conditioned in Uruguay, Nicaragua, Guatemala and Ecuador. A Quality Assurance Program was established, encompassing the qualification of the capsule welding process, written operational procedures referring to all major steps of the operation, calibration of monitors and information retrievability. A 200L carbon steel drum-based packaging concept was used to condition the sources, its cavity being designed to receive the lead shield device containing stainless steel capsules with the radium sources. As a result of these operations, a total amount of 2,629 mg (approx. 98 GBq) of needles, tubes, medical applicators, standard sources for calibration, lightning rods, secondary wastes (generated during the operations) and contaminated objects were stored in proper conditions and are now under control, of the nuclear authorities of the visited countries. (author)

  2. [Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Peru and Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávalos Moscol, Milagros

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis C infection is a global burden disease. Its relationship to chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma has been demonstrated, and at the current moment in USA and Europe is one of the major causes for liver transplantation. In Latin America, seroprevalence for HCV is between 1-2%. Risk groups are well-known: persons that have received blood products, drug addicts, health-workers, sexual workers, convicts, those with tattoo or piercing, as well as newborns from women positive for HCV. Genotype 1 is the more prevalent (> 80%) in Latinamerica, although genotypes 2, 3 and 4 have been found. In Peru, prevalence is low, around 1%, being found more frequently in the jungle region. Risk groups demonstrated in Perú are persons that received transfusion, patients in hemodyalisis, health-workers (in special those that work with blood products), and drugaddicts especially those with cocaine aspiration. Genotype 1 is the more prevalent, although few studies have been done. It is urgent to do more epidemiological studies related to this infection to know the real situation of this disease and its consequences in order to establish better health strategies.

  3. Human rights and the right to abortion in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Zúñiga-Fajuri

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to question the fact that in some countries in Latin America (Chile, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Honduras and the Dominican Republic abortion is still forbidden in all situations. Even after all the debate on this thorny issue, the theory of human rights is not often used in the defense of abortion. This is clearly related to the pervasive, albeit unspoken belief that, due to their condition, pregnant women inherently lose their full human rights and should surrender and even give up their lives in favor of the unborn child. This article seeks to show that an adequate reading of the theory of human rights should include abortion rights through the first two trimesters of pregnancy, based on the fact that basic liberties can only be limited for the sake of liberty itself. It also seeks to respond to those who maintain that the abortion issue cannot be resolved since the exact point in the development of the embryo that distinguishes legitimate from illegitimate abortion cannot be determined. There are strong moral and scientific arguments for an approach capable of reducing uncertainty and establishing the basis for criminal law reforms that focus on the moral importance of trimester laws.

  4. The politics of cyborgs in Mexico and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Elizabeth Ginway

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cyborg body in contemporary Mexican science fiction, contrasting it with its depiction in other countries of Latin America. Beginning in the 1990s, Mexican science fiction authors write stories about implants and neo-cyborgs, anticipating Alex Rivera’s portrait of “cybraceros” in his 2008 film Sleep Dealer by nearly a decade. The defiant cyborgs of Mexico are distinct from those of the Southern Cone, where they relate most often to torture and unresolved political issues from the period of re-democratization, and from those of Brazil, where they are related to issues of race and urbanization.  While in Mexico and Brazil the cyborg is often used as a critique of neoliberal policies and the privatization of public industries, the insistence on the embodiment of cyborgs in Mexico is often tied to labor and border issues, problematizing the idea of cyborg-mestizaje or hybridity.  Heriberto Yepez questions concepts of hybridity that diminish the inherent sense of difference and struggle through a discourse of conciliation. The Mexican cyborg figure that insists on the importance of its body time and again demonstrates its resistance to facile notions of political and cybernetic hybridity

  5. Regulation on trading of irradiated food in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastro, N.L. Del [IPEN-CNEN/ SP, Travessa R. No. 400, Cidade Universitaria 05508-900 SP, Caixa Postal 11049, Cep 05422-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The International Consultative Group on food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established in 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO, following the adoption by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated foods and the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of radiation Facilities for the treatment of food. Today, several countries from South America and the Caribbean have regular representatives in the ICGFI. Some of the countries also have regulations about food irradiation: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. After a meeting in Peru in April 1997, Latin American countries agreed to attempt a harmonization of national laws according to an approved regional model regulation on irradiated food. The model legislation is based on the principles of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and Recommended Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, as well as on the relevant recommendations of the ICGFI. The model regulation establishes the authority, objectives, scope, definitions, general requirements, facilities, control procedures, documentation inspection, labeling and also provides and advisory technological dose limit by classes of food. (Author)

  6. Global Warming and Food Insecurity in Rural Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T. R.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S.

    2012-12-01

    Food insecurity is one of the most important challenges facing humanity in the 21st century - a challenge that will be further exacerbated by the changing climate. The effects of human induced climate change will be most disproportionate and severe in the developing world, where a stable food supply, decreased purchasing power, and adequate nutrition are often already a daily struggle. This study will build on work done by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN), and will assess how vulnerability to household food insecurity will be affected by global warming in various rural parts of Latin America. Temperature data from downscaled Global Circulation Models (GCM) will be used in conjunction with the results of national household surveys to generate information on each rural farming household's probability of falling below a food poverty threshold in the near future. The results of the study will allow us to distinguish between households that are likely to experience chronic food insecurity and those that are likely to experience transitory food insecurity, permitting for improved targeting of policy responses.

  7. Regulation on trading of irradiated food in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. Del

    1997-01-01

    The International Consultative Group on food Irradiation (ICGFI) was established in 1984 under the aegis of FAO, IAEA and WHO, following the adoption by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated foods and the Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of radiation Facilities for the treatment of food. Today, several countries from South America and the Caribbean have regular representatives in the ICGFI. Some of the countries also have regulations about food irradiation: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. After a meeting in Peru in April 1997, Latin American countries agreed to attempt a harmonization of national laws according to an approved regional model regulation on irradiated food. The model legislation is based on the principles of the Codex General Standard for Irradiated Foods and Recommended Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Foods, as well as on the relevant recommendations of the ICGFI. The model regulation establishes the authority, objectives, scope, definitions, general requirements, facilities, control procedures, documentation inspection, labeling and also provides and advisory technological dose limit by classes of food. (Author)

  8. InSAR observations of active volcanoes in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Rivera, A. M.; Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.

    2012-12-01

    Over the last decade satellite-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has developed into a well-known technique to gauge the status of active volcanoes. The InSAR technique can detect the ascent of magma to shallow levels of the volcanic plumbing system because new arriving magma pressurizes the system. This is likely associated with the inflation of the volcanic edifice and the surroundings. Although the potential of InSAR to detect magma migration is well known, the principal limitation was that only for few volcanoes frequent observations were acquired. The ALOS-1 satellite of the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) acquired a global L-band data set of 15-20 acquisitions during 2006-2011. Here we use ALOS InSAR and Small Baseline (SB) time-series methods for a ground deformation survey of Latin America with emphasis on the northern Andes. We present time-dependent ground deformation data for the volcanoes in Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and interpret the observations in terms of the dynamics of the volcanic systems.

  9. Productivity, social expenditure and income distribution in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIO CIMOLI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper discusses the role of institutions and structural change in shaping income inequality. It is argued that while social expenditure and direct redistribution are crucial for improving income distribution, sustainable equality requires structural change. The relative importance of these variables in different countries is analyzed and a typology suggested. It is argued that the most equal countries in the world combine strong institutions in favor of redistribution and knowledge-intensive production structures that sustain growth and employment in the long run. Both institutions and the production structure in Latin America fail to foster equality and this explains its extremely high levels of inequality. The paper presents empirical evidence that supports this view, based on a sample of developed and developing countries for the period 1990-2010. Institutions for redistribution are captured through social expenditures as a percentage of GDP, while the role of structural change is captured by indicators of the technological intensity of production and the evolution of labor productivity. The technological intensity of the production structure is proxied through two indicators, the Economic Complexity Index and the ECLAC Index of Technological Intensity.

