WorldWideScience

Sample records for laterally loaded drilled

  1. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...

  2. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...

  3. Drilling-induced lateral shifts along pre-existing fractures: A common cause of drilling problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maury, V.; Zurdo, C.

    1996-03-01

    Two gas well collapses showed a peculiar failure mechanism. Excessive fluid levels and temperature variations during the ultimate drilling phase and later workovers induced microannuli and cementation damage. Abnormal fluid pressures from deeper gas- or water-bearing layers channeled through damaged cementation and increased the pore pressure in uphole faults or bedding joints. Thus the effective normal stress on faults was released, inducing shear displacements and casing deformation. Weakened casings were further collapsed by later fluid-level variations. It was then suspected that this mechanism also occurred in open holes during drilling. This was shown to be so with borehole televiewer tool (BHTV) images showing borehole lateral shifts. Although never mentioned in the past in the domain of borehole stability, this mechanism explains some poorly understood drilling incidents, such as tight-holes, problems to run in hole (RIH) or pull out of hole (POOH), and abnormal torques, in spite of no indications of instability, such as cavings. This mechanism can be mitigated by taking the necessary precautions during drilling and by the adequate selection of mud characteristics.

  4. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  5. Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Deepwater Drilling Risers Subjected to Random Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Excited by ocean currents, random wave and vessel motion, deepwater drilling risers exhibit significant dynamic response. In time domain, a method is proposed to calculate the nonlinear dynamic response of deepwater drilling risers subjected to random wave and dynamic large displacement vessel motion boundary condition. Structural and functional loads, external and internal pressure, free surface effect of irregular wave, hydrodynamic forces induced by current and wave, as well as wave and low frequency (drift) motion of the drilling vessel are all accounted for. An example is presented which illustrates the application of the proposed method. The study shows that long term drift motion of the vessel has profound effect on the envelopes of bending stress and lateral displacement, as well as the range of lower flex joint angle of the deepwater riser. It can also be concluded that vessel motion is the principal dynamic loading of nonlinear dynamic response for the deepwater risers rather than wave force.

  6. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    -competitive in the energy market. This thesis addresses issues concerning monopod bucket foundations in the hope of providing tools and ideas that could be used to optimize the design of this sub-structure. The work is focussed on the behaviour of bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. Other related......To enable a prosperous development of offshore wind energy, economically feasible technologies must be developed. The monopod bucket foundation is likely to become a cost-effective sub-structure for offshore wind turbines and has the potential to make offshore wind more cost...... and propaedeutic topics, such as bucket foundations under transient lateral loading and under monotonic lateral loading, are also investigated. All the scientific work is fundamentally based on small-scale experimental tests of bucket foundations in dense water-saturated sand. The most important scientific...

  7. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    OpenAIRE

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowledge on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning m...

  8. Lateral load pattern in pushover analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The seismic capacity curves of three types of buildings including frame, frame-shear wall and shear wall obtained by pushover analysis under different lateral load patterns are compared with those from nonlinear time history analysis. Based on the numerical results obtained a two-phase load pattern: an inverted triangle(first mode)load pattern until the base shear force reaches β times its maximum value,Vmax, followed by a(x/H)α form, here β and α being some coefficients depending on the type of the structures considered, is proposed in the paper, which can provide excellent approximation of the seismic capacity curve for low-to-mid-rise shear type buildings. Furthermore, it is shown both the two-phase load pattern proposed and the invariant uniform pattern can be used for low-to-mid-rise shear-bending type and low-rise bending type of buildings. No suitable load patterns have been found for high-rise buildings.

  9. Pullback load simulation on large Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avesani Neto, Jose O.; Placido, Rafael R.; Martins, Pedro R.R.; Rocha, Ronaldo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas do Estado de Sao Paulo (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    One of the most popular trenchless technology currently used for pipeline construction in Brazil and worldwide is Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD). The principal application of HDD is in crossings of water bodies. However this technology has applications in several situations as environmental sensitive areas, densely populated areas, areas prone to mass movement and anywhere the traditional technology is not suitable because of potential risks . One of the problems in HDD of large lengths is the strength of product pipes. During the pullback stage, the product pipe may be subjected to high loads that can be harmful to its structure and endanger the installation. This paper presents evaluations of pullback loads during large HDD installations. The calculations were carried out using the PRCI (Petroleum Research Council International) model, which is traditionally used by HDD designers for predicting pulling loads. The predictions were performed varying the pipe diameter from 10 inches to 40 inches and the pipeline length from 2000 m to 10000 m. The results showed that under the aspects of pipe load capacity and currently available equipment, pipelines larger than 20 inches diameter and 5000 m length are possible to be installed by HDD. (author)

  10. Improving recovery efficiency of water-drive channel sandstone reservoir by drilling wells laterally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiguo, F.; Quinglong, D.; Pingshi, Z.; Bingyu, J.; Weigang, L. [Research Institute of Exploration and Development, Daqing (China)

    1998-12-31

    Example of drilling a horizontal well in reservoir rock of only four meter thick by using existing casing pipe of low efficiency vertical wells to induce production in the top remaining reservoir is described. The experience shows that drilling horizontal wells laterally in thin bodies of sandstone reservoirs and improve their productivity is a feasible proposition. Productivity will still be low, but it can be improved by well stimulation. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Non-linear analytical solutions for laterally loaded sandwich plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This work focuses on the response of orthotropic sandwich composite plates with large deflections due to high lateral loads. The results have special application to the design of ship structures. A geometrical nonlinear theory is outlined, on the basis of the classical sandwich plate theory...... of sandwich plates subjected to high lateral loading. (C) 1997 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service...

  13. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette;

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  14. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The monopod bucket foundation can be a cost-reducing sub-structure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the turbine operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper a 1g testing rig is adopted to extend the knowled...

  15. Monopod Bucket Foundations Under Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The monopod bucket foundation has the potential to become a cost-reducing substructure for offshore wind turbines. To avoid problems during the energy converter operation, the long-term effect of cyclic loading must be considered in the design of the foundation. In this paper, a 1-g testing rig i...

  16. Laterally cyclic loading of monopile in dense sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole; Svensson, M.

    2011-01-01

    the loading conditions. In these tests the load conditions are controlled by two load characteristics, one controlling the level of the cyclic loading and one controlling the characteristic of the cyclic loading. The centrifuge tests were performed in dense dry sand on a pile with prototype dimensions......In order to investigate the response from laterally cyclic loading of monopiles a large centrifuge tests series is ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This paper will present some of the tests carried out with a focus on the influence of accumulation of rotation when changing...

  17. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  18. Laterally cyclic loading of monopile in dense sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Hededal, Ole; Svensson, M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the response from laterally cyclic loading of monopiles a large centrifuge tests series is ongoing at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). This paper will present some of the tests carried out with a focus on the influence of accumulation of rotation when changing...... the loading conditions. In these tests the load conditions are controlled by two load characteristics, one controlling the level of the cyclic loading and one controlling the characteristic of the cyclic loading. The centrifuge tests were performed in dense dry sand on a pile with prototype dimensions...... used for wind turbine foundation. This is important in order to get the right failure mechanism in the sand. The load frame is controlled with a feedback system which enables force controlled load series. A total number of 8 tests have been carried. In all of the tests, the pile was loaded with 500...

  19. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response of...

  20. A Preliminary Study on Bucket Foundations under Transient Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Søren Kjær;

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the behaviour of monopod bucket foundations through a physical model. The foundation is installed in dense water-saturated sand and is subjected to lateral load applied at different rates. The different loading rates allow for exploring the patterns of response...... of bucket foundations in different drainage conditions. Particular focus is given to the rapid loading response of the foundation (simulating a 50 year wave or emergency stop of a wind turbine). Important knowledge on the pore pressure development within and around the foundation during loading is achieved....

  1. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that......Small-scale tests have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank...... such that it was possible to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. Hereby, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests has been avoided. A scaling law for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The novel testing method has been validated against...

  2. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible...... to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...

  3. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2015-01-01

    to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...

  4. Response of monopiles under cyclic lateral loading in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    Currently the main design guidelines propose to reduce the lateral resistance of offshore piles when accounting for cyclic loading. The present work provides results from laboratory tests in which such reduction has not occurred. The experimental investigation is based on testing a small-scale mo...

  5. Centrifuge modelling of a laterally cyclic loaded pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Leth, Caspar Thrane; Hededal, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A total number of 9 static and 6 cyclic centrifuge tests on laterally loaded piles in very dense, dry sand was erformed. The prototype dimensions of the piles were 1 meter in diameter and penetration depths varying from 6 to 10 meters. The static tests were used to investigate the initial subgrade...... reaction modulus and as a reference for cyclic tests. For the cyclic tests the accumulation of deflections and the change in secant stiffness of the soil from repetitive loading were investigated. From all the tests carried out accumulations of deflections were seen. rom the centrifuge tests it was seen...

  6. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    of up-to-date facilities has been: Equipment for controlling centrifuge tests, data acquisition, preparation of test samples and equipment for and making of lateral load tests. The present research has been narrowed to investigate the static and cyclic behaviour of stiff piles with a diameter of 1-3 m...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles....... Comparison of the different approaches shows some discrepancy and conflicting statements, but the main findings can be summarized as: • The standard p-y curves are inadequate to describe the behaviour of lateral loaded large diameter rigid piles. • Initial stiffness of the p-y curves is depended...

  7. Accelerometer Load Profiles for Basketball-Specific Drills in Elite Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavi Schelling, Lorena Torres

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the workload during basketball-specific drills measured through microtechnology. Twelve professional male basketball players from the Spanish 1st Division were monitored over a 4-week period. Data were collected from 16 sessions, for a total of 95 ± 33 drills per player. Workload data (Acceleration load; AL were obtained from a tri-axial accelerometer at 100Hz sampling frequency, and were expressed over time (AL.min-1. Comparisons among training drills (i.e., 2v2, 3v3, 4v4, and 5v5 were assessed via standardized mean differences. Full-court 3v3 and 5v5 showed the highest physical demand (AL.min-1: 18.7 ± 4.1 and 17.9 ± 4.6, respectively compared with other traditional balanced basketball drills such as 2v2 and 4v4 (14.6 ± 2.8 and 13.8±2.5, respectively. The AL.min-1 on half-court showed trivial-to-moderate differences with a likely increase of ~10-20% in 2v2 drill compared with any other formats. This study provides insight into the specific requirements of a range of exercises typically performed in basketball sessions. The use of accelerometer data is presented as a useful tool in assessing the workload.

  8. Study on Interferences Problems Between Rock Drilling and Loading of ZZ2-8/100 Drilling and Loading Machine%ZZ2-8/100型钻装机凿岩与耙装干涉问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱利民

    2012-01-01

    针对ZZ2-8/100型钻装机凿岩和耙装时相互干涉的情况,通过对左右钻臂和耙臂运动轨迹的分析计算,绘制出双臂凿岩范围和耙臂的耙装区域范围,找出了左右钻臂同时工作时的干涉区域和钻装机凿岩时的纯干涉区域,并以大宝鼎矿+1220m南翼运输大巷断面炮眼布置范围为例,根据钻臂最小位移原则和循环移位方法规划出了最佳凿岩孔序,解决了双臂干涉问题、纯干涉问题和耙装干涉问题,为后续钻装机的工业应用提供参考。%According to the mutual interference between the rock drilling and rock loading of ZZ2-8/100 mode drilling and loading ma- chine, with the analysis and calculation on the movement tracing of the left and right drilling booms and the loading booms, the double boom rock drilling range and the loading area range of the rake boom were drawn. The interference area of the left and right drilling booms while the operations conducted simultaneously and the interference area of the drilling and loading machine in rock drilling operation were found. Taking the cross section blasting borebole pattern range of + 1 220 m south wing transportation roadway in Dabaoding Mine as an example, according to the min displacement principle and the circulated displacement method of the drilling boom, the optimized rock drilling borehole sequence was planned. Thus the double booms interference problem, plain interference problem and rake loading inter- ference problem were solved, which could provide the references to the industrial applications of the later drilling and loading machine.

  9. Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of the p -y curves used in the current practice for the design of rigid pile foundations with large diameter, like in the case of monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines, has been widely questioned. The current study aims at analyzing the lateral behavior of rigid piles, while...... taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...

  10. Numerical modeling of centrifuge cyclic lateral pile load experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nikos Gerolymos; Sandra Escoffer; George Gazetas; Jacques Gamier

    2009-01-01

    To gain insight into the inelastic behavior of piles, the response of a vertical pile embedded in dry sand and subjected to cyclic lateral loading was studied experimentally in centrifuge tests conducted in Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussees. Three types of cyclic loading were applied, two asymmetric and one symmetric with respect to the unloaded pile. An approximately square-root variation of soil stiffness with depth was obtained from indirect in-flight density measurements, laboratory tests on reconstituted samples, and well-established empirical correlations. The tests were simulated using a cyclic nonlinear Winkler spring model, which describes the full range of inelastic phenomena, including separation and re-attachment of the pile from and to the soil. The model consists of three mathematical expressions capable of reproducing a wide variety of monotonic and cyclic experimental p-y curves. The physical meaning of key model parameters is graphically explained and related to soil behavior. Comparisons with the centrifuge test results demonstrate the general validity of the model and its ability to capture several features of pile-soil interaction, including: soil plastification at an early stage of loading, "pinching" behavior due to the formation of a relaxation zone around the upper part of the pile, and stiffness and strength changes due to cyclic loading. A comparison of the p-y curves derived from the test results and the proposed model, as well as those from the classical curves of Reese et al. (1974) for sand, is also presented.

  11. Effects of solids loading on drag reduction in polymeric drilling fluids through straight and coiled tubings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, S.N.; Tareen, M. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Clark, D. [Baker Hughes INTEQ, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    The effects of solids loading on drag reduction characteristics of commonly used polymeric drilling fluid flowing through straight and coiled tubing was studied. Energy is wasted to friction losses when fluids flow through pipes, whether it be for crude oil transportation, drilling, hydraulic fracturing or gas injection. This is seen in the form of pressure drop along the pipe. This is remedied by adding polymers to the fluid stream to help reduce pressure losses. In this study, polymeric fluids flowing through straight pipe without solids were first examined. The polymers investigated were partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) and polysaccharide gum (XCD). They were dissolved in brines which were prepared by mixing potassium chloride and sodium formate in water. The fluid system which provided the least resistance to the flow was then determined and the study was extended by increasing solids and determining the effects on the flow of the polymeric fluid through straight and coiled tubing. The PHPA/potassium chloride solution was selected for this study because it exhibited the best drag resistance. The solution was then loaded with barite and bentonite to simulate solid cuttings. It was observed that when clear polymeric solutions were loaded with solids, drag reduction decreased significantly. The effect of curvature on the flow of solid-laden fluids was also studied. Frictional losses in coiled tubing was found to be nearly doubled that of straight tubing. 15 refs., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Analysis and Testing of Load Characteristics for Rotary-Percussive Drilling of Lunar Rock Simulant with a Lunar Regolith Coring Bit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on an optimized lunar regolith coring bit (LRCB configuration, the load characteristics of rotary-percussive drilling of lunar rock simulant in a laboratory environment are analyzed to determine the effects of the drilling parameters (the rotational velocity, the penetration rate, and the percussion frequency on the drilling load. The process of rotary drilling into lunar rock using an LRCB is modeled as an interaction between an elemental blade and the rock. The rock’s fracture mechanism during different stages of the percussive mechanism is analyzed to create a load forecasting model for the cutting and percussive fracturing of rock using an elemental blade. Finally, a model of the load on the LRCB is obtained from the analytic equation for the bit’s cutting blade distribution; experimental verification of the rotary-impact load characteristics for lunar rock simulant with different parameters is performed. The results show that the penetrations per revolution (PPR are the primary parameter influencing the drilling load. When the PPR are fixed, increasing the percussion frequency reduces the drilling load on the rock. Additionally, the variation pattern of the drilling load of the bit is in agreement with that predicted by the theoretical model. This provides a research basis for subsequent optimization of the drilling procedure and online recognition of the drilling process.

  13. Experimental Setup for Cyclic Lateral Loading of Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    2012-01-01

    The majority of all offshore wind turbines are installed on monopiles, i.e. large diameter stiff piles. During the environmental loading of the wind turbine the monopile is subjected to millions of load cycles which might cause an accumulated rotation of the wind turbine. In this paper the influe...

  14. Effect of relative pile’s stiffness on lateral pile response under loading of large eccentricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole; Klinkvort, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    of the relative pile’s stiffness, when it is subjected to lateral load of large eccentricity. Employing centrifuge experiments, a hollow steel pile well instrumented with strain gauge pairs has been subjected to lateral load. The bending moment distribution of the model pile embedded in uniform, dense, dry sand...

  15. Influence of axial load on the lateral pile groups response in cohesionless and cohesive soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jasim M. ABBASA[1; Zamri CHIK[2; Mohd Raihan TAHA[2

    2015-01-01

    The lateral response of single and group of piles under simultaneous vertical and lateral loads has been analyzed using a 3D finite element approach. The response in this assessment considered lateral pile displacement and lateral soil resistance and corresponding p-y curve. As a result, modified p-y curves for lateral single pile response were improved with respect to the influence of increasing axial load intensities. The improved plots can be used for lateral loaded pile design and to produce the group action design p-multiplier curves and equations. The effect of load combination on the lateral pile group response was performed on three pile group configurations (i.e., 2 × 1, 2 × 2 and 3 × 2) with four pile spacings (i.e., s = 2D, 4D, 6D and 8D). As a result, design curves were developed and applied on the actual case studies and similar expected cases for assessment of pile group behavior using improved p-multiplier. A design equation was derived from predicted design curves to be used in the evaluation of the lateral pile group action taking into account the effect of axial load intensities. It was found that the group interaction effect led to reduced lateral resistance for the pile in the group relative to that for the single pile in case of pure lateral load. While, in case of simultaneous combined loads, large axial load intensities (i.e., more than 6H, where H is lateral load values) will have an increase inp-multiplier by approximately 100% and will consequently contribute to greater group piles capacities.

  16. Influence Of Lateral Load Distributions On Pushover Analysis Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colajanni, P.; Potenzone, B.

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of two simple load distributions for pushover analysis recently proposed by the authors is investigated through a comparative study, involving static and dynamic analyses of seismic response of eccentrically braced frames. It is shown that in the upper floors only multimodal pushover procedures provide results close to the dynamic profile, while the proposed load patterns are always conservative in the lower floors. They over-estimate the seismic response less than the uniform distribution, representing a reliable alternative to the uniform or more sophisticated adaptive procedures proposed by seismic codes.

  17. Drained Response of Bucket Foundations under Cyclic Lateral Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The monopod bucket foundation is an innovative support structure for offshore wind turbines. It consists of a shallow embedded foundation which penetrates the seabed by means of a suction created within the caisson. The behaviour of bucket foundations against long-term lateral cyclic...

  18. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    of small-scale laboratory tests. Six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40mm and 100mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. To minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at various stress levels. From the obtained load-deflection relationships...... shows that small-scale tests applied with overburden pressure are preferable....

  19. Comparative Performance of Octagrid and Hexagrid Lateral Load Resisting Systems For Tall Building Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Raghu Prasad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction of high rise structure is quite common in this era. There are a number of high rise structures constructed all over the world and are being constructed. The analysis and design of high rise structure is quite different from that of low rise structures because of lateral forces due to wind and earthquake. In high rise structures the resistance to lateral loading (wind and earthquake loads will be the dominant criteria that have to be considered in the analysis and design and an efficient lateral load resisting system will define the efficiency of tall structures. In the present paper it is aimed to study different lateral load resisting systems like octagrid and hexagrid bracing systems for tall building. Not much information is available in the literature on such systems. It is intended to study such lateral load resisting systems. The two types of bracing systems including octagrid and hexagrid bracings are modeled and analyzed. Behavior under lateral loads of hexagrid and octagridsystem is compared with that and the commonly employed shear wall systems. The key parameter for comparision is the top story displacement under wind and seismic loading, the maximum storey drift ratio and also quantity of concrete consumed. It is found that the hexagrid and octagrid systems are best with respect to the above parameter. Although there is a marginal increase in the quantity of concrete consumed.

  20. Lateral Load Analysis of a Building with & Without Knee Bracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin S. Kamble

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In last decades steel structures has played an important role in construction industry. Providing strength, stability and ductility are major purposes of seismic design. It is necessary to design a structure to perform well under seismic loads. Steel braced frame is one of the structural systems used to resist earthquake loads in structures. Steel bracing is economical, easy to erect, occupies less space and has flexibility to design for meeting the required strength and stiffness. Bracing can be used as retrofit as well. There are various types of steel bracings such as Diagonal, X, K, V, inverted V type or chevron and global type concentric bracings. In the present study, it was shown that modelling of the G+4 steel bare frame with various bracings (X, V, inverted V, and Knee bracing by computer software SAP2000 and pushover analysis results are obtained. Comparison between the seismic parameters such as base shear, roof displacement, time period, storey drift, performance point for steel bare frame with different bracing patterns are studied. It is found that the X type of steel bracings significantly contributes to the structural stiffness and reduces the maximum interstate drift of steel building than other bracing systems

  1. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    in dry sand by use of centrifuge modelling and to compare the findings with the standard p-y curves. It has been chosen to apply piles with an embedment length of 6 to 10 times the diameter of the applied piles. The general static behaviour of monopiles in dry sand has based on centrifuge tests been...... in sand by use of physical modelling and comparison of the findings with standard p-y curves. The present research is based on use of the centrifuge facilities at Danish Technical University (DTU), the sole geotechnical centrifuge in Scandinavia. It became evident in the initial phase of the research...... that the available centrifuge facilities at DTU was outdated and the focus was changed to establish up-to-date centrifuge facilities for medium to large diameter piles, and to initiate the research on the behaviour of large diameter piles in sand under static and cyclic loading. Key elements in the establishment...

  2. Comparative analysis of nanomechanics of protein filaments under lateral loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar, Max; Buehler, Markus J.

    2012-02-01

    Using a combination of explicit solvent atomistic simulation and continuum theory, here we study the lateral deformation mechanics of three distinct protein structures: an amyloid fibril, a beta helix, and an alpha helix. We find that the two β-sheet rich structures - amyloid fibril and beta helix, with persistence lengths on the order of μm - are well described by continuum mechanical theory, but differ in the degree to which shear deformation affects the overall bending behavior. The alpha helical protein structure, however, with a persistence length on the order of one nanometer, does not conform to the continuum theory and its deformation is dominated by entropic elasticity due to significant fluctuations. This study provides fundamental insight into the nanomechanics of widely found protein motifs and insight into molecular-scale deformation mechanisms, as well as quantitative estimates of Young's modulus and shear modulus in agreement with experimental results.

  3. The behaviour of the stiff monopile foundation subjected to the lateral loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    The article focuses on the analysis of a large-diameter monopile foundation for offshore wind turbine based on the numerical model results. The case describes the behaviour of a monopile in sand subjected to a lateral loading conditions. The effects of the pile diameter, the length and the load e...

  4. Plastic Deformation of Metal Tubes Subjected to Lateral Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kejian Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When subjected to the dynamic load, the behavior of the structures is complex and makes it difficult to describe the process of the deformation. In the paper, an analytical model is presented to analyze the plastic deformation of the steel circular tubes. The aim of the research is to calculate the deflection and the deformation angle of the tubes. A series of assumptions are made to achieve the objective. During the research, we build a mathematical model for simply supported thin-walled metal tubes with finite length. At a specified distance above the tube, a TNT charge explodes and generates a plastic shock wave. The wave can be seen as uniformly distributed over the upper semicircle of the cross-section. The simplified Tresca yield domain can be used to describe the plastic flow of the circular tube. The yield domain together with the plastic flow law and other assumptions can finally lead to the solving of the deflection. In the end, tubes with different dimensions subjected to blast wave induced by the TNT charge are observed in experiments. Comparison shows that the numerical results agree well with experiment observations.

  5. FFTF report: drilled-in expansion bolts under static and alternating load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, H.S.

    1976-10-01

    The objective of this investigation was to establish the allowable design loads (tension, shear, and combined load) for expansion bolts to be installed in regular 4000 psi mix concrete, Magnetite 5000 psi mix concrete, and Steel Shot 5000 psi mix concrete at the Fast Flux Test Facility. The test loads included Static Loads and Alternating Loads which simulate the dynamic loads of vibratory equipment and dynamic earthquake loads.

  6. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  7. An Analytical Solution for Lateral Buckling Critical Load Calculation of Leaning-Type Arch Bridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-rong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution for lateral buckling critical load of leaning-type arch bridge was presented in this paper. New tangential and radial buckling models of the transverse brace between the main and stable arch ribs are established. Based on the Ritz method, the analytical solution for lateral buckling critical load of the leaning-type arch bridge with different central angles of main arch ribs and leaning arch ribs under different boundary conditions is derived for the first time. Comparison between the analytical results and the FEM calculated results shows that the analytical solution presented in this paper is sufficiently accurate. The parametric analysis results show that the lateral buckling critical load of the arch bridge with fixed boundary conditions is about 1.14 to 1.16 times as large as that of the arch bridge with hinged boundary condition. The lateral buckling critical load increases by approximately 31.5% to 41.2% when stable arch ribs are added, and the critical load increases as the inclined angle of stable arch rib increases. The differences in the center angles of the main arch rib and the stable arch rib have little effect on the lateral buckling critical load.

  8. Laboratory testing of cyclic laterally loaded pile in cohesionless soil. [MONOPILES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Mette; Kirk Wolf, T. [COWI, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Lange Rasmussen, K. [Niras, Aalborg (Denmark); Ravn Roesen, H.; Ibsen, L.B. [Aalborg Univ.. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    Offshore wind turbines are placed in a rough environment, subjected to variable lateral loads, mostly from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the soil-pile system which is critical in the serviceability limit state. The accumulated rotation due to long-term lateral loading is therefore a current issue of interest as today's design guidances have little knowledge in this area. The cost of large-scale testing is extensive which make small-scale testing desirable as a tool for describing the behaviour of a soil-pile system subjected to lateral load. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test pile has a diameter of 100 mm and is 600 mm high, making the slenderness ratio 6, which resembles the ratio of offshore wind turbines today. The test pile is placed in saturated dense sand. A monotonic test is conducted to define the ultimate lateral capacity. Afterwards a cyclic test is conducted to investigate the accumulation of rotation when the pile is subjected to cyclic lateral load. Force and displacement during both tests are recorded to determine the deformation of the pile. Comparing the responses of the monotonic and the cyclic test, the cyclic test shows a stiffer response. During the cyclic test, the rotation of the pile accumulates with decreasing rotation increments. However, no stabilised situation occurs. The measured data is compared to theories on degradation, agreeing that the accumulated rotation as an estimate can be express by both a logarithmic and exponential expression. Comparing the results from the cyclic test with results from other recent small-scale tests shows agreement in the accumulation of rotation with decreasing rotation increments with no stabilising situation. (Author)

  9. Effect of Axial Pre-Compression on Lateral Performance of Masonry Under Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed HassanFarooq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Strengthening of masonry against seismic events is very essential and getting maximum attention of researchers around the globe. An extensive experimental program was carried out to study the in-plane lateral performance of un-reinforced masonry, strengthened and retrofitted masonry wall panels under lateral cyclic loading. Twenty tests were carried out; four tests under monotonic lateral loading, twelve tests under static cyclic loading and four tests under pure compression. The test results were analyzed in five groups and this paper presents the analysis of group 4, which deals with effect of axial pre-compression on masonry seismic performance. Three single leaf panels with aspect ratio of 0.67 having size 1.65x1.1m were constructed using same material and workmanship. All the three un-reinforced walls were tested under 0, 0.5 and 1.0MPa vertical pre-compression and displacement controlled static cyclic loading. The wall tested under 0.5MPa pre-compression was reference specimen. The key parameters studied were hysterics behavior, peak lateral load, ultimate lateral displacement, energy dissipation, ductility, response factor and damping ratio. It was observed that level of axial pre-compression has significant effect on lateral capacity, failure mode and performance of masonry. In case of zero pre-compression the lateral capacity was very less and wall went into rocking failure at early stages of loading. Increase in pre-compression to 1.0MPa enhanced the lateral capacity by a factor of 1.92 times. After analysis of test results, it is found that pre-compression has significant effect on lateral capacity, failure mode and performance of masonry. In case of zero pre-compression the lateral capacity was very less and wall went into rocking failure at early stages of loading. Increase in pre-compression to 1.0MPa enhanced the lateral capacity by a factor of 1.92 times. After analysis of test results, it is found that pre-compression has very

  10. A stochastic load model for pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    between limited and excessive lateral vibrations occurs for a small increase in the number of people occupying the bridge. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration amplitude is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing......). It was shown that large amplitude vibrations are the result of correlated pedestrian forces in the form of “negative damping”, with magnitudes that depend on the relationship between the pacing frequency and the frequency of the lateral movement.Herewith, a novel stochastic load model for the frequency......In the past decade, several researchers have studied the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations and full-scale measurements of various bridges under crowd loading have been carried out. These tests have verified the existence of a form of instability for which a transition...

  11. Effect of Number of Players and Maturity on Ball-Drills Training Load in Youth Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Conte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the basketball ball-drills workload analyzing: (1 the effect of varying the number of players involved on physiological and technical demands; (2 the temporal changes in players’ responses across bouts; and (3 the relationship of players’ workload with their maturation status and training age. Twelve young male basketball players (mean ± SD; age 13.9 ± 0.7 years; height 1.76 ± 0.06 m; body mass 65.7 ± 12.5 kg; HRmax 202 ± 8 beat·min−1 completed three bouts of 4 min interspersed by 2 min of passive recovery of two vs. two and four vs. four ball-drills. The mean percentage of HRmax (%HRmax and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE were collected. Technical actions (TAs (dribbles, passes, shots, interceptions, steals, rebounds, and turnovers were calculated through notational analysis. Players’ genitalia development (GD and pubic hair (PH growth were assessed using Tanner scale. Results showed a higher %HRmax (p = 0.018, RPE (p = 0.042, dribbles (p = 0.007, shots (p = 0.003, and rebounds (p = 0.006 in two vs. two compared to four vs. four condition. Furthermore, a statistical difference was found for %HRmax (p = 0.005 and number of passes (p = 0.020 between bouts. In addition, no correlation between GD, PH, and training age with %HRmax, RPE, and TAs was found. These findings suggest that variations of the number of players involved affect ball-drills workload and that ball-drills training intensity varies across bouts. Finally, ball-drills elicit an adequate training stimulus, regardless of players’ maturation status and training age.

  12. Behavior of Pile Group with Elevated Cap Subjected to Cyclic Lateral Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈云敏; 顾明; 陈仁朋; 孔令刚; 张浙杭; 边学成

    2015-01-01

    The pile group with elevated cap is widely used as foundation of offshore structures such as turbines, power transmission towers and bridge piers, and understanding its behavior under cyclic lateral loads induced by waves, tide water and winds, is of great importance to designing. A large-scale model test on 3×3 pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads was performed in saturated silts. The preparation and implementation of the test is presented. Steel pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm, thickness of 4.5 mm, and length of 6 m were employed as model piles. The pile group was cyclic loaded in a multi-stage sequence with the lateral displacement controlled. In addition, a single pile test was also conducted at the same site for comparison. The displacement of the pile cap, the internal forces of individual piles, and the horizontal stiffness of the pile group are presented and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the lateral cyclic loads have a greater impact on pile group than that on a single pile, and give rise to the significant plastic strain in the soil around piles. The lateral loads carried by each row of piles within the group would be redistributed with loading cycles. The lateral stiffness of the pile group decreases gradually with cycles and broadly presents three different degradation patterns in the test. Significant axial forces were measured out in some piles within the group, owing to the strong restraint provided by the cap, and finally lead to a large settlement of the pile group. These findings can be referred for foundation designing of offshore structures.

  13. Behavior of pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-min; Gu, Ming; Chen, Ren-peng; Kong, Ling-gang; Zhang, Zhe-hang; Bian, Xue-cheng

    2015-06-01

    The pile group with elevated cap is widely used as foundation of offshore structures such as turbines, power transmission towers and bridge piers, and understanding its behavior under cyclic lateral loads induced by waves, tide water and winds, is of great importance to designing. A large-scale model test on 3×3 pile group with elevated cap subjected to cyclic lateral loads was performed in saturated silts. The preparation and implementation of the test is presented. Steel pipes with the outer diameter of 114 mm, thickness of 4.5 mm, and length of 6 m were employed as model piles. The pile group was cyclic loaded in a multi-stage sequence with the lateral displacement controlled. In addition, a single pile test was also conducted at the same site for comparison. The displacement of the pile cap, the internal forces of individual piles, and the horizontal stiffness of the pile group are presented and discussed in detail. The results indicate that the lateral cyclic loads have a greater impact on pile group than that on a single pile, and give rise to the significant plastic strain in the soil around piles. The lateral loads carried by each row of piles within the group would be redistributed with loading cycles. The lateral stiffness of the pile group decreases gradually with cycles and broadly presents three different degradation patterns in the test. Significant axial forces were measured out in some piles within the group, owing to the strong restraint provided by the cap, and finally lead to a large settlement of the pile group. These findings can be referred for foundation designing of offshore structures.

  14. Behaviour of hybrid jute-glass/epoxy composite tubes subjected to lateral loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    Experimental work on hybrid and non-hybrid composite tubes subjected to lateral loading has been carried out using jute, glass and hybrid jute-glass/epoxy materials. Tubes of 200 mm length with 110 mm inner diameter were fabricated by hand lay-up method to investigate the effect of material used and the number of layers on lateral-load-displacement relations and on the failure mode. Crush force efficiency and the specific energy absorption of the composite tubes were calculated. Results show that the six layers glass/epoxy tubes supported load higher 10.6% than that of hybrid jute-glass/ epoxy made of two layers of jute/epoxy four layers of glass/epoxy. It has been found that the specific energy absorption of the glass/epoxy tubes is found higher respectively 11.6% and 46% than hybrid jute-glass/epoxy and jute/epoxy tubes. The increase in the number of layers from two to six increases the maximum lateral load from 0.53KN to 1.22 KN for jute/epoxy and from 1.35 KN to 3.87 KN for the glass/epoxy tubes. The stacking sequence of the hybrid tubes influenced on the maximum lateral load and the absorbed energy. The maximum load obtained for the six layers jute-glass/epoxy tubes of different staking sequence varies between 1.88 KN to 3.46 KN. Failure mechanisms of the laterally loaded composite tubes were also observed and discussed.

  15. Review of Laterally Loaded Monopiles Employed as the Foundation for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Brødbæk, Kristian Thoustrup; Møller, Martin;

    Monopiles are often used foundation concepts for offshore wind turbine converters. These piles are highly subjected to latereal loads and overturning moments due to wind and wave forces. Typically, monopiles with diameters of 4 to 6 m and embedded pile lenghts of 15 to 30 m are necessart. In curr......Monopiles are often used foundation concepts for offshore wind turbine converters. These piles are highly subjected to latereal loads and overturning moments due to wind and wave forces. Typically, monopiles with diameters of 4 to 6 m and embedded pile lenghts of 15 to 30 m are necessart...

  16. Simplified analytical model of penetration with lateral loading -- User`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, C.W.

    1998-05-01

    The SAMPLL (Simplified Analytical Model of Penetration with Lateral Loading) computer code was originally developed in 1984 to realistically yet economically predict penetrator/target interactions. Since the code`s inception, its use has spread throughout the conventional and nuclear penetrating weapons community. During the penetrator/target interaction, the resistance of the material being penetrated imparts both lateral and axial loads on the penetrator. These loads cause changes to the penetrator`s motion (kinematics). SAMPLL uses empirically based algorithms, formulated from an extensive experimental data base, to replicate the loads the penetrator experiences during penetration. The lateral loads resulting from angle of attack and trajectory angle of the penetrator are explicitly treated in SAMPLL. The loads are summed and the kinematics calculated at each time step. SAMPLL has been continually improved, and the current version, Version 6.0, can handle cratering and spall effects, multiple target layers, penetrator damage/failure, and complex penetrator shapes. Version 6 uses the latest empirical penetration equations, and also automatically adjusts the penetrability index for certain target layers to account for layer thickness and confinement. This report describes the SAMPLL code, including assumptions and limitations, and includes a user`s guide.

  17. A literature study on the effects of cyclic lateral loading of monopiles in cohesionless soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange Rasmussen, K. [Niras, Aalborg (Denmark); Hansen, Mette; Kirk Wolf, T. [COWI, Kgs. Lyngby, (Denmark); Ibsen, L.B.; Ravn Roesen, H. [Aalborg Univ.. Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2013-06-15

    Today, monopiles are the most typical foundation for offshore wind turbines. During their lifetime large diameter, stiff piles are subjected to millions of small cyclic loads due to environmental forces. The long-term cyclic loading can change the granular structure of the soil surrounding the pile. This may change the stiffness of the soil-pile system and create an accumulated rotation of the pile. The behaviour of the soil-pile system is very complex and the influence of soil parameters, number of load cycles, and size, amplitude and characteristic of the load are examined, as they all contribute to the rotation and the change in stiffness. The scope of this article is to outline current design methods and the state of the art knowledge within the subject of long-term cyclic, lateral loading of piles. (Author)

  18. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedging on knee loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    The increasing number of patients with developing osteoarthritis is accompanied by a growing scientific interest in non-operative early treatment strategies. It is generally believed that laterally wedged insoles can change the distribution of the knee loading, but the importance of footwear design......-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analyzed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full length laterally wedged insole. Results: Similar, significant reductions in the peak knee adduction moment with lateral...... wedges were observed in all three types of shoes. However, differences between shoe design were of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for lateral hamstrings during barefoot toe-out walking and gastrocnemius when using the Oxford wedged...

