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Sample records for latest 20-year experience

  1. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. A 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalainas, I; Nano, G; Ranucci, M; Bianchi, P; Stegher, S; Casana, R; Malacrida, G; Tealdi, D G

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the study was to report a 20-year single Institution experience, with the early and late outcomes of surgical treatment of inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. In a 20-year period, 2 275 consecutive patients underwent elective surgical repair for non-rupture abdominal aortic aneurysm. Fifty-two patients (2.3%) were classified as inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysms. Early and late outcomes were analyzed. One patient died in the perioperative period, giving a mortality rate of 1.92%. One patient died from a pseudoaneurysm rupture 7 months after operation. Three patients developed an aortic pseudoaneurysm in the follow-up period (mean 12.1 years, range 1-20 years) and underwent a redo operation. Overall surgical outcome of these patients, in terms of short-term and long-term is good. A high rate of pseudoaneurysm formation was observed.

  2. Endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis: technique and 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma, Justin B; Wang, Tianyi; Desmond, Elizabeth; Imrie, Meghan; Gamble, James G; Rinsky, Lawrence A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis technique and review our 20-year experience with it. A retrospective review of 44 patients who underwent proximal tibia and/or distal femur endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis was carried out. Only patients who had preoperative and postoperative scanograms with clinical follow-up of at least 6 months were included. The mean length of follow-up was 36.8 months. All patients had radiographic evidence of physeal fusion within 6-12 months from the index procedure. No patient required revision surgery. Endoscopic-assisted epiphysiodesis is safe, effective, and achieves predictable physeal fusion. Advantages over current techniques include reduced radiation exposure and lack of requirement for hardware placement.

  3. Infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a 20-year children's hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Rebecca A F; Thom, Giddel; Gardner, Renee V; Craver, Randall D

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed our 20-year experience with infant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Nine infants (4.2% of all ALL) were identified; all were < 6 months of age. White blood cell counts ranged from 42,000-1.6 million/microL, 6 of 8 had hepatosplenomegaly, and 6 of 9 (66.6%) had central nervous system disease. Of 7 with cytogenetic information, 6 (85.7%) had diploidy; the remaining child was 47, XY,+8,del(21)(q22). Four had the MLL-11q23 abnormality. All received chemotherapy. Four underwent stem cell transplantation. Survival was 67%, (15 months-21 years). Deaths occurred at 9 months, 15 months (graft vs. host), and 7 years (complications of small bowel transplantation). Only 1 undergoing stem cell transplantation died. There were no late recurrences or second malignancies. Despite extensive disease and age < 6 months at diagnosis (a poor prognostic feature), for ALL patients our 67% survival is at least as good as reported, although it is less favorable than childhood ALL.

  4. Carotid body tumours. A 20-year single-institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalainas, Ilias; Nano, Giovanni; Casana, Renato; Bianchi, Paolo; Stegher, Silvia; Malacrida, Giovanni; Tealdi, Domenico Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this single-institution retrospective study was to review the surgical outcomes of resection of carotid body tumours over the last 20 years in our hospital. From January 1985 to December 2004, 17 patients were admitted to our institution with carotid body tumours. All patients were treated by surgical resection of the tumour. No perioperative deaths occurred. Perioperative comorbidities were more frequent in patients with large carotid body tumours intimately associated with the carotid vessels. Surgical excision of carotid body tumours is safe and effective even in the long term.

  5. Fusion plasma experiments on TFTR: A 20 year retrospective*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Batha, S.; Blanchard, W.; Beer, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Berk, H.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Breizman, B.; Bretz, N. L; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Callen, J.; Camp, R.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C. Z.; Darrow, D. S.; Dendy, R. O.; Dorland, W.; Duong, H.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Fisch, N. J.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G. W.; Hanson, G. R.; Herrmann, H. W.; Herrmann, M. C.; Hill, K. W.; Hogan, J.; Hosea, J. C.; Houlberg, W. A.; Hughes, M.; Hulse, R. A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Kim, J. S.; Kissick, M.; Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kugel, H.; Kumar, A.; Leblanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Ludescher, C.; Majeski, R. P.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D. K.; Mazzucato, E.; McChesney, J.; McCune, D. C.; McGuire, K. M.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mika, R.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Mueller, D.; Nagy, A.; Navratil, G. A.; Nazikian, R.; Okabayashi, M.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Pearson, G.; Petrov, M. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Phillips, M.; Ramsey, A. T.; Redi, M. H.; Rewoldt, G.; Reznik, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rogers, J.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Skinner, C. H.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Strachan, J. D.; Stodiek, W.; Synakowski, E.; Takahashi, H.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M. E.; Von Goeler, S.; Von Halle, A.; Walters, R. T.; White, R.; Wieland, R. M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Yavorski, V.; Young, K. M.; Zakharov, L.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) (R. J. Hawryluk, to be published in Rev. Mod. Phys.) experiments on high-temperature plasmas, that culminated in the study of deuterium–tritium D–T plasmas containing significant populations of energetic alpha particles, spanned over two decades from conception to completion. During the design of TFTR, the key physics issues were magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and stability, plasma energy transport, impurity effects, and plasma reactivity. Energetic particle physics was given less attention during this phase because, in part, of the necessity to address the issues that would create the conditions for the study of energetic particles and also the lack of diagnostics to study the energetic particles in detail. The worldwide tokamak program including the contributions from TFTR made substantial progress during the past two decades in addressing the fundamental issues affecting the performance of high-temperature plasmas and the behavior of energetic particles. The progress has been the result of the construction of new facilities, which enabled the production of high-temperature well-confined plasmas, development of sophisticated diagnostic techniques to study both the background plasma and the resulting energetic fusion products, and computational techniques to both interpret the experimental results and to predict the outcome of experiments. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  6. From Down syndrome screening to noninvasive prenatal testing: 20 years' experience in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S W Steven; Chen, Chih-Ping; Cheng, Po-Jen

    2013-12-01

    Down syndrome is the most common autosomal chromosome aneuploidy. The prenatal Down syndrome screening protocol has been known in Taiwan for the past 20 years. The maternal serum double markers required for the screening test was first implemented into the general prenatal check-up back in 1994, where it had around a 60% detection rate at a 5% false positive rate. The first trimester combined test was started in 2005, and the maternal serum quadruple test was introduced in 2008 to replace the previous double test. The overall detection rate for the current screening strategies (first trimester combined or second trimester quadruple test) in Taiwan ranges between 80% and 85% at a fixed 5% false positive rate. Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is the latest powerful fetal aneuploidy detection method and has become commercially available in Taiwan starting from 2013. The sensitivity and specificity for NIPT are very high (both over 99%) according to large worldwide studies. Our preliminary data for NIPT from 11 medical centers in Taiwan have also shown a 100% detection rate for Down syndrome and Edwards syndrome, respectively. Invasive chromosome studies such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling cannot be replaced by NIPT, and all prenatal screening and NIPT results require confirmation using invasive testing. This review discusses the Down syndrome screening method assessments and the progress of NIPT in Taiwan.

  7. The Greater Vancouver Mental Health Service Society: 20 years' experience in urban community mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sladen-Dew, N; Bigelow, D A; Buckley, R; Bornemann, S

    1993-06-01

    Caring for people in the community with persistent and disabling mental illnesses presents a major challenge to government, planners and mental health professionals. The success with which mentally disabled people are integrated into community life says much about the society in which we live. This article describes the experience of the Greater Vancouver Mental Health Service Society in offering community-based mental health services to persons with schizophrenia and other major mental disorders over the past 20 years. The key to its success lies in a decentralized, relatively non hierarchical organizational structure which allows committed and skilled multidisciplinary teams to work with patients and their families in their community. The resulting services are fully integrated within the fabric of the community and are responsive to local needs. Partnerships among professionals, patients, families and community agencies result in work that is creative, productive and effective.

  8. From pharmaceutical standardizing to clinical research: 20 years of experience with fifty-millesimal potencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wania Papile Galhardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: 20 years ago we began to standardize the procedures of preparation and use of fifty-millesimal dilutions (LM or Q according to indications in the 6th edition of Hahnemann’s Organon. Aim: to describe the main stages in standardization as well as our teaching and research experience on Organon 6th edition. Results: with the use of standardized LM dilutions we observed a lower incidence of homeopathic aggravation than with our earlier experience with non standardized preparations. Organon.modus, a clinical-pharmaceutical protocol derived from the standardization was adequate for the teaching of homeopathy at Faculty of Medicine of Jundiai (São Paulo, the first Brazilian medical school with a graduate course on homeopathy. A randomized double-blind trial comparing individualized homeopathic medicines prescribed in LM dilutions and fluoxetine showed the former not be inferior to the latter in the treatment of moderate-to-severe depression. Conclusion: protocol Organon.modus showed to be adequate to graduate-level teaching of homeopathy and efficient in a controlled clinical trials, favoring its use as common denominator between the art of healing and medical science.

  9. A 20-year study on 190 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a developing country: Turkey experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Arif; Alhan, Etem; Cinel, Akif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Erem, Cihangir

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present our 20-year experience regarding primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT patients who underwent parathyroidectomy in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. There were 190 PHPT patients, of whom 137 were asymptomatic (72%). The mean serum calcium at the time of diagnosis was 11.9 ± 2.2 mg/dL. The mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 467 ± 78 pg/mL. Ultrasonography (USG) identified all abnormal glands accurately (82.6%) and Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) was used in 89.4% of the patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 61%. The common use of USG and MIBI detected 92% of the lesions. Bilateral neck exploration (BNE) was performed in 12.2% of the patients and focused unilateral neck exploration (FUNE) in the remaining 87.8%. Surgical intervention was unsuccessful in 1 patient (0.5%). The conversion ratio from FUNE to BNE was 5.2%. The mean operation time and mean hospital stay decreased significantly in patients with FUNE. Pathologic examination revealed single adenoma in 93% of the patients. New imaging techniques result in the conversion of surgical treatments of PHPT. FUNE in parathyroidectomy performed by an experienced surgeon may provide successful treatment rates.

  10. Penile curvature: an update for management from 20 years experience in a high volume centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasso, Francesco; Vittori, Matteo; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2016-09-26

    Our aim was to review the literature and discuss about penile curvature in order to have an update for management after 20 years experience in the field.Penile curvature may be congenital or acquired. Congenital penile curvature is a relatively uncommon condition that may present in late adolescent or early adult life. The incidence is estimated to be 0.6 %. On the other side, acquired penile curvature has an overall prevalence of 0.5-13%. Three main factors seem to increase the risk of developing an acquired penile curvature, often related to Peyronie's disease: penile traumatism, genetic and familiar conditions and a history of diseases of the genital tract. In treating Peyronie's disease, no medical therapy is fully effective, and surgery remains the gold standard in cases of severe deformity and/or erectile disfunction. Peyronie's disease is associated with significant psychological stress for patients and their partners. Appropriate treatment should be individualized and tailored to the patient's goals and expectations. There is not the 'best' surgical technique and outcomes are satisfactory when proper treatment decisions are made.

  11. Early Correction of Common Atrioventricular Septal Defects: A Single-Center 20-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Vladimiro L; Tessari, Chiara; Castaldi, Biagio; Padalino, Massimo A; Milanesi, Ornella; Gregori, Dario; Stellin, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    Over the past 20 years our policy has been to electively repair common atrioventricular canal defects (CAVCD) in patients between 8 and 12 weeks of age. We sought to evaluate the results of our past 20-year experience. From January 1992 to April 2014, 159 consecutive patients underwent CAVCD repair (133 patients had complete CAVCD and 26 patients had a transitional form of CAVCD). Surgical repair was accomplished with a double-patch (n = 137 [86%]) or a modified single patch (n = 22 [14%]) technique. Median age at operation was 96 days (interquartile range [IQR], 73-128 days); 90 patients were younger than 3 months of age. There were 3 operative (1.9%) and 12 late (7.7%) deaths. Median follow-up time after repair was 8.2 years (IQR, 3.6-15 years). Twenty patients (13%) required reoperation-16 (10%) for left atrioventricular valve (LAVV) regurgitation. Reoperation on the LAVV was more frequent in patients with a dysplastic LAVV preoperatively (p = 0.01; odds ratio [OR], 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-13.5) and in patients who underwent closure for an absent/incomplete cleft at the time of repair (p = 0.01; OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.4-21). Late LAVV performance (regurgitation greater than or equal to moderate or the need for reoperation), including late deaths and patients who underwent reoperation, was significantly worse in patients older than 3 months at repair (10 of 83 patients [12%] versus 20 of 73 patients [27%]; hazard ratio [HR], 2.71; 95% CI, 1.19-6.19) and in patients with LAVV dysplasia (19 of 68 patients [28%] versus 11 of 88 patients [12%]; HR, 3; 95% CI, 1.53-8.51). Individualized early repair of CAVCD is safe and beneficial, with good early and long-term results. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnosis and treatment of Congenital choledochal cyst:20 years'experience in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu-BJn Shi; Shu-You Peng; Xing-Kai Meng; Cheng-Hong Peng; Ying-Bin Liu; Xiao-Peng Cheni; Zhen-Ling Ji; De-Tong Yang; Huai-Ren Chen

    2001-01-01

    AIM To summarize the experience of diagnosis and treatment of congenital choledochal cyst in the past 20years ( 1980 2000).``METHODS The clinical data of 108 patients admitted from 1980 to 2000 were analyzed retrospectively.RESULTS Abdominal pain, jaundice and abdominal mass were presented in most child cases. Clinical symptoms in adult cases were non-specific, resulting in delayed diagnosis frequently. Fifty-seven patients (52.7%) had coexistent pancreatiobiliary disease. Carcinoma of the biliary duct occurred in 18 patients (16.6%). Ultrasonic examination was undertaken in 94 cases, ERCP performed in 46 cases and CT in 71 cases. All of the cases were correctly diagnosed before operation. Abnormal pancreatobiliary duct junction was found in .39 patients.Before 1985 the diagnosis and classification of congenital choledochal cyst were established by ultrasonography preoperatively and confirmed during operation, the main procedures were internal drainage by cyst enterostomy.After 1985, the diagnosis was established by ERCP and CT. and cystectomy with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy was the conventional procedures. In 1994, we reported a new and simplified operative procedure in order to reduce the risk of choledochal cyst malignancy. Postoperative complication was mainly retrograde infection of biliary tract, which could be controlled by the administration of antibiotics, there was no perioperative mortality.``CONCLUSION The concept in diagnosis and treatment of congenital choledochal cyst has obviously been changed greatly. CT and ERCP were of great help in the classification of the disease. Currently, cystectomy with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is strongly recommended as the choice for patients with type I and type Ⅳ cysts.Piggyback orthotopic liver transplantation is indicated in type \\ cysts (Carolis disease) with frequently recurrent cholangitis.``

  13. Meningitis and Meningoencephalitis among Israel Defense Force Soldiers: 20 Years Experience at the Hadassah Medical Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikkel, Yoav Y; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Eliahou, Ruth; Honig, Asaf

    2015-11-01

    Meningitis and meningoencephalitis pose major risks of morbidity and mortality. To describe 20 years of experience treating infections of the central nervous system in Israel Defense Force (IDF) soldiers, including the common presentations, pathogens and sequelae, and to identify risk groups among soldiers. All soldiers who were admitted to the Hadassah University Medical Center (both campuses: Ein Kerem and Mt. Scopus) due to meningitis and meningoencephalitis from January 1993 to January 2014 were included in this retrospective study. Clinical, laboratory and radiologic data were reviewed from their hospital and army medical corps files. Attention was given to patients' military job description, i.e., combat vs. non-combat soldier, soldiers in training, and medical personnel. We identified 97 cases of suspected meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Six were mistakenly filed and these patients were found to have other disorders. Four soldiers were diagnosed with epidural abscess and five with meningitis due to non-infectious in flammatory diseases. Eighty-two soldiers in active and reserve duty had infectious meningitis or meningoencephalitis. Of these, 46 (56.1%) were combat soldiers and 31 (37.8%) non-combat; 20 (29.2%) were soldiers in training, 10 (12.2%) were training staff and 8 (9.8%) were medical staff. The main pathogens were enteroviruses, Epstein-Barr virus an d Neisseria meningitidis. In our series, soldiers in training, combat soldiers and medical personnel had meningitis and meningoencephalitis more than other soldiers. Enteroviruses are highly infectious pathogens and can cause outbreaks. N. meningitidis among IDF soldiers is still a concern. Early and aggressive treatment with steroids should be considered especially in robust meningoencephalitis cases.

  14. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  15. Clinical Features of Male Breast Cancer: Experiences from Seven Institutions Over 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Hyung; Ha, Kyung Sun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Won, Hye Sung; An, Ho Jung; Lee, Guk Jin; Kang, Donghoon; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Sarah; Byun, Jae Ho; Suh, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong Soo; Park, Woo Chan; Jung, Sang Seol; Park, Il Young; Chung, Su-Mi; Woo, In Sook

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer treatment has progressed significantly over the past 20 years. However, knowledge regarding male breast cancer (MBC) is sparse because of its rarity. This study is an investigation of the clinicopathologic features, treatments, and clinical outcomes of MBC. Clinical records of 59 MBC patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 from seven institutions in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. Over a 20-year period, MBC patients accounted for 0.98% among total breast cancer patients, and increased every 5 years. The median age of MBC patientswas 66 years (range, 24 to 87 years). Forty-three patients (73%) complained of a palpable breast mass initially. The median symptom duration was 5 months (range, 1 to 36 months). Mastectomy was performed in 96% of the patients. The most frequent histology was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (75%). Ninety-one percent of tumors (38/43) were estrogen receptor-positive, and 28% (11/40) showed epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression. After curative surgery, 42% of patients (19/45) received adjuvant chemotherapy; 77% (27/35) received hormone therapy. Five out of ten patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors did not receive adjuvant anti-HER-2 therapy, while two out of four patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors received palliative trastuzumab for recurrent and metastatic disease. Letrozole was used for one patient in the palliative setting. The median overall survival durations were 7.2 years (range, 0.6 to 17.0 years) in patients with localized disease and 2.9 years (range, 0.6 to 4.3 years) in those with recurrent or metastatic disease. Anti-HER-2 and hormonal therapy, except tamoxifen, have been underutilized in Korean MBC patients compared to female breast cancer patients. With the development of precision medicine, active treatment with targeted agents should be applied. Further investigation of the unique pathobiology of MBC is clinically warranted.

  16. Clinical Features of Male Breast Cancer: Experiences from Seven Institutions Over 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Hyung; Ha, Kyung Sun; Jung, Yun Hwa; Won, Hye Sung; An, Ho Jung; Lee, Guk Jin; Kang, Donghoon; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Sarah; Byun, Jae Ho; Suh, Young Jin; Kim, Jeong Soo; Park, Woo Chan; Jung, Sang Seol; Park, Il Young; Chung, Su-Mi; Woo, In Sook

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer treatment has progressed significantly over the past 20 years. However, knowledge regarding male breast cancer (MBC) is sparse because of its rarity. This study is an investigation of the clinicopathologic features, treatments, and clinical outcomes of MBC. Materials and Methods Clinical records of 59 MBC patients diagnosed during 1995-2014 from seven institutions in Korea were reviewed retrospectively. Results Over a 20-year period, MBC patients accounted for 0.98% among total breast cancer patients, and increased every 5 years. The median age of MBC patientswas 66 years (range, 24 to 87 years). Forty-three patients (73%) complained of a palpable breast mass initially. The median symptom duration was 5 months (range, 1 to 36 months). Mastectomy was performed in 96% of the patients. The most frequent histology was infiltrating ductal carcinoma (75%). Ninety-one percent of tumors (38/43) were estrogen receptor–positive, and 28% (11/40) showed epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) overexpression. After curative surgery, 42% of patients (19/45) received adjuvant chemotherapy; 77% (27/35) received hormone therapy. Five out of ten patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors did not receive adjuvant anti–HER-2 therapy, while two out of four patients with HER-2 overexpressing tumors received palliative trastuzumab for recurrent and metastatic disease. Letrozole was used for one patient in the palliative setting. The median overall survival durations were 7.2 years (range, 0.6 to 17.0 years) in patients with localized disease and 2.9 years (range, 0.6 to 4.3 years) in those with recurrent or metastatic disease. Conclusion Anti–HER-2 and hormonal therapy, except tamoxifen, have been underutilized in Korean MBC patients compared to female breast cancer patients. With the development of precision medicine, active treatment with targeted agents should be applied. Further investigation of the unique pathobiology of MBC is clinically warranted

  17. Taking CAIRE. 20 years of experience with the advanced emergency guidance system CAIRE for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenk, Hans-Dietmar [Brenk Systemplanung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    It has now been almost 20 years that we, at Brenk Systemplanung GmbH (BS), triggered by the accidents at ''Three Mile Island'' in 1979 and at ''Chernobyl'' in 1986, have developed the emergency decision aid system CAIRE (Computer Aided Response to Emergencies) to assist decision makers to stand the high pressure of responsibly managing and mitigating a nuclear accident. The system is designed to work automatically on the basis of telemetric monitoring networks and started operation for the first time at 4 port sites of the French navy in 1992. In cases of incidents or accidents, it has to answer the following questions automatically: Where did the incident/accident occur? Which radionuclides are being released? What are the release rates? What is the actual radiation exposure? How will the incident/accident develop? Due to the Fukushima accident, these functionalities have reached sad relevance. Based on the demand of our client, a large NPP of a German power utility company, we are planning a modernised CAIRE system to be installed at this NPP and the Nuclear Emergency Service (KHG). Currently, the conceptional work is under way. (orig.)

  18. Cadaveric liver transplantation for non-acetaminophen fulminant hepatic failure: A 20-year experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olivier Detry; Jacques Bela(i)che; Michel Meurisse; Pierre Honor; Arnaud De Roover; Carla Coimbra; Jean Delwaide; Marie-France Hans; Marie Hélène Delbouille; Joseé Monard; Jean Joris; Pierre Damas

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the long-term results of liver transplantation (LT) for non-acetaminophen fulminant hepatic failure (FHF).METHODS: Over a 20-year period, 29 FHF patients underwent cadaveric whole LT. Most frequent causes of FHF were hepatitis B virus and drug-related (not acetaminophen) liver failure. All surviving patients were regularly controlled at the out-patient clinic and none was lost to follow-up. Mean follow-up was 101 mo.RESULTS: One month, one-, five- and ten-year patient survival was 79%, 72%, 68% and 68%, respectively.One month, one-, five- and ten-year graft survival was 69%, 65%, 51% and 38%, respectively. Six patients needed early (< 2 mo) retransplantation, four for primary non-function, one for early acute refractory rejection because of ABO blood group incompatibility,and one for a malignant tumor found in the donor.Two patients with hepatitis B FHF developed cerebral lesions peri-transplantion: One developed irreversible and extensive brain damage leading to death, and one suffered from deep deficits leading to continuous medical care in a specialized institution.CONCLUSION: Long-term outcome of patients transplanted for non-acetaminophen FHF may be excellent. As the quality of life of these patients is also particularly good, LT for FHF is clearly justified, despite lower graft survival compared with LT for other liver diseases.

  19. Oro-facial injuries in Central American and Caribbean sports games: a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy, Enrique

    2005-06-01

    Dental services in sports competitions in the Games sponsored by the International Olympic Committee are mandatory. In every Central American, Pan American and Olympic Summer Games, as well as Winter Games, the Organizing Committee has to take all the necessary measures to assure dental services to all competitors. In all Olympic villages, as part of the medical services, a dental clinic is set up to treat any dental emergency that may arise during the Games. Almost every participating country in the Games has its own medical team and some may include a dentist. The major responsibilities of the team dentist as a member of the national sports delegation include: (i) education of the sports delegation about different oral and dental diseases and the illustration of possible problems that athletes or other personnel may encounter during the Games, (ii) adequate training and management of orofacial trauma during the competition, (iii) knowledge about the rules and regulations of the specific sport that the dentist is working, (iv) understanding of the anti-doping control regulations and procedures, (v) necessary skills to fabricate a custom-made and properly fitted mouth guard to all participants in contact or collision sports of the delegation. This study illustrates the dental services and occurrence of orofacial injury at the Central American and Caribbean Sports Games of the Puerto Rican Delegation for the past 20 years. A total of 2107 participants made up the six different delegations at these Games. Of these 279 or 13.2% were seen for different dental conditions. The incidence of acute or emergency orofacial conditions was 18 cases or 6% of the total participants. The most frequent injury was lip contusion with four cases and the sport that experienced more injuries was basketball with three cases.

  20. [20 years' experience in the treatment of children with terminal renal insufficiency in Yugoslavia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peco-Antić, A; Popović-Rolović, M; Jovanović, O; Marsenić, O; Babić, D; Kostić, M; Kruscić, O; Culić, D; Trajković, D

    2000-01-01

    The first specialized haemodialysis (HD) paediatric centre in former Yugoslavia was established at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in January 1980. A total of 194 children (F: 98, M: 96), aged less than 19 years (10.12 +/- 4.23), were treated for renal replacement therapy (RRT) over 20 years. Average annual incidence rate was 1.59 per million of child population (pmcp) aged less than 19 years for the period 1980-1990 (former Yugoslavia) and 2.85 pmcp aged less than 19 years for the period 1990-2000 (present Yugoslavia). Reflux nephropathy was the most frequent underlying disease and accounted for 37.06% of total cases, while other primary renal diseases were: glomerulonephritis (GN) 17.26%, cystic/hereditary familial nephropathy 12.69%, congenital disease 11.68%, interstitial nephritis 5.58%, non-recovered tubular necrosis 3.55%, secondary GN 1.52% and 10.66% remained with doubtful diagnosis. HD was the first RRT in 84.02%, peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 14.43% and pre-emptive transplantation in 1.55% of all patients. A total of 53 patients (27.3% of total terminal renal failure (TRF) patients) received 56 kidney transplants (58.93% live related, 37.50% cadaveric, 3.57% live-non related). Actual survival in RRT was 64.53% 5 in years; 51.68% in 10 and 48.23% in 15 years. Patient survival in HD was significantly better over the last ten-year period than in the first ten-year period (35.88% vs. 75.75%; p Yugoslavia.

  1. Experience with the Hubble Space Telescope: 20 years of an archetype

    CERN Document Server

    Lallo, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope's mission is summarized, with special emphasis placed on the Space Telescope Science Institute's unique experience with Hubble's behavior as an astronomical telescope in the environment of low earth orbit for over two decades. Historical context and background are given, and the project's early scientific expectations are described. A general overview of the spacecraft is followed by a more detailed look at the optical design, both as intended and as built. Basic characteristics of the complete complement of science instruments are also summarized. Experience with the telescope on-orbit is reviewed, starting with the major initial problems, solutions, human servicing missions, and the associated expansion of the observatory's capabilities over this time. Specific attention is then given to understanding Hubble's optical quality and pointing/jitter performance, two fundamental characteristics of a telescope. Experience with-and the important mitigation of-radiation damage and contami...

  2. Educational Change in Post-Conflict Contexts: Reflections on the South African Experience 20 Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting on South African experience, this paper develops an analytical framework using the work of Henri Lefebvre and Nancy Fraser to understand why socially just arrangements may be so difficult to achieve in post-conflict reconstruction. The paper uses Lefebvre's analytic to trace three sets of entangled practices…

  3. Oregon's Death With Dignity Act: 20 Years of Experience to Inform the Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, Katrina; New, Craig

    2017-09-19

    Twenty years ago, Oregon voters approved the Death With Dignity Act, making Oregon the first state in the United States to allow physicians to prescribe medications to be self-administered by terminally ill patients to hasten their death. This report summarizes the experience in Oregon, including the numbers and types of participating patients and providers. These data should inform the ongoing policy debate as additional jurisdictions consider such legislation.

  4. Seismology@School - Nearly 20 years for the first experiences in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer, Jean Luc; Balestra, Julien; Courboulex, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    The original and innovative aspect of this programme stems from giving students the opportunity to install a seismometer in their school. The recorded signals, reflecting regional or global seismic activity, feed into an on-line database, a genuine seismic resource centre and a springboard for educational and scientific activities. In the footsteps of the U.S PEPP project, we have started this experiment in Europe in order to see how we can confront high school students with the current practice of scientific data acquisition, and how we can establish a specific educational structure tailored to the European system. The French network 'EduSismo' (numbering some hundred stations installed in metropolitan France, the overseas departments and territories and a few French high schools abroad) is the outgrowth of an experiment conducted some twenty years back. Since then, the programme implemented has gone beyond simply acquiring seismic signals, which could have been procured by research and monitoring centres. By appropriating a scientific measurement, the student becomes personally involved and masters complex concepts about geophysics and geosciences. The development of simple devices and the design of concrete experiments associated with an investigative approach make it possible to instil the students with a high-quality scientific culture and an education about risks. A lot of similar projects were run in Europe and more … data streaming, database on line, examples of models … are not the only link between schools. The European network stay alive with some events: 'EDUSEIS', 'NaRAS', 'O3E', 'NERA' European programs, teachers/researchers workshops, school challenges, projects between schools, social network … it was a great opportunity to share experiences with teachers and researchers through a huge worldwide network. During the twenty last years, 'Seismology@school' concept has developed initiatives to link more people, and has provided more tools to teach

  5. Radio-induced gliomas: 20-year experience and critical review of the pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Maurizio; D'Elia, Alessandro; Melone, Graziella Angelina; Brogna, Christian; Frati, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino; Delfini, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The authors report their personal experience with a surgical series of 16 cases of cerebral radiation-induced gliomas, defining diagnostic criteria and surgical and clinical characteristics. There were ten males and six females, with a median age of 45.9 years. Irradiation had initially been given for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in six cases, tinea capitis in four cases, scalp hemangioma in three cases, cutaneous hemangioma, cavernous angioma, and medulloblastoma in one case each. There were 14 cases of glioblastoma (grade IV WHO) and 2 cases of astrocytoma (grade II WHO), with a mean latency time of 17 years (range: 6-26 years). For glioblastomas mean survival time was 10.4 months, accounting for 1-3% of all the glioblastomas treated. A thorough revision of the pertinent literature revealed some clinical-biological peculiarities.

  6. Long term sequelae of pediatric craniopharyngioma - literature review and 20 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Michal; Guger, Sharon; Hamilton, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary-hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive, and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present data regarding long term complications of craniopharyngioma in children and adolescents and our experience from a large tertiary center. Hypothalamic dysfunction was noted to be the most significant complication, adversely affecting quality of life in survivors. Obesity, fatigue, and sleep disorders are the most notable manifestations of this dysfunction, and treatment is extremely difficult. Changes in management in recent years show a potential for improved long term outcomes; we found a trend toward less aggressive surgical management and increasing use of adjuvant treatment, accompanied by a decrease in complication rates.

  7. Long term sequelae of pediatric craniopharyngioma - literature review and 20 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eCohen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary- hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present data regarding long term complications of craniopharyngioma in children and adolescents and our experience from a large tertiary center. Hypothalamic dysfunction was noted to be the most significant complication, adversely affecting quality of life in survivors. Obesity, fatigue and sleep disorders are the most notable manifestations of this dysfunction, and treatment is extremely difficult. Changes in management in recent years show a potential for improved long term outcomes; we found a trend towards less aggressive surgical management and increasing use of adjuvant treatment, accompanied by a decrease in complication rates.

  8. Prevalence of Ectopic Breast Tissue and Tumor: A 20-Year Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famá, Fausto; Cicciú, Marco; Sindoni, Alessandro; Scarfó, Paola; Pollicino, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Buccheri, Giancarlo; Taranto, Filippo; Palella, Jessica; Gioffré-Florio, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Ectopic breast tissue, which includes both supernumerary breast and aberrant breast tissue, is the most common congenital breast abnormality. Ectopic breast cancers are rare neoplasms that occur in 0.3% to 0.6% of all cases of breast cancer. We retrospectively report, using a large series of breast abnormalities diagnosed and treated, our clinical experience on the management of the ectopic breast cancer. In 2 decades, we observed 327 (2.7%) patients with ectopic breast tissue out of a total of 12,177 subjects undergoing a breast visit for lesions. All patients were classified into 8 classes, according to the classification of Kajava, and assessed by a physician examination, ultrasounds, and, when appropriate, further studies with fine needle aspiration cytology and mammography. All specimens were submitted to the anatomo-pathologist. The most frequent benign histological diagnosis was fibrocystic disease. A rare granulosa cell tumor was also found in the right anterior thoracic wall of 1 patient. Four malignancies were also diagnosed in 4 women: an infiltrating lobular cancer in 1 patient with a lesion classified as class I, and an infiltrating apocrine carcinoma, an infiltrating ductal cancer, and an infiltrating ductal cancer with tubular pattern, occurring in 3 patients with lesions classified as class IV. Only 1 recurrence was observed. We recommend an earlier surgical approach for patients with lesions from class I to IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The latest results of the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Samset, BH; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has recorded proton-proton collisions at three energies. This talk reviews the early performance and physics results from ATLAS. Topics include tracking and reconstruction of resonances, electron, jet and tau reconstruction, early b-tagging, and observation of J/Psi, W and Z particles. ATLAS studies of charged particle production at 0.9 TeV and 7 TeV are shown, together with an investigation of the underlying event and an associated tuning of PYTHIA parameters. General ATLAS talk for PASCOS 2010. 20 minutes, including questions.

  10. A review of dental CAD/CAM: current status and future perspectives from 20 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Kunii, Jun; Kuriyama, Soichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we review the recent history of the development of dental CAD/CAM systems for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs), based on our 20 years of experience in this field. The current status of commercial dental CAD/CAM systems developed around the world is evaluated, with particular focus on the field of ceramic crowns and FPDs. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives applicable to dental CAD/CAM. The use of dental CAD/CAM systems is promising not only in the field of crowns and FPDs but also in other fields of dentistry, even if the contribution is presently limited. CAD/CAM technology will contribute to patients' health and QOL in the aging society.

  11. Bladder injuries after external trauma: 20 years experience report in a population-based cross-sectional view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Bruno Monteiro Tavares; de Campos, Caio César Citatini; Calderan, Thiago Rodrigues Araujo; Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Fraga, Gustavo Pereira

    2013-08-01

    Report 20 years experience of bladder injuries after external trauma. Gender, age, mechanism/location of damage, associated injuries, systolic blood pressure (SBP), Revised Trauma Score (RTS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS), complications, and length of stay (LOS) were analyzed in a prospective collected bladder injuries AAST-OIS grade ≥ II database (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scaling) from 1990 to 2009 in a trauma reference center. Among 2,575 patients experiencing laparotomy for trauma, 111 (4.3 %) presented bladder ruptures grade ≥ II, being 83.8 % (n = 93) males, mean age 31.5 years old (± 11.2). Blunt mechanism accounted for 50.5 % (n = 56)-motor vehicle crashes 47.3 % (n = 26), pedestrians hit by a car (29.1 %). Gunshot wounds represented 87.3 % of penetrating mechanism. The most frequent injury was grade IV (51 patients, 46 %). The mean ISS was 23.8 (± 11.2), TRISS 0.90 (± 0.24), and RTS 7.26 (± 1.48). Severity (AAST-OIS), mechanism (blunt/penetrating), localization of the bladder injury (intra/extraperitoneal, associated), and neither concomitant rectum lesion were related to complications, LOS, or death. Mortality rate was 10.8 %. ISS > 25 (p = 0.0001), SBP Trauma scores and pelvic fractures impact survival in bladder trauma. The mortality rate has remained stable for the last two decades.

  12. Latest results from the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Di Sciascio, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The ARGO-YBJ experiment has been in stable data taking for 5 years at the YangBaJing Cosmic Ray Observatory (Tibet, P.R. China, 4300 m a.s.l., 606 g/cm$^2$). With a duty-cycle greater than 86\\% the detector collected about 5$\\times $10$^{11}$ events in a wide energy range, from few hundreds GeV up to about 10 PeV. A number of open problems in cosmic ray physics has been faced exploiting different analyses. In this paper we summarize the latest results in cosmic ray physics and in gamma-ray astronomy.

  13. Latest nH analysis in the Double Chooz experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Guang

    2015-01-01

    Precise measurement of the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ is the primary goal of the Double Chooz Experiment (DC), which is located in Chooz, France. The inverse beta decay process provides a unique signature of reactor anti-neutrino interactions, giving prompt signals from positron annihilation and delayed signals from neutron capture by either Gadolinium (Gd) or Hydrogen (H). This paper is dedicated to the latest nH analysis in Double Chooz. Typically, The Gd analysis is primary since fewer background events are involved. However, with accurate estimates of backgrounds and a precise reconstruction of energy, the nH analysis gives a powerful independent measurement of $\\theta_{13}$.

  14. [Prevalence of central nervous system tumours and histological identification in the operated patient: 20 years of experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Delgadillo, Gustavo; de Juambelz-Cisneros, Pedro Pablo; Fernández-Alvarado, Basilio; Pazos-Gómez, Fernando; Velasco-Torre, Andrea; Revuelta-Gutiérrez, Rogelio

    Central nervous system tumours comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with great histological diversity. Despite the rising prevalence of these tumours in developing countries, some places like Mexico and Latin America have no representative studies that show the real impact of these tumours in our population. To describe the characteristics of the primary and secondary tumours of the central nervous system in the last 20 years in a Mexican institution. Patients with histopathological diagnosis from 1993 to 2013 in our institution, grouping them according to WHO classification 2007, characterising them by age group, gender, and anatomical location. There were a total of 511 tumours of the central nervous system. Of those, 292 were women and 219 men, with a ratio 1.3: 1, and a mean age of 49.3 years. Tumours with higher prevalence were: Meningeal tumours, 171 (33%), followed by neuroepithelial, 121 (24%). Astrocytoma had the highest prevalence in paediatric patients, whereas in those older than 20 years it was the meningioma. The supratentorial location was the most involved. This is the first study of a series of cases in Mexico that is performed by taking into account benign and malignant tumours of the central nervous system, with patients of all age groups with a range of 20 years. While this work only represents a retrospective analysis of an institution, it can be a strong indication of the epidemiology of these tumours in our environment. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A.

  15. Double Valve Replacement (Mitral and Aortic for Rheumatic Heart Disease: A 20-year experience with 300 patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Mishra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatic heart disease still remains one of the leading causes of congestive heart failure and death owing to valvular pathologies, in developing countries. Valve replacement still remains the treatment of choice in such patients.The aim of this study wasto analyze the postoperative outcome of  double valve replacement (Mitral and Aortic in patients of rheumatic heart disease. Materials and Methods: Between 1988 and 2008, 300 patients of rheumatic heart disease underwent double (Mitral and Aortic valve replacement with Starr Edwards valve or St Jude mechanical valve prosthesis were implanted. These patients were studied retrospectively for preoperative data and postoperative outcome including causes of early and late deaths and the data was analyzed statistically. Results: The 30-day hospital death rate was 11.3% andlate death occurred in 11.6%. Anticoagulant regimen was followed to maintain the target pro-thrombin time at 1.5 times the control value. The actuarial survival (exclusive of hospital mortality was 92.4%, 84.6%, and 84.4%, per year at 5, 10, and 20 years, respectively Conclusions: In view of the acknowledged advantageof superior durability, increased thromboresistance in our patient population, and its cost effectiveness the Starr-Edwards ball valve or St. Jude valve is the mechanical prosthesis of choice for advanced combined valvular disease. The low-intensity anticoagulant regimen has offered suffcient protection against thromboembolism as well as hemorrhage.

  16. Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation: the 20-year experience in the Rome Cord Blood Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Valle, Veronica; Tamburini, Anna; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Strano, Sabrina; Corona, Francesca; Ambrogi, Eleonora Barbacci; Girelli, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients lacking a suitably matched and readily available related or unrelated stem cell donor. As UCB transplantation from compatible sibling provides good results in children therefore directed sibling UCB collection and banking is indicated in family who already have a child with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Particularly, related UCB collection is recommended when the patients urgently need a transplantation. To provide access to all patients in need, we developed a "Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation". Here we report results of this project started 20years ago. To date, in this study a total of 194 families were enrolled, a total of 204 UCB samples were successfully collected and 15 pediatric patients have been transplanted. Recently, some authors have suggested novel role for UCB other than in the transplantation setting. Therefore, future studies in the immunotherapy and regenerative medicine areas could expand indication for sibling directed UCB collection.

  17. Latest results from the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiavassa, A., E-mail: achiavas@to.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Apel, W.D. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Arteaga-Velázquez, J.C. [Universidad Michoacana, Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Morelia (Mexico); Bekk, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bertaina, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Blümer, J. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Bozdog, H. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Brancus, I.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cantoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, INAF Torino (Italy); Cossavella, F. [Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); Curcio, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino (Italy); Daumiller, K. [Institut für Kernphysik, KIT - Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (Germany); and others

    2014-04-01

    The KASCADE-Grande experiment operated at KIT from January 2004 to November 2012, measuring EAS generated by primary cosmic rays in the 10{sup 16}–10{sup 18} eV energy range. The experiment detected, for each single event, with a high resolution, the total number of charged particles (N{sub ch}) and of muons (N{sub μ}). In this contribution we present the latest results about: (i)The measurement of the all particle energy spectrum, discussing the influence of the hadronic interaction model used to derive the energy calibration of the experimental data. (ii)The energy spectra derived separating the events according to the N{sub μ}/N{sub ch} ratio. This technique allowed us to unveil a steepening of the spectrum of heavy primaries at E∼10{sup 16.92±0.04}eV and a hardening of the spectrum of light primaries at E∼10{sup 17.08±0.08}eV. (iii)The elemental spectra (for five mass groups) obtained applying a detailed unfolding analysis technique. (iv)A search for large scale anisotropies.

  18. Male Breast Cancer: 20 Years Experience of a Tertiary Hospital from the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serarslan, Alparslan; Gursel, Bilge; Okumus, Nilgun Ozbek; Meydan, Deniz; Sullu, Yurdanur; Gonullu, Guzin

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare neoplasm, and its treatments are based on those of female breast cancer. This study aimed to analyze 20 years of male breast cancer clinical characteristics and treatment results from the Middle Black Sea Region of Turkey. A retrospective analysis of 16 male breast cancer patients treated in our tertiary hospital between 1994 and 2014 was performed. Epidemiologic data, tumor characteristics, and treatments were recorded and compared with 466 female breast cancer ((premenopausal; n=230)+(postmenopausal n=236)) patients. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates were calculated. Male breast cancer constituted 0.1% of all malignant neoplasms in both sexes, 0.2% of all malignant neoplasms in males, and 0.7% of all breast cancers. The mean patient age in this study was 59.8±9.5 (39-74) years. The mean time between first symptom and diagnosis was 32.4±5.3 (3-60) months. Histology revealed infiltrative ductal carcinoma in 81.3% of patients. The most common detected molecular subtype was luminal A, in 12 (75%) patients. Estrogen receptor rate (93.8%) in male breast cancer patients was significantly higher than that in female breast cancer (70.8% in all females, p=0.003; 68.2% in postmenopausal females, p=0.002) patients. Most of the tumors (56.3%) were grade 2. Tumor stage was T4 in 50% of males. The majority (56.3%) of the patients were stage III at diagnosis. Surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine-therapy were applied to 62.5%, 62.5%, 81.2% and 73.3%, respectively. Loco-regional failure did not occur in any of the cases. All recurrences were metastastic. The 5-year disease-free and overall survival rates in male breast cancer patients were 58% and 68%, respectively. Tumors found in male breast cancer patients were similar in size to tumors found in females, but they advanced to T4 stage more rapidly because of the lack of breast parenchymal tissues. The rate of estrogen receptor expression tended to be higher in male

  19. The latest results from DICE (Detector Interferometric Calibration Experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzier, A.; Malbet, F.; Hénault, F.; Léger, A.; Cara, C.; Le Duigou, J. M.; Preis, O.; Kern, P.; Delboulbe, A.; Martin, G.; Feautrier, P.; Stadler, E.; Lafrasse, S.; Rochat, S.; Ketchazo, C.; Donati, M.; Doumayrou, Eric; Lagage, P. O.; Shao, M.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Zhai, C.; Behar, E.; Potin, S.; Saint-Pe, M.; Dupont, J.

    2016-07-01

    Theia is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA in 2014 for which one of the scientific objectives is detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. This objective requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 1x10-5 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 3x10-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The Theia consortium is operating a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 1x10-5 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the Theia spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a mirror on the CCD. The second sub-system is the metrology, it projects young fringes on the CCD. The fringes are created by two single mode fibers facing the CCD and fixed on the mirror. In this paper we present the latest experiments conducted and the results obtained after a series of upgrades on the testbed was completed. The calibration system yielded the pixel positions to an accuracy estimated at 4x10-4 pixel. After including the pixel position information, an astrometric accuracy of 6 x 10-5 pixel was obtained, for a PSF motion over more than 5 pixels. In the static mode (small jitter motion of less than 1 x 10-3 pixel), a photon noise limited precision of 3x10-5 pixel was reached.

  20. Comparative Neurologic Outcomes of Salvage and Definitive Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Glomus Jugulare: A 20-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Daniel V; Venable, Garrett T; VanderWalde, Noam A; Michael, L Madison; Sorenson, Jeffery M; Robertson, Jon H; Cunninghan, David; Ballo, Matthew T

    2017-06-01

    Objective  This case series investigates management of glomus jugulare (GJ) tumors utilizing definitive and salvage Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKSRS). Methods  A retrospective chart review was performed to collect data. Statistical analysis included patient, tumor, and treatment information. Results  From 1996 to 2013, 17 patients with GJ received GKSRS. Median age was 64 years (range, 27-76). GKSRS was delivered for definitive treatment in eight (47%) and salvage in nine (53%) patients. Median tumor volume was 9.8 cm (3) (range, 2.8-42 cm (3) ). Median dose was 15 Gy (range, 13-18 Gy). Median follow-up was 123 months (range, 38-238 months). Tumor size decreased in 10 (59%), stabilized in 6 (35%), and increased in 1 patient (6%). Overall neurological deficit improved in 53%, stabilized in 41%, and worsened in 6% of patients. Overall cause-specific survival was 100%, and actuarial local control was 94%. Eighty-eight percent of patients without prior resection experienced neurologic deficit improvement, while 25% of patients with prior resection experienced neurologic improvement ( p  = 0.02). Conclusion  Gamma Knife radiosurgery provides effective long-term control of GJ and overall improvement or stabilization of neurological deficit in most patients. Patients with prior resection are less likely to experience improvement of neurologic deficit.

  1. Latest Higgs Physics results from the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Nicolo; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery in 2012, many measurements have been made on the production and prop- erties of the 125 GeV Higgs boson. The latest result from ATLAS will be presented, including recent results from run-1 at 8 TeV and some obtained in run-2 at 13 TeV.

  2. Latest news on SUSY from the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. This talk reports the latest ATLAS results for searches for supersymmetric (SUSY) particles, obtained with 13 to 18 fb-1 of 13 TeV data. Weak and strong production in both R-Parity conserving and R-Parity violating SUSY scenarios are considered. The searches involved final states including jets, missing transverse momentum, light leptons, taus or photons.

  3. Latest results on neutrino oscillation from the NOMAD experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Roda, C

    2001-01-01

    The latest results on nu /sub tau / appearance search in nu /sub mu / to nu /sub tau / and nu /sub e/ to nu /sub tau / oscillation in NOMAD are reported. The analysis, carried out on the full data sample, is based on kinematic criteria. No evidence of oscillations is found. In the two-family oscillation scenario this sets a limit on sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub mu tau / < 4.0 * 10/sup -4/ at large Delta m/sup 2/ and Delta m/sup 2/ < 0.7 eV/sup 2//c/sup 4/ for sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub mu tau / = 1 at 90% C.L.. If the results are interpreted in the nu /sub e / to nu /sub tau / oscillation hypothesis the corresponding limits are sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub e tau / < 2.0 * 10/sup -2/ at large Delta m /sup 2/ and Delta m/sup 2/ < 6 eV/sup 2//c/sup 4/ for sin/sup 2/ 2 theta /sub e tau / = 1 at 90% C.L.

  4. Chernobyl - 20 years and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacronique, J.F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Deconinck, F.; Govaerts, P.; Eggermont, C. [SCK-CEN - Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Cort, M. de [Institute for Environment and Sustainability, DG JRC EC (Italy); Joulia, J.P. [EuropeAid Co-operation Office, EC, Brussels (Belgium); Dal, A.H.; Balonov, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Kenigsberg, J. [Commission on Radiation protection, council of ministry (Belarus); Hindie, E. [Universites Paris, 75 (France); Havenaar, M. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    In commemoration of the Chernobyl accident 20 years ago, the French society for radiation protection (S.F.R.P.) and the Belgian society for radiation protection (B.V.S.A.B.R.) organise jointly a one day colloquium in Brussels. This colloquium is divided in two parts: the first one concerns the technical and organisational aspects of the accident with the scenario and its global impact, the international environmental radioactivity information exchange through the Chernobyl experience, the European Union (E.U.) assistance to mitigate the Chernobyl accident consequences, the crisis communication and management and the lessons learned from them; the second part is devoted to the medical and humanitarian aspects through the thyroid cancers after Chernobyl accident, the health effects in the European Union (E.U.) and the psychological factors affecting health after the Chernobyl disaster. (N.C.)

  5. The outcome of patients with renal involvement in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus--a 20-year experience in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P-Y; Yeh, K-W; Yao, T-C; Lee, W-I; Lin, Y-J; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women of childbearing age, but 15-20% of cases are diagnosed during childhood. It is important for physicians to understand the epidemiology and clinical presentation for early detection and diagnosis of this disease in difference races. The aim of this retrospective review was to provide a 20-year experience for initial clinical and laboratory manifestations and outcomes in pediatric-onset SLE (pSLE) in a medical center in Asia. We reviewed medical records between April 1990 and June 2012 of patients with a diagnosis of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code 710.0 (SLE), who admitted or received follow-up in the Department of Pediatrics at Chang Chung Memorial Hospital. Patients with a diagnosis of SLE prior to their 18th birthday and followed up at our hospital were eligible for inclusion in this study. Medical records regarding age, gender, date of birth and diagnosis, clinical manifestations at diagnosis, laboratory results, image studies and the classification criteria were reviewed. Patients received regular outpatient department follow-up and laboratory survey every 1-6 months. The study cohort consisted of 189 patients; 164 females (86.87%) and 25 males (13.23%). The overall mean age at pSLE diagnosis was 12.62 ± 2.77 years. The most common clinical symptom was malar rash, followed by arthritis and oral ulcers. There was no significant difference in clinical and laboratory manifestations between females and males. More than half of the patients presented with renal involvement initially. The most common histological finding was Class IV lupus nephritis (LN), especially in males (p = 0.034) and young age. Even with severe LN, the rate of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was low if adequate treatment was initiated. The 5, 10 and 15-year ESRD-free survival rates were 95.4%, 94.0% and 89.9% in patients with biopsy-proven LN. However, infection was the leading cause of

  6. Latest experiences in inspecting the inside of BWR vessel shields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, R.; Gonzalez, E.

    2001-07-01

    In the last few years, the owners of BWR nuclear power plants have been forced to address new fuel shield inspection requirements, TECNATOM has responded to this situation by launching the TEIDE projects, which include development of an inspection machine and the corresponding Non-Destructive Tests to examine the inside of this shield. With these projects, TECNATOM has performed more than 12 fuel shield inspections in different countries. This article describes the experience gained in the last three years. (Author)

  7. The latest results from DICE (Detector Interferometric Calibration Experiment)

    CERN Document Server

    Crouzier, A; Henault, F; Leger, A; Cara, C; LeDuigou, J M; Preis, O; Kern, P; Delboulbe, A; Martin, G; Feautrier, P; Stadler, E; Lafrasse, S; Rochat, S; Ketchazo, C; Donati, M; Doumayrou, E; Lagage, P O; Shao, M; Goullioud, R; Nemati, B; Zhai, C; Behar, E; Potin, S; Saint-Pe, M; Dupont, J

    2016-01-01

    Theia is an astrometric mission proposed to ESA in 2014 for which one of the scientific objectives is detecting Earth-like exoplanets in the habitable zone of nearby solar-type stars. This objective requires the capability to measure stellar centroids at the precision of 1e-5 pixel. Current state-of-the-art methods for centroid estimation have reached a precision of about 3e-5 pixel at two times Nyquist sampling, this was shown at the JPL by the VESTA experiment. A metrology system was used to calibrate intra and inter pixel quantum efficiency variations in order to correct pixelation errors. The Theia consortium is operating a testbed in vacuum in order to achieve 1e-5 pixel precision for the centroid estimation. The goal is to provide a proof of concept for the precision requirement of the Theia spacecraft. The testbed consists of two main sub-systems. The first one produces pseudo stars: a blackbody source is fed into a large core fiber and lights-up a pinhole mask in the object plane, which is imaged by a...