  10. Optimizing post-operative pain management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista Santos Garcia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Post-operative pain management is a significant problem in clinical practice in Latin America. Insufficient or inappropriate pain management is in large part due to insufficient knowledge, attitudes and education, and poor communications at various levels. In addition, the lack of awareness of the availability and importance of clear policies and guidelines for recording pain intensity, the use of specific analgesics and the proper approach to patient education have led to the consistent under-treatment of pain management in the region. However, these problems are not insurmountable and can be addressed at both the provider and patient level. Robust policies and guidelines can help insure continuity of care and reduce unnecessary variations in practice. The objective of this paper is to call attention to the problems associated with Acute Post-Operative Pain (APOP and to suggest recommendations for their solutions in Latin America. A group of experts on anesthesiology, surgery and pain developed recommendations that will lead to more efficient and effective pain management. It will be necessary to change the knowledge and behavior of health professionals and patients, and to obtain a commitment of policy makers. Success will depend on a positive attitude and the commitment of each party through the development of policies, programs and the promotion of a more efficient and effective system for the delivery of APOP services as recommended by the authors of this paper. The writing group believes that implementation of these recommendations should significantly enhance efficient and effective post-operative pain management in Latin America. Resumo: O controle da dor no período pós-operatório é um problema significativo na prática clínica na América Latina. O controle insuficiente ou inadequado da dor é devido, em grande parte, à insuficiência de conhecimento, atitudes e formação e à comunicação precária em vários níveis. Al

  11. Studies of isotopic hydrology in Latin America 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    Policies for the exploitation of groundwater as a complement to surface water resources are frequently based on short term planning and may not be sustainable over time. The objective of sustainable groundwater management is to use groundwater in conjunction with surface waters in such a way that a state of equilibrium is reached in terms of both quantity and quality of water. This type of management allows these underground resources to be preserved for future generations. Conventional and isotope techniques allow information to be obtained on the most important hydrogeological parameters such as identification and evaluation of recharge and discharge area and rates, the available volume of groundwater to be estimated, hydrological interconnections between aquifers and surface waters, direction and velocity of groundwater flows, etc., which allow mathematical flow models to be established and validated. Mathematical models are indispensable tools for sustainable water resource management. The objective of the IAEA technical cooperation project RLA/8/031 was to contribute to improve the hydrogeological understanding of the aquifers through the use of isotopic and conventional techniques, with the final aim of improving groundwater resource management in several countries in Latin America. The present paper briefly summarizes the technical results obtained during the four years of the regional project [es

  12. Economic and social development, energy and environment in Latin America and the West Indies - an ovierview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    After giving a short overview of the economic and social development of Latin America since 1980 the present article deals with the various problems relating to the energy supply of that region, namely economic growth, diversification, inefficiency, and environmental effects. If discusses the relationships that exist in Latin America between energy, environment, and the social situation and endeavours to outline possible approaches towards a socially and environmentally sustainable development. (UA) [de

  13. Civil-Military Relations in Latin America: The Hedgehog and the Fox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    puede lograr solamente por medio de la creación de instituciones que incorporan y personifican conocimientos y mecanismos de control tanto del poder...as their military counterparts. Based on the academic literature and the author’s experience in Latin America and other regions, this article suggests...know as much about matters of defense as their military counterparts. Based on the academic literature and the author?s experience in Latin America and

  14. WOMEN LEADERSHIP AND GLOBAL POWER: EVIDENCE FROM THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Arup K.Sen; Jessica E. Metzger

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines leadership theories along with the advancement of women within the United States as well as in Latin America. Data from an exploratory survey of 19 women executives in Latin America and 19 women executives in the United States suggest that globalization has transformed the way in which organizations perceive and carry out leadership today. Globalization has paved the way for a new type of leadership style that is more collaborative and less hierarchal, in which relationshi...

  15. A technology transfer strategy based on the dynamics of the generation of intellectual property in Latin-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Stuart Fuquen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Latin American countries have adopted different models of units or transfer offices associated with improved competitiveness; however, it is unclear whether they have been successful or if they have been designed while taking into account the context and particularities of the region. This article aims to summarize the concept of transfer offices and the context of the generation of knowledge through patents in Latin America, and identify strategies that have been suggested in the literature to set up and operate this type of offices, based on the Latin American context. Design/methodology/approach: Through a systemic literature review, academic articles indexed in the ISI Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases were analyzed to identify the literature related to the context of technology transfer and transfer offices. We cited and analyzed in depth a total of 40 articles. For a review of the Latin American context, 29 documents were reviewed and referenced. Previous documents were taken from specialized networks of the Scientific Information System REDALCYT and libraries of universities, such as the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM and the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, among others. Additionally, we added reports and publications by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (CEPAL, and REDEMPRENDIA. Statistical data provided by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO were used for the analysis of patent generation cases in Latin American countries. Subsequently, the literature of the systematic review was compared with studies by authors and Latin American entities, which give a regional context to this work. Finally, strategies were discussed and identified for the consolidation of transfer offices that impact the generation of knowledge in the region. Findings: The results of the literature review conducted revealed that several authors have proposed extensive mechanisms for transfer

  16. All-Inclusiveness versus Exclusion: Urban Project Development in Latin America and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christien Klaufus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper scrutinizes current processes of urban fragmentation, segregation, and exclusion that result from the increasing flows of capital in gated communities, walled-off condominiums, and similar exclusivist investment hubs in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. Gated community-like developments are growing and spreading into new areas. Although not all of the walled projects offer all-inclusiveness, they are unanimously based on the pre-selection of specific categories of residents. Moreover, all-inclusive urban developments are taking on new and more encompassing forms, such as ‘gated cities’. Hence, socio-spatial inclusion and exclusion in the urban built environment are continuously transforming under the influence of investment capital (i.e., new urban investment flows and speculation, urbanistic concepts (e.g., different interpretations of safety and crime, and human mobilities. This paper builds on a comparison of empirical cases from Latin America and Africa to develop a qualitative framework of segregation indicators. In Latin America, gated communities have a long history, but exclusionary developments are changing in form, as well as in implications. In Africa, research on gated communities has particularly focused on South Africa (where they have a longer history, but exclusionary developments are spreading rapidly across the continent, and will influence future real estate development and land markets. Based on such complementary experiences, this paper grapples with the question of how these new all-inclusive developments influence the possibilities of achieving inclusive and sustainable urban transitions, as advocated in Sustainable Development Goal 11 (SDG11 and the New Urban Agenda.

  17. Changing patterns of migration in Latin America: how can research develop intelligence for public health?

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    Baltica Cabieses

    Full Text Available Migration patterns in Latin America have changed significantly in recent decades, particularly since the onset of global recession in 2007. These recent economic changes have highlighted and exacerbated the weakness of evidence from Latin America regarding migration-a crucial determinant of health. Migration patterns are constantly evolving in Latin America, but research on migration has not developed at the same speed. This article focuses on the need for better understanding of the living conditions and health of migrant populations in Latin America within the context of the recent global recession. The authors explain how new data on migrant well-being could be obtained through improved evidence from censuses and ongoing research surveys to 1 better inform policy-makers about the needs of migrant populations in Latin America and 2 help determine better ways of reaching undocumented immigrants. Longitudinal studies on immigrants in Latin America are essential for generating a better representation of migrant living conditions and health needs during the initial stages of immigration and over time. To help meet this need, the authors support the promotion of sustainable sources of data and evidence on the complex relationship between migration and health.

  18. Prevention of childhood obesity and food policies in Latin America: from research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Lutter, C K; Rabadan-Diehl, C; Rubinstein, A; Calvillo, A; Corvalán, C; Batis, C; Jacoby, E; Vorkoper, S; Kline, L; Ewart-Pierce, E; Rivera, J A

    2017-07-01

    Addressing childhood obesity in Latin America requires a package of multisectoral, evidence-based policies that enable environments conducive to healthy lifestyles. Identify and examine key elements to translating research into effective obesity policies in Latin America. We examined obesity prevention policies through case studies developed with an expert in the specific policy. Policies were selected based on their level of implementation, visibility and potential impact to reduce childhood obesity. They include: (i) excise taxes on sugar sweetened beverages and energy-dense foods; (ii) front-of-package food label legislation; (iii) trans fatty acids removal from processed foods; and (iv) Ciclovías recreativas or 'open streets'. Case studies were coded to identify components that explained successful implementation and sustainability using the Complex Adaptive Health Systems framework. The analysis identified key elements for effective and sustainable policy, including evidence justifying policy; evidence-based advocacy by civil society; political will; and legislation and skillful negotiations across government, academia, the private sector and civil society. Scientific evidence and evaluation played an important role in achieving tipping points for policies' launch and sustain effective implementation. Well-coordinated, intersectoral partnerships are needed to successfully implement evidence-based anti-obesity policies. Prospective policy research may be useful for advancing knowledge translation. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of World Obesity.

  19. [Changes in the patterns of food consumption in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagle, M A

    1988-09-01

    Food consumption patterns have suffered important although not generalized changes in recent years. A series of factors favor these changes, such as variations in family income, rural-urban migration, increase of tertiary activities related to foods, and exposure to commercial propaganda. All of these factors, when compared among them, do not have the same impact or validity. Thus, while the first two induce changes in the food pattern, the last two guide the consumer to certain food products. Modernization of the food pattern in Latin America and the Caribbean has been inspired by the USA food pattern of the previous decade, which from the nutritional and economic points of view, does not prove to be desirable. The average USA diet is rich in both saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fats, as well as in refined sugar and all types of additives. It is poor in carbohydrates, particular in those of the complex type; most of its protein is of animal origin. It may also be rich in salt and poor in fiber, as it is made up by well-diversified industrialized foods in their presentation, manufactured and marketed by a highly industrialized production-distribution capitalized structure. The adopted model is not in correspondence with out countries' natural resources; it produces a displacement of the consumption patterns based on autochthonous and/or traditional components, and induces an increase in food imports. Since Latin American countries are of poor economic resources, and the model renders expensive products, these are absorbed by the socioeconomic group able to pay for them and/or--intermittently--as a high-cost product by calorie delivered, by the poor groups who are most in need, a situation which would imply serious damage on the quality and quantity of their diet. Changes in food habits and in food consumption patterns are related to a certain socio-demographic process which cannot be stopped. Consequently, this process should be carefully analyzed and

  20. National States, Environmental Conflicts and Mining in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Scotto

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The work asks about possible factors that may explain the vertiginous increase, in the last decade, of social conflicts around mining in all Latin American countries that have mining activities. Is it possible to talk about "regional trends" in terms of blooming and development of these conflicts along the continent? If this is the case, which would be the trends? I aim to show that, beyond the consequences of great increase of external investments in mining sector, it is fundamental to look at the role of national states and analyze some of the main changes which occurred in national legislation dedicated to "rule" the property, access and exploitation of mineral resources.