  19. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Bucket Foundations in Dense Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2011-01-01

    Monopod bucket foundations promise to become a reliable and cost-effective option for offshore wind turbine. In this paper, six small-scale tests of a steel bucket foundation subjected to quasi-static lateral load, are When conducting small-scale experiments on soil, scale effects can considerabl...

  20. Variation in Stiffness of Monopiles in Dense Sand Under Cyclic Lateral Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    The stiffness of the soil-foundation system is an important parameter that is taken into account in design. Recent studies of offshore wind turbines have shown that long-term cyclic lateral loading, induced by waves and wind, may lead to an increase in the foundation stiffness during the lifetime...

  1. Experimental Investigation and Fracture Mechanical Modelling of Debonded Sandwich Panels Loaded with Lateral Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolma, Perttu; Segercrantz, Sebastian; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    For the determination of debonded sandwich panel residual strength with lateral loading a parametric finite element model is developed. The parametric model allows an arbitrary positioning of the debond within the panel and consists of both solid and shell elements. A fracture mechanical approach...

  2. Field testing of stiffened deep cement mixing piles under lateral cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raongjant, Werasak; Jing, Meng

    2013-06-01

    Construction of seaside and underground wall bracing often uses stiffened deep cement mixed columns (SDCM). This research investigates methods used to improve the level of bearing capacity of these SDCM when subjected to cyclic lateral loading via various types of stiffer cores. Eight piles, two deep cement mixed piles and six stiffened deep cement mixing piles with three different types of cores, H shape cross section prestressed concrete, steel pipe, and H-beam steel, were embedded though soft clay into medium-hard clay on site in Thailand. Cyclic horizontal loading was gradually applied until pile failure and the hysteresis loops of lateral load vs. lateral deformation were recorded. The lateral carrying capacities of the SDCM piles with an H-beam steel core increased by 3-4 times that of the DCM piles. This field research clearly shows that using H-beam steel as a stiffer core for SDCM piles is the best method to improve its lateral carrying capacity, ductility and energy dissipation capacity.

  3. The effect of lateral eccentricity on failure loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions of the cervical spine in axial loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Toen, C; Melnyk, A D; Street, J; Oxland, T R; Cripton, P A

    2014-03-21

    Current neck injury criteria do not include limits for lateral bending combined with axial compression and this has been observed as a clinically relevant mechanism, particularly for rollover motor vehicle crashes. The primary objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of lateral eccentricity (the perpendicular distance from the axial force to the centre of the spine) on peak loads, kinematics, and spinal canal occlusions of subaxial cervical spine specimens tested in dynamic axial compression (0.5 m/s). Twelve 3-vertebra human cadaver cervical spine specimens were tested in two groups: low and high eccentricity with initial eccentricities of 1 and 150% of the lateral diameter of the vertebral body. Six-axis loads inferior to the specimen, kinematics of the superior-most vertebra, and spinal canal occlusions were measured. High speed video was collected and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used to define the time of injury. The effects of eccentricity on peak loads, kinematics, and canal occlusions were evaluated using unpaired Student t-tests. The high eccentricity group had lower peak axial forces (1544 ± 629 vs. 4296 ± 1693 N), inferior displacements (0.2 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 2.0 mm), and canal occlusions (27 ± 5 vs. 53 ± 15%) and higher peak ipsilateral bending moments (53 ± 17 vs. 3 ± 18 Nm), ipsilateral bending rotations (22 ± 3 vs. 1 ± 2°), and ipsilateral displacements (4.5 ± 1.4 vs. -1.0 ± 1.3 mm, pcervical spine injuries with lateral eccentricities. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The Material Behavior Of Plastered-Bamboo Wall Towards Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. R. Hutubessy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the lateral resistance capacity of the plastered-bamboo wall. The test was carried out on three pieces of plastered-bamboo wall. The first was plastered-bamboo wall without bracing (DP-TB, second was plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing (DP-BB, and the last is a plastered-bamboo wall which uses wiremesh bracing (DP-BK. The static load (monotonic test method was used to determine the correlation between the lateral resistance and the deflection of plastered-bamboo wall. The monotonic testing was only conducted until the load has experience 20% decrease from peak load. The test results showed that the plastered-bamboo wall using wiremesh bracing had the peak load capacity, energy dissipation, and higher ductility than the plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing. Elastic stiffness of the plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing was 1.27 greater than plastered-bamboo wall using wiremesh bracing. The ultimate load resulted from the experiment of the plastered-bamboo wall with either bamboo or additional wiremeshbracingwas 25.52 kN and 26.37 kN or two times greater than the results of an analysis of the flexural failure based on Subedi method (1991 which was 14.39 kN.

  5. The Material Behavior Of Plastered-Bamboo Wall Towards Lateral Loads

    OpenAIRE

    V. R. R. Hutubessy,; Hrc. Priyosulistyo

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the lateral resistance capacity of the plastered-bamboo wall. The test was carried out on three pieces of plastered-bamboo wall. The first was plastered-bamboo wall without bracing (DP-TB), second was plastered-bamboo wall using bamboo bracing (DP-BB), and the last is a plastered-bamboo wall which uses wiremesh bracing (DP-BK). The static load (monotonic) test method was used to determine the correlation between the lateral resistance and the deflection o...

  6. Experimental study on DX pile performance in frozen soils under lateral loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XiaoBing Liu; LiHong Chen; ZhongYang Yu; JianXiao Hu; Wen Peng

    2013-01-01

    Experiments about working mechanism and mechanical characteristics of the DX model pile foundation under lateral dynamic and static loading were conducted by using a model system of the dynamic frozen soil-pile interaction. The horizontal displacement-force relationship of the pile head and bending moment distribution along the body in frozen soils of different temperatures were discussed. According to test results, both the horizontal displacement-force relationship of the DX pile head and bending moment distribution of the DX pile body are smaller than that of equal-diameter piles under same lateral loads. The piles with different plate positions show different displacements and bending moments. This phenomenon is mainly related to the soil temperature and bearing plates locations. Thus, dynamic response analysis of the pile foundation should be taken into account.

  7. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    in sand subjected to lateral loading are analysed by means of small-scale laboratory tests. The six quasi-static tests are conducted on piles with diameters of 40 mm and 100 mm and a slenderness ratio, L/D, of 5. In order to minimise scale effects, the tests are carried out in a pressure tank at stress...... for different stress levels it is seen that small-scale tests with overburden pressure applied is preferable....

  8. Oblique Loading in Post Mortem Human Surrogates from Vehicle Lateral Impact Tests using Chestbands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A; Arun, Mike W J; Rhule, Heather; Rudd, Rodney; Craig, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    While numerous studies have been conducted to determine side impact responses of Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) using sled and other equipment, experiments using the biological surrogate in modern full-scale vehicles are not available. The present study investigated the presence of oblique loading in moving deformable barrier and pole tests. Threepoint belt restrained PMHS were positioned in the left front and left rear seats in the former and left front seat in the latter condition and tested according to consumer testing protocols. Three chestbands were used in each specimen (upper, middle and lower thorax). Accelerometers were secured to the skull, shoulder, upper, middle and lower thoracic vertebrae, sternum, and sacrum. Chestband signals were processed to determine magnitudes and angulations of peak deflections. The magnitude and timing of various signal peaks are given. Vehicle accelerations, door velocities, and seat belt loads are also given. Analysis of deformation contours, peak deflections, and angulations indicated that the left rear seated specimen were exposed to anterior oblique loading while left front specimens in both tests sustained essentially pure lateral loading to the torso. These data can be used to validate human body computational models. The occurrence of oblique loading in full-scale testing, hitherto unrecognized, may serve to stimulate the exploration of its role in injuries to the thorax and lower extremities in modern vehicles. It may be important to continue research in this area because injury metrics have a lower threshold for angled loading.

  9. Sands subjected to repetitive vertical loading under zero lateral strain: accumulation models, terminal densities, and settlement

    KAUST Repository

    Chong, Song Hun

    2016-08-09

    Geosystems often experience numerous loading cycles. Plastic strain accumulation during repetitive mechanical loads can lead to shear shakedown or continued shear ratcheting; in all cases, volumetric strains diminish as the specimen evolves towards terminal density. Previously suggested models and new functions are identified to fit plastic strain accumulation data. All accumulation models are formulated to capture terminal density (volumetric strain) and either shakedown or ratcheting (shear strain). Repetitive vertical loading tests under zero lateral strain conditions are conducted using three different sands packed at initially low and high densities. Test results show that plastic strain accumulation for all sands and density conditions can be captured in the same dimensionless plot defined in terms of the initial relative density, terminal density, and ratio between the amplitude of the repetitive load and the initial static load. This observation allows us to advance a simple but robust procedure to estimate the maximum one-dimensional settlement that a foundation could experience if subjected to repetitive loads. © 2016, Canadian Science Publishing. All rights reserved.

  10. Preliminary Study on the Damping Effect of a Lateral Damping Buffer under a Debris Flow Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simulating the impact of debris flows on structures and exploring the feasibility of applying energy dissipation devices or shock isolators to reduce the damage caused by debris flows can make great contribution to the design of disaster prevention structures. In this paper, we propose a new type of device, a lateral damping buffer, to reduce the vulnerability of building structures to debris flows. This lateral damping buffer has two mechanisms of damage mitigation: when debris flows impact on a building, it acts as a buffer, and when the structure vibrates due to the impact, it acts as a shock absorber, which can reduce the maximum acceleration response and subsequent vibration respectively. To study the effectiveness of such a lateral damping buffer, an impact test is conducted, which mainly involves a lateral damping buffer attached to a two-degree-of-freedom structure under a simulated debris flow load. To enable the numerical study, the equation of motion of the structure along with the lateral damping buffer is derived. A subsequent parametric study is performed to optimize the lateral damping buffer. Finally, a practical design procedure is also provided.

  11. Hybrid Reinforced Concrete Frame Building with Pumice Brick Masonry Infill under Static Lateral Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaluddin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the behaviour of hybrid reinforced concrete frame with pumice brick masonry infill under static lateral loading. The term hybrid herein is referred to the frame composed of precast block masonry unit and cast in-place reinforced concrete beams. Parameters considered in this study were frame opening representing doors and windows commonly used in the wall system. Six types of frame namely FS, FB, FDE, FDC, FWE and FWC designation for solid frame, bare frame, frame with door opening at edge, frame with door opening at centre, frame with window opening at edge and frame with window opening at centre respectively were considered. Test results indicated that the FS has a maximum lateral strength greater than that of FB. The lateral strength of FS was about 3.68 of FB. The frames with various openings have lateral strength nearly 2.3 of lateral strength of the bare frame, FB. Ductility factor of the frames varied from 2.4 to 4.92. The residual strength of the frame with openings were varies between 2.33 and 3.35 of the bare frame. The stiffness of the infilled frames with opening were varied from 3.56 to 3.67 of the bare frame. The presence of openings in the infilled frame did not affect the frame stiffness considerably.

  12. Analysis of the Elastic Large Deflection Behavior for Metal Plates under Nonuniformly Distributed Lateral Pressure with In-Plane Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeom Kee Paik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Galerkin method is applied to analyze the elastic large deflection behavior of metal plates subject to a combination of in-plane loads such as biaxial loads, edge shear and biaxial inplane bending moments, and uniformly or nonuniformly distributed lateral pressure loads. The motive of the present study was initiated by the fact that metal plates of ships and ship-shaped offshore structures at sea are often subjected to non-uniformly distributed lateral pressure loads arising from cargo or water pressure, together with inplane axial loads or inplane bending moments, but the current practice of the maritime industry usually applies some simplified design methods assuming that the non-uniform pressure distribution in the plates can be replaced by an equivalence of uniform pressure distribution. Applied examples are presented, demonstrating that the current plate design methods of the maritime industry may be inappropriate when the non-uniformity of lateral pressure loads becomes more significant.

  13. Experimental and analytical investigation of the lateral load response of confined masonry walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Okail

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the behavior of confined masonry walls subjected to lateral loads. Six full-scale wall assembles, consisting of a clay masonry panel, two confining columns and a tie beam, were tested under a combination of vertical load and monotonic pushover up to failure. Wall panels had various configurations, namely, solid and perforated walls with window and door openings, variable longitudinal and transverse reinforcement ratios for the confining elements and different brick types, namely, cored clay and solid concrete masonry units. Key experimental results showed that the walls in general experienced a shear failure at the end of the lightly reinforced confining elements after the failure of the diagonal struts formed in the brick wall due to transversal diagonal tension. Stepped bed joint cracks formed in the masonry panel either diagonally or around the perforations. A numerical model was built using the finite element method and was validated in light of the experimental results. The model showed acceptable correlation and was used to conduct a thorough parametric study on various design configurations. The conducted parametric study involved the assessment of the load/displacement response for walls with different aspect ratios, axial load ratios, number of confining elements as well as the size and orientation of perforations. It was found that the strength of the bricks and the number of confining elements play a significant role in increasing the walls’ ultimate resistance and displacement ductility.

  14. Effects of two different degrees of lateral-wedge insoles on unilateral lower extremity load-bearing line in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Yılmaz

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Both wedge insoles was effective in moving of the unilateral lower extremity load carrying line to the lateral. Lateral wedged insoles are biomechanically effective and reduce loading of the medial compartment in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

  15. Lateral erosion in an experimental bedrock channel: The influence of bed roughness on erosion by bed load impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Theodore K.; Gran, Karen B.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Paola, Chris

    2016-05-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of bed load particle impacts as a mechanism of lateral bedrock erosion. In addition, we explored how changes in channel bed roughness, as would occur during development of an alluvial cover, influence rates of lateral erosion. Experimental channels were constructed to have erodible walls and a nonerodible bed using different mixtures of sand and cement. Bed roughness was varied along the length of the channel by embedding sediment particles of different size in the channel bed mixture. Lateral wall erosion from clear-water flow was negligible. Lateral erosion during periods in which bed load was supplied to the channel removed as much as 3% of the initial wetted cross-sectional area. The vertical distribution of erosion was limited to the base of the channel wall, producing channels with undercut banks. The addition of roughness elements to an otherwise smooth bed caused rates of lateral erosion to increase by as much as a factor of 7 during periods of bed load supply. However, a minimum roughness element diameter of approximately half the median bed load particle diameter was required before a substantial increase in erosion was observed. Beyond this minimum threshold size, further increases in the relative size of roughness elements did not substantially change the rate of wall erosion despite changes in total boundary shear stress. The deflection of saltating bed load particles into the channel wall by fixed roughness elements is hypothesized to be the driver of the observed increase in lateral erosion rates.

  16. Centrifuge modelling of large diameter pile in sand subject to lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    Large-diameter (4 to 6 m) rigid monopiles are often used as foundations for offshore wind turbines. The monopiles are subjected to large horizontal forces and overturning moments and they are traditionally designed based on the p-y curve method. The p-y curves recommended in offshore design...... and cyclic behaviour of large diameter rigid piles in dry sand by use of physical modelling. The physical modelling has been carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Danish Technical University (DTU.BYG), in the period from 2005 to 2009. The main centrifuge facilities, and especially...... the equipment for lateral load tests were at the start of the research in 2005 outdated and a major part of the work with the geotechnical centrifuge included renovation and upgrading of the facilities. The research with respect to testing of large diameter piles included:  Construction of equipment...

  17. Finite Element Analysis of Laterally Loaded Suction Caisson in Anisotropic Clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; JIN Xia

    2006-01-01

    Naturally deposited clay is usually characterized by strength anisotropy; however, the effect of anisotropy on the capacity of a suction caisson was seldom investigated. The conventional Hill yield surface includes undrained strengths in triaxial shear, simple shear and pressuremeter shear simultaneously but it can not specify differences in respect to the mode of loading for a given shearing mode. A new technique of updating strength is integrated into incremental finite element (FE) calculation to consider the mode of loading, which is applied to the study of variation of capacity with the aspect ratio of suction caissons in anisotropic clay. Compared with the upper bound limit analysis, FE simulation is capable of offering the lateral capacity of short caissons. In the normal range of anisotropic strength properties, the Mises yield surface with simple shear strength predicts the horizontal capacity of which the error is less than 10% for rough caissons and 15% for smooth caissons. It is also found that the friction of caisson affects the capacity significantly.

  18. Comminuted supracondylar femoral fractures: a biomechanical analysis comparing the stability of medial versus lateral plating in axial loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Briffa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and lateral plating of a medially comminuted supracondylar femoral fracture. A supracondylar femoral fracture model comparing two fixation methods was tested cyclically in axial loading. One-centimetre supracondylar gap osteotomies were created in six synthetic femurs approximately 6 cm proximal to the knee joint. There were two constructs investigated: group 1 and group 2 were stabilized with an 8-hole LC-DCP, medially and laterally, respectively. Both construct groups were axially loaded. Global displacement (total length, wedge displacement, bending moment and strain were measured. Medial plating showed a significantly decreased displacement, bending moment and strain at the fracture site in axial loading. Medial plating of a comminuted supracondylar femur fracture is more stable than lateral plating.

  19. Influence of Lateral Muscle Loading in the Proximal Femur after Fracture Stabilization with a Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Mahaisavariya, Banchong; Suwanprateeb, Jintamai; Bohez, Erik; Vander Sloten, Jos

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of lateral muscle loading on the stress/strain distributions of the trochanteric Gamma nail (TGN) fixation within the healed, trochanteric and subtrochanteric femoral fractures by means of a finite element method. The effect of three muscle groups, the abductors (ABD), the vastus lateralis (VL) and the iliotibial band (ITB), were investigated. The analytical results showed that addition of lateral muscle forces, iliotibial band and vastus lateralis, produced compensation of forces and reduction of bending moments in the bone and in the trochanteric Gamma nail especially in the lateral aspect. The iliotibial band produced a higher impact as compared to the vastus lateralis. Therefore in the finite element analysis of the proximal femur with the trochanteric Gamma nail fracture fixation should include the lateral muscle forces to simulate load condition with maximal physiological relevance to the closed nailing technique.

  20. Experimental Investigation of the Hysteretic Behavior of Wide-Flange Steel Columns under High Axial Load and Lateral Drift Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Lignos, Dimitrios; Cravero, Julien; Elkady, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings from a large-scale experimental program that characterized the hysteretic behavior of typical steel wide-flange columns in steel moment-resisting frames (MRFs). The test specimens were tested in a cantilever configuration with a fixed point of inflection. The main testing parameters included various lateral and axial loading histories, the applied axial compressive load and the local slenderness of the cross-section. It is shown that (a) steel columns subject...

  1. Inferred Influence of Human Lateral Profile on Limb Load Asymmetry during a Quiet Standing Balance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longley,Christopher

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the identification and characterisation of a participant's lateral profile during quiet standing have not received much research attention, they have the potential to greatly extend our understanding of upright stance stability control. This study further examines limb load asymmetries during quiet bipedal stance. During voluntary frontal-plane weight shifting for 2 min, 300 centre-of-pressure displacements on 14 blindfolded right-handed young adults were recorded. Four biomechanical indices were used to assess postural behaviour. These were the bias of time and the magnitude of the partial ground reaction forces from both legs, and the bias in the number and magnitude of microshifts influencing stability. Our study identifies a significant level of asymmetry in the quiet bipedal stance of right-handed people. This asymmetry is associated with the right-sided bias of the ground reaction force and the angle of inclination to the upright (vertical centroidal line. We found that the initial lateralisation of the partial ground reaction forces from both feet, as well as the period of ground reaction force bias, are important elements in any clinical tests involving quiet bipedal stance.

  2. Application on drilling parameter monitor in drilling engineering monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu DIAO; Zhenbao LING; Wenjing LIANG

    2008-01-01

    The drilling parameter monitor is an important tool in drilling engineering applied to monitoring drilling process, carrying out scientific analysis and decision-making. Based on discussing the present development situation of the domestic and foreign drilling machine parameter monitors, the metering scheme for vehicle-loaded drilling parameter monitor was designed. By using detection system for MSP430 single-chip microcomputer (SCM) in combination with peripheral circuit such as sensors, the drilling-rig control system was obtained to detect, and for every parameter in real-time display in order to keep operating the drilling rig status. The experiment shows that the drilling parameter monitor reaches design requirements and can be applied to drilling engineering monitoring, which has characters such as simple structure, high credibility and low cost.

  3. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten Møller; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2013-01-01

    design/type on the effectiveness of lateral wedging has not been investigated so far. The Purpose of the present study was to explore alterations in knee loading due to lateral foot wedges in three different shoes. Methods: Thirteen healthy participants with no history of knee pain were tested using...... three-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analysed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full-length laterally wedged insole. Results: There were significant shoe wedge interactions on the first...... and second peak knee adduction moments. However, the variability of this moment between shoe designs was of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for gastrocnemius when walking with the wedged Oxford shoe were revealed. Conclusion: Lateral...

  4. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  5. 新场气田长水平段水平井钻井技术%Long lateral-section horizontal well drilling technology in Xinchang Gas field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胥豪; 唐洪林; 张晓明

    2013-01-01

    To improve the development effect of Xinchang gas field in western Sichuan, a long lateral-section horizontal well pat-tern of three wells was deployed in the northern of Xinchang structure. Based on the analysis on reservoir geology characteristics, the well structures were optimized to two trips from three trips. These wells have the characteristics of long open hole, long lateral section, and large displacement. Through making the hole trajectory control measures, monitoring drag and torque, and optimizing drilling fluid, the drilling efficiency of the pattern wells has been greatly improved, cooperated with PDC bit during drilling, which provided precious experiences for drilling long lateral-section horizontal wells in mid-depth formation in western Sichuan.%  为提高川西新场气田开发效果,在新场构造北翼部署了一个3口井长水平段水平井井组。在油藏地质特征分析的基础上,将以往三开井身结构优化为二开;针对水平井裸眼段长、水平段长、位移大的特点,通过采用井眼轨迹控制、摩阻扭矩监测技术以及优选钻井液体系等措施,并配合高效PDC钻头,安全高效地完成了钻井施工,为川西地区中深长水平段水平井钻探积累了宝贵的经验。

  6. Lateral Load-Resisting System Using Mass Timber Panel for High-Rise Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As global interest in using engineered wood products in tall buildings intensifies due to the “green” credential of wood, it is expected that more tall wood buildings will be designed and constructed in the coming years. This, however, brings new challenges to the designers. One of the major challenges is how to design lateral load-resisting systems (LLRSs with sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist strong wind and earthquakes. In this study, an LLRS using mass timber panel on a stiff podium was developed for high-rise buildings in accordance with capacity-based design principle. The LLRS comprises eight shear walls with a core in the center of the building, which was constructed with structural composite lumber and connected with dowel-type connections and wood–steel composite system. The main energy dissipating mechanism of the LLRS was detailed to be located at the panel-to-panel interface. This LLRS was implemented in the design of a hypothetical 20-storey building. A finite element (FE model of the building was developed using general-purpose FE software, ABAQUS. The wind-induced and seismic response of the building model was investigated by performing linear static and non-linear dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that the proposed LLRS using mass timber was suitable for high-rise buildings. This study provided a valuable insight into the structural performance of LLRS constructed with mass timber panels as a viable option to steel and concrete for high-rise buildings.

  7. Response of stiff piles to random two-way lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Byrne, B.W.; Houlsby, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    A model for predicting the accumulated rotation of stiff piles under random two-way loading is presented. The model is based on a strain superposition rule similar to Miner's rule and uses rainflow-counting to decompose a random time-series of varying loads into a set of simple load reversals...

  8. Full Contoured Tooth-Implant Supported 3-Pointic All-Ceramic Denture During Occlusal Load Transfer in Lateral Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żmudzki J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Implant and a tooth supported dentures are avoided by dentists because of uneven distribution of occlusal loads between a stiffer implant and a more pliable tooth. The hypothesis was that a 3-point all-ceramic bridge supported on a natural second premolar tooth and a two-pieces typical implant bears safely mastication loads. The finite element analysis showed that the implant splinted by all-ceramic zirconium bridge with the second premolar was safe under lateral mastication load, but there was found an overload at wide zone of bone tissue around the implant under the load of 800 N. The patients can safely masticate, but comminution of hard food should be avoided and they should be instructed that after such an indiscretion they need to contact a dental professional, because, in spite of integrity of the prosthesis, the bone tissue around the implant may fail and there is a hazard of intrusion of the tooth.

  9. Modular and scalable load-wall sled buck for pure-lateral and oblique side impact tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Humm, John R; Pintar, Frank A

    2012-05-11

    A considerable majority of side impact sled tests using different types of human surrogates has used a load-wall design not specific to subject anthropometry. The use of one load-wall configuration cannot accurately isolate and evaluate regional responses for the same load-wall geometry. As the anatomy and biomechanical responses of the human torso depends on the region, and anthropomorphic test devices continue to advance and accommodate regional differences, it is important to obtain specific data from sled tests. To achieve this goal, the present study designed a scalable modular load-wall consisting of the shoulder, thorax, abdomen, and superior and inferior pelvis, and lower limb plates. The first five plates were connected to a vertical fixture and the limb plate was connected to another fixture. The width, height, and thickness, and the gap between plates were modular. Independent adjustments in the coronal and sagittal planes allowed region-specific positioning depending on surrogate anthropometry, example pelvis width and seated height. Two tri-axial load cells were fixed on the contralateral face of each plate of the load-wall to record impact force-time histories. The load-wall and vertical fixture design can be used to conduct side impact tests with varying vectors, pure-lateral to anterior and posterior oblique, by appropriately orienting the load-wall with respect to the surrogate. The feasibility of the design to extract region-specific biomechanical data was demonstrated by conducting pure-lateral and anterior oblique sled tests using two different surrogates at a velocity of 6.7m/s. Uses of this design are discussed for different applications.

  10. Postural control of the trunk in response to lateral support surface translations during trunk movement and loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q M; Hodges, P W; Thorstensson, A

    2001-12-01

    The postural response to translation of the support surface may be influenced by the performance of an ongoing voluntary task. This study was designed to test this proposal by applying lateral perturbations while subjects handled a load in the frontal plane. Measurements were made of medio-lateral displacement of the centre of pressure, angular displacement of the trunk and thigh in the frontal plane and intra-abdominal pressure. Subjects were translated randomly to the left and right in a variety of conditions that involved standing either quietly or with a 5 kg load in their left hand, which they were required either to hold statically or to lift or lower. The results indicate that when the perturbation occurred towards the loaded left side the subjects were able to return their centre of pressure, trunk and thigh rapidly and accurately to the initial position. However, when the perturbation occurred towards the right (away from the load) this correction was delayed and associated with multiple changes in direction of movement, suggesting decreased efficiency of the postural response. This reduced efficiency can be explained by a conflict between the motor commands for the ongoing voluntary task and the postural response, and/or by the mechanical effect of the asymmetrical addition of load to the trunk.

  11. A Literature Study on the Effects of Cyclic Lateral Loading of Monopiles in Cohesionless Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Rasmussen, Kristian; Hansen, Mette; Kirk Wolf, Torben

    Today, monopiles are the most typical foundation for offshore wind turbines. During their lifetime large diameter, stiff piles are subjected to millions of small cyclic loads due to environmental forces. The long-term cyclic loading can change the granular structure of the soil surrounding the pile....... This may change the stiffness of the soil-pile system and create an accumulated rotation of the pile. The behaviour of the soil-pile system is very complex and the influence of soil parameters, number of load cycles, and size, amplitude and characteristic of the load are examined, as they all contribute...

  12. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedging on knee loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    -dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analyzed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full length laterally wedged insole. Results: Similar, significant reductions in the peak knee adduction moment with lateral...... wedges were observed in all three types of shoes. However, differences between shoe design were of similar magnitude as the effect of laterally wedged insoles. Only marginal changes in muscle activity for lateral hamstrings during barefoot toe-out walking and gastrocnemius when using the Oxford wedged...

  13. Small-Scale Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Dense Saturated Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    loading are issues that should be investigated. In the present work, a smallscale test campaign of a stiff pile was performed in order to validate methodologies proposed by recent studies. Cyclic loading was not found to degrade the ultimate static resistance of the pile, which contrasts with current...... design guidelines. Copyright © 2014 by the International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers (ISOPE)....

  14. Small-Scale Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Dense Saturated Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    loading are issues that should be investigated. In the present work, a small-scale test campaign of a stiff pile was performed in order to validate methodologies proposed by recent studies. Cyclic loading was not found to degrade the ultimate static resistance of the pile, which contrasts with current...

  15. Performance of HESCO Bastion Units Under Combined Normal and Cyclic Lateral Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    component demands are based on expected member loads, capaci- ties depend mainly on material properties and the behavior of the compo- nent under...Army investigates construction methods that use indigenous materials in place of commercial materials manufactured far away. An established...reduce costs and logisti- cal burdens for Class 4 construction materials . Before developing such ap- plications, however, the load-resisting

  16. Response of stiff piles in sand to long-term cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Houlsby, Guy T.; Byrne, Byron W.

    2010-01-01

    and loading ranges were realistic. A complete non-dimensional framework for stiff piles in sand is presented and applied to interpret the test results. The accumulated rotation was found to be dependent on relative density and was strongly affected by the characteristics of the applied cyclic load. The pile...

  17. Physical Modelling of Bucket Foundation Under Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    functioning. In this article a 1g physical model of bucket foundation under horizontal and moment cyclic loading is described. A testing program including four tests was carried out. Every test was conducted for at least 30000 cycles, each with different loading features. The capability of the model...

  18. Wave Shaping and Lateral Spreading of Impact Loads Using Layered Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, J. L.; Robbins, J.; Gupta, Y. M.; Wong, M. K.

    1999-06-01

    The overall objective of our work is to explore a new concept for developing resilient armor using high wave speed layers to rapidly spread the loads arising from projectile impacts. Because layered structures involve many additional geometrical and material variables, and because layers affect stress distribution and energy absorption capability of the target, a fundamental issue in determining layering effects is the quantification of load spreading in a consistent manner. We have found that the distribution of dissipative energy density normalized by the averaged total energy density imparted to the substrate appears to be an effective measure for evaluating load spreading and penetration resistance of layered targets. Using this measure in numerical simulations, we have demonstrated the feasibility of the load spreading concept. In addition, we have also investigated numerically the effects of layering geometry, and mechanical properties of the layer and substrate on load spreading. Experimental work is currently underway to evaluate the computational results.

  19. MM 99.58 Physical modelling of Hammerhead forging, Vertical and Lateral load history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Morten; Wanheim, Tarras

    1999-01-01

    The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions......The present report presents a laboratory setup with hammerhead forging, where the vertical and lateral force history is obtained under different process conditions...

  20. Evaluation of Effect of Lateral Forces on Multi-Storeyed Rcc Frame by Considering Eccentricities of column loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. S. S. Patil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete column with varying cross-sectional dimensions are commonly used in many engineering structures since use of such elements in a structural system may reduce the weight of the system, since neither axial load nor stiffness is constant along the column height the stability analysis of a stepped column is usually more complicated than that of a uniform column. The lateral forces can produce critical stresses in the structure, induce undesirable vibrations or cause excessive lateral sway of the structure. The present study deals with the comparison of Concentric Non-Prismatic columns and Stepped columns under the effect of static, wind and dynamic loads with the help of ETABS Software.

  1. Influence of pre-load coefficient of TPJBs with even number pads on shaft lateral vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    For a rotating machine with one or more tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs), it is acommon state that pad-to-journal assembling clearances are uneven in one bearing, or inconsis-tent relationship of assembling clearances are encountered among all the bearings. Consideringthe structural characteristics of a TPJB, a concept named as "pad pair pre-load coefficient" corre-sponding to bearing pre-load coefficient is proposed. Firstly, the influence of bearing pre-load coef-ficient and pad pair pre-load coefficient on shaft vibration in a Jeffcot rotor is analyzed. Then takingNo.1 unit with two TPJBs in Guangzhou pumped storage power plant (GPSP) as an example, theinfluence of inconsistent relationship of the two bearing pre-load coefficients on shaft vibration isanalyzed. The results show that variety of one bearing pre-load coefficient will only influence vibra-tion amplitude, not involving the shape of shaft center orbit. But variety of one or more "pad pairpre-load coefficient" will influence not only vibration amplitude, but also the shape of orbit-whichwill be turned from a circle to an ellipse. By investigating variation characteristics of shape andvibration amplitude of orbits at the TPJBs, some theoretical bases will be supplied for diagnosingthe condition of the unit bearings.

  2. Performance of Screen Grid Insulating Concrete Form Walls under Combined In-Plane Vertical and Lateral Loads

    KAUST Repository

    Abdel Mooty, Mohamed

    2010-12-01

    Insulating Concrete Forms (ICF) walls generally comprise two layers of Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), steel reinforcement is placed in the center between the two layers and concrete is poured to fill the gap between those two layers. ICF\\'s have many advantages over traditional methods of wall construction such as reduced construction time, noise reduction, strength enhancement, energy efficiency, and compatibility with any inside or outside surface finish. The focus of this study is the Screen Grid ICF wall system consisting of a number of beams and columns forming a concrete mesh. The performance of ICF wall systems under lateral loads simulating seismic effect is experimentally evaluated in this paper. This work addresses the effect of the different design parameters on the wall behavior under seismic simulated loads. This includes different steel reinforcement ratio, various reinforcement distribution, wall aspect ratios, different openings sizes for windows and doors, as well as different spacing of the grid elements of the screen grid wall. Ten full scale wall specimens were tested where the effects of the various parameters on wall behavior in terms of lateral load capacity, lateral displacement, and modes of failure are presented. The test results are stored to be used for further analysis and calibration of numerical models developed for this study. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications.

  3. Lateral load-carrying capacity analyses of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周德源; 刘凌飞; 朱立猛

    2016-01-01

    A method is developed to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of composite shear walls with double steel plates and filled concrete with binding bars (SCBs). Nonlinear finite element models of SCBs were established by using the finite element tool, Abaqus. Tie constraints were used to connect the binding bars and the steel plates. Surface-to-surface contact provided by the Abaqus was used to simulate the interaction between the steel plate and the core concrete. The established models could predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs with a reasonable degree of accuracy. A calculation method was developed by superposition principle to predict the lateral load-carrying capacity of SCBs for the engineering application. The concrete confined by steel plates and binding bars is under multi-axial compression; therefore, its shear strength was calculated by using the Guo-Wang concrete failure criterion. The shear strength of the steel plates of SCBs was calculated by using the von Mises yielding criterion without considering buckling. Results of the developed method are in good agreement with the testing and finite element results.

  4. Propagation of the transverse normal stress in a thick plate due to distributed lateral impulsive loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oline, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical study of the elastic stresses produced in an infinite plate when struck by a high-speed object is presented. The solution is obtained by means of linear elasticity. Laplace transformation techniques are employed to solve the axisymmetric problem. The plate is loaded normal to its surface with a uniform load over a circular area. The normal stress at the wave front of the unreflected dilatation wave along the axis and its variation with the radius of loading are determined. Various facets of the problem are discussed.

  5. 自攻型正畸微螺旋种植体稳定性的实验研究%INVESTIGATION OF THE STABILITY OF SELF-DRILLING ORTHODONTIC MICRO-IMPLANTS WITH IMMEDIATE LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈岩; 牛一山; 赵文婷; 咏梅; 斯琴毕力格

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To studying the biomechanical property of self - drilling orthodontic micro -implants under immediate horizontal loading to access its stability and effet of ossoeintegration. Methods ; 8 titanium alloy micro - implants were placed into the interradicular spaces of buccal side of lower jaw in a dog with immediate load for approximately 150g continuous and constant forces by stretching closed nickel - titanium coil spring for 9 weeks. Controlled peak insertion torque(5. 5 ~7. 3 Ncm) and stability were immediately measured immediately after insertion, and stability and peak removal torque were measured after euthanasia. Results;The peak removal torque value was 5. 9 ±1.2 Ncm. Periotest value of implants was under + 9 in the laterant part, while below + 9 in the middle of the mandible at the beginning and was between +9 to + 18 at the end of the experiment. The tendency of fracture was found during implantation. Conclusions: Immediate loading of self - drilling may not affect the ossoeintegration of orthodontic micro - implants.%目的:实验研究自攻型正畸微螺旋种植体即刻负载持续中重度水平力的生物力学特性.方法:8枚自攻型钛合金微螺旋种植体种植于一只犬下颌骨颊侧的牙根间区,即刻负载约150g持续水平力.种植体植入时选择控制最高植入转矩在5.5 Ncm~ 7.3 Ncm,并且用Periotest测量种植体的稳定性,其值低于+9;观察9wk后,测量种植体稳定性及最高旋出转矩.结果:实验过程中未见种植体松动,脱落.最高去除转矩力值(5.9±1.2) Ncm.Periotest值在后牙区低于+9,在下颌骨中段在+10~ +18间.结论:即刻负载的自攻型微种植体有良好的生物机械性能,即刻负载对自攻型正畸微种植体的生物整合未见明显的影响.

  6. Literature review on cyclic lateral loading effects of mono-bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapitanov, Lachezar Rosenov; Duroska, Peter; Garcia, Cesar Antonio Garcia

    2016-01-01

    The renewable offshore energy sector is currently growing rapidly and there is a vast interest in optimization of the design procedures for the offshores wind turbines. Mono-Bucket can be a breakthrough in the sphere of offshore wind turbines foundations due to its lightness and fast installation...... and consequently cost-effectiveness compared to other common solutions. The long-term cyclic loading can cause degradation of soil-bucket system stiffness, which yields into accumulated and permanent deformations. Despite of the advantages, there is no standard procedure to design the foundation especially...... for assessing the accumulated deformations under environmental longterm loading. However, numerical and semi-empirical methods already used for offshore foundations can be adopted to take into account the effect of cyclic loading on Mono-Buckets. Among them, load-displacement techniques as cyclic p-y curves...