  8. Log transport and deposition in incised, channelized, and multithread reaches of a wide mountain river: Tracking experiment during a 20-year flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia; Kaczka, Ryszard J.; Czech, Wiktoria

    2017-02-01

    Distance of large wood transport during floods and conditions for wood deposition in wide mountain rivers are still insufficiently understood. Tracking of logs tagged with radio transmitters was used to investigate differences in depositional conditions and the length of log displacement during a 20-year flood between channel reaches of different morphology in the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians. During the rising limb of the flood, logs were placed into the river at three locations: at the beginning of an incised reach, close to the beginning of a channelized reach, and 1 km upstream from the beginning of a wide, multithread reach. The incised, channelized, and multithread reaches retained 12.5%, 33%, and 94% of tagged logs introduced to these reaches, respectively, and of the logs retained in the multithread reach, all were deposited in its upstream half. Significant differences in the length of displacement existed between the logs delivered to the river at the three locations, with logs placed into the river at the beginning of the incised reach moving the longest distance, and those delivered just upstream from the multithread reach moving the shortest distance before deposition. One-fourth of the logs were deposited in a low-flow channel or on a channel margin, one-fifth on the floodplain, and more than half on gravel bars. After the flood, river cross sections with deposited logs and a set of cross sections without any wood deposits were surveyed to collect data for one-dimensional modelling of hydraulic conditions at the flood peak. The cross sections with deposited logs were typified by significantly greater flow width and flow area and by significantly smaller mean flow depth, mean velocity, Froude number, mean bed shear stress, and unit stream power. Principal component analysis of the hydraulic parameters in the analysed cross sections grouped the two types of cross sections in distinct clusters, indicating that multithread cross sections

  9. Emergence of Plasmodium ovale malaria among the French Armed Forces in the Republic of Ivory Coast: 20 years of clinical and biological experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Simon, F; Bogreau, H; Rapp, C; Wurtz, N; Oliver, M; Demaison, X; Dia, A; De Pina, J J; Merens, A; Migliani, R

    2014-04-01

    French military surveillance identified an increase in Plasmodium ovale attacks among soldiers in Ivory Coast. This emergence and the low sensitivity of biological tests raise the question of a possible role of P. ovale variant species. Epidemiological data about P. ovale attacks from 1993 to 2012 were studied; the species diagnosis was based on a thin blood smear and/or a quick diagnostic test. Clinical and biological features in soldiers hospitalized in 2 French military hospitals were also reviewed. Malaria polymerase chain reaction followed by genotyping was performed when available. French military physicians declared 328 P. ovale attacks over the 20-year study. A peak of incidence occurred in 2005. Among patients with positive blood smears, the quick diagnostic test was positive in 33 of 101 tests performed. The hospital study showed that symptoms and biological changes were not specific, which made diagnosis challenging: fever, anemia, and thrombocytopenia were not present in 20%, 71%, and 23% of the 45 confirmed cases, respectively. It was possible to perform molecular investigations on 19 clinical isolates: 18 were classic haplotypes with additional polymorphism and 1 was variant. This emergence of P. ovale malaria enabled a good description to be made in nonimmune patients. The lack of sensitivity of both clinical features and quick diagnostic tests suggests an underestimation. Reasons for this outbreak are especially intense exposure to the vectors and the insufficient efficacy of doxycycline against P. ovale. The polymorphism of classic haplotypes of P. ovale rather than variant forms could be involved.

  10. Latest results of the direct dark matter search with the EDELWEISS-2 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    ,

    2010-01-01

    EDELWEISS-2 is a Ge-bolometer experiment located in the underground laboratory Laboratoire Souterrain de Modane (LSM, France). For the second phase of the experiment, the collaboration has developed new cryogenic detectors with an improved background rejection (interleaved electrodes design, Phys. Lett. B681 (2009) 305). A continuous operation of ten of these bolometers at LSM together with an active muon veto shielding has been achieved. First results based on an effective exposure of 144 kg \\dot d taken in 2009 have been published recently (Phys. Lett. B687 (2010) 29), the acquired data set has since then been doubled. The already published data correspond to an improvement in sensitivity of about 15 compared to EDELWEISS-1. We present and discuss the latest bolometer data including the identification of muon-induced background events and special measurements of muon-induced neutrons in LSM.

  11. The Tutorial Education Program on the Formation of the New Milenium's Meteorologist: 20 Years of Project Experience at Universidade Federal de Pelotas - Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Programa de Educação Tutorial (Tutorial Education Program), also known as "PET", has the objective to finance students with potential, encouraging and providing extracurricular activities in order to promote the integration with the academic market and the development of study programs in graduate school, preparing a professional that in the future will operate in a global market, transforming and fighting for the professional interests of their class. The design of the program dates back to 1970 and is based on the model of learning and guidance to form the student. The groups are composed gradually, through an annual selection. The deployment and implementation of the groups consider the inclusion of new members in different stages of their school program, working in an integrated manner. To apply, students must submit satisfactory academic performance, without failures on any course and commit to devote a minimum of twenty hours per week to the program activities. Deployed at Universidade Federal de Pelotas - Brazil, in 1991, the group has contributed to the training of students of Meteorology through the concept of teaching-research-extension activities. We believe that PET has been of utmost importance in the training of the new millennium's professional, given that the objectives of this program seek to provide an excellent level of academic training to undergraduates, encouraging their entry into the graduate studies; stimulating the improvement of the quality of teaching degree through the development of new practices and teaching experience; multiplying the activities developed by scholars and increase their interactions with program's faculty and other students of the institution. With the highly competitive market requiring specialized professionals, the high investment in students with potential can be reversed for the benefit of the profession.

  12. Latest results on $\\Upsilon$ production in heavy-ion collisions from the STAR experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Vertesi, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We report on the latest measurements of the production of $\\Upsilon$ mesons in heavy-ion collisions from the STAR experiment at RHIC. New measurements of the nuclear modification factors of the $\\Upsilon$(1S+2S+3S) and $\\Upsilon$(1S) states in U+U collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 193 GeV are presented as a function of the number of participants ($N_{part}$) in the collisions. In addition, the suppression of $\\Upsilon$(1S) and $\\Upsilon$(2S+2S) is presented versus the quark-antiquark binding energy. Preliminary results on Upsilon suppression in Au+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 200 GeV, reconstructed via the dimuon channel, are also reported.

  13. Latest results on cosmic ray physics from the ARGO-YBJ experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Mitri, Ivan [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica “E. De Giorgi”, Università del Salento, Lecce (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) - Sezione di Lecce, Lecce (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    Cosmic ray physics in the 10{sup 12}–10{sup 15} eV primary energy range is among the main scientific goals of the ARGO-YBJ experiment. The detector, located in the Cosmic Ray Observatory of Yangbajing (Tibet, China) at 4300 m a.s.l., is a full coverage extensive air shower array consisting of a carpet of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) distributed over an area of more than 10 000 m{sup 2}. The apparatus layout, performance and location offer a unique opportunity for a detailed study of several characteristics of the hadronic component of the cosmic ray flux in an energy window marked by the transition from direct to indirect measurements. Moreover, the analog readout of the RPC signals indeed provides a powerful tool to study, with unprecedented resolution and without saturation, the extensive air shower space–time structure down to few meters from its axis. Latest results concerning the study of cosmic ray energy spectrum, mass composition and arrival directions will be given together with the search for an antiproton signal, the proton–air cross-section measurement, the study of the interplanetary magnetic field, and the effects of the geomagnetic field on secondary particles. Furthermore, particle distributions close to the shower axis are being extensively studied, also giving new inputs, in the very forward region, to the hadronic interaction models currently used for understanding particle physics and cosmic rays up to the highest energies.

  14. Threats from space: 20 years of progress

    CERN Document Server

    Remo, J L

    2014-01-01

    It has been 20 years since planning began for the 1995 United Nations International Conference on Near-Earth Objects. The conference proceedings established the scientific basis for an international organizational framework to support research and collective actions to mitigate a potential near-Earth object (NEO) threat to the planet. Since that time, researchers have conducted telescope surveys that should, within the coming decade, answer many questions about the size, number, and Earth impact probability of these objects. Space explorations to asteroids and comets have been successfully carried out, including sample recovery. Laboratory experiments and computer simulations at Sandia National Laboratories have analyzed the effects of soft X-ray radiation on meteorites - which might help researchers develop a way to redirect an incoming asteroid by vaporizing a thin layer of its surface. An Action Team on NEOs, established in 2001 in response to recommendations of the Third United Nations Conference on the E...

  15. The Titan Haze Simulation Experiment: Latest Laboratory Results and Dedicated Plasma Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciamma-O'Brien, Ella; Raymond, Alexander; Mazur, Eric; Salama, Farid

    2017-06-01

    In Titan’s atmosphere, a complex organic chemistry occurs between its main constituents, N2 and CH4, and leads to the production of larger molecules and solid aerosols.Here, we present the latest results on the gas and solid phase analyses in the Titan Haze Simulation (THS) experiment, developed on the NASA Ames COSmIC simulation chamber. The THS is a unique experimental platform that allows us to simulate Titan’s atmospheric chemistry at Titan-like temperature (200K) by cooling down N2-CH4-based mixtures in a supersonic expansion before inducing the chemistry by plasma. Because of the accelerated gas flow in the expansion, the residence time of the gas in the active plasma region is less than 3 µs. This results in a truncated chemistry that enables us to monitor the first and intermediate steps of the chemistry as well as specific chemical pathways when adding, in the initial gas mixture, heavier molecules that have been detected as trace elements on Titan[1].We discuss the results of recent Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy[2] and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure spectroscopy studies of THS Titan tholins produced in different gas mixtures (with and without acetylene and benzene). Both studies have shown the presence of nitrogen chemistry, and differences in the level and nature of the nitrogen incorporation depending on the initial gas mixture. A comparison of THS MIR spectra to VIMS data has shown that the THS aerosols produced in simpler mixtures, i.e., that contain more nitrogen and where the N-incorporation is in isocyanide-type molecules instead of nitriles, are more representative of Titan’s aerosols.In addition, a new model has been developed to simulate the plasma chemistry in the THS. Electron impact and chemical kinetics equations for more than 120 species are followed. The calculated mass spectra are in good agreement with the experimental THS mass spectra[1], confirming that the short residence time in the plasma cavity limits the growth of

  16. 20 years ago: first collisions (at LEP)

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    It’s been 20 years since the first electron positron collision at LEP, and I have to confess to a little self-indulgence in my message this week. Back then I was a member of the OPAL collaboration, the first to see collisions at LEP just before midnight on 13 August 1989 and almost exactly one month after the first circulating beam. It was a historic moment, and the atmosphere in the OPAL control room, 100 metres underground, was one of anticipation and excitement. We reported back to the LEP control room, champagne duly arrived, and over the next few hours, all the experiments were recording data. The pilot run was as smooth as it could be, and within weeks we were announcing new physics. It’s interesting to contrast the start-up of LEP with that of the LHC. With the benefit of hindsight, LEP seems to have got going without a hitch, and indeed it was a smooth start. We circulated beam on 14 July, much to the joy of one of our host states, and it was just a month ...

  17. Offspring of Depressed Parents: 20 Years Later

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weissman, Myrna M; Wickramaratne, Priya; Warner, Virginia; Nomura, Yoko; Pilowsky, Daniel; Verdeli, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study was a 20-year follow-up of offspring of depressed and nondepressed parents to determine the magnitude and continuity of the risk of parental depression to the offspring. Method...

  18. Organized Improvisation: 20 Years of Organizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weick, Karl E.

    1989-01-01

    Uses 20 years of research on organizing as a way of viewing current research efforts and of laying a foundation for future efforts. Compares organizational adjustments to jazz improvisations. Argues that, because of the relationship between organizational quality and criticism, there is no need for the additional trappings of hierarchy, rules,…

  19. Latest Results of the OSQAR Photon Regeneration Experiment for Axion-Like Particle Search

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Rafik; Duvillaret, Lionel; Finger, Michael; Finger, Miroslav; Flekova, Lucie; Hosek, Jan; Husek, Tomas; Jary, Vladimir; Jost, Remy; Kral, Miroslav; Kunc, Stepan; Macuchova, Karolina; Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Morville, Jérôme; Pugnat, Pierre; Romanini, Daniele; Schott, Matthias; Siemko, Andrzej; Slunecka, Miloslav; Sulc, Miroslav; Vitrant, Guy; Weinsheimer, Christoph; Zicha, Josef

    2014-01-01

    The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment searches for pseudoscalar and scalar axion-like particles by the method of "Light Shining Through a Wall", based on the assumption that these weakly interacting sub-eV particles couple to two photons to give rise to quantum oscillations with optical photons in strong magnetic field. No excess of events has been observed, which constrains the di-photon coupling strength of both pseudoscalar and scalar particles down to $5.7 \\cdot 10^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$ in the massless limit. This result is the most stringent constraint on the di-photon coupling strength ever achieved in laboratory experiments.

  20. 20 YEARS OF PROGRESS IN MALARIA RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kevin Baird

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit No. 2 Detachment (NAMRU, in collaboration with National Institute of Health Research and Development (NIHRD and many other Indonesian government agencies and universities, has conducted studies of malaria throughout Java, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Kalimantan, Flores, Timor, and Irian Jaya. Most studies have characterized the disease epidemiologically by defining the parasitologic distribution of the disease in the population, and by defining the entomologic parameters of local transmission. Studies of patterns of resistance to antimalarials have also been done at many field sites. Several studies on the clinical management of malaria occurred in Rumah Sakit Umum Propinsi in Jayapura. In addition to these studies which impact upon local public health planning policy, immunologic studies routinely occurred in support of the global effort to develop a vaccine against malaria. This report summarizes the progress made in these areas of research during the first 20 years of NAMRU in Indonesia.

  1. Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    An important component of psychoneuroimmunology research is to reveal the myriad ways that behaviors and health are inter-related, with a focus on the immunological mechanisms that underlie these interactions. Research in human psychoneuroimmunology has shown that immunoregulatory processes are an integral part of a complex network of adaptive responses. As such, this review provides a perspective from our laboratory over the last 20 years to define the inter-relationships between behavior and immunity; to identify the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and autonomic mechanisms that link the central nervous system and immune responses; to examine the clinical implications of immune alterations during depression or life stress on inflammatory and infectious disease risk; and to explore the reciprocal role of immune mediators on behavior in humans.

  2. Exploiting the information revolution:call for independent evaluation of the latest English national experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background The English National Health Service (NHS) has a long history of national experiments with information technology; some successful, others less so. The NHS England Five Year Forward View aspires to ‘Exploit the information revolution’ through the transformational work of the National Information Board (NIB). NIB has published a ‘Framework for Action’ that promotes citizen empowerment, information availability, transparency, public trust, innovation, informatics skills and societal v...

  3. Latest Results of the OSQAR Photon Regeneration Experiment for Axion-Like Particle Search

    OpenAIRE

    Ballou, Rafik; Deferne, Guy; Kral, Miroslav; Kunc, Stepan; Macuchova, Karolina; Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Morville, Jérôme; Pugnat, Pierre; Romanini, Daniele; Schott, Matthias; Siemko, Andrzej; Slunecka, Miloslav; Duvillaret, Lionel; Sulc, Miroslav; Vitrant, Guy

    2014-01-01

    The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment searches for pseudoscalar and scalar axion-like particles by the method of ``Light Shining Through a Wall'', based on the assumption that these weakly interacting sub-eV particles couple to two photons to give rise to quantum oscillations with optical photons in strong magnetic field. No excess of events has been observed, which constrains the di-photon coupling strength of both pseudoscalar and scalar particles down to $5.7 \\cdot 10^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$ i...

  4. Latest results of NEXT-DEMO, the prototype of the NEXT 100 double beta decay experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, L; Martin-Albo, J; Sorel, M; Gomez-Cadenas, J J

    2014-01-01

    NEXT-DEMO is a 1:4.5 scale prototype of the NEXT100 detector, a high-pressure xenon gas TPC that will search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe. X-ray energy depositions produced by the de-excitation of Xenon atoms after the interaction of gamma rays from radioactive sources have been used to characterize the response of the detector obtaining the spatial calibration needed for close-to-optimal energy resolution. Our result, 5.5% FWHM at 30 keV, extrapolates to 0.6% FWHM at the Q value of $^{136}$Xe. Additionally, alpha decays from radon have been used to measure several detection properties and parameters of xenon gas such as electron-ion recombination, electron drift velocity, diffusion and primary scintillation light yield. Alpha spectroscopy is also used to quantify the activity of radon inside the detector, a potential source of background for most double beta decay experiments.

  5. Exploiting the information revolution: call for independent evaluation of the latest English national experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Scott

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The English National Health Service (NHS has a long history of national experiments with information technology; some successful, others less so. The NHS England Five Year Forward View aspires to ‘Exploit the information revolution’ through the transformational work of the National Information Board (NIB. NIB has published a ‘Framework for Action’ that promotes citizen empowerment, information availability, transparency, public trust, innovation, informatics skills and societal value.Issue The framework sets out many laudable and common sense ambitions, but is light on evidence to support its aspirations, or plans for its evaluation. Considerable resource was invested in evaluation studies in the later stages of the National Programme for IT in England, but the analyses do not seem to have been included. Most of the cited evidence is from an unpublished report by management consultants rather than independent peer-reviewed work.Recommendation National experiments of this importance should be evidence based and properly evaluated so that each iteration of ‘information revolution’ produces an evidence base to inform subsequent generations of care provision models and technology innovation. Evaluation should be planned from the very start rather than added in as an afterthought. Like any good business plan there should be defined critical success factors for health and social care, and a declaration of how they might be measured. Unintended consequences should be qualitatively explored. Evaluation should also consider critical-interpretive social perspectives to understand the human factors in technology deployment and should seek a theoretically informed insight into the mechanisms of change.Conclusions The NHS Five Year Forward View and the NIB framework set out challenging ambitions based on transformative use of information technology and collaborative partnerships with commissioners and providers. The framework

  6. Exploiting the information revolution: call for independent evaluation of the latest English national experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Philip

    2015-02-19

    The English National Health Service (NHS) has a long history of national experiments with information technology; some successful, others less so. The NHS England Five Year Forward View aspires to 'Exploit the information revolution' through the transformational work of the National Information Board (NIB). NIB has published a 'Framework for Action' that promotes citizen empowerment, information availability, transparency, public trust, innovation, informatics skills and societal value. The framework sets out many laudable and common sense ambitions, but is light on evidence to support its aspirations, or plans for its evaluation. Considerable resource was invested in evaluation studies in the later stages of the National Programme for IT in England, but the analyses do not seem to have been included. Most of the cited evidence is from an unpublished report by management consultants rather than independent peer-reviewed work. National experiments of this importance should be evidence based and properly evaluated so that each iteration of 'information revolution' produces an evidence base to inform subsequent generations of care provision models and technology innovation. Evaluation should be planned from the very start rather than added in as an afterthought. Like any good business plan there should be defined critical success factors for health and social care, and a declaration of how they might be measured. Unintended consequences should be qualitatively explored. Evaluation should also consider critical-interpretive social perspectives to understand the human factors in technology deployment and should seek a theoretically informed insight into the mechanisms of change. The NHS Five Year Forward View and the NIB framework set out challenging ambitions based on transformative use of information technology and collaborative partnerships with commissioners and providers. The framework stands up very well against the Hayes principles, but the learning opportunities

  7. Image quality assessment using the dead leaves target: experience with the latest approach and further investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Uwe

    2015-02-01

    The so-called texture loss is a critical parameter in the objective image quality assessment of todays cameras. Especially cameras build in mobile phones show significant loss of low contrast, fine details which are hard to describe using standard resolution measurement procedures. The combination of very small form factor and high pixel count leads to a high demand of noise reduction in the signal-processing pipeline of these cameras. Different work groups within ISO and IEEE are investigating methods to describe the texture loss with an objective method. The so-called dead leaves pattern has been used for quite a while in this context. Image Engineering presented a new intrinsic approach at the Electronic Imaging Conference 2014, which promises to solve the open issue of the original approach, which could be influenced by noise and artifacts. In this paper, we present our experience with the new approach for a large set of different imaging devices. We show, that some sharpening algorithm found in todays cameras can significantly influence the Spatial Frequency Response based on the Dead Leaves structure (SFRDeadLeaves) results and therefore make an objective evaluation of the perceived image quality even harder. For an objective comparison of cameras, the resulting SFR needs to be reduced to a small set of numbers, ideally a single number. The observed sharpening algorithms lead to much better numerical results, while the image quality already degrades due to strong sharpening. So the measured, high SFRDeadLeaves result is not wrong, as it reflects the artificially enhanced SFR, but the numerical result cannot be used as the only number to describe the image quality. We propose to combine the SFRDeadLeaves measurement with other SFR measurement procedures as described in ISO12233:2014. Based on the three different SFR functions using the dead leaves pattern, sinusoidal Siemens Stars and slanted edges, it is possible to obtain a much better description if the

  8. 20 years' experience in the management of Zenker's diverticulum in a third-level hospital Experiencia de 20 años en el manejo del divertículo de Zenker en un hospital de 3er nivel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ruiz-Tovar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Zenker's diverticulum arises in the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the cricopharyngeal muscle, secondary to a functional cricopharyngeal disorder. We describe our experience with the management of Zenker's diverticulum from 1985 to this day in a third-level hospital. We review clinical data from 27 patients (78% males with a mean age of 60.4 years. The most common clinical manifestations were dysphagia, regurgitation, syalorrhea, cough, and weight loss. All cases were diagnosed using an esophagogram. A diverticulectomy with cricopharingeal myotomy was performed in 74% of patients. Complications developed in 5 cases (21%, and the recurrence rate was 4% (1 of 3 cases, where myotomy was not performed.

  9. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: 1. Course during the 20 years of the epidemic. 2. The experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán: 1986-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Rivera, E Gabriela; Gómez-Roel, Xóchitl; Villasís-Keever, Angelina

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is the description of the epidemiologic evolution and changes in natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic itself and its relation with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL). We have started with the description of the world's state of the HIV epidemic, its features since the first case report in the United States of America in 1981, through the peak of new diagnoses in 1993 until the event that changed the natural history of the disease: the era of the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), introduced in 1995 in the world and in 1997 in our country. The widespread introduction of HAART led to dramatic reductions in AIDS related mortality and morbidity throughout the developed world with a marked fall in the incidence of the major opportunistic infections in AIDS. We describe the main risk factors for the development of ARL, and the prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment. There is no clear definition in the literature of the roll that has played the use of HAART in relation to survival and response to treatment in ARL, but there is evidence that the basal count of CD4 cells has increased with HAART, leading to a better survival and response in ARL. The debate regarding this issue is surely affected by factors such as degree of antiretroviral treatment compliance, antiretroviral therapy resistance and chemotherapy heterogeneity. Finally we present the preliminary results of the analysis of our experience in ARL from 1986 to 2003.

  10. The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E.S. Rocha

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available   The Biochemistry Over 20 Years In The High School Textbooks   Rocha, C. E. S.1; Büttenbender, M. D.1; Denardin, E.L.G.2, Roehrs, R.1,2 1Grupo Interdisciplinar de Pesquisa em Práticas de Ensino, UNIPAMPA, RS. 2Laboratório de Estudos Físico Químicos e Produtos Naturais, UNIPAMPA, RS.   INTRODUCTION: Many teachers make use of textbook to lead content in the classroom. The chemistry books introduce concepts that should relate biochemistry to students in schools. It is important that this first contact turns out into an encouraging experience for the students, because once it worked as expected it arouses interest and makes the students see themselves curious to delve into the subject. The research aims to evaluate the presence of related concepts in biochemistry textbooks in chemistry in high school, over 20 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In order to perform this study, we analyzed the following content related to biochemistry: proteins, carbohydrates, lipids and nucleic acids in the books "Chemistry - Structure of Matter and Organic Chemistry" of the year 1993 and the book "Chemistry in approach to daily life" of the year 2012 with the purpose of verifying the changes in the content of biochemistry in the last 20 years. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: In the 90s, as used in the book, concepts and explanations are introduced in a very objective approach, making a total of 22 pages. The current largest is 23 pages with experiments and curiosities. Through analysis we found that current textbooks present the same issues related to biochemistry, however, a greater amount of data, bringing students to more examples and applications in everyday life. Today we see that the contents and processes are most exploited and that there is a concern on the importance of the study of issues that relate to biochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The study of the biochemistry textbooks has been more attractive in recent years, contextualizing content with the daily life of

  11. Abdominal Tuberculosis in Southeastern Taiwan: 20 Years of Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-Lin Chen

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Abdominal TB is a rare manifestation of extrapulmonary TB, even in southeastern Taiwan where TB is prevalent. Delay in diagnosis is common and abdominal TB should be included in the differential diagnosis of middle-aged aborigine men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis and peritonitis.

  12. Telehealth at UC Davis--a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Thomas S; Dharmar, Madan; Katz-Bell, Jana; Hartvigsen, Gunnar; Marcin, James P

    2013-05-01

    Telehealth at the University of California Health System began as a telefetal monitoring connection with a rural hospital in 1992 and evolved to become the Center for Health and Technology (CHT) in 2000. The Center supports the vision of the University of California Davis (UC Davis) Health System-a healthier world through bold innovation. The CHT focuses on the four pillars of the academic health center: clinical services, research and scholarly work, education, and public service. Since 1996, the Center has provided more than 33,000 telemedicine consultation (excluding teleradiology, telepathology, and phone consultations) in over 30 clinical specialties and at more than 90 locations across California. Research and continuous evaluation have played an integral role in shaping the telehealth program, as well as strategic collaborations and partnerships. In an effort to expand the field of telehealth the CHT provides telehealth training for health professionals, technical specialists, and administrators. Furthermore, it also plays an integral role in workforce development through the education of the next generation of community primary care physicians through Rural Programs In Medical Education (Rural PRIME) and continuing educational programs for working health professionals through videoconferencing and Web-based modalities. The Center is supported through a variety of funding sources, and its sustainability comes from a mix of fee-for-service payment, contracts, grants, gifts, and institutional funding. Together with key partners, UC Davis has educated and informed initiatives resulting in legislation and policies that advance telehealth. Looking toward the future, UC Davis is focused on technology-enabled healthcare and supporting synergy among electronic health records, health information exchange, mobile health, informatics, and telehealth.

  13. Angelman syndrome in Hong Kong Chinese: A 20 years' experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, H M; Lo, Ivan F M

    2016-06-01

    AS(OMIM #105830) is a neurodevelopmental disease that characterized by severe intellectual disability, lack of speech, happy disposition, ataxia, epilepsy and distinct behavioural profile. A tertiary wide study was performed in Hong Kong with aim to examine the clinical and molecular features, genotype-phenotype correlation of the Angelman syndrome (AS) patients. There were total 55 molecularly confirmed AS between January 1995 to September 2015 for review. 65.5% of them were caused by maternal microdeletion, 10.9% by paternal uniparental disomy, 3.6% by imprinting center defect and 14.5% by UBE3A gene mutation. Genotype-phenotype correlation showed epilepsy and microcephaly is more common in microdeletion type as compared with non-microdeletional type. We have concluded that the incidence rate, clinical features and underlying genetic mechanisms in Hong Kong Chinese were comparable with other western populations. The overall average age of diagnosis in this cohort was 6.2 years old (95% C.I was 5.0-7.5 years old). It is hope that by increasing awareness and early referral could result in early diagnosis and better management for AS patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Sperm banking for fertility preservation: a 20-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matrika D; Cooper, Amber R; Jungheim, Emily S; Lanzendorf, Susan E; Odem, Randall R; Ratts, Valerie S

    2013-09-01

    Sperm banking is an effective method to preserve fertility, but is not universally offered to males facing gonadotoxic treatment in the United States. We compared the disposition and semen parameters of cryopreserved sperm from individuals referred for sperm banking secondary to a cancer diagnosis to those of sperm from men banking for infertility reasons. We performed a retrospective cohort study that reviewed 1118 records from males who presented to bank sperm at Washington University between 1991 and 2010. We collected and analyzed demographics, semen parameters, and disposition of banked sperm. Four hundred and twenty-three men with cancer and 348 banking for infertility reasons attempted sperm cryopreservation in our unit during the specified time period. The most prevalent cancers in our cohort were testicular (32%), lymphoma (25%), and leukemia (11%). Patients with leukemia had the lowest pre-thaw counts and motility. Most cancer patients (57%) who banked elected to use, transfer to another facility, or keep their specimens in storage. The remaining samples were discarded electively (34%) or following death (8%). Overall semen parameters were similar between the cancer and infertility groups, but demographics, ability to bank a sample, azoospermia rates, length of storage, current banking status, and use of banked sperm differed significantly between the two groups. The majority of cancer patients who banked survived their cancer and chose to continue storage of banked samples. Cancer patients were more likely than infertility patients to use or continue storage of banked samples. Our study provides evidence that sperm banking is a utilized modality of fertility preservation in patients with a myriad of cancer diagnoses and should be offered to all men facing gonadotoxic therapies. Further work is needed to determine where disparities in access to sperm banking exist to improve the potential for future fertility in these males. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 20 YEARS OF EXPERIENCE WITH SCRAP PREHEATING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je. Apfel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available More and more countries worldwide implement new rules and regulations to improve energy efficiency and cut CO2 and hazardous off-gas emissions. Thus electric steelmakers need technology that keeps costs low, increases productivity and helps them adhere to environmental regulations. Decades of knowledge in preheating technology, and several different innovative applications which had been solution for many unique cases have been brought together and announced in 2010. EAF Quantum was designed as a pragmatic solution that meets requirements for high energy and cost efficiency, increased productivity and lowest emissions. Whether scrap, partly hot metal or direct-reduced iron (DRI is charged, EAF Quantum is the solution for highly productive electric steelmaking at extra low conversion costs.

  16. [20-year experience with laserofluorescent diagnostics in clinical microbiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, M T; Pashkov, E P; Bykov, A S; Gun'ko, V I; Popov, S N; Ivanchenko, O N; Rodionov, A D; Gizatullin, R M

    2011-01-01

    Results of rapid laser-assisted identification of microorganisms for diagnostics of microbial processes based on auto-fluorescence effect in bacteria-containing materials are summarized. It is proposed to use the auto-fluorescence technique for express diagnostics of pyoinflammatory diseases, evaluation of microflora conditions (eubiosis, dysbiosis) and sensitivity to antibiotics, monitoring and prognostication, assessment of the quality of antibiotic therapy. Priority in the development of this medical technology for laserofluorescent diagnostics and its practical application is protected by 15 patents.

  17. My 20 years of experience in the human factors field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnino, A. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria))

    1992-01-01

    My first encounter with human factors happened in early 1973: I was performing a reliability assessment of the safety injection system of the Fessenheim reactor, and I found that the operators had to switch to the recirculation phase manually and had only 6 min between the low and low-low level alarm indicating that the water tank was empty. It of course led us to replace this manual action by an automatic positioning for the recirculation phase. In July of the same year, I attended a North Atlantic Treaty Organization workshop in Liverpool on reliability assessment, and I met Alan Swain from the United States and Jens Rasmussen from Denmark. During the long rainy evenings of the seminar, we had time to discuss human errors and human factors, and that was the beginning of a very fruitful collaboration between us. I realized then the complexity of the problem. Quantification needs were obvious for reliability and risk assessment studies, but, at the same time, there were needs for better understanding of human behavior and the mechanisms that could lead to human errors. Knowledge of the man-machine interface also seemed very poor, although some basic ergonomic rules were available and could be applied. But a major problem was the lack of data.

  18. Back to Pedagogy: The EAP's 20 Years of European Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, Bernard; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The EAP, European School of Management, has evolved a curriculum based on inductive pedagogy. Its five major dimensions are case study method, "memoire," in-company placements, lectures, and language learning. (SK)

  19. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Research: A 20-Year Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Roger L.; Soth-McNett, Angela M.; Moreno, Matthew V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a 20-year content analysis of the entire field of empirical research on the multicultural counseling competencies (D. W. Sue et al., 1982). They conducted an exhaustive search for empirical research articles using PsycINFO, as well as complete reviews of the past 20 years of several journals (e.g., Journal of Counseling…

  20. Radiation protection issues after 20 years of LHC operation

    CERN Document Server

    Forkel-Wirth, D; Roesler, S; Theis, C; Ulrici, L; Vincke, H; Vincke, Hz

    2011-01-01

    Since November 2009, the LHC commissioning progresses very well, both with proton and lead beams. It will continue in 2011 and nominal LHC operation is expected to be attained in 2013. In parallel, plans for various LHC upgrades are under discussion, suggesting a High-Luminosity (HL) upgrade first and a High-Energy (HE) upgrade in a later state. Whereas the upgrade in luminosity would require the modification of only some few key accelerator components like the inner triplets, the upgrade in beam energy from 7 TeV to 16.5 TeV would require the exchange of all dipoles and of numerous other accelerator components. The paper gives an overview of the radiation protection issues related to the dismantling of LHC components prior to the installation of the HE-LHC components, i.e. after about 20 years of LHC operation. Two main topics will be discussed: (i) the exposure of workers to ionizing radiation during the dismantling of dipoles, inner triplets or collimators and experiments and (ii) the production, condition...

  1. Psychiatric disorders revealing multiple sclerosis after 20 years of evolvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aicha Slassi Sennou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that the onset of psychiatric disorders is sometimes associated with multiple sclerosis (MS evolving several years later. However, information on why this might occur, and on the outcomes of such patients, is still lacking. We aim to discuss these limitations with the current paper. We describe a 51-year-old female who demonstrated severe anxiety disorder and depression years before developing MS neurological symptoms. The patient was treated for these psychiatric disorders over 20 years. In the last 3 years of her treatment, the patient demonstrated a choreic-type of movement disorder in all her limbs. This disorder is consistent with relapsing-remitting MS. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examinations demonstrated aspects of MS, without MS being diagnosed conclusively. The visual evoked potential indicated a diagnosis of conduction abnormalities. The established diagnosis was slow relapsing MS. The patient underwent methylprednisolone bolus (1 g/day. This case-study suggests that health professionals should conduct a full neurological assessment when they find atypical psychiatric symptoms in a patient. This would make sure that patients receive a better standard of care, and thus experience a better quality of life.

  2. Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160233.html Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago ... since the late 1980s and early 1990s, the average American has put on 15 or more additional ...

  3. Experience of Google's latest deep learning library, TensorFlow, in a large-scale WLCG cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Gen; Smith, Joshua Wyatt; Quadt, Arnulf [II. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The researchers at the Google Brain team released their second generation's Deep Learning library, TensorFlow, as an open-source package under the Apache 2.0 license in November, 2015. Google has already deployed the first generation's library using DistBlief in various systems such as Google Search, advertising systems, speech recognition systems, Google Images, Google Maps, Street View, Google Translate and many other latest products. In addition, many researchers in high energy physics have recently started to understand and use Deep Learning algorithms in their own research and analysis. We conceive a first use-case scenario of TensorFlow to create the Deep Learning models from high-dimensional inputs like physics analysis data in a large-scale WLCG computing cluster. TensorFlow carries out computations using a dataflow model and graph structure onto a wide variety of different hardware platforms and systems, such as many CPU architectures, GPUs and smartphone platforms. Having a single library that can distribute the computations to create a model to the various platforms and systems would significantly simplify the use of Deep Learning algorithms in high energy physics. We deploy TensorFlow with the Docker container environments and present the first use in our grid system.

  4. From dreams to reality: 20 years of ISU Team Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podhajsky, Sandra; de Negueruela, Cristina

    For more than 20 years the International Space University (ISU) has provided graduate-level training in all aspects of the space arena, with Team Projects playing an important role. Not only do they prepare participants with valuable organizational and project management skills but they also produce valuable studies on important topics for space agencies and industry that are most often a reflection of the current interests. In this paper we look back at 20 years of ISU Team Projects and discuss their value, relevance and how they reflect this period in the history of space activities.

  5. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  6. Lavoisier Preempted Gay-Lussac by 20 Years!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Lavoisier showed that water was formed by chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen. In Lavoisier's "Traite Elementaire" of 1789, he states that the reaction to form water requires exactly two volumes of hydrogen gas to react completely with one volume of oxygen gas. This was 20 years before Gay-Lussac studied the reactions between different…

  7. Teacher Education 1992 and 2012: Reflecting on 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years education for sustainable development (ESD) has become part of the discourse in teacher education and the teaching community has a better grasp of ESD's action-oriented and participatory pedagogies. The International Network of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) associated with the UNESCO Chair on Reorienting Teacher…

  8. LabVIEW 8.20-20 Years of Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Introduction LabVIEW, a graphical development environment for measurement and automation introduced in 1986, has more than 20 years of innovation and continuous improvement. Although introduced as a tool for automating measurements from instruments, LabVIEW has evolved into a graphical system design platform for design, test, and control.

  9. STOMATOLOGICAL FACULTY OF SARATOV STATE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY CELEBRATES - 20 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Googe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Stomatological faculty of SaratovState Medical University was founded in 1988. During 20 years scientific stomatologic school on the basis of all major directions was formed in our university. Greatamountof high professional scientific staff and practitioners was trained.

  10. The Chilean Health System: 20 Years of Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Annick

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990 aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.

  11. Coartação de aorta em crianças até um ano: análise de 20 anos de experiência Coarctation of the aorta in infants under one year of age: an analysis of 20 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Lorier

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão da experiência com diversas técnicas de correção empregadas, nos últimos 20 anos, em crianças menores de um ano de idade. MÉTODOS: No período de 1978 a 1998, foram operados 148 pacientes (pc consecutivos com coartação de aorta (CoAo com até um ano de idade, com ou sem defeitos intracardíacos associados. A idade apresentou mediana de 50 dias, 92 pc do sexo feminino (62,1%. O peso foi de 4.367±1.897 gramas. O seguimento foi em média de 1.152±1.462 dias. A população foi dividida em 3 grupos: Grupo I, CoAo isolada: 74 pc (50%; Grupo II, CoAo e comunicação interventricular (CIV: 41 pacientes (27,7% e Grupo III, CoAo com malformações complexas: 33 pc (22,3%. RESULTADOS: Mortalidade total foi 43 pc (29%: com menos de 30 dias, foi 53%, p=0,009, OR=4,5, entre 31 e 90 dias, foi 14,7%, p=0,69, e acima de 91 dias, 15%, p=0,004. A probabilidade de sobrevida atuarial de toda a população foi de 67% aos 5 e 10 anos. Trinta e seis pacientes (24,3% recoartaram, dos quais 18 pacientes (50% tinham menos de 30 dias, OR=6,35. A incidência de recoartação foi com a técnica de Waldhausen em 4 pacientes (10% e com a término-terminal clássica em 19 pacientes (26% p=0.03, e a istmoplastia em 6 pacientes (37,5%. A probabilidade de sobrevida atuarial livre de recoartação aos 5 e 10 anos foi de 69% com a técnica de Waldhausen e 63% com a técnica término-terminal clássica. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com menos de 30 dias apresentaram risco aumentado de mortalidade e recoartação. A técnica de Waldhausen em pacientes com mais de 30 dias mostrou-se efetiva. A técnica término-terminal clássica mostrou não ser uma boa opção em todas as faixas etárias, sendo imperativo executar variantes técnicas como término-terminal estendida.OBJECTIVE: A review of experience with techniques of correction used, in the last 20 years, in children younger than one year old. METHODS: In the period from 1978 to 1998, 148 patients (pt with

  12. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  13. Glass embedded in labial mucosa for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumanth K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies may be deposited in the oral cavity either by traumatic injury or iatrogenically. Among the commonly encountered iatrogenic foreign bodies are restorative materials like amalgam, obturation materials, broken instruments, needles, etc. Few reports of glass pieces embedded in the soft tissues of the mouth have been published. We report a case where glass pieces had been lodged in the lower labial mucosa for 20 years, with consequent peripheral reactive bone formation.

  14. Mean 20-year followup of Bernese periacetabular osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steppacher, Simon D; Tannast, Moritz; Ganz, Reinhold; Siebenrock, Klaus A

    2008-07-01

    The goal of the Bernese periacetabular osteotomy is to correct the deficient acetabular coverage in hips with developmental dysplasia to prevent secondary osteoarthrosis. We determined the 20-year survivorship of symptomatic patients treated with this procedure, determined the clinical and radiographic outcomes of the surviving hips, and identified factors predicting poor outcome. We retrospectively evaluated the first 63 patients (75 hips) who underwent periacetabular osteotomy at the institution where this technique was developed. The mean age of the patients at surgery was 29 years (range, 13-56 years), and preoperatively 24% presented with advanced grades of osteoarthritis. Four patients (five hips) were lost to followup and one patient (two hips) died. The remaining 58 patients (68 hips) were followed for a minimum of 19 years (mean, 20.4 years; range, 19-23 years) and 41 hips (60%) were preserved at last followup. The overall mean Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score decreased in comparison to the 10-year value and was similar to the preoperative score. We observed no major changes in any of the radiographic parameters during the 20-year postoperative period except the osteoarthritis score. We identified six factors predicting poor outcome: age at surgery, preoperative Merle d'Aubigné and Postel score, positive anterior impingement test, limp, osteoarthrosis grade, and the postoperative extrusion index. Periacetabular osteotomy is an effective technique for treating symptomatic developmental dysplasia of the hip and can maintain the natural hip at least 19 years in selected patients. Level III, prognostic study.

  15. Double Chooz: Latest results

    CERN Document Server

    Crespo-Anadón, J I

    2014-01-01

    The latest results from the Double Chooz experiment on the neutrino mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ are presented. A detector located at an average distance of 1050 m from the two reactor cores of the Chooz nuclear power plant has accumulated a live time of 467.90 days, corresponding to an exposure of 66.5 GW-ton-year (reactor power $\\times$ detector mass $\\times$ live time). A revised analysis has boosted the signal efficiency and reduced the backgrounds and systematic uncertainties compared to previous publications, paving the way for the two detector phase. The measured $\\sin^2 2\\theta_{13} = 0.090^{+0.032}_{-0.029}$ is extracted from a fit to the energy spectrum. A deviation from the prediction above a visible energy of 4 MeV is found, being consistent with an unaccounted reactor flux effect, which does not affect the $\\theta_{13}$ result. A consistent value of $\\theta_{13}$ is measured in a rate-only fit to the number of observed candidates as a function of the reactor power, confirming the robustness of the ...

  16. Latest Research: Genetic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Latest Research: Genetic Links Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents ... inside the eye is a risk factor for glaucoma. Summer 2008 Issue: Volume 3 Number 3 Page ...

  17. 20 Years of Fatty Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A review taking into account the literature reports covering 20 years of fatty acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis is presented. This paper describes the evolution of fatty acid analysis using different CE modes such as capillary zone electrophoresis, non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography employing different detection systems, such as ultraviolet-visible, capacitively coupled contactless conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry. In summary, the present review signals that CE seems to be an interesting analytical separation technique that is very useful for screening analysis or quantification of the usual fatty acids present in different matrices, offering short analysis times and a simple sample preparation step as inherent advantages in comparison with the classical methodology, making it a separation technique that is very attractive for quality control in industry and government agencies.

  18. Wind turbines - facts from 20 years of technological progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Dannemand Andersen, P. [Risoe Ntaional Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The first Danish commercial wind turbines were installed in the late 1970s. Over the last 20 years the Danish wind turbine market has been relatively stable concerning annual installations, and the wind turbine technology has been able to develop continuously. This gives a unique time track for technology analysts. The aim of this paper is to extract reliable information on this time track from existing archives and statistics. Seven generations of wind turbine technology have been identified mainly based on `characteristic` rotor diameters. The technological development of each generation is described using indicators such as: market share in Denmark, generator size, rotor diameter, hub height, electricity production and productivity. Economical indicators comprise: costs of turbine and standard foundation. (au)

  19. Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-16

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.

  20. Corpus Use and Learning to Translate, almost 20 years on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Rodríguez-Inés

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It is almost 20 years since a series of conferences known as CULT (Corpus Use and Learning to Translate started. The first and second took place in Bertinoro, Italy, back in 1997 and 2000, respectively. The third was held in 2004 in Barcelona, and the fourth in 2015 in Alicante. Each was organized by a few enthusiastic lecturers and scholars who also happened to be corpus lovers. Guy Aston, Silvia Bernardini, Dominic Stewart and Federico Zanettin, from the Universitá di Bologna; Allison Beeby, Patricia Rodríguez-Inés and Pilar Sánchez-Gijón, from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona; and Daniel Gallego-Hernández, from the Universidad de Alicante, organized CULT conferences in the belief that spreading the word about the usefulness of corpora for teaching and professional translation purposes would have positive results.

  1. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Cuni-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1, monodominant Okoume forest (F2; young Marantaceae forest (F3; and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4 in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1 and increased Basal Area (F2, whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types.

  2. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  3. 20 years of microplasma research: a status report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbach, Karl H.; Becker, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    The field of microplasmas gained recognition as a well-defined area of research and application within the larger field of plasma science and technology about 20 years ago. Since then, the activity in microplasma research and applications has continuously increased. A survey of peer reviewed papers on microplasmas published annually shows a steady increase from fewer than 20 papers in 1995 to about 75 in 2005 and more than 150 in 2014. This count excludes papers that deal exclusively with technological applications where the microplasma is used solely as a tool. This topical review aims to provide a snap shot of the current state of microplasma research and applications. Given the rapid proliferation of microplasma applications, the topical review will focus primarily on the status of microplasma science and our understanding of the physics principles that enable microplasma operation. Where appropriate, we will also address microplasma applications, however, we will limit the discussion of microplasma applications to examples where the application is closely tied to the plasma science. No attempt is made to provide a comprehensive and in-depth review of the diverse range of all microplasma applications, except for the inclusion of a few key references to recent reviews of microplasma applications.

  4. 20 year old lady with a paraspinal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Toole, Orna

    2010-05-01

    A 20 year old female presented with a 4 month history of right upper limb pain and paraesthesias. She had no systemic symptoms and no prior medical or family history of note. MRI revealed a right-sided intradural extramedullary mass extending from C7-T1 and displacing the spinal cord. While awaiting surgery her symptoms progressed to involve the right lower limb. She was re-imaged and the lesion now extended from C5 to T3 with spinal cord compression at C7-T1. The radiological features and recent rapid growth were felt to be in keeping with a large plexiform neurofibroma. The patient underwent emergency resection of the lesion and pathology revealed Hodgkin\\'s Lymphoma (HL)-mixed cellularity type. A mediastinal mass was identified on further imaging and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of HL-stage IV. The patient is currently undergoing treatment with ABVD chemotherapy. CNS-HL is extremely rare and may occur de novo or in association with systemic disease. Lesions may be parenchymal or dural based and are usually intracranial with an increased risk of CNS involvement in HL-mixed-cellularity type as in our patient. This is the first report in the literature of CNS-HL radiologically mimicking a paraspinal plexiform neurofibroma.

  5. Nuclear Poland? The second approach after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, L.; Gołębiewski, T.; Fornalski, K.W.; Gadja, D.

    2015-07-01

    Poland’s plan for reorganization of its energy mix is to construct several nuclear reactors (2 NPPs with number of units depending on reactor type) of total capacity 6000 MW. It is assumed that energy from NPPs will provide up to 19% of the electricity production in Poland after 2035. Currently there is no nuclear power plant in operation. The previous nuclear programme was canceled in 1990. Almost 20 years later Polish government has undertaken second attempt to construct first NPP by adoption of The Polish Nuclear Power Program in January 2014. Since that moment were started intensive preparations to implement many legal regulations related to future nuclear industry in Poland e.g. Atomic Law amendment. In the same year the Owner’s Engineer was chosen by the main investor PGE S.A. Following “nuclear” a lot of Polish Universities launched studies connected with the subject to ensure employees for deployment and sustaining of nuclear technologies in Poland. This paper describes the rationale staying behind the government decision, present situation of Polish energy market and current work status. (Author)

  6. Who Needs a Revision? 20 Years of Cambridge Shunt Lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czosnyka, Zofia; Czosnyka, Marek; Pickard, John D; Chari, Aswin

    2016-01-01

    Shunt testing independent of manufacturers provides knowledge that can significantly improve the management of patients with hydrocephalus. The Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory was created 20 years ago. Thanks to financial support from the Department of Health (1993-1998), all shunts in use in the UK were systematically evaluated, with "blue reports" being published. Later new devices were tested as they appeared in public domain.Twenty-six models have been evaluated. The majority of the valves had a non-physiologically low hydrodynamic resistance that may result in over-drainage, both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100-200 %. Drainage through valves without a siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture. Shunts with siphon-preventing accessories offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure. Bench parameters were used to test shunt performance in vivo using infusion tests. A criterion for correctly performing a shunt procedure was established. Pressure measured in the shunt prechamber during the plateau phase of infusion should not remain more than 5 mmHg above the le shunt's operating pressure plus hydrodynamic resistance of the valve multiplied by the infusion rate. "Critical levels" for every shunt and every performance level have been used in the shunt testing wizard of ICM+ software.

  7. Keywords Review of IT Security Literature in Recent 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lidong

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The volume of published scientific literature available on Internet has been increasing exponentially. Some of them reflect the latest achievement of the specific research domain. In recent years, many projects have been funded aiming to online scientific literature mining, especially in biomedical research. Scientific literature covers most of the hot topics in the research field and has a very large domain-specific vocabulary. The exploitation of domain knowledge and specialized vocabulary can dramatically improve the result of literature text processing. The purpose of this paper is to identify the frequently used keywords in IT security literatures. The result then can be utilized to improve the performance of automatic IT security document retrieval, identification and classification. Our method is to query CiteseeX to retrieve source data of paper description information and build an artificially annotated corpus. Over the corpus, we perform words frequency statistics, word co-occurrence analysis, discrimination index computation, retrieval efficiency analysis and thus build a lexicon of IT security based on our experimental result. The lexicon can further be used in improving retrieval performance and assisting new words discovering and document classification.

  8. Over 20 Years of Progress in Radiation Oncology: Seminoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas

    1997-04-01

    During the past 20 years, significant changes have occurred in the management of seminoma. Survival has improved by approximately 10%, and now 97% of patients are cured. Reductions in the numbers of patients irradiated, the volumes irradiated, and the doses used should reduce morbidity. The 1973 Patterns of Care Study (PCS) and the planned new study proffer statements of consensus on optimal care and evaluate compliance with guidelines. Specific changes in investigation, including measurement of the serum tumor markers beta human choriaonic gonadotropin (betaHCG) and alphafetoprotein (AFP) and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of the retroperitoneum, better evaluate disease extent. For stage I disease, a reduction in the total dose of infradiaphragmatic irradiation to 2,500 cGy is recommended. An option for surveillance reduces unnecessary therapy in 80% and may improve fertility. The significance of disease bulk in stage II has been recognized, and treatment has been refined. The maximal radiation dose now recommended for stage II disease is 3,500 cGy. CT definition of radiation target volumes minimizes the risk of geographic miss. Prophylactic mediastinal irradiation is no longer recommended. Chemotherapy, usually now bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin, produces high cure rates for stage IID, IIImanagemetn. Controversy still surrounds optimal therapy for stage IIC disease. Unresolved questions include cost benefit and quality of life issues surrounding optimal management for stage I disease, inguinal scrotal irradiation in stage I and II disease, and identification of the least toxic but effective chemotherapy for specific subgroups of patients with advanced disease.

  9. The Latest Fashion Trends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Twice each year Chinese designers reveal the latest fashion trends. Working together with mills and garment enterprises, riley turn the study and prediction of prevailing styles into the driving force for the fashion industry’s development. Different clothing manufacturers may understand and make use of such trend analysis according to the specific kinds of garments they produce, one of the important elements in today’s garment production.

  10. [Losing one's father at 20 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapados, C; Migneron, L; Arcand, L

    1997-01-01

    At first intending to describe and understand how all family members experience mourning, three researchers at the Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières found that very few studies have dealt with young men's reactions to the deaths of their fathers. The researchers then conducted a qualitative study, using a phenomenological approach, of this as yet little-explored subject. This study, Le deuil tel qu'expérimenté par les fils lors du décès de leur père (Grieving as experienced by sons on their fathers' death), enabled them to describe and better understand what young men experience on their fathers' death. The father was an important figure in the subjects' lives, and his death was a pivotal experience for each of them. The family structure was shattered and, while each subject's experience was unique, their intense reactions resemble those described by grief theorists. In a detailed discussion of the results of the study, the authors relate these results to theories on grief and youth, and suggest applications in nursing practice.

  11. [Occupational medicine in Desio: 20 years of activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoletto, F

    1998-01-01

    We describe the main factors determining the evolution of the Occupational Medicine Department of Desio Hospital (UOOML) during last twenty years. We report the more meaningful experiences achieved during this period of time. We also describe the present organization of the department in relation to the main activities.

  12. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  13. Promoting renewable energy: Lessons learned from 20 years of experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Reinhard; Meyer, Niels I; Held, Anne

    2008-01-01

    the fastest deployment of power plants using RES-E at the lowest cost to society; (iii) promotion strategies with low policy risks have lower profit requirements for investors and, hence, cause lower costs to society. The world-wide experience in promoting RES-E has shown that the “one size fits all” approach...... of European renewable legislation. The most important conclusions of this analysis are: (i) regardless of which strategy is chosen, it is of superior relevance that there is a clear focus on the promotion of newly installed plants; (ii) currently, a well-designed (dynamic) feed-in tariff system provides......Currently, the promotion of electricity generated from Renewable Energy Sources (RES-E) has gained high priority in the energy policy strategies of many countries world-wide. Since RES-E contribute to climate protection and security of electricity supply their market deployment has been supported...

  14. 20 years of cleft lip and palate missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, J Thomas; Kreusch, Thomas; Marsh, Jeff L; Schopper, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Volunteer missions for cleft lip and palate (CLP) care in Indonesia (1991-1992), India (1994-2003), Bhutan (2005-2010), and Kenya (2011), took place always at the same Hospital in each country. Altogether over a thousand patients were operated using a conservative protocol: Safety first - no experiments. Five months and 5 kg were the basic rules. For the native doctors, training help for self-help was priority. In the announcements, patients with CLP were primarily addressed. Burns, contractions, tumors, and trauma-cases were the second priority. Fresh trauma was done in night shifts with the local surgeons in order not to interfere. Besides facial esthetics speech was the number one issue, following priorities fell into place. Cultural aspects played a certain role in the different countries and continents.

  15. Adolescents and Pornography: A Review of 20 Years of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jochen; Valkenburg, Patti M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review was to systematize empirical research that was published in peer-reviewed English-language journals between 1995 and 2015 on the prevalence, predictors, and implications of adolescents' use of pornography. This research showed that adolescents use pornography, but prevalence rates varied greatly. Adolescents who used pornography more frequently were male, at a more advanced pubertal stage, sensation seekers, and had weak or troubled family relations. Pornography use was associated with more permissive sexual attitudes and tended to be linked with stronger gender-stereotypical sexual beliefs. It also seemed to be related to the occurrence of sexual intercourse, greater experience with casual sex behavior, and more sexual aggression, both in terms of perpetration and victimization. The findings of this review need to be seen against the background of various methodological and theoretical shortcomings, as well as several biases in the literature, which currently precludes internally valid causal conclusions about effects of pornography on adolescents.