  1. Political and cultural tensions in the sprouting of the modern press in Latin America. The case of the newspaper La Nación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ernesto Espeche

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This work locates in the area of investigation of communication and history. It analyzes the present historical conditions between two moments in the history of the Latin American media in the century XIX: the press developed with the processes of liberating, it was characterized to make explicit its political roll in the discussion of ideas and it bids up it by the power; and the commercial press, that to the heat of the technical advances it was professionalized and it found in the idea of informative neutrality an effective tool of camouflage for the ideological dispute. It was at moment signed by the discussion between writers and reporters, the tensions between fiction and reality and the political confrontation about the roll of the journalists. El trabajo se sitúa en el área de investigación de comunicación e historia. Analiza las condiciones históricas presentes entre dos momentos en la historia del periodismo latinoamericano del siglo XIX: la prensa desarrollada con los procesos independentistas, que se caracterizó por la explicitación de su rol político en el debate de ideas y la puja por el poder; y la prensa comercial, que al calor de los avances técnicos se profesionalizó y encontró en la idea de neutralidad informativa una eficaz herramienta de enmascaramiento para la disputa ideológica. Fue en momento signado por el debate entre escritores y reporteros, las tensiones entre ficción y realidad y la confrontación política acerca del rol de los periodistas

  2. Celebrating 25 years of technical cooperation for promotion of nuclear science, technology in Latin America, Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA celebrates the 25th Anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy as well as its applications for development during the 53rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, taking place this week. The Board of Country Representatives of ARCAL (BAR) is celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) from 14-18 September, during the 53rd General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna, Austria. Through sustainable horizontal technical and economic cooperation over the past 25 years, the IAEA Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean have expressed their solidarity and commitment to the establishment and improvement of technical capabilities in nuclear science and technology within the region, with the goal of promoting the use of diverse nuclear techniques and their applications for peaceful use in the region. Thanks to the ARCAL agreement, a mechanism for regular meetings and discussions has been established between professionals working in the nuclear field in Latin America and the Caribbean. ARCAL was established in 1984, thanks to the initiative of the Andean Group countries. At the moment, ARCAL has 19 Member States: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The main thematic areas covered by the technical cooperation projects sponsored by the IAEA through the ARCAL agreement are human health, agriculture and food security, physics and chemistry sciences, engineering and technology, hydrology, industrial applications, environment and nuclear security. During its 25 years, the ARCAL regional agreement has

  3. Celebrating 25 years of technical cooperation for promotion of nuclear science, technology in Latin America, Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The IAEA celebrates the 25th Anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) for the peaceful use of nuclear energy as well as its applications for development during the 53rd General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency, taking place this week. The Board of Country Representatives of ARCAL (BAR) is celebrating the 25th anniversary of the Regional Agreement of Technical Cooperation for the Promotion of Nuclear Science and Technology in Latin America and the Caribbean (ARCAL) from 14-18 September, during the 53rd General Conference of the IAEA in Vienna, Austria. Through sustainable horizontal technical and economic cooperation over the past 25 years, the IAEA Member States of Latin America and the Caribbean have expressed their solidarity and commitment to the establishment and improvement of technical capabilities in nuclear science and technology within the region, with the goal of promoting the use of diverse nuclear techniques and their applications for peaceful use in the region. Thanks to the ARCAL agreement, a mechanism for regular meetings and discussions has been established between professionals working in the nuclear field in Latin America and the Caribbean. ARCAL was established in 1984, thanks to the initiative of the Andean Group countries. At the moment, ARCAL has 19 Member States: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Dominican Republic, Uruguay and Venezuela. The main thematic areas covered by the technical cooperation projects sponsored by the IAEA through the ARCAL agreement are human health, agriculture and food security, physics and chemistry sciences, engineering and technology, hydrology, industrial applications, environment and nuclear security. During its 25 years, the ARCAL regional agreement has

  4. From the Age of Revolution to the Empire of identity: Interpreting Modernity in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Gallucci

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of modernity has held a central place in Latin America's history and, for that reason, it has been the object of numerous reflections from a wide variety of disciplines and theoretical perspectives. However, most of these reflections have maintained a canonical definition of modernity, which conceives it as a linear and accumulative rationalization process. This vision has had important implications for Latin American societies. Thus, a critical revision of the very idea of modernity and the ways in which it has been perceived in Latin America could result in new keys for interpreting the historical trajectories of our societies.

  5. Mao's steps in Monroe's backyard: towards a United States-China hegemonic struggle in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose León-Manríquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to what could be expected given the United States' historical hegemony of Latin America, growing Chinese influence in this region has not led to a dispute between China and the US. Despite activism of hard-line groups in the United States, both parties have faced the issue with noticeable pragmatism. This attitude could be explained by three variables: the US political negligence towards Latin America in the Post-Cold War, the focus of Sino-Latin American relations on economic rather than geopolitical or ideological affairs, and the scanty relevance of the region in the top priorities of overall Washington-Beijing relations.

  6. Latin America in the World Economy and Trade at the Beginning of the XXI st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R Massarova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of Latin America in the world economy during the pre- and post-crisis period. It analyses the dynamics of the indicators that define social and economic capacity of the region and the impact of the world financial crisis in different types of the region's countries. The article examines in details structural and regional shifts in the foreign trade of Latin America. The analysis revealed the major problems of the region's foreign trade (branch and regional structure and allowed to set out the ways of their decisions through the diversification of Latin American export and the intensification of intra-regional trade.

  7. Victims of femicide in Latin America: Legal and criminal justice responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Janice

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the progress that women have made in the fight against gender-based violence, it is still prevalent in various countries in the world. For many women in Latin American countries femicide is a constant reality. This paper critically analyzes femicide in Latin American countries and the legal and criminal responses to this crime. The paper defines femicide and discusses the nature and extent of femicide in Latin America. The analysis of this phenomenon in Latin American countries indicates that although some of these countries have made important strides in addressing the problem, they still face challenges in adequately preventing this crime.

  8. RAND-like appropriateness methodology consensus for primary open-angle glaucoma in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, S Fabian; Singh, Kuldev; Susanna, Remo; Wilson, M Roy; Lee, Brian L; Maul, Eugenio

    2012-09-01

    To report the results of a Latin American consensus panel regarding the diagnosis and management of primary open-angle glaucoma and to compare these results with those from a similar panel in the United States. A RAND-like (Research and Development) appropriateness methodology was used to assess glaucoma practice in Latin America. The 148 polling statements created for the RAND- like analysis in the United States and 10 additional statements specific to glaucoma care in Latin America were presented to a panel of Latin American glaucoma experts. Panelists were polled in private using the RAND- like methodology before and after the panel meeting. Consensus agreement or disagreement among Latin American experts was reached for 51.3% of statements before the meeting and increased to 66.5% in the private, anonymous meeting after polling (79.0% agreement, 21.0% disagreement). Although there was a high degree of concordance (111 of 148 statements; 75%) between the results of this Latin American panel and the United States panel, there were some notable exceptions relating to diagnostic and therapeutic decision making. This RAND-like consensus methodology provides a perspective of how Latin American glaucoma practitioners view many aspects of glaucoma and compares these results with those obtained using a similar methodology from practitioners in the United States. These findings may be helpful to ophthalmologists providing glaucoma care in Latin America and in other regions of the world. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Is International Relations still an American social science discipline in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Duarte Villa

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last 40 years, investigations have shown the discipline of International Relations to reproduce the American influence on its methods, paradigms, and institutional dynamics. This article explores the case for the Latin American community, based on the survey data from the Teaching, Research, and International Politics project (TRIP 2014 developed by the Institute for the Theory and Practice of International Relations of the College of William and Mary, Virginia (USA. TRIP evaluated International Relations communities in 32 countries around the world. The article aims to answer two main questions: (i is American influence still dominant over epistemological, methodological, paradigmatic, and institutional representative terms in Latin American International Relations communities, as has been considered in the past? (ii Is there in the region any contestation to this supposed influence? Primarily, the present article shows an affirmative answer for the first issue. Therefore, and most importantly, the data analysis shows upcoming local pressures rooted in American influence, especially on its epistemic and paradigmatic terms. The data strengthens the miscegenation tendency on its epistemological and paradigmatic aspects, which underlines a lack of consensus over the structure of American dominance over the discipline of International Relations in Latin America, especially if one observes the most numerous and structured group in the region: the Brazilian International Relations community.

  10. [Intellectual exchange between Germany and Latin America: an interview with Stefan Rinke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Stefan; da Silva, André Felipe Cândido; Junghans, Miriam; Cavalcanti, Juliana Manzoni; de Muñoz, Pedro Felipe Neves

    2014-01-01

    Current and former students of the Casa de Oswaldo Cruz/Fiocruz interviewed German historian Stefan Rinke, of the Freie Universität Berlin, who specializes in examining the historical development of Latin America as it fits into the international context. Rinke's work uses dimensions such as economic and diplomatic relations, migratory flows, and ethnic conflict as tools in his analyses of the networks of interdependence that have tied Latin America to Europe and the USA. His lens goes beyond the Latin American continent to approach globalization as a historical process, with national and regional contexts placed within a general framework. In this interview, Rinke talks about his academic career, global and transnational history, and joint projects between Germany and Latin America.