  7. Ultimate Failure of Debond Damaged Sandwich Panels Loaded with Lateral Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolma, Perttu; Segercrantz, Sebastian; Berggreen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    variation of all geometric and material entities. The fracture mechanics calculation uses crack flank displacements obtained from the finite element analysis solution and experimentally measured mixed-mode fracture toughness values to determine the ultimate failure load. The analysis tool is validated...... with a number of different ship type panels. Debond criticality is evaluated by using the developed tool and by comparing the test results from panel experiments. The comparison shows that the analysis tool predicts both failure load and failure mode well. The tool can be used to determine the residual strength...... of different damage cases and has a considerable potential for further development....

  8. The Effect of Soil-Pile Interface Behaviour on Laterally Loaded Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2011-01-01

    In current practice it is either the p – y curve concept, or analytical solutions assuming different formulations for ultimate soil resistance that are being used to evaluate the lateral pile response. The adequacy of the p – y curves or of the assumed pressure distribution and ultimate soil...... resistance have been questioned. In this study the lateral capacity of three-dimensional numerical models of rigid piles embedded in cohesionless soil was estimated. The potential variability of the friction properties along the perimeter of the pile was considered. The interface properties affect...... the ultimate soil resistance and the stiffness of the soil–pile response....

  9. Modelo no lineal en elementos finitos para muros livianos con entramados de acero sujetos a carga lateral/A nonlinear finite element model of lightweight walls with cold formed steel members under lateral load

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carlos Andrés M Gaviria; Aydée Patricia Z Guerrero; Peter R Thomson

    2013-01-01

    ... of the connections between elements. This model was updated for different coating materials using experimental results of lateral loads test conduced on full-scale prototypes for five different coating configurations...

  10. Literature review on cyclic lateral loading effects of mono-bucket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapitanov, Lachezar Rosenov; Duroska, Peter; Quirante, Cesar Antonio Garcia

    2016-01-01

    calculation is highly demanded at the different design phases. The intention of the current study is to present, review and summarize the existing techniques to assess the effect of cyclic loading on Mono-Bucket foundations while emphasizing the advantage and disadvantage of each of them. Additionally...

  11. Small-Scale Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Dense Saturated Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolai, Giulio; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    Monopiles are currently the most common foundations for offshore wind turbines, which are subjected to millions of cyclic loads that are still not well interpreted in the design guidelines. The accumulated rotation of the turbine and the change of foundation stiffness due to the long-term cyclic ...

  12. ES2 neck injury assessment reference values for lateral loading in side facing seats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philippens, M.M.G.M.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.; Forbes, P.A.; Yoganandan, N.; Pintar, F.; Soltis, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Injury assessment reference values (IARV) predicting neck injuries are currently not available for side facing seated aircraft passengers in crash conditions. The aircraft impact scenario results in inertial loading of the head and neck, a condition known to be inherently different from common autom

  13. Head linear and rotational accelerations and craniocervical loads in lateral impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yoganandan, N.; Pintar, F.A.; Maiman, D.; Phillippens, M.M.G.M.; Wismans, J.S.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine lateral impact-induced three-dimensional temporal head center of gravity linear and angular accelerations, and craniocervical forces and moments from post mortem human subject (PMHS) sled tests and compare with the European side impact dummy, ES-II, respon

  14. Buckling and dynamic analysis of drill strings for core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, H.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-15

    This supporting document presents buckling and dynamic stability analyses of the drill strings used for core sampling. The results of the drill string analyses provide limiting operating axial loads and rotational speeds to prevent drill string failure, instability and drill bit overheating during core sampling. The recommended loads and speeds provide controls necessary for Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) programmatic field operations.

  15. An Analytical Insight into the Buckling Paradox for Circular Cylindrical Shells under Axial and Lateral Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabee Shamass

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of authors in the past have concluded that the flow theory of plasticity tends to overestimate significantly the buckling load for many problems of plates and shells in the plastic range, while the deformation theory generally provides much more accurate predictions and is consequently used in practical applications. Following previous numerical studies by the same authors focused on axially compressed cylinders, the present work presents an analytical investigation which comprises the broader and different case of nonproportional loading. The analytical results are discussed and compared with experimental and numerical findings and the reason for the apparent discrepancy on the basis of the so-called “buckling paradox” appears once again to lay in the overconstrained kinematics on the basis of the analytical and numerical approaches present in the literature.

  16. Capacity and failure mechanism of laterally loaded jet-grouting reinforced piles: Field and numerical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ben; WANG LiZhong; HONG Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of field and numerical investigations of lateral stiffness,capacity,and failure mechanisms for plain piles and reinforced concrete piles in soft clay.A plastic-damage model is used to simulate concrete piles and jet-grouting in the numerical analyses.The field study and numerical investigations show that by applying jet-grouting surrounding the upper 7.5D (D =pile diameter) of a pile,lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of the pile are increased by about 110% and 100%,respectively.This is partially because the jet-grouting increases the apparent diameter of the pile,so as to enlarge the extent of failure wedge and hence passive resistance in front of the reinforced pile.Moreover,the jet-grouting provides a circumferential confinement to the concrete pile,which suppresses development of tensile stress in the pile.Correspondingly,tension-induced plastic damage in the concrete pile is reduced,causing less degradation of stiffness and strength of the pile than that of a plain pile.Effectiveness of the circumferential confinement provided by the jet-grouting,however,diminishes once the grouting cracks because of the significant vertical and circumferential tensile stress near its mid-depth.The lateral capacity of the jet-grouting reinforced pile is,therefore,governed by mobilized passive resistance of soil and plastic damage of jet-grouting.

  17. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Piles in a Pressure Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    stresses in the soil. A new and innovative test setup for small-scale tests is presented. Tests were successfully carried out in a pressure tank enabling the possibility of ho¬mogeneously increasing the effective stresses. The test setup is described in detail in the paper. A total of 29 quasi-static tests...... were conducted on six piles with diameters between 40 and 100 mm and length to diameter ratios of 3-6 m. The effect of applying an overburden pressure is eval¬uated for the load-displacement relationships and the variation of pile deflection with depth....

  18. Riserless drilling (managed pressure drilling)

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Ahsan

    2012-01-01

    There are several problems which an oil and gas industry is facing. These problems can be solved by riserless drilling method which comes under managed pressure drilling umbrella. The most important problem is increasing number of casing strings to complete a well and to control a well in limited pressure profile. A well model was developed and both conventional and riserless drilling approaches were applied to see how many casings will be needed to complete a same well with these approach...

  19. Dynamic response of a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group in a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zhi Yong; Li, Zhi Xiong; Wang, Li Hua

    2016-12-01

    The time-harmonic response of a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group embedded in a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space is investigated using a finite element and indirect boundary element coupling method. The piles are solved by the finite element method (FEM), while the soil can be modeled by the indirect boundary element method (BEM) with the aid of the fundamental solution for a transversely isotropic multilayered half-space in a cylindrical coordinate system. The governing equation of the pile-soil-pile dynamic interaction is established by applying the FEM-BEM coupling method. Numerical examples are carried out to validate the presented theory and to investigate influences of the soil's anisotropy and layering on the dynamic response of pile groups.

  20. Dynamic Response Analysis of Storage Cask Lid Structure Subjected to Lateral Impact Load of Aircraft Engine Crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomania, Belal; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon [Keimyung Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several numerical methods and tests have been carried out to measure the capability of storage cask to withstand extreme impact loads. Testing methods are often constrained by cost, and difficulty in preparation for several impact conditions with different applied loads, and areas of impact. Instead, analytic method is an acceptable process that can easily apply different impact conditions for the evaluation of cask integrity. The aircraft engine impact is considered as one of the most critical impact accidents on the storage cask that significantly affects onto the lid closure system and may cause a considerable release of radioactive materials. This paper presents a method for evaluating the dynamic responses of one upper metal cask lid closure without impact limiters subjected to lateral impact of an aircraft engine with respect to variation of the impact velocity. An assessment method to predict damage response due to the lateral engine impact onto metal storage cask has been studied by using computer code LS-DYNA. The dynamic behavior of the lid movements was successfully calculated by utilizing a simplified finite element cask model, which showed a good agreement with the previous research. The simulation analyses results showed that no significant plastic deformation for bolts, lid, and the cask body. In this study, the lid opening and sliding displacements are considered as the major factors in initiating the leakage path. This analysis may be useful for evaluating the instantaneous leakage rates in a connection with the sliding and opening displacements between the lid and the flange to ensure that the radiological consequences caused by an aircraft engine crash accident during the storage phase are within the permissible level.

  1. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutaji, A.; Olabi, A. G.

    2010-06-01

    Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2) on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This machine is universal instrument for performing tensile test and compression test, Fig (1) and bending test and it is consider as an important machine for measuring the mechanical properties of materials and structures. The loading frame consist of two vertical lead screws, a moving crosshead and an upper and lower bearing plate which bears the load of the lead screws. The maximum capacity of the loading frame attached to the table mounted unit is 50KN In this study a velocity between 310mm/min was applied to the moving component to ensure the quasistatic conditions whereas velocities between 0.5mm/min and 15 mm/min have been used by many researchers to simulate the quasi-static lateral compression of tubes between various indenters [1-2]. In addition to the experimental work, computational method using ANSYS is used to predict the loading and response of such tubes where series of models was performed with elliptical ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. Comparison of numerical and experimental forcedeflection response is presented. It has been found that with changing the elliptical ratio of the tube the loaddeflection curve change and this leads to change the energy absorbed by tube, the changing of the geometrical shape of the tube leads to change the volume of this tube and hence the mass. By reducing the elliptical ratio to 0.5 the tube will absorb 43.3% more energy and the system will gain 102% more in terms of specific energy, fig (2).

  2. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabi A.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2 on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This machine is universal instrument for performing tensile test and compression test, Fig (1 and bending test and it is consider as an important machine for measuring the mechanical properties of materials and structures. The loading frame consist of two vertical lead screws, a moving crosshead and an upper and lower bearing plate which bears the load of the lead screws. The maximum capacity of the loading frame attached to the table mounted unit is 50KN In this study a velocity between 310mm/min was applied to the moving component to ensure the quasistatic conditions whereas velocities between 0.5mm/min and 15 mm/min have been used by many researchers to simulate the quasi-static lateral compression of tubes between various indenters [1-2]. In addition to the experimental work, computational method using ANSYS is used to predict the loading and response of such tubes where series of models was performed with elliptical ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. Comparison of numerical and experimental forcedeflection response is presented. It has been found that with changing the elliptical ratio of the tube the loaddeflection curve change and this leads to change the energy absorbed by tube, the changing of the geometrical shape of the tube leads to change the volume of this tube and hence the mass. By reducing the elliptical ratio to 0.5 the tube will absorb 43.3% more energy and the system will gain 102% more in terms of specific energy, fig (2.

  3. Drilling reorganizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  4. Experimental Testing of Monopiles in Sand Subjected to One-Way Long-Term Cyclic Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2013-01-01

    In the offshore wind turbine industry the most widely used foundation type is the monopile. Due to the wave and wind forces the monopile is subjected to a strong cyclic loading with varying amplitude, maximum loading level, and varying loading period. In this paper the soil–pile interaction of a ...... tests conducted post cyclic loading indicate that the static ultimate capacity increases with the magnitude of cyclic loading....

  5. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject’s deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS, median frequency (MDF, and sample entropy (SampEn, were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p0.05. In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p<0.001 and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p<0.001.

  6. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liu; Rong, Yao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Song

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body) with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects). The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject's deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and sample entropy (SampEn), were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p MDF and SampEn (both p > 0.05). In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p < 0.001). PMID:28497068

  7. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H

    2012-12-01

    Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th

  8. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th

  9. Microgravity Drill and Anchor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron; Frost, Matthew A.; King, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    This work is a method to drill into a rock surface regardless of the gravitational field or orientation. The required weight-on-bit (WOB) is supplied by a self-contained anchoring mechanism. The system includes a rotary percussive coring drill, forming a complete sampling instrument usable by robot or human. This method of in situ sample acquisition using micro - spine anchoring technology enables several NASA mission concepts not currently possible with existing technology, including sampling from consolidated rock on asteroids, providing a bolt network for astronauts visiting a near-Earth asteroid, and sampling from the ceilings or vertical walls of lava tubes and cliff faces on Mars. One of the most fundamental parameters of drilling is the WOB; essentially, the load applied to the bit that allows it to cut, creating a reaction force normal to the surface. In every drilling application, there is a minimum WOB that must be maintained for the system to function properly. In microgravity (asteroids and comets), even a small WOB could not be supported conventionally by the weight of the robot or astronaut. An anchoring mechanism would be needed to resist the reactions, or the robot or astronaut would push themselves off the surface and into space. The ability of the system to anchor itself to a surface creates potential applications that reach beyond use in low gravity. The use of these anchoring mechanisms as end effectors on climbing robots has the potential of vastly expanding the scope of what is considered accessible terrain. Further, because the drill is supported by its own anchor rather than by a robotic arm, the workspace is not constrained by the reach of such an arm. Yet, if the drill is on a robotic arm, it has the benefit of not reflecting the forces of drilling back to the arm s joints. Combining the drill with the anchoring feet will create a highly mobile, highly stable, and highly reliable system. The drilling system s anchor uses hundreds of

  10. Laser Drilling Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and the relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.

  11. Bucket drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezverkhiy, V.M.; Nabokov, I.M.; Podoksik, D.Z.; Sadovskiy, S.S.; Shanyukevich, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The bucket drill including a cylindrical housing with bottom, ground intake windows and cutting knives is hinged to the housing, the mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives including rods connected by the cutter knives, and drive shaft is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the effectiveness of drilling by automatic change in the angle of cutting depending on the strength of the drillable rock, the drill is equipped with elastic elements and cap with annular slits in which there are elastic elements. The mechanism of rotation of the cutting knives is equipped with levers hinged to the housing, pins with shaft and rocker arm. The rods are made with a slit and from one end are rigidly connected to the cutting knives, and from the other end to the levers by means of pins which are arranged in slits of the rod with the possibility of movement. The upper ends of the levers are installed with the possibility of movement in the pins whose shafts are arranged with the possibility of rotation in the rocker arm rigidly connected to the drive shaft. The drive shaft is equipped with cantilevers installed in the cap with the possibility of rotation and interaction with the elastic elements.

  12. Calculation of reinforced-concrete frame strength under a simultaneous static cross section load and a column lateral impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Nikolay; Yugov, Nikolay; Kopanitsa, Dmitry; Kopanitsa, Georgy; Yugov, Alexey; Kaparulin, Sergey; Plyaskin, Andrey; Kalichkina, Anna; Ustinov, Artyom

    2016-01-01

    When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.

  13. Calculation of reinforced-concrete frame strength under a simultaneous static cross section load and a column lateral impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Nikolay, E-mail: n.n.belov@mail.ru; Kopanitsa, Dmitry, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Yugov, Alexey, E-mail: yugalex@mail.ru; Kaparulin, Sergey, E-mail: kaparulin@mail.ru; Plyaskin, Andrey, E-mail: plyaskinandrei@mail.ru; Kalichkina, Anna, E-mail: aniotka@mail.ru; Ustinov, Artyom, E-mail: artemustinov@bk.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq. Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation); Yugov, Nikolay, E-mail: n.t.yugov@mail.ru [Tomsk State University for Radio Electronics and Control Systems, 40, Lenin Av. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Kopanitsa, Georgy, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Av. Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    When designing buildings with reinforced concrete that are planned to resist dynamic loads it is necessary to calculate this structural behavior under operational static and emergency impact and blast loads. Calculations of the structures under shock-wave loads can be performed by solving dynamic equations that do not consider static loads. Due to this fact the calculation of reinforced concrete frame under a simultaneous static and dynamic load in full 3d settings becomes a very non trivial and resource consuming problem. This problem can be split into two tasks. The first one is a shock-wave problem that can be solved using software package RANET-3, which allows solving the problem using finite elements method adapted for dynamic task. This method calculates strain-stress state of the material and its dynamic destruction, which is considered as growth and consolidation of micro defects under loading. On the second step the results of the first step are taken as input parameters for quasi static calculation of simultaneous static and dynamic load using finite elements method in AMP Civil Engineering-11.

  14. Evaluation of FRP Confinement Models for Substandard Rectangular RC Columns Based on Full-Scale Reversed Cyclic Lateral Loading Tests in Strong and Weak Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Farrokh Ghatte

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many theoretical and experimental studies are available on external confinement of columns using fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP jackets, as well as numerous models proposed for the axial stress-axial strain relation of concrete confined with FRP jackets, they have not been validated with a sufficient amount and variety of experimental data obtained through full-scale tests of reinforced concrete (RC columns with different geometrical and mechanical characteristics. Particularly, no systematical experimental data have been presented on full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns subjected to reversed cyclic lateral loads along either their strong or weak axes. In this study, firstly, test results of five full-scale rectangular substandard RC columns with a cross-sectional aspect ratio of two (300 mm × 600 mm are briefly summarized. The columns were tested under constant axial load and reversed cyclic lateral loads along their strong or weak axes before and after retrofitting with external FRP jackets. In the second stage, inelastic lateral force-displacement relationships of the columns are obtained analytically, making use of the plastic hinge assumption and different FRP confinement models available in the literature. Finally, the analytical findings are compared with the test results for both strong and weak directions of the columns. Comparisons showed that use of different models for the stress-strain relationship of FRP-confined concrete can yield significantly non-conservative or too conservative retrofit designs, particularly in terms of deformation capacity.

  15. Flexible roof drill for low coal. Volume 1. Phase I and Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoup, N.H.; Kendall, L.A.

    1977-08-30

    The Phase I report documents the effort expended by the Washington State University (WSU) research team towards meeting the terms of the contract and provides a working document for the research team during the later phases of this research project. The flexible shaft drill concepts for thin seam coal were based upon operational specifications prepared by the WSU research team after consultation with the Coal Mine Productivity Task Force of the US Steel Corporation. Investigations disclosed that a flexible shaft drill should be designed to withstand a torque load of 3000 in.-lb, a thrust load of 6000 lb, a mean feed rate of 3 ft/min (feed rate range should be 1 to 6 ft/min), withdrawal rate of 40 ft/min, and have the ability to drill an 8-ft deep hole within +- 10/sup 0/ of the vertical centerline. In order to maintain this alignment, a straight starter section would be used at the drill bit end of the drill. The length of this starter section varies with hole tolerance; based on drill hole measurements in soft, semi-consolidated shale a minimum starter section length of about 9 in. was chosen. After considering a number of alternative types of flexible shafts, it was concluded that the flexible shaft should be made up of short rigid segments interlocked at their interfaces with intermeshed teeth. Three interlocking clutch teeth at the interface were selected because to increasing the number of clutch teeth would increase the stress in each tooth to a prohibitively high level. Segments should have some restraining devices at the connecting interfaces preventing the segments from separating. This interfacial restraint should allow the segments to transmit tension loads across the interface. This is desirable so that the drill string can be withdrawn from the hole by applying tensile force to the segments.

  16. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chongbin; Quan Qiquan; Shi Xiaomeng; Deng Zongquan; Tang Dewei; Jiang Shengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock), this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algo-rithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states:the interface detection, initi-ation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM) and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of dril-ling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detect-ing drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  17. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chongbin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock, this paper proposes a multi-state control strategy for autonomous lunar drilling. To represent the working circumstances in the lunar subsurface and reduce the complexity of the control algorithm, lunar drilling process was categorized into three drilling states: the interface detection, initiation of drilling parameters for recognition and drilling medium recognition. Support vector machine (SVM and continuous wavelet transform were employed for the online recognition of drilling media and interface, respectively. Finite state machine was utilized to control the transition among different drilling states. To verify the effectiveness of the multi-state control strategy, drilling experiments were implemented with multi-layered drilling media constructed by lunar soil simulant and lunar rock simulant. The results reveal that the multi-state control method is capable of detecting drilling state variation and adjusting drilling parameters timely under vibration interferences. The multi-state control method provides a feasible reference for the control of extraterrestrial autonomous drilling.

  18. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  19. Calculation of principal stresses and their directions in selected cutting planes in rock drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Krepelka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on the analysis of principal stress fields induced in the system of drilling tool-rock during the drilling process in immediate surroundings of their mutual contact. Various load conditions were analyzed, representing torque, loading only by axial thrust force and combined loading by concurrent action of torque and thrust force on the drilled rock.

  20. An Analytical Approach for Deformation Shapes of a Cylindrical Shell with Internal Medium Subjected to Lateral Contact Explosive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation on deformation shape of a cylindrical shell with internal medium subjected to lateral contact explosion was carried out briefly. Deformation shapes at different covered width of lateral explosive were recovered experimentally. Based on the experimental results, a corresponding analytical approach has been undertaken with rigid plastic hinge theory. In the analytical model, the cylindrical shell is divided into end-to-end rigid square bars. Deformation process of the cylindrical shell is described by using the translations and rotations of all rigid square bars. Expressions of the spring force, buckling moment, and deflection angle between adjacent rigid square bars are conducted theoretically. Given the structure parameters of the cylinder and the type of the lateral explosive charge, deformation processes and shapes are reported and discussed using the analytical approach. A good agreement has been obtained between calculated and experimental results, and thus the analytical approach can be considered as a valuable tool in understanding the deformation mechanism and predicting the deformation shapes of the cylindrical shell with internal medium subjected to lateral contact explosion. Finally, parametric studies are carried out to analyze the effects of deformation shape, including the covered width of the lateral explosive, explosive charge material, and distribution of initial velocity.

  1. Finite Element Simulation of Mechanical and Moisture-Related Stresses in Laterally Loaded Multi-Dowel Timber Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Dahlblom, O.; Nygaard, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Numerical simulations of stress distribution within a moment stiff timber frame corner have been performed. The frame corner is a multi-dowel connection with two slotted-in steel plates. The interaction between the fasteners and the wood material is modelled as a full contact interaction based...... on penalty formulation. The wood material is assumed to be an orthotropic material in reference to elastic and shrinkage behaviours. Both mechanical loading (from snow and wind) and moisture loading have been studied. Model adaptivity was used to reduce the computer time and to find suitable coupling...

  2. 深水钻井送入管柱卡瓦挤毁载荷模型研究%Study on the model of landing string's slip crushing loads in deep water drilling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱荣东; 周建良; 蒋世全; 姜伟

    2013-01-01

    针对深水钻井中容易发生卡瓦挤毁送入管柱的问题,详细分析了管柱-卡瓦之间相互作用的机理,利用厚壁圆筒理论等相关力学理论建立了计算卡瓦挤毁载荷的新模型,并进行了模型验证和实例计算,结果表明本文建立的新模型可作为深水钻井送入管柱设计校核的依据,所计算出的送入管柱的作业窗口可以为现场应急事故处理提供指导,从而保障深水钻井作业的安全.%In view of the problem of slip crushing landing string,this paper has analyzed the interaction mechanism between the drill pipe and slip in detail, established a new model of landing string's slip crushing loads by thick-wall cylinder theory and related mechanical theory,also tested the model and performed a case calculation. The results show that the new model can be used as a design basis for landing string used in deep water drilling. The calculated operating window of landing string can provide a guidance for on-site emergency incident handling, thus protecting the safety of deep water drilling operation.

  3. Multi-state autonomous drilling for lunar exploration

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Chongbin; Quan Qiquan; Shi Xiaomeng; Deng Zongquan; Tang Dewei; Jiang Shengyuan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the lack of information of subsurface lunar regolith stratification which varies along depth, the drilling device may encounter lunar soil and lunar rock randomly in the drilling process. To meet the load safety requirements of unmanned sampling mission under limited orbital resources, the control strategy of autonomous drilling should adapt to the indeterminable lunar environments. Based on the analysis of two types of typical drilling media (i.e., lunar soil and lunar rock), this pap...

  4. The effect of shoe design and lateral wedges on knee load and neuromuscular control in healthy subjects during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kersting, Uwe G.

    2014-01-01

    three-dimensional gait analysis. Barefoot walking, walking in a running shoe, an Oxford-type leather shoe, and a rocker shoe were analysed. The shoes were tested both with and without a 10-degree full-length laterally wedged insole. Results: There were significant shoe wedge interactions on the first...

  5. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Olabi A.G.; Baroutaji A.

    2010-01-01

    Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2) on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This m...

  6. STUDY OF HIGHER MODE EFFECTS AND LATERAL LOAD PATTERNS IN PUSHOVER ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAMES WITH STEEL SHEAR WALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghanoonibagha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available When an earthquake occurs, the structure will enter into a nonlinear stage; therefore, new approaches based on nonlinear analysis are needed to flourish with the purpose of more realistic investigations on seismic behavior and destruction mechanism of structures. According to the modern philosophy, “Performance-based Earthquake Engineering” is formed in which simple nonlinear static analyses are mostly used in order to determine the structure’s behavior in nonlinear stage. This method assumes that the structure response is only controlled by the main mode and the shape of this mode will remain the same, while it enters the nonlinear stage. Both of these assumptions are approximations, especially in high buildings, which have a long period. It seems that constant load pattern used in these methods cannot consider all of the effects properly. In this paper, an attempt was made to study the accuracy of these methods in comparison to nonlinear dynamic analysis, by considering various load patterns existing in FEMA, also load patterns proportional to higher modes in nonlinear static method, and employing an approximative method of MPA modal analysis, study the accuracy of these methods in comparison to nonlinear dynamic analysis. For this purpose, three steel frames of 4, 8, and 12-stories with steel shear wall have been studied.

  7. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judzis, Arnis [Salt Lake City, UT; Black, Alan D [Coral Springs, FL; Green, Sidney J [Salt Lake City, UT; Robertson, Homer A [West Jordan, UT; Bland, Ronald G [Houston, TX; Curry, David Alexander [The Woodlands, TX; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  8. Follow the drill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch-Roy, O. [Dando Drilling International (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-01

    The paper discusses modern drilling techniques with which Dando Drilling has been involved. It describes equipment supplied to opencast coal operations in Kalimantan, Borneo. These include polycrystalline diamond drill bits, flushing media, rig drilling controls and other specialised equipment. 3 photos.

  9. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-retrievable tools and a drill-lock assembly, permitting bit and BHA changes, coring, electrical logging and even directional or horizontal drilling. Once the casing point is reached, the casing is cemented in place without tripping pipe.

  10. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    risks and costs. This procedure enables a timely, efficient and accurate data access and exchange among the rig site data acquisition system, office-based software applications and data storage. The loading of real-time data has to be quick and efficient in order to refine the model and learn the lessons for the next drilling operations.

  11. CASING DRILLING TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2005-01-01

    Casing drilling is an alternative option to conventional drilling and uses standard oilfield casing instead of drillstring. This technology is one of the greatest developments in drilling operations. Casing drilling involves drilling and casing a well simultaneously. In casing driling process, downhole tools can be retrieved, through the casing on wire-line, meaning tool recovery or replacement of tools can take minutes versus hours under conventional methods. This process employs wireline-re...

  12. Disease load at conception predicts survival in later epidemics in a historical French-Canadian cohort, suggesting functional trans-generational effects in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Willführ

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Functional trans-generational and parental effects are potentially important determinants of health in several mammals. For humans, the existing evidence is weak. We investigate whether disease exposure triggers functional trans-generational response effects among humans by analyzing siblings who were conceived under different disease loads, and comparing their mortality in later epidemics. Under functional trans-generational response mechanisms, we expect that those who were conceived under high pathogenic stress load will have relatively low mortality during a later epidemic. METHODS: We use data from the Registre de la Population du Québec Ancien, which covers the historical population living in St. Lawrence Valley, Québec, Canada. Children born in 1705-1724 were grouped according to their exposure during conception to the measles 1714-15 epidemic. The 1714-15 epidemic was followed by two mortality crises in 1729-1734. The cause of the first crises in 1729 is not exactly known. The second crisis in 1732 was caused by a smallpox epidemic. Using proportional hazard Cox regression models with multivariate adjustment and with fixed-effects approach that compare siblings, we analyze whether mortality in 1729-1734 is affected by exposure to the 1714-15 epidemic. RESULTS: Children who were conceived during the peak of the measles epidemic of 1714-15 exhibited significantly lower mortality during the 1729-1734 crisis than those who were born before the 1714-15 epidemic (mortality hazard ratio 0.106, p<.05 in multivariate adjusted models; 0.142 p<.1 in sibling comparison models. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with a trans-generational mechanism that functionally responds to pathogen stress and suggest that early disease exposure may be protective later in life. Alternative explanations for the mortality patterns are discussed and shown to be problematic.

  13. 弯曲载荷下钻具接头试样的磁记忆信号特征%MMS Features of Drilling Tool Joint Sample in Bending Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张仁庆; 樊建春; 苏雪梅; 王中胜; 葛保胜

    2013-01-01

    To investigate how to use magnetic memory signal (MMS) to detect the position of fatigue damage caused by the drilling tool joint, the cantilever bending fatigue tester was designed on the basis of analyzing the bending load the drilling tool joint bears. The giant magnetoresistance MM probe was adopted to scan the sample which had been loaded for a period of time. The PLC device was used to control the scanning route and velocity of the probe. The DATAQ data collector converted the magnetic field distribution into the voltage signal. The analysis shows that as the characteristic parameter the gradient value can desirably describe the fatigue strength of the sample in the loading process. The maximum gradient value of MMS tangential component has nothing to do with the carved depth of the sample. The fluctuation of the value of the sample at the elastic stage is slight and the value is basically kept at 0. 04 V/mm.%为了探究如何利用磁记忆信号检测钻具接头产生疲劳损伤的位置,在分析钻具接头承受弯曲载荷的基础上,设计了悬臂梁弯曲疲劳试验机.采用巨磁阻磁记忆检测探头对加载一段时间的试样进行扫描检测,由PLC装置来控制巨磁阻探头的扫描路径和速度,由DATAQ数据采集器将采集到的磁场分布状态转化为电压信号.分析结果表明,梯度值作为磁记忆信号的特征参量可以很好地描述试样承载过程的疲劳强度,磁记忆信号的切向分量梯度最大值与试样的刻伤深度无关;试样在弹性阶段磁信号的切向分量梯度最大值波动范围很小,基本稳定在0.04 V/mm.

  14. Numerical Analyses of Bearing Capacity of Deep-Embedded Large-Diameter Cylindrical Structure on Soft Ground Against Lateral Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Mao-tian; FAN Qing-lai

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a three-dimensional plastic limit analysis method of bearing capacity of the deeply-embedded large-diameter cylindrical structure in the cross-anisotropic soft ground. The most likely failure mechanism is assumed to be of a composite rupture surface which is composed of an individual wedge in the passive zone or two wedges in both active and passive zones near the mudline, depending on the separation or bonding state at the interface between the cylindrical structure and neighboring soils in the active wedge, and a truncated spherical slip surface at the base of the cylinder when the structure tends to overturn around a point located on the symmetry axis of the structure. The cylindrical structure and soil interaction system under consideration is also numerically analyzed by the finite element method by virtue of the general-purpose FEM software ABAQUS, in which the soil is assumed to obey tie Hill's criterion of yield. Both the failure mechanism assumed and the plastic limit analysis predictions are validated by numerical computations based on FEM. For the K0-consolidated ground of clays typically with anisotropic undrained strength property, it is indicated through a parametric study that limit analysis without consideration of anisotropy of soil overestimates the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of a deeply-embedded cylindrical structure in soft ground in a certain condition.

  15. Earthquake damage potential and critical scour depth of bridges exposed to flood and seismic hazards under lateral seismic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shin-Tai; Wang, Chun-Yao; Huang, Wen-Hsiu

    2015-12-01

    Many bridges located in seismic hazard regions suffer from serious foundation exposure caused by riverbed scour. Loss of surrounding soil significantly reduces the lateral strength of pile foundations. When the scour depth exceeds a critical level, the strength of the foundation is insufficient to withstand the imposed seismic demand, which induces the potential for unacceptable damage to the piles during an earthquake. This paper presents an analytical approach to assess the earthquake damage potential of bridges with foundation exposure and identify the critical scour depth that causes the seismic performance of a bridge to differ from the original design. The approach employs the well-accepted response spectrum analysis method to determine the maximum seismic response of a bridge. The damage potential of a bridge is assessed by comparing the imposed seismic demand with the strengths of the column and the foundation. The versatility of the analytical approach is illustrated with a numerical example and verified by the nonlinear finite element analysis. The analytical approach is also demonstrated to successfully determine the critical scour depth. Results highlight that relatively shallow scour depths can cause foundation damage during an earthquake, even for bridges designed to provide satisfactory seismic performance.

  16. Modal Analysis of Drilling Machine Derrick

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the finite element analysis software ( ANSYS ) is applied to the modal analysis of a ZJ30/1700CZ 's drilling machine derrick under a natural condition and a loaded condition, respectively. The preceding nine step natural frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes of the derrick are calculated. By means of the comparison of the natural frequency of the derrick with the design work frequency of the drilling machine and the analysis of the step mode shape of the derrick, the drilling machine derrick structure design is proved to be correct.

  17. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  18. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  19. Introduction to drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Malcom

    1989-12-01

    Terrestrial drilling technology is reviewed. The general requirements for a drilling system are given and conventional drilling techniques (rotary drag-bit, rotary roller-bit, percussive, rotary percussive) are described. Unconventional techniques for penetrating solids are outlined, including thermal drilling (spalling or melting), projectile penetration, high pressure liquid jets, explosive jets, erosion by projectile streams, and chemical penetration. Special attention is given to drilling in ice and frozen soils, performance data are given, including values for penetration rate and specific energy consumption. The principles, theory and equipment relating to each drilling technique are indicated by means of diagrams.

  20. The Hans Tausen drill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Sigfus Johann; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder

    2007-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, excellent results from the GRIP and GISP2 deep drilling projects in Greenland opened up funding for continued ice-coring efforts in Antarctica (EPICA) and Greenland (NorthGRIP). The Glaciology Group of the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, was assigned the task...... of providing drilling capability for these projects, as it had done for the GRIP project. The group decided to further simplify existing deep drill designs for better reliability and ease of handling. The drill design decided upon was successfully tested on Hans Tausen Ice Cap, Peary Land, Greenland, in 1995....... The 5.0 m long Hans Tausen (HT) drill was a prototype for the ~11 m long EPICA and NorthGRIP versions of the drill which were mechanically identical to the HT drill except for a much longer core barrel and chips chamber. These drills could deliver up to 4 m long ice cores after some design improvements...

  1. Subsurface lateral flow from hillslope and its contribution to nitrate loading in streams through an agricultural catchment during subtropical rainstorm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Tang, J. L.; Gao, Ch.; Zepp, H.

    2011-10-01

    Subsurface lateral flow from agricultural hillslopes is often overlooked compared with overland flow and tile drain flow, partly due to the difficulties in monitoring and quantifying. The objectives of this study were to examine how subsurface lateral flow generated through soil pedons from cropped hillslopes and to quantify its contribution to nitrate loading in the streams through an agricultural catchment in the subtropical region of China. Profiles of soil water potential along hillslopes and stream hydro-chemographs in a trenched stream below a cropped hillslope and at the catchment outlet were simultaneously recorded during two rainstorm events. The dynamics of soil water potential showed positive matrix soil water potential over impermeable soil layer at 0.6 to 1.50 m depths during and after the storms, indicating soil water saturation and drainage processes along the hillslopes irrespective of land uses. The hydro-chemographs in the streams, one trenched below a cropped hillslope and one at the catchment outlet, showed that the concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus corresponded well to stream flow during the storm, while the nitrate concentration increased on the recession limbs of the hydrographs after the end of the storm. All the synchronous data revealed that nitrate was delivered from the cropped hillslope through subsurface lateral flow to the streams during and after the end of the rainstorms. A chemical mixing model based on electricity conductivity (EC) and H+ concentration was successfully established, particularly for the trenched stream. The results showed that the subsurface lateral flow accounted for 29% to 45% of total stream flow in the trenched stream, responsible for 86% of total NO3--N loss (or 26% of total N loss), and for 5.7% to 7.3% of total stream flow at the catchment outlet, responsible for about 69% of total NO3--N loss (or 28% of total N loss). The results suggest that subsurface lateral flow through hydraulically

  2. Subsurface lateral flow from hillslope and its contribution to nitrate loading in streams through an agricultural catchment during subtropical rainstorm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface lateral flow from agricultural hillslopes is often overlooked compared with overland flow and tile drain flow, partly due to the difficulties in monitoring and quantifying. The objectives of this study were to examine how subsurface lateral flow generated through soil pedons from cropped hillslopes and to quantify its contribution to nitrate loading in the streams through an agricultural catchment in the subtropical region of China. Profiles of soil water potential along hillslopes and stream hydro-chemographs in a trenched stream below a cropped hillslope and at the catchment outlet were simultaneously recorded during two rainstorm events. The dynamics of soil water potential showed positive matrix soil water potential over impermeable soil layer at 0.6 to 1.50 m depths during and after the storms, indicating soil water saturation and drainage processes along the hillslopes irrespective of land uses. The hydro-chemographs in the streams, one trenched below a cropped hillslope and one at the catchment outlet, showed that the concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus corresponded well to stream flow during the storm, while the nitrate concentration increased on the recession limbs of the hydrographs after the end of the storm. All the synchronous data revealed that nitrate was delivered from the cropped hillslope through subsurface lateral flow to the streams during and after the end of the rainstorms. A chemical mixing model based on electricity conductivity (EC and H+ concentration was successfully established, particularly for the trenched stream. The results showed that the subsurface lateral flow accounted for 29% to 45% of total stream flow in the trenched stream, responsible for 86% of total NO3-N loss (or 26% of total N loss, and for 5.7% to 7.3% of total stream flow at the catchment outlet, responsible for about 69% of total NO3-N loss (or 28% of total N

  3. Joint Rescue Drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Ships gather for a joint rescue drill at the Waigaoqiao Dock in Shanghai on August 24.A large-scale rescue drill, combining maritime and air forces,was held as part of the ongoing World Maritime Rescue Conference 2011 in the city.During the drill,

  4. The Auto-Gopher Deep Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea

    2014-01-01

    Subsurface penetration by coring, drilling or abrading is of great importance for a large number of space and earth applications. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) has been in development at JPL's Nondestructive Evaluation and Advanced Actuators (NDEAA) lab as an adaptable tool for many of these applications. The USDC uses a novel drive mechanism to transform the high frequency ultrasonic or sonic vibrations of the tip of a horn into a lower frequency sonic hammering of a drill bit through an intermediate free-flying mass. The USDC device idea has been implemented at various scales from handheld drills to large diameter coring devices. A series of computer programs that model the function and performance of the USDC device were developed and were later integrated into an automated modeling package. The USDC has also evolved from a purely hammering drill to a rotary hammer drill as the design requirements increased form small diameter shallow drilling to large diameter deep coring. A synthesis of the Auto-Gopher development is presented in this paper.