  16. 20 years of cleft lip and palate missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrecht, J. Thomas; Kreusch, Thomas; Marsh, Jeff L.; Schopper, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Volunteer missions for cleft lip and palate (CLP) care in Indonesia (1991-1992), India (1994-2003), Bhutan (2005-2010), and Kenya (2011), took place always at the same Hospital in each country. Altogether over a thousand patients were operated using a conservative protocol: Safety first - no experiments. Five months and 5 kg were the basic rules. For the native doctors, training help for self-help was priority. In the announcements, patients with CLP were primarily addressed. Burns, contractions, tumors, and trauma-cases were the second priority. Fresh trauma was done in night shifts with the local surgeons in order not to interfere. Besides facial esthetics speech was the number one issue, following priorities fell into place. Cultural aspects played a certain role in the different countries and continents. PMID:25593861

  17. Superior Canal Dehiscence Syndrome: Lessons from the First 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan K. Ward

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was first reported by Lloyd Minor and colleagues in 1998. Patients with a dehiscence in the bone overlying the superior semicircular canal experience symptoms of pressure or sound-induced vertigo, bone conduction hyperacusis, and pulsatile tinnitus. The initial series of patients were diagnosed based on common symptoms, a physical examination finding of eye movements in the plane of the superior semicircular canal when ear canal pressure or loud tones were applied to the ear, and high-resolution computed tomography imaging demonstrating a dehiscence in the bone over the superior semicircular canal. Research productivity directed at understanding better methods for diagnosing and treating this condition has substantially increased over the last two decades. We now have a sound understanding of the pathophysiology of third mobile window syndromes, higher resolution imaging protocols, and several sensitive and specific diagnostic tests. Furthermore, we have a treatment (surgical occlusion of the superior semicircular canal that has demonstrated efficacy. This review will highlight some of the fundamental insights gained in SCDS, propose diagnostic criteria, and discuss future research directions.

  18. Celebrating 20 years of the discovery of the top quark

    CERN Document Server

    Azzi, P

    2015-01-01

    An historical recount of the events leading to the discovery of the top quark in 1995 by the CDF and DO experiments at the Tevatron. 1 Introduction This presentation brings us back to the early nineties. It is interesting to picture ourselves without iphone and laptops, working on DEC VAX and having to stay in the office to work because there was no internet at home. The programming language was Fortran and plots were made with PAW. Detectors were becoming bigger and more complex, but no Silicon detector had been tried in a hadron collider yet. To put things in perspective for the LHC physicist of today: the MonteCarlo programs of the time did not differentiate between heavy and light quarks (VECBOS), there were no b-tagging algorithms, it was not clear that a Silicon detector could survive the radiation environement of an hadron collider such as the Tevatron and collecting data took a long time (one year for 20 pb-1). Nonetheless, working at the most powerful accelerator of the time was as exciting as it tod...

  19. Responses of soil nutrient to driving mechanism in Taihu Lake basin in last 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study is to understand the changing law of soil nutrient quality in Taihu Lake basin, Yangtze Delta in last 20 years, and reveal the relationship between soil nutrient changes and human driving forces in regional level over long period of time. Experiment on long-term collecting samples was conducted to study changes of soil organic matter, total N, available N, available P and available K in Dongting town, Wuxi city during the last 20 years. The paper analyses the co-relationship of the fluctuation of soil nutrient and state policy, cultivating practice, agricultural input, and per hectare agricultural net income. The results showed that at first the content of soil organic matter increased, then decreased, and increased again. The content of total N and available N steadily increased. The content of available K and available P steadily decreased. The authors found that the influence of state policy and cultivating practice on soil nutrient quality index (SNQI) is obvious, agricultural input and SNQI are positively correlated, and per hectare agricultural net income and SNQI are negatively correlated.

  20. Processes and outcomes of psychotherapists' personal therapy: Replication and extension 20 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bike, Denise H; Norcross, John C; Schatz, Danielle M

    2009-03-01

    In this replication and extension of a national survey of psychotherapists conducted in 1987, American psychologists (n = 219), counselors (n = 191), and social workers (n = 192) reported in 2007 on the processes and outcomes of their personal therapy experiences. Of the 85% who sought therapy at least once, women, men, and members of all three professions were equally as likely to have received personal treatment. Their top reasons for seeking therapy were marital-couple distress (20%), depression (13%), need for self-understanding (12%), and anxiety-stress (10%). Approximately 24% used psychotropic medication in combination with personal therapy. More than 90% of therapists reported positive outcomes across multiple domains. The modal lasting lessons from personal treatment related to therapist reliability, skill, and empathy. The results are tentatively compared with those obtained in 1987, thus chronicling the evolution of personal therapy among psychologists and social workers during the past 20 years. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Sagnac effect: 20 years of development in matter-wave interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Barrett, Brynle; Dutta, Indranil; Meunier, Matthieu; Canuel, Benjamin; Gauguet, Alexandre; Bouyer, Philippe; Landragin, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Since the first atom interferometry experiments in 1991, measurements of rotation through the Sagnac effect in open-area atom interferometers has been studied. These studies have demonstrated very high sensitivity which can compete with state-of-the-art optical Sagnac interferometers. Since the early 2000s, these developments have been motivated by possible applications in inertial guidance and geophysics. Most matter-wave interferometers that have been investigated since then are based on two-photon Raman transitions for the manipulation of atomic wave packets. Results from the two most studied configurations, a space-domain interferometer with atomic beams and a time-domain interferometer with cold atoms, are presented and compared. Finally, the latest generation of cold atom interferometers and their preliminary results are presented.

  2. Can a 70-Year-Old Have the Arteries of A 20-Year-Old?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166076.html Can a 70-Year-Old Have the Arteries of a 20-Year-Old? It's possible, but hard work ... having the clear, supple, healthy blood vessels of a 20-year-old in your 70s. It's possible, ...

  3. DGMK technical meeting: SCC - latest developments and experiences in practice. Papers; DGMK-Fachtagung: SCC - Neueste Entwicklungen und Erfahrungen aus der Praxis. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    Occupational safety and health management systems were the topic of the DGMK meeting. Certification of industrial plants by Safety Certificat Contractors (SSC) becomes a competitive property in mineral oil industry. Experiences, training of employees, accident statistics and health improvement of various enterprises are reported. (uke)

  4. Latest LHCb results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinelli Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCb experiment is one of the major research projects at the Large Hadron Collider. Its acceptance and instrumentation is optimised to perform high-precision studies of flavour physics and particle production in a unique kinematic range at unprecedented collision energies. Using large data samples accumulated in the years 2010-2012, the LHCb collaboration has conducted a series of measurements providing a sensitive test of the Standard Model and strengthening our knowledge of flavour physics, QCD and electroweak processes. The status of the experiment and some of its recent results are presented here.

  5. Quit Smoking: Latest NIH Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Quit Smoking Latest NIH Research Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table ... with chest X-rays. Clinical Trials Related to Smoking Clinical trials are scientific studies that try to ...

  6. De Novo Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Kidney Allograft 20 Years after Transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Banshodani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC in a kidney allograft is rare. We report the successful diagnosis and treatment of a de novo RCC in a nonfunctioning kidney transplant 20 years after engraftment. A 54-year-old man received a kidney transplant from his mother when he was 34 years old. After 10 years, chronic rejection resulted in graft failure, and the patient became hemodialysis-dependent. Intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT for the evaluation of gastrointestinal symptoms revealed a solid 13 mm tumor in the kidney graft. The tumor was confirmed on ultrasound examination. This tumor had not been detected on a surveillance noncontrast CT scan. Needle biopsy showed that the tumor was an RCC. Allograft nephrectomy was performed. Pathological examination showed that the tumor was a Fuhrman Grade 2 RCC. XY-fluorescence hybridization analysis of the RCC showed that the tumor cells were of donor origin. One year after the surgery, the patient is alive and has no evidence of tumor recurrence. Regardless of whether a kidney transplant is functioning, it should periodically be imaged for RCC throughout the recipient’s lifetime. In our experience, ultrasonography or CT with intravenous contrast is better than CT without contrast for the detection of tumor in a nonfunctioning kidney transplant.

  7. Hydrographic changes during 20 years in the brine-filled basins of the Red Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anschutz, Pierre; Blanc, Gérard; Chatin, Fabienne; Geiller, Magali; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    1999-10-01

    Many of the deep basins filled by hot brines in the Red Sea have not been investigated since their discovery in the early 1970s. Twenty years later, in September 1992, six of these deeps were revisited. The temperature and salinity of the Suakin, Port Sudan, Chain B, and Nereus deeps ranged from 23.25 to 44.60°C and from 144 to 270‰. These values were approximately the same in 1972, indicating that the budget of heat and salt was quite balanced. We measured strong gradients of properties in the transition zone between brines and overlying seawater. The contribution of salinity to the density gradient was more than one order of magnitude higher than the opposite contribution of temperature across the seawater-brine interface. Therefore the interface was extemely stable, and the transfer of properties across it was considered to be controlled mostly by molecular diffusion. We calculate that the diffusional transport of salt from the brines to seawater cannot affect significantly the salinity of the brines over a 20 year period, which agrees with the observations. The brine pools can persist for centuries with no salt input. Therefore, the persisence of brines does not correspond to a steady balance between diffusional loss and continuous input of hydrothermal solutions. Deeps that experience only episodical hydrothermal brine supplies may persist for a long time with salt inherited from past inputs. The theoretical loss of heat by diffusion from the brine to seawater was higher than the observed decrease in temperature of the brine pool during the 20 year period of observation. We calculated that the heat flux out of the pools into the overlying seawater was compensated by a heat flux into the pools of about 250-600 mW/m 2. This range of values corresponds to bottom heat flow values that have been reported earlier for the axial zone of the Red Sea. In contrast to the other brine pools, the temperature and salinity of the Valdivia Deep brine increased by 4.1°C and

  8. Fracture of the acetabulum in a 14-year-old patient: 20-year review

    OpenAIRE

    Sprenger, T.R.; Howard, F M

    2001-01-01

    A case report of 14-year old female with an acetabular fracture involving the anterior column and posterior column-posterior wall is presented here and the findings on 20-year follow-up are described.

  9. Suicide risk in schizophrenia – a follow-up study after 20 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide risk in schizophrenia – a follow-up study after 20 years. ... South African Journal of Psychiatry. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Crosstabulations were then performed to identify factors associated with increased suicide risk. For those subjects ...

  10. An analysis of prior enlisted officer retention at the 20- year point

    OpenAIRE

    Molloy, Randall; Fletterich, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis compares the retention rates of prior and non-prior enlisted naval officers who have served 20 years and are eligible to retire, and it finds that prior enlisted officers leave the Navy after 20 years of service at a greater rate, 310 percent, than non-prior enlisted colleagues. Furthermore, this study tests whether expanding the existing talent pool through increased diversification can offset talent leakage among the off...

  11. Management of children with disorders of sex development:20-year experience in southern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somchit Jaruratanasirikul; Vorapun Engchaun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a group of sexual differentiation disorders resulting in genital anomalies with defects in gonadal hormone synthesis and/or incomplete genital development. These conditions result in problems concerning the sex assignment of the child. This study aims to describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of children with DSD in southern Thailand. Methods: The medical records of 117 pediatric patients diagnosed with DSD during the period of 1991- 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Results: Disorders of sex development were categorized into 3 groups: sex chromosome abnormalities (53.0%), 46,XX DSD (29.9%) and 46,XY DSD (17.1%). The two most common etiologies of DSD were Turner syndrome (36.8%) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (29.9%). Ambiguous genitalia/intersex was the main problem in 46,XX DSD (94%) and 46,XY DSD (100%). Sex reassignment was done in 5 children (4.3%) at age of 3-5 years: from male to female in 4 children (1 patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 1 patient with 45,X/46,XY DSD, and 2 patients with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD) and from female to male in 1 patient with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Of the total 20 children with 46,XY DSD, 16 (80%) were raised as females. Conclusion: Management of DSD children has many aspects of concern. Sex assignment/reassignment depends on the phenotype (phallus size) of the external genitalia rather than the sex chromosome.

  12. Portal vein thrombosis in children and adolescents: 20 years experience of a pediatric hepatology reference center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Menezes Ferri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Portal vein thrombosis refers to a total or partial obstruction of the blood flow in this vein due to a thrombus formation. It is an important cause of portal hypertension in the pediatric age group with high morbidity rates due to its main complication - the upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVE: To describe a group of patients with portal vein thrombosis without associated hepatic disease of the Pediatric Hepatology Clinic of the Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil with emphasis on diagnosis, presentation form and clinical complications, and the treatment of portal hypertension. METHODS: This is a descriptive study of a series of children and adolescents cases assisted from January 1990 to December 2010. The portal vein thrombosis diagnosis was established by ultrasound. RESULTS: Of the 55 studied patients, 30 (54.5% were male. In 29 patients (52.7%, none of the risk factors for portal vein thrombosis was observed. The predominant form of presentation was the upper gastrointestinal bleeding (52.7%. In 20 patients (36.4%, the initial manifestation was splenomegaly. During the whole following period of the study, 39 patients (70.9% showed at least one episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The mean age of patients in the first episode was 4.6 ± 3.4 years old. The endoscopic procedure carried out in the urgency or electively for search of esophageal varices showed its presence in 84.9% of the evaluated patients. The prophylactic endoscopic treatment was performed with endoscopic band ligation of varices in 31.3% of patients. Only one died due to refractory bleeding. CONCLUSIONS: The portal vein thrombosis is one of the most important causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children. In all non febrile children with splenomegaly and/or hematemesis and without hepatomegaly and with normal hepatic function tests, it should be suspect of portal vein thrombosis. Thus, an appropriate diagnostic and treatment approach is desirable in an attempt to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  13. Cryogenic Storage of Cereal Grains: Results from a 20 Year Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper compares the viability of small grains stored under conventional (-18oC) or cryogenic conditions (vapor above liquid nitrogen(LN)) for 22 to 25 years at the National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation. Several accessions of different small grains crops were split in 1984-1987, stor...

  14. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in Finland: technological and physical prospects after 20 years of experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Sauli; Kortesniemi, Mika; Timonen, Marjut; Reijonen, Vappu; Kuusela, Linda; Uusi-Simola, Jouni; Salli, Eero; Koivunoro, Hanna; Seppälä, Tiina; Lönnroth, Nadja; Välimäki, Petteri; Hyvönen, Heini; Kotiluoto, Petri; Serén, Tom; Kuronen, Antti; Heikkinen, Sami; Kosunen, Antti; Auterinen, Iiro

    2013-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a binary radiotherapy method developed to treat patients with certain malignant tumours. To date, over 300 treatments have been carried out at the Finnish BNCT facility in various on-going and past clinical trials. In this technical review, we discuss our research work in the field of medical physics to form the groundwork for the Finnish BNCT patient treatments, as well as the possibilities to further develop and optimize the method in the future. Accordingly, the following aspects are described: neutron sources, beam dosimetry, treatment planning, boron imaging and determination, and finally the possibilities to detect the efficacy and effects of BNCT on patients.

  15. Experience in cochlear reimplantation. Descriptive study of a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Salazar, Andrés; Cop, Constanze; Osorio-Acosta, Ángel; Borkoski-Barreiro, Silvia; Falcón-González, Juan C; Ramos-Macías, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    The cochlear implant is a surgical procedure that has increased substantially, because the paediatric population is diagnosed and implanted early and because there are increased potential indications. This device has the inherent risk of failure in performance, as dies any active medical device, which is the most common cause of implant removal. Our goal was to understand what the causes that produced removal in our series were, and confirm if these conformed to reality as reviewed in the literature. This was a retrospective, descriptive, observational study of 859 cochlear implant surgeries carried out between October 1991 and May 2011. The causes of implant removal were classified according to the European Consensus Statement on Cochlear Implant Failures and Explantations. The reimplantation rate was 6.16% (n=51). The most common reason for removal was technical device failure (45.5%), followed by infection/rejection (23.6%) and upgrade (12.7%). Less common causes: there were 3 cases (5.6%) of electrode misplacement, 2 cases (3.6%) of labyrinthine ossification, 2 (3.6%) as a result of head trauma, 2 (3.6%) from need for nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and 1 case (1.8%) from psychiatric illness. Cochlear reimplantation is a safe procedure, with a low complication rate. In our centre, it reaches an overall rate of 6.16%. Technical device failure remains the most common cause of this procedure, although there is a significant percentage of reimplantation for device update. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality assurance guidelines for surgical outreach programs: a 20-year experience

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eberlin, Kyle R; Zaleski, Katherine L; Snyder, H Dennis; Hamdan, Usama S

    2008-01-01

    .... Inadequate medical facilities and equipment, coupled with a short mission duration and the lack of substantial integration with the local medical community, greatly increase the risk of unnecessary...

  17. [Palliative Care Network - 20 years of experiences from Ticino / Southern Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Hans; Gamondi, Claudia

    2012-02-01

    The PC program of the Italian speaking part of Switzerland (Ticino) has been developed bottom up since 1990. It was started with a palliative homecare service, called Hospice Ticino. Six years later PC consultant teams were introduced in the public hospitals. Finally in 2003 an acute palliative care unit was opened. Few resources are still lacking to ensure a comprehensive network, especially in the private clinics and in the elderly homes. Through the newly implemented National Strategy in PC 2010 - 12, the government of Canton Ticino has been charged with promoting a comprehensive, strategic and operative program in PC in order to guarantee access to high quality PC to every patient wherever he choses to be cared for. The article describes the history of Ticino's palliative care program, highlighting some of its controversial issues.

  18. Cochlear implantation in chronic otitis media and previous middle ear surgery: 20 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, V; Pasanisi, E; Bacciu, A; Bacciu, S; Zini, C

    2014-08-01

    Cochlear implantation in the setting of chronic otitis media or previous middle ear surgery poses several problems for the surgeon: possible spread of infection to the cochlea and the subarachnoid spaces with consequent meningitis, risk of electrode array extrusion and possible recurrence of the original disease. Several surgical strategies have been proposed to overcome these problems. In the present study, clinical and functional results of cochlear implantation in 26 patients with chronic otitis media (8 cases) or previous middle ear surgery (18 cases) in the ear most suitable for implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 8 patients with chronic otitis media, in 7 cases a subtotal petrosectomy associated with external auditory canal closure and mastoid and Eustachian tube obliteration was performed, while in the remaining patient cochlear implantation was done 6 months after a myringoplasty. The only complication observed was a reperforation of the tympanic membrane in this latter patient. Among the 18 patients with previous middle ear surgery, 2 had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy and were implanted utilising the previous surgical approach. In the remaining 16 patients who had a radical cavity, an open technique was maintained in 3 cases; a cavity revision associated to external auditory canal closure, Eustachian tube and mastoid obliteration was performed in 12 patients, while in one case a middle cranial fossa approach was utilised. Two of the 3 patients in whom an open technique was maintained have experienced electrode array extrusion. The only complication observed in the remaining patients was the breakdown of the external auditory canal closure in one case. No problems were noted in patients who had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy as well as in the subject implanted via the middle cranial fossa approach. All patients achieved and maintained good hearing performance over time. Subtotal petrosectomy associated with external auditory canal closure, Eustachian tube occlusion and mastoid obliteration is an effective procedure to facilitate cochlear implantation in presence of chronic otitis media. The open cavity technique offers the advantage of a close clinical examination, but may expose the patient to the risk of electrode array extrusion, mainly in the long-term period.

  19. Diagnosis and management of choledochal cyst: 20 years of single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelhak, Nabil; Shehta, Ahmed; Hamed, Hosam

    2014-06-14

    We report the first case series from Africa and the Middle East on choledochal cyst, a disease which shows significant geographical distribution with high incidence in the Asian population. In this study, the epidemiological data of the patients are presented and analyzed. Attention was paid to diagnostic imaging and its accuracy in the diagnosis and classification of choledochal cyst. Most cases of choledochal cyst disease have type I and IV-A cysts according to the Todani classification system, which support the etiological theories of choledochal cyst, especially Babbitt's theory of the anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction, which are clearly stated. The difficulties and hazards of surgical management and methods used to avoid operative complications are clarified. Early and late postoperative complications are also included. This study should be followed by multicenter studies throughout Egypt to help assess the incidence of choledochal cysts in one of the largest populations in Africa and the Middle East.

  20. Management of children with disorders of sex development: 20-year experience in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaruratanasirikul, Somchit; Engchaun, Vorapun

    2014-05-01

    Disorders of sex development (DSD) is a group of sexual differentiation disorders resulting in genital anomalies with defects in gonadal hormone synthesis and/or incomplete genital development. These conditions result in problems concerning the sex assignment of the child. This study aims to describe the clinical features, diagnosis and management of children with DSD in southern Thailand. The medical records of 117 pediatric patients diagnosed with DSD during the period of 1991-2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Disorders of sex development were categorized into 3 groups: sex chromosome abnormalities (53.0%), 46,XX DSD (29.9%) and 46,XY DSD (17.1%). The two most common etiologies of DSD were Turner syndrome (36.8%) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (29.9%). Ambiguous genitalia/intersex was the main problem in 46,XX DSD (94%) and 46,XY DSD (100%). Sex reassignment was done in 5 children (4.3%) at age of 3-5 years: from male to female in 4 children (1 patient with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, 1 patient with 45,X/46,XY DSD, and 2 patients with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD) and from female to male in 1 patient with 46,XX ovotesticular DSD. Of the total 20 children with 46,XY DSD, 16 (80%) were raised as females. Management of DSD children has many aspects of concern. Sex assignment/reassignment depends on the phenotype (phallus size) of the external genitalia rather than the sex chromosome.

  1. Long term sequelae of pediatric craniopharyngioma - literature review and 20 years of experience

    OpenAIRE

    Michal eCohen; Guger, Sharon L.; Jill eHamilton

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary- hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present...

  2. Long Term Sequelae of Pediatric Craniopharyngioma – Literature Review and 20 Years of Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Michal; Guger, Sharon; Hamilton, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Craniopharyngioma are rare histologically benign brain tumors that develop in the pituitary–hypothalamic area. They may invade nearby anatomical structures causing significant rates of neurological, neurocognitive, and endocrinological complications including remarkable hypothalamic damage. Information regarding long term implications of the tumors and treatment in the pediatric population is accumulating, and treatment goals appear to be changing accordingly. In this review we aim to present...

  3. Extramammary Paget’s Disease: 20 Years of Experience in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Yu Wai Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To examine the results of treatment of Extramammary Paget’s disease (EMPD in ethnic Chinese. Method. Between 1990 and 2010, patients treated for EMPD were reviewed. Data were analyzed retrospectively. Results. Forty-eight patients were treated by surgical resection. Local recurrence rate was 14.6%. The postresection defects were repaired by primary closure (8.3%, partial thickness skin graft (72.9%, or local/regional flaps (18.8%. Dermal invasion was found in 9 patients (18.8%. Seven patients (14.6% developed regional lymph node metastasis (concurrent with surgery, =1; subsequent to surgery, =6, and 3 patients (6.3% had systemic metastasis after surgery. The presence of dermal invasion was associated with significantly higher incidence of regional lymph nodes and systemic metastasis. The incidence of associated internal malignancy was 8.3%. Conclusion. The mainstay of treatment for EMPD is surgery. Pathological dermal invasion increases the chance of regional lymph node as well as systemic metastasis. The association with internal malignancy warrants preoperative endoscopic examination in all patients.

  4. The Latest from LHCf

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    At the end of September, the LHCf collaboration installed RadMon dosimeters inside the TAN absorbers containing the detectors. Being located on the same level as the LHCf detectors, the dosimeters will provide precise information on the particle dose received. These data will be visible online as they are acquired. Hitherto, the only dosimeters of this type were located underneath the TAN absorbers, which did not provide precise information on the particle dose received by the detectors. The LHCf experiment has been ready for a year and the LHCf the collaboration is eagerly awaiting circulation of the first particle beams in the LHC at the end of the autumn. LHCf Collaboration

  5. Survival and Competitiveness of Bradyrhizobium japonicum Strains 20 Years after Introduction into Field Locations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narożna, Dorota; Pudełko, Krzysztof; Króliczak, Joanna; Golińska, Barbara; Sugawara, Masayuki; Mądrzak, Cezary J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2015-08-15

    It was previously demonstrated that there are no indigenous strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum forming nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbioses with soybean plants in arable field soils in Poland. However, bacteria currently classified within this species are present (together with Bradyrhizobium canariense) as indigenous populations of strains specific for nodulation of legumes in the Genisteae tribe. These rhizobia, infecting legumes such as lupins, are well established in Polish soils. The studies described here were based on soybean nodulation field experiments, established at the Poznań University of Life Sciences Experiment Station in Gorzyń, Poland, and initiated in the spring of 1994. Long-term research was then conducted in order to study the relation between B. japonicum USDA 110 and USDA 123, introduced together into the same location, where no soybean rhizobia were earlier detected, and nodulation and competitive success were followed over time. Here we report the extra-long-term saprophytic survival of B. japonicum strains nodulating soybeans that were introduced as inoculants 20 years earlier and where soybeans were not grown for the next 17 years. The strains remained viable and symbiotically competent, and molecular and immunochemical methods showed that the strains were undistinguishable from the original inoculum strains USDA 110 and USDA 123. We also show that the strains had balanced numbers and their mobility in soil was low. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing the extra-long-term persistence of soybean-nodulating strains introduced into Polish soils and the first analyzing the long-term competitive relations of USDA 110 and USDA 123 after the two strains, neither of which was native, were introduced into the environment almost 2 decades ago.

  6. Latest results from ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Scapparone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    In this paper selected results obtained by the ALICE experiment at the LHC will be presented. Data collected during the pp runs taken at sqrt(s)=0.9, 2.76 and 7 TeV and Pb-Pb runs at sqrt(s_NN)=2.76 TeV allowed interesting studies on the properties of the hadronic and nuclear matter: proton runs gave us the possibility to explore the ordinary matter at very high energy and up to very low pt, while Pb-Pb runs provided spectacular events where several thousands of particles produced in the interaction revealed how a very dense medium behaves, providing a deeper picture on the quark gluon plasma(QGP) chemical composition and dynamics.

  7. The Latest from LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    This month the LHCb Collaboration has observed the first Cherenkov rings from the RICH1 detector. These rings were emitted by cosmic particles passing through the detector. Cherenkov radiation occurs when a charged particle passes through a medium faster than the speed of light. As it travels, the particle emits photons along a cone. This cone is measured and, along with a measurement of momentum, is used to identify the particle. There are two types of radiators in RICH1, the first gaseous and the other made from aerogel. Both rings seen on the picture are from the same particle passing through the two different radiators. This is the fist time that the RICH detector has seen a particle as it will see them when the LHC re-starts. It has also been a time for the experiment to begin commissioning. After network upgrades, LHCb held a commissioning week, an opportunity for physicists working on all the different detectors within LHCb...

  8. The Latest from CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    CMS is on track to be ready for physics one month in advance of the LHC restart. The final installations are being completed and tests are being run to ensure that the experiment is as well prepared as possible to exploit sustained LHC operation throughout 2010. Physics week in Bologna, Italy, was a valuable time for CMS collaborators to discuss preparations for numerous physics analyses, as well as the performance of the detector during the recent data-taking period with cosmics (CRAFT 09). During this five-week exercise, more than 300 million cosmic events were recorded with the magnetic field on. This large data-set is being used to further improve the sub-detector alignment, calibration and performance whilst awaiting p-p collisions. Meanwhile, in the experimental cavern, Wolfram Zeuner, Deputy Technical Coordinator of CMS, reports "We are now very nearly closed up again. We are just doing the final clean-up work and are ready t...

  9. Latest oscillation results from T2K

    CERN Document Server

    Khabibullin, Marat

    2011-01-01

    The latest oscillation results obtained in the off-axis accelerator neutrino experiment T2K are presented. In the data sample, corresponding to 1.43 x 10^20 protons on target, 6 electron neutrino candidate events pass the selection criteria, while the expected number of background events for sin^2 2\\theta_{13}=0 is 1.5 \\pm 0.3 (syst.). The probability to observe six or more candidate events due to background is 0.7%, equivalent to 2.5-sigma significance. In the muon neutrino disappearance analysis the obtained atmospheric oscillation parameters are consistent with results from the Super-Kamiokande and MINOS experiments.

  10. Major depression and depressive symptoms in Australian Gulf War veterans 20 years after the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikin, J F; McKenzie, D P; Gwini, S M; Kelsall, H L; Creamer, M; McFarlane, A C; Clarke, D M; Wright, B; Sim, M

    2016-01-01

    Risk of major depression (depression) was elevated in Australia's Gulf War veterans in a 2000-2002 (baseline) study. A follow up study has measured the Gulf War-related risk factors for depression, also the current prevalence and severity of depression, use of anti-depressant medication, and persistence, remittance or incidence of depression since baseline in Gulf War veterans and a military comparison group. Participants completed the Composite International Diagnostic Interview v.2.1, the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire and the Military Service Experience Questionnaire, and consented to Repatriation Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (RPBS) and PBS linkage. Prevalence of depression (9.7% Gulf War veterans and 7.7% comparison group; adj RR=1.2, 95% CI 0.8-1.7), and pattern of persistence, remittance and incidence of depression since baseline, were similar in the two groups, however veterans reported slightly more severe symptoms (adj median difference 1, 95% CI 0.26-1.74) and were more likely to have been dispensed anti-depressant medication (adj RR=1.56, 95% CI 1.05-2.32). Depression amongst veterans was associated with self-reported Gulf War-related stressors in a dose-response relationship (adj RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). Lower participation rates at follow up resulted in reduced statistical power compared with baseline, Gulf War related stressor data collected at baseline was at risk of recall bias, and RPBS and PBS databases do not capture all dispensed Nervous System medications. More than 20 years after the Gulf War, veterans are experiencing slightly more severe depressive symptoms than a military comparison group, and depression continues to be associated with Gulf War-related stressors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  12. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  13. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ace): Latest Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, Peter F.

    2017-06-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination orbit gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm^{-1}) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating in the 750-4400 cm^{-1} region, which provides the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored through the extinction of solar radiation using two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. After 14 years in orbit, the ACE-FTS is still operating well. A short introduction and overview of the ACE mission will be presented (see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca for more information). This talk will focus on recent ACE results and comparisons with chemical transport models.

  14. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Latest Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernath, P.

    2008-12-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1) is measuring the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. Aerosols and clouds are being monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at 0.525 and 1.02 microns as measured by two filtered imagers as well as by their infrared spectra. A dual spectrograph called MAESTRO extends the wavelength coverage to the 400-1000 nm spectral region. The principal investigator for MAESTRO is T. McElroy of the Meteorological Service of Canada. The FTS and imagers have been built by ABB-Bomem in Quebec City, while the satellite bus has been made by Bristol Aerospace in Winnipeg. ACE is part of the Canadian Space Agency's small satellite program, and was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics by K. Walker and K. Strong. A mission overview and status report will be presented. Science results for a few selected topics including the detection of organic molecules such as methanol and formaldehyde in the troposphere will be discussed.

  15. The cementless AGC 2000 knee prosthesis: 20-year results in a consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jamila; Christensen, Jan; Solgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    One hundred and fourteen AGC 2000 porous-coated cementless total knee arthroplasties were performed in 102 patients between 1984 and 1986. We report their 20-year results with patient assessment, Hospital for Special Surgery knee score, weight-bearing radiographs done under fluoroscopic control...... and survivorship analyses. All patients could be accounted for. With prosthesis revision as a failure criterion, the cumulative survival rate of all prosthetic components at 20 years was 84.4%. The fall in success rate was primarily due to early tibial and late patellar component failure. The cumulative survival...

  16. Latest Electroweak Results from CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Mark

    2010-05-01

    The latest results in electroweak physics from proton anti-proton collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron recorded by the CDF detector are presented. The results provide constraints on parton distribution functions, the mass of the Higgs boson and beyond the Standard Model physics.

  17. MOZAIC-IAGOS program : 20 years of in-situ data in the UTLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Valérie; Sauvage, Bastien; Nédélec, Philippe; Petzold, Andreas; Volz-Thomas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    -latitudes thanks to 5 aircraft based in Europe flying westbound and eastbound since 1994; Transects over the African continent thanks to daily Air Namibia flights between 2006 and 2013; South Atlantic area thanks to regular flights between Europe and South America; The Asian monsoon region thanks to regular flights between Europe and the Indian-South East Asia area sampling the UT under the influence of the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA). - Ten years of CO measurements which show an increase in concentration on moving from the Western to Eastern hemisphere. In the US, Atlantic and European sectors CO concentrations have fallen by about 2% per year. - Almost 20 years of Ozone measurements at northern mid-latitudes showing a leveling-off of the mixing ratios for the last 10-12 years over the Atlantic sector while ozone is still increasing over Asia. - Almost 20 years of relative humidity measurements showing that the upper troposphere (10 - 12 km altitude, which corresponds to the aircraft cruise level) is much wetter than reflected in the model analyses of the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecast).

  18. The Parent-Child Home Program in Western Manitoba: A 20-Year Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; McLaren, Lorraine; Metcalfe, Arron

    2008-01-01

    This article is a 20-year evaluation of the Parent-Child Home Program (PCHP) of Child and Family Services in Western Manitoba. Following Levenstein's (1979, 1988) approach, home visitors model parent-child interchanges using books and toys to enhance children's cognitive development through appropriate parenting behaviors. The evaluation provides…

  19. Energy secretary Spencer Abraham announces department of energy 20-year science facility plan

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "In a speech at the National Press Club today, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham outlined the Department of Energy's Office of Science 20-year science facility plan, a roadmap for future scientific facilities to support the department's basic science and research missions. The plan prioritizes new, major scientific facilities and upgrades to current facilities" (1 page).

  20. 20 years PSI accelerator. The speeches; 20 Jahre PSI-Beschleuniger. Die Festreden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This publication contains the text of four papers presented at the occasion of the 20 year Symposium of the PSI accelerator. The papers dealt with the following topics: Scientific research and its dual interaction with industry and with the general public, the history of the PSI accelerator, {mu}-n-{gamma} investigations on high temperature superconductors, therapy with charged particles. figs., tabs., refs.

  1. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L; Rout, Emily D; Vap, Linda M; Aboellail, Tawfik A; Hassel, Diana M; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S

    2016-05-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes.

  2. Looking Back and Ahead: 20 Years of Technologies for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Robert Godwin-Jones has written 48 columns on "Emerging Technologies"; an additional six columns have been written by guest columnists. Several topics have been re-examined in regular intervals of approximately five years, namely digital literacy (Vol. 4, Num. 2; Vol. 10, Num. 2; Vol. 14, Num. 3; Vol. 19, Num. 3)…

  3. Social Representations of Educability in Finland: 20 Years of Continuity and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Hirva, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to replicate a survey conducted 20 years ago on Finnish parents' social representations of educability. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 642) were asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements pertaining to topical educational issues. The results indicated that educational discussion is still structured by two major…

  4. An Improved 20-Year Arctic Ocean Altimetric Sea Level Data Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    reprocessed ERS-1/2/Envisat satellite altimetry to develop an improved 20-year sea level dataset for the Arctic Ocean. We have developed both an along-track dataset and three-day gridded sea level anomaly (SLA) maps from September 1992 to April 2012. A major improvement in data coverage was gained...

  5. 20 Years of Autonomy and Technology: How Far Have We Come and Where to Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinders, Hayo; White, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become an assumed goal of language education in many parts of the world. In the 20 years since the launch of "Language Learning & Technology," the relationship among computer-assisted language learning research and practice and autonomy has become both more complex and more promising. This article traces how the…

  6. Digital Distribution of Academic Journals and Its Impact on Scholarly Communication: Looking Back after 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been approximately 20 years since distributing scholarly journals digitally became feasible. This article discusses the broad implications of the transition to digital distributed scholarship from a historical perspective and focuses on the development of open access (OA) and the various models for funding OA in the context of the roles…

  7. Looking Back and Ahead: 20 Years of Technologies for Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Robert Godwin-Jones has written 48 columns on "Emerging Technologies"; an additional six columns have been written by guest columnists. Several topics have been re-examined in regular intervals of approximately five years, namely digital literacy (Vol. 4, Num. 2; Vol. 10, Num. 2; Vol. 14, Num. 3; Vol. 19, Num. 3)…

  8. Review of 20 years research in fatigue of high pressure loaded components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thumser, Rayk [Bauhaus Univ. Weimar (Germany). Materialforschungs- und -pruefanstalt; Scheibe, Wolfgang

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the research in fatigue of high pressure loaded components. In the last 20 years the main research was carried out in Germany. This research was mainly driven by the fatigue requirements for high pressure loaded Diesel engine injection parts as common rails, injectors and pipes. (orig.)

  9. What Works: 20 Years of Curriculum Development and Research for Advanced Learners, 1988-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce, Ed.; Stambaugh, Tamra, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to highlight "what works" based on the curriculum development and research work of the Center for Gifted Education during the past 20 years. Areas of study include curriculum development, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Through the use of the Integrated Curriculum Model as a template for …

  10. Switching gains and health plan price elasticities: 20 years of managed competition reforms in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C.H.M. Douven (Rudy); K. Katona (Katalin); T. Schut, F. (Frederik); V. Shestalova (Victoria)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we estimate health plan price elasticities and financial switching gains for consumers over a 20-year period in which managed competition was introduced in the Dutch health insurance market. The period is characterized by a major health insurance reform in 2006 to provide h

  11. Adult Children and Their Fathers: Relationship Changes 20 Years after Parental Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrons, Constance R.; Tanner, Jennifer L.

    2003-01-01

    Examines adult children's reports of relationship changes with their fathers were 20 years after their parents' divorce. Findings indicated that most adult children felt that their relationships with their fathers had either improved or remained stable over time. Custody did not directly affect reported changes in the quality of their relationship…

  12. Latest AMS Results on Cosmic Ray fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Bruna; AMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    AMS-02 is a wide acceptance high-energy physics experiment installed on the International Space Station in May 2011 and it has been operating continuously since then. Accurate studies of CR composition and energy spectra can be performed in AMS thanks to the unprecedented collected statistics - more than 90 billion events as of today - and the redundant measurements of particle charge, velocity, rigidity and energy. In this contribution we will present an overview of the latest results on anti-particles, electrons and light nuclei fluxes. On behalf of the AMS Collaboration.

  13. Latest ATLAS results from Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gemme, Claudia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    After the fi rst LHC long shutdown with upgrades to the machine and the detectors, since 2015 the ATLAS experiment recorded more than 30 fb-1 of integrated luminosity of pp collision data at 13 TeV centre- of-mass energy. The data collected to date, the detector and physics per- formance, and measurements of Standard Model processes are reviewed briefly before summarising the latest ATLAS results in the Brout- Englert-Higgs sector, where substantial progress has been made since the discovery. Searches for physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model are also summarized. These proceedings reflect only a brief summary of the material presented at the conference.

  14. Vertical patterns of ecoenzyme activities in forest soils after 20 years of simulated nitrogen deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Stefan J.; Kloss, Stefanie; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Schleppi, Patrick; Hagedorn, Frank; Gundersen, Per; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The below-ground part of terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles are controlled by soil microorganisms. In order to meet their energy and nutrient requirements, soil microbes produce enzymes which catalyze the release of smaller molecules from decomposing organic matter. Recent work has shown that the potential activities of commonly measured enzymes for C-, N-, and P-acquisition can be related to microbial demand of these elements and link stoichiometry of soil microbes and their resources. Regulation of enzyme production might therefore be an important mechanism for microbes to adapt to different resource regimes. To investigate links between ecoenzyme activities, soil depth and N availability we make use of two long-term experiments where N has been added to two temperate forest stands for over 20 years. At both sites Norway spruce is the dominating tree whereas other site characteristics like soil type, climate, parent material and morphology differ. Increased N deposition was simulated by regularly applying NH4NO3 in the range of 35 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Klosterhede, Denmark; since 1992) and 25 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Alptal, Switzerland; since 1995), respectively. We hypothesize that ecoenzyme activities will decline exponentially with depth reflecting well-established similar trends in organic matter and microbial biomass. However, when normalized to microbial biomass we further hypothesize that activities will not change or even increase down the soil profile. Concerning microbial nutrient limitation, we expect to see a shift from N- to C-limitation with depth which should be reflected in increasing ratios of C- to N-acquiring enzymes. Preliminary results suggest that activity of hydrolytic enzymes generally decreases with depth, although this drop in activity is not so pronounced when normalized to microbial biomass. Oxidative enzymes, on the other hand, do not follow this pattern, often showing increased activities with depth. We further see site

  15. Utility and drawbacks of continuous use of a copper T IUD for 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, Irving

    2007-06-01

    This article examines interrelated questions concerning the extent of need for contraception in women 40 years and older and the degree to which that need can be served when use of collared T IUDs is initiated in women aged 25-35 years. Differentials in the impacts of intrauterine device (IUD) use on health issues in the second decade of contraception are also addressed. Although fertility of all women aged 40-44 years is below 100 per 1000 in all regions of the world today, the risk of pregnancy among married or cohabiting women who do not use contraception is estimated at 270-300 per 1000 or 27-30% per year. At ages 45-49 years, the annual risk of pregnancy to women in union who do not use contraception lies at or above 10% per year. Data from three studies show that users of collared copper IUDs who continued using the same device beyond the completion of 10 years experienced no pregnancies through the end of 15 years. A small number of women continued with the same IUD through 20 years and still experienced no pregnancies. Use of collared copper T IUDs beyond 10 years was not associated with intensification of side effects nor with an increase in the relative frequency of those effects, with the exception of the experience of perimenopausal symptoms and problems. Neither increased bleeding nor increased severity of pelvic disease was manifest in the second decade of continuous use of the same IUD, as compared with the first decade of such use. Under our current understanding of the duration of IUD effectiveness, only a small percentage of women complete 10 years of use. Even with revised understanding of the duration of effectiveness of long-acting copper devices, average annual continuation rates must be quite high in order that 20% of women aged 25-35 years initiate a second decade of continuous IUD use. Those who do so would find considerable protection against pregnancy and reasonable economic benefits in continuing to use the same device.

  16. 20 years of ClO measurements in the Antarctic lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Connor, Brian J.; Mooney, Thomas; Barrett, James W.; Parrish, Alan; Gomez, R. Michael; Boyd, Ian; Allen, Douglas R.; Kotkamp, Michael; Kremser, Stefanie; Deshler, Terry; Newman, Paul; Santee, Michelle L.

    2016-08-01

    We present 20 years (1996-2015) of austral springtime measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) over Antarctica from the Chlorine Oxide Experiment (ChlOE1) ground-based millimeter wave spectrometer at Scott Base, Antarctica, as well 12 years (2004-2015) of ClO measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From August onwards we observe a strong increase in lower stratospheric ClO, with a peak column amount usually occurring in early September. From mid-September onwards we observe a strong decrease in ClO. In order to study interannual differences, we focus on a 3-week period from 28 August to 17 September for each year and compare the average column ClO anomalies. These column ClO anomalies are shown to be highly correlated with the average ozone mass deficit for September and October of each year. We also show that anomalies in column ClO are strongly anti-correlated with 30 hPa temperature anomalies, both on a daily and an interannual timescale. Making use of this anti-correlation we calculate the linear dependence of the interannual variations in column ClO on interannual variations in temperature. By making use of this relationship, we can better estimate the underlying trend in the total chlorine (Cly = HCl + ClONO2 + HOCl + 2 × Cl2 + 2 × Cl2O2 + ClO + Cl). The resultant trends in Cly, which determine the long-term trend in ClO, are estimated to be -0.5 ± 0.2, -1.4 ± 0.9, and -0.6 ± 0.4 % year-1, for zonal MLS, Scott Base MLS (both 2004-2015), and ChlOE (1996-2015) respectively. These trends are within 1σ of trends in stratospheric Cly previously found at other latitudes. The decrease in ClO is consistent with the trend expected from regulations enacted under the Montreal Protocol.

  17. Sources of happiness and stress for college students: a replication and comparison over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staats, Sara; Cosmar, David; Kaffenberger, Joshua

    2007-12-01

    The advancement of positive psychology is dependent upon measures of happiness, both globally and in specific contexts. Data are presented on two measures of sources of college students' happiness from two samples. Testing of the two cohorts (Ns=258, 68) was separated by 20 years. Measures for both samples had acceptable psychometric properties. There was an increase in college students' self-reported happiness across the 20-year period in the rankings of different sources of college happiness and general happiness. In a second study, a different group of students (N= 176) were given a list and asked to select the most important uplifts and hassles in their lives. In general, mean scores on affect measures were relatively stable across time, but transportation hassles were reported as a new source of negative affect in the present study.

  18. Testing Benefits Transfer of Forest Recreation Values over a 20-year time Horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Termansen, Mette; Jensen, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    We conduct a functional benefit transfer over 20 years of total willingness to pay based on car-borne forest recreation in 52 forests, using a mixed logit specification of a random utility model and geographic information systems to allow heterogeneous preferences across the population and for he......We conduct a functional benefit transfer over 20 years of total willingness to pay based on car-borne forest recreation in 52 forests, using a mixed logit specification of a random utility model and geographic information systems to allow heterogeneous preferences across the population...... and for heterogeneity over space. Results show that preferences for some forest attributes, such as species diversity and age, as well as transport mode have changed significantly over the period. Updating the transfer model with present total demand for recreation improves the error margins by an average of 282...

  19. Evaluation of Depression and its Relationship to Exercise in Women Over 20 Years

    OpenAIRE

    F Zarepoor; Kamali, M; M Alagheband; M Gheisari; SH Sarlak

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, which imposes a large burden on the health care system. Due to increasing frequency of depression, present research was performed to evaluate the frequency of depression and its relationship to exercise in women in Yazd. Methods: This was a descriptive study. In this study, 200 women over 20 years old entered the study. One hundred subjects were athletes and100 were non-athletes. They were selected by stratified random sampl...

  20. A Review of CBI Foreign Language Teaching Research in China within Recent 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we review the research on CBI(content—based instruction),a foreign language teaching approach,which was introduced into China 20 years ago.By analyzing the changing focus of researches on CBI and evaluating this approach to foreign language teaching,we hope shadow some light on better CBI-focused researches and we believe that it is possible and feasible to better apply CBI to foreign language teaching in China.

  1. DIMENSIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MAMMAS OF GIRLS-SLAVS OF 17–20 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Andreeva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In work quantitative data about a circle, cross-section (transversal both longitudinal diameters of the establishment and height of a body of a mamma, length submammary cords (crimps, diameters and height of a papilla (papilla mammaria and diameter of a peripapillary circle (areola mammae at girls-Slavs of 17-20 years (n = 228 for the first time are presented.

  2. Paraurethral Leiomyoma in a 20 Year-old Woman: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Adams-Piper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a 20 year-old woman with a vulvar mass, found to be a paraurethral leiomyoma. She subsequently underwent supermedial-approach paraurethral mass excision, distal urethral reconstruction and cystourethroscopy. Paraurethral leiomyoma make up approximately five percent of urethral tumors. This case depicts the presentation and treatment of a paraurethral leiomyoma in one of the youngest women reported in the literature.

  3. A Review of CBI Foreign Language Teaching Research in China within Recent 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,we review the research on CBI(content—based instruction),a foreign language teaching approach,which was introduced into China 20 years ago.By analyzing the changing focus of researches on CBI and evaluating this approach to foreign language teaching,we hope shadow some light on better CBIfocused researches and we believe that it is possible and feasible to better apply CBI to foreign language teaching in China.

  4. Congenital Orbital Lymphangioma in a 20-Years Old Girl – Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 20-year-old girl who presented to the out-patients’ department with congenital, progressive unilateral proptosis and reduced vision. Ultrasound, computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were performed. Diagnosis of orbital lymphangioma was made on imaging. Authors highlight the crucial role of imaging in diagnosis and to plan therapeutic approach. This case is reported because of its extreme rarity and unusual presentation.

  5. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: 20 years of "Medical Informatics" in MeSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVallie Donna L

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006. Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals.

  6. Latest ATLAS results on $\\phi_s$

    CERN Document Server

    Reznicek, Pavel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    New Physics effects beyond the predictions of the Standard Model may manifest in the $CP$-violation of $b$-hadron decays. This paper presents the latest analysis of $B^0_s \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ decay at the ATLAS experiment, measuring the $CP$-violating phase $\\phi_s$, the decay width $\\Gamma_s$ and the difference of widths between the mass eigenstates $\\Delta\\Gamma_s$. The latest results are using integrated luminosity of 14.3 fb$^{-1}$ collected by the ATLAS detector from $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV $pp$ collisions at the Large Hadron Collider, and are statistically combined with the results from 4.9 fb$^{-1}$ of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV data, leading to: \\begin{eqnarray*} \\phi_s & = & -0.090 \\pm 0.078 \\;\\mathrm{(stat.)} \\pm 0.041 \\;\\mathrm{(syst.)~rad} ,\\;\\;\\\\ \\Delta\\Gamma_s & = & 0.085 \\pm 0.011 \\;\\mathrm{(stat.)} \\pm 0.007 \\;\\mathrm{(syst.)~ps}^{-1} ,\\;\\;\\\\ \\Gamma_s & = & 0.675 \\pm 0.003 \\;\\mathrm{(stat.)} \\pm 0.003 \\;\\mathrm{(syst.)~ps}^{-1}. \\end{eqnarray*} The results are also presented in the form...

  7. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, Celine, E-mail: bourgier@igr.fr [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Pessoa, Eduardo Lima [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Dunant, Ariane [Biostatistics and Epidemiology Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Heymann, Steve [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Spielmann, Marc [Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Uzan, Catherine [Department of Breast Surgery, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Mathieu, Marie-Christine [Department of Pathology, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Arriagada, Rodrigo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Department of Radiation Oncology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Marsiglia, Hugo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Breast Unit, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Radiation Department University of Florence, Florence (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  8. A case of radiation necrosis of the larynx after 20 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Hajime; Kubota, Tetsuaki; Matsui, Kazuo; Ohashi, Kazumasa; Kadokura, Yoshiyuki; Nagase, Dai; Ishida, Makoto; Naitoh, Satoshi; Katsuno, Masahiro [Showa Univ., Yokohama (Japan). Fujigaoka Hospital

    2002-12-01

    A case of radiation necrosis of the larynx is reported. A 68-year-old man suffered from cancer of the larynx, and 20 years ago, he was treated with radiation. He complained of increasing throat pain, and was suspected of having radiation necrosis of the larynx. Antibiotics and steroids were administered, but the radiation necrosis was exacerbated. We recommended surgery but he refused and later become disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and died. Once necrosis of the cartilage occurs, a laryngectomy is required. (author)

  9. Geostatistical model-based estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged = 20 years in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years...... ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis...

  10. Kawasaki Disease in India, Lessons Learnt Over the Last 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surjit; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, Kawasaki disease is being increasingly recognized in India and it may soon replace acute rheumatic fever to become the commonest cause of acquired heart disease amongst children. However, the vast majority of children with Kawasaki disease in India are still not being diagnosed. Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is based on a constellation of clinical findings which have a typical temporal sequence. All pediatricians must we familiar with the nuances involved in arriving at a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, the risk of coronary artery abnormalities can be significantly reduced.

  11. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sin Gon; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients. PMID:26354493

  12. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Hee Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients.

  13. Psychology studies' drive to educational reform in the last 20 years in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Da-jun; Xu Xing-chun

    2006-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between educational psychology research and educational reform,this essay reviews the development of educational psychology studies in the last 20 years in China.The study shows that:(1) Rapid development has been made in the areas of establishing discipline systems;(2) Research fields have been expanded and research directions have been localized;(3) The theoretical basis for quality education has been derived from education psychology studies;(4) The psychological foundation for curriculum reform and instruction has been implemented,and (5) China has committed to serve and expand current educational practices.

  14. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  15. Proliferative myositis of the latissimus dorsi presenting in a 20-year-old male athlete

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mc Hugh, N

    2017-08-01

    We describe the case of a 20-year-old rower presenting with an uncommon condition of Proliferative Myositis (PM) affecting the Latissimus Dorsi (LD). PM is a rare, benign tumour infrequently developing in the upper back. Its rapid growth and firm consistency may mistake it for sarcoma at presentation. Therefore, careful multidisciplinary work-up is crucial, and should involve appropriate radiological and histopathological investigations. Here, we propose the aetiology of LD PM to be persistent myotrauma induced by repetitive rowing motions. Symptoms and rate of progression ultimately determine the management which includes surveillance and\\/or conservative resection. There have been no documented cases of recurrence or malignant transformation.

  16. Babies born at the threshold of viability: changes in survival and workload over 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Seaton, Sarah E.; King, Sophie; Manktelow, Bradley N.; Draper, Elizabeth S; Field, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the care given to the babies born at the threshold of viability over the last 20 years using regional and national data. Design Population-based retrospective study. Setting Former ‘Trent’ health region. Participants Babies born between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2010 at 22+0 to 25+6 weeks gestational age. Main outcome measure Survival and use of respiratory support. Methods Data of all babies born between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 2010 with a gestational age of 2...