  11. Secularities, Diversities and Pluralities: Understanding the Challenges of Religious Diversity in Latin America

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    Edgar Zavala-Pelayo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is experiencing today the greatest religious diversity in its entire history. However, it must also be noted that a large number of the growing religious minorities may be classified into types of Christianity with conservative overtones. In this paper we will suggest that the literature streams on multiple secularities in contemporary (Western societies and religious diversity in Latin America do offer insightful perspectives yet fail to adequately convey the challenges raised by the religious across contemporary Latin America. Addressing Latin America’s historical background, we will distinguish conceptually and empirically among different degrees of secularities, diversities and pluralities and will construct with these distinctions a descriptive-normative model that can guide future analyses of secular and religious phenomena in Latin America. It is only through a comprehensive understanding of diversities, pluralities and secularities that the debates on those human rights crucial for social inclusion—from sexual and reproductive rights to gender and religious equality—can be fruitfully conducted in and beyond Latin America.

  12. A call to arms: Time to do cognitive science in Latin America

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    Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous theoretical reviews about the development of Psychology in Latin America suggest that Latin American psychology has a promising future. This paper empirically checks whether that status remains justified. In so doing, the frequency of programs/research domains in three salient psychological areas is assessed in Latin America and in two other regions of the world. A chi-square statistic is used to analyse the collected data. Programs/research domains and regions of the world are the independent variables and frequency of programs/research domains per world region is the dependent variable. Results suggest that whereas in Latin America the work onSocial/Organizational Psychology is moving within expected parameters, there is a rather strong focus on Clinical/Psychoanalytical Psychology. Results also show that Experimental/Cognitive Psychology is much underestimated. In Asia, however, the focus on all areas of psychology seems to be distributed within expected parameters, whereas Europe outperforms regarding Experimental/Cognitive Psychology research. Potentialreasons that contribute to Latin America's situation are discussed and specific solutions are proposed. It is concluded that the scope of Experimental/Cognitive Psychology in Latin America should be broadened into a Cognitive Science research program.

  13. Nuclear energy in Latin America: needs and possibilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi, M B.A.

    1979-02-01

    When all forms of primary energy are taken into account, the current energetic situation of Latin America is characterized by a consumption per capita of about 50% of the world average. Assuming that the population will level off at around 1400 million in about a century with a consumption per capita similar to the present one in Western Europe, the total constant asymptotic energy requirement will be 53,000 TWht/year, or about 80% of the current total of the world. This is a conservative assumption, but even so there are only two known sources capable of covering this need, nuclear energy in its advanced forms (fission with breeding and, eventually, fusion) and direct solar energy. The first of these is examined here in that context. Several of the countries of the subcontinent (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Chile, Mexico, and Venezuela) have working nuclear centers with at least one small research reactor and Peru has one in installation. Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico have reached the stage in which nuclear power stations are being installed and future ones programmed, and the first of these countries has already one in operation since 1974. Four other countries (Bolivia, Ecuador, Jamaica, and Uruguay) have announced the decision to install integrated nuclear research centers and are at present at different stages of the implementation process. Cuba has a subcritical research facility and has signed an agreement with the USSR to install nuclear stations. In most of the rest, nuclear activities are limited to regular or sporadic utilization of radioisotopes in medical applications, or are non-existent. The three more common commercial power reactor types (PWR, BWR, and CANDU) are represented in the current nuclear programs.

  14. Development of a georeferenced data bank of radionuclides in typical food of Latin America - SIGLARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Lucia Maria Evangelista do

    2014-01-01

    The related management information related to the environmental assessment activity aims to provide the world community with better access to meaningful environmental information and help use this information in making decisions in case of contamination due to accident or deliberate actions. In recent years, the geotechnologies acquired are fundamental to research and environmental monitoring, once it possible, efficiently obtaining large amount of data natural resources. The result of this work was the development of a database system to store georeferenced data values of radionuclides in typical foods in Latin America (SIGLARA), defined in three languages (Spanish, Portuguese and English), using free software. The developed system meets the primary need of the RLA 09/72 ARCAL Project, funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), as having eleven participants countries in Latin America. The database of georeferenced created for SIGLARA system was tested in its applicability through the entry and manipulation of real data analyzed, which showed that the system is able to store, retrieve, view reports and maps of the samples of registered food. Interfaces that connect the user with the database show up efficient, making the system easy operability. Their application to environmental management is already showing results, it is hoped that these results will encourage its widespread adoption by other countries, institutions, the scientific community and the general public. (author)

  15. Cancer in indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Suzanne P; Forman, David; Piñeros, Marion; Fernández, Sdenka M; de Oliveira Santos, Marceli; Bray, Freddie

    2014-02-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death in Latin America but there have been few assessments of the cancer burden for the 10% of the population who are indigenous. Evidence from other world regions suggests cancer survival is poorer for indigenous people than for others due to a greater incidence of case-fatal cancers, later stage at diagnosis, and less cancer treatment. A status report on the cancer profile of indigenous people in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is therefore clearly warranted. We undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature in academic databases, and considered evidence from cancer registries from 1980, to assess cancer epidemiology among indigenous people in LAC. We identified 35 peer-reviewed articles pertaining to cancer in indigenous people. Rates of cervical cancer in parts of Brazil, Ecuador, and Guyana, stomach cancer rates in regions of Chile and gallbladder rates in Chile and Bolivia, were higher for indigenous compared to others. Breast cancer rates were lower in Ecuador, Brazil, and Chile. Six cancer registries in Brazil provided incidence data but no other reports of incidence, mortality, or survival were identified. There was a paucity of data surrounding the cancer burden of indigenous people in LAC. In view of predicted increases in cancer rates in ensuing decades, and the disparities in burden already experienced by indigenous people in the region, it is imperative that cancer profiles are obtained and cancer control measures identified and prioritized. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Islands of knowledge: science and agriculture in the history of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Prieto, Leida

    2013-12-01

    This essay explores the participation of Latin America and the Caribbean in the construction and circulation of tropical agricultural science during the nineteenth century and the first half of the twentieth century. It uses the term "islands of knowledge" to underscore the idea that each producing region across the global tropics, including Latin America and the Caribbean, was instrumental in the creation, adoption, and application of scientific procedures. At the same time, it emphasizes the value of interchange and interconnection between these regions, as well as the many and heterogeneous local areas, for analyzing what it calls "global archipelago agricultural scientific knowledge." This focus challenges the traditional center/periphery hierarchy and opens it to a wider vision of science and practice in agriculture. This essay shows how writing in related areas of research--specifically, commodity histories, biological exchange studies, and knowledge exchange studies--introduces approaches and case studies that are useful for the history of tropical agricultural science. In particular, this work provides analytical frameworks for developing studies of exchanges across the Global South.

  17. Community-based management of environmental challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Delgado-Serrano

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This Special Feature gathers the results of five research projects funded by the 7th Research Framework Program of the European Union and aims to identify successful cases of community-based management of environmental challenges in Latin America. The funding scheme, Research for the benefit of Civil Society Organizations, fostered innovative research approaches between civil society and research organizations. More than 20 field sites have been explored, and issues such as trade-offs between conservation and development, scientific versus local knowledge, social learning, ecosystem services, community owned solutions, scaling-up and scaling-out strategies, the influence of context and actors in effective environmental management and governance, and the conflicts of interests around natural resources have been addressed. Based on our experiences as project coordinators, in this editorial we reflect on some of the important lessons gained for research praxis and impact, focusing on knowledge of governance models and their scaling-out and scaling-up, and on methods and tools to enable action research at the science-civil society interface. The results highlight the richness of community-based management experiences that exist in Latin America and the diversity of approaches to encourage the sustainable community-based management of environmental challenges.

  18. Argentine influence on regulatory activities in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Elias

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the nuclear regulatory systems and the nuclear regulations of many Latin American countries shows a substantial influence of the Argentine regulatory structure. This influence is attributed to the early Argentine development of a regulatory and control organization, the teaching of regional training courses and the advice of Argentine experts to Latin-American governments

  19. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro D. Colantonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. Objective: To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. Methods: We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Results: Brazil (n = 6,132 had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686, Mexico (n = 1,368 and Chile (n = 874. Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%], Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%], Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%] and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]. However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%. From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5% annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7% annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Conclusions: Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies.

  20. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Lisandro D., E-mail: Lisandro.Colantonio@fulbrightmail.org [Department of Epidemiology - University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Public Health, Birmingham (United States); Department of Public Health, School of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Baldridge, Abigail S.; Huffman, Mark D. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago (United States); Bloomfield, Gerald S. [Duke University Medical Center - Duke Clinical Research Institute and Duke Global Health Institute, Durham (United States); Prabhakaran, Dorairaj [Centre for Chronic Disease Control, New Delhi (India)

    2015-01-15

    Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies.