  5. 水平荷载下导管架平台桩基础的非线性有限元分析%Nonlinear finite element analysis of jacket platform pile foundations under lateral loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁志林; 段梦兰; 陈祥余; 钟超; 王建国

    2012-01-01

    导管架平台桩基础的控制荷载主要为风荷载、波浪荷载、地震荷载等水平荷载,为研究水平荷载下导管架平台桩基础的承载特性,采用非线性有限元分析方法对水平荷载下桩-土之间的相互作用进行研究,提出了有效模拟桩基水平承载特性的有限元模型,分析了模型桩的刚度、直径、土质参数中水平土压力系数、剪胀角对桩基承载特性的影响及水平荷载下群桩承载特性,并将有限元计算结果与API规范及模型试验结果进行对比.研究结果表明,非线性有限元分析方法分析水平荷载下桩-土相互作用是可行的,计算结果可为导管架平台的桩基设计提供参考.%The control loads of jacket platform pile foundations are the wind load, wave load, seismic load and other lateral loads. A fundamental study of the soil response of piles subjected to lateral loads is conducted using the nonlinear finite element analysis. A finite element model is established to simulate the response of a pile subjected to lateral loads effectively. The effects of pile properties, i.e. stiffness and diameter and soil properties, i.e., coefficient of horizontal earth pressure, dilation angle on the response of a pile subjected to lateral loads are investigated. In addition, the response of pile groups under lateral loads is also analyzed. Finally, the results of finite element analysis are compared with API recommendations and the model test results. The results of the study show that the nonlinear finite element analysis is accurate in analyzing soil response of piles subjected to lateral loads. The calculation results can provide reference for the pile foundation design of jacket platform.

  6. 深水采油树下放过程钻柱力学分析%Drill string mechanical analysis of running deepwater oil tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林秀娟; 肖文生; 王鸿雁

    2011-01-01

    根据海洋环境载荷和材料力学理论,考虑钻柱参数、海洋环境载荷、钻井船漂移量、作业水深及采油树重力等特征,建立深水采油树下放过程钻柱力学分析模型.通过对模型进行数值求解,对不同影响因素下沿钻柱的横向位移、漂移角、弯矩和剪力进行分析.结果表明:波浪载荷对钻柱上部的弯矩影响很大而对钻柱横向位移影响很小,对采油树深水下放忽略波浪力不会产生较大的误差;钻井船的漂移量对钻柱横向位移有一定的影响而对钻柱偏移角、弯矩和剪力几乎没有影响;海水阻力系数、海面海流速度及作业水深对深水采油树下放过程钻柱强度均有较大的影响.%A mechanical analytical model of drill string for running deepwater oil tree was established according to the marine environmental load and material mechanics theory. The drill string parameter, the marine environmental load, drilling ship drift, operating water depth and subsea tree weight were considered in the model. The lateral displacement, angular distortion , bending moment and shear force were analyzed. The results show that wave load has great effect on bending moment of the drill string head, but has little influence on lateral displacement, thus it can't produce large error without considering deepwater wave load. Drilling ship drift has certain effect on lateral displacement of the drill string, but has little influence on angular distortion, bending moment and shear force of the drill string. The resistance coefficient, current velocity and operating water depth all have great influences on the drill string strength of running deepwater oil tree.

  7. Quality in drilling operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, E.; Gervais, I. [Sedco Forex Jacintoport Facility, Channelview, TX (United States); Le Moign, Y.; Pangarkar, S.; Stibbs, B. [Sedco Forex, Montrouge (France); McMorran, P. [Sedco Forex, Pau (France); Nordquist, E. [Dubai Petroleum Company, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Pittman, T. [Sedco Forex, Perth (Australia); Schindler, H. [Sedco Forex, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Scott, P. [Woodside Offshore Petroleum Pty. Ltd., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Driven by cost and profitability pressures, quality has taken on new meaning and importance in the oil field during the past decade. In drilling operations, new initiatives have led to cooperative team efforts between operators and drilling contractors to enhance quality. In this article examples are given of how one drilling contractor, by adopting a quality culture, is reaping major benefits for its clients as well as its employees. 22 figs., 19 refs.

  8. Drilling cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  9. Horizontal drilling in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidey, P.; Precul, L. [Sproule Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A review of oil and gas production in Ontario was presented with particular reference to drilling activity between 1987 to mid 2002 when 1450 vertical wells were drilled, of which 1100 were for petroleum production and the remainder were for gas storage, observation wells, private gas wells and stratigraphic tests. Of the 1100 vertical wells drilled for petroleum production, 40 per cent became gas wells, 16 per cent became oil wells, 4 per cent became oil and gas wells, and 40 per cent were dry. During the same time period, 133 horizontal wells were also drilled, mostly for petroleum. The most active operator was Talisman Energy, which drilled 101 of the 133 horizontal wells. The remainder were drilled by 12 other companies. Of the horizontal wells, 64 per cent became oil wells, 19 per cent became gas wells, and 17 per cent were dry. This presentation included graphs depicting which oil and gas pools saw vertical or horizontal drilling during the designated time period, and explained how the wells were classified. Both horizontal and vertical well targets were illustrated. Particular reference was made to Talisman Energy's Lake Erie Drilling program which revealed that horizontal wells have an initial production rate that is 5 times that expected from vertical wells. The Hillman Pool case study revealed that the initial rate of the average horizontal well is less than half that of the average vertical well. Horizontal drilling in the Lake Erie Morpeth Gas pool has also been a commercial success. This paper demonstrates that operators have maintained Ontario's oil and gas production at high levels. In 1997 widespread horizontal drilling began taking place in Ontario, and since then, approximately 30 per cent of the wells drilled in the province have been horizontal. 16 figs.

  10. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash M Bharadwaj

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  11. Distributed downhole drilling network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  12. Drilling Optimization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayaka S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available With rapidly growing global demand for energy resources, oil and gas exploration & production companies face mounting pressure to maximize supply and increase the rate of discovery for new energy sources. Increasingly operating in more remote locations and investing heavily in equipment and facilities, companies face greater financial and operational risks than ever before. Optimization of drilling parameters during drilling operations aims to optimize weight on bit, bit rotation speed for obtaining maximum drilling rate as well as minimizing the drilling cost. Communication and computer technologies are among the most important disciplines which can contribute to drilling optimization. Large amount of data could be piped through different locations on the planet in reliable and time efficient manners.

  13. Advanced drilling systems study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis (Livesay Consultants, Encintas, CA)

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  14. 水平偏心荷载下斜桩群桩受力性状的离心机模型试验%Centrifugal model tests on batter pile groups under eccentric lateral loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾明; 陈仁朋; 孔令刚; 陈云敏; 张浙杭

    2014-01-01

    A series of centrifugal model tests are conducted to investigate the behavior of pile groups in sand subjected to eccentric lateral loads, especially the role of batter pile groups in resisting lateral or eccentric loads. The preparation and the procedure of the tests are described. The test results reveal that the eccentric distance of the lateral loads will affect the lateral response of the pile groups to some extent within the experimental range, but have little effect on the torsional behavior of the pile groups. The bearing capacity of the plumb pile group under lateral loads with eccentric distance of 4.3D is higher than that of zero and 7.1D. The capacity of the batter pile groups subjected to lateral, eccentric or torsional loads is much higher than that of the plumb pile groups. Under the eccentric loads, the differences between the lateral displacements of individual piles within the batter pile groups are larger than those in the plumb pile groups, and they also increase with the eccentric distance of the lateral loads. The shear forces and lateral displacements at head of individual piles are different in direction. The axial forces of individual piles within the batter pile groups are dramatically larger than those in the plumb pile groups under the same load condition, which illustrates that batter pile groups can more effectively resist the lateral loads than the plumb pile groups by taking full advantages of the axial capacity of individual piles.%为研究斜桩群桩在水平偏心荷载下的受力性状,在砂土中开展了一系列离心机模型试验,着重对比了直桩群桩和斜桩群桩抵抗水平及偏心荷载的不同特性。详细介绍了模型试验的装置、方法以及内容。试验结果表明:水平荷载偏心距大小对群桩水平承载力有一定的影响,但是对群桩扭转承载力的影响较小。对于直桩群桩,在试验范围内小偏心距(4.3倍桩径)加载对应的水平承载力大

  15. Microhole Drilling Tractor Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Western Well Tool

    2007-07-09

    highly efficient tool that both delivers high level of force for the pressure available and inherently increases downhole reliability because parts are less subject to contamination. The On-Off feature is essential to drilling to allow the Driller to turn off the tractor and pull back while circulating in cleanout runs that keep the hole clean of drilling debris. The gripping elements have wide contact surfaces to the formation to allow high loads without damage to the formation. As part of the development materials evaluations were conducted to verify compatibility with anticipated drilling and well bore fluids. Experiments demonstrated that the materials of the tractor are essentially undamaged by exposure to typical drilling fluids used for horizontal coiled tubing drilling. The design for the MDT was completed, qualified vendors identified, parts procured, received, inspected, and a prototype was assembled. As part of the assembly process, WWT prepared Manufacturing instructions (MI) that detail the assembly process and identify quality assurance inspection points. Subsequent to assembly, functional tests were performed. Functional tests consisted of placing the MDT on jack stands, connecting a high pressure source to the tractor, and verifying On-Off functions, walking motion, and operation over a range of pressures. Next, the Shop Demonstration Test was performed. An existing WWT test fixture was modified to accommodate operation of the 3.38 inch diameter MDT. The fixture simulated the tension applied to a tractor while walking (pulling) inside 4.0 inch diameter pipe. The MDT demonstrated: (1) On-off function, (2) Pulling forces proportional to available differential pressure up to 4000 lbs, (3) Walking speeds to 1100 ft/hour. A field Demonstration of the MDT was arranged with a major oil company operating in Alaska. A demonstration well with a Measured Depth of approximately 15,000 ft was selected; however because of problems with the well drilling was stopped

  16. Study of drilling muds on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier in directional drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-fu He

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to some drawbacks of conventional drilling methods and drilling tools, the application of hydraulic hammers with a fluidic amplifier have been extensively popularized since its emergence in recent years. However, the performance life of a fluidic amplifier is still unsatisfactory in oil and gas wells drilling, especially the heavy wear or erosion of the fluidic amplifier leads to the reduction of service life time of hydraulic hammers, which is derived from the incision of drilling muds with high speed and pressure. In order to investigate the influence of drilling muds, such as particle size, solid content and jet velocity, on the antierosion property of a fluidic amplifier, several groups of drilling muds with different performance parameters have been utilized to numerical simulation on basis of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. Simulation results have shown that the jet nozzle of fluidic amplifiers is primarily abraded, afterwards are the lateral plates and the wedge of the fluidic amplifier, which shows extraordinary agreement with the actual cases of fluidic amplifier in drilling process. It can be concluded that particle size, solid content and jet velocity have a great influence on the anti-erosion property of a fluidic amplifier, and the erosion rate linearly varies with the particle size of drilling muds, nevertheless exponentially varies with solid content and jet velocity of drilling muds. As to improve the service life time of a fluidic amplifier, the mud purification system or low solid clay-free mud system is suggested in the operation of directional well drilling

  17. Drilling and well technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milheim, K. [Mining University Leoben Institute for Drilling Technology, (Austria)

    1996-12-31

    Over a billion dollars a year is lost by exploration and production companies drilling wells because of the lack of learn curve management (LMC) practices. This paper presents the importance of the LMC concept, what it is, why LMC has not yet been recognized as a major initiative for improving drilling cost performance. The paper discusses the different types of planning, problems with implementation of plans, the use and misuse of drilling results and data bases, and the lack of post analysis practices. The major point of the paper is to show the massive savings that can be achieved by valuing LMC, learning LMC and successfully implementing LMC. . 2 refs., 5 figs.

  18. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Register on September 9, 2010 (75 FR 54912). The hearing was held in Washington, DC, on January 5, 2011... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22,...

  19. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of January 6, 2010 (75 FR 877). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings...

  20. Nonpolluting drilling fluid composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, D.E.; Mocek, C.J.; Mouton, R.J.

    1983-02-22

    Disclosed is a nonpolluting drilling fluid composition. The composition mixture consisting essentially of a concentrate and any nonpolluting oil. The concentrate consists essentially of diethanolamide, a fatty acid, and a imidazoline/amide mixture.

  1. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Resource Priorities in Continental Drilling J. J. Hemley 12 Aspects of Continental Crustal Structure and Growth Scott Smithson 13 Deep-Drilling Targets...Time of Workshop Allen F. Agnew Library of Congress Clarence R. Allen California Institute of Technology Orson L. Anderson University of California at...Skinner Yale University Norman H. Sleep Northwestern University Laurence L. Sloss Northwestern University Scott B. Smithson University of Wyoming

  2. 轴向荷载对斜桩水平承载特性影响试验及理论研究%Test and theoretical research on influence of axial load on lateral bearing capacity of batter piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      斜群桩受水平荷载作用时,群桩中的基桩受到径向荷载、轴向荷载和弯矩的共同作用。为研究轴向荷载对斜桩水平承载特性的影响,完成了3根单桩以及1组1×2斜桩的大尺寸模型试验。试验结果表明:轴向拉力作用会降低斜桩的水平刚度和极限承载力;而轴向压力作用则会使其水平刚度和极限承载力提高。基于桩侧浅层土体楔形破坏假定,推导了考虑轴向荷载影响的斜桩水平极限土抗力计算公式,提出了桩侧土抗力的p-y曲线方法,并通过模型试验及现场试验验证其合理性。%When batter pile group are under lateral load, the foundation piles in pile group are subjected to radial load, axial load and bending moment. In order to study the influence of axial load on lateral bearing capacity of batter piles, large-scale model tests of three single piles and a 1×2 batter pile group have been conducted in a larger soil tank. It is found that the upward axial force on the pile top decreases the lateral stiffness and the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of batter pile; while the downward axial force enhances the horizontal stiffness and the lateral ultimate bearing capacity of batter pile. Based on the assumption of wedge failure of the shallow soil around piles, considering the influence of axial load on piles, a formula for calculating the lateral ultimate resistance force of soil is deduced. Then, a p-y curve method for resistance force of soil around piles is proposed. Finally, the formula and the proposed p-y curve method for batter pile are verified by model tests and field tests.

  3. Paramagnetism shielding in drilling fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Li,Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    In drilling operations, drilling fluid containing magnetic materials is used when drilling a well. The materials can significantly shield the Earth’s magnetic field as measured by magnetic sensors inside the drilling strings. The magnetic property of the drilling fluid is one of the substantial error sources for the determination of magnetic azimuth for wellbores. Both the weight material, cuttings, clay and other formation material plus metal filings from the tubular wear m...

  4. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Ryabchikov, Sergey Yakovlevich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling t...

  5. Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) Technology and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. G. Cai; X. N. Wang

    2004-01-01

    @@ 1 What is Horizontal Directional Drilling? Horizontal Directional Drilling, accurately steered drilling, has become state -of- the -art drilling technique in the world. Specially- designed directionsteerable corebarrel and accurate direction measurement tool are available for the use together with wire line core drilling machine. That makes it feasible to extract cores and to measure the drill travel line &length while drilling in a curve.

  6. In the zone - first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system; Drilling technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    Statoil recently successfully tested the world's first rotary steerable liner-while-drilling system from its Brage platform in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. This innovative technology - with applications in new and mature fields - was jointly developed by Statoil and Baker Hughes Incorporated. The concept of a rotary steerable system that gives operators the ability to accurately drill and log three-dimensional well profiles with a liner attached directly to the drillstring is entirely new. The system is designed to withstand high circulation rates and high torque loads while providing liner connect and disconnect capabilities. (Author)

  7. Self drilling rock bolt technology - development of self drilling rock bolt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Gray [Ground Support Services (Australia)

    2007-06-15

    A new Self Drilling Rock Bolt (SDRB) system has been developed which uses a pumpable resin system for full column resin encapsulation for immediate roof and rib support. A new drilling and injection system has also been developed to enable fast and efficient bolt installation. This new SDRB provides higher tensile strength than conventional solid bolts, and also provides a load transfer capacity that is almost double that of conventional bolts. This new SDRB uses low viscosity pumpable resin to ensure full encapsulation right down to the collar.

  8. Evacuation drill at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont-Sagorin and Christoph Schaefer

    2012-01-01

    Training personnel, including evacuation guides and shifters, checking procedures, improving collaboration with the CERN Fire Brigade: the first real-life evacuation drill at CMS took place on Friday 3 February from 12p.m. to 3p.m. in the two caverns located at Point 5 of the LHC.   CERN personnel during the evacuation drill at CMS. Evacuation drills are required by law and have to be organized periodically in all areas of CERN, both above and below ground. The last drill at CMS, which took place in June 2007, revealed some desiderata, most notably the need for a public address system. With this equipment in place, it is now possible to broadcast audio messages from the CMS control room to the underground areas.   The CMS Technical Coordination Team and the GLIMOS have focused particularly on preparing collaborators for emergency situations by providing training and organizing regular safety drills with the HSE Unit and the CERN Fire Brigade. This Friday, the practical traini...

  9. Chinese Drilling Crews Active Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ China Great Wall Drilling Company signed a US$5 million contract with Tunis Joint Venture Petroleum Company in late April for drilling five wells in the middle coastal area of Tunis. This is the first time Tunis has invited the tenders from foreign companies for a drilling project. The participants in the bidding include other 11 drilling companies from the United States, Australia, Croatia and other countries. The drilling operation is expected to start from June this year. Founded in 1995, Great Wall Drilling Company is a subsidiary of CNPC International Engineering Company. The drilling company is now operating more than 50 Chinesemade drilling rigs overseas and involved in the drilling projects in 15 countries and regions such as Sudan, Iran, Indonesia, Egypt, Canada, Kazakhstan,Venezuela and other countries. The Tunis project is the 15th one of the company.

  10. Computer monitors drilling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-05-01

    Computer systems that can monitor over 40 drilling variables, display them graphically, record and transmit the information have been developed separately by two French companies. The systems, Vigigraphic and Visufora, involve the linking of a master computer with various surface and downhole sensors to measure the data on a real-time (as experienced) basis and compute the information. Vigigraphic is able to produce graphic displays grouped on four screens - drilling, tripping, geological and mud data. It computes at least 200 variables from the sensor readings, and it can store over 100 variables. Visufora allows the operator to group the drilling variables as desired. It can monitor and analyze surface and downhole parameters. The system can be linked with MWD tools. Twenty channels of input are assigned to surface values and the remaining 20 channels can be used to monitor downhole instrumentation.

  11. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  12. The Oman Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  13. Drilling comparison in "warm ice" and drill design comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, L.; Motoyama, H.; Wilhelms, F.

    2007-01-01

    at each site, the drilling rate dropped and the drilling teams had to deal with refrozen ice on cutters and drill heads. Drills have different limits and perform differently. In this comparative study, we examine depth, pressure, temperature, pump flow and cutting speed. Finally, we compare a few......For the deep ice-core drilling community, the 2005/06 Antarctic season was an exciting and fruitful one. In three different Antarctic locations, Dome Fuji, EPICA DML and Vostok, deep drillings approached bedrock (the ice-water interface in the case of Vostok), emulating what had previously been...... achieved at NorthGRIP, Greenland, (summer 2003 and 2004) and at EPICA Dome C2, Antarctica (season 2004/05). For the first time in ice-core drilling history, three different types of drill (KEMS, JARE and EPICA) simultaneously reached the depth of 'warm ice' under high pressure. After excellent progress...

  14. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  15. Algebra task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the algebraic concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are opportunities for problem-solving, patterning, algebraic graphing, equations and determining averages. The combined task & drill sheets

  16. Drill on Android

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    HES-SO DRILLER est une application de drill disponible sur Cyberlearn qui permet aux utilisateurs d’effectuer des quizz relatifs à la programmation. Le principe étant que les professeurs créent leurs quizz et les étudiants puissent y jouer. Les scores obtenus sont comptabilisés et comparés sur Facebook. Ce projet a pour but d’analyser cette application et de l’adapter afin de l’utiliser sur un client mobile Android sous le nom de Drill on Android.

  17. Moment Contribution Capacity of Tendon Prestressed Partial on Concrete Beam-column Joint Interior According to Provisions ACI 318-2008 Chapter 21.5.2.5(c Due to Cyclic Lateral Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astawa Made Dharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research designed a partial prestressed concrete beam-column with reinforced concrete interior joint, using square columns of 400/400 mm, reinforcement 6 D16 + 4D13, section beam 250/400 mm, tensile reinforcement 5 D13, compression reinforcement 3 D13 + 2 strand tendon D12,7 mm , and joint without plastic hinge, then tested in laboratory with lateral cyclic loads on peak column, static axial load 1120 kN on the centre column, to get the tendon capacity to assume positive and negative bending moments due to lateral load, according to provisions of ACI 318-2008 part 21.5.2.5 (c. Test results showed that the moment tendon contribution on beam section, in the tensile area, the positive and negative moment both on the left side or the right side column are all qualified ( 25 %. As for the negative moment, either left or right side column are all qualified (4.0. Although the contribution of positive moment capacity tendon in compression areas does not qualify, in overall, the reliability and ductility of the structure qualify.

  18. Deep Drilling Technology of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Rongfu

    1995-01-01

    @@ Since the drilling of well Songji-6 by the drilling crew No. 32139 in Daqing in 1963,there havebeen some 1600 over 4 000 m deep wells completed till 1993, among which two are above 7 000 m in depth.

  19. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.

    1998-11-01

    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  20. Steerable shaft drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigott, C.P. (Pigott Shaft Drilling Ltd., Preston (UK))

    1990-03-01

    The paper outlines the techniques of steerable shaft drilling and gives brief details of the various machines currently available to carry out this task. It summarizes the many potential benefits of using this method, which could lead to more mines having multiple shafts, each serving a specific purpose. 8 figs.

  1. Drilling Optimization Utilizing Surface Instrumentaton for Downhole Event Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Greg Deskins

    2006-02-01

    This DOE project was undertaken to develop and test an instrumented data-acquisition sub that is mounted in a drill string below the top drive and used to detect downhole events. Data recorded at the surface during drilling operations would then be processed and presented to the driller to discern undesirable drilling conditions and help optimize drilling rates and maximize the life of components in the BHA. This instrumented sub was originally conceived and developed solely as a single-point collection center for rig data that would be used in a number of Noble's products. The sub was designed to collect hook load, rotary torque, rotary speed, rotary position, drill pipe pressure, mud temperature, triaxial vibration, and triaxial magnetometer data. The original design and fabrication was by Sandia National Labs under Noble's direction, which was then tested with Sandia's diagnostics-while-drilling downhole package. After initial results were analyzed, the team surmised that important information describing performance and condition of the bottom-hole assembly (BHA) was embedded in the data recorded by the instrumented sub, and began investigating the potential of using surface measurements from the sub to highlight problems occurring downhole before they could be discerned by the driller. Later, a proposal was submitted to DOE for funding to more broadly investigate use of the system for detecting downhole problems while drilling. Soon after DOE awarded this contract, the Noble team responsible for the previous developments was disbanded and their work terminated (due to factors unrelated to the sub development). This change halted the complementary work that Noble had planned to conduct during the DOE project, and necessitated that all the development work be completed by the DOE project. More effort was expended on the project to develop a field-ready prototype than was originally foreseen. The sub's design had to be significantly modified

  2. 45130-Drilling Crew First Enter into the International Drilling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Zhixian; Drilling

    1995-01-01

    @@ 45130-Drilling Crew subordinate to the Fourth Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau, won the two bids of risk exploration drilling projects, respectively for China Ltd. Co. of New Zealand Petroleum Exploration Company worked in the Dongtinghu Basin in 1992 and Amoco Orient Oil Co.worked in the Fuyang area, Anhui Province in November of 1993.According to the two contracts that have been signed, the two drilling wells were successfully completed,all drilling parameters are in accordance with the requirements of both contracts.

  3. FY 79 Lava Lake Drilling Program: results of drilling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, R.R.; Striker, R.P.; Curlee, R.M.

    1979-12-01

    A drilling program was conducted in December 1978 and January and February 1979 to continue the characterization of the solid and liquid rock components of the Kilauea Iki lava lake. Six holes were drilled from the surface and two previously drilled holes were reentered and deepened for the purposes of measuring downhole temperature profiles, recovering samples of solid, plastic, and molten rock, measuring crust permeability, and determining the performance of conventional and special drilling techniques. Conventional HQ-size (3.78 inches diameter) core drilling equipment using water for cooling and cuttings removal was used to successfully drill during initial entry into 1052/sup 0/C formations. Conventional drilling in reentering flow-back rock was less reliable. The specially designed water jet-augmented drag bit or water jet-augmented core bit was needed to drill reliably into the plastic flow-back rock and through liquid rock veins. This document contains the drill performance data which were recorded during drilling in the crust and the plastic and molten rock zones using both conventional and special drilling procedures and equipment.

  4. Method of drilling with magnetorheological fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zitha, P.L.J.

    2003-01-01

    A method of drilling a bore hole into a stratum, wherein via the drill hole drilling fluid is introduced and fed to the drill head. In order to avoid dilution or leak-off of the drilling fluid the same is in accordance with the invention a magnetorheological drilling fluid, and when an undesirable p

  5. Drilling subsurface wellbores with cutting structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansure, Arthur James; Guimerans, Rosalvina Ramona

    2010-11-30

    A system for forming a wellbore includes a drill tubular. A drill bit is coupled to the drill tubular. One or more cutting structures are coupled to the drill tubular above the drill bit. The cutting structures remove at least a portion of formation that extends into the wellbore formed by the drill bit.

  6. A modified lateral-load pattern for pushover analysis of torsion-irregular structures%扭转不规则结构水平侧向力分布模式与pushover分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐玉; 郑七振; 楼梦麟

    2012-01-01

    水平侧向力分布模式的施加问题是合理进行pushover分析的关键环节.对于可以简化为平面模型的结构,传统的水平侧向力分布模式表现出较好的适用性,但对于因扭转不规则而导致必须采用空间模型的结构则并不适用.为此,针对扭转不规则结构的水平侧向力分布模式问题,并基于该类结构的地震响应特征,通过引入水平侧向力调整系数和水平侧向力分配系数,提出了扭转不规则结构改进的水平侧向力分布模式.对一具有典型扭转不规则特性的空间钢框架结构分别进行改进分布模式下的pushover分析和IV类场地典型地震动作用下的弹塑性时程分析,计算结果显示:改进分布模式下的pushover分析体现出扭转效应对结构反应的影响,并在一定程度上反映出更多的结构抗震信息,验证了所格出模式的可行性,说明pushover分析法也同样适用于扭转不规则结构.%The influence of lateral-load pattern on models is a key to pushover analysis. For a structure which can be simplified to a plane model, the traditional lateral-load pattern shows a practical application. But it doesn' t work when it comes to those that must he simulaLed as a space model because of torsion-irregular. Aiming at finding an appropriate lateral-load pattern for pushover analysis of torsion-irregular structures, and based on the seismic response of torsi on-irregular structures, a modified lateral-lode pattern is produced by introducing the lateral-load adjustment coefficient and the lateral-load distribution coefficient. These two coefficients can consider the issue of uneven stiffness distribution and the influence of high order modes respectively. At last, an example using both SAP2000 for pushover analysis and dynamic time-history analysis testifies the feasibility and validity of the proposed model. The result shows that the modified pushover analysis can get more structural seismic information than

  7. Drilling techniques for osteochondritis dissecans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Benton E; Edmonds, Eric W; Murnaghan, M Lucas; Kocher, Mininder S

    2014-04-01

    Although the advanced stages of osteochondritis dissecans remain challenging to treat, most early-stage lesions in skeletally immature patients, if managed appropriately, can be stimulated to heal. For stable lesions that do not demonstrate adequate healing with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, weight-bearing protection, or bracing, drilling of the subchondral bone has emerged as the gold standard of management. Several techniques of drilling exist, including transarticular drilling, retroarticular drilling, and notch drilling. Although each technique has been shown to be effective in small retrospective studies, higher-powered prospective comparative studies are needed to better elucidate their relative advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Casing and liners for drilling and completion

    CERN Document Server

    Byrom, Ted G

    2007-01-01

    The Gulf Drilling Series is a joint project between Gulf Publishing Company and the International Association of Drilling Contractors. The first text in this Series presents casing design and mechanics in a concise, two-part format. The first part focuses on basic casing design and instructs engineers and engineering students how to design a safe casing string. The second part covers more advanced material and special problems in casing design in a user-friendly format. Learn how to select sizes and setting depths to achieve well objectives, determine casing loads for design purposes, design casing properties to meet burst, collapse and tensile strength requirements and conduct casing running operations safely and successfully.

  9. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Meyers, J.A.; Yost, A.B. II

    1998-12-31

    By increasing penetration rates and bit life, especially in hard formations, the use of down-hole air hammers in the oil field has significantly reduced drilling costs in the Northeast US and West Texas. Unfortunately, drilling by this percussion method has been limited mostly to straight hole applications. This paper presents a new concept of a percussion drilling tool which performs both the function of a down-hole hammer as well as that of a down-hole motor. Such a drilling tool, being introduced here as Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), eliminates the necessity to rotate the drill string and, consequently, enables the use of down-hole air hammers to drill directional wells.

  10. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction without drill holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brief, L P

    1991-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in adolescents with open physes remains a difficult problem for the orthopedic surgeon, especially in view of growing teenage participation in contact sports. Traditionally, treatment of ACL tears in adolescents has been conservative; the patient is advised to delay surgery up to several years for fear of damaging physes by drilling holes across them. Unfortunately, this waiting period may inflict irreparable knee damage. This paper suggests an ACL reconstruction technique that utilizes no drill holes, thus causing no harm to physes or other essential knee structures. A graft consisting of semitendinosus and gracilis (SG) tendons is passed under the anterior horn of the medial meniscus through the knee joint, then brought out through the posterior capsule and secured to the lateral femoral metaphysis. The graft is augmented with an iliotibial band tenodesis. Designed primarily but not exclusively for teenagers with open physes, the procedure has produced encouraging results thus far in a small series.

  11. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Venus is one of the planets in the solar systems that are considered for potential future exploration missions. It has extreme environment where the average temperature is 460 deg C and its ambient pressure is about 90 atm. Since the existing actuation technology cannot maintain functionality under the harsh conditions of Venus, it is a challenge to perform sampling and other tasks that require the use of moving parts. Specifically, the currently available electromagnetic actuators are limited in their ability to produce sufficiently high stroke, torque, or force. In contrast, advances in developing electro-mechanical materials (such as piezoelectric and electrostrictive) have enabled potential actuation capabilities that can be used to support such missions. Taking advantage of these materials, we developed a piezoelectric actuated drill that operates at the temperature range up to 500 deg C and the mechanism is based on the Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) configuration. The detailed results of our study are presented in this paper

  12. Offset drilling obligations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, K.D.; Kalmakoff, J.J. [Kanuka Thuringer, Regina, SK (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A review of the `offset well` clause found in freehold and Crown natural gas and petroleum leases was presented. The objective was to provide lessors and lessees with a clear understanding of the rights and obligations associated with offset wells. It was noted that offset well obligations vary according to the form of lease used, the type of offsetting well, the regulatory regime and the geophysical characteristics of the producing formation. Some suggestions were made as to how current versions of the offset well clause can be amended to overcome some of the problems encountered in applying the clause to an offset horizontal well that has been drilled on adjoining lands. Failure to resolve the new issues presented by horizontal drilling technology in terms of documentation, which records respective rights and obligations on the basis of generally accepted principles, will result in large numbers of conflicts and unnecessary litigation. 144 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Telescopic drilling rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, I.L.; Berezov, S.I.; Gavrilov, G.A.; Goykhman, Ya.A.; Makushkin, D.O.; Rachev, M.P.; Voynich, L.K.

    1981-09-07

    The telescopic drilling rod includes an inner section of the rod, in whose center cable has been passed and is attached a bearing assembly connecting it to the winch, outer section of rod along which there is pipeline connecting the working cavity formed by the inner section of rod and the housing, installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, with cavity formed by framework of the guide swivel and end piece and connected to the hydraulic system of the machine by pipeline, as well as clamping elements. In order to drill wells to a depth greater than the length of the outer sectrion of the rod, the latter jointly with the inner section of rod is lowered into the extreme lower position until swivel rests on the feed mechanism. With further slipping of cable and the absence of pressure in the hydraulic system, clamping elements do not have an effect on the inner section of rod. It has the opportunity to freely move along the outer section of rod downwards to the face. When pressure is supplied on pipeline into cavity and further through pipeline into working cavity, the inner section of rod is clamped with feed of the outer section in the process of drilling, both sections move jointly. Because of the link between working cavity of sleeve installed on the lower end of the outer section of rod, and the hydraulic system of the machine through the swivel cavity, it is possible to fix the drilling rod in any mutual axial position of the section.

  14. Sensor and control for consistent seed drill coulter depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Nørremark, Michael; Green, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The consistent depth placement of seeds is vital for achieving the optimum yield of agricultural crops. In state-of-the-art seeding machines, the depth of drill coulters will vary with changes in soil resistance. This paper presents the retrofitting of an angle sensor to the pivoting point...... of a drill coulter, providing sensor feedback to a control system via an electro hydraulic actuator that delivers an even coulter depth. The results showed a strong correlation between the angle of the coulter and the coulter depth under static (R^2=0.9996) and dynamic (R^2=0.987) operations, verified...... by a sub-millimetre accurate positioning system (iGPS, Nikon Metrology NV, Belgium) mounted on the drill coulter. At a drill coulter depth of 55 mm and controlled by an ordinary fixed spring loaded down force only, the change in soil resistance decreased the mean depth by 23 mm. By dynamically controlling...

  15. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  16. Chaotic Vibration Analysis of the Bottom Rotating Drill String

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qilong Xue

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drill string vibration is a widely studied topic. This paper developed a real-time measurement system near the drilling bit and extracted the lateral vibration, longitudinal vibration time series of bottom rotating drill string. In order to reconstruct the phase space, we estimated the delay time with mutual information and calculated the embedding dimension through Cao’s method. Finally, the chaotic characterization of the system is analyzed by calculating the correlation dimension and the largest Lyapunov exponent. The results show that such system can exhibit positive finite-time Lyapunov exponents and a clear convergence toward the correlation dimension, which is a strong indicator for the chaotic behavior of the system. It is expected that the new dynamics found in this paper could be of potential implication to the control methods of the drill string vibration.

  17. Friction Reduction for Microhole CT Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Newman; Patrick Kelleher; Edward Smalley

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this 24 month project focused on improving microhole coiled tubing drilling bottom hole assembly (BHA) reliability and performance, while reducing the drilling cost and complexity associated with inclined/horizontal well sections. This was to be accomplished by eliminating the need for a downhole drilling tractor or other downhole coiled tubing (CT) friction mitigation techniques when drilling long (>2,000 ft.) of inclined/horizontal wellbore. The technical solution to be developed and evaluated in this project was based on vibrating the coiled tubing at surface to reduce the friction along the length of the downhole CT drillstring. The Phase 1 objective of this project centered on determining the optimum surface-applied vibration system design for downhole CT friction mitigation. Design of the system would be based on numerical modeling and laboratory testing of the CT friction mitigation achieved with various types of surface-applied vibration. A numerical model was developed to predict how far downhole the surface-applied vibration would travel. A vibration test fixture, simulating microhole CT drilling in a horizontal wellbore, was constructed and used to refine and validate the numerical model. Numerous tests, with varying surface-applied vibration parameters were evaluated in the vibration test fixture. The data indicated that as long as the axial force on the CT was less than the helical buckling load, axial vibration of the CT was effective at mitigating friction. However, surface-applied vibration only provided a small amount of friction mitigation as the helical buckling load on the CT was reached or exceeded. Since it would be impractical to assume that routine field operations be conducted at less than the helical buckling load of the CT, it was determined that this technical approach did not warrant the additional cost and maintenance issues that would be associated with the surface vibration equipment. As such, the project was

  18. First implementation of burrowing motions in dual-reciprocating drilling using an integrated actuation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Craig; Gao, Yang

    2017-03-01

    The dual-reciprocating drill (DRD) is a biologically-inspired low-mass alternative to traditional drilling techniques, using backwards-facing teethed halves to grip the surrounding substrate, generating a traction force that reduces the required overhead penetration force. Previous experiments using a proof-of-concept test bench have provided evidence as to the significant role of sideways movements and lateral forces in improving drilling performance. The system is also progressing to a first system prototype concept, in which an actuation mechanism is integrated within the drill heads. To experimentally determine the effect of lateral motions, a new internal actuation mechanism was developed to allow the inclusion of controlled sideways movements, resulting in the creation of the circular and diagonal burrowing motions. This paper presents an investigation into the performance of the reciprocation and burrowing motions by testing them in a planetary regolith simulant. Analysis of force sensor measurements has shown a relationship between the penetration and traction forces and the internal friction of the mechanism and depth achieved. These tests have also experimentally demonstrated the benefit of lateral motions in drilling performance, with both the burrowing mechanisms and drilling tests performed at an angle able to penetrate further than traditional vertical reciprocation, leading to the proposition of new burrowing and diagonal drilling mechanics. From this, a new fully integrated system prototype can be developed which incorporates lateral motions that can optimise the drilling performance.