  17. Chronic Larva Currens Following Tourist Travel to the Gambia and Southeast Asia Over 20 Years Ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kristy E; Danylo, Alexis; Boggild, Andrea K

    2015-01-01

    Larva currens is the cutaneous manifestation of human infection with the geotropic helminth Strongyloides stercoralis. Strongyloidiasis is a lifelong infection unless treated. A high index of suspicion is needed to prevent chronic symptoms of strongyloidiasis (eg, larva currens, eosinophilia, abdominal discomfort) and to prevent fatal dissemination. We present a case of chronic larva currens following tourist travel to the Gambia and Southeast Asia>20 years ago. This case highlights several important features of larva currens and strongyloidiasis, including the chronicity of symptoms, the rapidity of the migratory serpiginous rash, and the absence of high-grade eosinophilia.

  18. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wei, E-mail: weili@bnu.edu.cn; Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  19. Longitudinal Analysis of Adiponectin through 20-Year Type 1 Diabetes Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara J. LeCaire

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the trajectory and determinants of adiponectin, a possible insulin sensitizer and marker for inflammation and endothelial function, across the duration of type 1 diabetes. The Wisconsin Diabetes Registry Study followed an incident cohort ≤30 years of age when diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1987–1992 up to 20-year duration. Adiponectin was concurrently and retrospectively (from samples frozen at −80°C measured for those participating in a 20-year exam (n=304, during 2007–2011. Adiponectin levels were higher in females, declined through adolescence, and increased with age thereafter. Lower levels were associated with greater body weight and waist circumference and with higher insulin dose, especially at longer diabetes durations. Higher levels were associated with higher HbA1c and, at longer durations, with higher albumin-creatinine ratio. Adiponectin levels showed consistency within individuals that was not explained by these factors. We conclude that markers for insulin resistance are associated with lower adiponectin, and markers for potential microvascular complications are associated with higher adiponectin. The previously reported relationship with HbA1c remains largely unexplained. Additional individual specific factors likely also influence adiponectin level. The relationship between adiponectin and urinary protein excretion may enable identification of those predisposed to kidney disease earlier in type 1 diabetes.

  20. The Growth of Body Size and Somatotype of Javanese Children Age 4 to 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TETRI WIDIYANI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth of body size (body height and body weight and somatotype in 363 girls and 299 boys aged 4 to 20 years of ethnic Javanese lived in Magelang Regency Indonesia were studied cross-sectionally. Over half of them were categorized in the well-off family, therefore underweight or underfat prevalence in our subjects was low (14.3% but overweight and obesity prevalence was also low (14%. They were shorter and lighter than reference children from U.S., Japan and Yogyakarta but they improved when compared with those of the same ethnic of Bantul and with the different ethnic of rural India. There was a clear age-related change of their somatotype. At age 4 years, the physique of children subjects in both sexes is found to be mesomorph-endomorph. Thereafter it is transformed into ectomorphic-endomorph in girls and to mesomorph-ectomorph in boys at the age of 20 years. In girl subjects, the onset of puberty was characterized by an acceleration of endomorphy component at age 8 years. While in our boys it was characterized by an acceleration of ectomorphy since age 9 years. The different growth pattern of somatotype components showed that the use of BMI as an indicator of fatness in children should be reassessed.

  1. Obesity paradox disappears in coronary artery bypass graft patients during 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällberg, Ville; Kataja, Matti; Lahtela, Jorma; Tarkka, Matti; Inamaa, Tapio; Palomäki, Ari

    2016-02-24

    Although obesity is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD), it might be associated with a favourable prognosis in patients with CHD. The aim of the study was to evaluate this so called 'obesity paradox' during a follow-up period of 20 years in patients who had undergone coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The study population consisted of 922 CHD patients who had undergone CABG between 1993 and 1994. Pre and perioperative data was collected from patient records and supplemented with patient questionnaires, telephone contacts and data from national archives. The 10-year postoperative prognosis of normal-weight patients (body mass index (BMI) 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)) was inferior to that of overweight (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese patients (BMI⩾30.0 kg/m(2)) and to the background population. Beyond 10 years the prognosis of obese patients deteriorated when compared with the overweight group. At the end of the 20-year follow-up, survival of the normal weight group was 0.68 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.49-0.87; pparadox seems to disappear due to progression of cardiometabolic disease in patients who have undergone CABG. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  2. Venous coronary artery bypass surgery: a more than 20-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Brussel, B L; Voors, A A; Ernst, J M P G; Knaepen, P J; Plokker, H W M

    2003-05-01

    Atherosclerosis in venous coronary artery bypass grafts begins early and accelerates from the fifth post-operative year. We studied the influence of 18 variables existing at the time of operation, and of 'classical' risk factors present at 1 and 5 years after operation on the long-term outcome of this type of surgery. Four hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients who underwent isolated venous coronary bypass surgery between April 1, 1976 and April 1, 1977 were followed prospectively. Follow-up was 99.3% complete with a mean duration of 22.8 years for the survivors. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox regression model. Actuarial survival after 5, 10, 15 and 20 years is 95, 83, 63 and 47%, respectively. The cumulative probability of event-free survival for cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction and re-intervention at 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, respectively, are 98, 90, 74, 60%; 99, 91, 83, 77%; and 97, 86, 67, 57%. Age and left ventricular functions are continuous incremental risk factors for mortality. Left ventricular function and completeness of revascularization, and age and vessel disease are independent predictors of cardiac death and re-intervention, respectively. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity and smoking, present after operation have an independent influence on the occurrence of cardiac events. Risk factors (still) existing 1 and 5 years after operation have a negative influence on the long-term results. This emphasizes the need of treatment of these 'classical' risk factors still present after operation.

  3. Late-onset peritoneal recurrence of advanced gastric cancer 20 years after primary resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohri Yasuhiko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Late onset of peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer more than 10 years after surgery is extremely rare, and only three cases have been reported. We present the case of a 61-year-old man who was diagnosed finally with peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer 20 years after primary curative resection. As a result of small-bowel obstruction caused by peritoneal recurrence, diverting ileostomy with partial ileal resection was performed. The resected specimen revealed tubular adenocarcinoma that resembled the primary gastric cancer. The clinical course after the second operation was unfavorable and systemic chemotherapy had no effect. He died at 62 years of age, 21 years and 7 months after initial gastrectomy. Immunohistochemical analysis using antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, Ki-67, and p53 was performed to investigate the phenotype of primary and recurrence cancer. Protein expression of proliferation markers such as PCNA and Ki-67 was down-regulated, but p53 was overexpressed at the site of recurrence. These data suggest that late peritoneal recurrence has a low proliferation rate and is resistant to chemoradiotherapy. In conclusion, we present late onset of peritoneal recurrence of gastric cancer more than 20 years after primary surgery, and speculate on the mechanism of late-onset recurrence in our case.

  4. Dental health state in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Gil Ojeda

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The absence of consice data of some indicators in the stomatological subsystem of our province difficults the knowledge of the real situation of the dental health in our province population. Objetive: to determine some epidemiological indicators related to dental health in the 20 year-old population and more in Cienfuegos province. Method: a descriptive epidemiologcal study. Methods: 253 621 patients in a range of 20 years old and more. All health areas including municipalities were taken into consideration from May to June 2004. Results: The kind of denture more demanded for its rehabilitation by the population was the upper and the lower one. The highest indicators of cavities and exodonties were found in the 35 to 59 year-old group of patient as well as in the rural areas. The anatomic localization of cavity lesions were predominant in the posterior dental sector with a relation between sectors of 1:1,7. The lowest percetange in the covering range of stomatological attention was found in the 35 to 59 year-old group with 5 and 18 % in the majority of the municipalities. Conclusions: Through this investigation the behaviour of proposed indicators were evaluated as well as the necesities of treatment to establish future strategies of work in order to improve the dental health in the population.

  5. A 20-year review of pediatric pregnant trauma from a Level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrison, Tanya L; Ruiz, Xiomara; Namias, Nicholas; Crandall, Marie

    2017-10-01

    Trauma in pregnancy remains an important but understudied public health issue. We aimed to determine the prevalence of interpersonal violence in our pregnant trauma population (including pediatric) over the last 20 years, from our Level I trauma center. We conducted a descriptive, retrospective chart review to identify all pregnant trauma patients between Jan 1993 and Sept 2013. Pediatric was ≤18 years of age. We evaluated demographics, mechanism of injury, injury location, disposition, and outcome data. We treated 438 pregnant patients at our center over 20 years. 378 (86%) were adult and 60 (14%) were pediatric. Intentional injuries occurred in 89 (20%) patients. The pediatric pregnant patients experienced a significantly higher proportion of intentional, interpersonal violence (33% vs. 18%, p = 0.007) compared to adults. Patients presenting after intentional, interpersonal violence had a higher mortality compared to non-intentional 5% vs 1% (p = 0.019). Pediatric pregnant trauma patients remain at risk of interpersonal violence, especially firearm-related injury. Screening should be instituted by obstetricians and pediatricians for primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. 20 years TraumaRegister DGU(®): development, aims and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The TraumaRegister DGU(®) organisational and technical development has undergone an evolution process, which started 20 years ago. Currently, the management of the registry is under the management of the "AUC - Academy for Trauma Surgery" (infrastructure) and the "Sektion NIS" (scientific responsibility). The aim of the registry was to establish an inter-hospital quality assessment tool with the option to use the increasing database for scientific evaluations of acute care. Year after year and most recently with the obligatory participation of certified hospitals the number of participating hospitals has grown as well as the registered cases per annum. Recently, even hospitals from other countries joined the registry too. Starting with six German hospitals and 260 cases in 1993, 20 years later more than 600 hospitals from eleven countries deliver over 30,000 trauma cases per year resulting in over 150,000 reported cases until 2013. In this article a historical perspective is presented of the evolution and current status of the TraumaRegister DGU(®). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A 20-Year High-Resolution Wave Resource Assessment of Japan with Wave-Current Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, A.; Waseda, T.; Kiyomatsu, K.

    2016-02-01

    Energy harvested from surface ocean waves and tidal currents has the potential to be a significant source of green energy, particularly for countries with extensive coastlines such as Japan. As part of a larger marine renewable energy project*, The University of Tokyo (in cooperation with JAMSTEC) has conducted a state-of-the-art wave resource assessment (with uncertainty estimates) to assist with wave generator site identification and construction in Japan. This assessment will be publicly available and is based on a large-scale NOAA WAVEWATCH III (version 4.18) simulation using NCEP and JAMSTEC forcings. It includes several key components to improve model skill: a 20-year simulation to reduce aleatory uncertainty, a four-nested-layer approach to resolve a 1 km shoreline, and finite-depth and current effects included in all wave power density calculations. This latter component is particularly important for regions near strong currents such as the Kuroshio. Here, we will analyze the different wave power density equations, discuss the model setup, and present results from the 20-year assessment (with a focus on the role of wave-current interactions). Time permitting, a comparison will also be made with simulations using JMA MSM 5 km winds. *New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO): "Research on the Framework and Infrastructure of Marine Renewable Energy; an Energy Potential Assessment"

  8. Direct laser interference patterning, 20 years of development: from the basics to industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasagni, Andrés. F.; Gachot, Carsten; Trinh, Kim E.; Hans, Michael; Rosenkranz, Andreas; Roch, Teja; Eckhardt, Sebastian; Kunze, Tim; Bieda, Matthias; Günther, Denise; Lang, Valentin; Mücklich, Frank

    2017-03-01

    Starting from a simple concept, transferring the shape of an interference pattern directly to the surface of a material, the method of Direct Laser Interference Patterning (DLIP) has been continuously developed in the last 20 years. From lamp-pumped to high power diode-pumped lasers, DLIP permits today for the achievement of impressive processing speeds even close to 1 m2/min. The objective: to improve the performance of surfaces by the use of periodically ordered micro- and nanostructures. This study describes 20 years of evolution of the DLIP method in Germany. From the structuring of thin metallic films to bulk materials using nano- and picosecond laser systems, going through different optical setups and industrial systems which have been recently developed. Several technological applications are discussed and summarized in this article including: surface micro-metallurgy, tribology, electrical connectors, biological interfaces, thin film organic solar cells and electrodes as well as decorative elements and safety features. In all cases, DLIP has not only shown to provide outstanding surface properties but also outstanding economic advantages compared to traditional methods.

  9. Tuberculosis incidence trends in Saudi Arabia over 20 years: 1991-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Al-Orainey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate tuberculosis (TB incidence rates and trends over a period of 20 years (1991-2010 and assess the impact of the National TB Control Program (NTP on incidence trends. Methods: This is a retrospective study of TB surveillance data reported by the Ministry of Health. We evaluated TB incidence data by nationality, age, and region of the country and assessed incidence trends over 20 years of study. Chi-squared test was used to assess trend change and its significance. Results: There were a total of 64,345 reported TB cases over the study period. Of these 48% were Non-Saudis. TB annual incidence rate ranged between 14 and 17/100,000. For Saudis, the rate ranged between 8.6 and 12.2/100,000. Non-Saudis had 2-3 times higher incidence. Disease trend was rising over the first 10 years of the study period then it started to fall slightly. The incidence increased with age, but only people older than 45 years showed a declining trend. Regional variations were observed. Makkah and Jazan regions had the highest incidence rates. Disease trends were rising over the last 10 years in Makkah and Central regions. Conclusion: TB control seems to be facing some challenges in several regions of the Kingdom. NTP needs to evaluate and improve TB control strategies in order to reduce disease incidence to elimination levels.

  10. [TRENDS OF PERMANENT PACEMAKER IMPLANTATION IN A SINGLE CENTER OVER A 20-YEAR PERIOD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Dante; Ilan, Limor Bushar; Freedberg, Nahum A; Feldman, Alexander; Turgeman, Yoav

    2015-05-01

    To review the changes in permanent pacemaker implantation indications, pacing modes and patients' demographics over a 20-year period. We retrospectively retrieved data on patients who underwent first implantation of the pacemaker between 1-1-1991 and 31-12-2010. One thousand and nine (1,009) patients underwent a first pacemaker implantation during that period; 535 were men (53%), their mean age was 74.6±19.5 years; the highest rate of implanted pacemaker was in patients ranging in age from 70-79 years, however there was an increasing number of patients aged over 80 years. The median survival time after initial pacemaker implantation was 8 years. Syncope was the most common symptom (62.5%) and atrioventricular block was the most common electrocardiographic indication (56.4%) leading to pacemaker implantation. There was increased utilization of dual chamber and rate responsive pacemakers over the years. There was no difference regarding mode selection between genders. Pacemaker implantation rates have increased over a 20-year period. Dual chamber replaced most of the single ventricular chamber pacemaker and rate responsive pacemakers became the norm. The data of a small volume center are similar to those reported in pacemaker surveys of high volume pacemaker implantation centers. They confirm adherence to the published guidelines for pacing.

  11. Episodic Heavy Drinking and 20-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Analyses of moderate drinking have focused overwhelmingly on average consumption, which masks diverse underlying drinking patterns. This study examined the association between episodic heavy drinking and total mortality among moderate-drinking older adults. Methods At baseline, the sample was comprised of 446 adults aged 55 to 65: 74 moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking and 372 regular moderate drinkers. The database at baseline also included a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Death across a 20-year follow-up period was confirmed primarily by death certificate. Results In multiple logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for all covariates, as well as overall alcohol consumption, moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking had more than two times higher odds of 20-year mortality in comparison to regular moderate drinkers. Conclusions Among older moderate drinkers, those who engage in episodic heavy drinking show significantly increased total mortality risk compared to regular moderate drinkers. Episodic heavy drinking—even when average consumption remains moderate—is a significant public health concern. PMID:24588326

  12. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembinski, Hans P.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, is the World's largest detector for cosmic rays at ultra-high energies. In its seven years of operation it has collected an exposure of more than 20000 km2 sr yr, larger than all previous experiments combined. Its original design, optimized for the energy range 1018 eV to 1020 eV, is currently enhanced to cover energies down to almost 1017 eV. We give an overview of the latest results with a focus on the prospect to study nuclear interactions with cosmic rays and conclude with a brief outlook on developments and extensions of the observatory. Full author list

  13. Latest Higgs Physics Results with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Orestano, Domizia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the investigations on the recently discovered scalar boson by the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The latest results fully exploit the data collected during LHC Run 1 to measure the properties of the new boson and within the current sensitivity confirm the identification of this particle with the Higgs boson of the Standard Model.

  14. Prediction of the 20-year incidence of diabetes in older Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangtong; Fine, Jason Peter; Chen, Zhenghong; Liu, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The competing risk method has become more acceptable for time-to-event data analysis because of its advantage over the standard Cox model in accounting for competing events in the risk set. This study aimed to construct a prediction model for diabetes using a subdistribution hazards model. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents who were aged ≥ 55 years, free of diabetes at baseline examination from August 1992 to December 2012. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes diagnosis, taking antidiabetic medicine, or having fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. A questionnaire was used to measure diabetes risk factors, including dietary habits, lifestyle, psychological factors, cognitive function, and physical condition. Gray test and a subdistribution hazards model were used to construct a prediction algorithm for 20-year risk of diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, bootstrap cross-validated Wolber concordance index (C-index) statistics, and calibration plots were used to assess model performance. During the 20-year follow-up period, 144 cases were documented for diabetes incidence with a median follow-up of 10.9 years (interquartile range: 8.0–15.3 years). The cumulative incidence function of 20-year diabetes incidence was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risk of nondiabetes death. Gray test showed that body mass index, FPG, self-rated heath status, and physical activity were associated with the cumulative incidence function of diabetes after adjusting for age. Finally, 5 standard risk factors (poor self-rated health status [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 1.73, P = 0.005], less physical activity [SHR = 1.39, P = 0.047], 55–65 years old [SHR = 4.37, P < 0.001], overweight [SHR = 2.15, P < 0.001] or obesity [SHR = 1.96, P = 0.003], and impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [SHR = 1.99, P < 0.001]) were significantly associated with incident

  15. Primin in the European standard patch test series for 20 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Claus; Engkilde, Kåre; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2007-01-01

    Primin was included in the European standard series (ESS) in 1984. In 2000, a primin-free variant of Primula obconica, the main source of contact allergy to primin, was introduced in the market. The aim of this study was to analyse the trends of primin allergy in 13 986 consecutively patch......-tested eczema patients over a 20-year period from 1985 to 2004. 151 patients gave a positive patch test to primin. The majority were women, in two-third of patients the patch test was relevant and most presented with hand eczema. Only few of the cases (4.7%) were occupational. A significant decline of contact...... allergy to primin was seen (P

  16. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-04

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  17. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.

  18. Stability of the interstellar hydrogen inflow longitude from 20 years of SOHO/SWAN observations

    CERN Document Server

    Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Katushkina, Olga; Lallement, Rosine; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Schmidt, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Aims. A recent debate on the decade-long stability of the interstellar He flow vector, and in particular the flow longitude, has prompted us to check for any variability in the interstellar H flow vector as observed by the SWAN instrument on board SOHO. Methods. We used a simple model-independent method to determine the interstellar H flow longitude, based on the parallax effects induced on the Lyman-{\\alpha} intensity measured by SWAN following the satellite motion around the Sun. Results. Our results show that the interstellar H flow vector longitude does not vary significantly from an average value of 252.9$^{\\circ}$ $\\pm$ 1.4$^{\\circ}$ throughout the 20-year span of the SWAN dataset, further strengthening the arguments for the stability of the interstellar gas flow.

  19. 20 Year Snap-Shot of the Developments in the Regulation of Small Corporations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Adams

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explored the history of the regulation of corporate bodies through State and Commonwealth systems beginning in 1989 that resulted in the development of the legislation impacting on small proprietary company for over 20 years. The introduction of the Corporate Governance Principles for listed companies by the Australian Securities Exchange added another layer of regulation intended to promote transparency and accountability. Research into corporate governance in small companies showed that, in contrast to opinions about the US Legislation, very few Australian companies expressed negative views about corporate governance regulation. The most recent addition to corporate governance regulation has been the expectation that companies have a responsibility for corporate social responsibility. This was illustrated by the James Hardy Industries case.

  20. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability at age 13: their status 20 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbow, C P; Lubinski, D; Shea, D L; Eftekhari-Sanjani, H

    2000-11-01

    Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability. Both sexes became exceptional achievers and perceived themselves as such; they reported uniformly high levels of degree attainment and satisfaction with both their career direction and their overall success. The earlier sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability did predict differential educational and occupational outcomes. The observed differences also appeared to be a function of sex differences in preferences for (a) inorganic versus organic disciplines and (b) a career-focused versus more-balanced life. Because profile differences in abilities and preferences are longitudinally stable, males probably will remain more represented in some disciplines, whereas females are likely to remain more represented in others. These data have policy implications for higher education and the world of work.

  1. Bilateral transient osteoporosis of the hip in a 20-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Jagwinder; McConnell, Jamie S; Greer, Tony

    2014-07-10

    Transient osteoporosis is a rare musculoskeletal condition that has been reported in pregnant women and middle-aged men. We present a bilateral case in a young man. A 20-year-old man presented with spontaneous onset left hip pain. Investigations excluded other differential diagnoses such as infection or fracture. The pain resolved completely; 6 months later the patient presented with a similar episode of pain in the contralateral hip. This also resolved spontaneously. Doctors need to be aware of the possibility of spontaneous onset musculoskeletal pain due to transient osteoporosis occurring in young men. The typical presentation is of spontaneous onset progressive pain, often affecting the hip. Other pathology must be excluded. The investigation of choice is MRI, and the treatment is simple analgesia. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  2. RSIC after 20 years: a look back and a look ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maskewitz, B.F.; Roussin, R.W.; Trubev, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of RSIC's 20th anniversary year, this review includes highlights and lessons learned. In June 1963, the first RSIC Newsletter was published, and information analyses procedures and practices were initiated. Evidence indicates that RSIC served for 20 years as the focal point for the exchange and transfer of radiation transport technology and contributed to the advancement of the state of the art. The original concept is found to be sound: operate an information analysis center by collecting, organizing, evaluating, and analyzing all relevant information and making the information available in a form readily useful to scientists and engineers. Computing technology, a computer-based literature information system, and an advisory service remain important elements of the center. Continuing interaction between the center, developers, and users of information products and services has been a key to RSIC success. A look to the future reflects optimism.

  3. Factitious aortic dissection leading to thoracotomy in a 20-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Elise; Yager, Joel; Apfeldorf, William; Camps-Romero, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented to an emergency department with dramatic, sudden-onset, tearing chest pain. He also claimed to have been previously diagnosed with Ehler-Danlos syndrome and a previous Type I aortic dissection (intimal tear of ascending aorta), rapidly increasing his treating physician's suspicion of an emergent aortic dissection. The patient was quickly transferred to a large university hospital, where he underwent a median sternotomy and thoracotomy, with no aortic pathology found on operation and biopsy. After the patient's postoperative recovery, he was treated at a mental health facility, where he remained ambivalent about his psychiatric condition and did not respond well to treatment. This case report describes a unique case of factitious disorder that led to a serious operative intervention and subsequent psychiatric care and assesses factors that might have contributed to his hospital course.

  4. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  5. Ichthyosis hystrix disease or verrucous epidermal nevus (a retrospective analysis of 20-year observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. El'kin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a  clinical case of ichthyosis hystrix, a rare genetic ichthyosiform dermatosis. Specifics of the disease are related to the complexity of differential diagnosis and verification of the diagnosis, because clinical manifestation of ichthyosis hystrix is similar with that of verrucous epidermal nevus. Clinical particulars of both nosologies are characterized by bizarre and widespread skin lesions of spicular hyperkeratotic growth, located along Blaschko lines. The exclusive feature of the clinical case described is a  long-term (20 years clinical and laboratory monitoring of the patient. The literature review provides brief information on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and pathomorphology of ichthyosis hystrix and verrucous epidermal nevus.

  6. From the First Stars and Galaxies to the Epoch of Reionization: 20 Years of Computational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Michael L.

    2016-06-01

    I give a progress report on computational efforts to reconstruct the first billion years of cosmic evolution beginning with the formation of the first generation of stars and galaxies, culminating in the complete photoionization of the intergalactic medium. After 20 years of intense effort, the picture is falling into place through the development and application of complex multiphysics numerical simulations of increasing physical complexity and scale on the most powerful supercomputers. I describe the processes that govern the formation of the first generation of stars, the transition to the second generation of stars, the assembly of the first galaxies, and finally the reionization of the universe. I discuss how these simulations guide the interpretation of relevant observations of the high redshift (and local) universe, along with some observational predictions of these simulations which will be tested with the next generation observatories.

  7. A brief overview of the tobacco industry in the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga Bialous, Stella; Peeters, Silvy

    2012-03-01

    Since the launch of Tobacco Control 20 years ago, there have been several changes in the tobacco industry worldwide. The goal of this commentary is to present some of the keys changes of the past two decades. This time is marked by mergers and acquisitions that led to the existence, today, of four major transnational tobacco companies: Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Japan Tobacco and Imperial Tobacco. The possible role of the China National Tobacco Corporation in the world tobacco market is also discussed. In addition, in the past decade there was an increase in tobacco companies' investment in non-cigarette forms of nicotine delivery. The impact of these changes for tobacco control policy is briefly discussed.

  8. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-08-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review.

  9. Water Vapor Variability in the Tropical Western Pacific from 20-year Radiosonde Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The 20-year (1976-1995) daily radiosonde data at 17 stations in the tropical western Pacific was ana lyzed. The analysis shows that the atmosphere is more humid in a warmer climate on seasonal, inter-annual and long-term (20-year) time scales, implying a positive water vapor feedback. The vertical structure of the long-term trends in relative humidity (RH) is distinct from that on short-term (seasonal and inter-annual) time scales, suggesting that observed water vapor changes on short time scales could not be considered as a surrogate of long-term climate change. The increasing trend of RH (3%-5%/decade) in the upper troposphere is stronger than that in the lower troposphere (1%-2% / decade). Such vertical structure would amplify positive water vapor feedback in comparison to the common assumption of constant RH changes vertically. The empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis of vertical structure of RH variations shows distinct features of the vertical structure of the first three EOFs. The first three EOFs are optimal for repre sentation of water vapor profiles and provide some hints on physical mechanisms responsible for observed humidity variability. Vaisala radiosondes were used at nine stations, and VIZ radiosondes used at other eight stations. The Vaisala data are corrected for temperature-dependence error using the correction scheme developed by NCAR / ATD and Vaisala. The comparison of Vaisala and VIZ data shows that the VIZ-measured RHs after October 1993 have a moist bias of ~ 10% at RHs < 20%. During 1976-1995, several changes in cluding both instruments and reporting practice have been made at Vaisala stations and introduce errors to long-term RH variations.

  10. Increased alcohol use over the past 20 years among the oldest old in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelfve Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Increased alcohol consumption among old people, reported in many countries, will likely present a major challenge to public health and policy in the future. In Sweden, current knowledge about old people’s alcohol consumption is incomplete because of limited historical data and a dearth of nationally representative studies. We describe the frequency of alcohol consumption among the oldest old in Sweden over a 20-year period by sex, age, education, living situation, mobility and Activities of Daily Living. METHODS - We used repeated cross-sectional survey data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, conducted in 1992, 2002 and 2011. The samples were nationally representative of the Swedish population aged 77+, with response rates of 95.4%, 84.4% and 86.2% (total n=2007. Self-reported consumption frequency was measured with the question “How often do you drink alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer or spirits?” RESULTS - Frequency of alcohol consumption increased among the oldest old from 1992 to 2011. The proportion reporting no or less-than-monthly alcohol consumption decreased, whereas the proportion reporting weekly consumption increased. This was true for men, women and most age and educational groups. The period change in consumption frequency was not explained by changes in demographic factors, living situation or functional capacity during the study period. CONCLUSIONS - Alcohol use increased among the oldest old in Sweden during the 20-year study period. More liberal attitudes toward alcohol could contribute to the increased use. The increase in weekly alcohol consumers suggests an increase in the number of older risk consumers.

  11. Outcome of Keratoconus Management: Review of the Past 20 Years' Contemporary Treatment Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandathara, Preeji S; Stapleton, Fiona J; Willcox, Mark D P

    2017-05-01

    To describe the past 20 years' contemporary management modalities for keratoconus (KC) and their outcomes and failures and to propose recommendations in reporting their outcomes. A systematic review of the literature on KC management options for the last 20 years was performed. Original articles that reported the outcome of any form of KC management other than full-thickness or lamellar corneal graft were reviewed to collect information on their outcomes and complications and the level of scientific evidence of the study. A total of 1,147 articles retrieved and of those, 241 satisfied the inclusion criteria, and 41.1% of them were prospective case series. The higher level of evidence studies, that is, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), were limited to only one intervention, that is, corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL). However, the quality of most RCTs was limited because of performance and detection bias. Contact lenses (CLs) remain the mainstream of KC management and were associated with reversible and non-sight-threatening complications. Surgical options such as intracorneal segment implantation and phakic intraocular lens are considered in the visual rehabilitation of CL intolerants, and CXL is the only available option to stop or delay the disease progression. Generally, these surgical procedures are associated with transient inflammatory events and permanent sequelae. The published studies on KC management options varied significantly with respect to the study population, age of participants, severity of KC, clinical outcome measurements, and follow-up period. High-quality longer follow-up RCTs are required to evaluate the long-term effects of KC interventions.

  12. Effects of storage conditions on forensic examinations of blood samples and bloodstains stored for 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, M; Nakanishi, H; Yoneyama, K; Saito, K; Takada, A

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various storage conditions on blood identification tests, DNA degradation, and short tandem repeat (STR) typing were evaluated. Bloodstains stored at room temperature, 4 °C, -20 °C, and -80 °C for 20 years; blood samples stored at -20 °C and -80 °C for 20 years; and fresh blood samples were analyzed. Leuco-malachite-green testing, anti-human hemoglobin (Hb) testing (using immunochromatography), and tests for hemoglobin-beta (HBB) mRNA were performed as blood identification tests. DNA degradation was evaluated by quantifying the ratios of 305 and 129 base pair (bp) fragments to 41 bp fragments. STR typing was performed using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler™ Plus PCR Amplification Kit. All samples were positive in leuco-malachite-green staining and anti-human Hb assays. HBB was not detected in blood samples stored at -20 °C or -80 °C, although this marker was detected in all bloodstains. As indicated by the ratio of 129:41 bp and 305:41 bp DNA fragments, DNA from bloodstains stored at room temperature or 4 °C were significantly degraded compared to DNA from all other samples. STR typing analyses revealed that a portion of the loci was undetected in bloodstains stored at room temperature. Therefore, to prevent DNA degradation during long-term storage, it is recommended that bloodstains and blood be stored at below -20 °C. In addition, because bloodstains are more suitable for detection of blood-specific mRNAs than blood sample, it is desirable that blood is stored as bloodstain for this method.

  13. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  14. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  15. Verrucous Carcinoma of the Vulva: A 20 Year Retrospective Study and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoyan; Li, Qianwen; Shang, Xiaobin; Qi, Zheng; Han, Cha; Wang, Yingmei; Xue, Fengxia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with verrucous carcinoma (VC) of the vulva. We reviewed data on the age, disease course, clinical manifestation, pathologic diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of patients with vulvar VC who were treated at Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and cases that were reported in the Chinese and English literature during the past 20 years. Six cases were identified in Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, the mean age of patients was 55 years, and their mean disease course was 26 months. Primary symptoms were exophytic neoplasm with pruritus and/or pain. Surgical treatment included wide local excision, simple vulvectomy, and radical vulvectomy with or without lymph node dissection in the groin. Vulvar VC occurred simultaneously with vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia in 2 cases and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in 2 cases. The mean follow-up was 16.8 months with no recurrence in those 6 cases. During the 20-year period, 20 and 41 cases were reported in Chinese and English literature, respectively. Three cases were misdiagnosed with giant condyloma acuminatum in China. One case (1/20) was reported with coexistent squamous carcinoma in Chinese literature and 8 cases (8/41) in the English literature. The recurrence rate was 12.5% (2/19) and 17.5% (7/40) in Chinese and English literature, respectively. Vulvar VC is a distinct type of slow-growing, nonmetastatic tumor with unclear etiology. These tumors should be distinguished from giant condyloma acuminatum and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Surgery is the most effective treatment.

  16. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  17. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davison Belinda

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

  18. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K.; Heissel, Jennifer A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Ross, Emily C.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Levy, Dorainne J.; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N = 50 Black, N = 62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key

  19. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  20. Latest design of gate valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurzhofer, U.; Stolte, J.; Weyand, M.

    1996-12-01

    Babcock Sempell, one of the most important valve manufacturers in Europe, has delivered valves for the nuclear power industry since the beginning of the peaceful application of nuclear power in the 1960s. The latest innovation by Babcock Sempell is a gate valve that meets all recent technical requirements of the nuclear power technology. At the moment in the United States, Germany, Sweden, and many other countries, motor-operated gate and globe valves are judged very critically. Besides the absolute control of the so-called {open_quotes}trip failure,{close_quotes} the integrity of all valve parts submitted to operational forces must be maintained. In case of failure of the limit and torque switches, all valve designs have been tested with respect to the quality of guidance of the gate. The guidances (i.e., guides) shall avoid a tilting of the gate during the closing procedure. The gate valve newly designed by Babcock Sempell fulfills all these characteristic criteria. In addition, the valve has cobalt-free seat hardfacing, the suitability of which has been proven by friction tests as well as full-scale blowdown tests at the GAP of Siemens in Karlstein, West Germany. Babcock Sempell was to deliver more than 30 gate valves of this type for 5 Swedish nuclear power stations by autumn 1995. In the presentation, the author will report on the testing performed, qualifications, and sizing criteria which led to the new technical design.

  1. Zika virus: the latest newcomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Carlos eSaiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV, a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980´s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization (WHO, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in foetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis and public health.

  2. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980's, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health.

  3. The Latest Books on Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elia Zaru

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The latest books published on globalization raise interesting issues which reflect upon the very complexity of the process we are facing. In The Great Convergence: Information Technology and the New Globalization Richard Baldwin proposes a history of globalization divided into two stages. As Baldwin argues, the process of globalization has to be divided into “old” and “new” age. The “old” globalization took place between 1820 and 1990. It was characterized by the “great divergence”, that is by the centralization of world income in today’s wealthy nations. However, since 1990 the sharing of world income has plummeted to where it was in 1900. According to Baldwin, this reversal of fortune is a symptom of a shift in the globalization process. The “new” globalization, driven by information technology, has combined high tech with low wages, and lead simultaneously to the industrialization of developing nations and deindustrialization of developed ones. This is the “great convergence”: in the “new” globalization rich and developing nations are alike and they face equal global challenges.

  4. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B.; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980’s, then in the Micronesia in 2007 and, more recently in the Americas in 2014, where it has displayed an explosive spread, as advised by the World Health Organization, which resulted in the infection of hundreds of thousands of people. ZIKV infection was characterized by causing a mild disease presented with fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, with exceptional reports of an association with Guillain–Barre syndrome (GBS) and microcephaly. However, since the end of 2015, an increase in the number of GBS associated cases and an astonishing number of microcephaly in fetus and new-borns in Brazil have been related to ZIKV infection, raising serious worldwide public health concerns. Clarifying such worrisome relationships is, thus, a current unavoidable goal. Here, we extensively review what is currently known about ZIKV, from molecular biology, transmission routes, ecology, and epidemiology, to clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and public health. PMID:27148186

  5. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga, E-mail: thiagoveiga@cardiol.br; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Povoa, Thais Rolim [Faculdade de Educação Física - Universidade Estadual de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil); Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga [Liga de Hipertensão Arterial - Universidade Federal de Goiás, Goiânia, GO (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). In general, there was an unfavorable progression of CVRFs in the

  6. ISSUES FACING THE SOUTH AFRICAN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM IN THE NEXT 20 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Kumile

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: There is some concern about the future ability of South Africa’s Research and Development (R&D system to produce R&D output. This paper documents a Delphi study that was conducted in order to gain insight into the opinion of experts regarding the most pressing issues facing the South African R&D system in the next 20 years. Two main themes emerge from the study. First, experts foresee poor prospects for the retention and rejuvenation of researchers in the system. The second theme is the poor prospects for sufficient funding for R&D in the next 20 years.In general, there was a high level of agreement that the issues were critical. The exception was the respondents’ opinion on the negative effect current Black Economic Empowerment policies might have on quality and R&D capacity in the private sector.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Daar bestaan ’n mate van kommer oor die toekomstige vermoë van Suid-Afrika se Navorsing en Ontwikkeling(N&O-stelsel om N&O-uitsette te lewer. In hierdie verslag word ’n Delphistudie gedokumenteer wat uitgevoer is om kenners se opinies in te win rakende die mees dringende sake wat die Suid-Afrikaanse N&O-stelsel in die volgende 20 jaar in die gesig staar. Twee temas kom na vore in die navorsing. In die eerste plek, voorsien kenners swak vooruitsigte vir die behoud en vernuwing van personeel van die stelsel. In die tweede plek, word swak vooruitsigte in terme van voldoende befondsing vir N&O oor die volgende 20 jaar voorsien. Oor die algemeen is ’n hoë mate van samestemming ten opsigte van die kritikaliteit van die aangeleenthede gevind. Die uitsondering was die respondente se opinie van die negatiewe effek wat huidige Swart Ekonomiese Bemagtigingsbeleid mag hê op die kwaliteit en vermoëns van N&O in die privaatsektor.

  7. A Road Map for America's Water for the Next 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.; Rising, J.; Ho, M. W.; Josset, L.; Allaire, M.; Troy, T.; Devineni, N.; Ruddell, B. L.; Pal, I.

    2016-12-01

    This talk will present a perspective from the America's Water Initiative team that has been discussing the past, present and future of water in America. Paleoclimate reconstructions reveal dramatic inter-annual to decadal structure in the variation in drought across America and provide a backdrop for increasing climate variability expected in the next century. At the same time our water infrastructure ranging from main pipes to dams is aging and in urgent need of renewal. Non-point source pollution from cities and agriculture continues to be a concern and poses a challenge for water supplies. At the same time, there has been progress on water use efficiency, and on the acceptability of water reuse. To assure water, energy and food security for the future, one needs significant investments in water infrastructure of all types, and the cumulative estimates for these run to nearly $3 trillion over the next 20 years. A discussion on infrastructure provision is not complete without a discussion on how use patterns (e.g., where and which crops are grown and how), economic and financial instruments (e.g., insurance associated with the failure of water supply or with flooding, water pricing and trading, capital for construction), regulatory instruments (e.g., standards and policies), technological innovation (e.g., in sensors to improve water utilization in agriculture or pervasive monitoring of drinking and environmental water quality, nanofiltration and resource extraction from waste streams), and governance of water systems. We present for discussion, a proposal for the next 5 and the next 20 years that lays out an adaptive strategy to apprach these issues, and the associated unknowns and challenges that we need to address. The America's Water initiative was launched by Columbia University in partnership with other Universities and representatives from the public and private sectors. A modeling platform that brings together climate, water, agricultural, energy and urban

  8. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Veiga Jardim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives: To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods: All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results: The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students, of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample, of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men, followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05. Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05 were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05. Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05. Conclusion

  9. Serum TCDD and TEQ concentrations among Seveso women, 20 years after the explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Marcella; Mocarelli, Paolo; Brambilla, Paolo; Wesselink, Amelia; Patterson, Don G; Turner, Wayman E; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2014-11-01

    The Seveso Women's Health Study (SWHS) is a historical cohort study of the female population residing near Seveso, Italy, on 10 July 1976, when a chemical explosion resulted in the highest known residential exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Individual TCDD concentration was measured in serum collected near the time of the explosion, and in 1996, we collected adequate blood for TCDD and total dioxin toxic equivalent (TEQ) measurement. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls were measured in 1996 serum for a sample (n=225, 23%) of the SWHS cohort and WHO 2005 TEQs were calculated. We examined characteristics that predict 1996 TCDD concentrations and estimated TCDD elimination half-life over the 20-year period since the explosion. Median lipid-adjusted TCDD and total TEQ concentrations in 1996 serum were 7.3 and 26.2 p.p.t., respectively. Initial 1976 TCDD and age at explosion were the strongest predictors of 1996 TCDD. The TCDD elimination half-life was 7.1 years for women older than 10 years in 1976, but was shorter in those who were younger. Twenty years after the explosion, TCDD concentrations in this SWHS sample, the majority of who were children in 1976, remain elevated relative to background. These data add to the limited data available on TCDD elimination half-life in children.

  10. [Meeting Report: 20 years after the First International Symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, Elena; Díez, Juana; Fortes, Purificación; Gastaminza, Pablo; Majano, Pedro; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Pérez-del-Pulgar, Sofía; Quer, Josep; López-Labrador, F Xavier

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered by the team of Michael Houghton at Chiron Corporation in 1989 and the first symposium on HCV and related viruses was held in Venice, Italy, shortly after, in 1992. This conference was organized to advance knowledge on what then was a mysterious virus responsible for most cases of «non-A, non-B» hepatitis. During the 20 years since the first conference, the scientific quality of presentations has steadily increased, together with the tremendous advances in basic and clinical research and epidemiology. What started as a small conference on a new virus, about which there were very few data, has today become a first-in-class congress: a meeting place for basic researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health experts, and industry members to present the most important advances and their application to HCV treatment and control. The nineteenth HCV symposium was held in September 2012, once again in Venice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Complications of Aortic Stenting in Patients below 20 Years Old: Immediate and Intermediate Follow-Up

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    Akbar Molaei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Optimal timing and mode of treatment for patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA remain controversial, particularly in children. Surgery, balloon dilatation, and stent implantation have all proven effective in the treatment of moderate or severe obstruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the complications of COA stenting angioplasty in pediatric patients. Methods: This retrospective, descriptive study was conducted on patients less than 20 years of age who underwent aortic stenting angioplasty because of congenital COA in the pediatric catheterization laboratory of Rajaie cardiovascular, medical and research Center, Tehran between 2005 and 2010. Results: A total of 26 patients (18 [65.4%] males and 9 [34.6%] females with congenital COA who had undergone aortic stenting angioplasty were recruited. Nineteen (73.1% of these patients had native COA and 7 (26.9% had recurrent COA. Most of the early complications were minor and temporary; only one patient developed early major complications. During the follow-up, whereas none of the native group patients developed late complications, in the re-COA group 28.57% of the patients had re-stenosis and 14.28% had chronic systemic hypertension, requiring drug therapy. Conclusion: Our investigation into post-stenting complications in patients with native COA and re-COA showed that endovascular stenting could be an effective and safe method, even in young patients with native COA.

  12. A 20-year H2O maser monitoring program with the Medicina 32-m telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, J.; Felli, M.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Palla, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-03-01

    The Arcetri/Bologna H2O maser group has been monitoring the 1.3-cm water maser emission from a sample of 43 star-forming regions (SFRs) and 22 late-type stars for about 20 years at a sampling rate of 4-5 observations each year, using the 32-m Medicina Radio Telescope (HPBW 1.‧9 at 22 GHz). For the late-type stars we observe representative samples of OH/IR-stars, Mira's, semi-regular variables, and supergiants. The SFR-sample spans a large interval in FIR luminosity of the associated Young Stellar Object (YSO), from 20 L to 1.5 × 106 L, and offers a unique data base for the study of the long-term (years) variability of the maser emission in regions of star formation. This presentation concerns only the masers in SFRs. The information obtained from single-dish monitoring is complementary to what is extracted from higher-resolution (VLA and VLBI) observations, and can better explore the velocity domain and the long-term variability therein. We characterize the variability of the sources in various ways and we study how it depends on the luminosity and other properties of the associated YSO and its environment.

  13. How have researchers studied multiracial populations? A content and methodological review of 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-07-01

    The U.S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic makeup of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population, resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied, both to recognize emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990 to 2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals, primarily from the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, and socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; and (c) implications and recommendations for future studies.

  14. Pediatric drowning: a 20-year review of autopsied cases: III. Bathtub drownings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Gino R; Chiasson, David A; Smith, Charles R

    2006-06-01

    Bathtub drownings are a significant cause of mortality in the pediatric population. Infants and preambulatory children are disproportionately affected, and several studies have suggested that preventative campaigns have been ineffective in the prevention of such deaths. To obtain a better understanding of the factors associated with bathtub drownings, a retrospective review of autopsy records over a 20-year period (1984-2003) was performed. Eighteen consecutive cases of bathtub drownings were identified in 8 males and 10 females (ratio, 0.8; P = 0.6374). The age ranged from 6 months to 70 months (mean, 17 months; median, 11 months), and most cases occurred in infants aged 12 months or less (72%). Males tended to be older than females (mean, 23 months versus 11 months; P = 0.1889). Associated factors included inadequate adult supervision (89%), cobathing (39%), the use of infant bath seats (17%), and coexistent medical disorders predisposing the infant or child to the drowning episode (17%). The pathologic findings included a frothy exudate (28%), pleural effusion (28%), and increased lung weight (61%). All toxicologic samples submitted for analysis were negative. The present study highlights the factors associated with bathtub drownings and may aid in the prevention of such deaths in the pediatric population.

  15. [Clinical features of uveitis in childhood during the past 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, S; Nakagawa, Y; Tada, R; Ohji, M; Hara, Y; Hagihara, M; Fujii, S; Haruta, Y; Yuasa, T

    1990-08-01

    One hundred and fifty five cases (237 eyes) of children with uveitis were clinically observed in the past 20 years. There was no fluctuation in the number of patients during the period. Concerning the age as the first visit, the smallest group was under 4 years of age and the numbers of patients increased at ages 14 and 15. Chief complaints usually corresponded to the age of the cases. Cases with anterior uveitis accounted for 25% of all cases, intermediate uveitis 12%, posterior uveitis 45% and panuveitis consisted of 17% of all cases, respectively. In the course of treatment, improvement of visual acuity was not statistically significant; the visual prognosis of cases affected under age 7 years was relatively poor. At the time of final observation, the visual acuity of cases, who had first visited during the past 10 years, were better than those who presented during the previous decade. Uveitis had healed or improved in 68% of cases treated in our clinic. As complications, band-shaped keratopathy was seen in 8% of the patients, cataract in 22% and glaucoma in 5%, respectively. Thirty two per cent of the cases received systemic steroid therapy and the average duration was 3.8 months. Fifty two operations were performed in 30 cases (19%), 37 eyes (16%); 16 were cataract operations and 24 were operations for glaucoma.

  16. Antenatal screening for Down syndrome: a quantitative demonstration of the improvements over the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renshaw, Richard; Ellis, Katrina; Jacobs, Patricia; Morris, Joan

    2013-10-01

    Pregnant women who receive a high screening risk result for Down, Edwards or Patau syndrome are offered diagnostic tests that carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage. This study quantifies the improvement in the screening tests by calculating the number of women who had such tests per syndrome diagnosis from 1991 to 2010. Routinely stored data on prenatal chorionic villus sampling (CVS) and amniocentesis samples performed from 1991 to 2010 from the Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory in England were extracted from the laboratory database. The numbers of diagnostic tests performed per Down, Edwards or Patau syndrome diagnosis were calculated according to the type of diagnostic test, and were adjusted for maternal age and gestational age at diagnosis. A total of 32,345 CVSs and amniocenteses identified 872 diagnoses of Down syndrome and 328 of Edwards and Patau syndrome. In 1991, there were 46 (95%CI: 16-111) CVSs per syndrome diagnosis compared with five (95%CI: 4-7) in 2010. For amniocenteses, the number fell from 53 (37-78) to 15 (11-22). This analysis demonstrates the improvements in antenatal screening for Down syndrome that have been made over the past 20 years, resulting in a reduction in the number of women tested and thus in the number of foetal deaths attributable to the testing procedure.

  17. Cytogenetic effects of radioiodine therapy: a 20-year follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Gordon K. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Khvostunov, Igor K. [Medical Radiological Research Center, Obninsk, Kaluga Region (Russian Federation); Gregoire, Eric [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, PRP-HOM/SRBE/LDB, BP 17, Fontenay aux roses Cedex (France); Barquinero, Joan-Francesc [Universtitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Facultat de Biociencies, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Shi, Lin; Tashiro, Satoshi [Hiroshima University, Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to compare cytogenetic data in a patient before and after treatment with radioiodine to evaluate the assays in the context of biological dosimetry. We studied a 34-year-old male patient who underwent a total thyroidectomy followed by ablation therapy with {sup 131}I (19.28 GBq) for a papillary thyroid carcinoma. The patient provided blood samples before treatment and then serial samples at monthly intervals during the first year period and quarterly intervals for 5 years and finally 20 years after treatment. A micronucleus assay, dicentric assay, FISH method and G-banding were used to detect and measure DNA damage in circulating peripheral blood lymphocytes of the patient. The results showed that radiation-induced cytogenetic effects persisted for many years after treatment as shown by elevated micronuclei and chromosome aberrations as a result of exposure to {sup 131}I. At 5 years after treatment, the micronucleus count was tenfold higher than the pre-exposure frequency. Shortly after the treatment, micronucleus counts produced a dose estimate of 0.47 ± 0.09 Gy. The dose to the patient evaluated retrospectively using FISH-measured translocations was 0.70 ± 0.16 Gy. Overall, our results show that the micronucleus assay is a retrospective biomarker of low-dose radiation exposure. However, this method is not able to determine local dose to the target tissue which in this case was any residual thyroid cells plus metastases of thyroidal origin. (orig.)

  18. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: what have we learned in 20 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chave, Jérôme

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, major advances have clarified how ecological patterns inform theory, and how in turn theory informs applied ecology. Also, there has been an increased recognition that the problem of scale at which ecological processes should be considered is critical if we are to produce general predictions. Ecological dynamics is always stochastic at small scales, but variability is conditional on the scale of description. The radical changes in the scope and aims of ecology over the past decades reflect in part the need to address pressing societal issues of environmental change. Technological advances in molecular biology, global positioning, sensing instrumentation and computational power should not be overlooked as an explanation for these radical changes. However, I argue that conceptual unification across ecology, genetics, evolution and physiology has fostered even more fertile questions. We are moving away from the view that evolution is played in a fixed ecological theatre: the theatre is being rapidly and relentlessly redesigned by the players themselves. The maintenance of ecosystem functions depends on shifts in species assemblages and on cellular metabolism, not only on flows of energy and matter. These findings have far reaching implications for our understanding of how ecosystem function and biodiversity will withstand (or not) environmental changes in the 21st century.

  19. Successfully breaking a 20-year cycle of hospitalizations with recovery-oriented cognitive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Paul M; Reisweber, Jarrod; Luther, Lauren; Brinen, Aaron P; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with severe and persistent schizophrenia can present challenges (e.g., difficulties sustaining motivation and conducting information processing tasks) to the implementation of recovery-oriented care. We present a successful application of recovery-oriented cognitive therapy (CT-R), a fusion of the spirit and principles of the recovery movement with the evidence base and know-how of cognitive therapy, that helped an individual with schizophrenia move along her recovery path by overcoming specific obstacles, including a 20-year cycle of hospitalizations (five per year), daily phone calls to local authorities, threatening and berating "voices," the belief that she would be killed at any moment, and social isolation. Building on strengths, treatment included collaboratively identifying meaningful personal goals that were broken down into successfully accomplishable tasks (e.g., making coffee) that disconfirmed negative beliefs and replaced the phone calling. At the end of treatment and at a 6-month follow-up, the phone calls had ceased, psychosocial functioning and neurocognitive performance had increased, and avolition and positive symptoms had decreased. She was not hospitalized once in 24 months. Results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have untapped potential for recovery that can be mobilized through individualized, goal-focused psychosocial interventions.

  20. Structural changes and degradation of Red Latosols under different management systems for 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Tavares Filho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soils are the foundation of terrestrial ecosystems and their role in food production is fundamental, although physical degradation has been observed in recent years, caused by different cultural practices that modify structures and consequently the functioning of soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible structural changes and degradation in an Oxisol under different managements for 20 years: no-tillage cultivation with and without crop rotation, perennial crop and conventional tillage, plus a forested area (reference. Initially, the crop profile was described and subsequently, 10 samples per management system and forest soil were collected to quantify soil organic matter, flocculation degree, bulk density, and macroporosity. The results indicated structural changes down to a soil depth of 50 cm, with predominance of structural units ∆μ (intermediate compaction level under perennial crop and no-tillage crop rotation, and of structural units ∆ (compacted under conventional tillage and no-tillage. The soil was increasingly degraded in the increasing order: forest => no-tillage crop rotation => perennial crop => no-tillage without crop rotation => conventional tillage. In all managements, the values of organic matter and macroporosity were always below and bulk density always above those of the reference area (forest and, under no-tillage crop rotation and perennial crop, the flocculation degree was proportionally equal to that of the reference area.

  1. Mirror neurons (and beyond) in the macaque brain: an overview of 20 years of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casile, Antonino

    2013-04-12

    Mirror neurons are a class of neurons in the ventral pre-motor cortex (area F5) and inferior parietal lobule (area PFG) that respond during the execution as well as the observation of goal-directed motor acts. These intriguing response properties stirred an intense debate in the scientific community with respect to the possible cognitive role of mirror neurons. The aim of the present review is to contribute to this debate by providing, in a single paper, an extended summary of 20 years of neurophysiological research on mirror neurons in the macaque. To this end, I provide a comprehensive description of the methodology and the main results of each paper about mirror neurons published since their first report in 1992. Particular care was devoted in reporting the different response characteristics and the percentages of neurons exhibiting them in relation to the total number of studied neurons. Furthermore, I also discuss recent results indicating that mirror neurons might not be confined to areas F5 and PFG and that "mirroring" might not be limited to action observation. Finally, I offer a unifying framework for many of the results discussed here by speculating that a potential functional role of mirror neurons might be, during action observation, to generalize from the particular grasping movement being observed to the "concept" of grasping. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 20 years of speleothem paleoluminescence records of environmental changes: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shopov Yavor Y.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses advance of the research on Speleothem paleoluminescence Records of Environmental Changes after it have been first introduced by the author 20 years ago.It is demonstrated that most of the progress in this field was made in result of the operation of the International Program “Luminescence of Cave Minerals” of the commission on Physical Chemistry and Hydrogeology of Karst of UIS of UNESCO.Potential, resolution and limitations of high resolution luminescence speleothem proxy records of Paleotemperature, Solar Insolation, Solar Luminosity, Glaciations, Sea Level advances, Past Precipitation, Plants Populations, Paleosoils, Past Karst Denudation, Chemical Pollution, Geomagnetic field and Cosmic Rays Flux variations, Cosmogenic Isotopes production and Supernova Eruptions in the Past, Advances of Hydrothermal Waters, and Tectonic Uplift are discussed.It is demonstrated that speleothems allow extremely high resolution (higher than in any other paleoclimatic terrestrial archives and long duration of records. Some speleothems can be used as natural climatic stations for obtaining of quantitative proxy records of Quaternary climates with annual resolution.