  1. Cardiovascular Research Publications from Latin America between 1999 and 2008. A Bibliometric Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colantonio, Lisandro D.; Baldridge, Abigail S.; Huffman, Mark D.; Bloomfield, Gerald S.; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular research publications seem to be increasing in Latin America overall. To analyze trends in cardiovascular publications and their citations from countries in Latin America between 1999 and 2008, and to compare them with those from the rest of the countries. We retrieved references of cardiovascular publications between 1999 and 2008 and their five-year post-publication citations from the Web of Knowledge database. For countries in Latin America, we calculated the total number of publications and their citation indices (total citations divided by number of publications) by year. We analyzed trends on publications and citation indices over time using Poisson regression models. The analysis was repeated for Latin America as a region, and compared with that for the rest of the countries grouped according to economic development. Brazil (n = 6,132) had the highest number of publications in1999-2008, followed by Argentina (n = 1,686), Mexico (n = 1,368) and Chile (n = 874). Most countries showed an increase in publications over time, leaded by Guatemala (36.5% annually [95%CI: 16.7%-59.7%]), Colombia (22.1% [16.3%-28.2%]), Costa Rica (18.1% [8.1%-28.9%]) and Brazil (17.9% [16.9%-19.1%]). However, trends on citation indices varied widely (from -33.8% to 28.4%). From 1999 to 2008, cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased by 12.9% (12.1%-13.5%) annually. However, the citation indices of Latin America increased 1.5% (1.3%-1.7%) annually, a lower increase than those of all other country groups analyzed. Although the number of cardiovascular publications of Latin America increased from 1999 to 2008, trends on citation indices suggest they may have had a relatively low impact on the research field, stressing the importance of considering quality and dissemination on local research policies

  2. Control of visceral leishmaniasis in latin america-a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo A S Romero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While three countries in South Asia decided to eliminate anthroponotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL by 2015, its control in other regions seems fraught with difficulties. Is there a scope for more effective VL control in the Americas where transmission is zoonotic? We reviewed the evidence on VL control strategies in Latin America-diagnosis, treatment, veterinary interventions, vector control-with respect to entomological and clinical outcomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, LILACS, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, from 1960 to November 2008 and references of selected articles. Intervention trials as well as observational studies that evaluated control strategies of VL in the Americas were included. While the use of rapid diagnostic tests for VL diagnosis seems well established, there is a striking lack of evidence from clinical trials for drug therapy and few well designed intervention studies for control of vectors or canine reservoirs. CONCLUSION: Elimination of zoonotic VL in the Americas does not seem a realistic goal at this point given the lack of political commitment, gaps in scientific knowledge, and the weakness of case management and surveillance systems. Research priorities and current strategies should be reviewed with the aim of achieving better VL control.

  3. Quality measurers of therapeutic communities for substance dependence: an international collaborative study survey in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Maldonado, Patricia; Rodríguez, Nelcy; Ruiz-Gaviria, Rafael; Escalante, Miguel Ángel; Gómez, Raúl Ángel; de Araujo, Marcelo Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina Schmidt; Rivera, Joel Salvador Chávez; García, Jorge Alberto Godínez; Ferrand, Marina Piazza; Blitchtein-Winicki, Dora

    2017-12-20

    In Latin America, substance related disorders are highly prevalent and one of the treatment strategies is the Therapeutic Communities (TCs), however, in Latin America there is scarce data about this treatment strategies, their quality, drop-out rates and patient satisfaction. Based on a previous study in 5 Latin American countries, the TCs who had a score equal or higher than 9 according to the De Leon criteria which are some fundamental items that the TCs should meet, were selected to carry out a descriptive and retrospective study of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the TCs. Data from 58 TCs in 5 countries were included, with a sample of 1414 patients interviewed, of which most were single men, with no hospitalization history in a therapeutic community. Marijuana was the most commonly substance used in the 30 days prior to hospitalization, with 78% of interviewees referring alcohol consumption in the last 6 months and an average onset of psychoactive substances at 16 years of age. A 79% of the patients interviewed perceived some improvement during their stay in the TCs. The less fulfilled Quality Indicators by the TCs were "Requesting a professional qualification to former addicts that belonged to the program" and "Work as part of the therapeutic program". Among the reasons for discharge found in the database, 44% were due to therapeutic discharge with fulfillment of the treatment plan and 44% withdraws. The user satisfaction with TCs, in terms of infrastructure and quality are quite high, as the fulfillment of essential quality items, however, the follow up information to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment is poor or in some cases unknown.

  4. Development of PET in Latin America. Experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutor, C.A.; Frias, L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Describe the experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center in Latin America. Demonstrate the viability of running a PET Center in Argentina despite the economic crisis. Materials and Methods: For this study, we used a UGM/GE Quest 250 PET scan, a RDS 112 cyclotron and a Radiosynthesis Laboratory installed at the (FUESMEN) Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, located in Mendoza City, in the middle-west of Argentina. From January 1999 to March 2002, 741 studies were obtained, 731 were 18 FluorDeoxyGlucose-PET studies and 10 phantoms for calibration purposes. We used acquisition and imaging processing standard protocols, as well as research protocols designed according to the pathology under investigation. To better correlate anatomical and functional images, we used fusion techniques with (CT) Computed Tomography in some (WB) whole-body PET scans. Results: A total of 731 patients were retrospectively analyzed and classified according to statistics variables such as: 1-sex: 317 women and 414 men, 2-type of scan: 439 WB cases, 267 brain studies and 25 cardiac. From this data we divided them as PET indications and resulted in 17 cases as healthy volunteers, 422 oncological cases, 267 neurological studies and 25 cardiac for myocardial viability. According to the origin they were classified as patients coming from Mendoza 544, Buenos Aires 112, other argentine provinces 60 and foreign (Chile, Brazil and Uruguay) 15 cases. In terms of billing, 181 studies were done free of charge, 95 under research protocols were also done free of charge and 451 were charged. Conclusion: Not only the economical and political factors play an important role limiting the advances of PET Imaging in Latin America, but also the lack of a neighboring cyclotron that circumscribe many hospitals to have access to the radiopharmaceutical agent. FUESMEN was established in 1991 by three governmental entities: the (CONEA) National Commission of Atomic Energy, the (UNC) National University of Cuyo and

  5. Impact of Asian Soft Power in Latin America - China and South Korea as Emerging Powers in the Subcontinent

    OpenAIRE

    Milanowitsch, Bianca Katharina; Derichs, Claudia (Prof. Dr.)

    2018-01-01

    Has the use of soft power as a strategic foreign policy tool enabled China and South Korea to position themselves as emerging powers in Latin America? This study operationalizes and conceptualizes the concept of soft power by measuring it through specific categories within a case study and offers an extended definition of emerging powers. The concept of soft power has been defined by IR theory as a tool only available to hegemonic or strong powers, which has perpetuated an inherent western bi...

  6. Is corruption good or bad for FDI? Empirical evidence from Asia, Africa and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article revisits the relationship between corruption and Foreign Direct Investment inflows in a panel of 42 countries from 1984 to 2012 using pooled mean group estimator in a dynamic heterogeneous panel setting using Westerlund and ARDL panel cointegration tests where the estimations are carried out by three different estimators: the pooled mean group (PMG, mean group (MG, and the dynamic fixed effect (DFE estimators in order to examine both the long- and short-term effects of corruption on FDI inflows. The results suggest that corruption has a positive impact on FDI inflows in the case of Asia and Africa; and a negative impact in the case of Latin America.

  7. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  8. Special issue: Logistics systems design in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Gaston Cedillo Campos

    2017-10-01

    Under this context, this Special Issue of the Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management (JIEM gathers nine significant contributions, which from a Latin American approach, enhance the logistics systems body of knowledge focused on emerging markets.

  9. Defense or Development? A Decisive Question in Latin America

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guarda, Esteban

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to inform the reader about the recent past, present, and future tendency in the Latin American countries regarding the balance of expenditures between defense and development...

  10. Technologies for Social Inclusion and Public Policies in Latin America

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Latin American governments, academics and nongovernmental organizations are paying increasing attention to poverty, inequality and social inclusion, and the role that technological change plays in these phenomenon. ... Related content ...

  11. Building better borders in Latin America | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-10-21

    Oct 21, 2016 ... This article is part of an ongoing series of stories about innovative projects in the ... India Labour and Employment Report 2014: Workers in the era of globalization ... Promoting financial inclusion among Latin American youth.

  12. Women Migrants Advocacy in Latin America | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Institution. Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences. Institution Country. Dominican Republic. Institution Website. http://www.flacso.edu.ec/portal ... Institution. El Colegio de la Frontera Sur. Institution Country. Mexico. Institution Website. http://www.ecosur.mx ...