  19. Importance of drill string assembly swivel in horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund Tasak

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A part of the drill string – the swivel (rotational connector – accomplishes an important task in the horizontal drilling. Its malfunctioning makes it impossible to draw in ( install large diameter and length pipelines. The causes of the connector break-down during the horizontal drilling are investigated in the paper. The drilling has been made for twenty inches gas pipeline installation during reaming operations. A trouble was encountered making good work conditions of a system consisting of the drilling machine drill string reamer swivel tube shield of Cardan joint and the gas pipeline 500 m long. In this case, the swivel brokes down and the planned operation was not finished. The assessment of improper drilling conditions, selection of operation system components, and drilling parameters and the insufficient technological supervising have created an excessive risk of failure. A proper application of technical analysis would considerably decrease the hazard of failure which cause large costs, delays and decrease of confidence to the drilling contractor and pipeline installation.

  20. Drilling successful from ROV Ventana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakes, Debra S.; McFarlane, James A. R.; Holloway, G. Leon; Greene, H. Gary

    Cores of granite and deformed sediment from the walls of Monterey Canyon were successfully recovered from December 30 to 31, 1992, by Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Ventana using a small-diameter, double-barrel drill with a diamond bit. This HSTR (Holloway-Stakes-Tengdin-Rajcula) drill was developed to drill cores horizontally from sulfide/sulfate walls of active black smokers. The drill was first successfully used by the submersible Alvin in October 1991 to drill into massive sulfide chimneys, on the Juan de Fuca Ridge (Eos, June 30, 1992, p. 273), and it was subsequently used with equal success on the chalcopyrite-rich chimneys from 21°N and 9°N on the East Pacific Rise. The recent December dives, however, marked the first time that drilling has ever been attempted from the smaller ROV and the first time coring into the harder igneous rock substrate has been attempted.

  1. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole: Window to the Precambrian bedrock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Suvi; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2017-04-01

    Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is located in eastern Finland, at latitude 62°43'4'' N and longitude 29°3'43'' E. This 2516 m long and fully cored deep hole has been utilized as a geolaboratory open for researchers worldwide since it was drilled in 2004-2005. The 220 mm diameter drill hole is open without a casing (excluding the uppermost 40 m) and thus provides a direct access to in situ conditions to 2.5 km depth. There is a wide range of wire-line logs carried out by the drilling contractor and later by ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) in several logging sessions for geothermal, hydrogeological and deep biosphere studies. Lithology, metamorphism, fluid inclusions, density, magnetic properties, seismic velocities and thermal properties of the drill core have been studied by several international groups. The hole has kept open since the end of drilling enabling future studies to be conducted in it. The drill hole is situated in the southwestern part of the Outokumpu historical mining district famous for its Cu-Co-Zn sulfide deposits. These sulfide deposits are hosted by 1.96 Ga old ophiolitic rock types, known as the Outokumpu assemblage, also penetrated by the deep drill hole at 1314-1515 m depth. Laboratory and in situ petrophysical measurements have provided valuable information about physical properties of the typical rocks of the area that can be utilized in the mineral exploration efforts. The drill site of Outokumpu was chosen based on strong reflectivity observed in the high resolution seismic profiles acquired earlier in the area. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole revealed that these reflections originate from the acoustic impedance variations caused by the ore hosting Outokumpu assemblage. In 2006, surface seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were measured in the drill site, and these data show that not only is Outokumpu assemblage rocks reflective but also water bearing fracture at 965 m depth is observed as a

  2. Suppression strategy for parametrically excited lateral vibration of mass-loaded string%载重绳索参数激励横向振动的减振策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长友; 朱昌明; 林忠钦

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses a simple way to suppress the parametrically excited lateral vibration of a mass-loaded string. Supposing that the mass at the lower end of the string is subjected to a vertical harmonic excitation and neglecting the higher order vibration modes, the equation of motion for the mass-loaded string can be represented by a Mathieus equation with cubic nonlinearity. According to the theory of the Mathieus equation, in the mass-loaded string system, when the vertical vibration frequency of the mass approaches twice the natural frequency of the string lateral vibration, once the vertical vibration amplitude of the mass exceeds a critical value, the parametric resonance will occur in the string. To avoid the parametric resonance, a vibration absorber, composed of a thin beam and two mass blocks attached at both sides of the beam symmetrically, is proposed to install with the mass to reduce its vertical vibration, and ultimately suppress the lateral vibration of the string. Such a suppression strategy is finally validated by experiments.%论述了一种抑制载重绳索参数激励横向振动的简便方法. 假设绳索底端的质量受到一个垂直简谐激励并忽略载重绳索高阶振型的影响, 载重绳索的运动方程可以用一个带有立方非线性项的Mathieu方程来描述. 根据Mathieu方程的有关理论, 在载重绳索系统中, 当索端质量垂直振动的频率接近绳索横向振动固有频率2倍时, 一旦索端质量垂直振动的幅度超过某个临界数值时, 绳索将产生参数共振. 为了避免这种现象, 建议在索端质量上加装一个减振器以削减索端质量的垂直振动, 进而抑制绳索的横向振动. 实验验证了该减振方案的有效性.

  3. An innovative drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J.; Dickinson, E.; Dickinson, W.; Dykstra, H.

    1991-05-01

    The principal project objectives were the following: To demonstrate the capability of the Ultrashort Radius Radial System to drill and complete multiple horizontal radials in a heavy oil formation which had a production history of thermal operations. To study the effects that horizontal radials have on steam placement at specific elevations and on reducing gravity override. To demonstrate that horizontal radials could be utilized for cyclic production, i.e. for purposes of oil production as well as for steam injection. Each of these objectives was successfully achieved in the project. Early production results indicate that radials positively influenced cyclic performance. This report documents those results. 15 refs., 29 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Apparatus for measuring weight, torque and side force on a drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maron, R.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring at least one load applied to a drill bit during the drilling of a well. It comprises: drillstring sub means adapted to be connected in a drillstring above the drill bit; a pair of diametrically opposite openings extending only partially through the wall of the sub from an outer surface of the sub means; plug means in each of the openings. The plug means cooperating with the openings to define an atmospheric chamber means in each of the openings; and weight sensor means in each of the opening for generating an output in response to at least the parameter of weight on the drill bit.

  5. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TerraTek, A Schlumberger Company

    2008-12-31

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill 'faster and deeper' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the 'ultra-high rotary speed drilling system' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm - usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document provides the progress through two phases of the program entitled 'Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling' for the period starting 30 June 2003 and concluding 31 March 2009. The accomplishments of Phases 1 and 2 are summarized as follows: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance (see Black and Judzis); (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments (See Black and Judzis). Improvements were made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs were developed to provided a more consistent product with consistent performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program was completed; (3) TerraTek concluded small-scale cutting performance tests; (4

  6. 30 CFR 33.34 - Drilling test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling test. 33.34 Section 33.34 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.34 Drilling test. (a) A drilling test shall consist of drilling a set of 10 test holes,...

  7. Recent R&D in Drilling Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Zuchen; Huang Zhiqian

    1997-01-01

    @@ Situation for Drilling Equipment Technical performance of drilling equipment and perfection of supporting systems hold the key to drilling safety, technical procedure development and drilling cost. In the end of the 1980s, the stituation for drilling equipment was not optimistic in China because of poor technical performance, low-level supporting system and scarcity of electric-driven rigs.

  8. Temperature change in pig rib bone during implant site preparation by low-speed drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Jong Kim

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the temperature change during low-speed drilling using infrared thermography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Pig ribs were used to provide cortical bone of a similar quality to human mandible. Heat production by three implant drill systems (two conventional drilling systems and one low-speed drilling system was evaluated by measuring the bone temperature using infrared thermography. Each system had two different bur sizes. The drill systems used were twist drill (2.0 mm/2.5 mm, which establishes the direction of the implant, and finally a 3.0 mm-pilot drill. Thermal images were recorded using the IRI1001 system (Infrared Integrated Systems Ltd.. Baseline temperature was 31±1ºC. Measurements were repeated 10 times, and a static load of 10 kg was applied while drilling. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Statistical analysis was conducted with two-way ANOVA. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Mean values (n=10 drill sequences for maximum recorded temperature (Max TºC, change in temperature (ΔTºC from baseline were as follows. The changes in temperature (ΔTºC were 1.57ºC and 2.46ºC for the lowest and the highest values, respectively. Drilling at 50 rpm without irrigation did not produce overheating. There was no significant difference in heat production between the 3 implant drill systems (p>0.05. No implant drill system produced heat exceeding 47ºC, which is the critical temperature for bone necrosis during low-speed drilling. Low-speed drilling without irrigation could be used during implant site preparation.

  9. 冲击载荷下加筋板非线性瞬态分析%Transient Responses of Stiffened Plates under Lateral Impact Load by Semi-analytic Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 刘土光; 刘增荣; 刘敬喜

    2003-01-01

    本文用半解析的方法分析了横向冲击载荷下加筋板的非线性瞬态响应.考虑膜力的存在,忽略筋截面上的剪切应力,引人板的应力函数,采用离散加筋板模型,运用能量原理建立加筋板的动响应控制方程.假设挠度为双级数形式,运用迦辽金法,将加筋板的动响应方程转化为一个多自由度的动力系统,采用数值方法来求解.本文最后给出了几个模型的计算结果.%This paper presents a simple and efficient semi - analytic method to solve the response of stiff-ened plates under lateral impact load. Applying the discrete stiffened plates model, the motion equations ofstiffened plate is deduced using Hamilton's variation principle. Based on the large deformation theory, theyon Karman kinematic relations of the plate and stiffener are considered in the formula. The stress functionsand the deflection of the plate are taken as double Fourier series. The motion equations expressed by deflec-tion are obtained with the Galerkin method, and solved by numerical approach. Examples are given for thenon - linear transient response of stiffened plates tinder lateral impact, and parametric studies are alsoperformed for various stiffener/plate geometric parameters and impact load configurations.

  10. Apparatus for measuring weight, torque and side force on a drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maron, R.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes an apparatus for measuring at least one load applied to a drill bit during the drilling of a well, including: drill string sub means adapted to be connected in a drill string above the drill bit; hole means for defining a pair of diametrically opposite through-hole means in the wall of the sub; plug means in each of the hole means, the plug means cooperating with the through hole means to define an atmospheric chamber means in each of the through hole means; ring means in the centerbore of the drillstring sub; fastener means for connecting the plug means to the annular ring means; weight sensor means in each of the through hole means for generating an output in response to at least the parameter of weight on the drill bit.

  11. 钢管混凝土板柱结点抗侧移性能%Studies on the Lateral Load-Drift Capacity of Steel Pipe Column-Slab Connection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志民; 段珊

    2014-01-01

    对新型钢管混凝土板柱节点的抗侧移性能进行了研究。结果表明,节点不论是在强弯弱冲还是在强冲弱弯的条件下节点的侧移能力均可以达到2%,节点有着良好的抗侧移能力,主要取决于托板的变形能力。节点附加弯矩小,节点按照铰接设计是成立的,其构造形式优于传统节点。%The load-drift functions of a new kind of slab-column connection were studied. The results show that the displacement of the joint can achieve 2% in conditions while shear strength or bending resistance is dominated. Its lateral displacement mainly depends on the deformability of the pallet. This kind of joint benefits in load transfer and its additional moment flexion is low. The structural forms are better than the traditional ones.

  12. Lateral Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Gad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end with a brief illustration and discussion of how lateral conceptualization can re-orient STS modes of inquiry, and why this matters.

  13. Great Progress of Drilling Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Kexiang

    1994-01-01

    @@ A great progress has been made in drilling technology in China from 1986 to 1990 by popularizing research achievements and emphasizing high economic efficiency of exploration and development, high quality of drilling engineering, high drilling rate and formation damage prevention.

  14. Advances in core drilling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, G.

    Some notable technical advances in drill design were reported at the meeting, held in Canada August 30-September 1, 1982, at the University of Calgary. Chief amongst these was a battery powered, computer assisted electromechanical core drill which has recently been used by the Danes in Greenland to continuously core to the base of the ice sheet at 2038 m. This is the deepest coring operation so far on the Greenland ice sheet. (The record for deep glacier drilling is held by the U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory for the continuous coring through 2164 m of ice to bedrock at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in 1968). In early 1982, a current Soviet core drilling operation was reported to be at a depth of 2000 m at Vostok station, Antarctica, where the total ice thickness is about 4000 m; the goal of core drilling the entire ice thickness there could be achieved before the end of 1983.

  15. DRILL BITS FOR HORIZONTAL WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Macini

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper underlines the importance of the correct drill bit application in horizontal wells. Afler the analysis of the peculiarities of horizontal wells and drainholes drilling techniques, advantages and disadvantages of the application of both roller cone and fixed cutters drill bits have been discussed. Also, a review of the potential specific featuries useful for a correct drill bit selection in horizontal small diameter holes has been highlighted. Drill bits for these special applications, whose importance is quickly increasing nowadays, should be characterised by a design capable to deliver a good penetration rate low WOB, and, at the same time, be able to withstand high RPM without premature cutting structure failure and undergauge. Formation properties will also determine the cutting structure type and the eventual specific features for additional gauge and shoulder protection.

  16. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  17. A new concept drilling hoisting systems rigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Artymiuk

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available In rig constructions two nev designs have been introduced apart from the conventional hoisting system. The first one is the Maritime Hydraulics A.S RamRig© drilling concept, based on hydraulic cylinders as actuators powered by up to 3.4 MW of hydraulic power in a closed loop hydraulic system. This synthesis of the well-known technology allows for the use of integrated active and passive heave compensation, as well as the storing and reuse of energy from the lowering phase of an operation. The RamRig concept makes mechanical brakes and clutches obsolete, since hoisting and lowering of the load is controlled solely by the closed loop hydraulics. This decreases the number of critical mechanical components in the hoisting system to a minimum. Safe handling and emergency shut down of extreme amounts of hydraulic power is taking care of by cartridge valves, which make rerouting of hydraulic power possible with minor losses of transferred effect.The second is a new land rig concept based on a patented rack & pinion drive system with a new generation of rigs which can instantly switch between the workover, drilling and the snubbing operations. The new rig concept has a direct drive, thus no drill line. The mobilization time is reduced as the rig has fewer truck loads, a faster rig up and a higher automation level. One land rig currently under construction will be the world’s first single operator unit, with a full pipe handling capability and a fully automated control system. The rig is fully equipped with the 250 T top drive which can be used for the rotation and snubbing, the purpose designed snubbing slips and other features supporting the multifunctional well operations. The paper will focus on features related to the land rig under construction, and how it may reduce the operational cost and improve the well performance.

  18. Automatic evaluation of drilling fluid properties

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Eirik

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is structured in two main parts. First part covers the fundamental role of drilling fluid in the drilling process. It provides a description of the mud circulating system for conventional drilling operations, outlines the basic composition of drilling fluids, and describes the main functions and properties of drilling fluids. Furthermore it describes the current testing procedures and equipment and illustrates how testing is used in the evaluation of drilling fluid ...

  19. Dual gradient drilling - simulations during connection operations

    OpenAIRE

    Time, André

    2014-01-01

    As oilfields are ageing and depleting, operators are forced to start searching for oil in more hostile environments. These new environments can introduce new drilling challenges. Prospects like ultra deep water reservoirs and depleted offshore reservoirs are difficult to drill with conventional drilling. This has lead the industry to developing the Dual Gradient Drilling (DGD) system. DGD is an unconventional drilling method and it is classified as a Managed Pressure Drilling ...

  20. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Layne, R.R. [Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, OK (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  1. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  2. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  3. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Gray, M.A.; Oliver, M.S.

    1995-07-01

    In the Steerable Percussion Air Drilling System (SPADS), air percussion is used to drill directionally in hard formations. Compared to mud or air powered PDM motors, SPADS offers directional drilling at high penetration rate, reduced mud costs, negligible formation damage, and immediate indication of hole productivity. Field tests turned up problems ranging from tool design to operation procedures; remedies were developed. There is an optimum WOB (weight on bit) at which torque is reasonably low. The hammer was tested at three different line pressures (200, 300, 350 psig) at optimum WOB in granite, limestone, and sandstone.

  4. Cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill: Design and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rusheng; Talalay, Pavel; Sun, Youhong; Zheng, Zhichuan; Cao, Pinlu; Zhang, Nan; Chen, Chen; Xu, Huiwen; Xue, Hong; Xue, Jun; Yu, Dahui; Fan, Xiaopeng; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Cheng; Gong, Da; Liu, Chunpeng; Han, Junjie; Yu, Chengfeng; Hong, Jialing; Wang, Lili

    2014-05-01

    Directly obtaining the subglacial bedrock samples is one of the most important tasks of Antarctic exploration in the future, which has great significance to research the formation and evolution of the Antarctic ice sheet, research the environment at the junction of the ice and bedrock, and research the geologic structure in Polar Regions. To drill through ice and bedrock, a new modified version of the cable-suspended Ice and Bedrock Electromechanical Drill 'IBED' is designed. IBED drill has modulus construction. The upper part includes four sections: cable termination, slip rings section, antitorque system, electronic pressure chamber. The motor-gear system is differed by rotation speed of the output shaft of the gear-reducer. All modulus contain 3 kW AC3 × 380 V submersible motor. Gear-reducer for drilling in ice lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 100 rpm; gear reducer for subglacial drilling lowers the drill bit rotation speed to 500 rpm. In addition, module for dry core drilling contains vacuum pump for near bottom air reverse circulation instead of liquid-driven pump that is installed into other two variants. The rotation speed of air-driven pump is increased by the gear to 6000 rpm. In modules for drilling with liquid the gear pump is used with capacity of 38-41 L/min and maximal pressure of 0.2 MPa. IBED lower part for drilling in ice consists from two parts: chip chamber for filtration of drilling fluid and collecting chips, and core barrel with the drill bit. The outer/inner diameter of the ice core drill bit is 134/110 mm. Length of the core barrel is 2.5 m. Lower part of the bedrock drill is adapted for coring bedrock and contains standard 2-m length core barrel borrowed from conventional diamond drill string, chip chamber for gravity separation of rock cuttings and dead weights (appr. 200 kg) for increasing of the load on the diamond drill bit. The outer/inner diameters of the diamond bit are 59/41 mm. The IBED drill was tested in order to solve

  5. Thermo-mechanical effects in drilling using metal working fluids and cryogenic cooling and their impact in tool performance

    OpenAIRE

    OUTEIRO, José; LENOIR, Pierrick; BOSSELUT, A.

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic machining opens up new industrial perspectives in difficult-to-cut materials like nickel-based alloys. In particular, drilling is an operation that generates high thermal and mechanical loading to the drill. There- fore, tool performance, hole geometry and surface integrity can be highly affected. The objective of this study is to analyse tool performance during drilling of IN718 using conventional metal working fluids (MWF) and cryogenic cooling conditions, and correlate it with th...

  6. Design and testing of coring bits on drilling lunar rock simulant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Shengyuan; Tang, Dewei; Xu, Bo; Ma, Chao; Zhang, Hui; Qin, Hongwei; Deng, Zongquan

    2017-02-01

    Coring bits are widely utilized in the sampling of celestial bodies, and their drilling behaviors directly affect the sampling results and drilling security. This paper introduces a lunar regolith coring bit (LRCB), which is a key component of sampling tools for lunar rock breaking during the lunar soil sampling process. We establish the interaction model between the drill bit and rock at a small cutting depth, and the two main influential parameters (forward and outward rake angles) of LRCB on drilling loads are determined. We perform the parameter screening task of LRCB with the aim to minimize the weight on bit (WOB). We verify the drilling load performances of LRCB after optimization, and the higher penetrations per revolution (PPR) are, the larger drilling loads we gained. Besides, we perform lunar soil drilling simulations to estimate the efficiency on chip conveying and sample coring of LRCB. The results of the simulation and test are basically consistent on coring efficiency, and the chip removal efficiency of LRCB is slightly lower than HIT-H bit from simulation. This work proposes a method for the design of coring bits in subsequent extraterrestrial explorations.

  7. 动静组合作用下刀具破岩机制数值分析%Numerical simulation of rock fracture mechanism induced by a drill bit under combined dynamic and static loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖志毅; 梁正召; 唐春安; 杨岳峰

    2013-01-01

    基于细观损伤有限元方法,模拟分析了刀具在单一动载、动静联合荷载、静态围压条件下动静联合荷载3种情况下岩体破碎的全过程。模型采用黏弹性人工边界剔除了边界应力波反射对模拟结果准确性的影响。数值模拟结果表明:在弹性情况下,静压的存在对岩体内部最小主应力值影响不大,却显著提高了材料内部最大主应力水平,增大了剪应力的大小,导致剪切破坏可能性增加;当有围压存在时,岩体内部受拉区域减少,岩体强度有所提高。单一动载和动静联合荷载破岩时,岩体内部除刀头附近呈现少量压破坏外,破坏均以拉破坏为主;而围压条件下,岩体破碎面积相对减小,裂纹在围压的作用下向两侧自由面延伸,岩体内部破坏形式则趋于多样化,压破坏比重明显增大,整体表现为拉压复合作用。模拟结果还表明,刀头侵入量主要受动载力大小影响,在相同幅值增量下,动载力增加导致的刀头侵入量远大于静压增加所导致的侵入量。相对单一动载和静压作用下的岩石破碎机制来说,动静组合加载破岩的研究还需更为深入的探讨。研究结果可望对岩体破坏机制以及地下工程作业等实际应用提供一定的参考。%Based on the meso-scopic damage mechanics and the finite element method, a numerical code of rock fragmentation process analysis (RFPA) is used to simulate fragmentation process under three different loading conditions, i.e. single dynamic, combined dynamic and static loading, and the combined dynamic loading under the confining pressure. In the analysis model, the visco-elastic boundary is considered to eliminate the influence of the reflected stress waves from the boundary. Numerical simulation results show that the presence of static pressure has little effect on the value of the minimum principal stress within the rock mass, but

  8. Drilling a borehole for LEP

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    Boreholes were drilled along the earlier proposed line of the LEP tunnel under the Jura to find out the conditions likely to be encountered during the construction of the LEP tunnel (Annual Report 1981 p. 106, Fig. 10).

  9. Drilling Damage in Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel P. Durão

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of carbon fibre reinforced laminates have widened their use from aerospace to domestic appliances, and new possibilities for their usage emerge almost daily. In many of the possible applications, the laminates need to be drilled for assembly purposes. It is known that a drilling process that reduces the drill thrust force can decrease the risk of delamination. In this work, damage assessment methods based on data extracted from radiographic images are compared and correlated with mechanical test results—bearing test and delamination onset test—and analytical models. The results demonstrate the importance of an adequate selection of drilling tools and machining parameters to extend the life cycle of these laminates as a consequence of enhanced reliability.

  10. Horizontal drilling activity in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J.

    1997-04-01

    An update of horizontal well drilling in Manitoba was provided. Manitoba`s productive formations are: (1) the Bakken Formation, (2) the Lodgepole Formation, (3) the Mission Canyon Formation, (4) the Amaranth Formation, and (5) the Melita Formation. A total of 28 exploratory wells and 29 development wells, including 11 horizontal wells were drilled in 1996. The 11 horizontal wells accounted for 30 per cent of the drilling meterage. The leading drillers for horizontal wells in Manitoba are Tundra Oil and Gas, Chevron, Anderson and HCO. Production from horizontal wells in 1996 totaled 310 cubic meter per day. To date, no horizontal wells have been drilled in the Bakken Formation. The least successful horizontal well application has been in the Lodgepole Formation. A summary of horizontal well production was provided for each Formation. 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  11. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  12. Geothermal drilling in Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez A., Bernardo

    1982-08-10

    The number of characteristics of the different wells that have been drilled in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field to date enable one to summarize the basic factors in the applied technology, draw some conclusions, improve systems and procedures, and define some problems that have not yet been satisfactorily solved, although the existing solution is the best now available. For all practical purposes, the 100 wells drilled in the three areas or blocks into which the Cerro Prieto field has been divided have been completed. Both exploratory and production wells have been drilled; problems of partial or total lack of control have made it necessary to abandon some of these wells, since they were unsafe to keep in production or even to be used for observation and/or study. The wells and their type, the type of constructed wells and the accumulative meters that have been drilled for such wells are summarized.

  13. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1980-12-01

    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  14. Development of CNPC's Drilling Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingli; Qin Wengui; Zheng Yi

    2011-01-01

    @@ With further exploration and development of oil and gas fields both at home and abroad, complicated geological conditions, poor quality of reserves and abominable working environment, drilling business, the largest of upstream petroleum industry in terms of total investment and scale, is facing new challenges.China National Petroleum Corporation (hereinafter referred to as CNPC) is in urgent need of transforming development patterns of drilling, so as to enhance competitiveness, improve production efficiency, and increase economic profits.

  15. Drilling of bone: a robust automatic method for the detection of drill bit break-through.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, F R; Bouazza-Marouf, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to devise a robust detection method for drill bit break-through when drilling into long bones using an automated drilling system that is associated with mechatronic assisted surgery. This investigation looks into the effects of system compliance and inherent drilling force fluctuation on the profiles of drilling force, drilling force, drilling between successive samples and drill bit rotational speed. It is shown that these effects have significant influences on the bone drilling related profiles and thus on the detection of drill bit break-through. A robust method, based on a Kalman filter, has been proposed. Using a modified Kalman filter, it is possible to convert the profiles of drilling force difference between successive samples and/or the drill bit rotational speed into easily recognizable and more consistent profiles, allowing a robust and repeatable detection of drill bit break-through.

  16. Steerable percussion air drilling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bui, H.D.; Oliver, M.S.; Gray, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    The cost-sharing contract between the US Department of Energy and Smith International provides the funding to further develop this concept into two complete steerable percussion air drilling system prototypes, each integrated with a navigation tool (wireline steering tool), a bend sub, stabilizing devices, and to conduct laboratory and field testing necessary to prepare the system for commercial realization. Such a system would make available for the first time the ability to penetrate earthen formations by the percussion method, using compressed air as the drilling fluid, and at the same time allow the directional control and steering of the drill bit. While the drill string is not rotating (slide mode), one can orient to build angle in the desired direction at a predictable rate. This build rate can be in the range of 1--20 degrees per one hundred feet and proceeds until the desired inclination or direction has been obtained. The drill pipe is then set in rotation, nullifying the effect of the bend angle, and causes the assembly to drill straight. The sliding procedure can be repeated as often as corrections for hole`s inclination or direction are needed.

  17. Biological effects of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cranford, P. J. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    An argument is made for the point of view that economic realities require that a sustainable fishery must co-exist with the offshore petroleum industry, and therefore to sustain the fishery comprehensive studies are needed to identify and minimize the impact of operational drilling wastes on fishery resources. Moreover, laboratory and field studies indicate that operational drilling platforms impact on fisheries at great distances, therefore studies should not be limited to the immediate vicinity of drilling sites. Studies on long-term exposure of resident organisms to low level contaminants and the chronic lethal and sublethal biological effects of production drilling wastes must be conducted under environmentally relevant conditions to ensure the validity of the results. Studies at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography on sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus) shows them to be highly sensitive to impacts from drilling wastes. Results of these studies, integrated with toxicity data and information on the distribution and transport of drilling wastes have been used by regulatory agencies and industrial interests to develop scientifically sound and justifiable regulations. They also led to the development of practical, sensitive and cost-effective technologies that use resident resource species to detect environmental impacts at offshore production sites. 1 fig.

  18. Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallmeyer, J

    2017-01-01

    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid. This is done by the addition of tracer compounds. A great variety of tracers is available, and the choice depends on many factors. This review will first explain the basic principles of drilling before presenting the most common tracers and discussing their strengths and weaknesses. The final part of this review presents a number of key questions that have to be addressed in order to find the right tracer for a particular drilling operation.

  19. Reservoir pressure evolution model during exploration drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotaev B. A.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of laboratory studies and literature data the method for estimating reservoir pressure in exploratory drilling has been proposed, it allows identify zones of abnormal reservoir pressure in the presence of seismic data on reservoir location depths. This method of assessment is based on developed at the end of the XX century methods using d- and σ-exponentials taking into account the mechanical drilling speed, rotor speed, bit load and its diameter, lithological constant and degree of rocks' compaction, mud density and "regional density". It is known that in exploratory drilling pulsation of pressure at the wellhead is observed. Such pulsation is a consequence of transferring reservoir pressure through clay. In the paper the mechanism for transferring pressure to the bottomhole as well as the behaviour of the clay layer during transmission of excess pressure has been described. A laboratory installation has been built, it has been used for modelling pressure propagation to the bottomhole of the well through a layer of clay. The bulge of the clay layer is established for 215.9 mm bottomhole diameter. Functional correlation of pressure propagation through the layer of clay has been determined and a reaction of the top clay layer has been shown to have bulge with a height of 25 mm. A pressure distribution scheme (balance has been developed, which takes into account the distance from layers with abnormal pressure to the bottomhole. A balance equation for reservoir pressure evaluation has been derived including well depth, distance from bottomhole to the top of the formation with abnormal pressure and density of clay.

  20. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William E. (Durham, CT); Perry, Carl A. (Middletown, CT); Wassell, Mark E. (Kingwood, TX); Barbely, Jason R. (Middletown, CT); Burgess, Daniel E. (Middletown, CT); Cobern, Martin E. (Cheshire, CT)

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  1. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2008-06-24

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  2. Rotary steerable motor system for underground drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William E.; Perry, Carl A.; Wassell, Mark E.; Barbely, Jason R.; Burgess, Daniel E.; Cobern, Martin E.

    2010-07-27

    A preferred embodiment of a system for rotating and guiding a drill bit in an underground bore includes a drilling motor and a drive shaft coupled to drilling motor so that drill bit can be rotated by the drilling motor. The system further includes a guidance module having an actuating arm movable between an extended position wherein the actuating arm can contact a surface of the bore and thereby exert a force on the housing of the guidance module, and a retracted position.

  3. Advancement on Drilling Technology in Petroleum Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Akpedeye, Kelvin Uruemu

    2011-01-01

    Since the birth of petroleum business, in the mid-19th century, cable tool and rotary drilling have been the only two techniques applied in the drilling phase till date. Although the rotary drilling technique has proved very successful, applying laser technology in this drilling; which is a newer technology that is already at hand, has the potential of displacing both techniques from operation. Cable tool drilling is the first of these techniques. Hole boring is achieved by repeatedly lif...

  4. Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    being made on their analysis. A process we became very curious about was the separation of tendrils of warm salty water from the north wall figure 7...structure, and to remove the effect of internal waves by mapping this structure onto isopycnals. This has been very successful in elucidating lateral...we passed through the same water on multiple passes, and that changes in the horizontal structure of the water mas should be readily apparent from

  5. Intenzita zatížení při herních cvičeních ve volejbalu Load intensity in volleyball game like drills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Vavák

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available V současném tréninkovém procesu vyspělých družstev ve sportovních hrách jsou preferována tréninková cvičení komplexního charakteru vyžadující zapojení a úzkou spolupráci více hráčů. Předpokladem efektivní manipulace se zatížením je dokonalé poznání používaných cvičení. Cílem provedeného sledování, jehož se zúčastnilo 6 hráčů seniorského volejbalového družstva (průměrný věk 21.2 ± 1.6 let bylo zjistit, jaké zatížení představují dvě ověřované varianty průpravných her a zda bude zatížení při dvou opakováních stejného typu průpravné hry podobné. Porovnání průměrných hodnot srdeční frekvence sledovaného souboru volejbalistů při prvním a druhém provedení ukázalo na věcně i statisticky nevýznamný rozdíl ve velikosti vnitřního zatížení. Rozdíly hodnot sledovaných charakteristik srdeční frekvence u jednotlivců však potvrdily vysokou intraindividuální variabilitu velikosti vnitřního zatížení. Z porovnání průměrných hodnot srdeční frekvence a zatížení cirkulace u dvou typů průpravných her vyplynulo, že z hlediska vnitřního zatížení představovaly odlišné tréninkové stimuly. Z výsledků studie vyplývá, že při manipulaci se zatížením ve volejbalu u herních cvičeních a průpravných her je vhodné považovat údaje o průměrných hodnotách srdeční frekvence pouze za orientační. The key problem of training in sports games is rightfully considered the relation between match performance and training load (Argaj, 2005; Bloomfield, Fricker, & Fitch, 1992; Dobrý & Semiginovský, 1988; Laurenčík, 2006; Reilly & Bangsbo, 1998; Tomajko, 2000. The training process in volleyball must result from the typical demands of match load, the specificities of players’ specializations and their roles in the game system of a team, athletes’ individual specificities and, at the same time, respect the trends of modern

  6. COST ESTIMATING RELATIONSHIPS IN ONSHORE DRILLING PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Melo e Silva Accioly

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cost estimating relationships (CERs are very important tools in the planning phases of an upstream project. CERs are, in general, multiple regression models developed to estimate the cost of a particular item or scope of a project. They are based in historical data that should pass through a normalization process before fitting a model. In the early phases they are the primary tool for cost estimating. In later phases they are usually used as an estimation validation tool and sometimes for benchmarking purposes. As in any other modeling methodology there are number of important steps to build a model. In this paper the process of building a CER to estimate drilling cost of onshore wells will be addressed.

  7. Comparison of the Effect of Canal Preparation by Step Back Technique Using Hand Instruments and Gates Glidden Drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary System on the Root Resistance to Vertical Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Abbaszadegan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system with an efficient and safe technique are the major goals of root canal treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the conventional root canal preparation technique by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills with ProTaper Universal Rotary system on the root susceptibility to vertical fracture. Methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars were randomly assigned to two groups. In group I, apical preparation was performed with k-files up to #40 utilizing step back technique and coronal flaring was done with Gates Glidden drills. In group II, ProTaper Universal Rotary instruments were used up to the file F4. All teeth were obturated with lateral compaction technique using gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. A simulated periodontal ligament was fabricated, and the teeth were mounted. A stainless steel finger spreader #35 was mounted in an Instron testing machine and the necessary load to cause a root fracture was inserted and recorded. The obtained data were analyzed statistically using T-test. Results: The force required to fracture was significantly lower for the roots prepared by ProTaper instruments in comparison with the specimens prepared by hand instruments and Gates Glidden drills (P< 0.001. Conclusion: Canal preparation with ProTaper rotary instruments can make the roots more susceptible to vertical fracture than traditional instrumentation with k-files and Gates Glidden drills.

  8. Drilling force and temperature of bone under dry and physiological drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linlin; Wang, Chengyong; Jiang, Min; He, Huiyu; Song, Yuexian; Chen, Hanyuan; Shen, Jingnan; Zhang, Jiayong

    2014-11-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  9. Drilling Force and Temperature of Bone under Dry and Physiological Drilling Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Linlin; WANG Chengyong; JIANG Min; HE Huiyu; SONG Yuexian; CHEN Hanyuan; SHEN Jingnan; ZHANG Jiayong

    2014-01-01

    Many researches on drilling force and temperature have been done with the aim to reduce the labour intensiveness of surgery, avoid unnecessary damage and improve drilling quality. However, there has not been a systematic study of mid- and high-speed drilling under dry and physiological conditions(injection of saline). Furthermore, there is no consensus on optimal drilling parameters. To study these parameters under dry and physiological drilling conditions, pig humerus bones are drilled with medical twist drills operated using a wide range of drilling speeds and feed rates. Drilling force and temperature are measured using a YDZ-II01W dynamometer and a NEC TVS-500EX thermal infrared imager, respectively, to evaluate internal bone damage. To evaluate drilling quality, bone debris and hole morphology are observed by SEM(scanning electron microscopy). Changes in drilling force and temperature give similar results during drilling such that the value of each parameter peaks just before the drill penetrates through the osteon of the compact bone into the trabeculae of the spongy bone. Drilling temperatures under physiological conditions are much lower than those observed under dry conditions, while a larger drilling force occurs under physiological conditions than dry conditions. Drilling speed and feed rate have a significant influence on drilling force, temperature, bone debris and hole morphology. The investigation of the effect of drilling force and temperature on internal bone damage reveals that a drilling speed of 4500 r/min and a feed rate of 50 mm/min are recommended for bone drilling under physiological conditions. Drilling quality peaks under these optimal parameter conditions. This paper proposes the optimal drilling parameters under mid- and high-speed surgical drilling, considering internal bone damage and drilling quality, which can be looked as a reference for surgeons performing orthopedic operations.

  10. Berengario's drill: origin and inspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorney, Michael A; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

    2014-04-01

    Craniotomies are among the oldest neurosurgical procedures, as evidenced by early human skulls discovered with holes in the calvaria. Though devices change, the principles to safely transgress the skull are identical. Modern neurosurgeons regularly use electric power drills in the operating theater; however, nonelectric trephining instruments remain trusted by professionals in certain emergent settings in the rare instance that an electric drill is unavailable. Until the late Middle Ages, innovation in craniotomy instrumentation remained stunted without much documented redesign. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's (c. 1457-1530 CE) text Tractatus de Fractura Calvae sive Cranei depicts a drill previously unseen in a medical volume. Written in 1518 CE, the book was motivated by defeat over the course of Lorenzo II de'Medici's medical care. Berengario's interchangeable bit with a compound brace ("vertibulum"), known today as the Hudson brace, symbolizes a pivotal device in neurosurgery and medical tool design. This drill permitted surgeons to stock multiple bits, perform the craniotomy faster, and decrease equipment costs during a period of increased incidence of cranial fractures, and thus the need for craniotomies, which was attributable to the introduction of gunpowder. The inspiration stemmed from a school of thought growing within a population of physicians trained as mathematicians, engineers, and astrologers prior to entering the medical profession. Berengario may have been the first to record the use of such a unique drill, but whether he invented this instrument or merely adapted its use for the craniotomy remains clouded.