  3. Prevalence of malocclusions in the 13-20-year-old categories of football athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luci Alves de Souza

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The dentist can offer athletes improvement in their physical performance through the maintenance of oral health, preventing and treating any and all changes in the stomatognathic system, such as dental malocclusions, that compromise the athletes' performance. The objective of this study is to research the presence of dental malocclusions in athletes of the category between 13 and 20 years of age, from the São Paulo Football Club. 84 athletes participated in this study, dealing with the following topics: molar relation (Angle's classification; presence of overbite; underbite; overcrowding; abnormal spacing; open bite; and anterior, posterior, bilateral and unilateral crossbite; midline deviation and facial type (mesofacial, brachyfacial and dolichofacial. Only one table was made, showing percentages. In regard to Angle's molar relation, 89% are in Class I, 8% in Class II, 3% Class III, 9% of the athletes had overbite, 4% had underbite, 13% had overcrowding and 21% had abnormal spacing. In regard to the bite, 11% presented anterior open bite. In regard to crossbite, 7% presented unilateral crossbite on the right side and 2% on the left side; 5% presented posterior crossbite and 4% anterior crossbite. In regard to midline deviations, 4% presented deviation in the maxilla and 33% in the mandible. In regard to facial type: 39% are dolichofacial, 4% brachyfacial and 57% mesofacial. Based on the results shown, proposals for the implementation of dental, phoniatric, and Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT practices are already being discussed with the multidisciplinary team of the club involved.

  4. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features.

  5. Evaluation of Depression and its Relationship to Exercise in Women Over 20 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Zarepoor

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depression is one of the most common mental disorders, which imposes a large burden on the health care system. Due to increasing frequency of depression, present research was performed to evaluate the frequency of depression and its relationship to exercise in women in Yazd. Methods: This was a descriptive study. In this study, 200 women over 20 years old entered the study. One hundred subjects were athletes and100 were non-athletes. They were selected by stratified random sampling. Beck Depression Inventory was used to determine the frequency of depression in women. T-test was used for data analysis. Results: Results showed that the frequency of depression was different between athletic and non-athletic women. Mean depression scores for athletic women were lower than non-athletes. There was a significant difference regarding the frequency of depression between women in individual and team sports. Athletic women with higher duration of exercising showed less depression than other athletes. Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that exercise in everyday life can be effective in reducing the frequency of depression in women.

  6. Helicobacter pyloriin gastric corpus of patients 20 years after partial gastric resection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian Kirsch; Ahmed Madisch; Petja Piehler; Ekkehard Bayerd(o)rffer; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the long-term prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) gastritis in patients after partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer, and to compare the severity of H pylori-positive gastritis in the corpus mucosa between partial gastrectomy patients and matched controls.METHODS: Endoscopic biopsies were obtained from 57 patients after partial gastric resection for histological examination using hematoxylin/eosin and Warthin-Starry staining. Gastritis was graded according to the updated Sydney system. Severity of corpus gastritis was compared between H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients and H pylori-positive duodenal ulcer patients matched for age and gender.RESULTS: In partial gastrectomy patients, surgery was performed 20 years (median) prior to evaluation. In 25 patients (43.8%) H pylori was detected histologically in the gastric remnant. Gastric atrophy was more common in H pylori-positive compared to H pylori-negative partial gastrectomy patients (P<0.05). The severity of corpus gastritis was significantly lower in H pylori-positive partial gastrectomy patients compared to duodenal ulcer patients (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in the activity of gastritis, atrophy and intestinal metaplasia between the two groups.CONCLUSION: The long-term prevalence of H pylorigastritis in the gastric corpus of patients who underwent partial gastric resection due to peptic ulcer disease is comparable to the general population. The expression of H pylori gastritis in the gastric remnant does not resemble the gastric cancer phenotype.

  7. Modelling 20 years of synchrotron flaring in the jet of 3C 273

    CERN Document Server

    Türler, M; Paltani, S

    2000-01-01

    We present a phenomenological jet model which is able to reproduce well the observed variations of the submillimetre-to-radio emission of the bright quasar 3C 273 during the last 20 years. It is a generalization of the original shock model of Marscher & Gear (1985), which is now able to describe an accelerating or decelerating shock wave, in a curved, non-conical and non-adiabatic jet. The model defines the properties of a synchrotron outburst which is expected to be emitted by the jet material in a small region just behind the shock front. By a proper parameterization of the average outburst's evolution and of the peculiarities of individual outbursts, we are able to decompose simultaneously thirteen long-term light-curves of 3C 273 in a series of seventeen distinct outbursts. It is the first time that a model is so closely confronted to the long-term multi-wavelength variability properties of a quasar. The ability of the model to reproduce the very different shapes of the submillimetre-to-radio light cu...

  8. Responses of high-altitude graminoids and soil fungi to 20 years of experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Kivlin, Stephanie N; Whitney, Kenneth D; Price, Mary V; Waser, Nickolas M; Harte, John

    2014-07-01

    High-elevation ecosystems are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate warming because cold temperatures constrain biological processes. Deeper understanding of the consequences of climate change will come from studies that consider not only the direct effects of temperature on individual species, but also the indirect effects of altered species interactions. Here we show that 20 years of experimental warming has changed the species composition of graminoid (grass and sedge) assemblages in a subalpine meadow of the Rocky Mountains, USA, by increasing the frequency of sedges and reducing the frequency of grasses. Because sedges typically have weak interactions with mycorrhizal fungi relative to grasses, lowered abundances of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi or other root-inhabiting fungi could underlie warming-induced shifts in plant species composition. However, warming increased root colonization by AM fungi for two grass species, possibly because AM fungi can enhance plant water uptake when soils are dried by experimental warming. Warming had no effect on AM fungal colonization of three other graminoids. Increased AM fungal colonization of the dominant shrub Artemisia tridentata provided further grounds for rejecting the hypothesis that reduced AM fungi caused the shift from grasses to sedges. Non-AM fungi (including dark septate endophytes) also showed general increases with warming. Our results demonstrate that lumping grasses and sedges when characterizing plant community responses can mask significant shifts in the responses of primary producers, and their symbiotic fungi, to climate change.

  9. Radiographic findings on 3rd molars removed in 20-year-old men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasuo, Ari; Peltola, Jaakko; Ventä, Irja; Murtomaa, Heikki

    2003-10-01

    In this study we assess radiographic findings characteristic of mandibular 3rd molars that had required either routine or surgical extraction. X-ray findings relating to acute pericoronitis were also examined. The material was collected by investigating patient records and rotational panoramic radiographs of 20-year-old Finnish male conscripts (n = 738) treated during military service because of 3rd-molar-related problems. The follicle around the crown of mandibular 3rd molars with acute pericoronitis was enlarged in 19% of cases and in 13% of chronic symptom-free pericoronitis cases (not statistically significant difference). Mandibular 3rd molars extracted surgically were more often mesially inclined than those extracted routinely (61% vs. 23%; P pericoronitis [around 27% vs. 39% of the teeth routinely extracted (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.8)]. In 86% of cases the space between 2nd molar and ramus of the mandible was narrower than the 3rd molar extracted surgically, whereas this was 62% in routine extraction cases (P < 0.001). We conclude that there are some typical 3rd-molar findings in rotational panoramic radiographs that show a need for surgical extraction.

  10. Increased symptom reporting persists in 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans 20 years post deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwini, Stella M; Forbes, Andrew B; Kelsall, Helen L; Ikin, Jillian F; Sim, Malcolm R

    2015-12-01

    Following the 1990-1991 Gulf War, Gulf War veterans (veterans) reported health symptoms more commonly than non-deployed groups. This article examines symptom persistence, incidence and prevalence 20 years on. In 2000-2003 and 2011-2012, a 63-item symptom checklist was administered to 697 veterans and 659 comparison group. Symptomatology was compared using log-binomial regression. Both veterans and comparison group reported significantly increased prevalence (3-52%) over time in more than half the symptoms, with a similar overall rate of increase. Half the symptoms had higher incidence (risk-ratios ranged 1.43-1.50) and a quarter were more persistent (risk-ratios ranged 1.12-1.20) in veterans than the comparison group. Symptomatology increased in both groups over time, but persisted to a similar extent and had higher incidence among veterans than the comparison group. The gap in symptom prevalence between the two groups remained unchanged. These findings suggest enduring health consequences of Gulf War service. © 2015 Commonwealth of Australia. American Journal of Industrial Medicine © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Sport and infectious risk: a systematic review of the literature over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset-Janin, A; Nicolas, X; Saraux, A

    2012-11-01

    The development of sports activities promoted as a health factor should not hide the increased risk for diseases, more particularly infections. A review of articles made over the last 20 years was made with a descriptive epidemiological purpose. The most marked risk is skin infection with methicillin-resistant community acquired Staphylococcus aureus (27.4% of the articles), followed by Tinea corporis and capitis (13.7%), and leptospirosis (11.7%). The risk of blood-borne infection seems low, and articles are rare (3.9%). The risk of disease with respiratory transmission (measles, meningococcal meningitis) must be taken into account. The effect of physical activity on the immune system depends on the type and duration of the work out: it seems to be beneficial for a workout of a moderate intensity, and deleterious for a sustained acute work out, or a period of intensive training. These periods of protection or susceptibility to infections are described as "open window" and "J curve". The only recommendations for prevention of sport-related infections arise from the frequency of skin infections and the severity of blood-borne infections. These recommendations are published by American and international sports authorities. The specificity of athletes' management is due to imperatives of competitiveness (maintaining physical performance) and the necessity of temporary eviction from sports, in case of contagiousness. The athletes must make sure their recommended vaccinations are up-to-date. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical cancer incidence after up to 20 years of observation among women with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, L Stewart; Hessol, Nancy A; Darragh, Teresa M; Minkoff, Howard; Colie, Christine; Wright, Rodney L; Cohen, Mardge; Seaberg, Eric C

    2017-10-15

    To estimate the incidence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) across up to 21 years of follow-up among women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to compare it to that among HIV-uninfected women, we reviewed ICC diagnoses from a 20-year multi-site U.S. cohort study of HIV infected and uninfected women who had Pap testing every 6 months. Incidence rates were calculated and compared to those in HIV-negative women. Incidence ratios standardized to age-, sex-, race-, and calendar-year specific population rates were calculated. After a median follow-up of 12.3 years, four ICCs were confirmed in HIV seropositive women, only one in the last 10 years of observation, and none in seronegative women. The ICC incidence rate did not differ significantly by HIV status (HIV seronegative: 0/100,000 person-years vs. HIV seropositive: 19.5/100,000 person-years; p = 0.53). The standardized incidence ratio for the HIV-infected WIHS participants was 3.31 (95% CI: 0.90, 8.47; p = 0.07). Although marginally more common in women without HIV, for those with HIV in a prevention program, ICC does not emerge as a major threat as women age. © 2017 UICC.

  13. Cre-lox neurogenetics: 20 years of versatile applications in brain research and counting...

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Z Tsien

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain have garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started out to explore the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH’s bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come.

  14. Evolution of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results of a multicenter study at 20 years' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenti, S; Jouve, J-L; Morin, C; Wolff, S; Sales de Gauzy, J; Chalopin, A; Ibnoulkhatib, A; Polirsztok, E; Walter, A; Schuller, S; Abelin-Genevois, K; Leroux, J; Lechevallier, J; Kabaj, R; Mary, P; Fuentes, S; Parent, H; Garin, C; Bin, K; Peltier, E; Blondel, B; Chopin, D

    2015-09-01

    To date there is no consensus on therapeutic indications in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) with curvature between 30° and 60° at the end of growth. The objective of this study was to assess outcome in patients with moderate AIS. A multicenter retrospective study was conducted. Inclusion criteria were: Cobb angle, 30-60° at end of growth; and follow-up > 20 years. The data collected were angular values in adolescence and at last follow-up, and quality of life scores at follow-up. A total of 258 patients were enrolled: 100 operated on in adolescence, 116 never operated on, and 42 operated on in adulthood. Mean follow-up was 27.8 years. Cobb angle progression significantly differed between the 3 groups: 3.2° versus 8.8° versus 23.6°, respectively; P scoliosis, the risk of progression to ≥ 20° was significantly higher for initial Cobb angle > 35° (OR=4.278, P=0.002). There were no significant differences in quality of life scores. Patients operated on in adolescence showed little radiological progression, demonstrating the efficacy of surgical treatment for curvature greater than 50°. Curvature greater than 40° was progressive and may require surgery in adulthood. Lumbar scoliosis showed greater potential progression than thoracic scoliosis in adulthood, requiring fusion as of 35° angulation. IV, retrospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. The Incidence of Primary Systemic Vasculitis in Jerusalem: A 20-year Hospital-based Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesher, Gideon; Ben-Chetrit, Eli; Mazal, Bracha; Breuer, Gabriel S

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of primary systemic vasculitides varies among different geographic regions and ethnic origins. The aim of this study was to examine the incidence rates of vasculitides in the Jerusalem Jewish population, and to examine possible trends in incidence rates over a 20-year period. The clinical databases of inpatients at the 2 medical centers in Jerusalem were searched for patients with vasculitis diagnosed between 1990-2009. Individual records were then reviewed by one of the authors. The significance of trends in incidence rates throughout the study period was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. The average annual incidence rate of polyarteritis nodosa was 3.6/million adults (95% CI 1.6-4.7). Incidence rates did not change significantly during this period (r = 0.39, p = 0.088). The incidence of granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) was 4.1 (2.2-5.9) for the whole period, during which it increased significantly (r = 0.53, p Jerusalem are in the lower range of global incidence rates. While GPA and MPA incidence are increasing, GCA incidence is decreasing.

  16. An Analysis of 20 Years of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980, with the last launch occurring in 2003. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth-facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20-year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band, near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  17. Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, B; Wood, A

    2013-11-01

    The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990 s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development.

  18. The Effects of Acupuncture on Peripheral Facial Palsy Sequelae after 20 Years via Electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrin, Saulo; Soares, Nayara; Regalo, Simone Cecilio Hallak; Verri, Edson Donizetti

    2015-10-01

    This research used electromyography to evaluate the effects of acupuncture on facial palsy peripheral sequelae. The 44-year-old woman who participated in this study presented sequelae resulting from 20 years of peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) on the right side and synkinesis in the left eye. In electromyography, the electrodes were positioned on the motor points over the orbicularis oris and the orbicularis oculi muscles to establish myofunctional feedback prior to and after rehabilitation, which consisted of 20-minute sessions of acupuncture once per week for 20 weeks: using manual stimulation at acupoints Yintang, LR3, GB21, CV17, ST2, ST3, ST6, ST7, GB2, and SI19; and Tou-Kuang-Min and ST4 using electrical stimulation with a 4-Hz pulsed current. The subjective pain intensities were recorded. The root-mean-square (RMS) electromyographic comparative analysis showed greater activation and recruitment of muscle fibers on the right side and a reduced overload on the left side, which promoted a functional evolution of movements and a positive response in the stomatognathic system. Acupuncture associated with electrical stimulation reversed the peripheral facial paralysis in a short time. Severe sequelae were minimized due to the balance of muscle activation in response to the electrical stimulation provided by the acupuncture needles. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evolutionary Theory in Cognitive Neuroscience: A 20-Year Quantitative Review of Publication Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory D. Webster

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary cognitive neuroscience is an emerging and promising new scientific field that combines the meta-theoretical strengths of an evolutionary perspective with the methodological rigor of neuroscience. The purpose of the present research was to quantify and test evolution's influence in neuroscience and cognitive neuroscience journals over time (1987–2006. In Study 1, analyses from a convenience sample of 10 neuroscience journals revealed that the proportion of neuroscience articles mentioning evolution grew significantly over the last 20 years. Moreover, beginning as early as 1990, the average proportion of neuroscience articles mentioning evolution was significantly different from zero. These effects were not moderated by between-journals differences in impact factor (a citation rate index, suggesting that the observed growth was fairly consistent across journals. In Study 2, analyses from a convenience sample of 4 cognitive neuroscience journals revealed that the proportion of cognitive neuroscience articles mentioning evolution neither differed from zero nor grew significantly over time (1987–2006; however, the change-over-time effect size was large. Compared to other research areas, evolution's penetration into cognitive neuroscience articles grew faster than anthropology, economics, and sociology, but not psychology. The implications of evolutionary psychology's increasing role in science in general, and in cognitive neuroscience in particular, are discussed.

  20. Trends in RCT nursing research over 20 years: mind the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Ileana; Dal Lago, Elisa; De Bardi, Sara; Sartor, Giada; Soriani, Nicola; Zanotti, Renzo; Gregori, Dario

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) literature plays a fundamental role in informing evidence-based medicine and nursing. This paper aims to track geographical and temporal trends in the publication of RCTs in nursing over the past 20 years by means of a bibliometric analysis. The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2011 and satisfying this search strategy: nursing [MeSH Terms] AND (RCT OR trial* OR 'experimental study' OR randomised OR randomisation) AND (English[lang]). Abstracts were reviewed to assess whether they met the criteria for an RCT. A manual search of information on country of origin was carried out and Journal Citation Reports® was used to allocate journals to subject areas. RCT methodology is increasingly drawing the attention of nursing researchers worldwide. However, there is a large disparity in research productivity, at least in terms of number of published RCTs in the English language and listed on PubMed, between the most productive continents, North America and Europe, and the others.

  1. Evaluation of study patients with Lyme disease, 10-20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, R A; Kaplan, R F; Taylor, E; Jones-Woodward, L; Workman, K; Steere, A C

    2001-02-01

    To determine the long-term impact of Lyme disease, we evaluated 84 randomly selected, original study patients from the Lyme, Connecticut, region who had erythema migrans, facial palsy, or Lyme arthritis 10-20 years ago and 30 uninfected control subjects. The patients in the 3 study groups and the control group did not differ significantly in current symptoms or neuropsychological test results. However, patients with facial palsy, who frequently had more widespread nervous system involvement, more often had residual facial or peripheral nerve deficits. Moreover, patients with facial palsy who did not receive antibiotics for acute neuroborreliosis more often now had joint pain and sleep difficulty and lower scores on the body pain index and standardized physical component sections of the Short-Form 36 Health Assessment Questionnaire than did antibiotic-treated patients with facial palsy. Thus, the overall current health status of each patient group was good, but sequelae were apparent primarily among patients with facial palsy who did not receive antibiotics for acute neuroborreliosis.

  2. Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy in protein science, a summary for past 20years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuqing; Zhang, Liping; Jung, Young Mee; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2018-01-15

    Two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) has been widely used to Infrared, Raman, Near IR, Optical Activity (ROA), Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD) and Fluorescence spectroscopy. In addition, several new developments, such as 2D hetero-correlation analysis, moving-window two-dimensional (MW2D) correlation, model based correlation (βν and kν correlation analyses) have also well incorporated into protein research. They have been used to investigate secondary structure, denaturation, folding and unfolding changes of protein, and have contributed greatly to the field of protein science. This review provides an overview of the applications of 2DCOS in the field of protein science for the past 20 year, especially to memory our old friend, Dr. Boguslawa Czarnik-Matusewicz, for her great contribution in this research field. The powerful utility of 2DCOS combined with various analytical techniques in protein studies is summarized. The noteworthy developments and perspective of 2DCOS in this field are highlighted finally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Human African trypanosomiasis: a review of non-endemic cases in the past 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migchelsen, Stephanie J; Büscher, Philippe; Hoepelman, Andy I M; Schallig, Henk D F H; Adams, Emily R

    2011-08-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by sub-species of the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei and is transmitted by tsetse flies, both of which are endemic only to sub-Saharan Africa. Several cases have been reported in non-endemic areas, such as North America and Europe, due to travelers, ex-patriots or military personnel returning from abroad or due to immigrants from endemic areas. In this paper, non-endemic cases reported over the past 20 years are reviewed; a total of 68 cases are reported, 19 cases of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT and 49 cases of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense HAT. Patients ranged in age from 19 months to 72 years and all but two patients survived. Physicians in non-endemic areas should be aware of the signs and symptoms of this disease, as well as methods of diagnosis and treatment, especially as travel to HAT endemic areas increases. We recommend extension of the current surveillance systems such as TropNetEurop and maintaining and promotion of existing reference centers of diagnostics and expertise. Important contact information is also included, should physicians require assistance in diagnosing or treating HAT.

  4. Suicide and Fire: A 20-Year Study of Self-Immolation Death in Sousse, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedidi, Maher; Cherif El Khal, Mohamed; Mlayeh, Souheil; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Yassine Brahem, Mohamed; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Zemni, Majed; Kamel Souguir, Mohamed

    2016-11-15

    Self-immolation is a self-destructive conduct described since antiquity. Its frequency is variable from one country to another and it is a real public health problem in parts of the world. In Tunisia, after the 2011 revolution the problem of self-immolation protest has been highly publicized giving the impression of an increase in this phenomenon. This is a retrospective analysis of all fatal self-immolation cases, collected over a 20-year period (1996-2015) at the Forensic Medicine Department of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia. A total of 41 cases were collected, of which 23 were men (56%). The mean age was 36.1 years. Prior to 2011, 78.9% of the victims of self-immolation were women and after 2011, 86.4% were men. The rural origin of the victims was found in 56.25% of the cases. History of psychiatric illness was found in four individuals. The self-immolation took place in the victims' homes in 19 cases (46.3%). It came after a conjugal or family conflict in 14 cases (34.1%) and it is of protest character in 8 cases (19.5%). This study confirmed the increasing frequency of self-immolation in Tunisia after the 2011 revolution and noted a change in the victims' profiles.

  5. CT appearances of unilateral cleft palate 20 years after bone graft surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbenstvedt, A.; Aaloekken, T.M. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Radiology; Arctander, K. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway). Dept. of Plastic Surgery; Johannessen, S. [Inst. of Clinical Dentistry, Oslo (Norway)

    2002-11-01

    Purpose: To describe CT appearances in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) 20 years after bone graft surgery. Material and Methods: Eighteen consecutive patients with unilateral CLP were examined. All patients had been treated with primary closure, both in infancy and early childhood, supplemented with bone grafting at the age of around 10 years. The CT examination of the upper jaw included a dental CT program. The CT appearances of the cleft side were compared with those of the untreated non-cleft side. Results: Abnormal CT appearances included skew nasal aperture (n=17), nasal septal deviation (n=17), low floor of nasal aperture (n=15) at or towards the cleft side, and deviation of anterior nasal spine towards the non-cleft side (n=18). The posterior part of the bone cleft was visible in all patients, and the dental arch was V-shaped in 8. Conclusion: Although adherence to the present treatment protocol is considered to give satisfactory functional and cosmetic results, certain abnormalities persist. A knowledge of these is a prerequisite for a complete and final evaluation of the surgical and orthodontic regimen. Cleft palate nasal cavity abnormalities CT.

  6. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time. 

  7. Circumferential proximal femoral allografts in revision hip arthroplasty: four to 20 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Bruno Dutra; Roos, Milton Valdomiro; Camisa, Antero

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic results of revision of loose total hip replacements, using proximal femoral allografts and a cemented implant. We retrospectively reviewed of 28 consecutive patients. Twenty patients were available for study. Each patient was scored using a modified Harris Hip Score. Radiographs were examined for endosteal and periosteal reabsorption, allograft-host union, trochanteric migration, component loosening and heterotrophic calcification. The mean pre-operative Harris hip Score was 34 points. At the latest follow-up, the meanscore was 80 points. Nineteen cases (95%) had combined femoral defects and one patient (5%) had a segmental defect, according to the AAOS classification. Allograft resorption was seen in eight (40%) hips. There were 18 cases (90%) of allograft union, one (5%) of partial union and one (5%) of nonunion. There was one case of trochanteric migration (more than 1 cm). All femoral components were radiographically stable. The reconstruction was considered successful in 18 patients (90%). The use of proximal femoral allografts in femoral revision of loose total hip replacements has high survival and satisfactory clinical results at an average period of eight years postoperatively.

  8. How Frequent is Chronic Multiyear Delusional Activity and Recovery in Schizophrenia: A 20-Year Multi–follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    To determine how frequent chronic multiyear delusional activity is in modern-day schizophrenia, we studied 200 patients over a 20-year period. We also studied the relation of delusions to hallucinations and thought disorder-disorganization, to work disability, and to later periods of global recovery and assessed several protective factors against delusional activity. The sample was assessed 6 times over 20 years and includes 43 patients with schizophrenia. Participants were evaluated at each ...

  9. Alboran jets, gyres and eddies in a 20-year high resolution simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peliz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The circulation of the Alboran Sea has long been described as being in a quasi-steady state composed of the Atlantic Jet meandering on the northern bound of two conspicuous gyres: the Western Alboran Gyre and Eastern Alboran Gyre (WAG and EAG). Changes to this 2 gyre flow system (transitions or transient events) are not very well explored yet. Periodic disappearances of the WAG (collapses or migrations) have been reported, but a single event of WAG migration, observed in fall 1996, is described in detail. These studies suggested that WAG is more likely to disappear in winter after drastic changes in the inflow, and that 2-gyre steady states are essentially observed in summer. The transition periods and the occurrence of smaller eddies are episodically referred in the literature but poorly known. Using a 20 yr 2km resolution Regional Ocean Modeling System simulation of the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea basins (from the "Inter-basin Exchange in a changing Mediterranean Sea" project MedEX), a classification of the circulation types and mesoscale structures in the Alboran Sea is conducted, characterizing their duration and frequency of occurrence, and temporal evolution. The 2-gyre quasi-steady state (or blocking situation) is confirmed as the most common flow type in the Alboran (occurring during about 42% of the simulation time) and that it is more frequent in summer. However, periods of double gyre flow in winter are also present although the gyre organization is slightly different and this state is described as a 2-gyre winter type. Long stable periods of a single gyre blocking were also identified, and they occupy about 17% of the 20-year period This single gyre usually constitutes a larger version of the WAG somewhat displaced to the east and occurs all year round although it is more common in winter months. The remaining time, the Alboran Sea is in relatively fast evolving flow transitions. The transitions were classified into, WAG migrations (when the WAG clearly

  10. [Tobacco use by adolescents in Barcelona (Spain) and trends in the last 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Carles; García-Continente, Xavier; Villalbí, Joan Ramon; Sánchez-Martínez, Francesca; Pérez, Anna; Nebot, Manel

    2014-01-01

    Smoking is a preventable cause of early death and the habit starts in adolescence. The aim of this study was to describe tobacco consumption in secondary school students in 2008 and trends in the last 20 years in Barcelona. We analyzed the trend in tobacco consumption by comparing data from 8 surveys carried out between 1987 and 2008 in the 8th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education), 10th (4th year of Compulsory Secondary Education) and 12th (2nd year of Compulsory Secondary Education) years of secondary school. The FRESC questionnaire was used. Data on regular and daily consumption and associated factors in 2008 were gathered and compared with those corresponding to the previous studies. Percentages of annual change were calculated with Joinpoint regression and data were stratified by sex and year of education. In 2008, 6.1% of boys and 4.5% of girls in the 8th year, 15.8% and 20.4% of those in the 10th year, respectively, and 26.1% and 33.1% of those in the 12th year, respectively, were regular smokers. A strong association was noted between regular smoking and cannabis consumption in three school years, as well as with having friends who were smokers and poor school performance. At 15-16 years old, the average annual decrease from 1996 to 2008 was 6.8% in girls and 6.1% in boys. Adolescent smoking has been decreasing in the last few years in Barcelona. There is a strong association between tobacco use and cannabis consumption. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  12. The next 20 years: how customer and workforce attitudes will evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Neil; Strauss, William

    2007-01-01

    Business projects with very long time horizons--such as those involving product R&D, workplace design, and total compensation planning--have to contend with a crucial question: What will be the needs, demands, and desires of consumers and employees decades from now? If you think the answer is "Just more of the same," you're in for a surprise. Howe and Strauss, the authors of Generations, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and other books, have studied the differences among generations for some 30 years. Their extensive research has revealed a fascinating pattern--one so strong that it supports a measure of predictability. On the basis of historical precedent, they say, we can foresee how the generations that are alive today will think and act in decades to come. Three of those generations will still be vital forces in American society 20 years from now: Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Their attitudes and behaviors will have profound effects on the economy, the workplace, and social institutions in general. For example, as aging Boomers eschew high-tech medicine in favor of holistic self-care, natural foods, and mind-body healing techniques, some hospitals are opening new wings featuring alternative medicine and spiritual counseling. Gen Xers, having grown up in an era of failing schools and marriages, will remain alienated, disaffected, and pragmatic as they enter midlife. Already the greatest entrepreneurial generation in U.S. history, they will be highly effective at pushing innovation, efficiency, and mass customization. In contrast, young adult Millennials will favor teamwork, close family relationships, job security, and a bland popular culture. Their unprecedented digital empowerment and talent for organizing will create a political powerhouse and may even revitalize the union movement.

  13. High Overweight and Obesity in Fontan Patients: A 20-Year History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hong, Borah; Patterson, Lance; Petit, Christopher J; Ham, J Nina

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in long-term survivors with complex congenital heart disease may be increasing, and little is known about the timing and onset of weight gain and growth patterns in these high-risk patients. Prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) with age were determined in 606 patients with Fontan circulation seen at a tertiary care cardiology center from 1992 to 2012. The number of clinic encounters (n) was stratified by age group (n = 401, 2-5 years; n = 333, 6-11 years; n = 217, 12-19 years; and n = 129, >20 years). Among adults, 39% were overweight/obese at last clinic visit; 22% overweight, and 17% obese. Childhood anthropometric data were available for 82 adults, of which 15% (n = 12/82) were overweight/obese in childhood. The likelihood of being overweight/obese as an adult was three times higher if there was a BMI ≥ 85th percentile in childhood (CI 2.1-4.5, P Overweight/obesity in adulthood was associated with lower heart failure rates (4 vs. 19%, P = 0.03). Pediatric rates of overweight/obesity were comparable to national data (NHANES 2011-2012) in every age group: at 2-5 years, (25 vs. 23%), 6-11 years (26 vs. 34%), and 12-19 years (15 vs. 35%). Systolic blood pressure was higher in overweight/obese children as young as 2-5 years of age. Childhood and adult survivors with Fontan circulation have high rates of overweight/obesity. Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of future adiposity and is linked to changes in systolic blood pressure at a very young age.

  14. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed.

  15. Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

  16. Tracking 20 years of compound-to-target output from literature and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates.

  17. Tracking 20 years of compound-to-target output from literature and patents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Southan

    Full Text Available The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually

  18. The epidemiology and clinical spectrum of melioidosis: 540 cases from the 20 year Darwin prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart J Currie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over 20 years, from October 1989, the Darwin prospective melioidosis study has documented 540 cases from tropical Australia, providing new insights into epidemiology and the clinical spectrum. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The principal presentation was pneumonia in 278 (51%, genitourinary infection in 76 (14%, skin infection in 68 (13%, bacteremia without evident focus in 59 (11%, septic arthritis/osteomyelitis in 20 (4% and neurological melioidosis in 14 (3%. 298 (55% were bacteremic and 116 (21% developed septic shock (58 fatal. Internal organ abscesses and secondary foci in lungs and/or joints were common. Prostatic abscesses occurred in 76 (20% of 372 males. 96 (18% had occupational exposure to Burkholderia pseudomallei. 118 (22% had a specific recreational or occupational incident considered the likely infecting event. 436 (81% presented during the monsoonal wet season. The higher proportion with pneumonia in December to February supports the hypothesis of infection by inhalation during severe weather events. Recurrent melioidosis occurred in 29, mostly attributed to poor adherence to therapy. Mortality decreased from 30% in the first 5 years to 9% in the last five years (p<0.001. Risk factors for melioidosis included diabetes (39%, hazardous alcohol use (39%, chronic lung disease (26% and chronic renal disease (12%. There was no identifiable risk factor in 20%. Of the 77 fatal cases (14%, 75 had at least one risk factor; the other 2 were elderly. On multivariate analysis of risk factors, age, location and season, the only independent predictors of mortality were the presence of at least one risk factor (OR 9.4; 95% CI 2.3-39 and age ≥ 50 years (OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-2.3. CONCLUSIONS: Melioidosis should be seen as an opportunistic infection that is unlikely to kill a healthy person, provided infection is diagnosed early and resources are available to provide appropriate antibiotics and critical care.

  19. Lifestyle and weight predictors of a healthy overweight profile over a 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Michael D T; Canning, Karissa L; Mirdamadi, Paul; Ardern, Chris I; Kuk, Jennifer L

    2015-06-01

    To examine whether changes in modifiable risk factors [physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body weight, and diet composition] are associated with the transition to metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHOW) versus metabolically abnormal overweight/obese. Analysis included 1,358 adults [aged 25.0 (3.5) years] from the CARDIA study who were healthy at baseline and had overweight/obesity at follow-up. Participants with zero or one of the following six risk factors were classified as MHOW: elevated triglycerides, LDL, blood pressure, fasting glucose, and HOMA-insulin resistance and low HDL. Over the 20-year follow-up, the sample gained weight (BMI 24.5 to 31.1 kg/m(2) ), and the prevalence of MHOW was 47% at follow-up. After adjusting for changes in CRF, diet, and weight change, physical activity and macronutrient intake were not independently associated with MHOW (P > 0.05), while changes in CRF [fit-unfit: RR (95%) = 0.58, 0.52-0.66; unfit-unfit: RR = 0.67, 0.58-0.76, versus fit-fit] and weight [gain: RR (95%) = 0.54, 0.43-0.67; cycle: RR = 0.74, 0.57-0.94, versus stable] were independently associated with MHOW. Focusing on high CRF and strategies to limit weight gain may be important for individuals with overweight and obesity in early to mid-adulthood to maintain a metabolically healthy profile. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  20. Tracking 20 Years of Compound-to-Target Output from Literature and Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A.R.P.; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates. PMID

  1. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years. II. Concentric and eccentric knee muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Stensdotter, A K; Nilsson, K G; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    The long-term consequences on knee muscle strength some decades after rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are not established. The aims of our study were to examine peak torque more than 20 years after ACL injury and to compare their knee muscle strength to that of healthy controls. We tested 70 individuals with unilateral ACL injury 23 ± 2 years after injury, whereof 33 (21 men) were treated with physiotherapy in combination with ACL reconstruction (ACLR ) and 37 (23 men) with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls (21 men). A Kin-Com(®) dynamometer (90°/s) was used to measure peak torque in knee flexion and extension in both concentric and eccentric contractions. Knee extension peak torque, concentric and eccentric, was ∼10% lower for the injured leg compared with the non-injured leg for both ACLR (P < 0.001; P < 0.001) and ACLPT (P = 0.007; P = 0.002). The ACLPT group also showed reduced eccentric knee flexion torque of the injured leg (P = 0.008). The strength of the non-injured leg in both ACL groups was equal to that of controls. No difference was seen for those with no-or-low degree of knee osteoarthritis compared to those with moderate-to-high degree of osteoarthritis. ACL injury may lead to a persistent reduction of peak torque in the injured leg, which needs to be considered across the lifespan.

  2. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoliina Wehkalampi

    Full Text Available People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development.We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2 locus (IGF2/H19 in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs - IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0 and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2 - were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects.At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference -0.017 (95% CI; -0.028, -0.005, P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups.Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality.

  3. Trends in etiologies of chronic pancreatitis within 20 years: analysis of 636 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-nan; LAI Ya-min; QIAN Jia-ming; GUO Tao; L(U) Hong; TANG Xiao-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of chronic pancreatitis has increased during recent years in Asia-Pacific areas as well as in China.The etiologies vary in different regions and periods.This study aimed to investigate the changing etiologies of chronic pancreatitis within 20 years at Peking Union Medical College Hospital in China.Methods Retrospective analysis of the etiologies of 636 cases of chronic pancreatitis at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1990 to 2010 was performed.Patients were divided into two groups according to two time periods (1990-2000 and 2001-2010).Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test.Results The morbidity rate of chronic pancreatitis in China has recently increased.The main etiology changed from biliary diseases in the 1990s (decreased from 36.8% to 28.1%) to alcohol abuse after the year 2000 (increased from 26.5% to 36.8%).The main etiology of biliary diseases is stones in the cholecyst or bile duct,and the percentage of cholecystitis cases has increased.Autoimmune disease,including autoimmune pancreatitis,has increased quickly and currently accounts for 7.3% of cases because a greater number of autoimmune pancreatitis cases are being diagnosed.Approximately 9.5% of chronic pancreatitis cases are caused by multiple factors such as alcohol abuse and bile duct stones.Other factors include cholecystectomy and acute pancreatitis.Conclusions The main etiology of chronic pancreatitis has changed from biliary disease to alcohol abuse in recent years.Autoimmune factors have also obviously increased.

  4. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: A new synthesis and future perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil Philip Todd

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd 1994, 1995, and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd 1992, 1993. These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al. 1999. A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al. 2002. The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al. 2014ab. These behavioural and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1 Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2 Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3 A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the dance habit; (4 The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research.

  5. Supersymmetry searches with ATLAS: overview and latest results

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Despite the absence of experimental evidence, weak scale supersymmetry remains one of the best motivated and studied Standard Model extensions. The ATLAS experiment searches for signs of supersymmetry in a large variety of signatures involving events with abnormal production of missing transverse momentum, jets, leptons, photons, third generation fermions, gauge bosons or massive long-lived particles. The talk presents the latest results obtained in these searches.

  6. Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Glaucoma Glaucoma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment and Latest Research Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Symptoms and Diagnosis Glaucoma can develop in one or ...

  7. DUACS DT2014: the new multi-mission altimeter data set reprocessed over 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Taburet, Guillaume; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Pelloquin, Camille; Ablain, Michael; Picot, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The new DUACS DT2014 reprocessed products have been available since April 2014. Numerous innovative changes have been introduced at each step of an extensively revised data processing protocol. The use of a new 20-year altimeter reference period in place of the previous 7-year reference significantly changes the sea level anomaly (SLA) patterns and thus has a strong user impact. The use of up-to-date altimeter standards and geophysical corrections, reduced smoothing of the along-track data, and refined mapping parameters, including spatial and temporal correlation-scale refinement and measurement errors, all contribute to an improved high-quality DT2014 SLA data set. Although all of the DUACS products have been upgraded, this paper focuses on the enhancements to the gridded SLA products over the global ocean. As part of this exercise, 21 years of data have been homogenized, allowing us to retrieve accurate large-scale climate signals such as global and regional MSL trends, interannual signals, and better refined mesoscale features.An extensive assessment exercise has been carried out on this data set, which allows us to establish a consolidated error budget. The errors at mesoscale are about 1.4 cm2 in low-variability areas, increase to an average of 8.9 cm2 in coastal regions, and reach nearly 32.5 cm2 in high mesoscale activity areas. The DT2014 products, compared to the previous DT2010 version, retain signals for wavelengths lower than ˜ 250 km, inducing SLA variance and mean EKE increases of, respectively, +5.1 and +15 %. Comparisons with independent measurements highlight the improved mesoscale representation within this new data set. The error reduction at the mesoscale reaches nearly 10 % of the error observed with DT2010. DT2014 also presents an improved coastal signal with a nearly 2 to 4 % mean error reduction. High-latitude areas are also more accurately represented in DT2014, with an improved consistency between spatial coverage and sea ice edge

  8. Insights into the dynamics of Etna volcano from 20-year time span microgravity and GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fanizza, Giovanni; Greco, Filippo; Matera, Alfredo; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    A common ground deformation and microgravity array of benchmarks lies on the southern slope of Mt. Etna volcano and is routinely measured by GPS and relative gravimetry methods. The array was installed for monitoring the ground motion and underground mass changes along the southern rift of the volcano and data are usually processed and interpreted independently. The benchmarks have been installed mainly along a main road crossing the southern side of the volcano with an E-W direction and reaching 2000 m of altitude. The gravity array covers the entire path of the road, while the ground deformation one only the upper one, due to the woods at lower altitude preventing good GPS measurements. Furthermore, microgravity surveys are usually carried out more frequently with respect to the GPS ones. In this work, an integrated analysis of microgravity and ground deformation is performed over a 20-year time span (1994-2014). Gravity variations have been first corrected for the free-air effect using the GPS observed vertical deformation and the theoretical vertical gravity gradient (-308.6 μGal/m). The free-air corrected gravity changes were then reduced from the high frequency variations (noise) and the seasonal fluctuations, mainly due to water-table fluctuations. This long-term dataset constitutes a unique opportunity to examine the behavior of Etna in a period in which the volcano exhibited different styles of activity characterized by recharging phases, flank eruptions and fountaining episodes. The gravity and deformation data allow investigating the response of the volcano in a wider perspective providing insights into the definition of its dynamic behavior and posing the basis to track the unrest evolution and to forecast the style of the eruption. The joint analysis highlights common periods, in which the signals underwent contemporaneous changes occurring mainly in the central and eastern stations. On the other hand, no significant changes in the behavior of

  9. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    In a retrospective study, 119 sedimentation dust samples stored between five and 35 years from various barns of intensive livestock farming were evaluated for the occurrence of cultivatable Escherichia coli. Growth of E. coli occurred in 54 samples. Successful cultivation was achieved in samples from as early as 1994. The frequency of detection increased from earlier to later time periods, but the concentrations, which ranged between 3.4 × 10(2) and 1.1 × 10(5) colony-forming units per gram, did not correlate with sample age (Spearman rank correlation; p > 0.05). We hypothesize that E. coli cells survived in dust samples without cell division because of the storage conditions. Dry material (dust) with low water activities (arithmetic mean media and 31 from supplemented media), we determined the E. coli phylotype and antimicrobial resistance. Six phylogenetic groups were identified. Phylogroups A and B1 predominated. Compared to group A, phylogroup B1 was significantly associated with growth on ciprofloxacin-supplemented media (chi-square test, p = 0.003). Furthermore, the antibiotic resistance profiles determined by a microdilution method revealed that isolates were phenotypically resistant to at least one antimicrobial substance and that more than 50% were resistant to a minimum of five out of 10 antibiotics tested. A linear mixed model was used to identify factors associated with the number of phenotypic resistances of individual isolates. Younger isolates and isolates from fattening poultry barns tended to be resistant to significantly more antibiotics than older isolates and those from laying-hen houses (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). Sample origin and storage conditions may have influenced the number of antimicrobial resistances. Overall, we found that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long

  10. Tradeoffs of 20 Years of Management on the Sequestration, Stratification, and Stabilization of Soil Organic Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiartas, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Amidst concerns over rising atmospheric levels of CO2, climate uncertainty, and increased demands for agricultural intensification, there is strong impetus to better characterize the global carbon and nitrogen cycles and identify management opportunities for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural soils are often lower in fertility and soil carbon relative to pre-cultivation levels. Thus, soil carbon sequestration in agricultural lands has been widely touted as a promising avenue to offset greenhouse gas emissions, while providing additional benefits, including improved soil fertility, increased water holding capacity, and reduced erosion. However, there is still uncertainty regarding carbon saturation potentials and the tradeoffs of different management practices. The Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility provides a unique opportunity to assess the long-term impact of various crop rotations, nutrient management systems, and irrigation strategies on carbon sequestration across the entire soil profile up to 2 meters deep. Traditionally, soil carbon research has been limited to the surface soil, neglecting mechanisms that contribute to the vertical redistribution of soil organic matter (SOM). While variation in SOC increases drastically at depth, our results suggest that we are missing major pieces of the puzzle by utilizing shallow sampling depths. Recognizing the persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property, our research characterizes not only changes in the amount of soil carbon and nitrogen, but also changes in the surface chemistry of the soil organic matter (using infrared spectroscopy), as well as relevant physical properties including texture and mineralogy. Over the 20 years, significant gains of 18.3 Mg/ha SOC were achieved in organically managed systems, which received the highest inputs of water and carbon, while the lowest input systems, which are both unfertilized and rain-fed, significantly lost SOC, on the order of 7

  11. Middle School Injuries: A 20-Year (1988–2008) Multisport Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachy, Glenn; Rauh, Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Context: Data on the incidence of injury in middle school sports are limited. Objective: To describe overall, practice, and game injury rate patterns in 29 middle school sports. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting: Injury data collected over a 20-year period (1988–2008) at a single school. Patients or Other Participants: Boy (n = 8078) and girl (n = 5960) athletes participating in 14 and 15 middle school sports, respectively. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury status and athlete-exposures (AEs) were collected by certified athletic trainers. Incidence rates per 1000 AEs (injuries/AEs) were calculated for overall incidence, practices and games, injury location, injury type, and injury severity (time lost from participation). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare injury rates for sex-matched sports. Results: Football had the highest injury rate for all injuries (16.03/1000 AEs) and for time-loss injuries (8.486/1000 AEs). In matched middle school sports, girls exhibited a higher injury rate for all injuries (7.686/1000 AEs, RR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) and time-loss injuries (2.944/1000 AEs, RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.0, 1.2) than boys (all injuries: 6.684/1000 AEs, time-loss injuries: 2.702/1000 AEs). Girls had a higher injury rate during practices (3.30/1000 AEs) than games (1.67/1000 AEs, RR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.7, 2.4) for all sports. Only gymnastics (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.3, 3.8) had a higher game injury rate for girls. Practice and game injury rates were nearly identical for boys in all sports (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.1). Only football (RR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.4, 0.6) and boys' wrestling (RR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.3, 0.8) reported higher game injury rates. Tendinitis injuries accounted for 19.1% of all middle school injuries. Conclusions: The risk for sport-related injury at the middle school level was greater during practices than games and greater for girls than boys in sex-matched sports. Conditioning programs may be

  12. From quiescence to unrest: 20 years of satellite geodetic measurements at Santorini volcano, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Michelle M.; Moore, James D. P.; Papanikolaou, Xanthos; Biggs, Juliet; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pyle, David M.; Raptakis, Costas; Paradissis, Demitris; Hooper, Andrew; Parsons, Barry; Nomikou, Paraskevi

    2015-02-01

    Periods of unrest at caldera-forming volcanic systems characterized by increased rates of seismicity and deformation are well documented. Some can be linked to eventual eruptive activity, while others are followed by a return to quiescence. Here we use a 20 year record of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and GPS measurements from Santorini volcano to further our understanding of geodetic signals at a caldera-forming volcano during the periods of both quiescence and unrest, with measurements spanning a phase of quiescence and slow subsidence (1993-2010), followed by a phase of unrest (January 2011 to April 2012) with caldera-wide inflation and seismicity. Mean InSAR velocity maps from 1993-2010 indicate an average subsidence rate of 6 mm/yr over the southern half of the intracaldera island Nea Kameni. This subsidence can be accounted for by a combination of thermal contraction of the 1866-1870 lava flows and load-induced relaxation of the substrate. For the period of unrest, we use a joint inversion technique to convert InSAR measurements from three separate satellite tracks and GPS observations from 10 continuous sites into a time series of subsurface volume change. The optimal location of the inflating source is consistent with previous studies, situated north of Nea Kameni at a depth of 4 km. However, the time series reveals two distinct pressure pulses. The first pulse corresponds to a volume change (ΔV) within the shallow magma chamber of (11.56 ± 0.14) × 106 m3, and the second pulse has a ΔV of (9.73 ± 0.10) × 106 m3. The relationship between the timing of these pulses and microseismicity observations suggests that these pulses may be driven by two separate batches of magma supplied to a shallow reservoir. We find no evidence suggesting a change in source location between the two pulses. The decline in the rates of volume change at the end of both pulses and the observed lag of the deformation signal behind cumulative seismicity, suggest

  13. Agro. no 1 June Latest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10.0; 15.0 and 20.0 mls consisting five (5) animals per treatment and ... where its various parts have been utilized throughout history as food and ... They were allowed to acclimatize for 2 weeks, prior to the commencement of the experiment.

  14. Editorial: Latest methods and advances in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Yup; Jungbauer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    The latest "Biotech Methods and Advances" special issue of Biotechnology Journal continues the BTJ tradition of featuring the latest breakthroughs in biotechnology. The special issue is edited by our Editors-in-Chief, Prof. Sang Yup Lee and Prof. Alois Jungbauer and covers a wide array of topics in biotechnology, including the perennial favorite workhorses of the biotech industry, Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. UNV503 full course latest  [ all discussions and all assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

    UNV503 full course latest  [ all discussions and all assignments ] Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/unv503-full-course-latest/     Grand Canyon UNV503 Module1 DQ1 , DQ2 & DQ3 Latest 2015 OctoberDQ 1How do you think your graduate educational experience will be different from your undergraduate experience? How would you describe a graduate learning community? What would be the key components of a learning community and how might it be different from an u...

  16. Supercomputing "Grid" passes latest test

    CERN Multimedia

    Dumé, Belle

    2005-01-01

    When the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) comes online at the CERN in 2007, it will produce more data than any other experiment in the history of physics. Particle physicists have now passed another milestone in their preparations for the LHC by sustaining a continuous flow of 600 megabytes of dat per second (MB/s) for 10 days from the Geneva laboratory to seven sites in Europe and the US (1/2 page)

  17. Landsat: Planning the Next 20 Years of Earth Observation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryker, S. J.; Larsen, M. C.; Newman, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites began 41 years ago as a partnership between the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and NASA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as DOI's Earth science agency, provides Landsat's ground systems and data and develops value-added science products and applications. In 2013 the Administration committed to continue the Landsat program for the long term, and directed NASA and USGS to develop a series of spaceborne systems to provide global, continuous Landsat-quality multispectral and thermal infrared measurements for at least 20 years beyond Landsat 9. The Administration also directed the USGS to develop the program's long-term science directions, with special emphasis on making Landsat data more easily used in a wide variety of disciplines and fields of practice. With Landsats 7 and 8 on orbit, the USGS provides data every eight days for any location on the Earth's land masses. Given eight-day data collection and Landsat's 41-year historical archive, researchers and decision-makers can assess phenomena occurring at weekly to decadal time scales. With this in mind, the USGS has identified a set of Landsat-based science products that will improve applications used by natural resource managers and will contribute to the international and interagency climate monitoring community's initiative to develop consistent climate data records (CDRs) and essential climate variables (ECVs). Key Landsat-derived CDRs include surface reflectance and surface temperature, and ECV products will include measures of fire disturbance, snow covered area, surface water extent, land cover, and above-ground green biomass. These interpretive products will provide an authoritative basis for regional to continental scale identification of historical change, monitoring of current conditions, and predicting future conditions. The Administration has also assigned USGS the responsibility to analyze Landsat users' needs to inform future operational

  18. 20 years of surface ozone measurements at El Tololo, Chile (2200 m asl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gérard Anet, Julien; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Globally consistent in situ-observations of high precision and known quality are one key element in understanding global climate change and effects of human activity on the Earth's atmosphere. The spatial coverage of available data strongly depends on the species of interest and varies highly around the globe. In case of surface ozone (O3), the observational network is particularly sparse in Africa, Asia, and South America. The southern hemispheric pristine GAW-regional station "El Tololo", located in the foothills of the Chilean Andes (30.17° S, 70.80° W, 2220 m asl), has been equipped with an ozone photometer in 1995 and has since then been measuring tropospheric ozone permanently. However, these measurements were neither entirely systematically processed nor quality-controlled until recently. This situation was drastically improved in 2015 the framework of the Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems (CATCOS) project (www.meteoswiss.ch/catcos). Empa, in coordination with the local operator, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (DMC), and the University of Santiago, revised the entire surface ozone measurements. The unique 20-year-long ozone data-set has been made publicly available on the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, Japan) in mid-2015 and represents an exceptional piece of information on the southern hemispheric surface ozone distribution. In contrary to northern hemispheric stations, the positive trend in the measurements of tropospheric ozone at "El Tololo" did not level off in the recent past. More specifically, "El Tololo" shows a steady positive trend of 0.7 ppb/decade in agreement with other stations on the Southern hemisphere. However, the seasonal cycle differs strongly in behaviour, as maximum values in ozone do not peak in austral winter, but in austral spring - most probably due to stratospheric influence. We also find that the spring maximum has a retrograding tendency of around 5 days per decade. A combined

  19. 20-Year Experience With Intraoperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy for Pediatric Sarcoma: Outcomes, Toxicity, and Practice Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folkert, Michael R.; Tong, William Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); LaQuaglia, Michael P. [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H.; Chou, Alexander J.; Magnan, Heather [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Purpose: To assess outcomes and toxicity of high-dose-rate intraoperative radiation therapy (HDR-IORT) in the management of pediatric sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Seventy-five pediatric patients underwent HDR-IORT for sarcoma from May 1993 to November 2013. The median age was 9 years old (36 patients were ≤6 years old). HDR-IORT was part of initial therapy in 37 patients (49%) and for recurrent disease in 38 patients (51%). Forty-one patients (55%) received HDR-IORT and postoperative external beam RT (PORT), and 22 patients (29%) were previously treated with external beam radiation therapy to the IORT site. Local control (LC), overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Results: At a median follow-up of 7.8 years for surviving patients, 5-year projected rates of LC, EFS, and OS were 63% (95% confidence interval [CI] 50%-76%), 33% (95% CI 21%-45%), and 43% (95% CI 30%-55%), with a median survival of 3.1 years. The 5-year LC, EFS, and OS rates for patients with recurrent disease were 46% (95% CI, 28%-64%), 30% (95% CI, 13%-46%), and 36% (95% CI, 18%-54%). Acute toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 2 (2.5%) treatments; late toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in 4 (5.3%) patients 0.3-9.9 years after HDR-IORT. The incidence of toxicity ≥grade 3 was not associated with HDR-IORT applicator size, HDR-IORT dose, prior RT or PORT, or prior or postoperative chemotherapy, but all toxicity ≥grade 3 occurred in patients ≤6 years treated with HDR-IORT doses ≥12 Gy. Conclusions: HDR-IORT is a well-tolerated component of multimodality therapy for pediatric sarcoma, allowing additional local treatment while reducing external beam exposure. Taking clinical considerations into account, doses between 8-12 Gy are appropriate for HDR-IORT in patients ≤6 years of age.