  13. [Decriminalization of abortion: a common purpose in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    In the conviction that abortion is a fundamental right of women and that its illegal practice constitutes a serious threat to life, several Latin American women's groups have united to work for decriminalization. The groups have been attempting to increase public awareness of the consequences of illegal abortion. Official silence on the topic appears to deny the existence of a problem. Proposals in the different Latin American countries are adapted to their political and legal circumstances. In Argentina, a campaign has been underway for nearly two years to collect signatures for a petition for a law concerning contraception and abortion. The National Network for Women's Health and other groups have held regional and national workshops on the issue. In Bolivia, radio and television programs have been broadcast in Spanish and indigenous languages on the right to choose, reproductive health, and sex education. Abortion was debated in Brazil during the process of constitutional reform, but it remains illegal. Illegal abortion continues to be a reality and women's groups are lobbying for decriminalization. Abortion is considered a crime in Colombia's penal code. Attempts to legalize abortion have been rejected by the legislature without debate. The practice of abortion under the circumstances has become a lucrative business whose lack of regulation has resulted in a growing number of maternal deaths. Attempts are underway in Costa Rica to legalize abortion in cases of rape or incest. Studies show that illegal abortion is the third most important cause of maternal death. A bill to legalize abortion is under study in Chile's Parliament but has not been approved. Abortion is illegal but common in Ecuador. Efforts are underway in Mexico and Nicaragua to encourage debate on abortion. Peru's Health Commission was recently prevented from classifying abortion for any reason other than grave congenital anomaly as homicide. Abortion has been legal in Puerto Rico since 1974, but

  14. International Migration and Gender in Latin America: A Comparative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Douglas S; Fischer, Mary J; Capoferro, Chiara

    2006-12-01

    We review census data to assess the standing of five Latin American nations on a gender continuum ranging from patriarchal to matrifocal. We show that Mexico and Costa Rica lie close to one another with a highly patriarchal system of gender relations whereas Nicaragua and the Dominican Republic are similar in having a matrifocal system. Puerto Rico occupies a middle position, blending characteristics of both systems. These differences yield different patterns of female relative to male migration. Female householders in the two patriarchal settings displayed low rates of out-migration compared with males, whereas in the two matrifocal countries the ratio of female to male migration was much higher, in some case exceeding their male counterparts. Multivariate analyses showed that in patriarchal societies, a formal or informal union with a male dramatically lowers the odds of female out-migration, whereas in matrifocal societies marriage and cohabitation have no real effect. The most important determinants of female migration from patriarchal settings are the migrant status of the husband or partner, having relatives in the United States, and the possession of legal documents. In matrifocal settings, however, female migration is less related to the possession of documents, partner's migrant status, or having relatives in the United States and more strongly related to the woman's own migratory experience. Whereas the process of cumulative causation appears to be driven largely by men in patriarchal societies, it is women who dominate the process in matrifocal settings.

  15. Policy for Research and Innovation in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre-Bastos, Carlos

    2010-02-01

    Latin America (LAC) is renewing efforts to build-up research and innovation (R&I) capacities, guided by policies that consider the need to transform the traditional science system into a more dynamic entity. Policies permitted the generation of new spaces to develop science, strengthen scientific communities, improve university-enterprise linkages, establish common agendas between public and private sectors, earmark special budgets, build new infrastructure, and improve the number and quality of scientific publications. In spite of much progress, LAC lags much behind developed countries, their universities rank lower than their international counterparts, the number of researchers is small and funding is below an appropriate threshold. Some countries have innovated in few economic sectors, while others remain technologically underdeveloped and much of the countries' innovative capacities remain untapped. It is believed that policies still have little influence on social and economic development and there exists dissatisfaction in the academic and entrepreneurial sectors with their quality and relevance or with the political will of governments to execute them. On the other hand, in the past decades, the complexity of innovation systems has increased considerably, and has yet to be taken fully into account in LAC policy definitions. The situation calls for decision makers to shape new framework conditions for R&I in a way that both processes co-evolve and are stimulated and guided on solutions to the major problems of society. Considering the main features of complex systems, self- organization, emergence and non-linearity, R&I policy measures need to be seen as interventions in such a system, as the use of traditional leverage effects used in the past for policy decisions are more and more obsolete. Policies must now use ``weak coordination mechanisms,'' foresight, mission statements, and visions. It is obvious that due to nonlinearities in the system, adaptive

  16. Monitoring decarbonization and resilience in Latin America and the Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zevallos, Pia; Castro, Rodrigo; Aldana, Rocio; Apaclla, Karol

    2015-11-01

    Climate change is already an inherent part of our future that will result in considerable negative effects which are not only inevitable, but also irreversible. In Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) the effects of climate change and its associated impacts on human and productive systems are already evident. There is a real and current need to adapt and build resilience to climate change that will only become more pressing if global actions to stabilize GHG emissions continue to be postponed. LAC is not properly adapted to existing climate risks, and there is an 'adaptation gap (or deficit)', which is actually part of a larger development deficit. Delayed action in both mitigation and adaptation will increase this deficit. It has been estimated that the total investment necessary in the region to adapt to the inevitable physical effects of climate change is approximately one quarter to one sixth of the costs of these impacts. Achieving climate stabilization requires the region to reduce its emissions to 1.43 Gt CO_2 by 2050, at a cost of approximately US $100 billion per year. Significant mitigation efforts are still required, given that the region is exposed to increased pressure relating to land use changes and industrialization, which in turn increases energy consumption. However, it is estimated that the co-benefits of mitigation could be as high as 30% to 100% of the total abatement costs. The fight against climate change can be tackled as a management issue; both of GHG emissions and climate risk. A National System of Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) facilitates decision-making and national planning; it helps track the achievement of goals; promotes coordination and communication between the sectors; generates comparable and transparent information, and facilitates its exchange; and helps identify and showcase good practices, as well as building trust (both between countries and in the private sector) and increasing the likelihood of

  17. Effect of urban vs. rural residence on the association between atopy and wheeze in Latin America: findings from a case-control analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endara, P; Vaca, M; Platts-Mills, T A E; Workman, L; Chico, M E; Barreto, M L; Rodrigues, L C; Cooper, P J

    2015-02-01

    The association between atopy and asthma is attenuated in non-affluent populations, an effect that may be explained by childhood infections such as geohelminths. To investigate the association between atopy and wheeze in schoolchildren living in urban and rural areas of Ecuador and examine the effects of geohelminths on this association. We performed nested case-control studies among comparable populations of schoolchildren living in rural communities and urban neighbourhoods in the Province of Esmeraldas, Ecuador. We detected geohelminths in stool samples, measured recent wheeze and environmental exposures by parental questionnaire, and atopy by specific IgE (sIgE) and skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to aeroallergens. Atopy, particularly sIgE to house dust mite (HDM), was more strongly associated with recent wheeze in urban than rural schoolchildren: (urban, adj. OR 5.19, 95% CI 3.37-8.00, P children. The association between atopy and recent wheeze was attenuated by markers of geohelminth infections. Our data suggest that urban residence modifies the association between HDM atopy and recent wheeze, and this effect is explained partly by geohelminth infections. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Basic Approaches of the Diplomacy in the Colonial Period of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo A Torrealba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main approaches of the diplomatic relations of the Spanish and English colonies in America during the colonial period in relation with the Spanish Empire and British Empire. Also, the article describes the main political interests that had the European empires in America and the relationship that they had with Aboriginal peoples for more of 300 years. Thanks to these factors, the modern diplomatic services in Latin America have a diplomatic style that is different from any other region of the world. The diplomatic services of Latin America have a variety of ceremonies, protocols, tactics and strategies to establish political relations with other regions of the world. But, from the point of view of European, Asian and African diplomacy these activities are usually viewed as unconventional. However, the development of the foreign affairs agencies of Latin America have been the result of bloody stories that the invaders did it only to take the control. And thanks to these facts, the diplomatic institutions in Latin America are concerned, even today, to keep in memory these events because they are a good example of what a bad diplomacy can do. For other hand, the colonial era in Latin America is a good example of very poorly managed diplomatic decision thanks to the desire of conquest of the european empires. However, in the same time, the aboriginal peoples of South America achieved some diplomatic victories, at least with the crown of Spain. In the north of America, the aboriginal peoples don't achieved the same victories and they were virtually annihilated by their inabilities to negotiate. These events suggest that the Aboriginal peoples of Central and South American were better developed in political and diplomatic practices. Because they could negotiate weak, but vital peace agreements with the invaders what it helped protect the lives of millions of human beings.

  19. Midwifery practice and maternity services: A multisite descriptive study in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binfa, Lorena; Pantoja, Loreto; Ortiz, Jovita; Cavada, Gabriel; Schindler, Peter; Burgos, Rosa Ypania; Maganha E Melo, Célia Regina; da Silva, Lúcia Cristina Florentino Pereira; Lima, Marlise de Oliveira Pimentel; Hernández, Laura Valli; Schlenker Rm, Rosana; Sánchez, Verdún; Rojas, Mirian Solis; Huamán, Betty Cruz; Chauca, Maria Luisa Torres; Cillo, Alicia; Lofeudo, Susana; Zapiola, Sandra; Weeks, Fiona; Foster, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    over the past three decades there has been a social movement in Latin American countries (LAC) to support humanised, physiologic birth. Rates of caesarean section overall in Latin America are approximately 35%, increasing up to 85% in some cases. There are many factors related to poor outcomes with regard to maternal and newborn/infant health in LAC countries. Maternal and perinatal outcome data within and between countries is scarce and inaccurate. The aims of this study were to: i) describe selected obstetric and neonatal outcomes of women who received midwifery care, ii) identify the level of maternal well-being after experiencing midwifery care in 6 Latin America countries. this was a cross sectional and descriptive study, conducted in selected maternity units in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Peru, and Uruguay. Quantitative methods were used to measure midwifery processes of care and maternal perceptions of well-being in labour and childbirth through a validated survey of maternal well-being and an adapted version of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) standardized antepartum and intrapartum data set. Maternity units from 6 Latin American countries. the final sample was a convenience sample, and the total participants for all sites in the six countries was 3009 low risk women. for the countries reporting, overall, 82% of these low risk women had spontaneous vaginal deliveries. The rate of caesarean section was 16%; the Dominican Republic had the highest rate of Caesarean sections (30%) and Peru had the lowest rate (4%). The use of oxytocin in labour was widely variable, although overall there was a high proportion of women whose labour was augmented or induced. Ambulation was common, with the lowest proportion (48%) of women ambulating in labour in Chile, Uruguay (50%), Peru (65%), Brazil (85%). The presence of continuous support was highest in Uruguay (93%), Chile (75%) and Argentina (55%), and Peru had the lowest (22