  11. DAME: planetary-prototype drilling automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B; Cannon, H; Branson, M; Hanagud, S; Paulsen, G

    2008-06-01

    We describe results from the Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project, including those of the summer 2006 tests from an Arctic analog site. The drill hardware is a hardened, evolved version of the Advanced Deep Drill by Honeybee Robotics. DAME has developed diagnostic and executive software for hands-off surface operations of the evolved version of this drill. The DAME drill automation tested from 2004 through 2006 included adaptively controlled drilling operations and the downhole diagnosis of drilling faults. It also included dynamic recovery capabilities when unexpected failures or drilling conditions were discovered. DAME has developed and tested drill automation software and hardware under stressful operating conditions during its Arctic field testing campaigns at a Mars analog site.

  12. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology

  13. SMALLER FOOTPRINT DRILLING SYSTEM FOR DEEP AND HARD ROCK ENVIRONMENTS; FEASIBILITY OF ULTRA-HIGH SPEED DIAMOND DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high (greater than 10,000 rpm) rotational speeds. The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development and test results that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with rigs having a smaller footprint to be more mobile. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The project draws on TerraTek results submitted to NASA's ''Drilling on Mars'' program. The objective of that program was to demonstrate miniaturization of a robust and mobile drilling system that expends small amounts of energy. TerraTek successfully tested ultrahigh speed ({approx}40,000 rpm) small kerf diamond coring. Adaptation to the oilfield will require innovative bit designs for full hole drilling or continuous coring and the eventual development of downhole ultra-high speed drives. For domestic operations involving hard rock and deep oil and gas plays, improvements in penetration rates is an opportunity to reduce well costs and make viable certain field developments. An estimate of North American hard rock drilling costs is in excess of $1,200 MM. Thus potential savings of $200 MM to $600 MM are possible if drilling rates are doubled [assuming bit life is reasonable]. The net result for operators is improved profit margin as well as an improved position on reserves. The significance of the ''ultra-high rotary speed drilling system'' is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology

  14. Assessing the efficiency of carbide drill bits and factors influencing their application to debris-rich subglacial ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Jiang, Jianliang; Cao, Pinlu; Wang, Jinsong; Fan, Xiaopeng; Shang, Yuequan; Talalay, Pavel

    2017-09-01

    When drilling into subglacial bedrock, drill operators commonly encounter basal ice containing high concentrations of rock debris and melt water. As such conditions can easily damage conventional ice drills, researchers have experimented with carbide, diamond, and polycrystalline diamond compact drill bits, with varying degrees of success. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between drilling speed and power consumption for a carbide drill bit penetrating debris-rich ice. We also assessed drill load, rotation speed, and various performance parameters for the cutting element, as well as the physical and mechanical properties of rock and ice, to construct mathematical models. We show that our modeled results are in close agreement with the experimental data, and that both penetration speed and power consumption are positively correlated with drill speed and load. When used in ice with 30% rock content, the maximum penetration speed of the carbide bit is 3.4 mm/s with a power consumption of ≤0.5 kW, making the bit suitable for use with existing electromechanical drills. Our study also provides a guide for further research into cutting heat and equipment design.

  15. Shallow gas well drilling with coiled tubing in the San Juan Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, R.G.; Ovitz, R.W.; Guild, G.J.; Biggs, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Coiled tubing is being utilized to drill new wells, for re-entry drilling to deepen or laterally extend existing wells, and for underbalanced drilling to prevent formation damage. Less than a decade old, coiled tubing drilling technology is still in its inaugral development stage. Initially, utilizing coiled tubing was viewed as a {open_quotes}science project{close_quotes} to determine the validity of performing drilling operations in-lieu of the conventional rotary rig. Like any new technology, the initial attempts were not always successful, but did show promise as an economical alternative if continued efforts were made in the refinement of equipment and operational procedures. A multiwell project has been completed in the San Juan Basin of Northwestern New Mexico which provides documentation indicating that coiled tubing can be an alternative to the conventional rotary rig. A 3-well pilot project, a 6-well project was completed uniquely utilizing the combined resources of a coiled tubing service company, a producing company, and a drilling contractor. This combination of resources aided in the refinement of surface equipment, personnel, mud systems, jointed pipe handling, and mobilization. The results of the project indicate that utilization of coiled tubing for the specific wells drilled was an economical alternative to the conventional rotary rig for drilling shallow gas wells.

  16. Number & operations task & drill sheets

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2011-01-01

    For grades 6-8, our State Standards-based combined resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. The task sheets introduce the mathematical concepts to the students around a central problem taken from real-life experiences, while the drill sheets provide warm-up and timed practice questions for the students to strengthen their procedural proficiency skills. Included are problems involving place value, fractions, addition, subtraction and using money. The combined task & drill sheets offer spac

  17. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... green tubes suitable for drill pipe), without regard to the specific chemistry of the steel (i.e... general application, consult the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure, part 201, subparts A... hearing and make oral presentations should attend a prehearing conference to be held at 9:30 a.m....

  18. Active Suppression of Drilling System Vibrations For Deep Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, David W.; Blankenship, Douglas A.; Buerger, Stephen; Mesh, Mikhail; Radigan, William Thomas; Su, Jiann-Cherng

    2015-10-01

    The dynamic stability of deep drillstrings is challenged by an inability to impart controllability with ever-changing conditions introduced by geology, depth, structural dynamic properties and operating conditions. A multi-organizational LDRD project team at Sandia National Laboratories successfully demonstrated advanced technologies for mitigating drillstring vibrations to improve the reliability of drilling systems used for construction of deep, high-value wells. Using computational modeling and dynamic substructuring techniques, the benefit of controllable actuators at discrete locations in the drillstring is determined. Prototype downhole tools were developed and evaluated in laboratory test fixtures simulating the structural dynamic response of a deep drillstring. A laboratory-based drilling applicability demonstration was conducted to demonstrate the benefit available from deployment of an autonomous, downhole tool with self-actuation capabilities in response to the dynamic response of the host drillstring. A concept is presented for a prototype drilling tool based upon the technical advances. The technology described herein is the subject of U.S. Patent Application No. 62219481, entitled "DRILLING SYSTEM VIBRATION SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS AND METHODS", filed September 16, 2015.

  19. Drilling Systems for Extraterrestrial Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Brennan, M.; Briggs, G.; Cooper, G.; Davis, K.; Dolgin, B.; Glaser, D.; Glass, B.; Gorevan, S.; Guerrero, J.; McKay, C.; Paulsen, G.; Stanley, S.; Stoker, C.

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  20. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  1. Application of Ester based Drilling Fluid for Shale Gas Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauki, Arina; Safwan Zazarli Shah, Mohamad; Bakar, Wan Zairani Wan

    2015-05-01

    Water based mud is the most commonly used mud in drilling operation. However, it is ineffective when dealing with water-sensitive shale that can lead to shale hydration, consequently wellbore instability is compromised. The alternative way to deal with this kind of shale is using synthetic-based mud (SBM) or oil-based mud (OBM). OBM is the best option in terms of technical requirement. Nevertheless, it is toxic and will create environmental problems when it is discharged to onshore or offshore environment. SBM is safer than the OBM. The aim of this research is to formulate a drilling mud system that can carry out its essential functions for shale gas drilling to avoid borehole instability. Ester based SBM has been chosen for the mud formulation. The ester used is methyl-ester C12-C14 derived from palm oil. The best formulation of ester-based drilling fluid was selected by manipulating the oil-water ratio content in the mud which are 70/30, 80/20 and 90/10 respectively. The feasibility of using this mud for shale gas drilling was investigated by measuring the rheological properties, shale reactivity and toxicity of the mud and the results were compared with a few types of OBM and WBM. The best rheological performance can be seen at 80/20 oil-water ratio of ester based mud. The findings revealed that the rheological performance of ester based mud is comparable with the excellent performance of sarapar based OBM and about 80% better than the WBM in terms of fluid loss. Apart from that, it is less toxic than other types of OBM which can maintain 60% prawn's survival even after 96 hours exposure in 100,000 ppm of mud concentration in artificial seawater.

  2. HIGH THROUGHPUT DRILLING OF TITANIUM ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui; SHIH Albert Jau-Min

    2007-01-01

    The experiments of high throughput drilling of Ti-6Al-4V at 183 m/min cutting speed and 156 mm3/s material removal rate using a 4 mm diameter WC-Co spiral point drill are conducted. At this material removal rate, it took only 0.57 s to drill a hole in a 6.35 mm thick Ti plate. Supplying the cutting fluid via through-the-drill holes and the balance of cutting speed and feed have proven to be critical for drill life. An inverse heat transfer model is developed to predict the heat flux and the drill temperature distribution in drilling. A three-dimensional finite element modeling of drilling is conducted to predict the thrust force and torque. Experimental result demonstrates that, using proper machining process parameters, tool geometry, and fine-grained WC-Co tool material, the high throughput machining of Ti alloy is technically feasible.

  3. CNPC Exports Drilling Equipment to United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Petroleum Machinery Plant(BPM) of CNPC and Rowan Drilling Company Inc, one of the most powerful drilling service and driller manufacturing companies in the United States signed a petroleum equipment contract on December 9 in Beijing.

  4. Progress Made in Drilling Workers Training Pattern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guozheng; Zhao Zhangbin

    1997-01-01

    @@ The Great Wall Drilling Workers Training Centre in North China Petroleum Workers College is specialized in training oil drilling technicians for China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), who will undertake the international contract and recontract.

  5. Zhongyuan Offers Drilling Service for Microbes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiyu

    2001-01-01

    @@ No. 1 Drilling Company of Zhongyuan Petroleum Exploration Bureau and US-based Microbes Inc.signed a drilling engineering contract for six wells in Jilin Oil Field worth more than 11 million yuan in mid-October 2001.

  6. Geothermal well drilling manual at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez P., A.; Flores S., M.

    1982-08-10

    The objective of the drilling manual is to solve all problems directly related to drilling during the construction of a well. In this case, the topics dealt which are drilling fluids and hydraulics to be applied in the field to improve drilling progress, eliminate risks and achieve good well-completion. There are other topics that are applicable such as drill bits and the drilling string, which are closely linked to drilling progress. On this occasion drilling fluid and hydraulics programs are presented, in addition to a computing program for a Casio FX-502P calculator to be applied in the field to optimize hydraulics and in the analysis of hydraulics for development and exploration wells at their different intervals.

  7. Pregnancy following laparoscopy ovarian drilling for clomiphene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She achieved pregnancy following Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling at the Assisted ... Conception following ovarian drilling. Omokanye .... advocated as this will drastically reduce the time to achieve ... laparoscopic laser diathermy in polycystic.

  8. Evaluation of aluminum drill-pipe material and design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lourenco, Marcelo I.; Netto, Theodoro Antoun [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE)

    2008-07-01

    Experimental program and numerical analyses were carried out to investigate the fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes designed and manufactured in compliance with ISO 15546. The main objective is to improve the fatigue performance of these components by selecting the appropriate aluminum alloy and by enhancing the mechanical design of the threaded steel connector. This paper presents the experimental test program and numerical analyses conducted on a drill-pipe of different materials (Al-Cu-Mg and Al-Zn-Mg system aluminum alloys) and geometry. Material mechanical properties, including S-N curve, were determined through small-scale tests on specimens cut from actual drill pipes. Full-scale experiments were also performed in laboratory. A finite element model of the drill pipe, including the tool-joint region, was developed. The model simulates, through different load steps, the tool-joint hot assembly, and then reproduces the physical experiments numerically in order to obtain the actual stress distribution. Good correlation between full-scale and small-scale fatigue tests was obtained by adjusting the strain/stress levels monitored in the full-scale tests in light of the numerical simulations and performing fatigue life calculations via multiaxial fatigue models. The weak points of the current practice design are highlighted for further development. (author)

  9. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  10. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching .To improve the students’ pronunciation in oral English ,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English, the problems of speech sounds, and the methods of phonetic drills.

  11. Phonetics drills in oral English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    皮继伟

    2014-01-01

    Phonetics teaching is one of the important parts of English teaching.To improve the students’pronunciation in oral English,the paper indicates the relation between English phonetics and oral English,the problems of speech sounds,and the methods of phonetic drills.

  12. Rheological behavior of drilling fluids under low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomba, Rosana F.T.; Sa, Carlos H.M. de; Brandao, Edimir M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas]. E-mails: rlomba, chsa, edimir@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The so-called solid-free fluids represent a good alternative to drill through productive zones. These drill-in fluids are known to be non-damaging to the formation and their formulation comprise polymers, salts and acid soluble solids. Xanthan gum is widely used as viscosifier and modified starch as fluid loss control additive. The salts most commonly used are sodium chloride and potassium chloride, although the use of organic salt brines has been increasing lately. Sized calcium carbonate is used as bridging material, when the situation requires. The low temperatures encountered during deep water drilling demand the knowledge of fluid rheology at this temperature range. The rheological behavior of drill-in fluids at temperatures as low as 5 deg C was experimentally evaluated. Special attention was given to the low shear rate behavior of the fluids. A methodology was developed to come up with correlations to calculate shear stress variations with temperature. The developed correlations do not depend on a previous choice of a rheological model. The results will be incorporated in a numerical simulator to account for temperature effects on well bore cleaning later on. (author)

  13. Facility for testing ice drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Delahunty, Chris; Goodge, John W.; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.

    2017-05-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) is designed for subsurface scientific investigations in Antarctica. Its objectives are to drill rapidly through ice, to core samples of the transition zone and bedrock, and to leave behind a borehole observatory. These objectives required the engineering and fabrication of an entirely new drilling system that included a modified mining-style coring rig, a unique fluid circulation system, a rod skid, a power unit, and a workshop with areas for the storage of supplies and consumables. An important milestone in fabrication of the RAID was the construction of a North American Test (NAT) facility where we were able to test drilling and fluid processing functions in an environment that is as close as possible to that expected in Antarctica. Our criteria for site selection was that the area should be cold during the winter months, be located in an area of low heat flow, and be at relatively high elevation. We selected a site for the facility near Bear Lake, Utah, USA. The general design of the NAT well (NAT-1) started with a 27.3 cm (10.75 in.) outer casing cemented in a 152 m deep hole. Within that casing, we hung a 14 cm (5.5 in.) casing string, and, within that casing, a column of ice was formed. The annulus between the 14 and 27.3 cm casings provided the path for circulation of a refrigerant. After in-depth study, we chose to use liquid CO2 to cool the hole. In order to minimize the likelihood of the casing splitting due to the volume increase associated with freezing water, the hole was first cooled and then ice was formed in increments from the bottom upward. First, ice cubes were placed in the inner liner and then water was added. Using this method, a column of ice was incrementally prepared for drilling tests. The drilling tests successfully demonstrated the functioning of the RAID system. Reproducing such a facility for testing of other ice drilling systems could be advantageous to other research programs in the future.

  14. Jet Drilling and Optimizing Parameter Drilling Technology in Shengli Oil Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yue; Peng Junsheng

    1996-01-01

    @@ In Shengli oilfield, remarkable achievements have been obtained in research and tests on the technologies of jet drilling and optimizing parameter drilling, extensive applications of the technologies have greatly improved drilling speed and sharply decreased drilling time and costs, thus achieving excellent social and economic benefits.

  15. Drill cuttings mount formation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Su Yean; Koh, Hock Lye

    2014-07-01

    Oil, Gas and Energy sector has been identified as an essential driving force in the Malaysian Economic Transformation Programs (ETP). Recently confirmed discovery of many offshore oil and gas deposits in Malaysian waters has ignited new confidence in this sector. However, this has also spurred intense interest on safeguarding the health and environment of coastal waters in Malaysia from adverse impact resulting from offshore oil and gas production operation. Offshore discharge of spent drilling mud and rock cuttings is the least expensive and simplest option to dispose of large volumes of drilling wastes. But this onsite offshore disposal may have adverse environmental impacts on the water column and the seabed. It may also pose occupational health hazards to the workers living in the offshore platforms. It is therefore important to model the transport and deposition of drilling mud and rock cuttings in the sea to enable proper assessment of their adverse impacts on the environment and the workers. Further, accumulation of drill particles on the seabed may impede proper operation of pipelines on the seabed. In this paper, we present an in-house application model TUNA-PT developed to cater to local oil and gas industry needs to simulate the dispersion and mount formation of drill cuttings by offshore oil and gas exploration and production platforms. Using available data on Malaysian coastal waters, simulation analyses project a pile formation on the seabed with a maximum height of about 1 m and pile radius of around 30 to 50 m. Simulated pile heights are not sensitive to the heights of release of the cuttings as the sensitivity has been mitigated by the depth of water.

  16. Direction of drilling wells. Wiercenie otworow kierunkowych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szostak, L.

    1980-01-01

    In the example of the most widespread drilling of vertical wells, an examination is made of the mining-geological and technical-technological reasons and methods for evaluating the amount of their twisting. Methods are presented for stabilizing the drilling shaft, features of drilling vertical wells by turbodrills and groups of wells for freezing rocks. Characteristics are presented for the features of directional drilling, model profiles of directed wells, drilling of wells with assigned deviation of the face from the vertical axis. Possibilities are indicated for controlling the trajectory of movement of the face of the well with the rotary method of drilling, in particular, with the use of a deviating wedge, cement plug, etc., methods of drilling inclined wells on cased and uncased sections. Features are examined of creating and controlling the inclination of a well with the use of turbodrills of different design, technology of drilling and casing of multiple-face wells, drilling of a fan of wells from one position of the drilling unit, for example, with unfavorable relief of the earth's surface and drilling of offshore wells by using floating drilling units.

  17. 25 CFR 226.33 - Line drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Line drilling. 226.33 Section 226.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS FOR OIL AND GAS MINING Requirements of Lessees § 226.33 Line drilling. Lessee shall not drill within 300...

  18. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71... drilling. In accordance with an approved exploration plan or development and production plan, a lease may be maintained in force by directional wells drilled under the leased area from surface locations...

  19. Diamond Drilling Specification Manual and Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This publication presents the standards required of a person practicing diamond drilling in western Canada and provides an outline for teaching the skills and knowledge. It is divided into two parts. The Diamond Drilling Specification Manual establishes the levels of skill and knowledge required in the four certified levels of diamond drilling.…

  20. China Drills Its First "Earth Hole"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Qingwen

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 4, 2001, drilling of Kezuan-1 Well, the first continental scientific exploration well in China, was officially kicked off in Donghai County,Jiangsu Province. About 1000 people including high-ranking governmental officials and famous experts attended the drilling ceremony. Vice Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Wan Guoquan pressed the button to start drilling of the exploration well.

  1. Diafragmas horizontais de piso em madeira, confeccionados com chapas de OSB e vigas I, submetido ao carregamento em seu plano = Wood light-frame floor diaphragms, made with OSB panels and Ijoists, subjected to lateral loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altevir Castro dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho aborda nova perspectiva para construções em madeira, sob a ótica construtiva de sistemas com estruturas leves (Lightweight wood-frame construction, pela sua consagrada aplicação internacional e forte viabilidade de utilização no Brasil. Apresenta ensaios realizados pela primeira vez no Brasil, trazendo contribuição inicial sobre o assunto, com subsídios para projeto e execução de diafragmas de piso com emprego de material nacional oriundo do manejo racional de florestas cultivadas. O objetivo geral é avaliar a resistência e a rigidez de diafragmas horizontais, construídos em Sistemas Leves de Madeira, quando submetidos ao carregamento monotônico em seu plano. Para atendimento desse propósito, foram ensaiados protótipos em escala real (2,50 x 5,00 m com diferentes arranjos construtivos e avaliou-se a influência dos seguintes parâmetros: utilização de dispositivos enrijecedores entre vigas, que constituem a ossatura do diafragma horizontal; rigidez das ligações e o efeito do espaçamento entre pregos na rigidez do conjunto, composto de madeira e chapas de OSB – Oriented Strand Board Nacional. Dos ensaios realizados, concluise que o emprego de dispositivos enrijecedores permite o aumento do número de pregos de fixação no perímetro das chapas e esse acréscimo é responsável pelo aumento da resistência e rigidez dos diafragmas.This work is focused on lightweight wood-frame constructions, which are accepted worldwide and may be considered feasible for use in Brazil as well. It presents the results of experimental tests on floor diaphragms subjected to lateral loads. This is the first time this kind of test is performed in Brazil. Thus, it brings up valuable information about this subject, giving technical information that may contribute to the design and construction of floor diaphragms employing local materials that come from planted forests. The main goal of this research is to evaluate the resistance

  2. Critical Axial Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walt Wells

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective in this paper is to solve a second order differential equation for a long, simply supported column member subjected to a lateral axial load using Heun's numerical method. We will use the solution to find the critical load at which the column member will fail due to buckling. We will calculate this load using Euler's derived analytical approach for an exact solution, as well as Euler's Numerical Method. We will then compare the three calculated values to see how much they deviate from one another. During the critical load calculation, it will be necessary to calculate the moment of inertia for the column member.

  3. Numerical investigation of a novel connection in tempered glass using holes drilled after tempering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of a previous paper [Nielsen, 2012] where the influ-ence on the temper stresses by drilling into tempered glass was investigated. In [Nielsen, 2012] it was shown that partly drilled holes in tempered glass would lead to higher compressive resid-ual hoop stresses...... at the hole increasing the apparent strength. Utilizing this for joints, raises new questions like the concentration of stresses arising at the hole for external loading of the pin and the glass. The present paper numerically investigates the shear load transfer for a specific configuration of the pin...

  4. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact

  5. Paleomagnetic and Magnetostratigraphic Studies in Drilling Projects of Impact Craters - Recent Studies, Challenges and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.

    2013-05-01

    Paleomagnetic studies have long been successfully carried out in drilling projects, to characterize the borehole columns and to investigate the subsurface structure and stratigraphy. Magnetic susceptibility logging and magnetostratigraphic studies provide data for lateral correlation, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation, physical properties, etc., and are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. The inclusion of continuous core recovery in scientific drilling projects have greatly expanded the range of potential applications of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies, by allowing laboratory measurements on core samples. For this presentation, we concentrate on drilling studies of impact structures and their usefulness for documenting the structure, stratigraphy and physical properties at depth. There are about 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small number compared to what is observed in the Moon, Mars, Venus and other bodies of the solar system. Of the terrestrial impact craters, only a few have been studied by drilling. Some craters have been drilled as part of industry exploration surveys and/or academic projects, including notably the Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake and El gygytgyn craters. Drilling of terrestrial craters has proved important in documenting the shallow stratigraphy and structure, providing insight on the cratering and impact dynamics. Questions include several that can only be addressed by retrieving core samples and laboratory analyses. Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been conducted in the various craters, which are here summarized with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater and Yucatan carbonate platform. Chicxulub is buried under a kilometer of younger sediments, making drilling an essential tool. Oil

  6. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Kovalev, Artem Vladimirovich; Isaev, Evgeniy Dmitrievich; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2016-01-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the surve...

  7. REDUCTION OF AN ADVERSE IMPACT DURING WELL DRILLING BY MEANS OF DRILLING WASTE USAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov; Igor Konstantinovich Suprun

    2017-01-01

    The problem of drilling waste utilisation is assumed to be resolved through the implementation of the complex of environment protection production engineering measures. This includes, firstly, the usage in the process of well drilling of drilling mud on the basis of water-soluble biodegradable polymers and a four-stage drilling mud refining system. Secondly, the usage of the well site construction with trenching for allocation of expressed bore mud and a temporary ground tank for drilling was...

  8. REDUCTION OF AN ADVERSE IMPACT DURING WELL DRILLING BY MEANS OF DRILLING WASTE USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sergeevich Kuznetsov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of drilling waste utilisation is assumed to be resolved through the implementation of the complex of environment protection production engineering measures. This includes, firstly, the usage in the process of well drilling of drilling mud on the basis of water-soluble biodegradable polymers and a four-stage drilling mud refining system. Secondly, the usage of the well site construction with trenching for allocation of expressed bore mud and a temporary ground tank for drilling waste water.

  9. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    The Stable Continental Region (SCR) earthquakes tend to claim more human lives and inflict heavier financial losses as they occur where not expected and the local and regional preparedness to mitigate such catastrophes is minimal. Artificial water Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), most prominent in SCR, provides an exceptional window to comprehend genesis of such earthquakes. Since the first scientific reporting of the RTS at the Boulder Dam, USA during 1930s, over 100 cases of RTS have been reported globally. Damaging earthquakes exceeding M 6 have occurred at Hsingfengkiang (China), Kariba (Zambia -Zimbabwe border), Kremasta (Greece) and Koyna (India). It is debated that the 2008 M 7.8 Sichuan earthquake in China, which claimed over 80,000 human lives was triggered by filling of a nearby reservoir. Located close to the west coast of India, Koyna is a classical site of RTS, where triggered earthquakes have been occurring since the impoundment in 1962, including the largest RTS earthquake of M 6.3 on December 10, 1967 which claimed over 200 human lives and destroyed Koyna town. Over the past 49 years 22 earthquakes of M ≥ 5 and several thousand smaller earthquakes have occurred in a restricted area of 20 X 30 sq. km. with no other seismic activity within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. The latest M 5.1 earthquake occurred on December 12, 2009. Although several studies have clearly established the association of continued RTS at Koyna with precipitation driven loading and unloading of the Koyna and Warna reservoirs, the trigger mechanism is little understood. Our knowledge about the physical properties of rocks and fluids in the fault zones and how they affect the build-up of stress for an extended period is limited by the lack of data from the near field region. A deep bore hole of up to 7 km depth at a scientifically and logistically suitable location is under an advance stage of planning. A detailed workshop and field visits involving some 50 scientists from 10

  10. Improved Hardfacing for Drill Bits and Drilling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Albert; Sreshta, Harry; Qiu, Bao He

    2011-01-01

    New flame spray hardfacing, DSH (DuraShell® Steel Hardfacing, US patent pending), was developed to improve thermal conductivity, abrasion wear, and erosion resistance for subterranean drilling application. The materials consisted of spherical cast WC/W2C and Ni-Si-B alloy powders. The hardfacing compositions were tailored for various processes such as flame spray and laser cladding. Typically, the hardfacing comprised hard tungsten carbide particles being uniformly distributed in a tough Ni-alloy matrix. The hardness of WC/W2C exceeded 2300 Hv.3 and that of Ni-alloy matrix varied from about 400 to 700 Hv.3. High- and low-stress abrasion resistances of these hardfacing materials were characterized and compared to the conventional hard coatings of cast WC/W2C and Ni-Cr-Si-B-Fe. The increase in thermal, wear, and erosion resistances of the hardfacing improved the durability of PDC (polycrystalline diamond compact) steel body bit and drilling tools and their cost-effective performance. Several case studies of DSH hardfacings on drill bits were described.

  11. Approximately-Balanced Drilling in Daqing Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Bairu; Zheng Xiuhua; Li Guoqing; Tian Tuo

    2004-01-01

    The Daqing oilfield is a multilayered heterogeneous oil field where the pressure are different in the same vertical profile causing many troubles to the adjustment well drillings. The approximately-balanced drilling technique has been developed and proved to be efficient and successful in Daqing oilfield. This paper discusses the application of approximately-balanced drilling technique under the condition of multilayered pressure in Daqing oilfield, including the prediction of formation pressure, the pressure discharge technique for the drilling well and the control of the density of drilling fluid.

  12. Mechanical Analysis of Deep Sea Risers Considering the Effects of Drill String%考虑钻柱作用的深海隔水管柱力学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫铁; 刘珊珊; 毕雪亮; 王鹏; 李井辉; 逯广东

    2014-01-01

    As an important equipment of offshore oil drilling,the safe use of the risers are directly related to whether the whole drilling operations can be accomplished successfully,even to the whole drilling platform security.At present,researches on riser mechanical analysis were mainly focused on the influences of the ocean environment loads and drilling platform drift,but few on the drill string factors which brought errors to the calculating results.A mechanical model of the risers in deepwater drilling is established,considering the effects of drill string lateral force and axial friction on the risers’lateral deformation and bending moment when tripping up.The model was numerically derived by the finite difference method.Research results show that the lateral de-formation of the risers increases by 7.9% under the influences of the drill string and maximum bending loads appear on the surface of the water.This model provides a theoretical analysis meth-od for the marine riser design,safe use,and deepwater drilling wellhead safety.%隔水管作为海洋石油钻井的重要设备,其安全使用直接关系到整个钻井作业的顺利完成,甚至关系到钻井平台的安全。目前关于隔水管的研究主要集中在海洋环境载荷及钻井平台漂移影响下的隔水管柱力学分析,对于隔水管内部钻柱这一影响因素研究较少,这给计算结果带来了较大误差。考虑起钻过程中钻柱侧向力、轴向摩阻对隔水管横向位移、弯矩的影响,建立了深水钻井时隔水管柱力学模型,用数值差分法进行求解。研究结果表明:考虑钻柱影响下隔水管横向变形影响幅度增加7.9%。靠近水面的位置,隔水管所受弯曲载荷最大。该模型为海洋隔水管设计、安全使用、以及深水钻井井口安全等提供理论分析方法。

  13. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  14. Modeling and experimentation of bone drilling forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuEun; Gozen, B Arda; Ozdoganlar, O Burak

    2012-04-05

    Prediction and control of bone drilling forces are critical to the success of many orthopaedic operations. Uncontrolled and large forces can cause drill-bit breakage, drill breakthrough, excessive heat generation, and mechanical damage to the bone. This paper presents a mechanistic model for prediction of thrust forces and torques experienced during bone drilling. The model incorporates the radially varying drill-bit geometry and cutting conditions analytically, while capturing the material and friction properties empirically through a specific energy formulation. The forces from the chisel edge are modeled by considering the indentation process that occurs in the vicinity of the drill-bit axis. A procedure is outlined to calibrate the specific energies, where only a small number of calibration experiments are required for a wide range of drilling conditions and drill-bit geometry. The calibration parameters for the cortical portions of bovine tibia are identified through drilling tests. Subsequently, a series of validation tests are conducted under different feed rates and spindle speeds. The thrust forces and torques were observed to vary considerably between bones from different animals. The forces from the model were seen to match well with those from the experimentation within the inherent variations from the bone characteristics. The model can be used to select favorable drilling conditions, to assist in robotic surgeries, and to design optimal orthopaedic drill bits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FY 1983 Funding for ocean drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Proposed funding for scientific ocean drilling within the National Science Foundation (NSF) in fiscal 1983 totals $14 million, $6 million less than the current fiscal 1982 plan and about half of the original FY 1982 budget request of $26 million. However, there is more to these numbers than simple subtraction: Additional funding for scientific ocean drilling programs is on hold while decisions are being made about a future drilling program called Advanced Ocean Drilling (AOD).With the demise of the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP) when industry withdrew its support (Eos, October 20, 1981, p. 705) and with the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) long ago scheduled to end in fiscal 1983, the future for scientific ocean drilling within NSF was uncertain. To steer ocean drilling toward scientific objectives for the decade, the Conference on Scientific Ocean Drilling (COSOD) (Eos, December 22, 1981, p. 1197) examined four ocean drilling options and decided that the Glomar Explorer, converted to the current capabilities of the DSDP mainstay Glomar Challenger (i.e., without riser and well-control technologies), would meet scientific objectives through the decade. In December, the National Research Council's Committee on Ocean Margin Drilling came to the identical conclusion in its interim report. Both of these decisions were based solely on scientific merit and did not consider costs.

  16. Heliportable drilling in the 21. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argue, F. [Academy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Korach, D. [Nabors Alaska, Anchorage, AK (United States); Read, M. [Nabors Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The access season for conventional ice roads has been reduced. Therefore, efficient drilling programs are required for a short winter drilling, and long wells are not able to compete in one season. Heliportable drilling provides non-ice access. This presentation outlined the merits of heliportable drilling in the twenty-first century. Conventional heliportable drilling was discussed and several images of current and past heliportable drilling rigs were presented. New technologies were also illustrated and discussed, with particular reference to the Mi26T enabler, a Russian super heavy lift helicopter, leased to Airborne Energy Solutions. Operating data for the Mi26T was also presented and the heli-drill system was explained. Several twenty-first century heli-rigs were also illustrated and described, including rig 119H, rig 103AC, rig 106E, rig 99AC, and rig 105E. Last, the presentation identified the next steps for heli-rigs. tabs., figs.

  17. Reflection of drill-string extensional waves at the bit-rock contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletto, Flavio; Malusa, Massimo

    2002-06-01

    Downward propagating extensional waves are partially reflected at the bit-rock contact. The evaluation of the reflection coefficient is important to obtain while drilling information about the acoustic properties of the formations. The scope of this work is to estimate the bit-rock reflection coefficient, assuming a flat drill bit in perfect contact with the formation. Using the low-frequency approximation, which holds when the wavelength is much larger than the lateral dimensions of the borehole, the drill-string is assumed to be a laterally free rod, and the formation an homogeneous and isotropic medium. This work shows that the reflection coefficient of the extensional waves depends, along with the elastic properties of the formation, on the ratio of the cross sections of the drill-string and borehole. The impedance of the drilled rock can be calculated from the measured reflection coefficient, which is related to the amplitude of waves produced in the string and in the formation by a working drill-bit.

  18. Modern Shale Gas Horizontal Drilling: Review of Best Practices for Exploration Phase Planning and Execution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nathaniel Harding; Stephen Smith; John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman

    2009-01-01

    The challenging characteristics of shale formations often require horizontal drilling to economically develop their potential. While every shale gas play is unique, there are several best practices for the proper planning and execution of a horizontal well. In planning a horizontal well, the optimal method and technology for building inclination and extending the lateral section must be determined. Properly specified logging-while-drilling tools are essential to keep the wellbore within the target formation. Planning must also focus on casing design. Doing so will help ensure stability and enable reliable and productive completions. Shales pose a challenge for these elements of well planning due to their thin strata and potentially low mechanical competence when foreign fluids are introduced. Once a plan is developed, executing it is even more important to prove a viable exploration program. Fast, efficient drilling with wellbore control and minimal torque and drag should be the priority. This may be achieved by focusing on fluid hydraulics and rheology and bottom hole assembly. Managed pressure drilling (MPD) will help fast drilling, well control and stability. If MPD can be combined with new generation rotary steerable systems that allow the drill string to maintain rotation, impressive efficiencies are possible. Modern drilling parameter analysis represents the newest opportunity for executing shale gas horizontal wells. A method for ROP analysis to improve operational parameters and equipment selection is also proposed.

  19. Downhole drilling motors: technical review. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; McDonald, W.J.; Nixon, J.D.; Matson, L.W.

    1977-08-01

    Dyna-Drills and turbodrills are used primarily for directional drilling where it is critical that the drillpipe not be rotated. These tools are not widely used for straight-hole drilling because of problems with bearing failures, low power outputs, low bit pressures, and high rotary speeds. The high rotary speeds produce bit bearing failures in 10 to 15 h, compared to 100 to 200 h life at lower rotary speeds. The technology now exists to develop reliable high-torque motors which will operate roller bits at speeds of 150 to 250 RPM and diamond bits at speeds of 400 to 800 RPM for periods of 100 to 200 hours. Sealed bearing assemblies which allow the bearings to operate in lubricant are being developed. These improved bearings allow bits to operate at the high bit weights needed for optimum drilling. Improved drilling motors can reduce drilling costs to significantly increase the number of wells drilled per drilling rig per year. Now, this is increasingly important because of the drilling rig shortage developing in this country. At least ten companies are working on the development of improved drilling motors and it is likely that several of these new motors will become commercially available within the next 2 to 3 years. Several companies are working on the development of improved high speed roller bits for use on drilling motors. The development of these high speed bits should significantly increase the use of drilling motors since bit bearing failures are a major problem when drilling with motors. The development of reliable, high-speed STRATAPAX bits should also increase motor useage since these bits drilling most effectively at rotary speeds of 300 to 500 RPM.

  20. Reducing temperature elevation of robotic bone drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Arne; Wandel, Jasmin; Zysset, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    This research work aims at reducing temperature elevation of bone drilling. An extensive experimental study was conducted which focused on the investigation of three main measures to reduce the temperature elevation as used in industry: irrigation, interval drilling and drill bit designs. Different external irrigation rates (0 ml/min, 15 ml/min, 30 ml/min), continuously drilled interval lengths (2 mm, 1 mm, 0.5 mm) as well as two drill bit designs were tested. A custom single flute drill bit was designed with a higher rake angle and smaller chisel edge to generate less heat compared to a standard surgical drill bit. A new experimental setup was developed to measure drilling forces and torques as well as the 2D temperature field at any depth using a high resolution thermal camera. The results show that external irrigation is a main factor to reduce temperature elevation due not primarily to its effect on cooling but rather due to the prevention of drill bit clogging. During drilling, the build up of bone material in the drill bit flutes result in excessive temperatures due to an increase in thrust forces and torques. Drilling in intervals allows the removal of bone chips and cleaning of flutes when the drill bit is extracted as well as cooling of the bone in-between intervals which limits the accumulation of heat. However, reducing the length of the drilled interval was found only to be beneficial for temperature reduction using the newly designed drill bit due to the improved cutting geometry. To evaluate possible tissue damage caused by the generated heat increase, cumulative equivalent minutes (CEM43) were calculated and it was found that the combination of small interval length (0.5 mm), high irrigation rate (30 ml/min) and the newly designed drill bit was the only parameter combination which allowed drilling below the time-thermal threshold for tissue damage. In conclusion, an optimized drilling method has been found which might also enable drilling in more

  1. Device for purifying drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, V.T.; Dorosh, M.M.; Khariv, I.Yu.; Makedonov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for purifying drilling mud which includes a dynamic filter made in the form of a spiral-shaped tube with input and output sleeves, and a container for purified solution with outlet sleeve. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify the design, the spiral-shaped tube is perforated from the inside and is installed in the container for the purified solution.