  20. Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy in the treatment of anal cancer. 20-year experience from a single institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrian, K.; Sauer, T.; Klemm, S.; Bayer, C.; Haller, B.; Molls, M.; Geinitz, H. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: To report the efficacy and toxicity of radio(chemo)therapy (RCT) in the management of squamous cell anal carcinoma (SQ-AC) and to evaluate the prognostic factors influencing the outcomes. Patients and methods: A consecutive cohort of 138 patients with cT1-4, cN0-3, cM0 SQ-AC were treated with RCT between 1988 and 2011 at our department. Median follow-up time for surviving patients from the start of RCT was 98 months (range, 1-236 months). Patients were treated with a median radiation dose of 56 Gy (range, 4-61 Gy). Concurrent chemotherapy was administered to 119 patients (86%). Results: The survival rates at 2, 5, and 10 years were 88 {+-} 3, 82 {+-} 4, and 59 {+-} 6%, respectively, with a median overall survival (OS) of 167 months. The cumulative incidence for local recurrence at 2 and 5 years was 8 {+-} 2 and 11 {+-} 3%, respectively. The median disease-free survival (DFS) and colostomy-free survival (CFS) times were 132 and 135 months, respectively. In 19 patients (14%), a distant metastasis was diagnosed after a median time of 19 months. In the multivariate analysis, UICC (International Union Against Cancer) stage I-II, female gender, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, and good/moderate histologic differentiation (G1-2) were significantly associated with a better OS, DFS, and CFS. Conformal radiotherapy planning techniques were significantly associated with a lower cumulative incidence of local recurrence (11 {+-} 3% vs. 38 {+-} 19% at 5 years, p = 0.006). A higher radiation dose beyond 54 Gy was not associated with an improvement in outcome, neither for smaller - (T1/T2) nor for larger tumors (T3/T4). Conclusion: RCT leads to excellent outcomes - especially in patients with stage I/II and G1/G2 tumors - with acceptable toxicity. The probable advantages of high-dose radiotherapy should be considered carefully against the risk of a higher rate of toxicity. Future studies are needed to investigate the role of a more intensified (systemic) treatment for patients with unfavorable prognostic factors such as T3/T4, N+, and/or poor cell differentiation. (orig.)

  1. Experimental Research on Human Glioma with 20- Year Experiences%人脑胶质瘤研究20年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄强; 兰青; 董军; 杜子威

    2001-01-01

    [目的]总结人脑胶质瘤研究20年的经验,探讨进一步研究策略。[方法]回顺1980至2000年在人脑胶质瘤的模型制作、化疗实验、抗体制备与应用、诱导分化、生物治疗等方面的创新点和不足之处的改进。[结果]创新.建立了中国第一个人脑胶质瘤体外细胞系SHG44及其可移植性裸小鼠模型NHG-1、杂交瘤单抗细胞株SZ38和SZ39及其在生物导向珍治中的应用、详细观察诱导分化剂HMBA和DMF的促分化效应等改进,从SHG-44中克隆出具有高·中·低三个不同分化程度的细胞株、建立人鼠肿瘤免疫嵌合模型以弥补NHG-I不能用于生物免疫治疗的不足、SU2000替代效价不断下降的SZ39、基因工程改造SZ39为seFv、Fab/Hu、ScFv/TNF、seFv/PE40和化学偶联SZ39Fab/CD3Fab等小分子·低免疫原·双功能抗体[结论]胶质瘤研究举步为艰,随着分子生物学研究的深入和人类DNA密码的破译,传统治疗加生物·免疫和基因治疗有可能永久性治愈胶质瘤%[Purpose] To summarize our researeh proeess in twenty years on human glioma for the purpose of coneeiving new ideas andslrategy on glioma research. [Methods] Six aspects of the experimental study on glioma during 1980 to 2000 were reviewed. ineluding tumormodels preparation. experimenial ehemotherapy, anti-glioma monoclonal antibodies (hmAb) preparation and their application. induced differentia-tion therapy and biological therapy, etc..Some tentative plans are put forvard on the basis of analysis on both of the creative viewpoints andlimitations of every aspects. [Resnlts] (1) We established the first human glioma cell line in China, named SHG-44 and the nude mice solid tumor(glioma) model NHG-1. (2) The hybridoma cell line SZ39 and SZ38 were established in 1988 which can stably secrele anti-glioma monoclonalantibodies. and were widely used in the targeting diagnosis and therapy against human glioma. (3) The differentiation promoling effeets of HMBAand DMF on glioma were systemalically observed.Three cell lines which represented high. middle and Iow differentiated glioma cell lines re-spectively. were cloned from the human glioma cell line SHG-44. (4) Human-SCID mouse immune-chimeric tumor model was established. whichentitled SHG-44-HuPBL-SCID. for the purpose of overeoming the limitations of NHG-I in the biological innune therapy. (5) New mAb SU2000was established to substitute SZ39. for the binding capacity of the latter deelined gradually. (6) Low molecular weight. low immunogeneeity andgenetically-engineered miniantibodies. ie. SZ39 ScFv.SZ39 Fab/Hu. SZ39 SeFv-TNF. SZ39ScFv-PE40 were eonstructed and expressed in E. coli.[Conclusion] Although there is a long way to go for conquering glioma.on the basis of fulfilling the human genome plan.traditional Iherapy plusbiological therapy.immune therapy and gene therapy will provide a potential for euring this ehallenging disease eventually.

  2. Tumor de Pancoast: nuestra experiencia en 20 años Pancoast tumor: our experience of 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbaro Agustín Armas Pérez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal de 11 pacientes operados por tumor de Pancoast, en el transcurso de dos decenios. Se hizo una revisión bibliográfica amplia del tema haciendo énfasis en el diagnóstico, estadificación y tratamiento. El mayor porcentaje de pacientes era del sexo masculino, fumadores y portadores de masas radiopacas tenues en el vértice, las cuales se acompañaban de dolor en pared costal irradiado a hombro, brazo y cuello. No siempre la resección quirúrgica fue completa y radical y los pacientes que presentaron mejores índices de supervivencia fueron los tratados mediante cirugía excerética amplia y terapia neoadyuvante. La vía de abordaje más utilizada fue la posterolateral y en un sólo caso la anterior-transcervical, que mucho nos satisfizo. La supervivencia fue corta aunque la serie es pequeña y no hubo mortalidad antes de los 30 días tras la operación

  3. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  4. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Habka

    Full Text Available During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1 the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2 the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new

  5. Nocardia asteroides sinusitis in a pediatric patient: Case report with 20 year follow-up and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorichetti, Brendan; Westerberg, Brian D; Tan, Rusung; Kozak, Frederick K

    2015-07-01

    Nocardia Asteroides infection in a non-immunocompromised pediatric patient is extremely rare. We present a case of ethmoid sinusitis and orbital subperiosteal abscess caused by N. asteroides with a 20 year follow up and a review of the literature. N. asteroides was grown from intraoperative cultures for mycobacteria following surgical incision and drainage of the abscess. Postoperatively, the patient received a seven month course of trimethoprim-sulfamethozaxole and had no subsequent sequelae. Nocardia infections are common in immunocompromised patients. We present what we believe to be the first case of pediatric Nocardia sinusitis with 20-year follow up.

  6. Latest results from KLOE-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloise Caterina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The KLOE experiment at the Frascati φ–factory recently obtained results on i CPT and Lorentz invariance tests from the study of quantum interference of the neutral kaon pairs; ii precision measurement of the branching fraction, BR(K+ → π+π−π+(γ = 0.05565 ± 0.00031stat ± 0.00025syst, and iii on dark photon searches with the analysis of the e+e− → µµγ final state. We have also studied the transition form factors of the φ meson to the pseudoscalars, π0 and η, that is presented in a separate contribution to this volume.

  7. Lessons about Virtual-Environment Software Systems from 20 years of VE building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Russell M; Jerald, Jason; Vanderknyff, Chris; Wendt, Jeremy; Borland, David; Marshburn, David; Sherman, William R; Whitton, Mary C

    2010-04-01

    What are desirable and undesirable features of virtual-environment (VE) software architectures? What should be present (and absent) from such systems if they are to be optimally useful? How should they be structured? To help answer these questions we present experience from application designers, toolkit designers, and VE system architects along with examples of useful features from existing systems. Topics are organized under the major headings of: 3D space management, supporting display hardware, interaction, event management, time management, computation, portability, and the observation that less can be better. Lessons learned are presented as discussion of the issues, field experiences, nuggets of knowledge, and case studies.

  8. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European

  9. The Latest from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    In SM18 six magnets have been cold tested with good results. It has also been a good week for cyostating with five more magnets completed. In sector 3-4 interconnection work and welding has started in the area damaged on 19 September last year. Interconnection work is also ongoing on the replacement magnet for the faulty dipole removed from sector 1-2. Three separate teams are now working in the three sectors to install the new DN200 pressure release nozzles. In total 27 magnets have been completed so far, with 34 nozzles welded. A new study is also underway to include a similar pressure release system for both the stand-alone magnets (SAMs) and the triplet magnets. All about Chamonix At the public session of the LHCC (the LHC experiments committee) held Wednesday, 18 February Steve Myers, Director for Accelerators and Technology, reviewed the discussions on the LHC at the Chamonix workshop. He explained the scenarios being studied to implement the machine consolidation measures and resume operation. The ...

  10. Latest news from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two weeks the LHC operations team has focused on pushing the LHC’s performance into new territory in terms of stored beam power. Moving to 25 bunches per beam with almost nominal bunch intensities at the end of July implied operation with a stored energy in each beam of more than 1 MJ. This corresponds to the current record for stored beam energy in existing hadron accelerators (e.g. CERN’s SPS and Fermilab’s Tevatron) and it marks an energy regime where a sudden loss of beam or operational errors can result in serious damage to equipment: an energy of 1 MJ is sufficient to melt 2 kg of copper. Extreme care and a thorough optimization of all operational procedures are therefore required in making this important transition in the machine’s performance.   The focus of the past two weeks has been on optimizing the operational procedures and the machine protection systems, with the aim of gaining experience with the reliability and reproducibility of...

  11. The latest from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    The setting-up to prepare the LHC for running with nominal ramp rates and with bunch trains instead of single-bunch injection have continued over the last two weeks. The goal is to reduce the machine filling time and increase its luminosity. Running with bunch trains requires the careful setting-up of crossing angles in order to avoid unwanted collisions on either side of the experiments.   The technical target for 2010 in terms of bunch spacing in the trains is 150 ns, which corresponds to a physical distance of about 45 m. This target will be progressively reduced next year to eventually attain the nominal value of 25 ns, equivalent to a distance of about 7.5 m between two bunches in the trains. Following initial setting-up last week, this week tests were made to check the size of the crossing angle needed to avoid parasitic collisions when 150 ns trains are injected into the machine, and to measure the aperture with the nominal crossing angle –at injection – of 170 micro radi...

  12. Latest news from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Last week the LHC passed the threshold of 3 pb-1 total integrated luminosity delivered to the experiments, of which about half was delivered in just one week. These excellent results were achieved by operating the machine with up to 50 nominal bunches per beam.   After a very successful week that saw intense beams circulating for long periods (a total of 76.5 hours of stable beams, corresponding to about 40% of the time), there has been a technical stop this week. Over the coming days, experts will work on bunch trains with 150 ns spacing between bunches (the current minimum spacing is 1000 ns). This will involve making the necessary changes throughout the injector chain, as well as in the LHC itself. In the LHC, bunch trains imply working with a crossing angle throughout the machine cycle, in order to avoid unwanted parasitic collisions, which means that the whole process of injection, ramp and squeeze will have to be re-commissioned. The task also includes re-commissioning all the protection syste...

  13. The latest from the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The LHC will run with an energy of 3.5 TeV per beam when it starts up in November this year. The 80 K resistance measurements on the copper stabilizer of the superconducting busbars were completed in the remaining sectors, Sectors 8-1 and 2-3. No abnormally high resistance measurements were found, indicating that no further repairs are necessary for safe running. Detailed analysis of the resistance data from the entire ring determined a safe initial energy of 3.5 TeV per beam. Once a significant data sample has been collected and the operations team has gained experience in running the machine, the energy will be taken towards 5 TeV per beam. More information is available in the recent press release http://press.web.cern.ch/press/PressReleases/Releases2009/PR13.09E.html. Following the helium leaks into the insulation vacuum in Sectors 2-3 and 8-1 (see previous update) the cause of the leak in Sector 2-3 has been confirmed as the flexible hose. This has now been replaced...

  14. ESTSS at 20 years: "a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orner, Roderick J

    2013-01-01

    Roderick J. Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS) from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS) in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors' experiences and turning away from survivors' narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers' theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity.

  15. Themes, Orientations, Synergies and a Shared Agenda: The First 20?Years of the SEDA Series of Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, Ruth; Brown, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Over 20?years, 25 books have been published to date in the SEDA series, and this review article aims to analyse the ways in which books within the series have contributed to thinking in higher education pedagogy over this time. We have approached the texts through three lenses, analysing them chronologically, thematically and by the orientation of…

  16. How Frequent is Chronic Multiyear Delusional Activity and Recovery in Schizophrenia: A 20-Year Multi–follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    To determine how frequent chronic multiyear delusional activity is in modern-day schizophrenia, we studied 200 patients over a 20-year period. We also studied the relation of delusions to hallucinations and thought disorder-disorganization, to work disability, and to later periods of global recovery and assessed several protective factors against delusional activity. The sample was assessed 6 times over 20 years and includes 43 patients with schizophrenia. Participants were evaluated at each follow-up for delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder-disorganization, work disability, and global recovery. Possible protective factors were assessed prospectively at index hospitalization. Twenty-six percent of the patients with schizophrenia were delusional at all follow-ups over the 20 years. Overall, 57% had frequently recurring or persistent delusions. A subgroup of over 25% of the schizophrenia patients had no delusional activity at any of the 6 follow-ups over 20 years. Schizophrenia patients with posthospital delusional activity had increased work disability (P delusional activity after the acute phase. Schizophreniform patients and other types of psychotic disorders are vulnerable to posthospital delusional activity, but less frequently, less severely, and more episodically. Delusional activity is associated with work disability. Internal factors such as good premorbid developmental achievements and favorable prognostic factors are protective factors that reduce the probability of chronic multiyear, delusional activity in schizophrenia (P < .01). PMID:18617485

  17. How frequent is chronic multiyear delusional activity and recovery in schizophrenia: a 20-year multi-follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrow, Martin; Jobe, Thomas H

    2010-01-01

    To determine how frequent chronic multiyear delusional activity is in modern-day schizophrenia, we studied 200 patients over a 20-year period. We also studied the relation of delusions to hallucinations and thought disorder-disorganization, to work disability, and to later periods of global recovery and assessed several protective factors against delusional activity. The sample was assessed 6 times over 20 years and includes 43 patients with schizophrenia. Participants were evaluated at each follow-up for delusions, hallucinations, thought disorder-disorganization, work disability, and global recovery. Possible protective factors were assessed prospectively at index hospitalization. Twenty-six percent of the patients with schizophrenia were delusional at all follow-ups over the 20 years. Overall, 57% had frequently recurring or persistent delusions. A subgroup of over 25% of the schizophrenia patients had no delusional activity at any of the 6 follow-ups over 20 years. Schizophrenia patients with posthospital delusional activity had increased work disability (P delusional activity after the acute phase. Schizophreniform patients and other types of psychotic disorders are vulnerable to posthospital delusional activity, but less frequently, less severely, and more episodically. Delusional activity is associated with work disability. Internal factors such as good premorbid developmental achievements and favorable prognostic factors are protective factors that reduce the probability of chronic multiyear, delusional activity in schizophrenia (P < .01).

  18. At a Crossroads: First Results for the 18 to 20-Year-old Cohort of the Youth in Transition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowlby, Jeffrey W.; McMullen, Kathryn

    2002-01-01

    This report provides a descriptive overview of the first results from the 2000 Youth in Transition Survey (YITS) for 18-20-year-olds in Canada. These early results draw a picture of where youth stand in terms of both their educational participation and attainment and their labour market participation as of December 1999. Youth at this age are in…

  19. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy and the Netherlands: Longitudinal cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Résénen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. M

  20. Population Trends in Percutaneous Coronary Intervention 20-Year Results From the SCAAR (Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Marieke L.; James, Stefan K.; Albertsson, Per; Akerblom, Axel; Calais, Fredrik; Eriksson, Peter; Jensen, Jens; Nilsson, Tage; de Smet, Bart J.; Sjogren, Iwar; Thorvinger, Bjorn; Lagerqvist, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome of all consecutive patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in an unselected nationwide cohort over the past 2 decades. Background Over the last 20 years, treatment with PCI has evolved dramaticall

  1. Culturally Relevant Pedagogy 20 Years Later: Progress or Pontificating? What Have We Learned, and Where Do We Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Tyrone C.; Rodriguez-Scheel, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the concept of culturally relevant pedagogy 20 years after its introduction to the professional literature. The authors discuss key tenets of culturally relevant pedagogy, examine empirical examples of it, and makes recommendations on how the concept may inform and influence the outcomes of culturally diverse…

  2. The latest Light Robotics breakthroughs - Postdeadline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Bañas, Andrew

    Contemporary nanoscopy provides functionalities, not only for observing life science on the smallest scales but also for actively reaching into and manipulating at subcellular levels. This post-deadline contribution describes the latest generation of 3D-printed micro-tools for enabling light-acti......-activated robotics on sub-diffraction scales: Light Robotics....

  3. Comorbidity of Anxiety and Depression in Children and Adolescents: 20 Years After

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Colleen M.; Caporino, Nicole E.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2014-01-01

    Brady and Kendall (1992) concluded that although anxiety and depression in youth are meaningfully linked, there are important distinctions, and additional research was needed. Since then, studies of anxiety-depression comorbidity in youth have increased exponentially. Following a discussion of comorbidity, we review existing conceptual models and propose a multiple pathways model to anxiety-depression comorbidity. Pathway 1 describes youth with a diathesis for anxiety, with subsequent comorbid depression resulting from anxiety-related impairment. Pathway 2 refers to youth with a shared diathesis for anxiety and depression, who may experience both disorders simultaneously. Pathway 3 describes youth with a diathesis for depression, with subsequent comorbid anxiety resulting from depression-related impairment. Additionally, shared and stratified risk factors contribute to the development of the comorbid disorder, either by interacting with disorder-related impairment or by predicting the simultaneous development of the disorders. Our review addresses descriptive and developmental factors, gender differences, suicidality, assessments, and treatment-outcome research as they relate to comorbid anxiety and depression, and to our proposed pathways. Research since 1992 indicates that comorbidity varies depending on the specific anxiety disorder, with Pathway 1 describing youth with either social phobia or separation anxiety disorder and subsequent depression, Pathway 2 applying to youth with co-primary generalized anxiety disorder and depression, and Pathway 3 including depressed youth with subsequent social phobia. The need to test the proposed multiple pathways model and to examine (a) developmental change and (b) specific anxiety disorders is highlighted. PMID:24219155

  4. Special issues in brain plasticity, repair and rehabilitation: 20 years of a publishing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, B A; Matzke, S; Prilloff, S

    2010-01-01

    The journal Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience (RNN) is focused on the emerging field of brain plasticity, repair and rehabilitation, including original and review papers both in basic research (in vitro studies, animal experiments) and in the clinical domain, including brain imaging studies. The publication of special issues on vital topics, summarizing the work of leading experts in the field of restoration and plasticity has become a major strategy of RNN and has attracted worldwide attention. Special issues are typically organized by specialized guest-editors familiar with the respective science field. Special issues cover a particular sub-discipline and often contain laboratory review papers. The first special issue appeared in 1990, and until today RNN has published a total of 25 special issues on a variety of basic science and clinical matters. In this way, RNN promotes the dissemination of information in the field of neuroplasticity, repair and rehabilitation, providing the reader with up-to-date information prepared by leading experts in the field.

  5. OPPIDUM surveillance program: 20 years of information on drug abuse in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frauger, Elisabeth; Moracchini, Christophe; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Braunstein, David; Thirion, Xavier; Micallef, Joëlle

    2013-12-01

    It is important to assess drug abuse liability in 'real life' using different surveillance systems. Some are based on specific population surveys, such as individuals with drug abuse or dependence, or under opiate maintenance treatment, because this population is very familiar with drugs and is more likely to divert or abuse them. In France, an original surveillance system based on this specific population and called 'Observation of illegal drugs and misuse of psychotropic medications (OPPIDUM) survey' was set up in 1990 as the first of its kind. The aim of this article is to describe this precursor of French drug abuse surveillance using different examples, to demonstrate its ability to effectively give health authorities and physicians interesting data on drug abuse. OPPIDUM is an annual, cross-sectional survey that anonymously collects information on abuse and dependence observed in patients recruited in specialized care centers dedicated to drug dependence. From 1990 to 2010, a total of 50,734 patients were included with descriptions of 102,631 psychoactive substance consumptions. These data have outlined emergent behaviors such as the misuse of buprenorphine by intravenous or nasal administration. It has contributed to assess abuse liability of emergent drugs such as clonazepam or methylphenidate. This surveillance system was also able to detect the decrease of flunitrazepam abuse following implementation of regulatory measures. OPPIDUM's twenty years of experience clearly demonstrate that collection of valid and useful data on drug abuse is possible and can provide helpful information for physicians and health authorities.

  6. The Fluvial Archives Group: 20 years of research connecting fluvial geomorphology and palaeoenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Stéphane; Briant, Becky; Bridgland, David; Herget, Jürgen; Maddy, Darrel; Mather, Anne; Vandenberghe, Jef

    2017-06-01

    The Fluvial Archives Group (FLAG) was formed in 1996 under the auspices of the British Quaternary Research Association (QRA). The rationale for its creation was the desire to bring together those working across timescales encompassing the last few million years to the Holocene and even modern process studies. The principles of uniformitarianism are important in the validation of this grouping of interests, with the modern and recent providing analogues from which the older and longer-timescale sequences can be more readily interpreted. The creation of FLAG occurred in the context of improved understanding of terrestrially-based Quaternary sequences and at a time when knowledge of the environmental significance of river systems had also seen great advances, following several decades of engineering experience and research into the management of such systems. This field was subsequently transformed in the European Union by the Water Framework Directive (WFD, 2000), which promoted a strategy for the re-naturalization of rivers. Above all, the WFD implied the (re-)establishment of an initial, pre-anthropogenic, reference state, the recovery of which was a prime aim. This would be a demanding task, considering that rivers are characterized by constant change, even without anthropogenic intervention. The evidence for and understanding of such change, observable at various timescales, is very much the business of FLAG (see below, section 6).

  7. Insights into Adherence among a Cohort of Adolescents Aged 12–20 Years in South Africa: Reported Barriers to Antiretroviral Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi Maskew

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents experience disproportionately high rates of poor ART outcomes compared to adults despite prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy in Southern African treatment programs, presenting a significant challenge to national attempts to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for 2020. This cohort study among adolescents aged 12–20 years accessing ART care at two urban public-sector clinics in Johannesburg between September and November 2013 aimed to identify factors potentially associated with poor attendance at clinic visits. Patients were followed up through routine medical records to identify missed visits (failing to attend clinic within 30 days of scheduled visit date up to 2 years after enrolment. We enrolled 126 adolescents on ART for a median of 6.3 years (IQR: 2.7–8.4. A total of 47 (38% adolescents missed a scheduled visit within 24 months of enrolment. Older adolescents (18–20 years were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents aged 12–14 years (risk ratio (RR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.00–2.95. Those who were identified to have difficulty in taking medication (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13–2.18 as a barrier to care were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents who did not. Awareness of treatment fatigue, challenges to taking ART, and caregiver difficulties is important when considering interventions to improve treatment outcomes among adolescents.

  8. Insights into Adherence among a Cohort of Adolescents Aged 12–20 Years in South Africa: Reported Barriers to Antiretroviral Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Matthew P.; Evans, Denise; Govindasamy, Darshini; Jamieson, Lise; Malete, Given; Mongwenyana, Constance; Technau, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents experience disproportionately high rates of poor ART outcomes compared to adults despite prolonged use of antiretroviral therapy in Southern African treatment programs, presenting a significant challenge to national attempts to meet the UNAIDS 90-90-90 targets for 2020. This cohort study among adolescents aged 12–20 years accessing ART care at two urban public-sector clinics in Johannesburg between September and November 2013 aimed to identify factors potentially associated with poor attendance at clinic visits. Patients were followed up through routine medical records to identify missed visits (failing to attend clinic within 30 days of scheduled visit date) up to 2 years after enrolment. We enrolled 126 adolescents on ART for a median of 6.3 years (IQR: 2.7–8.4). A total of 47 (38%) adolescents missed a scheduled visit within 24 months of enrolment. Older adolescents (18–20 years) were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents aged 12–14 years (risk ratio (RR) = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.00–2.95). Those who were identified to have difficulty in taking medication (RR = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.13–2.18) as a barrier to care were more likely to miss a visit compared to adolescents who did not. Awareness of treatment fatigue, challenges to taking ART, and caregiver difficulties is important when considering interventions to improve treatment outcomes among adolescents. PMID:27867661

  9. Soil CO2 Emissions as Affected by 20-Year Continuous Cropping in Mollisols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOU Meng-yang; YUAN Ya-ru; LI Lu-jun; XU Yan-li; HAN Xiao-zeng

    2014-01-01

    Long-term continuous cropping of soybean (Glycine max), spring wheat (Triticum aesativum) and maize (Zea mays) is widely practiced by local farmers in northeast China. A ifeld experiment (started in 1991) was used to investigate the differences in soil carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions under continuous cropping of the three major crops and to evaluate the relationships between CO2 lfuxes and soil temperature and moisture for Mollisols in northeast China. Soil CO2 emissions were measured using a closed-chamber method during the growing season in 2011. No remarkable differences in soil organic carbon were found among the cropping systems (P>0.05). However, signiifcant differences in CO2 emissions from soils were observed among the three cropping systems (Pcontinuous wheat ((629±22) g CO2 m-2)>continuous soybean ((474±30) g CO2 m-2). Soil temperature explained 42-65% of the seasonal variations in soil CO2 flux, with a Q10 between 1.63 and 2.31; water-filled pore space explained 25-47% of the seasonal variations in soil CO2 lfux. A multiple regression model including both soil temperature (T, °C) and water-iflled pore space (W,%), log(f)=a+bT log(W), was established, accounting for 51-66%of the seasonal variations in soil CO2 lfux. The results suggest that soil CO2 emissions and their Q10 values under a continuous cropping system largely depend on crop types in Mollisols of Northeast China.

  10. Playing Darwin. Part B. 20 years of domestication in Drosophila subobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Marta; Fragata, Inês; Santos, Josiane; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Ana; Lima, Margarida; Matos, Margarida

    2010-09-01

    Adaptation to a new environment (as well as its underlying mechanisms) is one of the most important topics in Evolutionary Biology. Understanding the adaptive process of natural populations to captivity is essential not only in general evolutionary studies but also in conservation programmes. Since 1990, the Group of Experimental Evolution (CBA/FCUL) has been performing long-term, real-time evolutionary studies, with the characterization of laboratory adaptation in populations of Drosophila subobscura founded in different times and from different locations. Initially, these experiments involved phenotypic assays and more recently were expanded to studies at the molecular level (microsatellite and chromosomal polymorphisms) and with different population sizes. Throughout these two decades, a clear pattern of evolutionary convergence to long-established laboratory populations has been consistently observed in several life-history traits. However, contingencies across foundations were also found during the adaptive process. In characters with complex evolutionary trajectories, the data suggested that the comparative method lacked predictive capacity relative to real-time evolutionary trajectories (experimental evolution). Microsatellite analysis revealed general similarity in gene diversity and allele number between studied populations, as well as an unclear association between genetic variability and evolutionary potential. Nevertheless, ongoing studies in all foundations are being carried out to further test this hypothesis. A comparison between recently introduced and long-term populations (founded from the same natural location) has shown higher degree of chromosomal polymorphism in recent ones. Finally, our findings suggest higher heterogeneity between small-sized populations, as well as a slower evolutionary rate in characters close to fitness (such as fecundity and mating behaviour). This comprehensive study is aimed at better understanding the processes and

  11. Persistence of immunoglobulin M or immunoglobulin G antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi 10-20 years after active Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, R A; McHugh, G; Granquist, J; Shea, B; Ruthazer, R; Steere, A C

    2001-09-15

    The interpretation of serological results for patients who had Lyme disease many years ago is not well defined. We studied the serological status of 79 patients who had had Lyme disease 10-20 years ago and did not currently have signs or symptoms of active Lyme disease. Of the 40 patients who had had early Lyme disease alone, 4 (10%) currently had IgM responses to Borrelia burgdorferi, and 10 (25%) still had IgG reactivity to the spirochete, as determined by a 2-test approach (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot). Of the 39 patients who had had Lyme arthritis, 6 (15%) currently had IgM responses and 24 (62%) still had IgG reactivity to the spirochete. IgM or IgG antibody responses to B. burgdorferi may persist for 10-20 years, but these responses are not indicative of active infection.

  12. Sex differences in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a 20-year longitudinal study of psychosis and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Linda S; Harrow, Martin; Rosen, Cherise; Faull, Robert; Strauss, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to provide data on sex differences in the course of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Ninety-seven participants (43 women and 54 men) were assessed during index hospitalization when they were in the acute phase of illness and then reassessed prospectively at 6 consecutive follow-ups over a 20-year period. Patients were evaluated by a series of standardized measures on many aspects of illness including the presence of psychosis, global outcome, and rate of recovery. When women were compared to men in this sample, the data demonstrated a lower percentage of psychotic activity for women over the course of illness (significant at the 7.5- and 20-year follow-ups), and a significant improvement in psychotic activity over 20 years for women (P < .05), but not for men. In addition, women showed significantly better global functioning (P < .05) at 3 of the 6 follow-ups (the 2-, 7.5-, and 10-year follow-ups). Significantly higher percentages (P < .05) of women were in recovery at 2 of the 6 follow-up years (the 2- and 10-year follow-ups). Cumulatively, 61% of the women with schizophrenia showed a period of recovery at some point during the 20-year period compared to 41% of the men. The sex difference patterns were similar for patients with schizophrenia and for those with other types of psychotic disorders. Sex differences in this sample were specifically not attributable to differences in age of onset or premorbid developmental achievements.

  13. [Purpura pigmentosa progressiva in type III cryoglobulinemia and tartrazine intolerance. A follow-up over 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinke, D U; Wüthrich, B

    1999-01-01

    A 58 year old patient with hepatitis virus C (HCV) infection had a secondary polyclonal IgG-IgM cryoglobulinemia with a benign 20 year course. Clinically the patient suffered from progressive pigmented purpura (PPP). Histologic evaluation revealed a lymphocytic vasculitis. Food containing tartrazine triggered flares of the PPP, as demonstrated with controlled oral provocation testing. In most of the previously described cases of HCV and type III cryoglobulinemia, the typical cutaneous finding was palpable purpura with leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  14. 20 Years of Publications on Relationship Marketing in Brazil: An Analysis of the 1992 Academic Production a 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Lima Faria

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work, using as sample the ENANPAD`s annals and the periodics RAE and RAUSP, analyzed the academic production on relationship marketing from 1992 to 2012. For this, we used, as basis methodological, six aspects observed in the study de Almeida, Lopes and Pereira (2006, which provided comparisons of results, allowing to build an overview of 20 years of research on relationship marketing in Brazil.    

  15. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  16. [Changes in the demand for paediatric neurology care in a spanish tertiary care hospital over a 20-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge Galindo, L; López-Pisón, J; Samper Villagrasa, P; Peña Segura, J L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the profile of the demand for paediatric neurology care in a Spanish tertiary hospital over the past 20 years. We studied epidemiological data, reasons for consultation, diagnoses and complementary tests from all patients examined by our Paediatric Neurology Unit in its 20 years of service (from May 1990 to March 2010). We also reviewed data from patients whose first visit took place within the last five years (2005-2010) and compared them to data obtained from a prior study carried out in this Unit from 1990 to 1995. To compare the first 5 years (group 1) with the last 5 years (group 2), we calculated confidence intervals, P<.05, for the frequency distribution (%) in each category. Main reasons for consultation and principal diagnoses for the 12726 patients evaluated in the 20-year period, as well as results from group 1 (2046 patients) and group 2 (4488 patients) corresponding to first and the last 5 years of activity respectively, are presented with their confidence intervals in a series of tables. Variations in the reasons for consultation, diagnoses and complementary tests over time reflect changes determined by medical, scientific and social progress, and organisational changes specific to each hospital. This explains the difficulty of comparing different patient series studied consecutively, which are even more pronounced between different hospitals. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of Chagas' disease with itraconazole: electrocardiographic and parasitological conditions after 20 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apt, Werner; Arribada, Arturo; Zulantay, Inés; Rodríguez, Jorge; Saavedra, Miguel; Muñoz, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate cases of chronic Chagas' disease for the long-term effects of treatment with itraconazole on Trypanosoma cruzi infections and the regression or development of ECG abnormalities. In March 1992, we treated 46 patients with chronic Chagas' disease with 6 mg/kg/day of itraconazole for 120 days in a blind evaluation. The patients came from an area of Chile where the disease was endemic and were checked for ECG abnormalities and with xenodiagnosis (XD) or real-time XD-quantitative PCR (XD-qPCR) for Trypanosoma cruzi infection before treatment and once a year for 20 years. Twenty-one patients proved to be uninfected after 20 years and 15 of the patients had a normal ECG. Of the latter cases, 32.6% could be considered cured, although all of them had positive serology. Itraconazole prevents the development of ECG abnormalities, because after 20 years of treatment only 10.86% of patients developed ECG abnormalities (Z = 1.70, P = 0.046). XD-qPCR performed on 16 patients demonstrated 10 cases with XD; these cases correspond to therapy failure, since re-infection was ruled out. In one case, XD-qPCR did not present amplification. Itraconazole is useful in the treatment of chronic Chagas' disease as it prevented the development of ECG abnormalities and cured 32.6% of patients.

  18. The neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT: Latest results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Hans-Friedrich; Angerer, Heinz; Konorov, Igor; Petzoldt, Gerd; Simson, Martin; Zimmer, Oliver [Physik-Department, Technische Universtitaet Muenchen (Germany); Ayala Guardia, Fidel; Borg, Michael; Glueck, Ferenc; Heil, Werner; Konrad, Gertrud; Munoz Horta, Raquel; Sobolev, Yury [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Baessler, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States); Eberhardt, Klaus [Institut fuer Kernchemie, Universitaet Mainz (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The neutron decay spectrometer aSPECT was designed to measure accurately the proton spectrum of the free neutron decay. The knowledge of the proton spectrum allows to extract the neutrino electron angular correlation coefficient a, from which we will determine with highest accuracy the ratio {lambda}= g{sub A}/g{sub V} of the weak coupling constants of the nucleon. After successful beamtimes in 2005/06 at the FRM-II near Munich we continue the measurements at the ILL in Grenoble. Latest results and experiences with a new proton detector, which is a silicon drift detector, are presented.

  19. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrica, Bogdan [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Bucharest, P.O.B.MG-6 (Romania)

    2012-11-20

    detailed effects of the direction of EAS incidence relative to the geomagnetic field, depending, in particular, of the primary mass. Based on the results, we can say that WILLI-EAS experiment could be used for testing the hadronic interaction models. Measurements of the high energy muon flux in underground of the salt mine from Slanic Prahova, Romania was performed using a new mobile detector developed in IFIN-HH, Bucharest. Consisting of 2 scintillator plates measuring in coincidence, the detector is installed on a van which facilitates measurements on different positions at surface or in underground. The detector was used to measure muon fluxes in different locations at surface or in underground. The detector was used to measure muon fluxes at different sites of Romania and in the underground of the salt mines from Slanic Prahova, Romania where IFIN-HH has a modern underground laboratory. New methods for the detection of cosmic ray muons are investigated in our institute based on scintillator techniques using optical fiber and MPPC photodyodes.

  20. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop

  1. 20 years of EUFIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Increased interest in responsible and authentic food production and consumption results in more information appearing on food labels. At the same time, the basic principles of consumer food choice do not change: consumer decision-making is mostly simple, fast and based on habit. How can we reconc...... reconcile the need to give more information on food products with consumers’ reluctance to engage in deliberation when buying food?......Increased interest in responsible and authentic food production and consumption results in more information appearing on food labels. At the same time, the basic principles of consumer food choice do not change: consumer decision-making is mostly simple, fast and based on habit. How can we...

  2. 20 Years and Counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

  3. Melioidosis at Royal Darwin Hospital in the big 2009-2010 wet season: comparison with the preceding 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parameswaran, Uma; Baird, Robert W; Ward, Linda M; Currie, Bart J

    2012-03-19

    To compare the unprecedented 91 cases of melioidosis in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia from 1 October 2009 to 30 September 2010 with the 540 cases in the preceding 20 years and postulate reasons for this year of very high melioidosis incidence. Review of prospectively collected data on all patients with culture-confirmed melioidosis at Royal Darwin Hospital, the Top End's tertiary referral centre, since 1 October 1989. Population-based annual incidence of melioidosis; differences in epidemiology, clinical presentations and outcomes for 2009-2010 compared with the preceding 20 years. In 2009-2010, the estimated population-based incidence of melioidosis was 50.2 cases per 100 000 in the Top End population overall, and 102.4 cases per 100 000 in the Top End Indigenous population. The proportion of patients acquiring melioidosis in the Darwin urban area increased from 49% in 1989-2009 to 65% in 2009-2010 (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.20-3.19). Among the 49 Indigenous Australian patients with melioidosis in 2009-2010, 63% acquired the infection in Darwin, compared with 35% of Indigenous patients in the previous 20 years (OR, 3.17; 95% CI, 1.62-6.24). In 2009-2010, the Top End had the highest annual incidence of melioidosis documented from anywhere to date. The prominent increase in cases in Darwin was associated with above average rainfall in Darwin during December 2009 to February 2010. The increase in the proportion of Indigenous Australians who acquired melioidosis in Darwin may reflect movement of some Indigenous people into Darwin from remote communities.

  4. Have sperm counts deteriorated over the past 20 years in healthy, young Japanese men? Results from the Sapporo area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, N; Kayama, F; Tatsuki, T J; Tsukamoto, T

    2001-01-01

    Changes in semen quality of healthy men is a controversial issue throughout the world. It is suspected that many chemical endocrine disrupters may affect the quality of semen. Although exposure to them may be extensive in Japan, no evidence of changes in semen quality has been reported. In this study, changes in semen volume and sperm counts were analyzed over 20 years in the Sapporo area of Japan. Semen volume and sperm counts were measured in 254 and 457 normal, healthy volunteers who lived in the Sapporo area in 1975-1980 and 1998, respectively. Posters and handbills were used to recruit participants in both studies. Semen samples were collected by masturbation after 3 days or more of abstinence. There was no change in semen volume between 1975-1980 and 1998. Mean sperm counts were 70.9 +/- 47.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1975-1980 and 79.6 +/- 49.3 x 10(6)/mL in 1998. Sperm counts did not decline over about 20 years. No significant correlation between age and sperm counts was recognized in either study. The rates of subjects with oligozoospermia and azoospermia were the same in both studies. In the 1975-1980 study, 34 of 254 (13.4%) participants had a child, and in the 1998 study, 51 of 457 (11.2%) participants had a child. Mean sperm count was significantly (P Sapporo area of Japan over 20 years. However, selection bias in the recruitment of volunteers and the issue of variable abstinence might have affected the results of these studies. Therefore, well-designed prospective studies should be performed in several different regions to extrapolate our results on sperm counts to healthy, young Japanese men in general. Key words: Fertility, endocrine disruptors, seminalysis.

  5. Seasonal cycle of volume transport through Kerama Gap revealed by a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhitao; Metzger, E. Joseph; Thoppil, Prasad; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Zamudio, Luis; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Na, Hanna; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variability of volume transport from the North Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) through Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island - a part of Ryukyu Islands Arc) is investigated using a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation from 1993 to 2012. The HYCOM mean transport is 2.1 Sv (positive into the ECS, 1 Sv = 106 m3/s) from June 2009 to June 2011, in good agreement with the observed 2.0 Sv transport during the same period. This is similar to the 20-year mean Kerama Gap transport of 1.95 ± 4.0 Sv. The 20-year monthly mean volume transport (transport seasonal cycle) is maximum in October (3.0 Sv) and minimum in November (0.5 Sv). The annual variation component (345-400 days), mesoscale eddy component (70-345 days), and Kuroshio meander component (< 70 days) are separated to determine their contributions to the transport seasonal cycle. The annual variation component has a close relation with the local wind field and increases (decreases) transport into the ECS through Kerama Gap in summer (winter). Most of the variations in the transport seasonal cycle come from the mesoscale eddy component. The impinging mesoscale eddies increase the transport into the ECS during January, February, May, and October, and decrease it in March, April, November, and December, but have little effect in summer (June-September). The Kuroshio meander components cause smaller transport variations in summer than in winter.

  6. Elevation-dependent temperature trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: changes over a 56- and 20-year record.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris R McGuire

    Full Text Available Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953-2008 and a shorter 20-year (1989-2008 record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data

  7. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics: building on the 20-year history of a BCS Health peer review journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon de Lusignan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available After 20-years as Informatics in Primary Care the journal is renamed Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. The title was carefully selected to reflect that:(1 informatics provides the opportunity to innovate rather than simply automates;(2 implementing informatics solutions often results in unintended consequences, and many implementations fail and benefits and innovations may go unrecognised;(3 health informatics is a boundary spanning discipline and is by its very nature likely to give rise to innovation.Informatics is an innovative science, and informaticians need to innovate across professional and discipline boundaries.

  8. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  9. Subjective Well-Being In Later Life: 20 years after the Butterworths monograph series on individual and population aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stones, Michael; Kozma, Albert; McNeil, Kevin; Worobetz, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses developments in theory and research on happiness two decades after publication of Psychological Well-Being in Later Life (Butterworths, 1991) by Albert Kozma, Michael Stones, and Kevin McNeil. Major empirical advances include new knowledge about contributions to happiness resulting from genetically related effects and personality. Personality traits have stronger relationships with happiness than was apparent 20 years ago and contribute to covariance between happiness and some of its predictors. Evolving emphases in research include the ways in which genetically related effects influence how people shape, and react to, their environment.

  10. [Methodologies of publications in the Revista de Investigación Clínica during the last 20 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, F; Borovoy, J

    1997-01-01

    To characterize the clinical research methods published in the Revista de Investigación Clínica for the past 20 years. Comparative study of methods used in the RIC articles published in 3-years periods representing three decades (1972-74, 1982-84, 1992-94). Out of 273 original papers, 218 (80%) were of clinical research. There was an increased percentage of longitudinal vs cross-sectional studies, with cohort and randomized clinical trials showing the largest increase. The total number of research manuscripts also increased. The clinical research methods of the papers in the RIC have shown an increased rate of designs with a higher scientific value.

  11. Use of Pneumococcal Disease Epidemiology to Set Policy and Prevent Disease during 20 Years of the Emerging Infections Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Cynthia G.

    2015-01-01

    Two decades ago, the Emerging Infections Program of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention implemented what seemed like a simple yet novel idea: a population- and laboratory-based surveillance system designed to identify and characterize invasive bacterial infections, including those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This system, known as Active Bacterial Core surveillance, has since served as a flexible platform for following trends in invasive pneumococcal disease and studying vaccination as the most effective method for prevention. We report the contributions of Active Bacterial Core surveillance to every pneumococcal vaccine policy decision in the United States during the past 20 years. PMID:26291238

  12. Celebrating 20 years of evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration: what has been the impact of systematic reviews on nephrology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Craig, Jonathan C; Jones, Ann; Higgins, Gail; Willis, Narelle; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-06-01

    It has been 20 years since the Cochrane Collaboration started the global effort to synthesize evidence to improve healthcare. Since 1997, the Cochrane Renal Group has produced over 100 systematic reviews that have collectively had an important impact on nephrology care, guidelines and policy. In this article, we reflect on the ongoing need for randomized trials and systematic reviews in contemporary nephrology and the achievements of the Cochrane Collaboration so far. We also describe some of the challenges in clinical research still faced by the nephrology community today.

  13. Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics: building on the 20-year history of a BCS Health peer review journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lusignan, Simon

    2015-02-12

    After 20-years as Informatics in Primary Care the journal is renamed Journal of Innovation in Health Informatics. The title was carefully selected to reflect that: (1) informatics provides the opportunity to innovate rather than simply automates; (2) implementing informatics solutions often results in unintended consequences, and many implementations fail and benefits and innovations may go unrecognised; (3) health informatics is a boundary spanning discipline and is by its very nature likely to give rise to innovation. Informatics is an innovative science, and informaticians need to innovate across professional and discipline boundaries.

  14. Persistence of antibodies and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine 20 years after infant vaccination in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Bock, Hans L; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-01-08

    Booster vaccination against hepatitis B (HBV) is not currently recommended, although debate continues on the duration of protection after priming. We assessed antibody persistence and immune memory to hepatitis B 20 years after priming with a recombinant HBV-vaccine during infancy. Infants were vaccinated at birth, 1, 2 and 12 months of age. A subset received a booster dose at Year 5. Antibody persistence was measured approximately yearly until Year 20. Immune memory was assessed by administration of HBV booster dose. At Year 20, anti-HBs seroprotection rates and GMCs tended to be higher in Year 5 boosted than unboosted recipients (83.9% versus 60.5%). After the Year 20 booster dose, anti-HBs anamnestic responses were within the same range 95.8% of subjects in both groups. Primary and booster vaccination with HBV-vaccine in infants induces sustained seroprotection and immune memory against hepatitis B for up to 20 years. Higher persisting seroprotection rates in subjects boosted at Year 5 did not translate into apparent differences in immune memory in a high endemic country.

  15. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102, 4 years (N = 51, and 20 years (N = 40 after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69% and avoidance (59% being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60% and feelings of guilt (50% were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps p = .003, but not decreased general mental health (p = .14, than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health.

  16. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented.

  17. Depleted uranium contamination by inhalation exposure and its detection after approximately 20 years: implications for human health assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Randall R; Horstwood, Matthew; Arnason, John G; Chenery, Simon; Brewer, Tim; Lloyd, Nicholas S; Carpenter, David O

    2008-02-01

    Inhaled depleted uranium (DU) aerosols are recognised as a distinct human health hazard and DU has been suggested to be responsible in part for illness in both military and civilian populations that may have been exposed. This study aimed to develop and use a testing procedure capable of detecting an individual's historic milligram-quantity aerosol exposure to DU up to 20 years after the event. This method was applied to individuals associated with or living proximal to a DU munitions plant in Colonie New York that were likely to have had a significant DU aerosol inhalation exposure, in order to improve DU-exposure screening reliability and gain insight into the residence time of DU in humans. We show using sensitive mass spectrometric techniques that when exposure to aerosol has been unambiguous and in sufficient quantity, urinary excretion of DU can be detected more than 20 years after primary DU inhalation contamination ceased, even when DU constitutes only approximately 1% of the total excreted uranium. It seems reasonable to conclude that a chronically DU-exposed population exists within the contamination 'footprint' of the munitions plant in Colonie, New York. The method allows even a modest DU exposure to be identified where other less sensitive methods would have failed entirely. This should allow better assessment of historical exposure incidence than currently exists.

  18. Depleted uranium contamination by inhalation exposure and its detection after {approx} 20 years: Implications for human health assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, Randall R. [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: rrp@nigl.nerc.ac.uk; Horstwood, Matthew [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Arnason, John G. [Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University at Albany, 1400 Washington Avenue, Albany NY 12222 (United States); Chenery, Simon [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Brewer, Tim [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Lloyd, Nicholas S. [Department of Geology, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Notts, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Carpenter, David O. [Institute for Health and the Environment, University at Albany, Five University Place, Room A217, Rensselaer, NY 12144-3456 (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Inhaled depleted uranium (DU) aerosols are recognised as a distinct human health hazard and DU has been suggested to be responsible in part for illness in both military and civilian populations that may have been exposed. This study aimed to develop and use a testing procedure capable of detecting an individual's historic milligram-quantity aerosol exposure to DU up to 20 years after the event. This method was applied to individuals associated with or living proximal to a DU munitions plant in Colonie New York that were likely to have had a significant DU aerosol inhalation exposure, in order to improve DU-exposure screening reliability and gain insight into the residence time of DU in humans. We show using sensitive mass spectrometric techniques that when exposure to aerosol has been unambiguous and in sufficient quantity, urinary excretion of DU can be detected more than 20 years after primary DU inhalation contamination ceased, even when DU constitutes only {approx} 1% of the total excreted uranium. It seems reasonable to conclude that a chronically DU-exposed population exists within the contamination 'footprint' of the munitions plant in Colonie, New York. The method allows even a modest DU exposure to be identified where other less sensitive methods would have failed entirely. This should allow better assessment of historical exposure incidence than currently exists.

  19. Agoraphobia With and Without Panic Disorder: A 20-Year Follow-up of Integrated Exposure and Psychodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Hedley, Liv M; Svanøe, Karol; Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Sexton, Harold

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2.30). More of the AG without PD patients had avoidant personality disorder at pretreatment, but the presence of this disorder did not predict outcome. The follow-up results support that PD with AG and AG without PD are two different disorders. The results also suggest that the very long-term outcome in PD with AG patients is excellent for this integrated treatment.

  20. The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: The First 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heliker, Christina C.; Swanson, Donald A.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption started on January 3, 1983. The ensuing 20-year period of nearly continuous eruption is the longest at Kilauea Volcano since the famous lava-lake activity of the 19th century. No rift-zone eruption in more than 600 years even comes close to matching the duration and volume of activity of these past two decades. Fortunately, such a landmark event came during a period of remarkable technological advancements in volcano monitoring. When the eruption began, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) were but glimmers on the horizon, broadband seismology was in its infancy, and the correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), used to measure SO2 flux, was still very young. Now, all of these techniques are employed on a daily basis to track the ongoing eruption and construct models about its behavior. The 12 chapters in this volume, written by present or past Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff members and close collaborators, celebrate the growth of understanding that has resulted from research during the past 20 years of Kilauea's eruption. The chapters range widely in emphasis, subject matter, and scope, but all present new concepts or important modifications of previous ideas - in some cases, ideas long held and cherished.

  1. Increase in flexibility with latest technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuebi, Michael; Krull, Florian Felix [RWE Technology GmbH, Essen (Germany); Ladwig, Michael [Alstom (Switzerland) AG, Baden (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Flexibility demands on conventional power plants rise to ensure grid stability within a power generation mix with drastically increasing capacities of renewable power generation sources such as wind farms and photovoltaics. In this paper flexibility requirements for a power plant portfolio are discussed. Through selected examples of projects from RWE's current investment programme, comprising around 13 GW of efficient and flexible power plant capacity in Germany, the Netherlands, Turkey and the UK, application of the latest technologies to fulfil flexibility requirements is presented. Further, the potential of smart retrofits in terms of combined flexibility and efficiency gains is illustrated by means of an existing power plant unit retrofit project. (orig.)

  2. Latest Progress on the QUBIC Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghribi, A.; Aumont, J.; Battistelli, E. S.; Bau, A.; Bélier, B.; Bergé, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bersanelli, M.; Bigot-Sazy, M.-A.; Bordier, G.; Bunn, E. T.; Cavaliere, F.; Chanial, P.; Coppolecchia, A.; Decourcelle, T.; De Bernardis, P.; De Petris, M.; Drilien, A.-A.; Dumoulin, L.; Falvella, M. C.; Gault, A.; Gervasi, M.; Giard, M.; Gradziel, M.; Grandsire, L.; Gayer, D.; Hamilton, J.-Ch.; Haynes, V.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Holtzer, N.; Kaplan, J.; Korotkov, A.; Lande, J.; Lowitz, A.; Maffei, B.; Marnieros, S.; Martino, J.; Masi, S.; Mennella, A.; Montier, L.; Murphy, A.; Ng, M. W.; Olivieri, E.; Pajot, F.; Passerini, A.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Piccirillo, L.; Pisano, G.; Prêle, D.; Rambaud, D.; Rigaut, O.; Rosset, C.; Salatino, M.; Schillaci, A.; Scully, S.; O'Sullivan, C.; Tartari, A.; Timbie, P.; Tucker, G.; Vibert, L.; Voisin, F.; Watson, B.; Zannoni, M.

    2014-09-01

    QUBIC is a unique instrument that crosses the barriers between classical imaging architectures and interferometry taking advantage from both high sensitivity and systematics mitigation. The scientific target is to detect primordial gravitational waves created by inflation by the polarization they imprint on the cosmic microwave background—the holy grail of modern cosmology. In this paper, we show the latest advances in the development of the architecture and the sub-systems of the first module of this instrument to be deployed at Dome Charlie Concordia base—Antarctica in 2015.