  20. Incidence of aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis in Latin America: the LATIN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Hamerschlak

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare but life-threatening disorders, often caused by drugs and other environmental exposures. Reported incidence of these diseases seems to vary between different geographic regions, and few data on their incidence are available for Latin American countries. The aim of this work is to determine the incidence of agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia in Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Incidence study. Seven centers took part in the pilot phase, so as to represent all Brazilian regions. METHODS: Each center conducted an active search for new cases in a defined region by means of regular contacts with all hematologists, main clinical laboratories and clinicians in hospitals of the region. RESULTS: 74 patients with aplastic anemia and 16 with agranulocytosis were identified. Patients with agranulocytosis had a median age of 31 years (interquartile range, IQR: 12.5-48.2; 32.2% were male and 81.2% were white. The median age of aplastic anemia patients was 21 years (IQR 15.0-35.2; 62.2% were male, 50.0% were white and 39.2% mulatto. The incidence of agranulocytosis was estimated to be 0.5 cases per million individuals per year, ranging from 0.0 to 1.1 cases per million per year between regions. The incidence of aplastic anemia was 2.7 cases per million per year, ranging from 1.1 to 7.1 cases per million per year between regions. CONCLUSIONS: Aplastic anemia and agranulocytosis are rare diseases in Brazil. However, there is considerable variability in their incidences between different regions.

  1. Geography, Resources, and Environment of Latin America: An Undergraduate Science Course focused on Attracting Hispanic students to Science and on Educating Non-Hispanics about Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujana, I.; Stern, R. J.; Ledbetter, C. E.

    2004-12-01

    With NSF-CCLI funding, we have developed, taught, and evaluated a new lower-division science course for non-majors, entitled "Geography, Resources, and Environment of Hispanic America" (GRELA). This is an adaptation of a similar course, "Geology and Development of Modern Africa" developed by Barbara Tewksbury (Hamilton College), to attract African American students to science by highlighting cultural ties with their ancestral lands. We think that a similar approach focusing on Latin America may attract Hispanic undergraduates, at the same time that it increases awareness among non-Hispanic students about challenges facing our neighbors to the south. GRELA is an interdisciplinary exploration of how the physical and biological environment of Mexico, Central America, and South America have influenced the people who live there. The course consists of 20 lectures and requires the student to present a report partnering with correspondents in Latin American universities. GRELA begins with an overview of Latin American physical and cultural geography and geologic evolution followed by a series of modules that relate the natural resources and environment of Latin America to the history, economy, and culture of the region. This is followed by an exploration of pre-Columbian cultures. The use of metals by pre-Columbian, colonial, and modern cultures is presented next. We then discuss hydrocarbon resources, geothermal energy, and natural hazards of volcanoes and earthquakes. The last half of the course focuses on Earth System Science themes, including El Nino, glaciers, the Amazon river and rainforest, and coral reefs. The final presentation concerns population growth and water resources along the US-Mexico border. Grades are based on two midterms, one final, and a project which requires that groups of students communicate with scientists in Latin America to explore some aspect of geography, natural resources, or the environment of a Latin American region of common interest

  2. Oil challenges for Latin America and Africa given the Asian expansion

    OpenAIRE

    Igor Hernández; Diego Guerrero

    2016-01-01

    Lower United States dependency on crude imports has caused shipments from Latin America and Africa to fall. Asia has also made efforts to diversify the sources of its supply to meet its energy demands and thereby reduce exposure to the Middle East. These developments have implications for the projects aiming to increase Latin American and African participation in the Asian market. In this context, this article examines the significance of the expansion of Asian funding linked to the energy se...

  3. Paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation training program in Latin-America: the RIBEPCI experience

    OpenAIRE

    L?pez-Herce, Jes?s; Matamoros, Martha M.; Moya, Luis; Almonte, Enma; Coronel, Diana; Urbano, Javier; Carrillo, ?ngel; del Castillo, Jimena; Menc?a, Santiago; Moral, Ram?n; Ordo?ez, Flora; S?nchez, Carlos; Lagos, Lina; Johnson, Mar?a; Mendoza, Ovidio

    2017-01-01

    Background To describe the design and to present the results of a paediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training program adapted to Latin-America. Methods A paediatric CPR coordinated training project was set up in several Latin-American countries with the instructional and scientific support of the Spanish Group for Paediatric and Neonatal CPR. The program was divided into four phases: CPR training and preparation of instructors; training for instructors; supervised tea...

  4. Heterogeneous rates for birth defects in Latin America: hints on causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Camelo, J S; Orioli, I M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this work was to disclose risk factors associated with birth defects which were heterogeneously distributed in the different geographic regions sampled by the Latin American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations (ECLAMC). The material included 2,159,065 hospital births, delivered in the 1967-1989 period in 24 geographic regions of Latin America. Birth defect types with 50 case-control pairs or more were analyzed. A risk factor was defined as that available variable with differential geographic rates, correlated with those of a given birth defect type. Identified factors were tested by case-control multivariate logistic regression to confirm their role in the occurrence of the defect. Altitude and maternal acute illness during first trimester of pregnancy, named influenza, were risk factors for microtia. Prenatal drug exposure, mainly sex hormones, were connected with the occurrence of hypospadias in low frequency areas, while Native ancestry was a "protective" factor in the same regions. Acute (influenza), and chronic (epilepsy and syphilis) maternal illness during first trimester of pregnancy and gravidity higher than four were risk factors for cleft lip. The independence of these variables from maternal age suggested that low maternal socioeconomic level could explain the high birth defect order and, perhaps, syphilis in mothers. Postaxial polydactyly was associated with parental consanguinity, as well as Afro-American ancestry, suggesting genetic heterogeneity.

  5. Focus: global currents in national histories of science: the "global turn" and the history of science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook, Stuart

    2013-12-01

    The "global turn" in the history of science offers new ways to think about how to do national and regional histories of science, in this case the history of science in Latin America. For example, it questions structuralist and diffusionist models of the spread of science and shows the often active role that people in Latin America (and the rest of the Global South) played in the construction of "universal" scientific knowledge. It suggests that even national or regional histories of science must be situated in a global context; all too often, such histories have treated global processes as a distant backdrop. At the same time, historians need to pay constant attention to the role of power in the construction of scientific knowledge. Finally, this essay highlights a methodological tool for writing globally inflected histories of science: the method of "following".

  6. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  7. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  8. Publicaciones Periodicas de Educacion de America Latina y el Caribe (Educational Publications of Latin America and the Caribbean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

    The periodicals listed in this bibliography are those published in Latin America and the Caribbean that deal exclusively with educational themes. Information for each entry, when available, includes the title, subtitle, name and address of publisher, frequency of publication, year the publication began and/or terminated, any previous title, and…

  9. Determinants of human papillomavirus vaccine acceptability in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jennifer L; Wittet, Scott; Bartolini, Rosario M; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Lewis-Bell, Karen; Lewis, Merle J; Penny, Mary E

    2008-08-19

    Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines provide promise as a key component of future cervical cancer prevention programs in the Latin America and the Caribbean region. The successful introduction and acceptance of these vaccines will depend on a range of factors including awareness of cervical cancer as a problem, affordability of the vaccine, political will, competition with other vaccines, feasibility of vaccine delivery and acceptability of the vaccine among the range of groups who will influence uptake. While existing data about acceptability from Latin America and the Caribbean is scarce, it is clear that health policymakers, providers and the general public lack knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer. Furthermore, they would value more local epidemiologic data related to cervical cancer. Price is currently a major barrier to vaccine acceptability and a priority for advocacy. More research is required in Latin America and the Caribbean to determine what messages and strategies will work in these communities.

  10. Tuberculosis-related mortality in people living with HIV in Europe and Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Podlekareva, Daria; Efsen, Anne Marie Werlinrud; Schultze, Anna

    2016-01-01

    baseline, whichever occurred first. Risk factors for all-cause and tuberculosis-related deaths were assessed using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox models. FINDINGS: Of 1406 patients (834 in eastern Europe, 317 in western Europe, and 255 in Latin America), 264 (19%) died within 12 months. 188 (71...... a multiregional (eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America) prospective cohort study: the TB:HIV study. METHODS: Consecutive HIV-positive patients aged 16 years or older with a diagnosis of tuberculosis between Jan 1, 2011, and Dec 31, 2013, were enrolled from 62 HIV and tuberculosis clinics in 19...... countries in eastern Europe, western Europe, and Latin America. The primary endpoint was death within 12 months after starting tuberculosis treatment; all deaths were classified according to whether or not they were tuberculosis related. Follow-up was either until death, the final visit, or 12 months after...