  2. A novel flexible drill device enabling arthroscopic transosseous repair of Bankart lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Y-Y; Park, J S; Choi, S J; Hong, S I

    2017-06-01

    We have developed a flexible drill device that makes arthroscopic transosseous repair possible, and report preliminary results. Twelve patients with post-traumatic anterior inferior glenohumeral instability were selected. the flexible drill device is inserted into the shoulder joint through the posterior portal and the guide pipe unit is placed 5mm posterior to the margin of the anterior glenoid rim. The flexible drill is driven through the glenoid with the power drill, creating a hole in the glenoid. A non-absorbable suture is passed through the hole and a sliding knot tying is performed over the capsule and labrum after completing stitches with the suture hook loaded. The same procedures are repeated in the 2, 3 and 4 o'clock positions of the glenoid. There was no recurrence of dislocation at the mean follow-up period of 52.3 months. The mean Rowe score was 89.5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Torsional vibrations of helically buckled drill-strings: experiments and FE modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitaniak, M.; Hamaneh, V. V.; Wiercigroch, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents investigations of a complex drill-string vibrations on a novel experimental rig, developed by the Centre for Applied Dynamics Research at the University of Aberdeen. The rig is capable of exhibiting of all major types of drill-string vibrations, including torsional, axial and lateral modes. The importance of this work lies in the fact, that the experimental rig utilizes real industrial drill-bits and rock samples, which after careful identification of Torque On Bit (TOB) speed curves, allows to use an equivalent friction model to accommodate for both frictional and cutting components of the bit-rock interactions. Moreover, the proposed Finite Element model, after a careful calibration, is capable of replicating experimental results, for the prebuckled configuration of the drill-string. This allows us to observe the effect of winding and unwinding of the helical deformation during stick-slip motion.

  4. Modeling of Drilling Forces Based on Twist Drill Point Angles Using Multigene Genetic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myong-Il Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model was developed for predicting the influence of the drill point angles on the cutting forces in drilling with the twist drills, which was used to optimize those angles for reducing drilling forces. The approach was based on multigene genetic programming, for the training data, the grinding tests of twist drill were firstly conducted for the different drill point angles in Biglide parallel machine, and then drilling tests were performed on carbon fiber reinforced plastics using the grinded drills. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was verified through comparing with published data. It was found that the proposed model agreed well with the experimental data and was useful for improving the performance of twist drill.

  5. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  6. Automatic detection of reservoir influx in conventional drilling, managed pressure drilling and dual gradient drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersen, Sigmund

    2012-01-01

    Reservoir influxes, or kicks, are well control incidents with the potential of severe consequences to health, safety and the environment, as well as economics. Although the main focus will always be to prevent such incidents from happening, drilling crew will also need to be able to spot reservoir influx as quickly as possible. This thesis presents a method for automated detection of reservoir influx or losses based on simulations of the surface circulation system. Theoretical background...

  7. Methods to ensure optimal off-bottom and drill bit distance under pellet impact drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Isaev, Ye D.; Vagapov, A. R.; Urnish, V. V.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-09-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rock for various purposes. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The paper presents the survey of methods ensuring an optimal off-bottom and a drill bit distance. The analysis of methods shows that the issue is topical and requires further research.

  8. New optimized drill pipe size for deep-water, extended reach and ultra-deep drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jellison, Michael J.; Delgado, Ivanni [Grant Prideco, Inc., Hoston, TX (United States); Falcao, Jose Luiz; Sato, Ademar Takashi [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Moura, Carlos Amsler [Comercial Perfuradora Delba Baiana Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    A new drill pipe size, 5-7/8 in. OD, represents enabling technology for Extended Reach Drilling (ERD), deep water and other deep well applications. Most world-class ERD and deep water wells have traditionally been drilled with 5-1/2 in. drill pipe or a combination of 6-5/8 in. and 5-1/2 in. drill pipe. The hydraulic performance of 5-1/2 in. drill pipe can be a major limitation in substantial ERD and deep water wells resulting in poor cuttings removal, slower penetration rates, diminished control over well trajectory and more tendency for drill pipe sticking. The 5-7/8 in. drill pipe provides a significant improvement in hydraulic efficiency compared to 5-1/2 in. drill pipe and does not suffer from the disadvantages associated with use of 6-5/8 in. drill pipe. It represents a drill pipe assembly that is optimized dimensionally and on a performance basis for casing and bit programs that are commonly used for ERD, deep water and ultra-deep wells. The paper discusses the engineering philosophy behind 5-7/8 in. drill pipe, the design challenges associated with development of the product and reviews the features and capabilities of the second-generation double-shoulder connection. The paper provides drilling case history information on significant projects where the pipe has been used and details results achieved with the pipe. (author)

  9. The Need for Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphris, Susan E.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Saffer, Demian

    2011-03-01

    Mark Twain once said, “I was seldom able to see an opportunity until it had ceased to be one.” The scientific community could soon miss an opportunity in ocean drilling. A recent article in Eos by D. K. Smith et al. (Ocean drilling: Forty years of international collaboration, Eos, 91(43), 393-394, 2010) summarized the history of scientific ocean drilling and presented an overview of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) as it currently operates. IODP will end in 2013, and an ambitious science plan is being developed to launch a new drilling program. Some people have asked, Given the program's past successes, why do we need more scientific ocean drilling?

  10. Western Canada SAGD drilling and completions performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchin, S.; Tucker, R. [Ziff Energy Group (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is a thermal recovery method used to enhance oil recovery. In 2009, Ziff Energy carried out a study on SAGD drilling and completions performance in Western Canada. This paper presents the methodology used to assess drilling performances and the results obtained. This study was conducted on 159 SAGD well pairs and 1,833 delineation wells in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin from late 2004 to fall 2008. The drilling performance assessment was calculated from several aspects including well quality, drilling and completions cost performance and drilling time analysis. This study provided a detailed analysis of drilling and completions costs of SAGD which can help companies to improve their performance.

  11. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  12. Gas reservoir evaluation for underbalanced horizontal drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A set of surface equipment for monitoring the parameters of fluid and pressure while drilling was developed, and mathematical models for gas reservoir seepage and wellbore two-phase flow were established. Based on drilling operation parameters, well structure and monitored parameters, the wellbore pressure and the gas reservoir permeability could be predicted theoretically for underbalanced horizontal drilling. Based on the monitored gas production along the well depth, the gas reservoir type could be identified.

  13. Reliability-Growth of Triplex Drilling Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou Yu; ZhaoZhong

    1996-01-01

    @@ Introduction to triplex pump The triplex pump widely used in oilfields is composed of power end assembly, fluid end assembly, piston-liner spraying system, lubrication system and charging system.The pump delivers mud into oil well. Through nozzles of drilling bit, the mud inside the drilling shaft comes to the annular space between drilling shaft and casing string and then returns to surface.

  14. Data analytics for drilling operational states classifications

    OpenAIRE

    Veres, Galina; Sabeur, Zoheir

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides benchmarks for the identification of best performance classifiers for the detection of operational states in industrial drilling operations. Multiple scenarios for the detection of the operational states are tested on a rig with various drilling wells. Drilling data are extremely challenging due to their non-linear and stochastic natures, notwithstanding the embedded noise in them and unbalancing. Nevertheless, there is a possibility to deploy robust classifiers to overcom...

  15. General Considerations for Drill System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    meltwater can bu absorbed and refrozen in the adjacent snow. A similar principle has been suggested for disposal of melted rock produced by thermal...This last item can become very serious if the drill is immersed in meltwater . Ileat losses at the drill head are not easy to estimate in simple...Phlslberth, K. (in pr is) The thermal probe deep drilling method by E016 in 1968 at Station jul-Joaet. Central Greenland , Proceedings of icr Core

  16. The Influence of Lateral Load Patterns on the Results of Static Pushover Analysis in High-rise Building%侧向荷载分布方式对高层建筑静力弹塑性分析结果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨万

    2014-01-01

    Pushover方法作为一种建筑结构弹塑性地震响应的简化近似计算方法和抗震性能评价方法已得到广泛应用。但由于其理论基础不严密,其准确性需要给予必要确认,同时其适用性也受到一定的限值。就侧向荷载分布方式,对静力弹塑性pushover分析结果的影响进行了研究。用四种不同的侧向荷载分布方式,对一栋24层的高层结构进行了分析。分析结果表明:在不同侧向荷载分布方式作用下, pushover分析结果相差很大。就分析结果而言,选择实时模态的荷载分布方式更为合理。%The nonlinear static pushover analysis procedure is now widely used as a simple method to estimate the inelastic seismic response for building structures. However, the accuracy of the method still needs to be validated because of the inherent limitations in its theory. Besides, there are some limitations on the application of this method. In this paper, the influence of lateral load patterns on the results of static pushover analysis has been studied. The static pushover analysis with four different lateral load patterns was applied to a tall building of 24 stories. It is demonstrated that the analysis results may vary significantly under different lateral load patterns. In terms of the analysis results, feasibility load pattern is more reasonable.

  17. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  18. Approved Applications for Permit to Drill - Not Drilled: As of Sept. 30, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — This table contains the total number of applications for permit to drill (APDs) by state that had not been drilled as of Sept. 30, 2011. Oil and gas operators may...

  19. IMPACT OF DRILLING WASTE ON HYDROBIONTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Guseinova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim is to determine and make an analysis of the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the waste drilling: drill cuttings (DC and mud (DM, collected in the area of drilling, to assess and forecast the state of biological resources of natural sea water.Methods. Experimental studies of DC and DM showed the petroleum hydrocarbons content, the concentration of which varies depending on the timing of exposure. By quantitative and qualitative indicators, the metal content in the drill cuttings and mud is nonequivalent and this depends on the structure and hardness achieved during drilling the rocks as well as on the degree of contamination with metals.Results. The concentration level of petroleum hydrocarbons and other metals in the drilling waste (drill cuttings and mud imposes a major problem associated with the conservation of biological resources of the Caspian Sea.Main conclusions. Environmental effects from the discharges of drilling waste on the high seas can be detected only during drilling operations and in close proximity (typically up to 200-500 m from the discharge point. Persistent damages in communities and ecosystems occur only at long exposures and are adaptive in nature.

  20. Steerable system adds precision to Gulf drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierschwale, H.; Ridley, R.

    1988-05-02

    A well bore intersection was achieved ahead of schedule with a steerable drilling system in the Gulf of Mexico. A computer-generated proximity survey comparing the directional surveys of the initial and replacement wells, confirmed that the wells were within 1 ft. of each other near the planned intersection depth of 8,890 ft. All objectives for the 9,050-ft. replacement well were accomplished 4 days ahead of schedule. This operation illustrates the effectiveness of the steerable drilling system for obtaining better directional control, increased drilling efficiently, and reduced overall drilling time. This article explains how the project was completed.

  1. Vale exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    During April-May, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Trans-Pacific Geothermal Corporation, drilled a 5825{prime} exploratory slimhole (3.85 in. diameter) in the Vale Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Vale, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During drilling we performed several temperature logs, and after drilling was complete we performed injection tests, bailing from a zone isolated by a packer, and repeated temperature logs. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: 2714{prime} of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid records; numerous temperature logs; pressure shut-in data from injection tests; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Vale KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  2. Drilling of polymer-matrix composites

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaraj, Vijayan; Davim, J Paulo

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric composites are recognised as good candidates for structural components due to their inherent properties. However, they present several kinds of damages while creating holes for assembly. Delamination is considered the most serious damage since it reduces service life of the component. Thrust and delamination can be controlled by proper drill point geometry. Drilling at high speed is also a current requirement of the aerospace industry. This book focus on drilling of polymer matrix composites for aerospace and defence applications. The book presents introduction to machining of polymer composites and discusses drilling as a processing of composites.

  3. Optimization of Orthopaedic Drilling: A Taguchi Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh Kumar Pandey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone drilling is a common procedure to prepare an implant site during orthopaedic surgery. An increase in temperature during such a procedure can result in thermal ostenecrosis which may delay healing or reduce the stability of the fixation. Therefore it is important to minimize the thermal invasion of bone during drilling. The Taguchi method has been applied to investigate the optimal combination of drill diameter, feed rate and spindle speed in dry drilling of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA for minimizing the temperature produced.

  4. Newberry exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.; Hickox, C.E.

    1997-11-01

    During July--November, 1995, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with CE Exploration, drilled a 5,360 feet exploratory slimhole (3.895 inch diameter) in the Newberry Known Geothermal Resource Area (KGRA) near Bend, Oregon. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed numerous temperature logs, and at the completion of drilling attempted to perform injection tests. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: over 4,000 feet of continuous core (with detailed log); daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; and comparative data from other wells drilled in the Newberry KGRA. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  5. Drilling below the salt in the Western Mediterranean Sea : the GOLD-1 (Gulf of Lion Drilling) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabineau, Marina; Aslanian, Daniel; Gorini, Christian; Alain, Karine; Participants, International

    2010-05-01

    In recent years the Gulf of Lion within the Occidental Mediterranean Sea has become a unique natural laboratory for the study both the evolution and interaction of deep processes (geodynamics, tectonics, subsidence, isostasy) and surficial processes (river behavior, sedimentary fluxes, sea-level changes, climatic impacts). Here, representing a large group of international researchers, we present the main objectives for a deep drilling project at the foot of the continental slope (2400 m water depth) in the Gulf of Lion. This position is the only place in the Gulf of Lion where the sedimentary column is expected to be complete without major erosional hiatuses or time gaps. It is located sufficiently far from the shelf and slope to not have been affected by the extraordinarly erosional event of the Messinian, and at the same time be free from salt-related faulting and diapirism. At this position we have recorded nearly a complete high-resolution history of the last 23 through 30 Ma of Mediterranean history in some 7.7 km of sedimentary archive. From the petroleum exploration perspective the deepest part of the margin reamain underexplored since all existing wells were drilled on the shelf and slope GLP1 & 2 being the deepest one. New interpretations in the region (especially concerning the Messinian event) have considerably changed earlier views of potential hydrocarbon reservoirs. New results expected from deep drilling are numerous: 1) For the substratum: the upper continental crust thins to less than 5 km, and changes laterally to a relatively thin crust with high velocities whose precise nature is still undetermined (Gailler et al., 2009). The aim of the drilling is to reach this crucial information which is essential for the understanding of the evolution of the sedimentary basin (Aslanian et al., 2009). 2) The drilling will allow the dating and characterization of the impact of the initiation and changes in glacioeustatic cyclicity in alpine glaciers and

  6. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System and Horizontal Directional Drilling Technology Demonstration, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Myers, D.A.; Gardner, M.G.; Williamson, T.; Huffman, J.

    1999-06-01

    The Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD) system and Horizontal Directional Drilling (HDD) were successfully demonstrated at the Mock Tank Leak Simulation Site and the Drilling Technology Test Site, Hanford, Washington. The use of directional drilling offers an alternative to vertical drilling site characterization. Directional drilling can develop a borehole under a structure, such as a waste tank, from an angled entry and leveling off to horizontal at the desired depth. The EMWD system represents an innovative blend of new and existing technology that provides the capability of producing real-time environmental and drill bit data during drilling operations. The technology demonstration consisted of the development of one borehole under a mock waste tank at a depth of {approximately} {minus}8 m ({minus}27 ft.), following a predetermined drill path, tracking the drill path to within a radius of {approximately}1.5 m (5 ft.), and monitoring for zones of radiological activity using the EMWD system. The purpose of the second borehole was to demonstrate the capability of drilling to a depth of {approximately} {minus}21 m ({minus}70 ft.), the depth needed to obtain access under the Hanford waste tanks, and continue drilling horizontally. This report presents information on the HDD and EMWD technologies, demonstration design, results of the demonstrations, and lessons learned.

  7. Kinematic equations to grind a helical drill point on a virtual axis drill sharpener

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈五一; 陈鼎昌

    2000-01-01

    The basic structure of a virtual axis drill grinder is presented in terms of the spatial vectors and thegrinding parameters calculated according to the geometry of a helical drill point. The kinematic equations for sharpening the drills on the virtual axis grinder are deduced using the grinding parameters via vector-matrix txansformation.

  8. Biological treatment of drilling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perie, F.H.; Seris, J.L.; Martignon, A.P.

    1995-12-01

    Off shore operators are now faced with more stringent forthcoming regulations regarding waste discharge. Several aspects are to be taken into account when considering waste disposal in the sea; among them, the total amount of COD and the toxicity. While, in many regards, the problem caused by the processing fluids toxicity has been addressed, the elimination of residual COD from the waste is yet to be solved. Biodegradation of drilling waste is one of the major routes taken by third party contracters to address the reduction of COD in sea-discharged cuttings. This report describes a technique specifically developed to enhance drilling waste biodegradation under selected conditions. The suggested treatment involved biological catalysts used in conjunction with or prior to the biodegradation. We demonstrated that the considered environment-compatible substitute for oil-based mud could be more efficiently biodegraded if an enzymatic pretreatment was carried out prior to or during the actual biodegradation. The biodegradation rate, expressed as CO{sub 2} envolvement, was significantly higher in lipase-treated cultures. In addition, we demonstrated that this treatment was applicable to substrates in emulsion, suspension, or adsorbed on solid.

  9. Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Simon; Duda, Mandy; Stoeckhert, Ferdinand; Wittig, Volker; Bracke, Rolf

    2017-04-01

    Extended Horizontal Jet Drilling for EGS applications in Petrothermal Environments S. Hahn, M. Duda, F. Stoeckhert, V. Wittig, R. Bracke International Geothermal Centre Bochum High pressure water jet drilling technologies are widely used in the drilling industry. Especially in geothermal and hard rock applications, horizontal (radial) jet drilling is, however, confronted with several limitations like lateral length, hole size and steerability. In order to serve as a serious alternative to conventional stimulation techniques these high pressure jetting techniques are experimentally investigated to gain fundamental knowledge about the fluid-structure interaction, to enhance the rock failing process and to identify the governing drilling parameters. The experimental program is divided into three levels. In a first step jetting experiments are performed under free surface conditions while logging fluid pressures, flow speeds and extracted rock volume. All process parameters are quantified with a self-developed jet-ability index and compared to the rock properties (density, porosity, permeability, etc.). In a second step experiments will be performed under pressure-controlled conditions. A test bench is currently under construction offering the possibility to assign an in-situ stress field to the specimen while penetrating the rock sample with a high pressure water jet or a radial jet drilling device. The experimental results from levels 1 and 2 allow to identify the governing rock failure mechanisms and to correlate them with physical rock properties and limited reservoir conditions. Results of the initial tests do show a clear dependency of achievable penetration depth on the interaction of jetting and rock parameters and an individual threshold of the nozzle outlet velocity can be noticed in order to successfully penetrate different formation types. At level 3 jetting experiments will be performed at simulated reservoir conditions corresponding to 5.000 m depth (e

  10. HIGH-POWER TURBODRILL AND DRILL BIT FOR DRILLING WITH COILED TUBING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke; David Glowka; Man Mohan Rai; David Conroy; Tim Beaton; Rocky Seale; Joseph Hanna; Smith Neyrfor; Homer Robertson

    2008-03-31

    Commercial introduction of Microhole Technology to the gas and oil drilling industry requires an effective downhole drive mechanism which operates efficiently at relatively high RPM and low bit weight for delivering efficient power to the special high RPM drill bit for ensuring both high penetration rate and long bit life. This project entails developing and testing a more efficient 2-7/8 in. diameter Turbodrill and a novel 4-1/8 in. diameter drill bit for drilling with coiled tubing. The high-power Turbodrill were developed to deliver efficient power, and the more durable drill bit employed high-temperature cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. This project teams Schlumberger Smith Neyrfor and Smith Bits, and NASA AMES Research Center with Technology International, Inc (TII), to deliver a downhole, hydraulically-driven power unit, matched with a custom drill bit designed to drill 4-1/8 in. boreholes with a purpose-built coiled tubing rig. The U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory has funded Technology International Inc. Houston, Texas to develop a higher power Turbodrill and drill bit for use in drilling with a coiled tubing unit. This project entails developing and testing an effective downhole drive mechanism and a novel drill bit for drilling 'microholes' with coiled tubing. The new higher power Turbodrill is shorter, delivers power more efficiently, operates at relatively high revolutions per minute, and requires low weight on bit. The more durable thermally stable diamond drill bit employs high-temperature TSP (thermally stable) diamond cutters that can more effectively drill hard and abrasive rock. Expectations are that widespread adoption of microhole technology could spawn a wave of 'infill development' drilling of wells spaced between existing wells, which could tap potentially billions of barrels of bypassed oil at shallow depths in mature producing areas. At the same time, microhole

  11. NEW APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINING TECHNOLOGY OF DIMENSION STONE USING A CLOSE-SET DRILLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kalchuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the current state the non-blasting monolith extraction technology was conducted. The further research direction was substantiated. Has been considered and justified the rational parameters of close-set drilling technology of dimension stones. Solution is offered that consist the combined drilling (a close-set and a holes line drilling, that provides to increase of stone splitting efficiency under its own weight. The calculation of the parameters of the scheme of partial underdrilling at a monolith of stone with the purpose of reducing the volume of drilling works is given. Diagrams of tensile stress changes depending on the specific area of splitting were built. A rational correlation between the drilling parameters of the holes has been established by solving the problems of loading the cantilever beam and stress concentration by the Kirsch solution. The most important parameter for the implementation of this technology is the ratio of monoloth hight to its length. Engineering formulas are proposed for calculating the technological parameters of the realization of the “gravitational-hole” stone splitting. The configuration of a rough block of stones is determined under which this technology can be realized. Creating of close-set holes provides the increase of maximal tensile stress with equal values of specific splitting area ratio. It is established that the effective drilling depth of close-set holes is 43,2 % of monolith height. It is estimated that combined drilling method application of savings from drilling operation will be 11,36 %.

  12. Distribution of leukocyte subtypes in the sheep ovary after laser drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozawa, H; Brännström, M; Petrucco, O; Walker, S; Chambers, H; Pascoe, V; Norman, R J

    1995-03-01

    The distribution of leukocyte subtypes in the sheep ovary following laser drilling of the ovarian capsule was examined to understand a possible mechanism by which this treatment promotes ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome. Ovaries were removed from sheep at different time-points following laparoscopic laser drilling and immunohistochemical detection of leukocyte subtypes, using specific monoclonal antibodies; standard histological staining was performed. Migration of leukocytes into the laser-drilled site was observed as early as 6 h after laser drilling and the total number of leukocytes in the site was found to increase up to the 12th day after surgery. In the earlier period, polymorphonuclear leukocytes were the dominant leukocyte subtypes, while macrophages and lymphocytes were the major cellular components on the 12th day and later. These results show that the tissue changes in the ovary following laser drilling are consistent with a local inflammatory reaction. The prolonged appearance of numerous macrophages following the acute inflammatory phase could lead to the secretion of cytokines and other substances suggested to be important in promoting ovulation. These data indicate that part of the effectiveness of the laser drilling in polycystic ovarian syndrome may be attributable to the secretory products of these leukocytes.

  13. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraj A. Salehi; Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2007-02-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute- GRI) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). When compared to its competitors; the HPFL represents a technology that is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. Work performed under this contract included design and implementation of laboratory experiments to investigate the effects of high power laser energy on a variety of rock types. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation or side tracking prototype tool. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on laser/rock interaction under confining pressure as would be the case for all drilling and completion operations. As such, the results would be applicable to drilling, perforation, and

  14. Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD) development for air drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.A.; Rubin, L.A.

    1993-12-31

    When downhole contact between the BHA and formation was optimum, as it was during rotation, high signal levels were experienced. Survey data acquired at the connections, when the BHA was totally at rest, is excellent. GEC intends modifying the system to optimize operations consistent with these disparate factors. A Mean-Time-To-Failure (MTTF) of 89.9 hours appears reasonable from the data. It is not possible to infer an MTBF figure from this test. It is quite obvious, however, that the system reliability performance has been significantly improved since FT {number_sign}5 was performed almost two years earlier. Based on the above results, GEC concludes that it is certainly feasible to attain 100 hours MTBF, for the Model 27, in any and all situations, and hence to provide a reliable MWD for air-drilling.

  15. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2004-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser compares with other lasers used in past experimental work, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. Variables investigated include laser power, beam intensity, external purging of cut materials, sample orientation, beam duration, beam shape, and beam frequency. The investigation also studied the thermal effects on the two sample rock types and their methods of destruction: spallation for sandstone, and thermal dissociation for limestone. Optimal operating conditions were identified for each rock type and condition. As a result of this experimental work, the HPFL has demonstrated a better capability of cutting and drilling limestone and sandstone when compared with other military and industrial lasers previously tested. Consideration should be given to the HPFL as the leading candidate for near term remote high power laser applications for well construction and completion.

  16. Foam drilling in natural gas hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Na

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The key problem of foam drilling in natural gas hydrate is prediction of characteristic parameters of bottom hole. The simulation shows that when the well depth increases, the foam mass number reduces and the pressure increases. At the same depth, pressure in drill string is always higher than annulus. The research findings provide theoretical basis for safety control.

  17. Number & operations drill sheets : grades PK-2

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Nat

    2010-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the number & operations concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to review the concepts in unique ways. Each drill sheet contains warm-up and timed drill activities for the student to practice number & operations concepts.

  18. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  19. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7801 - Jet drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 57.7801 Section 57.7801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 57.7009 Section 57.7009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  2. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary...

  3. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and...

  4. 30 CFR 57.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 57.7004 Section 57.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7801 - Jet drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jet drills. 56.7801 Section 56.7801 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7004 - Drill mast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill mast. 56.7004 Section 56.7004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet...

  7. Status Report A Review of Slimhole Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Tao; Carroll, Herbert B.

    1994-09-01

    This 1994 report reviews the various applications of slimhole technology including for exploration in remote areas, low-cost development wells, reentering existing wells, and horizontal and multilateral drilling. Advantages of slimholes to regular holes are presented. Limitations and disadvantages of slimholes are also discussed. In 1994, slimhole drilling was still an ongoing development technology. (DJE 2005)

  8. 30 CFR 77.1007 - Drilling; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling; general. 77.1007 Section 77.1007 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1007 Drilling; general. (a) Equipment that is to be used during a shift shall be...

  9. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  10. Neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Chih; Lin, Hsin-Cheng; Lee, Wen-Yo; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wu, Chieh-Tsai

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation system that provides assistance throughout the complete bone drilling process. The system comprised neurosurgical robotic arm navigation combining robotic and surgical navigation, 3D medical imaging based surgical planning that could identify lesion location and plan the surgical path on 3D images, and automatic bone drilling control that would stop drilling when the bone was to be drilled-through. Three kinds of experiment were designed. The average positioning error deduced from 3D images of the robotic arm was 0.502 ± 0.069 mm. The correlation between automatically and manually planned paths was 0.975. The average distance error between automatically planned paths and risky zones was 0.279 ± 0.401 mm. The drilling auto-stopping algorithm had 0.00% unstopped cases (26.32% in control group 1) and 70.53% non-drilled-through cases (8.42% and 4.21% in control groups 1 and 2). The system may be useful for neurosurgical robotic arm drilling navigation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Basic Land Drills for Swimming Stroke Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Teaching swimming strokes can be a challenging task in physical education. The purpose of the article is to introduce 12 on land drills that can be utilized to facilitate the learning of swimming strokes, including elementary back stroke, sidestroke, front crawl, back stroke, breaststroke, and butterfly. Each drill consists of four components…

  12. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2015-07-07

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for advancing a borehole. High power laser drilling system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam through the electrical motor.

  13. Heat Generation During Bone Drilling: A Comparison Between Industrial and Orthopaedic Drill Bits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christopher; Inceoglu, Serkan; Juma, David; Zuckerman, Lee

    2017-02-01

    Cortical bone drilling for preparation of screw placement is common in multiple surgical fields. The heat generated while drilling may reach thresholds high enough to cause osteonecrosis. This can compromise implant stability. Orthopaedic drill bits are several orders more expensive than their similarly sized, publicly available industrial counterparts. We hypothesize that an industrial bit will generate less heat during drilling, and the bits will not generate more heat after multiple cortical passes. We compared 4 4.0 mm orthopaedic and 1 3.97 mm industrial drill bits. Three types of each bit were drilled into porcine femoral cortices 20 times. The temperature of the bone was measured with thermocouple transducers. The heat generated during the first 5 drill cycles for each bit was compared to the last 5 cycles. These data were analyzed with analysis of covariance. The industrial drill bit generated the smallest mean increase in temperature (2.8 ± 0.29°C) P industrial bit generated less heat during drilling than its orthopaedic counterparts. The bits maintained their performance after 20 drill cycles. Consideration should be given by manufacturers to design differences that may contribute to a more efficient cutting bit. Further investigation into the reuse of these drill bits may be warranted, as our data suggest their efficiency is maintained after multiple uses.

  14. Communication adapter for use with a drilling component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Hall; Jr.; H. Tracy; Bradford, Kline; Rawle, Michael

    2007-04-03

    A communication adapter is disclosed that provides for removable attachment to a drilling component when the drilling component is not actively drilling and for communication with an integrated transmission system in the drilling component. The communication adapter comprises a data transmission coupler that facilitates communication between the drilling component and the adapter, a mechanical coupler that facilitates removable attachment of the adapter to the drilling component, and a data interface.

  15. Peculiarities of carbon fiber drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Yu. Melentiev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available At polymeric composite materials (PCM machining we face a number of specific features. The research refers to PCMs classification, exposing an overview of known specific features described in the latest advances and techniques to improve the quality and efficiency in PCM processing. To study the carbon fiber drilling a preliminary experiment has been conducted, which essential parameters and issues have been described with respective data Tables and numerous images. The holes surface quality and edges dimensional accuracy have been compared for samples obtained using a blade and a diamond tool; established is the instrument blade material impact on the edges’ precision parameters. Confirmed are the typical and revealed some new types of imperfections and their occurrence conditions. The problem of rapid clogging and related diamond tool clogging problem are identified. Some promising ways of processing of carbon fiber are offered.

  16. Drilling the North Anatolian Fault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Aktar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available An international workshop entitled “GONAF: A deep Geophysical Observatory at the North Anatolian Fault”, was held 23–27 April 2007 in Istanbul, Turkey. The aim of this workshop was to refine plans for a deep drilling project at the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ in northwestern Turkey. The current drilling target is located in the Marmara Sea offshore the megacity of Istanbul in the direct vicinity of the main branch of the North Anatolian Fault on the PrinceIslands (Figs. 1 and 2.The NAFZ represents a 1600-km-long plate boundary that slips at an average rate of 20–30 mm·yr-1 (McClusky et al., 2000. It has developed in the framework of the northward moving Arabian plate and the Hellenic subduction zone where the African lithosphere is subducting below the Aegean. Comparison of long-term slip rates with Holocene and GPS-derived slip rates indicate an increasing westwardmovement of the Anatolian plate with respect to stable Eurasia. During the twentieth century, the NAFZ has ruptured over 900 km of its length. A series of large earthquakes starting in 1939 near Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia propagated westward towards the Istanbul-Marmara region in northwestern Turkey that today represents a seismic gap along a ≥100-km-long segment below the Sea of Marmara. This segment did not rupture since 1766 and, if locked, may have accumulated a slip deficit of 4–5 m. It is believed being capable of generating two M≥7.4 earthquakes within the next decades (Hubert-Ferrari et al., 2000; however, it could even rupture in a large single event (Le Pichon et al., 1999.

  17. AIR AND GAS DRILLING SUCCEEDED IN NORTHEASTERN SICHUAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Tingyong

    2006-01-01

    @@ On January 21, 2006, air and gas deep well drilling test was successfully carried out in the Sinopec southern exploration area. Lingering problems pestering deep well drillings in the southern marine facies area like low drilling rate and prolonged drilling periods were well resolved: average drilling rate of conventional drilling is about 1.4 meters per hour with drilling period (above Xujiahe Formation) of about 130 days, whereas it took only 22 days to complete the same task by air and gas drilling, with penetration rate increased more than eightfold.

  18. Comparative experiments of gas drainage in different types of drillings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-wu; WEI Shan-yang; WANG Chuan; GAO Tian-bao; FU Yu-kai

    2012-01-01

    Gas drainage effect is the utmost important factor for mining speed and mining safety.It has great meaning to study the effect of gas drainage.Comparative experiment of gas drainage in different types of drillings shows that the initial rate of gas natural emission by hydraulic loosed cross drilling is 1.5 times more than that of parallel drilling,and the drilling gas attenuation coefficients reduces to 0.78 times,the effect of gas drainage is good.The ultimate quantity of gas drainage of parallel drilling,cross drilling,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 859.1,1 323.5 and 1 833.6 m3/100 m.The results of the measurement through these three kinds of drillings of 100 meters drilling is considered as following:cross drilling is 1.54 times more than that of parallel drillings,hydraulic loosed cross drilling are 2.13 times more than parallel drilling.The drainage rate of parallel drilling,cross drilling and hydraulic loosed cross drilling reached 10% to 15% in 3 months with the pre-draining time.Among these,the drainage effect of hydraulic loosed cross drilling increased by 46% than that of parallel drilling in three months.

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS OF MECHANICAL SPEED OF DRIVING FOR OPTIMIZATION OF PROCESS OF DRILLING OF OIL AND GAS WELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsоuprikov A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of models is carried out from a definition position for system of optimum control of drilling of basic mathematical model on which calculation of optimum regime parameters is possible. The main equation for management of process of drilling of wells is the mathematical model of mechanical speed of a driving as function from axial load of a chisel, the speed of rotation of a chisel and a consumption of boring solution for cleaning of a well of destroyed breed. Key parameter is axial load of a chisel; graphically dependence of speed of drilling on loading has S appearance - a figurative curve of Bingham which has a convex mathematical extremum. In the article, domestic and foreign models of drilling are considered; their schedules according to skilled data of conducting of wells are constructed. Models are sedate, i.e. reflect only a linear site of a curve of Bingham, data of trade drilling is well approximated with initial and linear sites of curves. Thus, on them it is possible to make only rational management of process, and the optimum mode exists only on border of range of definition of function. Only the A.A. Pogarsky model is suitable for optimum control, having a mathematical maximum and S-shaped form of a curve. All models depend on two parameters of management – load of a chisel and speeds of rotation of a chisel and don't consider the third on influence on drilling speed parameter - a consumption of boring solution. Therefore, Pogarsky's model was finished by inclusion in it in an explicit form of a consumption of boring solution. Check of model by means of the regression analysis of skilled data of drilling from official reports of drilling foremen showed its reliability for 71-99%. The model allows carrying out optimum control of drilling in the "axial load of a chisel" parameter

  20. GHGfrack: An Open-Source Model for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Combustion of Fuel during Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafi, Kourosh; Brandt, Adam

    2016-07-19

    This paper introduces GHGfrack, an open-source engineering-based model that estimates energy consumption and associated GHG emissions from drilling and hydraulic fracturing operations. We describe verification and calibration of GHGfrack against field data for energy and fuel consumption. We run GHGfrack using data from 6927 wells in Eagle Ford and 4431 wells in Bakken oil fields. The average estimated energy consumption in Eagle Ford wells using lateral hole diameters of 8 (3)/4 and 6 (1)/8 in. are 2.25 and 2.73 TJ/well, respectively. The average estimated energy consumption in Bakken wells using hole diameters of 6 in. for horizontal section is 2.16 TJ/well. We estimate average greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 419 and 510 tonne of equivalent CO2 per well (tonne of CO2 eq/well) for the two aforementioned assumed geometries in Eagle Ford, respectively, and 417 tonne of CO2 eq/well for the case of Bakken. These estimates are limited only to GHG emissions from combustion of diesel fuel to supply energy only for rotation of drill string, drilling mud circulation, and fracturing pumps. Sensitivity analysis of the model shows that the top three key variables in driving energy intensity in drilling are the lateral hole diameter, drill pipe internal diameter, and mud flow rate. In hydraulic fracturing, the top three are lateral casing diameter, fracturing fluid volume, and length of the lateral.

  1. Concentration and Distribution of Well Drilling in the Amargosa Desert Area of Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M. P.; Gross, A. J.; Coleman, N. M.

    2002-05-01

    The earliest sources of fresh water supply in the Amargosa Desert area of Southern Nevada were the abundant, naturally occurring (cold) springs. They initially sustained the indigenous Native American populations and later, Euro-American miners, farmers, and ranchers. Prior to 1900, the many local springs and a few (mostly shallow) hand-dug wells were the principal sources of water supply. The first hand-dug well in the area was the Franklin well; it was dug in 1852 for workers performing a survey of the California-Nevada State line. The first mechanically bored wells were drilled for local railroads, along their respective alignments, sometime between 1905-07. About 1917, the first irrigation well in the Amargosa Desert area was drilled for an experimental farm operated by the Tonopah and Tidewater Railroad. In the late 1940s-early 1950s, permanent interest in the area was established, in large measure because of a Federally sponsored desert reclamation program. For the period 1900-1999, a preliminary evaluation of publicly available information (collected principally by the State Engineer) indicates that more than 950 boreholes were drilled in the Amargosa Desert area. Almost half of these boreholes were drilled in the last 20 years. Forty-two percent of the boreholes were drilled to supply fresh drinking water; 26 percent were in support of irrigated agriculture; 21 percent of the wells were drilled for some non-water supply related purpose - ground-water monitoring and testing; and 11 percent were drilled to supply water for commercial or unspecified applications. Most of the well drilling has been concentrated in a parcel of land about 30-40 kilometers south of the proposed geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Most wells have been generally drilled to depths less than 30 meters (100 feet), although deeper wells are uncommon. The main reason is that drilling is expensive and the profitability of finding and extracting potable water, in sufficient

  2. Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent Perry

    2009-04-30

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI), in partnership with Dennis Tool Company (DTC), has worked to develop an advanced drill bit system to be used with microhole drilling assemblies. One of the main objectives of this project was to utilize new and existing coiled tubing and slimhole drilling technologies to develop Microhole Technology (MHT) so as to make significant reductions in the cost of E&P down to 5000 feet in wellbores as small as 3.5 inches in diameter. This new technology was developed to work toward the DOE's goal of enabling domestic shallow oil and gas wells to be drilled inexpensively compared to wells drilled utilizing conventional drilling practices. Overall drilling costs can be lowered by drilling a well as quickly as possible. For this reason, a high drilling rate of penetration is always desired. In general, high drilling rates of penetration (ROP) can be achieved by increasing the weight on bit and increasing the rotary speed of the bit. As the weight on bit is increased, the cutting inserts penetrate deeper into the rock, resulting in a deeper depth of cut. As the depth of cut increases, the amount of torque required to turn the bit also increases. The Counter-Rotating Tandem Motor Drilling System (CRTMDS) was planned to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) resulting in the reduction of the drilling cost. The system includes two counter-rotating cutter systems to reduce or eliminate the reactive torque the drillpipe or coiled tubing must resist. This would allow the application of maximum weight-on-bit and rotational velocities that a coiled tubing drilling unit is capable of delivering. Several variations of the CRTDMS were designed, manufactured and tested. The original tests failed leading to design modifications. Two versions of the modified system were tested and showed that the concept is both positive and practical; however, the tests showed that for the system to be robust and durable, borehole diameter should be substantially larger

  3. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...... the fatigue loads, the rotor, blades and tower moments are presented. The fatigue loads are evaluated using rainflow counting described in detail in Ref. [1]. The 1Hz equivalent load ranges are calculated at different wind speeds. All information regarding the instrumentation is collected in [ref 4] and [ref...