  3. Cina Benteng: The Latest Generations and Acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Nathan Setiawan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to investigate the acculturation process encountered by the two latest generations of Cina Benteng. A Skype interview was conducted with two young Cina Benteng descents. The analysis was also supported by insightful remark from the parents of the two interviewees. This study discovers that the two generations seem to respond to the acculturation process in different ways. However, although some traditions are no longer relevant to the later generation, their identity as a Chinese descent cannot be easily removed.

  4. Latest Progress on the QUBIC Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Ghribi, A; Battistelli, E S; Bau, A; Bergé, L; Bernard, J-Ph; Bersanelli, M; Bigot-Sazy, M-A; Bordier, G; Bunn, E T; Cavaliere, F; Chanial, P; Coppolecchia, A; Decourcelle, T; De Bernardis, P; De Petris, M; Drilien, A-A; Dumoulin, L; Falvella, M C; Gault, A; Gervasi, M; Giard, M; Gradziel, M; Grandsire, L; Gayer, D; Hamilton, J-Ch; Haynes, V; Hiraut, Y-G; Holtzer, N; Kaplan, J; Korotkov, A; Lande, J; Lowitz, A; Maffei, B; Marnieros, S; Martino, J; Masi, S; Mennella, A; Montier, L; Murphy, A; Ng, M W; Olivieri, E; Pajot, F; Passerini, A; Piacentini, F; Piat, M; Piccirillo, L; Pisano, G; Prêle, D; Rambaud, D; Rigaut, O; Rosset, C; Salatino, M; Schillaci, A; Scully, S; O'Sullivan, C; Tartari, A; Timbie, P; Tucker, G; Vibert, L; Voisin, F; Watson, B; Zannoni, M

    2013-01-01

    QUBIC is a unique instrument that crosses the barriers between classical imaging architectures and interferometry taking advantage from both for high sensitivity and systematics mitigation. The scientific target is the detection of the primordial gravitational waves imprint on the Cosmic Microwave Background which are the proof of inflation, holy grail of modern cosmology. In this paper, we show the latest advances in the development of the architecture and the sub-systems of the first module of this instrument to be deployed in Dome Charlie Concordia base - Antarctica in 2015.

  5. Ginkgo Biloba Extract and Long-Term Cognitive Decline: A 20-Year Follow-Up Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amieva, Hélène; Meillon, Céline; Helmer, Catherine; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean François

    2013-01-01

    Background Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan®) and piracetam (Nootropyl®) on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. Methods and Findings The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study ‘Paquid’. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the ‘neither treatment’ group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the ‘neither treatment’ group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = −0.6). Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the ‘neither treatment’ group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = −0.03), whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = −1.40 and β = −0.44). When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = −1.07, β = −1.61 and β = −0.41). Conclusion Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in

  6. Ginkgo biloba extract and long-term cognitive decline: a 20-year follow-up population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Amieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have looked at the potential benefits of various nootropic drugs such as Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761®; Tanakan® and piracetam (Nootropyl® on age-related cognitive decline often leading to inconclusive results due to small sample sizes or insufficient follow-up duration. The present study assesses the association between intake of EGb761® and cognitive function of elderly adults over a 20-year period. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The data were gathered from the prospective community-based cohort study 'Paquid'. Within the study sample of 3612 non-demented participants aged 65 and over at baseline, three groups were compared: 589 subjects reporting use of EGb761® at at least one of the ten assessment visits, 149 subjects reporting use of piracetam at one of the assessment visits and 2874 subjects not reporting use of either EGb761® or piracetam. Decline on MMSE, verbal fluency and visual memory over the 20-year follow-up was analysed with a multivariate mixed linear effects model. A significant difference in MMSE decline over the 20-year follow-up was observed in the EGb761® and piracetam treatment groups compared to the 'neither treatment' group. These effects were in opposite directions: the EGb761® group declined less rapidly than the 'neither treatment' group, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (β = -0.6. Regarding verbal fluency and visual memory, no difference was observed between the EGb761® group and the 'neither treatment' group (respectively, β = 0.21 and β = -0.03, whereas the piracetam group declined more rapidly (respectively, β = -1.40 and β = -0.44. When comparing the EGb761® and piracetam groups directly, a different decline was observed for the three tests (respectively β = -1.07, β = -1.61 and β = -0.41. CONCLUSION: Cognitive decline in a non-demented elderly population was lower in subjects who reported using EGb761® than in those who did

  7. Latest work in the ALICE Experiment - July 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Video Productions

    2009-01-01

    Having already performed a lengthy cosmic ray test run, ALICE decided to immediately start consolidation work after the shutdown last autumn. “We wanted to use the additional time for improvements and upgrades," explains Paul Kuijer, ALICE Deputy Spokesperson, “for example, we realised that the access to the main tracking device, the TPC, was rather difficult, which could lead to unreasonably long service and repair times in the future, so we spent a lot of time moving all the cabling of the inner tracking system to give more space and better access.” This was a major operation, running from October 2008 until July 2009. All cables and services have been re-tested and the inner tracking system is again on-line. Future maintenance was pre-empted in other areas too, such as replacing a number of capacitors on the time projection chamber (TPC), which were suspected to have a reduced lifetime. The shutdown also gave ALICE the chance to install several new detector systems that were originally scheduled for ...

  8. Latest Higgs Physics results from the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Buzatu, Adrian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The presentation will include the last results from the run 1 of the LHC related to the Higgs (125 GeV) boson, and new results from the run-2 at 13 TeV, mostly on the searches for higher mass Higgs bosons, as predicted by several Beyond-Standard-Model theories.

  9. Enrichment of natural (15)N abundance during soil N losses under 20years of continuous cereal cropping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew R; Dalal, Ram C

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the enrichment of natural (15)N abundance in soil over time is reflective of historic N cycling and loss, but this process in cropping soils is not yet clear. In this study, we identified an enrichment gradient of natural (15)N abundance during 20-year chronosequence of cereal cropping on Alfisols in southwest Queensland, Australia, that have no history of fertilisation. We demonstrate that the increase in soil (15)N abundance is explained by isotopic fractionation of (15)N during organic N mineralisation and nitrification, which lead to isotopically heavier ammonium retained in the soil and isotopically lighter soil nitrate taken up and removed by seasonal crops during harvest. Here we present a framework for natural (15)N isotopic fractionation co-occurring with N losses during long-term cultivation.

  10. Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis--a 20-year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) challenge the stereotype that European Americans are more individualistic and less collectivistic than persons from most other ethnic groups. The author contends that this stereotype took firm empirical root with G. Hofstede's (1980) monumental publication identifying the United States as the most individualistic of his then 40 nations. This empirical designation arose because of challengeable decisions Hofstede made about the analysis of his data and the labeling of his dimensions. The conflation of concepts under the rubric of cultural individualism plus psychologists' unwarranted psychologizing of the construct then combined with Hofstede's empirical location of America to set a 20-year agenda for data collection. Oyserman et al. disentangle and organize this mass of studies, enabling the discipline of cross-cultural psychology to forge ahead in more productive directions, less reliant on previous assumptions and measures.

  11. Síndrome de Netherton com 20 anos de acompanhamento Netherton's Syndrome with a 20-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira Duquia

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome de Netherton é doença cutânea autossômica recessiva caracterizada por eritrodermia congênita, anormalidade específica dos pêlos denominada tricorrexe invaginada e manifestações atópicas. Os autores relatam acompanhamento de mais de 20 anos de paciente com essa doença e a melhora importante do cabelo com o uso de Acitretina.Netherton's syndrome is a recessive autosomal skin disease, characterized by congenital erythroderma, hair anomalies such as trichorrhexis invaginata, and atopic manifestations. The case of a female patient with a 20-year follow-up is described, with an important improvement of hair alterations after use of oral acitretine.

  12. Assessing the gap in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology: trends over a 20-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Kristopher; Ramonas, Milita; Patlas, Michael; Katz, Douglas S

    2017-05-12

    To examine trends in female authorship in the journal Emergency Radiology from January 1994 to December 2014. We obtained institutional review board approval for our study. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 1617 articles published in the journal Emergency Radiology over a 20-year period. Original articles, case reports, review articles, and pictorial essays were included. The first and last position author's gender was categorized as female or male. We analyzed trends by comparing the first and last position authors of original articles from the first and last year reviewed. We utilized Chi-square test for statistical analysis, with a p value years, there has been a statistically significant upward trend in female last position authors publishing in the journal Emergency Radiology.

  13. [Interdisciplinary orthodontic surgical treatment of children with cleft lip and palate from 9 to 20 years of age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Mink van der Molen, A B; Bierenbroodspot, F; Borstlap, W A

    2015-11-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a common congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1:600 newborns. Children with orofacial clefts are treated by an interdisciplinary team of specialists while parents and child play a key role in their own care process. The orthodontic and facial orthopedic treatment of a child with a cleft takes many years. Children often get bored of the long treatment and this can cause problems with compliance and oral hygiene. Therefore it is advisable to distinguish 5 well-defined stages in the orthodontic treatment and to attempt to have some 'orthodontics free' time in between. The 3 orthodontic treatment phases between the age of 9 and 20 years consist of orthodontic treatment concerning the closing of the cleft with a bone transplant, the treatment of the permanent dentition and, finally, a possible combined orthodontic surgical treatment at the end of the period of growth. Good interdisciplinary collaboration among the different dental disciplines is essential in this regard.

  14. Intractable radiation pericarditis and pleuritis developed 20 years after postoperative radiotherapy in a case with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Misa; Shintani, Uichirou; Ohmoto, Yasuhiro; Isshiki, Noriyuki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kitamura, Masami; Kato, Shigetake; Misaki, Moriharu [Mie National Central Hospital, Hisai (Japan); Shouin, Hiroshi

    1999-01-01

    We reported a 64-year-old woman with radiation-related intractable pericarditis and pleuritis which developed 20 years after radiotherapy. She underwent a left total mastectomy for a breast cancer and 50 Gy of radiotherapy postoperatively at the age of 43. She was admitted to our hospital because of facial edema and dyspnea. A chest roentgenogram on admission showed massive bilateral pleural effusion and a echocardiography revealed massive pericardial effusion. Though the symptoms of heart failure subsided after the administration of moderate diuretics and cardiotonics, the pleural effusion and pericardial effusion persisted and, she became worse and died. The histological findings at autopsy, showed chronic fibrous pericarditis with marked pericardial thickening, fibrous pleuritis and myocarditis. These findings were compatible with those of previously reported radiation-induced heart disease. We reported a case of pleuritis and pericarditis probably caused by radiation therapy. A long term observation is necessary for the radiation-related heart disease. (author)

  15. A rare case of moyamoya disease in a 20-year-old Puerto Rican female U.S. soldier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Blake; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S; Hoedebecke, Kyle; Barts, Rachel N

    2014-12-01

    Moyamoya disease is a progressive, occlusive pathology involving the cerebral vasculature with particular involvement of the circle of Willis and its tributaries. The cause of moyamoya disease is unknown, but is believed to be hereditary. Females 20 to 39 years old with moyamoya represent 0.5% of all acute cerebral ischemia and infarcts with risk factors including smoking, estrogen-containing birth control use, coagulopathy, neoplasm, and congenital malformation. This case reports on a 20-year-old Puerto Rican female U.S. soldier with a 1-year history of migraine headaches with worsening right retro-orbital pain, blurred vision, and photophobia. The patient had minimal unilateral neurological deficits despite evidence of significant cerebral infarction on non-contrast computed tomography. Other neuroimaging findings were consistent with moyamoya disease with confirmation via cerebral angiography. This case details the process of diagnosis and treatment as well as discussing its incidence, identification, and treatment options.

  16. The Chilean Health System: 20 Years of Reforms El sistema de salud chileno: 20 años de reformas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean health care system has been intensively reformed in the past 20 years. Reforms under the Pinochet government (1973-1990 aimed mainly at the decentralization of the system and the development of a private sector. Decentralization involved both a deconcentration process and the devolution of primary health care to municipalities. The democratic governments after 1990 chose to preserve the core organization but introduced reforms intended to correct the system's failures and to increase both efficiency and equity. The present article briefly explains the current organization of the Chilean health care system. It also reviews the different reforms introduced in the past 20 years, from the Pinochet regime to the democratic governments. Finally, a brief discussion describes the strengths and weaknesses of the system, as well as the challenges it currently faces.El sistema de salud chileno ha sido intensamente reformado en los últimos 20 años. Las reformas bajo el gobierno de Pinochet (1973-1990 apuntaron principalmente a la descentralización del sistema y al desarrollo del sector privado. La descentralización involucró un proceso de desconcentración y la devolución de las unidades de atención primaria a las municipalidades. Los gobiernos democráticos posteriores a 1990 escogieron preservar el núcleo organizacional, pero las reformas introducidas buscaron corregir las fallas del sistema y aumentar la eficacia y la equidad. El presente artículo explica brevemente la organización actual del sistema de salud chileno y revisa las diferentes reformas introducidas en los últimos 20 años desde el régimen de Pinochet hasta los gobiernos democráticos. Finalmente, presenta una discusión breve para describir las fortalezas y debilidades del sistema, así como los desafíos que enfrenta actualmente.

  17. The microbiologic profile of diabetic foot infections in Turkey: a 20-year systematic review: diabetic foot infections in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Mutluoglu, M; Uzun, G; Karabacak, E; Turhan, V; Lipsky, B A

    2014-06-01

    The causative pathogens in diabetic foot infections differ in studies of European compared with Asian populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the causative microorganisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in diabetic patients with a foot infection in Turkey, a country at the crossroads of these two continents. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies pertaining to DFIs in patients cared for in Turkey. To assess changes in causative organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns over time, we compared the results of just the most recent 5 years (2007-2011) with those of the past 20-years (1989-2011). We identified 31 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Overall, these studies reported 2,097 patients, from whom 1,974 microorganisms were isolated. The total percentage of gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria were similar in each of the assessed periods. The rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus during the entire period, compared with just the past 5 years, was 23.8% and 19.1%, respectively, while the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 7.8% and 5.7%, respectively. The isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 13.7% for the entire period and 14.9% for the past 5 years. While linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin were the most active agents against gram-positive microorganisms, imipenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most active against gram-negative microorganisms. This systematic review demonstrated few substantial changes in diabetic foot microbiology over the past 20 years. The data may help develop and update local clinical guidelines regarding antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections in Turkey. Further studies, especially with optimal culture methods, would be useful to validate these findings.

  18. Analysis of the Indicence and Survival of Female Breast Cancer Patients in Beijing Over a 20-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijun Wang; Weixing Zhu; Xiumei Xing; Chenxu Qu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide evidence for breast cancer prevention and control through epidemiological analysis of the incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients in Beijing.METHODS The female registration data in the Beijing urban area from 1982 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients were analyzed using routine and life-table statistical methods.RESULTS During the period of 1982 to 2001, there was a trend of an average annual increase of female breast cancer incidence of 4.6% in urban Beijing, and of 4.9% in the world-population standardized incidence.The epidemiological features of urban Beijing female breast cancer showed:(1)The incidence distribution of different age groups from 25 to 80 years elevated with two peaks at ages of 45~ and 70~ years; (2)There was an elevation in each age group over the last 20 years; (3)The incidence rate at ages of 35 to 64 reached 95.3/105, causing breast cancer to become the number one cancer in females. The changes in the survival rate showed the following: the 5-year observed survival rate (OSR)increased from 62.0% in 1982~1983 to 68.7% in 1987~1988, and the relative-survival rate (RSR) increased from 66.3% to 74.2%. The 10-year OSR and RSR in 1987~1988 were 60.3% and 65.1%, and at 15 years 57.5% and 61.3%, respectively. The mortality rate of breast cancer patients fluctuated from 8 to 10 per 105 population over the 20 years of study.CONCLUSION There is a trend of an annual increase in female breast cancer in Beijing. The 5-year survival is being improved gradually while the mortality remains stable. The results demonstrate that the principles of "early prevention, diagnosis and treatment" for breast cancer are effective in Beijing.

  19. Secular trends in caesarean section rates over 20 years in a regional obstetric unit in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, W H; Kong, C W; To, W Wk

    2017-08-01

    Although caesarean section rates have been increasing over the years in both public and private sectors in Hong Kong, there has been a paucity of formal surveys on local trends in such rates. This study aimed to examine the trends in caesarean section rates over a 20-year period at a public regional obstetric unit in Hong Kong using the Robson's Ten-group Classification System. All deliveries in a single obstetric unit during a 20-year period (1995-2014) were classified into 10 subgroups according to the Robson's classification. The annual caesarean section rate for each subgroup was calculated and then stratified into 5-year intervals to analyse any significant trends. The caesarean section rates in a total of 86 262 births with complete data were analysed. The overall caesarean section rate increased modestly from 15.4% to 24.6% during the study period. There was an obvious increasing trend for caesarean section in those with previous caesarean section (Robson's category 5), breech presentation at delivery (category 6 and 7), multiple pregnancy (category 8), and preterm labour (category 10). A gradual fall in caesarean section rate from 14.4% to 10.8% was seen in primiparous women with term spontaneous labour (category 1). Statistically significant differences (Psection rate may be associated with clinical management policies that allow women with relative risk factors (such as breech, previous caesarean section, or multiple pregnancy) to opt for caesarean section. This rise was counterbalanced by a decrease in primary caesarean section rate in primiparous women with spontaneous labour. The trend for caesarean section was more in line with patient expectations rather than evidence-based practice.

  20. [Latest advances of SLA class I genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuan; Li, Hua; Li, Xue-Wei; Yu, Hui; Zuo, Qi-Zhen

    2007-11-01

    The Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class I genes encode multi-glycoproteins on cell surface, which present endogenous antigenic peptides to T cells and thus initiate specific immune responses. In this article, latest advances on molecular structure, expression in tissues, regulation of expression, genotyping, polymorphism, and evolution of SLA class I genes were introduced, in which genotyping and polymorphism were emphasized. Molecular typing methods of SLA class I genes include serological method, DNA sequencing, PCR-SSP, PCR-SSOP and MS, of which PCR-SSP is frequently used in genotyping of SLA class I genes as a simple and rapid method. Future directions for the study and application of SLA class I genes on gene functions, peptide vaccine, xenotransplantation were also discussed.

  1. hosp310 all week discussion latest 2015 october [ all 14 discussions

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

      hosp310 all week discussion latest 2015 october [ all 14 discussions] Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/hosp310-all-week-discussion-latest/   Discussion 1 Why are the baby boomers so important? What impact do you see them having on the hospitality industry in the next few years? In the longer-term future? Please refer to Chapter Two as you participate in this discussion.  Tip for Beginning the Discussion: Of course, you can draw from your own experi...

  2. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda em lactentes: 20 anos de experiência Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants: 20 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ibagy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar pacientes com menos de dois anos de idade com leucemia linfoblástica aguda atendidos no período de 1990 a 2010, em um centro de referência estadual. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico, epidemiológico, transversal, descritivo e observacional. Pacientes incluídos tinham menos de dois anos de idade, com leucemia linfoblástica aguda, tratados no período de 1990 a 2010 na unidade de oncologia pediátrica de um centro de referência estadual, totalizando 41 casos. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes eram Caucasianos e 60,9% eram do sexo feminino. Com relação à idade, 24,38% tinham menos de seis meses, 17,07% tinham entre seis meses e um ano e 58,53% mais do que um ano de idade. A idade de seis meses foi estatisticamente significante para o desfecho de óbito. Os sinais e sintomas predominantes foram febre, hematomas e petéquias. Uma contagem de leucócitos superior a 100.000 foi observada em 34,14% dos casos; hemoglobina inferior a 11 em 95,13% e contagem de plaquetas inferior a 100.000, em 75,61% dos casos. Infiltração do sistema nervoso central estava presente em 12,91% dos pacientes. Em relação à linhagem, a linhagem B predominou (73%, mas a linhagem de células T foi estatisticamente significativa para o óbito. Trinta e nove por cento dos pacientes tiveram recorrência da doença. Em relação ao estado vital, 70,73% dos pacientes morreram, sendo choque séptico a principal causa. CONCLUSÕES: leucemia linfoblástica aguda em crianças tem uma alta taxa de mortalidade, principalmente em crianças menores de um ano e linhagem derivada de células T.OBJECTIVE: To analyze patients younger than 2 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, treated in the period between 1990 and 2010 in a state reference center. METHODS: This was a clinical-epidemiological, cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. It included patients younger than 2 years with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, treated in the period of 1990 to 2010 in a pediatric oncology unit of a state reference center, totaling 41 cases. RESULTS: All patients were white ethnicity, and 60.9% were females. Regarding age, 24.38% were younger than 6 months, 17.07% were between 6 months and 1 year, and 58.53% were older than 1 year. The age of 6 months was statistically significant for the outcome of death. Predominant signs and symptoms were fever, bruising, and petechiae. A leukocyte count > 100,000 was found in 34.14% of cases, hemoglobin count < 11 in 95.13%, and platelet count < 100,000 in 75.61. Infiltration of central nervous system was present in 12.91% of patients. According to the lineage, B-cell lineage predominated (73%, but the T-cell line was statistically significant for death. 39% of patients had disease recurrence. In relation to vital status, 70.73% of the patients died; septic shock was the main cause. CONCLUSIONS: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants has a high mortality rate, especially in children under 1 year and those with T-cell derived lineage.

  3. Mortality from road traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city: A 20-year analysis in Shenzhen, 1994-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Wu, Yong-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Jian; Fu, Ying-Bin; Li, Shan-Shan; Ma, Han-Wu; Zou, Fei; Cheng, Jin-Quan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the trends of motorization and mortality rates from road traffic accidents and examine their associations in a rapidly urbanizing city in China, Shenzhen. Using data from the Shenzhen Deaths Registry between 1994 and 2013, we calculated the annual mortality rates of road traffic accidents, in addition to the age- and sex-specific mortality rates and their annual percentage changes (APCs) for the period of 2000-2013. We also examined the associations between mortality rate of road traffic accidents and traffic growth with Spearman's rank correlation analysis and a log-linear model derived from Smeed's law. A total of 20,196 deaths due to road traffic accidents, including 14,391 (71.3%) male deaths and 5,805 (28.7%) female deaths, were recorded in Shenzhen from 1994 to 2013. The annual mortality rates in terms of deaths per population and deaths per vehicle changed in similar patterns, demonstrating an increase since 1994 and peaking in 1997, followed by a steady decrease thereafter. The decrease in mortality was faster in individuals aged 20 year or older compared to those younger than 20 years. The mortality rates in term of deaths per population were positively correlated with the total number of vehicles per kilometer of road but negatively correlated with the motorization rate in term of vehicles per population. The estimated model for deaths due to road traffic accidents in relation to the total population and the number of registered vehicles was ln (deaths/10,000 vehicles) = -1.902 × ln (vehicles/population) - 1.961. The coefficient was statistically significant (P traffic accidents in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city based observations in the 20-year period from 1994 to 2013. The decreased mortality rate may be explained by the expansion of road network construction, improved road safety regulations and management, as well as more accessible ambulance services in recent years. Nevertheless, road traffic accidents remain a

  4. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  5. A 20-year prospective study of mortality and causes of death among hospitalized opioid addicts in Oslo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haldorsen Tor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study mortality rate and causes of death among all hospitalized opioid addicts treated for self-poisoning or admitted for voluntary detoxification in Oslo between 1980 and 1981, and to compare their mortality to that of the general population. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted on 185 opioid addicts from all medical departments in Oslo who were treated for either self-poisoning (n = 93, 1980, voluntary detoxification (n = 75, 1980/1981 or both (n = 17. Their median age was 24 years; with a range from 16 to 41, and 53% were males. All deaths that had occurred by the end of 2000 were identified from the Central Population Register. Causes of death were obtained from Statistics Norway. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs were computed for mortality, in general, and in particular, for different causes of death. Results During a period of 20 years, 70 opioid addicts died (37.8%, with a standardized mortality ratio (SMR equal to 23.6 (95% CI, 18.7–29.9. The SMR remained high during the whole period, ranging from 32.4 in the first five-year period, to 13.4 in the last five-year period. There were no significant differences in SMR between self-poisonings and those admitted for voluntarily detoxification. The registered causes of death were accidents (11.4%, suicide (7.1%, cancer (4.3%, cardiovascular disease (2.9%, other violent deaths (2.9%, other diseases (71.4%. Among the 50 deaths classified as other diseases, the category "drug dependence" was listed in the vast majority of cases (37 deaths, 52.9% of the total. SMRs increased significantly for all causes of death, with the other diseases group having the highest SMR; 65.8 (95% CI, 49.9–86.9. The SMR was 5.4 (95% CI, 1.3–21.5 for cardiovascular diseases, and 4.3 (95% CI, 1.4–13.5 for cancer. The SMR was 13.2 (95% CI, 6.6–26.4 for accidents, 10.7 (95% CI, 4.5–25.8 for suicides, and 28.6 (95% CI, 7.1–114.4 for other violent deaths. Conclusion The risk

  6. The Cardiff dental study: a 20-year critical evaluation of the psychological health gain from orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenealy, Pamela M; Kingdon, Anne; Richmond, Stephen; Shaw, William C

    2007-02-01

    Despite the widespread belief that orthodontics improves psychological well-being and self-esteem, there is little objective evidence to support this (Kenealy et al., 1989a; Shaw, O'Brien, Richmond, & Brook, 1991). A 20 year follow-up study compared the dental and psychosocial status of individuals who received, or did not receive, orthodontics as teenagers. A prospective longitudinal cohort design with four studies of the effect of orthodontic treatment. Secondary analysis of outcome data incorporated orthodontic need at baseline and treatment received in a 2 x 2 factorial design. A multidisciplinary research programme studied a cohort of 1,018, 11-12 year old participants in 1981. Extensive assessment of dental health and psychosocial well-being was conducted; facial and dental photographs and plaster casts of dentition were obtained and rated for attractiveness and pre-treatment need. No recommendations about orthodontic treatment were made, and an observational approach was adopted. At the third follow-up 337 (30-31 year olds) were re-examined in 2001. Participants with a prior need for orthodontic treatment as children who obtained treatment demonstrated better tooth alignment and satisfaction. However when self-esteem at baseline was controlled for, orthodontics had little positive impact on psychological health and quality of life in adulthood. Lack of orthodontic treatment where there was a prior need did not lead to psychological difficulties in later life. Dental status alone was a weak predictor of self-esteem at outcome explaining 8% of the variance. Self-esteem in adulthood was more strongly predicted (65% of the variance) by psychological variables at outcome: perception of quality of life, life satisfaction, self-efficacy, depression, social anxiety, emotional health, and by self-perception of attractiveness. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the observed effect of orthodontic treatment on self esteem at outcome was accounted for by self esteem at

  7. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of bone and soft tissue: a systematic review of 107 patients in the past 20 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Xu

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma(MCS is a rare high-grade variant of chondrosarcoma. Consensus has not been reached on its optimal management. Resection with wide margins is usually recommended, but the effect of margins has been demonstrated by little positive evidence. Moreover, the effectiveness of adjuvant chemo- and/or radiotherapy remains controversial.To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of MCS of bone and soft tissue, to assess the efficacies of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation, and finally to deliver a more appropriate therapy.We reviewed EMBASE-, MEDLINE-, Cochrane-, Ovid- and PubMed-based to find out all cases of MCS of bone and soft tissue described between April 1994 and April 2014. Description of treatment and regular follow-up was required for each study. Language was restricted to English and Chinese. Issues of age, gender, location, metastasis, and treatment were all evaluated for each case. Kaplan-Meier Method and Cox Proportional Hazard Regression Model were used in the survival analysis.From the 630 identified publications, 18 meeting the inclusion criteria were selected, involving a total of 107 patients. Based on these data, the 5-, 10-and 20-year overall survival are 55.0%, 43.5% and 15.7% respectively. The 5-, 10-, 20- year event-free survival rates are 45.0%, 27.2% and 8.1%, respectively. Treatment without surgery is associated with poorer overall survival and event-free survival. Negative surgical margins could significantly bring down the local-recurrence rate and are associated with a higher event-free survival rate. Chemotherapy regime based on anthracyclines does not benefit the overall survival. The addition of radiation therapy is not significantly associated with the overall or event-free survival. However, we recommend radiation as the salvage therapy for patients with positive margin so as to achieve better local control.This review shows that surgery is essential in the management of MCS of bone

  8. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex, through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps.Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages.Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%.Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.Abbreviations used: Ectomycorrhiza (ECM fungus; Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM; Operational taxonomic unit (OTU.

  9. The clinical picture of late-onset PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study of Israeli war veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horesh, Danny; Solomon, Zahava; Keinan, Giora; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2013-08-15

    Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been under medico-legal debate for years. Previous studies examining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed-onset PTSD have yielded inconclusive findings. This study prospectively examines the prevalence and clinical picture of late-onset PTSD among Israeli war veterans. It also evaluates whether or not late-onset PTSD erupts after a completely non-symptomatic period. 675 Israeli veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War, with and without antecedent combat stress reaction (CSR), have been assessed 1, 2 and 20 years post-war. They were divided into 4 groups, according to the duration of delay in PTSD onset. Participants completed self-report questionnaires tapping psychopathology, combat exposure and socio-demographics. 16.5% of the veterans suffered from late-onset PTSD. A longer delay in PTSD onset was associated with less severe psychopathology. Also, CSR was associated with a shorter delay in PTSD onset. Finally, the vast majority of veterans already suffered from PTSD symptoms prior to late PTSD onset. Our results offer further validation for the existence of delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD appears to be a unique sub-type of PTSD, with an attenuated clinical picture. In addition, delayed-onset PTSD may be the result of an incubation process, wherein symptoms already exist prior to PTSD onset.

  10. Long-term results of clubfoot treatment after more than 20 years, clinical, radiological and in gaitlab

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, R K

    2001-01-01

    clinical, morphological findings correlated (p=0,041) as well as there was a connection to the static range of motion (p=0,001). Though, there was no significant correlation between the score and the dynamic range of motion, which represents the results of the gaitlab analysis. However the dynamic range of motion correlated to the R/L ratio significantly(p<0,0001). Finally the result of the enforced treatment of clubfoot was able to be assessed good as far as the subjective condition of patients is concerned, in spite of the poor morphological and radiological result after 20 years. Moreover it was proved by gaitlab analysis, that dynamic ankle mobility is influenced by talar flattening. In this retrospective study 19 patients with altogether 27 congenital clubfeet were evaluated. Five patients (26 %) were female and 14 patients (74 %) were male. Between the operation and the examination there was an average follow up time of 21,5 years. In 8 cases the method of Turco had been used and 19 feet had been tre...

  11. From space to Earth: advances in human physiology from 20 years of bed rest studies (1986-2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy-Le Traon, A; Heer, M; Narici, M V; Rittweger, J; Vernikos, J

    2007-09-01

    Bed rest studies of the past 20 years are reviewed. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for the most physiological effects of spaceflight. As well as continuing to search for better understanding of the physiological changes induced, these studies focused mostly on identifying effective countermeasures with encouraging but limited success. HDBR is characterised by immobilization, inactivity, confinement and elimination of Gz gravitational stimuli, such as posture change and direction, which affect body sensors and responses. These induce upward fluid shift, unloading the body's upright weight, absence of work against gravity, reduced energy requirements and reduction in overall sensory stimulation. The upward fluid shift by acting on central volume receptors induces a 10-15% reduction in plasma volume which leads to a now well-documented set of cardiovascular changes including changes in cardiac performance and baroreflex sensitivity that are identical to those in space. Calcium excretion is increased from the beginning of bed rest leading to a sustained negative calcium balance. Calcium absorption is reduced. Body weight, muscle mass, muscle strength is reduced, as is the resistance of muscle to insulin. Bone density, stiffness of bones of the lower limbs and spinal cord and bone architecture are altered. Circadian rhythms may shift and are dampened. Ways to improve the process of evaluating countermeasures--exercise (aerobic, resistive, vibration), nutritional and pharmacological--are proposed. Artificial gravity requires systematic evaluation. This review points to clinical applications of BR research revealing the crucial role of gravity to health.

  12. Public awareness of testis cancer and the prevalence of testicular self-examination-changing patterns over 20 years.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Casey, Rowan G

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Delay in treatment of testis cancer (TC) has a proven negative impact on disease stage, treatment outcome, and mortality. Poor public awareness of the disease and lack of testis self-examination (TSE) may account for late presentation. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of TC and performance of TSE in a group of men over 2 time periods 20 years apart. METHODS: In the current study, 677 men from a banking institution were surveyed on their knowledge of TC and their performance of TSE. Comparisons were made from the current data and those from the original study in 1986. RESULTS: This study demonstrates an increase in public awareness and modest concomitant increase in TSE since first studied in this country in 1986. There was no difference in knowledge across age groups in this study. Furthermore, men who demonstrate a superior degree of knowledge were more likely to perform TSE. Limitations included possible selection bias in the 2 studies conducted in a banking institution. CONCLUSIONS: Increased testicular cancer knowledge combined with TSE may have a role in improving detection of significant testicular pathology.

  13. ASSOCIATION OF SOCIOECONOMIC VARIABLES AND CORONARY HEARTH DISEASE IN A POPULATION OVER 20 YEARS OLD AT KONAK DISTRICT OF IZMIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucel DEMIRAL

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between socioeconomic variables and coronary hearth disease (CHD and risk factors among a Turkish urban population aged 20 years and older. Hypertension, waist circumferences, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose intolerance, and smoking were used as the major CHD risk factors. CHD was defined as the previous doctor diagnosis and derivation ECG findings. The study completed with 607 people, of those 389 were women. Among women, illiterates showed significantly higher CHD, hypertension, central obesity, and glucose intolerance were higher than the higher educated groups. Additionally hypertension, central obesity and high cholesterol were higher among the women with agricultural origin. Hypertension was higher in the less educated men. Of those economical status’ was less favorable compared with the current status glucose intolerance prevalence was higher. As the conlusion socioeconomic and CHD and CHD risk factors were inversy associated like industrial countries. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(1.000: 27-40

  14. Sea-level trend in the South China Sea observed from 20 years of along-track satellite altimetric data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Xu, Qing; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2014-01-01

    The sea-level trend in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated based on 20 years of along-track data from TOPEX and Jason-1/2 satellite altimetry. The average sea-level rise over all the regions in the study area is observed to have a rate of 5.1 ± 0.8 mm year-1 for the period from 1993 to 2012....... The steric sea level contributes 45% to the observed sea-level trend. These results are consistent with previous studies. In addition, the results demonstrate that the maximum sea-level rise rate of 8.4 mm year-1 is occurring off the east coast of Vietnam and eastern part of SCS. During 2010-2011, the La...... Niña event was highly correlated with the dramatic sea-level rise in the SCS; La Niña events were also associated with the maximum rate of sea rise off the east coast of Vietnam, which occurred during 1993 and 2012. We also evaluated the trends in the geophysical (e.g. dynamical atmospheric correction...

  15. [A 20-year follow-up study of a sample of 50 pairs of twins with neurotic-psychosomatic disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H; Manz, R

    1990-01-01

    As part of a research project, examination was made of a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of non-identical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins [n = 100 test persons]) between 1963 and 1969 and again recently after a period of 20 years. The index twins were drawn from among the patients who made use of the services of an out-patient psychotherapeutic clinic, and they were determined to be either psychoneurotic, character neurotic, or psychosomatically ill. The question examined was again one of nature vs. nurture. Identical twins showed a significantly higher similarity with regard to the seriousness of their neuroses and the manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did non-identical twins. Noticeable similarities existed in cases of depressive disturbances, disturbances of oral and aggressive behavior, and disturbances of interpersonal contact. With regard to the influence of variables in the environment, we examined the effect of factors in early childhood on neurotic development. Lack of a reference person, a negative attitude on the part of parents toward the child, etc., frustration within and outside the family have an effect on the manifestation of neuroses and on the course of their development. The influence of early childhood factors on the degree of neurotic disorder is still to be noted in the current point prevalence.

  16. Reduced work ability in middle-aged men with asthma from youth--a 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Irmeli; Pallasaho, Paula; Luukkonen, Ritva; Suojalehto, Hille; Karjalainen, Jouko; Lauerma, Antti; Karjalainen, Antti

    2011-06-01

    We studied, whether asthma diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood affects work ability 20 years later. We used Finnish Defence Force registers, 1986-1990, to select: (1) conscripts with asthma to represent a mild/moderate asthma group (n=485), (2) asthmatics who were exempted from military service to represent a relatively severe asthma group (n=393) and (3) a control group (n 1500) without asthma. A questionnaire consisting of validated questions on asthma and work ability was sent out in 2009. A total of 54% of the men in the first study group, 44% of those in the second study group and 44% of the controls answered. The mean age of the participants was 41 (range 37-51). Self-assessed current work ability compared with lifetime best had decreased in 28.9% of the first asthma group, in 31.1% of the second asthma group, and in 19.7% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Current smoking (OR 2.5), only basic education (OR 2.6), being a manual worker (OR 2.7) and current severe asthma (OR 3.8) associated most strongly with decreased work ability among the asthmatics. Both mild and more severe asthma at the age of around 20 seems to be associated with reduced work ability in 40-year-old males.

  17. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  18. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, L.; Fischer, C.R.; Bonet, J.A.; Castaño, C.; Colinas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex), through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps. Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain). Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages. Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies) and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%). Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands. (Author)

  19. Lower limb lengthening in patients with disproportionate short stature with achondroplasia: a systematic review of the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedel, Frank; Rödl, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Parents of children suffering from disproportionate short stature due to achondroplasia may wish to have surgical leg lengthening carried out for the child. The aim is not to increase height, but rather to achieve physiological proportions in the body. In a systematic review of the literature on the topic dating from the last 20 years, the surgical approaches used for this purpose were analyzed in accordance with the Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Twelve studies show that to date, involvement of the child in decision-making at the start of treatment has been expected and that it is recommended from the age of 12. In highly heterogeneous patient groups, with varying factors involved and different techniques being used, lengthening (often by more than 10 cm) is described. High complication rates are reported, with many setbacks often requiring repeat surgery. Using PALEY'S multiplier method, the expected standing height, sitting height, and leg length can be predicted and an individualized treatment approach can be planned and operative procedures could be started in early childhood as PERETTI suggests. As the patients are unable to be involved in decision-making as young children, these data may provide a basis for offering differentiated advice to parents, who usually consult a pediatric orthopedist at a very early stage in the child's life.

  20. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    CERN Document Server

    Felli, M; Cesaroni, R; Codella, C; Comoretto, G; Di Franco, S; Massi, F; Moscadelli, L; Nesti, R; Olmi, L; Palagi, F; Panella, D; Valdettaro, R

    2007-01-01

    Context. Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims. We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods. The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results. To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for al...

  1. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  2. Review and reflection of research on the knowledge structure of physical education teachers in the past 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Bochun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the view of knowledge,methodology and other perspectives of regression and reflection on the knowledge structure of the PE teachers of the status quo in the past 20 years,it is considered that the base of the existing knowledge of research is primarily on the knowledge view of objectivism,the perspective of research is restricted.For many years research category of the knowledge structure of PE teachers was consistently confined to discipline knowledge + educational knowledge + culture knowledge.Research Methodology and methods are mainly confined to Speculative theory research guided by rational debate methodology and questionnaire survey research guided by positivist methodology.Due to the impact of the knowledge view of objectivism,rational debate focuses on the objectivity theory knowledge ought status in knowledge structure of PE teachers.Questionnaire survey research is mainly based on attitude survey research,reflecting the ideal state of knowledge structure of physical education teachers.Suggestion: update knowledge,enrich methodological the guidance,pay more attention to the actual condition of knowledge structure of physical education teachers,reveal physical education teachers in the context of the formation,development,and application patterns of their knowledge structure in sports teaching situation,etc.

  3. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall W. Myster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1 groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2 the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a “shifting mosaic” view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.

  4. Review and reflection of research on the knowledge structure of physical education teachers in the past 20 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Bochun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available From the view of knowledge,methodology and other perspectives of regression and reflection on the knowledge structure of the PE teachers of the status quo in the past 20 years,it is considered that the base of the existing knowledge of research is primarily on the knowledge view of objectivism,the perspective of research is restricted.For many years research category of the knowledge structure of PE teachers was consistently confined to discipline knowledge + educational knowledge + culture knowledge.Research Methodology and methods are mainly confined to Speculative theory research guided by rational debate methodology and questionnaire survey research guided by positivist methodology.Due to the impact of the knowledge view of objectivism,rational debate focuses on the objectivity theory knowledge ought status in knowledge structure of PE teachers.Questionnaire survey research is mainly based on attitude survey research,reflecting the ideal state of knowledge structure of physical education teachers.Suggestion: update knowledge,enrich methodological the guidance,pay more attention to the actual condition of knowledge structure of physical education teachers,reveal physical education teachers in the context of the formation,development,and application patterns of their knowledge structure in sports teaching situation,etc.

  5. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, J.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  6. Actions, progress and prospects in implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity during the past 20 years in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD was adopted by United Nations Conference of Environment and Development (UNCED in June 1992 as a milestone event. During the past 20 years, China established the national coordination mechanisms for CBD implementation in 1993, conducted a country study for biodiversity conservation during 1995–1997, formulated China National Biodiversity Conservation Strategy and Action Plan during 2007–2010, founded the National Committee for Biodiversity Conservation in 2011, and, aiming to CBD’s objectives, implemented a lot of researches and actions for biodiversity conservation, including: protection of ecosystems such as forests, grasslands, deserts, wetlands and marine areas; investigations, inventory and databases for species; increased protection of rare and endangered species; control of alien invasive species; and risk assessment for genetically-modified organisms. Challenges to biodiversity conservation include, establishment of biodiversity monitoring system, in situ conservation, access and benefit sharing of genetic resources, and protection and application of traditional knowledge. Lastly, we report potential research topics for biodiversity conservation.

  7. Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis.

  8. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myster, Randall W; Malahy, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees) and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular) patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1) groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2) the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a "shifting mosaic" view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.

  9. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  10. Electric and magnetic fields with a frequency of 50-60 Hz: assessment of 20 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J. [Electricite de France - Gaz de France, Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    Since electricity is used everywhere, exposure to electromagnetic fields of extremely low frequency (50-60 Hz) is unavoidable in our daily life. The question of whether these electromagnetic fields could possibly have any biological or health effects has been a major environmental issue for more than 20 years. At high field strengths, biological effects such as nerve and cardio-stimulation through the induction of currents in the body have been noted. These biological effects have been used in the drafting of standards for public and professional exposure. However, it is the search for effects at low field levels that has been the focus of much research. The main results of this research can be summarised as follows: in vivo studies on whole animals have shown that there is no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause cancer or birth defects, and despite some reduction in pineal and blood melatonin in rodents, studies on lambs, baboons and humans do not support such an effect of electromagnetic fields, while in vitro studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields at usual residential levels (<100 {mu}T) does not produce any significant in vitro effects that could be replicated in independent studies. These results, correlated with the data provided by more recent epidemiological studies, do not show that exposure to electromagnetic fields at the usual residential exposure levels presents a human health hazard. (author)

  11. [The long-term safety of use of the stainless steel IUD: over 20 years use. Clinical and pathological analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B Y

    1988-05-01

    635 women with stainless steel rings retained in utero for 20 years or more and 724 women of similar age without IUDs as controls were under investigation. Comparison of incidences of clinical symptoms of paired wearers and controls by age in premenopausal women and by postmenopausal duration in postmenopausal women showed that the tinged vaginal discharge in the study group was 4.87% higher than the controls (P0.05). There was no difference in menorrhagia, irregular bleeding, or other main effects. No cancerous changes were found in the uterine curettage specimens of 374 IUD users in the study group. Special attention was paid to the epithelium at the site in contact with the IUD and its adjacent areas showed no apparent dysplasia. There were 9 cases (2.41%) with mild hyperplasia of the endometrium. The incidence had no correlation with the prolongation of insertion duration. Among the 315 relatively intact endometrium specimens, there were 32 cases of inflammation (10.15%). The incidence had no correlation with duration. 3 endometritis cases were actinomyces infection. Among 374 removals, the removal difficulties did not apparently relate with their IUD insertion duration but did correlate to duration of menopause. Hysterograms of 23 cases showed that atrophy of uterine cavities progressed with the increase of menopausal years; the longer the duration, the deeper incarceration of the IUD. (author's)

  12. Trends in blood pressure control and medication use during 20 years in a hypertension clinic in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansui, Yasuo; Ibaraki, Ai; Goto, Kenichi; Haga, Yoshie; Seki, Takunori; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kitazono, Takanari; Matsumura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for the management of hypertension have recommended strict control of blood pressure to help prevent cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current status of blood pressure control and trends over the past two decades. Four hundred patients treated for hypertension at Kyushu University Hospital were included in the present study. Blood pressure levels and prescribed antihypertensive drugs were examined in 2011. The average blood pressure was 129/74 mmHg, and the number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs was 2.2. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, alpha-blockers, and beta-blockers were prescribed in 66%, 5%, 78%, 21%, 12%, and 27% of the cases, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher, and diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in patients aged 80 years or older compared with the younger patients (drugs was similar between the two groups. Sixty-five patients were continuously treated for 20 years. The average blood pressure of these patients significantly decreased from 142/87 mmHg in 1991 to 128/71 mmHg in 2011, accompanied with an increase in the number of antihypertensive drugs from 1.6 in 1991 to 2.7 in 2011. These findings suggest that the revised guidelines for the management of hypertension may have contributed to increased awareness and better management of blood pressure levels.

  13. Suppliers Showcase Their Latest Eco Collections%Suppliers Showcase Their Latest Eco Collections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Planet Textiles debut - conference on sustainability with internationally renowned speakers confirmed As demanct for sustainably produced fashion increases worldwide, designers and buyers attending Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics can expect to find a number of suppliers showcasing their latest eco fabric collections. In addition to a growing number of eco suppliers participating at the fair, which takes place from 18 - 21 October 2011, there will be special trend forums, designer fabrics and zones for:

  14. Neighbourhood risk factors for Common Mental Disorders among young people aged 10-20 years: a structured review of quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Sarah; Pain, Rachel; Fuller, Sara; Khatib, Yasmin; Rothon, Catherine; Stansfeld, Stephen A; Daya, Shari

    2013-03-01

    We present a critical review of research concerning the vulnerability of mental health of young people in the 10-20 year age range to neighbourhood factors that are theoretically associated with increased risk of Common Mental Disorders (CMDs). We interpreted 'neighbourhood factors' as attributes and processes in the local social and physical environment that young people inhabit, beyond the immediate household. We conducted an extensive search, and a structured method of assessment of the research papers that met our search criteria. We draw conclusions about the research evidence on this topic and identify issues needing further discussion and investigation. We focus particularly on quantitative research that aims to measure these relationships. We note that parallel to this research, a significant body of qualitative research on the geographical experiences of young people (though not specifically on their mental health) offers a rich source of background information to illuminate the statistical findings. We conclude with some reflections on the future challenges for research in this field.

  15. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Benzeval

    Full Text Available There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students. The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  16. Does perceived physical attractiveness in adolescence predict better socioeconomic position in adulthood? Evidence from 20 years of follow up in a population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzeval, Michaela; Green, Michael J; Macintyre, Sally

    2013-01-01

    There is believed to be a 'beauty premium' in key life outcomes: it is thought that people perceived to be more physically attractive have better educational outcomes, higher-status jobs, higher wages, and are more likely to marry. Evidence for these beliefs, however, is generally based on photographs in hypothetical experiments or studies of very specific population subgroups (such as college students). The extent to which physical attractiveness might have a lasting effect on such outcomes in 'real life' situations across the whole population is less well known. Using longitudinal data from a general population cohort of people in the West of Scotland, this paper investigated the association between physical attractiveness at age 15 and key socioeconomic outcomes approximately 20 years later. People assessed as more physically attractive at age 15 had higher socioeconomic positions at age 36- in terms of their employment status, housing tenure and income - and they were more likely to be married; even after adjusting for parental socioeconomic background, their own intelligence, health and self esteem, education and other adult socioeconomic outcomes. For education the association was significant for women but not for men. Understanding why attractiveness is strongly associated with long-term socioeconomic outcomes, after such extensive confounders have been considered, is important.

  17. Investigating effectiveness of group counseling with reality therapy approach on self-esteem of addicted boys having at most 20 years old

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoseini Shadi; Toozandehjani Hassan

    2016-01-01

    This study is a quasi-experimental research that aimed to investigate the effectiveness of group counseling with reality therapy approach on increasing self-esteem of addicted boys having at most 20 years old...

  18. Transfer RNA's latest port of call

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Manuel A S; Orellana, Omar; Ibba, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Transfer RNA, or tRNA, has the dubious honor of being a recurring historical figure in molecular biology. Much like the lead character in Woody Allen's movie Zelig, tRNA keeps on turning up in history at the right place at the right time. In this respect the timing of the 23rd installment...... of the International tRNA Workshop just a few months after the awarding of the Nobel Prize for the structure of the ribosome was particularly fitting. Over 250 scientists gathered from January 28 to February 2, 2010 in the charming town of Aveiro on the Atlantic coast of Portugal to discuss the latest advances in our...... understanding of the myriad roles of tRNA, which stretch far beyond acting as a simple adaptor in protein synthesis. Topics covered ranged from well-established areas such as the complex post-transcriptional modification of tRNAs, tRNA aminoacylation and protein synthesis, to emerging areas...

  19. Psychosurgery: review of latest concepts and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sabri; Abuzayed, Bashar

    2013-01-01

    Although the utilization of psychosurgery has commenced in early 19th century, when compared with other neurosurgical fields, it faced many obstacles resulting in the delay of advancement of this type of surgical methodology. This was due to the insufficient knowledge of both neural networks of the brain and the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases. The aggressive surgical treatment modalities with high mortality and morbidity rates, the controversial ethical concerns, and the introduction of antipsychotic drugs were also among those obstacles. With the recent advancements in the field of neuroscience more accurate knowledge was gained in this field offering new ideas for the management of these diseases. Also, the recent technological developments aided the surgeons to define more sophisticated and minimally invasive techniques during the surgical procedures. Maybe the most important factor in the rerising of psychosurgery is the assemblage of the experts, clinicians, and researchers in various fields of neurosciences implementing a multidisciplinary approach. In this article, the authors aim to review the latest concepts of the pathophysiology and the recent advancements of the surgical treatment of psychiatric diseases from a neurosurgical point of view. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Latest insights on adenovirus structure and assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martín, Carmen

    2012-05-01

    Adenovirus (AdV) capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å) and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25), but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber) had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  1. Latest Insights on Adenovirus Structure and Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen San Martín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV capsid organization is considerably complex, not only because of its large size (~950 Å and triangulation number (pseudo T = 25, but also because it contains four types of minor proteins in specialized locations modulating the quasi-equivalent icosahedral interactions. Up until 2009, only its major components (hexon, penton, and fiber had separately been described in atomic detail. Their relationships within the virion, and the location of minor coat proteins, were inferred from combining the known crystal structures with increasingly more detailed cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM maps. There was no structural information on assembly intermediates. Later on that year, two reports described the structural differences between the mature and immature adenoviral particle, starting to shed light on the different stages of viral assembly, and giving further insights into the roles of core and minor coat proteins during morphogenesis [1,2]. Finally, in 2010, two papers describing the atomic resolution structure of the complete virion appeared [3,4]. These reports represent a veritable tour de force for two structural biology techniques: X-ray crystallography and cryoEM, as this is the largest macromolecular complex solved at high resolution by either of them. In particular, the cryoEM analysis provided an unprecedented clear picture of the complex protein networks shaping the icosahedral shell. Here I review these latest developments in the field of AdV structural studies.

  2. Latest ATLAS measurements on top quark properties

    CERN Document Server

    Derue, Frederic; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The top quark is unique among the known quarks in that it decays before it has an opportunity to form hadronic bound states. This makes measurements of its properties particularly interesting as one can access directly the properties of a bare quark. The latest measurements of these properties with the ATLAS detector at the LHC are presented using 8 TeV and 13 TeV data, excluding results from single top production. Measurements of top quark spin observables in top-antitop events, each sensitive to a different coefficient of the spin density matrix, are presented and compared to the Standard Model predictions. The helicity of the W boson from the top decays and the production angles of the top quark are further discussed. New results on the measurment of color flow effects in $t{\\bar t}$ events are presented. Limits on the rate of flavour changing neutral currents in the production or decay of the top quark are reported. The cross-section measurement of photons produced in association with top-quark pairs is a...

  3. Latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture is confronted with enormous challenges, from production of enough high-quality food to water use, environmental impacts and issues combined with a continually growing world population. Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrichemicals, used in applied agriculture. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool to modulate the properties of new crop protection compounds. Since 2010, around 96% of the launched products (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides/acaricides and nematicides) contain halogen atoms. The launched nematicides contain the largest number of halogen atoms, followed by insecticides/acaricides, herbicides and fungicides. In this context, fungicides and herbicides contain in most cases fluorine atoms, whereas nematicides and insecticides contain in most cases 'mixed' halogen atoms, for example chlorine and fluorine. This review gives an overview of the latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides launched over the past 6 years and describes current halogen-containing development candidates. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Lessons learnt from 20 years surveillance of malaria drug resistance prior to the policy change in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2016-01-01

    The history of drug resistance to the previous antimalarial drugs, and the potential for resistance to evolve to Artemisinin-based combination therapies, demonstrates the necessity to set-up a good surveillance system in order to provide early warning of the development of resistance. Here we report a review summarizing the history of the surveillance of drug resistance that led to the policy change in Burkina Faso. The first Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance strain identified in Burkina Faso was detected by an in vitro test carried out in Koudougou in 1983. Nevertheless, no further cases were reported until 1987, suggesting that resistant strains had been circulating at a low prevalence before the beginning of the systematic surveillance system from 1984. We observed a marked increase of Chloroquine-Resistance in 2002-2003 probably due to the length of follow-up as the follow-up duration was 7 or 14 days before 2002 and 28 days from 2002 onwards. Therefore, pre-2002 studies have probably under-estimated the real prevalence of Chloroquine-Resistance by not detecting the late recrudescence. With a rate of 8.2% treatment failure reported in 2003, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine was still efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso but this rate might rapidly increase as the result of its spreading from neighboring countries and due to its current use for both the Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnant women and Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. The current strategy for the surveillance of the Artemisinin-based combination treatments resistance should build on lessons learnt under the previous period of 20 years surveillance of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance (1994-2004). The most important aspect being to extend the number of sentinel sites so that data would be less patchy and could help understanding the dynamic of the resistance.