  11. Poverty and inequality in Latin America: From growth to conditional transfers of income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Antón Pérez

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the scale, interpretation and policies of the fight against inequality and poverty in Latin America. To this end, the article presents, firstly, the continent’s situation with respect to inequality and poverty, as well as its evolution over the past decades. Secondly, the authors examine the changing interpretation that has been made – through the economy and economic policy – of the importance of inequality and poverty in development processes. The article then offers a review of this debate, providing information on the link between economic growth and poverty in Latin America, given the fact that independently of this link, many policies exist aimed at combating poverty, whether to reduce its intensity or its effects. Finally, and prior to the conclusions, the authors present an overview of this kind of policies in Latin America, focusing particularly on the ones that have proven most effective.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF THE SUCCESS OF GLOBAL AND LOCAL BRANDS IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Farías

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to address the issue of the implementation of global and local brands in Latin America by drawing on contingency theory to develop and test hypotheses relating to how product category characteristics affect the success of global and local brands in the region. Hypotheses are tested using data obtained from top brands rankings reported in five Latin American markets (Argentina, Brazil, the Caribbean and Central America, Chile and Mexico. The study design considers estimating a logistic regression on a binomial dependent variable measuring whether 475 top brands are global or local brands, with product category characteristics as independent variables. Results reveal that product categories related to subscriptions, local tastes, high-tech, and global citizenship do have an impact on the success of global and local brands in Latin America.

  13. New Regionalisms and Radical Identity Formation in Latin America: Towards an “Alter-global” Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efe Can Gürcan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The post-Cold War period has witnessed the simultaneous emergence of a new trend of regionalism and a radicalized form of identity politics in Latin America, in parallel with the rise of numerous new left governments and alter-globalist social movements confronting neo-liberalism. In fact, the globalization of this continental struggle through a new trend of regionalism is a process which illustrates the fact that in today’s world, national, regional and global identities are complexly entwined beyond “wellestablished” dichotomies such as nationalism-cosmopolitanism. This paper suggests that regionalism could be an efficient tool to promote the formation of new collective identities at the global level by linking social struggles at the national level to the global resistance movement against neo-liberalism, as observed in the current Latin American experience of new regionalism. The first part of the paper would attempt to explain the actual significance of regionalism and the challenge of “identity formations” under globalization, and would develop an alternative theoretical approach based on Mittelman’s underrated concept of “transformative regionalism” (2004, besides elaborating the basic premises of the New Regionalism School. In turn, the second part would discuss the transformative potential of the new Latin American regionalisms through the involvement of social movements, mostly based on the experience of ALBA, but not without mentioning also the experience of TELESUR, UNASUR and Bank of the South. Finally, the concluding parts would deal with alternative policy recommendations and the emerging research agenda of new regionalism in Latin America, with a special focus on the case of the rising food sovereignty (globalization of peasant identities and counter-hegemonic mass education movements (the “HEFA regime” within the context of “radical identity formation”. Thereby, the paper attempts to explain how local

  14. Emergence of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (Apiotrichum mycotoxinivorans invasive infections in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nobrega de Almeida Jr

    Full Text Available We report the first two cases of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans infections in Latin America. We also conducted a literature review and a microbiological investigation, including that of clinical and environmental isolates. A 30-year-old man with chronic renal failure had disseminated infection after dialysis and a 15-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis (CF had pulmonary exacerbations with positive respiratory samples. A review of the relevant literature revealed that deep-seated infections were related to immunosuppression or invasive devices, while most of the CF patients showed a decline in lung function after positive cultures. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinct circulating genotypes. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis showed similar spectral profiles and correctly identified all strains/isolates. Biofilm production was documented in a bloodstream isolate and biofilm-producing cells showed high minimum inhibitory concentrations against antifungals.

  15. Emergence of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (Apiotrichum mycotoxinivorans) invasive infections in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, João Nobrega de; Francisco, Elaine Cristina; Barberino, Maria Goreth M de Andrade; Silva, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro F da; Brandão, Oriana M; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Padovan, Ana Carolina Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    We report the first two cases of Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans infections in Latin America. We also conducted a literature review and a microbiological investigation, including that of clinical and environmental isolates. A 30-year-old man with chronic renal failure had disseminated infection after dialysis and a 15-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis (CF) had pulmonary exacerbations with positive respiratory samples. A review of the relevant literature revealed that deep-seated infections were related to immunosuppression or invasive devices, while most of the CF patients showed a decline in lung function after positive cultures. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three distinct circulating genotypes. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis showed similar spectral profiles and correctly identified all strains/isolates. Biofilm production was documented in a bloodstream isolate and biofilm-producing cells showed high minimum inhibitory concentrations against antifungals.

  16. Use of Opioids in Latin America: The Need of an Evidence-Based Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, María Antonieta; Kraychete, Durval Campos; Iskandar, Aziza Jreige; Colimon, Frantz; Lara-Solares, Argelia; Cantisani, José Alberto Flores; Amescua-García, César; Núñez, María del Rocío Guillén; Bonilla, Patricia; Lech, Osvandré; Hernández-Castro, John Jairo; Guerrero, Carlos; Barrera, William Delgado; Gallegos, Manuel Sempértegui; Cook, María Berenguel; Garcia, João Batista Santos; Hernández, Concepción Pérez

    2016-04-01

    The subject of this publication has been focused on local considerations for facilitating regional best practice, including identifying and uniformly adopting the most relevant international guidelines on opioid use (OU) in chronic pain management. The Change Pain Latin America (CPLA) Advisory Panel conducted a comprehensive, robust, and critical analysis of published national and international reviews and guidelines of OU, considering those most appropriate for Latin America. A PubMed search was conducted using the terms "opioid," "chronic," and "pain" and then refined using the filters "practice guidelines" and "within the last 5 years" (2007-2012). Once the publications were identified, they were selected using five key criteria: "Evidence based," "Comprehensive," "From a well-recognized source," "Current publications," and "Based on best practice" and then critically analyzed considering 10 key criteria for determining the most relevant guidelines to be applied in Latin America. The initial PubMed search identified 177 reviews and guidelines, which was reduced to 16 articles using the five preliminary criteria. After a secondary analysis according to the 10 key criteria specific to OU in Latin America, 10 publications were selected for critical review and discussion. The CPLA advisory panel considered the "Safe and effective use of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain" (published in 2010 by the NOUGG of Canada) to be valid, relevant to Latin America, practical, evidence-based, concise, unambiguous, and sufficiently educational to provide clear instruction on OU and pain management and, thus, recommended for uniform adoption across the Latin America region. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. The trade interchange between Latin America and South Korea: The impact of technological development in the trade integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Merritt Tapia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trade relations between Latin America and the Republic of Korea started in the early sixties, but only after the beginning of the new century have become more dynamic, especially for the Asian nation. Behind the Korean export boom is the governmental thrust to science and technology, which has resulted in the production of goods with higher added value. The pattern of trade specialization followed by South Korea has allowed it to become one of the leading exporting nations of high technology goods in the world. On the other hand, Latin American nations have also enjoyed a remarkable growth in exports in the last decade, although their exporting profile contrast with that of Korea because their exports tend to be mainly primary products with low added value and some semi-finished goods . The pattern of specialization in Latin America is explained by its provision of vast natural resources, giving it a comparative advantage in world commodity markets. Unfortunately these advantages have not translated into sustained industrial developments throughout the region. In this context, the purpose of this paper is to illustrate the trade trends between South Korea and Latin America in the last ten years in an attempt to understand the reasons behind the asymmetries in trade flows that have been set in this period. The underlying assumption is that the commercial relationship between both parties depends on the pattern of specialization emerged in recent times and responds to the institutional policies implemented by both South Korea and by Latin American nations. The case of Mexico is highlighted because it is getting historic deficits with the Asian nation.

  18. Impact of EMS Outreach: Successful Developments in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero, Ofelia A.; Larramendy, Marcelo; Soloneski, Sonia; Menck, Carlos F.M.; Matta, Jaime; Folle, Gustavo A.; Zamorano-Ponce, Enrique; Spivak, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    This collection of articles was inspired by the long-standing relationship between the Environmental Mutagen Society and Latin American scientists, and by the program for the 39th Environmental Mutagen Society meeting in Puerto Rico in 2008, which included a symposium featuring “South of the border” scientists. This collection, compiled by Graciela Spivak and Ofelia Olivero, both originally from Argentina, highlights scientists who work in or were trained in Latin American countries and in Puerto Rico in a variety of scientific specialties related to DNA repair and cancer susceptibility, genomic organization and stability, genetic diversity, and environmental contaminants. PMID:20213840

  19. Strategic evolution of petroleum agents in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, Alexandre de Figueiredo

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyses the strategies of the Latin-American agents PDVSA, PEMEX, YPF and Ecopetrol face to the double transformation: global re-structuration and deregulation of the national industries. The study focuses the traditional sectors of the petroleum industries (core business), including the petrochemical industries and new segments such as natural gas and electric power. The paper analyses the period 1992-1996, which is characterized by price instability, liberalization of the Latin-American markets and in the corporation-enterprise plane by successive mergings and acquisitions modifying the actors strategic behaviour

  20. Neo-Liberal Educational Reform in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana López Guerra

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the argument that educational systems in Latin American are inefficient, political organizations and international financial institutions promoted reforms based on free market principles to modernize education in the region. Chile was used as a laboratory for these reforms, which were then applied to other Latin American countries. This paper analyzes the argument that educational quality is improved through competition—used as a strategy to privatize the educational system—by transferring its financing from public to private sources, to the detriment of the national system of education. Finally, this paper examines the modernization process and the failure of the free market model of the Mexican system of education.