  5. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  6. Dietary glycemic index during pregnancy is associated with biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in offspring at age 20 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Danielsen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Growing evidence indicates that metabolic syndrome is rooted in fetal life with a potential key role of nutrition during pregnancy. The objective of the study was to assess the possible associations between the dietary glycemic index (GI and glycemic load (GL during pregnancy and biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring. METHODS: Dietary GI and GL were assessed by questionnaires and interviews in gestation week 30 and offspring were clinically examined at the age of 20 years. Analyses based on 428 mother-offspring dyads were adjusted for maternal smoking during pregnancy, height, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, education, energy intake, and the offspring's ambient level of physical activity. In addition, possible confounding by gestational diabetes mellitus was taken into account. OUTCOME MEASURES: Waist circumference, blood pressure, HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and plasma levels of fasting glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, insulin, and leptin were measured in the offspring. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between dietary GI in pregnancy and HOMA-IR (the relative increase in HOMA-IR per 10 units' GI increase was 1.09 [95% CI: 1.01, 1.16], p = 0.02, insulin (1.09 [95% CI: 1.02, 1.16], p = 0.01 and leptin (1.21 [95% CI: 1.06, 1.38], p = 0.01 in the offspring; whereas no associations were detected for GL. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that high dietary GI in pregnancy may affect levels of markers for the metabolic syndrome in young adult offspring in a potentially harmful direction.

  7. Psychological characteristics of male 14- to 20-year-olds on probation and in a residential home in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Wing Hong; Chan, Heng Choon Oliver

    2013-02-01

    Little research has been conducted with Hong Kong juvenile probationers. The goals of this study are to examine the psychological characteristics of 14- to 20-year-old male probationers and to test their relationship with broad types of offending--violent and nonviolent. Participants were drawn from the only transitional housing facility for juvenile probationers aged 14-20 years. Offence types and numbers were rated from self-report. Various schedules were rated at interview with consenting young men to describe them in terms of eight psychological characteristics: self-esteem, life satisfaction, social bonding, positive affect, negative affect, impulsivity, pro-criminal attitude and self-perceived life problems. A total of 113 young men completed the assessment, 90% of those eligible. The average psychological profile of these young men was fairly typical for their communities. Pro-criminal attitudes, however, correlated with both main types of offending, whereas main affective state was differently associated. Predominantly, negative affect was associated with violent offending and predominantly positive affect with nonviolent offending. Participants in this study generally reported higher levels of positive psychological well-being than in previous nondelinquent Chinese samples. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE AND FUTURE RESEARCH: A case-control study comparing such offenders with nondelinquents is required to clarify these findings. A longitudinal design is now indicated to test the direction of relationships between psychological indicators and offending. These steps would be useful precursors to a service evaluation of probation hostels for young offenders. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  9. Dietary intake in relation to self-reported constipation among Japanese women aged 18-20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K; Okubo, H; Sasaki, S

    2006-05-01

    Information on modifiable lifestyle factors associated with constipation is limited, especially among non-Western populations. We examined associations between dietary intake and self-reported constipation in young Japanese women. Cross-sectional study. A total of 1,705 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18-20 years and free of current disease and current dietary counseling. Dietary intake was estimated over a 1-month period with a validated, self-administered, diet history questionnaire, and lifestyle variables including self-reported constipation were assessed by a second questionnaire designed for this survey. A total of 436 women (26%) reported themselves to be 'constipated'. A multivariate odds ratio (OR) for women in the highest quartile of rice intake was 0.47 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.33, 0.68) compared with the lowest. Additionally, women in the highest category of coffee intake had a multivariate OR of 0.67 (0.47, 0.94) compared with women in the lowest. Conversely, women in the highest quartile of confectionery intake had a multivariate OR of 1.54 (1.12, 2.13) compared with women in the lowest. Moreover, a multivariate OR for constipation for women in the highest quartile of Japanese and Chinese tea intake was 1.49 (1.09, 2.05) compared with women in the lowest. Neither total dietary fiber intake nor other lifestyle factors examined were associated with constipation. The consumption of rice and coffee was inversely associated with and that of confectioneries and Japanese and Chinese tea was positively associated with a prevalence of self-reported constipation.

  10. Changes in the prevalence of HBV infection in pregnant women in Turkey between 1995 and 2015: a 20-year evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuncuoglu, Yavuz; Bolukbas, F Fusun; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Torun, Perihan; Ozturk, Recep

    2016-09-01

    To determine changes in hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence across three different time periods in pregnant women. This was a retrospective study of pregnant women attending four healthcare centres between January 1995 and May 2015. Data for serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-HBs levels were collected from routine antenatal screening records. The 20-year study was divided into three periods: 1995-2001, 2002-2008 and 2009-2015. The results are presented by the women's age and gravidity as possible determinants of HBV infection. 7605 pregnant women (56.0% primigravidae) (mean age 23.4±4.8 years) were tested for markers of HBV infection. 3010 pregnant women were screened between 1995 and 2001, 2995 between 2002 and 2008, and 1600 between 2009 and 2015. The overall prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBs positivity in the 7605 pregnant women was 1.5% (n=114) and 11.5% (n=877), respectively. Regarding temporal change in the prevalence of HBV markers, HBsAg decreased significantly from 2.6% to 0.8% (ppregnant women, while the level of HBsAg antibody seropositivity is lower than expected. HBV carrier rate increases with increasing age and gravidity. In addition to the national HBV immunisation programme, the prevention of perinatal transmission should also be prioritised to decrease the HBV pool of infection. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. PET and PET/CT with radiolabeled choline in prostate cancer: a critical reappraisal of 20 years of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovacchini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Elisabetta; Leoncini, Rossella; Riondato, Mattia; Ciarmiello, Andrea

    2017-09-01

    We here aim to provide a comprehensive and critical review of the literature concerning the clinical applications of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with radiolabeled choline in patients with prostate cancer (PCa). We will initially briefly summarize the historical context that brought to the synthesis of [(11)C]choline, which occurred exactly 20 years ago. We have arbitrarily grouped the clinical studies in three different periods, according to the year in which they were published and according to their relation with their applications in urology, radiotherapy and oncology. Studies at initial staging and, more extensively, studies in patients with biochemical failure, as well as factors predicting positive PET/CT will be reviewed. The capability of PET/CT with radiolabeled choline to provide prognostic information on PCa-specific survival will also be examined. The last sections will be devoted to the use of radiolabeled choline for monitoring the response to androgen deprivation therapy, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. The accuracy and the limits of the technique will be discussed according to the information available from standard validation processes, including biopsy or histology. The clinical impact of the technique will be discussed on the basis of changes induced in the management of patients and in the evaluation of the response to therapy. Current indications to PET/CT, as officially endorsed by guidelines, or as routinely performed in the clinical practice will be illustrated. Emphasis will be made on methodological factors that might have influenced the results of the studies or their interpretation. Finally, we will briefly highlight the potential role of positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance and of new radiotracers for PCa imaging.

  12. A 20 year independent record of sea surface temperature for climate from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Christopher J.; Embury, Owen; Rayner, Nick A.; Berry, David I.; Corlett, Gary K.; Lean, Katie; Veal, Karen L.; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Llewellyn-Jones, David T.; Remedios, John J.; Saunders, Roger

    2012-12-01

    A new record of sea surface temperature (SST) for climate applications is described. This record provides independent corroboration of global variations estimated from SST measurements made in situ. Infrared imagery from Along-Track Scanning Radiometers (ATSRs) is used to create a 20 year time series of SST at 0.1° latitude-longitude resolution, in the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate (ARC) project. A very high degree of independence of in situ measurements is achieved via physics-based techniques. Skin SST and SST estimated for 20 cm depth are provided, with grid cell uncertainty estimates. Comparison with in situ data sets establishes that ARC SSTs generally have bias of order 0.1 K or smaller. The precision of the ARC SSTs is 0.14 K during 2003 to 2009, from three-way error analysis. Over the period 1994 to 2010, ARC SSTs are stable, with better than 95% confidence, to within 0.005 K yr-1(demonstrated for tropical regions). The data set appears useful for cleanly quantifying interannual variability in SST and major SST anomalies. The ARC SST global anomaly time series is compared to the in situ-based Hadley Centre SST data set version 3 (HadSST3). Within known uncertainties in bias adjustments applied to in situ measurements, the independent ARC record and HadSST3 present the same variations in global marine temperature since 1996. Since the in situ observing system evolved significantly in its mix of measurement platforms and techniques over this period, ARC SSTs provide an important corroboration that HadSST3 accurately represents recent variability and change in this essential climate variable.

  13. Laparoscopic splenectomy: the latest technical evaluation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Tan; Chao-Xu Zheng; Zhi-Mian Wu; Guo-Tai Chen; Liu-Hua Chen; Zhen-Xian Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To introduce our latest innovation on technical manipulation of laparoscopic splenectomy.METHODS: Under general anesthesia and carbon dioxide (CO2) pneumoperitoneum, 86 cases of laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) were performed. The patients were placed in three different operative positions: 7 cases in the lithotomic position, 31 cases in the right recumbent position and 48cases in the right lateral position. An ultrasonic scissors was used to dissect the pancreaticosplenic ligament, the splenocolicum ligament, lienorenal ligament and the lienophrenic ligament, respectively. Lastly, the gastrosplenic ligament and short gastric vessels were dissected. The splenic artery and vein were resected at splenic hilum with EndoGIA. The impact of different operative positions, spleen size and other events during the operation were studied.RESULTS: The laparoscopic splenectomy was successfully performed on all 86 patients from August 1997 to August 2002. No operative complications, such as peritoneal cavity infection, massive bleeding after operation and adjacent organs injured were observed. There was no death related to the operation. The study showed that different operative positions could significantly influence the manipulation of LS. The right lateral position had more advantages than the lithotomic position and the right recumbent position in LS.CONCLUSION: Most cases of LS could be accomplishedsuccessfully when patients are placed in the right lateral position. The right lateral position has more advantages than the conventional supine approach by providing a more direct view of the splenic hilum as well as other important anatomies. Regardless of operation positions, the major axis of spleen exceeding 15 cm by B-ultrasound in vitro will surely increase the difficulties of LS and therefore prolong the duration of operation. LS is a safe and feasible modality for splenectomy.

  14. A search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Lu; Zhang, Jing-Fei [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Zhang, Xin [Northeastern University, Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Shenyang (China); Peking University, Center for High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-15

    We report the result of a search for sterile neutrinos with the latest cosmological observations. Both cases of massless and massive sterile neutrinos are considered in the ΛCDM cosmology. The cosmological observations used in this work include the Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data, the baryon acoustic oscillation data, the Hubble constant direct measurement data, the Planck Sunyaev-Zeldovich cluster counts data, the Planck lensing data, and the cosmic shear data. We find that the current observational data give a hint of the existence of massless sterile neutrino (as dark radiation) at the 1.44σ level, and the consideration of an extra massless sterile neutrino can indeed relieve the tension between observations and improve the cosmological fit. For the case of massive sterile neutrino, the observations give a rather tight upper limit on the mass, which implies that actually a massless sterile neutrino is more favored. Our result is consistent with the recent result of neutrino oscillation experiment done by the Daya Bay and MINOS collaborations, as well as the recent result of cosmic ray experiment done by the IceCube collaboration. (orig.)

  15. New and Evolving Seismic Images of the Central Andes and Subducting Nazca Slab: 20 Years of Portable Seismology Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, S. L.

    2014-12-01

    Beno Gutenberg first identified a seismic low velocity zone in the upper mantle that we now refer to as the asthenosphere that is still the focus of many studies in active tectonic regions. The upper-most mantle is very heterogeneous and occupies the depth range where much of the tectonic action occurs especially in subduction zones and convergent margins. The central South American convergent margin is the result of the subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate and includes the Andes, one of the largest actively growing mountain ranges on Earth. The South American subduction zone has two regions of "flat" subduction in Peru and central Chile and Argentina separated by a segment of "normal" subduction and an active magmatic arc. The central Andean plateau has an average elevation of 3-4 km and some of the thickest crust on Earth with deformation reaching ~800 km inland. This active margin is characterized by along-strike variations in magmatism, upper crustal shortening, crustal thickness, and slab geometry that make it an ideal region to study the relationship between the subducting slab, the mantle wedge, and the overriding plate. After 20 years of portable seismic deployments in the Central Andes seismologists have generated unprecedented seismic images spanning ~3000 km of the Andean lithosphere, the subducting Nazca slab, and the surrounding mantle. Seismic travel-time, ambient noise and earthquake surface-wave tomography, receiver function imaging, and joint receiver function - surface wave dispersion inversions have produced along strike images of the Central Andes from the surface to a depth of ~700 km. These new images were made possible by PI-driven portable broadband seismic deployments and data sharing by many international groups. I will highlight images of along-strike variations in crustal properties and thickness, mantle lithospheric structure, and slab geometry. These seismic images allow us to more completely evaluate the role

  16. Using research to change public policy: reflections on 20 years of effort to eliminate corporal punishment in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, I A

    1996-10-01

    In the past 20 years, over half of the states have abolished corporal punishment in schools. Without the use of ethically questionable, experimental studies in which students were randomly assigned to paddlings, advocacy researchers were able to integrate the literature and experimental research on reward, punishment, and motivation, and conduct enough studies to provide sufficient data for policy changes. Further, every popular school discipline training program promotes well-proven positive and preventive techniques and punishments that do not inflict physical pain. Research on alternatives, naturalistic evidence from schools that eliminated corporal punishment, and survey research prove that schools do not need to use corporal punishment. The movement to eliminate parental spanking is at a stage similar to the beginning of the school corporal punishment debate in 1976. Even though some studies may show that moderate parental spanking may do no short-term harm, there is little scientific evidence that it is necessary. There are no data to indicate that schools which eliminated corporal punishment became any worse. The same demographic factors and political polarizations that have kept about half of American school children from the protections against paddling afforded students in almost all other Western democracies also impede the movement to eliminate parental spanking. Since we know that corporal punishment too often leads to excesses, and since we have a multitude of effective positive approaches, what is the worst thing that would happen if all Americans stopped hitting children in any setting? The same children who are hit for misbehavior would continue that misbehavior and other ineffective punishments would be used. Most parents and teachers would discover what behavioral scientists already know. A combination of reward, positive motivational techniques and appropriate, nonphysical punishments would prevent most misbehavior. Other factors being equal, in

  17. Temporal and spatial changes of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province in recent 20 years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangsheng YI; Yanyu YIN; Yaojie YUE

    2012-01-01

    It is very important to understand the temporal and spatial changes of residential land for the improvement of human settlement environment.Based on the three TM images of 1986,1996 and 2005 and other assistant maps,the temporal and spatial characteristics of residential land in the Yuyang desert region of northern Shaanxi Province of China were analyzed by using geographical information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) technology.Some important conclusions were obtained,which mainly contained four aspects as follows.1) The area of residential land in the Yuyang desert region increased 956.07 hm2 in total,and the changes of residential land among the townships were different with four various change trends.The expansion speeds in the Yuyang Township and Qinhe Township were the biggest from 1986 to 1996 and from 1996 to 2005,respectively.The expansion intensifies in other townships were below 0.1%,except the Yuyang Township.2) The number of residential land patches increased 2847,while the average area and perimeter of residential land patches decreased 0.304 hm2 and 60.78 m during 1986-2005,respectively.The residential land patches also displayed four different changes from 1986 to 2005 among the townships.3) The residential land mainly distributed in the middle of Yuyang Township and Mahe Township,and the interface of Jinjitan Township and Mengjiawan Township.The total spatial pattern of residential land was relative stability,but the significant changes of residential land were found in the Yuyang Township and its vicinities during 1986-2005.4) Three distribution patterns of residential land at the micro scale were categorized from the 100 typical villages in the study area.The number of villages in the pattern 1 increased,while the pattern 2 and pattern 3 decreased in recent 20 years,which implicated the adaptation of humans to the habitation environment.This research would provide scientific references for harmonizing the human-land relationship

  18. Clinical profile, management, and outcome in patients with out of hospital cardiac arrest: insights from a 20-year registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel AA

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashfaq Ahmad Patel, Abdul Rahman Arabi, Hakam Alzaeem, Jassim Al Suwaidi, Rajvir Singh, Hajar A Al BinaliDepartment of Cardiology, Heart Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, QatarBackground: There is limited information regarding the clinical characteristics and outcome of out of hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA in Middle Eastern patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in patients admitted following OHCA at a single center in the Middle East over a 20-year period.Methods: The data used for this hospital-based study were collected for patients hospitalized with OHCA in Doha, Qatar, between 1991 and 2010. Baseline clinical characteristics, in-hospital treatment, and outcomes were studied in comparison with the rest of the admissions.Results: A total of 41,453 consecutive patients were admitted during the study period, of whom 987 (2.4% had a diagnosis of OHCA. Their average age was 57±15 years, and 72.7% were males, 56.5% were Arabs, and 30.9% were South Asians. When compared with the rest of the admissions taken as a reference, patients with OHCA were more likely to have diabetes mellitus (42.8% versus 39.1%, respectively, P=0.02, prior myocardial infarction (21.8% versus 19.2%, P=0.04, and chronic renal failure (7.4% versus 3.9%, P=0.001, but were less likely to have dyslipidemia (16.9% versus 25.4%, P=0.001. Further, 52.6% of patients had preceding symptoms, the most common of which was chest pain (27.2% followed by dyspnea (24.8%. An initially shockable rhythm (ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia was present in 25.1% of OHCA patients, with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction documented in 30.0%. Severely reduced left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction ≤35% was present in 53.2% of OHCA patients; 42.9% had cardiogenic shock requiring use of inotropes at presentation. An intra-aortic balloon pump was inserted in 3.6% of cases. Antiarrhythmic

  19. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall W. Myster

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1 groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2 the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a “shifting mosaic” view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.Con datos obtenidos previamente, se identificaron especies de árboles y arbustos neotropicales y se ubicaron con coordenadas espaciales en una parcela de 50ha cada cinco años durante un período de 20 años. Estos datos primero se dividieron en cuatro grupos según los estratos verticales del bosque (arbustos, árboles del sotobosque, árboles medios y árboles altos; después se usaron tres para estudiar patrones de agregación en cada año de muestreo. Los arbustos y árboles del sotobosque se agruparon en pequeñas escalas espaciales de pocos metros

  20. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  1. The FOXSI sounding rocket: Latest analysis and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo Buitrago-Casas, Juan; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Sam; Ishikawa, Shin-Nosuke; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Ramsey, Brian; Han, Raymond

    2016-05-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations are a linchpin for studying particle acceleration and hot thermal plasma emission in the solar corona. Current and past indirectly imaging instruments lack the sensitivity and dynamic range needed to observe faint HXR signatures, especially in the presences of brighter sources. These limitations are overcome by using HXR direct focusing optics coupled with semiconductor detectors. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment is a state of the art solar telescope that develops and applies these capabilities.The FOXSI sounding rocket has successfully flown twice, observing active regions, microflares, and areas of the quiet-Sun. Thanks to its far superior imaging dynamic range, FOXSI performs cleaner hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy than previous instruments that use indirect imaging methods like RHESSI.We present a description of the FOXSI rocket payload, paying attention to the optics and semiconductor detectors calibrations, as well as the upgrades made for the second flight. We also introduce some of the latest FOXSI data analysis, including imaging spectroscopy of microflares and active regions observed during the two flights, and the differential emission measure distribution of the nonflaring corona.

  2. Latest LHCb measurements of Electroweak Boson Production in Run-1

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We present the latest LHCb measurements of forward Electroweak Boson Production using proton-proton collisions recorded in LHC Run-1. The seminar shall discuss measurements of the 8 TeV W & Z boson production cross-sections. These results make use of LHCb's excellent integrated luminosity determination to provide constraints on the parton distribution functions which describe the inner structure of the proton. These LHCb measurements probe a region of phase space at low Bjorken-x where the other LHC experiments have limited sensitivity. We also present measurements of cross-section ratios, and ratios of results in 7 TeV and 8 TeV proton-proton collisions. These results provide precision tests of the Standard Model. The seminar shall also present a measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry (A_FB) in Z boson decays to two muons. This result allows for precision tests of the coupling of the Z boson to left and right handed particles, providing sensitivity to the effective weak mixing angle (...

  3. Soil management, fertilization and plant nutrition in organic systems in Spain: A review of the research in last 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalvez, Victor; Raigon Jiménez, M.° Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Spanish Society for Agroecology/Organic Farming (SEAE) is a private charity association, founded in 1992, with the purpose to support organic farming practitioners. The principal aim is to join the efforts farmers, technicians and scientifics and others organizations and persons, related to develop sustainable agriculture systems, based on ecological and socioeconomic principles promoted by the international organic farming movement, with the purpose to obtain foods and first resources with high quality, considering the vulnerability of the environment and preserving the soil fertility, with the optimal and adequate use of the local resources, taking in account the rural culture and the ethical value of the social development and the life quality. One of the most relevant and know activity of SEAE is the celebration of one (scientific) Congress every two years. This is the most important event on this issue in Spain. In the last 20 year, eleven events of this kind have been organised in 11 different places (Toledo, Pamplona, Valencia, Córdoba, Gijón-Asturias, Almeria, Zaragoza, Bullas-Murcia, Lleida, Albacete, Vitoria-Gasteiz). The average participation in the Congress was growing up from 100 to 350 persons), from all over Spain. During this events, researchers, advisors, trainers, politicians and operators (farmers, processors, certifiers, marketers, consumers, etc.) shared and update the scientific results, projects in force, political measures, statistics and proposals to develop the organic farming sector Research in organic farming is still low in Spain and the majority of the results in this matter are being presented as papers in this Congresses. Over 1500 papers from over 100 spanish research groups giving information about the research results have been presented in this events, One of the most relevant topic of this research is done on soil conservation, soil fertility and organic crop fertilization and organic matter management in the soil, after

  4. ATRF Houses the Latest DNA Sequencing Technologies | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer By the end of October, the Advanced Technology Research Facility (ATRF) will be one of the few facilities in the world to house all of the latest DNA sequencing technologies.

  5. 'Eraser Challenge' Latest Harmful Social Media Trend for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164228.html 'Eraser Challenge' Latest Harmful Social Media Trend for Kids Burns, ... player is the "winner." The so-called "eraser challenge" has been circulating for about a year -- but ...

  6. Latest Sickle Cell Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Special Section: Sickle Cell Disease Latest Sickle Cell Research Past Issues / Winter 2011 Table of Contents ... Complications of sickle cell trait 100 Years of Sickle Cell Research Dr. James B. Herrick Photo: National Library ...

  7. Latest results from FROST at Jefferson Lab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritchie B.G.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of broad and overlapping nucleon excitations can be greatly clarified by use of a polarized photon beam incident on a polarized target in meson photoproduction experiments. At Jefferson Lab, a program of such measurements has made use of the Jefferson Lab FROzen Spin Target (FROST. An overview of preliminary results are presented.

  8. ESTSS at 20 years: “a phoenix gently rising from a lava flow of European trauma”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Ørner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Roderick J Ørner, who was President between 1997 and 1999, traces the phoenix-like origins of the European Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (ESTSS from an informal business meeting called during the 1st European Conference on Traumatic Stress (ECOTS in 1987 to its emergence into a formally constituted society. He dwells on the challenges of tendering a trauma society within a continent where trauma has been and remains endemic. ESTSS successes are noted along with a number of personal reflections on activities that give rise to concern for the present as well as its future prospects. Denial of survivors’ experiences and turning away from survivors’ narratives by reframing their experiences to accommodate helpers’ theory-driven imperatives are viewed with alarm. Arguments are presented for making human rights, memory, and ethics core elements of a distinctive European psycho traumatology, which will secure current ESTSS viability and future integrity.

  9. Using the Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business as a Learning Outcomes Assessment: Evidence from a Review of 20 Years of Institution-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Guangming; Bochenek, Jennifer; Burkander, Kri

    2015-01-01

    By applying multilevel models with random effects, the authors reviewed and synthesized findings from 30 studies that were published in the last 20 years exploring the relationship between the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business (MFTB) and related factors. The results suggest that MFTB scores correlated…

  10. A Longitudinal Examination of Career Expectations and Outcomes of Academically Talented Students 10 and 20 Years Post-High School Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Tschopp, Molly K.; Snyder, Erin R.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Hyatt, Claudine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career expectations and outcomes for individuals who were identified as academically talented high school students. Data for this study were collected at two different time periods: 10 years and 20 years after participants' high school graduation. A decade after graduation from high school, participants…

  11. Risk of Hyperprolactinemia and Sexual Side Effects in Males 10-20 Years Old Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Disruptive Behavior Disorder and Treated with Risperidone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Tenback, Diederik; van Harten, Peter N.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term treatment effects of risperidone on prolactin levels and prolactin-related side effects in pubertal boys with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Method: Physical healthy 10-20-year-old males with

  12. Aboveground biomass responses to organic matter removal, soil compaction, and competing vegetation control on 20-year mixed conifer plantations in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianwei Zhang; Matt D. Busse; David H. Young; Gary O. Fiddler; Joseph W. Sherlock; Jeff D. TenPas

    2017-01-01

    We measured vegetation growth 5, 10, and 20 years following plantation establishment at 12 Long-term Soil Productivity installations in California’s Sierra Nevada and Southern Cascades. The combined effects of soil compaction (none, moderate, severe), organic matter removal (tree bole only, whole tree, whole tree plus forest floor), and competing vegetation...

  13. Latest framework to improve vital signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    Greater consistency in NHS signage, coupled with the assurance of a high quality, competitively-priced range of signage and wayfinding products and services, are among the benefits promised to estates and facilities teams UK-wide following the NHS Purchasing and Supply Agency's (NHS PASA) recent launch of a new pan-Government signage framework agreement. Jonathan Baillie reports, and talks to several signage suppliers appointed to the framework about their expertise, skills and recent experience.

  14. Latest results in rare decays at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Kreps, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Recent results from the LHCb experiment on decays governed by $b \\rightarrow s\\mu^+\\mu^-$ or $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ transitions are reviewed. The updated isospin asymmetry in $B \\rightarrow K^{(*)} \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay are in good agreement with the Standard Model. Results of the angular analysis of $B \\rightarrow K\\mu^+ \\mu^-$ decay help to exclude large cancellation between left- and right-handed couplings in the $B^0_s \\rightarrow \\mu^+\\mu^-$ decay. Finally using the decay $B^+ \\rightarrow K^+\\pi^-\\pi^+\\gamma$, nonzero photon polarization is observed for the first time in $b\\rightarrow s\\gamma$ transitions.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Azathioprine versus Cyclosporine-based Therapy in Primary Haplo-identical Live-Donor Kidney Transplantation: A 20-Year Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheith Osama

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN remains a major cause of graft failure over the long term, second only to patient mortality. The main adverse effects of cyclosporine A (CsA include nephrotoxicity, hypertension, symptomatic hyperuricemia, hirsutism, and gum hyperplasia. Available studies among live related donor renal transplants lack adequate information regarding the long-term efficacy and safety of primary CsA-based immunosuppressive regimens. This prospective randomized study is aimed at evaluating the long-term results of CsA-based immunosuppressive protocols in live-donor kidney transplantation. The follow-up data of 444 renal transplant recipients operated at the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, prior to 1996 were reviewed. Primary immuno-suppressive protocols included: steroids and azathioprine (group I, 130 cases; steroids and CsA (group II, 75 cases; and steroids, CsA, and azathioprine (group III, 239 cases. Only adult primary renal transplant recipients with age ranging between 18 and 60 years and one haplotype HLA mismatch with the donor were included. All patients received kidneys from living related donors with previous donor non-specific blood transfusions. The percentage of cases with chronic rejection was significantly higher in group III. Living cases with graft failure were significantly higher in group III, whereas mortality was significantly higher in group I. Diabetic patients and those with serious bacterial infections were significantly more prevalent in group II. Hypertensive patients were significantly more common in groups I and II. Liver disease was more prevalent among patients in group III. Our study suggests that the long-term results of treatment with steroids and azathioprine are satisfactory in live related donor kidney transplant recipients. Chronic rejection was significantly higher in patients in group III, possibly due to the risk of CsA nephrotoxicity. Groups with CsA-based protocols experienced many adverse reactions of CsA such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and chronic rejection

  16. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries - compilation of 20 years of multicenter experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Tanbo, Tom; Tinkanen, Helena;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to report the current status of ovarian tissue cryopreservation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to 14 Nordic academic reproductive centers with established fertility preser...

  17. Beyond ‘Technology for Development’ and ‘Sustainability’ towards systemic and holistic rural innovation: Success factors from the Southern African experience over 20 years

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rensburg, J

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available in fulfilling the promise of development initiatives for scalability and larger scale impact for rural development such as job creation and improving quality of life in rural areas. It requires the innovation and development of products and services that has... to facilitate community investment as well as enabling community members to improve their own initiatives and projects. This process helps communities to build confidence in their ability to support successful projects with a co-operative spirit to build...

  18. Challenges of Treating Childhood Medulloblastoma in a Country With Limited Resources: 20 Years of Experience at a Single Tertiary Center in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathi Rajagopal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pediatric medulloblastoma (MB treatment has evolved over the past few decades; however, treating children in countries with limited resources remains challenging. Until now, the literature regarding childhood MB in Malaysia has been nonexistent. Our objectives were to review the demographics and outcome of pediatric MB treated at the University Malaya Medical Center between January 1994 and December 2013 and describe the challenges encountered. Methods: Fifty-one patients with childhood MB were seen at University Malaya Medical Center. Data from 43 patients were analyzed; eight patients were excluded because their families refused treatment after surgery. Results: Headache and vomiting were the most common presenting symptoms, and the mean interval between symptom onset and diagnosis was 4 weeks. Fourteen patients presented with metastatic disease. Five-year progression-free survival (± SE for patients ≥ 3 years old was 41.7% ± 14.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 81.4% in the high-risk group and 68.6% ± 18.6% (95% CI, 40.3% to 100% in the average-risk group, and 5-year overall survival (± SE in these two groups was 41.7% ± 14.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 81.4% and 58.3% ± 18.6% (95% CI, 31.3% to 100%, respectively. Children younger than 3 years old had 5-year progression-free and overall survival rates (± SE of 47.6% ± 12.1% (95% CI, 28.9% to 78.4% and 45.6% ± 11.7% (95% CI, 27.6% to 75.5%, respectively. Time to relapse ranged from 4 to 132 months. Most patients who experienced relapse died within 1 year. Febrile neutropenia, hearing loss, and endocrinopathy were the most common treatment-related complications. Conclusion: The survival rate of childhood MB in Malaysia is inferior to that usually reported in the literature. We postulate that the following factors contribute to this difference: lack of a multidisciplinary neuro-oncology team, limited health care facilities, inconsistent risk assessment, insufficient data in the National Cancer Registry and pathology reports, inadequate long-term follow-up, and cultural beliefs leading to treatment abandonment.

  19. Disorders of sex development in children in KwaZulu-Natal Durban South Africa: 20-year experience in a tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganie, Yasmeen; Aldous, Colleen; Balakrishna, Yusentha; Wiersma, Rinus

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the prevalence, clinical characteristics and aetiological diagnosis in children with disorders of sex development (DSDs) presenting to a tertiary referral centre. This is a retrospective review of all cases of DSD referred to the Paediatric Endocrine Unit in Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital (IALCH) from January 1995 to December 2014. A total of 416 children (15.1%; CI: 13.8%-16.5%) were diagnosed with DSD. The aetiological diagnosis based on the current classification [Lawson Wilkins Paediatric Endocrine Society (LWPES) and European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE)] was sex chromosome DSD in 9.5% (n=33), 46 XX DSD in 33% (n=114) and 46 XY DSD in 57.5% (n=199). The most common diagnoses in descending order were a disorder in androgen synthesis and action (not classified) in 53% (n=182), ovotesticular DSD in 22% (n=75) and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in 10% (n=36). Overall the median age of presentation was 10 months (IQR: 1 month-4.5 years). There was a significant relationship (pchildren with 46 XY DSD (p<0.001). DSD is not an uncommon diagnosis in African patients in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common aetiological diagnosis is 46 XY DSD in androgen synthesis and action, followed by ovotesticular DSD. CAH is only the third most common disorder.

  20. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries - compilation of 20 years of multicenter experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Tanbo, Tom; Tinkanen, Helena; Thurin-Kjellberg, Ann; Nedstrand, Elizabeth; Kitlinski, Margareta Laczna; Macklon, Kirsten T; Ernst, Erik; Fedder, Jens; Tiitinen, Aila; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Einarsson, Snorri; Jokimaa, Varpu; Hippeläinen, Maritta; Lood, Mikael; Gudmundsson, Johannes; Olofsson, Jan I; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study is to report the current status of ovarian tissue cryopreservation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries. A questionnaire was sent to 14 Nordic academic reproductive centers with established fertility preservation programs. It covered fertility preservation cases performed up to December 2014, standard procedures for ovarian tissue cryopreservation and oocyte cryopreservation and reproductive outcomes following ovarian tissue transplantation. Among the Nordic countries, Denmark and Norway practice ovarian tissue cryopreservation as a clinical treatment (822 and 164 cases, respectively) and their programs are centralized. In Sweden (457 cases), ovarian tissue cryopreservation is practiced at five of six centers and in Finland at all five centers (145 cases). Nearly all considered ovarian tissue cryopreservation to be experimental. In Iceland, embryo cryopreservation is the only option for fertility preservation. Most centers use slow-freezing methods for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Most patients selected for ovarian tissue cryopreservation were newly diagnosed with cancer and the tissue was predominantly retrieved laparoscopically by unilateral oophorectomy. Only minor complications were reported. In total, 46 women have undergone ovarian tissue transplantation aiming at recovering fertility, 17 healthy children have been born and several additional pregnancies are currently ongoing. Whenever patients' clinical condition is permissive, oocyte cryopreservation after hormonal stimulation is preferred for fertility preservation. Between 2012 and 2014, a smaller proportion of females have undergone fertility preservation in the Nordic centers, in comparison to males (1:3). Overall, ovarian tissue cryopreservation was reported to be safe. Slow freezing methods are still preferred. Promising results of recovery of fertility have been reported in Nordic countries that have initiated ovarian tissue transplantation procedures. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  1. Ovarian tissue cryopreservation and transplantation among alternatives for fertility preservation in the Nordic countries - compilation of 20 years of multicenter experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez-Wallberg, Kenny A; Tanbo, Tom; Tinkanen, Helena

    2016-01-01

    preservation programs. It covered fertility preservation cases performed up to December 2014, standard procedures for ovarian tissue cryopreservation and oocyte cryopreservation and reproductive outcomes following ovarian tissue transplantation. RESULTS: Among the Nordic countries, Denmark and Norway practice...... cryopreservation to be experimental. In Iceland, embryo cryopreservation is the only option for fertility preservation. Most centers use slow-freezing methods for ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Most patients selected for ovarian tissue cryopreservation were newly diagnosed with cancer and the tissue...... was predominantly retrieved laparoscopically by unilateral oophorectomy. Only minor complications were reported. In total, 46 women have undergone ovarian tissue transplantation aiming at recovering fertility, 17 healthy children have been born and several additional pregnancies are currently ongoing. Whenever...

  2. Latest results on $J/$ anomalous suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sérgio Ramos; NA50 Collaboration; B Allessandro; C Alexa; R Arnaldi; M Atayan; C Baglin; A Baldit; M Bedjidian; S Beolè; V Boldea; P Bordalo; S R Borenstein; G Borges; A Bussière; L Capelli; C Castanier; J Castor; B Chaurand; B Cheynis; E Chiavassa; C Cicalo; T Claudino; M P Comets; S Constantinescu; P Cortese; J Cruz; A DeFalco; N DeMarco; G Dellacasa; A Devaux; S Dita; O Drapier; B Espagnon; J Fargeix; P Force; M Gallio; Y K Gavrilov; C Gerschel; P Giubellino; M B Golubeva; M Gonin; A A Grigorian; S Grigorian; J Y Grossiord; F F Guber; A Guichard; H Gulkanyan; R Hakobyan; R Haroutunian; M Idzik; D Jouan; T L Karavitcheva; L Kluberg; A B Kurepin; Y Le Bornée; C Lourenço; P Macciotta; M Mac Cormick; A Marzari-Chiesa; M Masera; A Masoni; M Monteno; A Musso; P Petiau; A Piccotti; J R Pizzi; W L Prado da Silva; F Prino; G Puddu; C Quintans; L Ramello; S Ramos; P Rato Mendes; L Riccati; A Romana; H Santos; P Saturnini; E Scalas; E Scomparin; S Serci; R Shahoyan; F Sigaudo; M Sitta; P Sonderegger; X Tarrago; N S Topilskaya; G L Usai; E Vercellin; L Villatte; N Willis; T Wu

    2004-03-01

    The NA50 experiment deals with Pb–Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon at the CERN SPS accelerator. The $J/$ production is studied through the muon decay channel, using the Drell–Yan dimuons as a reference. New results based on recent analyses, from data taken with improved experimental conditions and using different centrality estimators, are presented and compared to an update of those already obtained from previous data samples. The stepwise pattern of the anomalous $J/$ suppression as a function of centrality, already present in these previous results, is confirmed. This observation could be a fingerprint of the theoretically predicted melting of charmonia resonances in a deconfined quark–gluon plasma.

  3. Latest Trends in Problem Solving Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Karyotaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Problem solving is the skill that coordinates all the cognitive, metacognitive and behavioral processes taking place when individuals encounter a previously unprecedented situation or difficulty. Metacognitive processes seem to play the most important role for resolving a problematic situation as individuals reflect on their acquired knowledge, skills and experiences, thus become aware of their capabilities and how to regulate them. Therefore, metacognitive awareness is the competence that mostly assists individuals in their attempt to construct new knowledge and reach their goals. Furthermore, individuals’ self-assessment and peer-assessment processes could reveal their level of metacognitive awareness and therefore, by far, their problem solving competency. Consequently, ICTs could capture individuals’ problem solving skills through tracking down and analyzing the latters’ cognitive and metacognitive processes as well as their behavioral patterns. The aforementioned computer-based assessment could consist of a fuzzy expert system with domain knowledge from an automated task-based test with particular solution strategies in combination with log data for identifying and classifying one’s level of problem solving ability according to specific criteria.

  4. Portion Size: Latest Developments and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Ingrid; Poelman, Maartje

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this review is to provide an overview of (1) underlying mechanisms of the effect of portion size on energy intake, (2) external factors explaining the portion size effect and (3) interventions and measurements aimed at food portion size. Previous studies have shown that portion sizes have increased in recent decades. Many experimental studies have been conducted to unravel the mechanisms underlying the portion-size effect on food intake (e.g. the appropriateness mechanism, the 'unit bias' mechanism, the 'previous experience/expectation' mechanism, the 'visual cue' mechanism and the 'bite size' mechanism). In addition, external factors have been found to drive food portion selection and consumption (e.g. value for money, mindless eating, levels of awareness, estimation bias. Research on several interventions (ranging from 'providing information' to 'eliminating choice') have been conducted, but remain scarce, especially intervention studies in which portion size is a key focus in weight loss. Moreover, only three new instruments with respect to portion control behavior have been developed. There is considerable evidence for the portion-size effect on energy intake. However, the work on interventions targeting portion size and measurements for portion control behavior are limited. Moreover, from the literature it is not yet clear what type of interventions work best, for whom and in what context.

  5. The latest CMS results on the Higgs boson decaying to two photons with 13 TeV data

    CERN Document Server

    Planer, Michael David

    2017-01-01

    The latest results of the measurement of the Higgs boson decaying into two photons with the full 2016 data will be presented. The analysis is performed using the dataset recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC from pp collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb$^{-1}$.

  6. Progress in information technology and tourism management: 20 years on and 10 years after the Internet—The state of eTourism research

    OpenAIRE

    Buhalis, Dimitrios; Law, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the published articles on eTourism in the past 20 years. Using a wide variety of sources, mainly in the tourism literature, this paper comprehensively reviews and analyzes prior studies in the context of Internet applications to Tourism. The paper also projects future developments in eTourism and demonstrates critical changes that will influence the tourism industry structure. A major contribution of this paper is its overview of the research and development efforts that ha...

  7. Treatment of multiple traumatized anterior teeth associated with an alveolar bone fracture in a 20-year-old patient: a 3-year follow up

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Intrusive luxation is a type of recognizable luxation injury represented by a deeper axial displacement of the tooth toward the alveolar bone. Treatment strategies include waiting for the tooth to return to its position, immediate surgical repositioning, and repositioning through dental traction by orthodontic devices. The aim of this case report was to present the management of severe dental trauma and later restoration following IADT. A 20-year-old patient was presented after fainting at ho...

  8. Differences in bioactivity between human insulin and insulin analogues approved for therapeutic use- compilation of reports from the past 20 years

    OpenAIRE

    Werner Haim; Chantelau Ernst A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to provide comprehensive information on the differences in bioactivity between human insulin and insulin analogues, published in vitro comparisons of human insulin and the rapid acting analogues insulin lispro (Humalog®), insulin aspart ( NovoRapid®), insulin glulisine (Apidra®), and the slow acting analogues insulin glargine (Lantus®), and insulin detemir (Levemir®) were gathered from the past 20 years (except for receptor binding studies). A total of 50 reports were retrie...

  9. Project conducted in Hirakata to improve cervical cancer screening rates in 20-year-old Japanese: Influencing parents to recommend that their daughters undergo cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Asami; Ueda, Yutaka; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Tanaka, Yusuke; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Murata, Hiromi; Okada, Hidetaka; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Mandai, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Tadashi; Saito, Junko; Hori, Yumiko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Tomio; Suzuki, Yukio; Motoki, Yoko; Sukegawa, Akiko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Miyagi, Etsuko; Yamaguchi, Manako; Kudo, Risa; Adachi, Sosuke; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Takagi, Tetsu; Shimura, Kentaro

    2016-12-01

    In Japan, the rate of routine cervical cancer screening is quite low, and the incidence of cervical cancer has recently been increasing. Our objective was to investigate ways to effectively influence parental willingness to recommend that their 20-year-old daughters undergo cervical cancer screening. We targeted parents whose 20-year-old daughters were living with them. In fiscal year 2013, as usual, the daughter received a reminder postcard several months after they had received a free coupon for cervical cancer screening. In fiscal year 2014, the targeted parents received a cervical cancer information leaflet, as well as a cartoon about cervical cancer to show to their daughters, with a request that they recommend to their daughter that she undergo cervical cancer screening. The subsequent screening rates for fiscal years 2013 and 2014 were compared. The cervical cancer screening rate of 20-year-old women whose parents received the information packet in fiscal year 2014 was significantly higher than for the women who, in fiscal year 2013, received only a simple reminder postcard (P cancer screening. This was achieved by sending a cervical cancer information leaflet and a cartoon about cervical cancer for these parents to show to their daughters. This method was significantly effective for improving cervical cancer screening rates. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Prognostic indicators and generation of novel risk equations for estimation of 10-year and 20-year mortality following acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Caroline J; Debono, Roberto; Calleja, Neville; Galea, Joseph; Fava, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Although risk assessment is an integral part of management, there are currently no risk calculators of long-term mortality after acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The aim was to provide risk equations for 10-year and 20-year mortality following ACS. Patients hospitalised with ACS from December 1990 to June 1994 were recruited and followed up through 31 December 2012. The study followed 881 patients for 10 years and 712 patients for 20 years. Using Cox regression analysis, 20-year all-cause mortality was associated with myocardial infarction (MI) in the index admission, age and diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiac mortality were both associated with MI in the index admission, age, DM and female gender. 10-year all-cause mortality was associated with age and total cholesterol levels; age, DM and total cholesterol levels were found to be independent predictors of 10-year CVD and cardiac mortality. Risk equations were consequently generated for 10-year and 20-year cardiac, cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, with age and DM emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors of all outcomes studied. Novel risk equations for all-cause, cardiovascular and cardiac mortality at 10 and 20 years were generated using follow-up data in a large patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. The association of the vitamin D status with the persistence of anti-HBs antibody at 20years after primary vaccination with recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, A; Keshavarz, J; Bagheri-Jamebozorgi, M; Nemati, M; Frootan, R; Shokri, F

    2017-02-01

    Vitamin D has potent immunoregulatory effects due to the expression of its receptor on the majority of immune cells. The aim was to evaluate the association of the vitamin D status with the persistence of anti-HBs antibody and immune response to booster immunization at 20years after primary vaccination with hepatitis B (HB) vaccine. Blood samples were collected from 300 adults 20years after completion of the primary HB vaccination in infancy. The serum levels of vitamin D and anti-HBs antibody were measured by ELISA. A single booster dose of a recombinant HB vaccine was administered to a total of 138 subjects, whose anti-HBs titer wasanti-HBs antibody, 4weeks after booster vaccination. At 20years after primary vaccination, the mean vitamin D concentrations were significantly higher in seroprotective subjects as compared to non-seroprotective individuals (Panti-HBs were significantly increased with advanced concentrations of vitamin D (Pvaccination. The concentrations of vitamin D were significantly higher in subjects with an anamnestic response to booster vaccination as compared with subjects without this response (Panti-HBs antibody and durability of protection after primary vaccination with a recombinant HB vaccine in infancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Is the war really over? A 20-year longitudinal study on trajectories of suicidal ideation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following combat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snir, Avigal; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    Combat stress reaction (CSR) has widespread long-term consequences, including profound psychopathology in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have established the link between combat, PTSD, and suicidality. However, little is known about the temporal course of suicidal ideation (SI) in general, specifically among war veterans. We aimed to trace the trajectories of SI in the aftermath of war and to explore the role of CSR and PTSD in SI trajectories. Israeli veterans with CSR (n=164) and a matched control group (NCSR, n=111) were assessed, using self-report measures at three points over the course of 20 years. Veterans with CSR reported significantly higher levels of SI, compared to the NCSR group at all measurement points. Among veterans with CSR, SI increased 2 years after the war and then decreased 20 years following the war. This pattern was particularly characteristic of veterans with chronic PTSD. The results indicate that CSR is a strong predictor of subsequent PTSD and suicidality. These findings highlight the importance of prevention and treatment efforts for these traumatized veterans, who are at risk for suicide even 20 years after the end of the war.

  13. 20 years since the establishment of the BANTAO association (Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polenakovic, Momir; Nenov, Dimitar; Basci, Ali; Djukanovic, Ljubica; Tsakiris, Dimitris; Nesic, Vida; Schiller, Adalbert; Spasovski, Goce; Klinkmann, Horst; Vienken, Joerg; Falkenhagen, Dieter; Ivanovich, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The Balkan Cities Association of Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation and Artificial Organs (BANTAO) was born in Ohrid on October 9, 1993. The war in former Yugoslavia negatively affected the development of nephrology and also the connections among the nephrologists from the Balkans. However, there was willingness for further mutual collaboration between the nephrologists from the Balkans. The war in Yugoslavia created hate among people, between the newly established countries, and there were problems with the recognition of the names of the new countries, and so, the nephrologists decided to apply the ancient principle of using the names of the cities, instead of the countries, as the founders of the Association. The main goal of BANTAO is to promote scientific and technical cooperation in the fields of renal disease and artificial organs between the regions on the Balkan Peninsula and the world, to give an opportunity for exchange of experience and knowledge among the experts in the area and to engage in collaborative projects in order to demonstrate that cooperation is possible even on the turbulent Balkan Peninsula. The I BANTAO congress was held in Varna from September 22 to 24th, 1995 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The II congress of BANTAO was held from September 6th to 10th, 1997 in Struga, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The III BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade from September 18th to 20th, 1998 (President--Lj. Djukanović, Belgrade). The IV congress of BANTAO was held in Izmir from 14th to 16th November 1999 (President--A. Akcicek, Izmir). The V Congress of BANTAO was held in Thessaloniki from September 30th to October 3rd, 2001 (President--P. Stathakis, Athens). The VI Congress of BANTAO was held for the second time in Varna from 6th to 9th October 2003 (President--D. Nenov, Varna). The VII congress of BANTAO was held from September 8th to 11th, 2005 in Ohrid, (President--M. Polenakovic, Skopje). The VIII BANTAO congress was held in Belgrade, 16

  14. Latest trends and directions of development of crowdfunding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Pieniążek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the latest trends and directions of development of crowdfunding on selected examples of English-language websites.The scope of work includes topics such as aggregates of crowdfunding sites, local investing, franchise, pre-sales platforms, open source sites and leveraging the competitive advantages of e-commerce platforms which offer product crowdfunding. This article aims to discuss the latest trends and directions of crowdfunding, assess their usefulness and the chances of popularising the ideas presented. The article provides an overview of the literature on the subject and an analysis of the selected sites, comparison sites and crowdfunding search engines.

  15. 由情入境,因意塑形——从艺二十年创作随想%From Feeling to Love, Shaping based on Meaning Random Thought on Artis- tic Creation of 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余向群

    2012-01-01

    The author reflects on her 20-year experience of creation as a Putian woodcarving artist, full of both genuine feelings and rational thought and summary. Finally, she summarizes her concept of creation as "From feeling to love, shaping based on meaning" .%作者细数自己从事莆田木雕二十年的创作心路历程,既蕴含真挚饱满的情感,亦不乏理性的思考与总结。最终她将自己的创作理念归结为“由情入境,因意塑形”。

  16. (The latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.H.

    1990-09-24

    The author was one of 26 invited lecturers to discuss the latest developments of the physical aspects of electrochemistry. He interacted extensively with other lecturers and many participants from developing countries. He also visited with the Director of the Italian Synchrotron Radiation Source now under construction in Trieste, Italy.

  17. Recreational Reading: 20 Years Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Cathy Collins; Mangieri, John N.

    2002-01-01

    Determines elementary teachers' knowledge of: current children's literature; children's books in six literary genres; and activities to promote students' recreational reading. Replicates a 1981 study to determine the level of knowledge possessed by today's teachers concerning children's literature and methods of increasing students' reading for…

  18. Ecclectic internationalization : 20 years after

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kurt

    1996-01-01

    Efter en vurdering af John Dunnings eklektiske teori for direkte investeringer gradbøjes den med henblik på at finde et udgangspunkt for en generel og normativ teori om virksomhedens valg af entry mode på udenlandske markeder....

  19. Frequency and changes in trends of leading risk factors of coronary heart disease in women in the city of Novi Sad during a 20-year period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Dušica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Backround/Aim. From 1984 to 2004 the city of Novi Sad participated through its Health Center “Novi Sad” in the international Multinational MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease (MONICA project, as one of the 38 research centers in 21 countries around the world. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and changes of trends in leading risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD and to analyze the previous trend of movement of coronary event in women in Novi Sad during a 20- year period. Methods. In 2004, the fourth survey within MONICA project was conducted in the city of Novi Sad. The representative sample included 1,041 women between the age of 25 and 74. The prevalence of risk factors in CHD such as smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood cholesterol, elevated blood glucose and obesity was determined. Also, indicators of risk factors and rates of coronary events in women were compared with the results from MONICA project obtained in previous three screens, as well as with the results from other research centres. χ2-test, linear trend and correlartion coefficient were used in statistical analysis of results obtained. Results. It was observed that during a 20-year period covered by the study, the prevalence of the leading risk factors for the development of CHD in the surveyed women was significantly increasing and in positive correlation with the values of linear trend. Also, the increase of morbidity rates and mortality rates of coronary event were in positive correlation. The decrease was only recorded in the period from 1985-1989 (the implementation of the intervention programme. Conclusion. Upon analysing the increase in prevalence of leading risk factors of CHD and significant increase in the rates of coronary event, we can conclude that health status of women in Novi Sad during a 20-year period was deteriorating.

  20. Evaluation of anthrax vaccine safety in 18 to 20 year olds: A first step towards age de-escalation studies in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James C; Gao, Yonghong; Quinn, Conrad P; Dreier, Thomas M; Vianney, Cabrini; Espeland, Eric M

    2015-05-15

    Anthrax vaccine adsorbed (AVA, BioThrax(®)) is recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis administration for the US population in response to large-scale Bacillus anthracis spore exposure. However, no information exists on AVA use in children and ethical barriers exist to performing pre-event pediatric AVA studies. A Presidential Ethics Commission proposed a potential pathway for such studies utilizing an age de-escalation process comparing safety and immunogenicity data from 18 to 20 year-olds to older adults and if acceptable proceeding to evaluations in younger adolescents. We conducted exploratory summary re-analyses of existing databases from 18 to 20 year-olds (n=74) compared to adults aged 21 to 29 years (n=243) who participated in four previous US government funded AVA studies. Data extracted from studies included elicited local injection-site and systemic adverse events (AEs) following AVA doses given subcutaneously at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Additionally, proportions of subjects with ≥4-fold antibody rises from baseline to post-second and post-third AVA doses (seroresponse) were obtained. Rates of any elicited local AEs were not significantly different between younger and older age groups for local events (79.2% vs. 83.8%, P=0.120) or systemic events (45.4% vs. 50.5%, P=0.188). Robust and similar proportions of seroresponses to vaccination were observed in both age groups. AVA was safe and immunogenic in 18 to 20 year-olds compared to 21 to 29 year-olds. These results provide initial information to anthrax and pediatric specialists if AVA studies in adolescents are required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.