  4. 桥式起重机大车偏斜运行时水平侧向力的危害与控制%Hazard and Control of Lateral Load Deflection of Bridge Crane Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑长亮

    2014-01-01

    由于各种原因,桥式起重机(以下简称起重机)大车在运行时会产生偏斜,这时起重机会对大车轨道产生水平侧向力而直接作用在车轮轮缘上,使车轮加速磨损,对大车传动机构、桥架结构、厂房结构都会造成很大的危害,从而影响到起重机和厂房的使用寿命。文章认为起重机在长时间运行过程中,水平侧向力的产生不可避免,如何有效地控制,是文章主要研究的内容。%Because of various reasons, the bridge crane (hereinafter referred to as the crane cart) will generate deflection at run time. At this time, the crane generates lateral force on the track and directly impose on thewheel rim, which will accelerate the wear of wheel, and do great harm to the transmission mechanism, the bridge structure, building structurethus affect the lifespan of the crane and workshop. This paper belives lateral force is inevitable in the long-time running of crane and mainly researches how to effectively control the generation of lateral force.

  5. Robot force control for hazardous drilling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alici, Gursel; Daniel, R. W.

    The use of robot manipulators for tasks which are inherently risky for human beings, specifically hazardous drilling operations, is investigated. Although drilling is one of the simplest and most basic metal cutting processes, robot drilling is problematic and has resulted in extreme operator fatigue and shorter drill life under telemanipulator control due to a number of possible causes such as dynamic and static effects. Both originate from differences between a robot and a drilling machine. A detailed study of the task highlighted the fact that it is necessary to regulate the distance dependent force by closed loop force control. How the robot type force could be controlled together with the robot position to allow fast drilling but without too much drill wear was considered. The answer was found in further exploration of the tasks which generated a set of specifications and problems that were addressed using novel strategies rather than those usually adopted for robots. The possible solutions are given in terms of a new control strategy and the correct choice of coordinate system to be used within that strategy.

  6. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  7. Lack of training threatening drilling talent supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Flatern, R.

    1996-07-01

    When oil prices crashed in the mid-1980s, the industry tightened budgets. Among the austerity measures taken to survive the consequences of low product prices was an end to expensive, long-term investment training of drilling engineers. In the absence of traditional sources of trained drilling talent, forward-looking contractors are creating their own training programs. The paper describes the activities of some companies who are setting up their own training programs, and an alliance being set up by Chevron and Amoco for training. The paper also discusses training drilling managers, third-party trainers, and the consequences for the industry that does not renew its inventory of people.

  8. Developmental test report, assessment of XT-70E percussion drill rig operation in tank farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dougherty, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-09-10

    The following report documents the testing of the XT-70E percussion drill rig for use in the 241-SX Tank Farm. The test is necessary to support evaluation of the safety and authorization level of the proposed activity of installing up to three new drywells in the 241- SX Tank Farm. The proposed activity plans to install drywells by percussion drilling 7 inch O.D./6 inch I.D. pipe in close proximity of underground storage tanks and associated equipment. The load transmitted from the drill rig`s percussion hammer through the ground to the tank structure and equipment is not known and therefore testing is required to ensure the activity is safe and authorized.

  9. Non-technical skills: enhancing safety in operating theatres (and drilling rigs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flin, Rhona

    2014-03-01

    On April 20th 2010, a large Transocean drilling rig called the Deepwater Horizon was operating in the Gulf of Mexico to drill the Macondo well, for the oil company BP. The job was six weeks behind schedule and $58 million over budget and had not been without difficulty: it was a high pressure well, 2.5 miles below the seabed. At 5.45 am, the Halliburton cementing engineer sent an email to say: 'We have completed the job and it went well'. At 9.43 pm, 16 hours later, there was a release of hydrocarbons into the well bore and the drilling rig experienced a catastrophic blowout as the high pressure oil and gas escaped onto the rig and into the ocean. The resulting explosions and fire killed 11 of the crew of 126, injured many more and created an enormous oil spill across the Gulf.

  10. Intraosseous monitoring of drilling in lumbar vertebrae by ultrasound: An experimental feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Nahum; Halevy-Politch, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    The rationale for this project is to evaluate the efficiency of a novel sonographic method for measurements of interosseous distances. The method utilizes a propagating ultrasonic beam through aqueous milieu which is directed as a jet into a drilled tract. We used a plastic model of human L5 vertebra and ex vivo specimen of L5 porcine vertebra and generated 2 mm in diameter tracts in vertebral pedicles. The tracts were created in the "desired" central direction and in the "wrong" medial and lateral directions. The drilled tracts and the residual, up to opposite cortex, distances were measured sonographically and mechanically and compared statistically. We show that "true" mechanical measurements can be predicted from sonographic measurements with correction of 1-3 mm. The correct central route can be distinguished from the wrong misplaced routes. By using the sonographic measurements, a correct direction of drilling in the pedicle of lumbar L5 vertebra can be efficiently monitored.

  11. Resistance of Membrane Retrofit Concrete Masonry Walls to Lateral Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    determined to be as effective as steel jackets in improving deformation capacity levels of columns subjected to seismic loading. Experimental testing of...for seismic loading were later investigated for their use in strengthening concrete masonry structures against blast. For instance, column- jacketing ... Seismic Investigations ...............................................................................................................6 2.2 Blast Load

  12. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regardi...

  13. Load Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Carsten Weber; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes Load measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The aim of the measurement program regarding the loads on the turbine is to verify the basic characteristics of the wind turbine and loads on the blades, the rotor and the tower, using [Ref 1], [Ref2] and [Ref 3]. Regarding...

  14. Prediction of the temperature of a drill in drilling lunar rock simulant in a vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui Jinsheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the temperature of a sampling drill in drilling lunar rock simulant in a high-vacuum environment was studied. The thermal problem was viewed as a 1-D transient heat transfer problem in a semi-infinite object. The simplified drill was modeled using heat conduction differential equation and a fast numerical calculation method is proposed on this basis, with time and the drill discretized. The model was modified to consider the effects of radiation, drill bit configuration, and non-constant heat source. A thermal analysis was conducted using ANSYS Workbench to determine the value of the equivalent correction coefficient proposed in this paper. Using fiber Bragg grating temperature measurement method, drilling experiments were conducted in a vacuum, and the results were compared to the model. The agreement between model and experiment was very good.

  15. Study on temperature field of the drilling machine during the course of drilling in coal mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhi-chao; YU Ming-gao; ZHENG Li-gang; PAN Rong-kun

    2006-01-01

    The working conditions of the MK-3 type full hydraulic tunnel drilling machine during the course of drilling were analyzed. Based on the energy balance governing equations for the drill rod, the temperature field of drill rod at the normal and non-normal working conditions was numerically obtained. The numerical results show that the maximum temperature at the head of drill rod under the normal working circumstance is insufficient to ignite the gas. But under the non-normal working condition, the local high temperature can ignite the gas easily and cause the fire. In order to prevent the gas fire, the occurrence of the non-normal operating condition must be prevented as far as possible during the drilling.

  16. Final Technical Report for “A Heliportable Sonic Drilling Platform for Microhole Drilling and Exploration”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, Peter

    2008-05-05

    The Phase I objectives were fully achieved the execution of a program that included the: • Development of a comprehensive model of the sonic drill technology and interaction of the dynamic drilling parameters with the impedance of the earth. • Operation and measurement of the sonic drilling process in the field at full scale. • Comparison of the analytical and experimental results to form an objective and quantified approach to describe the fundamental phenomena and to develop a methodology for automated control of the sonic drilling process. • Conceptual design of a modular sonic drilling system that can be transported to remote sites by helicopter. As a result, the feasibility of a commercially viable sonic drilling technology that can produce microholes up to 1,500 feet in depth, and that is field deployable to remote, environmentally sensitive sites via a helicopter, has been demonstrated.

  17. 侧向撞击作用下钢筋混凝土框架柱简化模型研究%Research on a simplified reinforced concrete frame column model subjected to lateral impact load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴国; 苏幼坡; 葛楠; 王萃敏

    2011-01-01

    利用ANSYS有限元分析软件建立了1个单榀钢筋混凝土框架结构整体基准模型及相应的4个简化模型.以动力型冲击荷载为例,分别计算了框架柱在3/4柱高、1/2柱高及1/4柱高3个不同部位受到撞击作用时的结构的佗移动力反应时程.计算结果表明,在数值分析时,可以将整体框架结构简化为2层2跨的简单框架或十字型结构.抗撞击试验模型可以采用两端固定的单根柱,但只有撞击荷载作用在1/2柱高时的动力反应位移误差较小,而在其他情况下误差可能比较大.%A primary standard model and four simplified models were presented with ANSYS for a reinforced concrete frame structure. The structural response was calculated for the dynamic loads applied at 3/4, 1/2 and 1/4 column height, respectively. The results showed that it is reasonable to reduce the entire frame to a frame of 2 storey by 2 spans or a cross frame when carrying out numerical analysis for a single column. It is also a practical approximation to reduce the frame to a 2 endfixed column in experiment. But it should be noted that the reduction might result a certain amount of difference unless the impact load acts at mid-span of the column length.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  19. Heat-mechanics interaction behavior of lead rubber bearings for seismic base isolation under large and cyclic lateral deformation. Part 1. Dynamic loading test of LRB and development of analytical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Akihiro; Takenaka, Yasuo; Takaoka, Eiji; Hikita, Makiko; Hyodo, Yo (Kajima Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)), e-mail: kondo-akihiro@kajima.com; Kitamura, Haruyuki (Tokyo Univ. of Science, Chiba (Japan)), e-mail: kita-h@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp

    2009-07-01

    When base-isolated buildings are subjected to long-period strong earthquakes emanating from oceanic trenches, base-isolation devices such as Lead Rubber Bearings (LRB) can be subjected to larger and more cyclic deformations than anticipated in structural design. In an LRB, seismic input energy is absorbed as hysteresis energy of a lead plug, and finally transformed into thermal energy. The resulting large and multiple cyclic deformations of the LRB generate a large amount of heat, causing high temperatures of the lead plug. The resulting deterioration of damping characteristics which encompasses a complex thermal and mechanical phenomenon provides a serious concern for the base-isolated building responses. However, there is insufficient experimental data on this phenomenon, and no analytical method for evaluation of heat-mechanics interaction behavior has been derived. The paper describes experimental results and derivation of analytical methods for determining the heat-mechanics interaction of the LRB under a large and cyclic lateral deformation

  20. Investigation of the wear of hard-metal drilling tools when drilling cast iron

    OpenAIRE

    Escursell Mor, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Spheroidal cast iron still has a lot of applications; especially in the automotive industry. In this Master Thesis the wear of the drilling tools and its effect on the quality of the drilled holes is being studied. An experimental investigation of different types of tool coatings and geometry will be done to understand the diverse factors that affect the creation of wear. Also the forces involved in the process of drilling will be experimentally calculated. Studying the results, recommenda...

  1. Polyethylene Glycol Drilling Fluid for Drilling in Marine Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sediments: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lixin Kuang; Yibing Yu; Yunzhong Tu; Ling Zhang; Fulong Ning; Guosheng Jiang; Tianle Liu

    2011-01-01

    Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na 2 CO 3 , 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% ...

  2. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    The dissertation investigates the phenomenon of excessive pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations as observed on several high-profile footbridges. In particular, the temporary closures of both Paris’ Solferino Bridge (1999) and the London Millennium Bridge (2000) have led to an understanding...... for modelling of pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations. It is shown that the modal response of a footbridge subject to a pedestrian crowd is sensitive to the selection of the pacing rate distribution within the group, the magnitude of ambient loads and the total duration of the load event. The selection...

  3. HORIZONTAL WELL DRILL-IN FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Main objective of horizontal driling is to place a drain-hole for a long distance within the pay zone to enhance productivity or injectivity. In drilling horizontal wells, more serious problems appear than in drilling vertical wells. These problems are: poor hole cleaning, excessive torque and drag, hole filling, pipe stucking, wellbore instability, loss of circulation, formation damage, poor cement job, and difficulties at logging jobs. From that reason, successful drilling and production of horizontal well depends largely on the fluid used during drilling and completion phases. Several new fluids, that fulfill some or all of required properties (hole cleaning, cutting suspension, good lubrication, and relative low formation damage, are presented in this paper.

  4. 75 FR 8113 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject antidumping and countervailing duty investigations. DATES: Effective...

  5. Fort Bliss exploratory slimholes: Drilling and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    During November/96 to April/97 Sandia National Laboratories provided consulation, data collection, analysis and project documentation to the U.S. Army for a series of four geothermal exploratory slimholes drilled on the McGregor Range approximately 25 miles north of El Paso, Texas. This drilling was directed toward evaluating a potential reservoir for geothermal power generation in this area, with a secondary objective of assessing the potential for direct use applications such as space heating or water de-salinization. This report includes: representative temperature logs from the wells; daily drilling reports; a narrative account of the drilling and testing; a description of equipment used; a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data; and recommendations for future work.

  6. Extreme Temperature Motor and Drill System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In response to the need for motors, actuators and drilling systems that can operate in the harsh venusian environment for extended periods of time, on the order of...

  7. Downhole drilling spotting fluid composition and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.R.; Campbell, G.J.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a spotting fluid concentrate composition suitable for use in downhole drilling operations in a pill for releasing periodically stuck drill string. It comprises glycerophosphoric acid ester; a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof; an optional viscosifying agent for increasing the viscosity of the dispersion; and an optional sealing agent for preventing diffusion of water into the downhole formation. This patent also describes a method for lubricating a downhole well drilling operation. It comprises mixing a spotting fluid concentrate composition comprising glycerophosphoric acid ester, a polyacyloxy polycarboxylic acid ester of monoglycerides, diglycerides and mixtures thereof, an optional viscosifying agent and an optional sealing agent with drilling mud; and circulating the mud mixture through the well.

  8. Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines into Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160702.html Antibiotic 'Report Card' Drills Guidelines Into Dentists Seeing their ... HealthDay News) -- Dentists are less likely to prescribe antibiotics for patients after seeing a "report card" on ...

  9. Hydraulic hammer drilling technology: Developments and capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melamed, Y.; Kiselev, A. [SKB Geotechnika, Moscow (Russian Federation); Gelfgat, M. [Aquatic Co., Moscow (Russian Federation); Dreesen, D.; Blacic, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). GeoEngineering Group

    1996-12-31

    Percussion drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. Unfortunately the efficiency of most hydraulic hammer (HH) designs was very low (8% maximum), so they were successfully used in shallow boreholes only. Thirty years of research and field drilling experience with HH application in Former Soviet Union (FSU) countries led to the development of a new generation of HH designs with a proven efficiency of 40%. That advance achieved good operational results in hard rock at depths up to 2,000 m and more. The most recent research has shown that there are opportunities to increase HH efficiency up to 70%. This paper presents HH basic design principles and operational features. The advantages of HH technology for coiled-tubing drilling is shown on the basis of test results recently conducted in the US.

  10. Environment-friendly drilling operation technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huaidong; Jing, Ning; Zhang, Yanna; Huang, Hongjun; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Under the circumstance that international safety and environmental standards being more and more stringent, drilling engineering is facing unprecedented challenges, the extensive traditional process flow is no longer accepted, the new safe and environment-friendly process is more suitable to the healthy development of the industry. In 2015, CNPCIC adopted environment-friendly drilling technology for the first time in the Chad region, ensured the safety of well control, at the same time increased the environmental protection measure, reduced the risk of environmental pollution what obtain the ratification from local government. This technology carries out recovery and disposal of crude oil, cuttings and mud without falling on the ground. The final products are used in road and well site construction, which realizes the reutilization of drilling waste, reduces the operating cost, and provides a strong technical support for cost-cutting and performance-increase of drilling engineering under low oil price.

  11. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is

  12. 21 CFR 872.4130 - Intraoral dental drill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental drill. 872.4130 Section 872.4130...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4130 Intraoral dental drill. (a) Identification. An intraoral dental drill is a rotary device intended to be attached to a dental handpiece to drill holes...

  13. Thermal numerical assessment of jawbone drilling factor during implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Pirjamali Neisiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Optimization drilling parameters in order to temperature decrease during creation of hole in the bone is an interested issue. The aim of this study was to achieve optimum values of drilling parameters based on the creation of minimum temperature during jawbone drilling. Materials and Methods: In this study two models of mandible and maxilla was created and teeth 2, 5 and 8 from maxilla and teeth 25, 28 and 31 from mandible were removed. The drilling operation was performed under different conditions on jawbone models using finite element analysis and the maximum temperatures were measured in adjacent of holes. Results: Drill bit head angle of 70 degrees was created the lowest maximum temperature during drilling operation. The lowest maximum temperatures were observed in the drill bit rotational speed, drill bit feed rate and the force exerted on the drill bit equal to 200 rpm, 120 mm/min and 60 N, respectively. The use of irrigation can decrease the maximum bone temperature about 7ºC. The maximum temperature differences in various regions of mandible and maxilla were approximately about 1ºC. Conclusion: Sharpness of drill bit head angle, reduction of drill bit rotational speed, increasing drill bit feed rate and exerted force on drill bit and also the use of irrigation played effective roles in temperature decrease during jawbone drilling. Drilling site did not have important effect on the temperature changes during jawbone drilling.

  14. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager...

  15. Percussive Augmenter of Rotary Drills for Operating as a Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Jack Barron (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Scott, James Samson (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A percussive augmenter bit includes a connection shaft for mounting the bit onto a rotary drill. In a first modality, an actuator percussively drives the bit, and an electric slip-ring provides power to the actuator while being rotated by the drill. Hammering action from the actuator and rotation from the drill are applied directly to material being drilled. In a second modality, a percussive augmenter includes an actuator that operates as a hammering mechanism that drives a free mass into the bit creating stress pulses that fracture material that is in contact with the bit.

  16. Method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, G.D.; Fayner, L.B.; Gurerich, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    A method of indicating the position of a drill head of a shaft drilling unit consists of duplicating its position by an indicator which moves along with movement of the drill head during its forward and backward movements. In order to reduce time spent on auxilliary operations mismatching of the reading of the indicator and the position of the drill head is accomplished due to automatic rejection of the accumulated air during backward motion. The indicated mismatching is rejected at the end of the backward cycle.

  17. A self propelled drilling system for hard-rock, horizontal and coiled tube drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biglin, D.; Wassell, M.

    1997-12-31

    Several advancements are needed to improve the efficiency and reliability of both hard rock drilling and extended reach drilling. This paper will present a Self Propelled Drilling System (SPDS) which can grip the borehole wall in order to provide a stable platform for the application of weight on bit (WOB) and resisting the reactive torque created by the downhole drilling motor, bit and formation interaction. The system will also dampen the damaging effects of drill string vibration. This tool employs two hydraulically activated anchors (front and rear) to grip the borehole wall, and a two-way thrust mandrel to apply both the drilling force to the bit, and a retraction force to pull the drill string into the hole. Forward drilling motion will commence by sequencing the anchor pistons and thrust mandrel to allow the tool to walk in a stepping motion. The SPDS has a microprocessor to control valve timing, sensing and communication functions. An optional Measurement While Drilling (MWD) interface can provide two-way communication of critical operating parameters such as hydraulic pressure and piston location. This information can then be telemetered to the surface, or used downhole to autonomously control system parameters such as anchor and thrust force or damping characteristics.

  18. Development of Diamond-Coated Drills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Compared with the sintered polycrystalline diamond, the deposited thin film diamond has the great advantage on the fabrication of cutting tools with complex geometries such as drills. Because of their low costs for fabrication equipment and high performance on high speed machining non-ferrous metals and alloys, metal-compound materials, and hard brittle non-metals, diamond-coated drills find great potentialities in the commercial application. However, the poor adhesion of the diamond film on the substrate...

  19. Nonlinear Estimation with Applications to Drilling

    OpenAIRE

    Stamnes, Øyvind Nistad

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses the topic of nonlinear estimation and its applications. Particular emphasis is given to downhole pressure estimation for Managed Pressure Drilling (MPD), but due to the mathematical similarities of the two problems, velocity estimation for mechanical systems is also considered.  The thesis consists of the following three parts:Part I of this thesis addresses the problem of pressure estimation for MPD systems. Over the last decade MPD has emerged as a tool for drilling of...

  20. Research on the fates of drilling wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munschenheim, D. K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Bedford Inst. of Oceanography

    2000-07-01

    Dispersal characteristics and fates of fine particulate drilling wastes were studied in the Cohasset and Panuke oilfields lying 45 km west of Sable Island in 38 m of water. A second study was carried out at the Hibernia field in 1995 prior to the emplacement of the Hibernia platform. In the Cohasset and Panuke study the wells were relatively shallow and drilling operations were done with a minimum of barite. The initial trial comparing samples from within the discharge plume with those taken from clear water revealed that drilling waste fines accumulate in the benthic boundary layer. Subsequent studies at Copan delineated the extent of drilling wastes coverage on the seabed, showing flocculation of the waste particles, with subsequent increase in their settling rate. There was also evidence of an increase in water column turbidity with increasing proximity to the platform. In the case of Hibernia drilling wastes were detected only in the upper water column. Subsequent information revealed that this was due to the fact that at the time of sampling silica-based drilling mud, formulated with fresh water, was used. In 1998 Hibernia switched to synthetic muds. Since that time, no drilling mud waste was detected in the upper water column and only slight amounts in the benthic boundary layer. The explanation lies in the differences in discharge practices, such as for example pre-dilution with sea water. Overall, the results confirm the suitability of particle size analysis for the detection of particulate drilling wastes on energetic offshore banks. The technique also confirms the role of flocculation in retarding the dispersion of fine particles through increasing the settling rate. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Pure waterjet drilling of articular bone

    OpenAIRE

    Biskup, Christian; Dunnen, Steven den; Kraaij, Gert; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Tuijthof, Gabrielle J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The clinical application of waterjet technology for machining tough human tissues, such as articular bone, has advantages, as it produces clean sharp cuts without tissue heating. Additionally, water supply is possible via flexible tubing, which enables minimally invasive surgical access. This pilot study investigates whether drilling bony tissue with pure waterjets is feasible. Water pressures between 20 and 120 MPa with an orifice of 0.6 mm were used to create waterjets to drill blind boring...

  2. Drill Embedded Nanosensors For Planetary Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor for water vapor detection under Martian Conditions and the miniaturized electronics can be embedded in the drill bit for collecting sensor data and transmit it to a computer wirelessly.This capability will enable the real time measurement of ice during drilling. With this real time and in-situ measurement, subsurface ice detection can be easy, fast, precise and low cost.

  3. Experimental and modeling hydraulic studies of foam drilling fluid flowing through vertical smooth pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Saxena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foam has emerged as an efficient drilling fluid for the drilling of low pressure, fractured and matured reservoirs because of its the ability to reduce formation damage, fluid loss, differential sticking etc. However the compressible nature along with its complicated rheology has made its implementation a multifaceted task. Knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of drilling fluid within the borehole is the key behind successful implementation of drilling job. However, little effort has been made to develop the hydrodynamic models for the foam flowing with cuttings through pipes of variable diameter. In the present study, hydrodynamics of the foam fluid was investigated through the vertical smooth pipes of different pipe diameters, with variable foam properties in a flow loop system. Effect of cutting loading on pressure drop was also studied. Thus, the present investigation estimates the differential pressure loss across the pipe. The flow loop permits foam flow through 25.4 mm, 38.1 mm and 50.8 mm diameter pipes. The smaller diameter pipes are used to replicate the annular spaces between the drill string and wellbore. The developed model determines the pressure loss along the pipe and the results are compared with a number of existing models. The developed model is able to predict the experimental results more accurately.

  4. STUDY ON THE MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR DRILL WANDERING MOTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the kinematic relationship of the drill, drill point and workpiece and the coordinate systems founded, the mathematical models of the drill point wandering motion for the drill initial penetration, i. e. the formulae for the drill point center locus, hole shape and cutting edge locus, are established. According to these formulae the hole shape to be made is simulated and analyzed. It is verified that the bending chatter of the drill during the drill penetrating is the main cause to form a polygon like hole.

  5. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  6. Insulating coupling for drill collars and method of manufacture thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, F.A.; Maron, R.J.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an insulating drill collar joint, including: a first metallic drill collar segment having a first threaded section with a coating of electrically insulating ceramic material; insulating coating in the range of from 0.002 to 0.006 inch thick; and a second metallic drill collar segment connected to first drill collar segment; second drill collar segment having a second threaded section engaged with the insulation coated section of the first drill collar section. An electrically insulated drill collar joint is formed.

  7. Stinger Enhanced Drill Bits For EGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrand, Christopher J. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Skeem, Marcus R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Crockett, Ron B. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States); Hall, David R. [Novatek International, Inc., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-04-29

    The project objectives were to design, engineer, test, and commercialize a drill bit suitable for drilling in hard rock and high temperature environments (10,000 meters) likely to be encountered in drilling enhanced geothermal wells. The goal is provide a drill bit that can aid in the increased penetration rate of three times over conventional drilling. Novatek has sought to leverage its polycrystalline diamond technology and a new conical cutter shape, known as the Stinger®, for this purpose. Novatek has developed a fixed bladed bit, known as the JackBit®, populated with both shear cutter and Stingers that is currently being tested by major drilling companies for geothermal and oil and gas applications. The JackBit concept comprises a fixed bladed bit with a center indenter, referred to as the Jack. The JackBit has been extensively tested in the lab and in the field. The JackBit has been transferred to a major bit manufacturer and oil service company. Except for the attached published reports all other information is confidential.

  8. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    OpenAIRE

    Nikulin Oleg; Shabanov Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  9. Electrotechnical complex of drill rig with adjustable electric drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikulin Oleg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the electrotechnical complex of a drill rig with adjustable electric drives of the main mechanisms. A computer model has been developed for the electrical complex of the drill rig, which allows studying processes in case of interruptions in the power supply system, changes in the technological parameters of drilling, etc. The article presents the simulation results for short circuits in the power supply system of the drilling rig and for drilling a well.

  10. Drilling Fluid System & Technology in Sichuan Gas Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang You; He Lun

    1995-01-01

    @@ Polymer Drilling FluidSystem SPA (Sichuan Petroleum Administration) began to use non-dispersed polymer drilling fluids in 1975. In the beginning,SPA adopted the single polymer drilling fluid systems utilizing single polyacrylamide as full flocculants or utilizing PHPA (partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide) as proper flocculants, then SPA widely popularized the multi-polymer drilling fluid systems compounding of high, medium and low molecular weight polymers. The amphoteric polymers drilling fluid has been successfully developed and applied in recent years.

  11. Laser Drilling - Drilling with the Power of Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian C. Gahan; Samih Batarseh

    2005-09-28

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) has been the leading investigator in the field of high power laser applications research for well construction and completion applications. Since 1997, GTI (then as Gas Research Institute) has investigated several military and industrial laser systems and their ability to cut and drill into reservoir type rocks. In this report, GTI continues its investigation with a recently acquired 5.34 kW ytterbium-doped multi-clad high power fiber laser (HPFL). The HPFL represents a potentially disruptive technology that, when compared to its competitors, is more cost effective to operate, capable of remote operations, and requires considerably less maintenance and repair. To determine how this promising laser would perform under high pressure in-situ conditions, GTI performed a number of experiments with results directly comparable to previous data. Experiments were designed to investigate the effect of laser input parameters on representative reservoir rock types of sandstone and limestone. The focus of the experiments was on completion and perforation applications, although the results and techniques apply to well construction and other rock cutting applications. All previous laser/rock interaction tests were performed on samples in the lab at atmospheric pressure. To determine the effect of downhole pressure conditions, a sophisticated tri-axial cell was designed and tested. For the first time, Berea sandstone, limestone and clad core samples were lased under various combinations of confining, axial and pore pressures. Composite core samples consisted of steel cemented to rock in an effort to represent material penetrated in a cased hole. The results of this experiment will assist in the development of a downhole laser perforation prototype tool. In the past, several combinations of laser and rock variables were investigated at standard conditions and reported in the literature. More recent experiments determined the technical feasibility of

  12. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    .org Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) Page ( 1 ) Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondyliti s, is a painful condition of the elbow caused by overuse. Not surprisingly, playing tennis or other racquet sports can cause ...

  13. Study on Drill String Fatigue Life in Deepwater Drilling%深水钻井钻柱疲劳寿命研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳佳; 陈建民

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic response of the deepwater drilling platform increases alternating loads of the drilling string�As a consequence, the calculation of drill string fatigue life becomes more complicated�By using the numeri⁃cal simulation method, a method for studying drill string fatigue life is proposed based on AQWA module, transi⁃ent dynamic analysis module and fatigue analysis module of Ansys⁃Workbench�A case study was conducted to ob⁃tain motion response of some marine platform and further get the drill string fatigue life of about 102�61 d�Calculation results show that the drill string serving up to 100 days must have flaw detection to determine whether it can continue to run in the deepwater drilling operation up to 1 000 m�In particular, great attention should be paid to the drilling string near the surface.%深水钻井作业中平台的动力响应将使钻柱承受更多的交变载荷,钻柱疲劳寿命的计算过程更为复杂。应用数值模拟方法,通过Ansys⁃Workbench中的AQWA模块、瞬态动力学分析模块以及疲劳分析模块,提出了一种研究深水钻井中钻柱疲劳寿命问题的方法。通过实例计算,得到了某海洋环境下平台的运动响应,进而得到钻柱的疲劳极限寿命约102�61 d。计算结果表明,对于水深1000 m的深水钻井作业,服役时间达到100 d的钻柱必须经过探伤检测,方能确定是否继续使用,且尤其应注意靠近水面部分的钻柱。

  14. Real Time Seismic Prediction while Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, F. R.; Bohlen, T.; Edelmann, T.; Kassel, A.; Heim, A.; Gehring, M.; Lüth, S.; Giese, R.; Jaksch, K.; Rechlin, A.; Kopf, M.; Stahlmann, J.; Gattermann, J.; Bruns, B.

    2009-12-01

    Efficient and safe drilling is a prerequisite to enhance the mobility of people and goods, to improve the traffic as well as utility infrastructure of growing megacities, and to ensure the growing energy demand while building geothermal and in hydroelectric power plants. Construction within the underground is often building within the unknown. An enhanced risk potential for people and the underground building may arise if drilling enters fracture zones, karsts, brittle rocks, mixed solid and soft rocks, caves, or anthropogenic obstacles. Knowing about the material behavior ahead of the drilling allows reducing the risk during drilling and construction operation. In drilling operations direct observations from boreholes can be complemented with geophysical investigations. In this presentation we focus on “real time” seismic prediction while drilling which is seen as a prerequisite while using geophysical methods in modern drilling operations. In solid rocks P- and S-wave velocity, refraction and reflection as well as seismic wave attenuation can be used for the interpretation of structures ahead of the drilling. An Integrated Seismic Imaging System (ISIS) for exploration ahead of a construction is used, where a pneumatic hammer or a magnetostrictive vibration source generate repetitive signals behind the tunneling machine. Tube waves are generated which travel along the tunnel to the working face. There the tube waves are converted to mainly S- but also P-Waves which interact with the formation ahead of the heading face. The reflected or refracted waves travel back to the working front are converted back to tube waves and recorded using three-component geophones which are fit into the tips of anchor rods. In near real time, the ISIS software allows for an integrated 3D imaging and interpretation of the observed data, geological and geotechnical parameters. Fracture zones, heterogeneities, and variations in the rock properties can be revealed during the drilling

  15. Optimization of process parameters for drilled hole quality characteristics during cortical bone drilling using Taguchi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj; Ghai, Aman

    2016-09-01

    Orthopaedic surgery involves drilling of bones to get them fixed at their original position. The drilling process used in orthopaedic surgery is most likely to the mechanical drilling process and there is all likelihood that it may harm the already damaged bone, the surrounding bone tissue and nerves, and the peril is not limited at that. It is very much feared that the recovery of that part may be impeded so that it may not be able to sustain life long. To achieve sustainable orthopaedic surgery, a surgeon must try to control the drilling damage at the time of bone drilling. The area around the holes decides the life of bone joint and so, the contiguous area of drilled hole must be intact and retain its properties even after drilling. This study mainly focuses on optimization of drilling parameters like rotational speed, feed rate and the type of tool at three levels each used by Taguchi optimization for surface roughness and material removal rate. The confirmation experiments were also carried out and results found with the confidence interval. Scanning electrode microscopy (SEM) images assisted in getting the micro level information of bone damage.

  16. Great Wall Drilling Company on The Way to Rapid Expansion in Overseas Drilling Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ In early 2003, an exciting new reached Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC). After strict evaluation procedure, PDVSA, the national oil company of Venezuela, made the decision to award GWDC a service contract valued at US$116 millions,which is the largest one GWDC has obtained since it began international drilling business.

  17. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yudan; Wen, Guojun; Chen, Han

    2017-04-27

    The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD) exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  18. PERFORMANCE STUDY OF CRYO TREATED HSS DRILLS IN DRILLING CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Ramji

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the performance of cryogenically treated HSS drills for drilling gray cast iron. The thrust force and torque were measured using drill tool dynamometer. The surface roughness (Ra, Rz, Rq and Rt of the drilled specimens were measured using talysurf. The experimental lay-out was designedusing Taguchi’s Orthogonal Array technique. Signal-to-Noise Ratio analysis was performed to identify the effect of the parameters on the response variables. The treated drills were found superior to the non-treated in all the test conditions in terms of lesser thrust force, torque and also superior surface roughness of the specimens.The tool wear was studied using SEM. FEM was done to predict tool tip temperature.

  19. Post-drilling analysis of underbalanced drilled wells in Hassi-Messaoud Field, Algeria : case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salim, K. [Sonatrach Inc., Alger (Algeria); Osisanya, S.O. [Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States); Madi, Y. [Algerian Petroleum Inst. (Algeria)

    2004-07-01

    Underbalanced drilling (UBD) is often undertaken in fractured reservoirs, in depleted formations that are susceptible to well bore damage or mud loss, and in medium to hard rock with problematic drilling rates. UBD involves manipulating the bottom hole circulating pressure so that it will be less than the static reservoir pressure, allowing formation fluids to flow into the well. UBD has increased profits at several oil and gas drilling properties including the Hassi Messaoud Field in Algeria where Sonatrach conducted trials in depleted oil production zones to assess the operational feasibility and commercial benefits of UBD. The technique was found to prevent lost circulation and differential pipe sticking; improve penetration rates; provide real-time reservoir evaluation while drilling; eliminate well stimulation costs; and, improve well bore productivity as a result of reduced formation damage. UBD also provides access to reserves that would otherwise not be produced, and substantially reduces total drilling and completion costs. 3 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  20. Deep learning in assessment of drill condition on the basis of images of drilled holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Jaroslaw; Swiderski, Bartosz; Jegorowa, Albina; Kruk, Michal; Osowski, Stanislaw

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents novel approach to drill condition assessment using deep learning. The assessment regarding level of the drill wear is done on the basis of the drilled hole images. Two states of the drill are taken into account: the sharp enough to continue production and worn out. The decision is taken on the basis of the shape of hole and also the level of hole shredding. In this way the drill condition is associated with the problem of image analysis and classification. Novel approach to this classification task in the form of deep learning has been applied in solving this problem. The important advantage of this method is great simplification of the recognition procedure, since any handy craft prepared features are not needed and the focus may be concentrated on the most interesting aspects of data mining and machine learning. The obtained results belong to the best in comparison to other approaches to the problem solution.

  1. Composite support column assembly for offshore drilling and production platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.H.

    1989-04-18

    This patent describes a support column assembly for an offshore drilling and/or production comprising: means for anchoring the column assembly on the seabed; an elongated cylindrical support column including at least one generally cylindrical column member having a cylindrical wall formed of a composite of elongated filaments of at least one of carbon and boron bonded in a resin matrix, the support column including a plurality of the column members coupled end to end by coupling means at opposite ends of the column members, the coupling means including a plurality of radially project pins for coupling the composite wall to a coupling member interposed between the column members, respectively; and means for connecting the column to a platform for transmitting platform loads between the platform and the anchor means.

  2. Bearing Behavior of Drilled and Molded-in Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Massimo; Langella, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Glass/epoxy composites were manufactured using RIFT (Resin Infusion under Flexible Tool), a closed mould process capable of obtaining large and complex forms, by impregnating, under a vacuum, a dry preform placed on a flat rigid mould. At certain points of these composite laminates, molded-in holes were made in the dry perform before the resin infusion phase, using two different methods: displacing or cutting the yarn of the fibers. After the resin treatment, other holes were made in the same laminates by drilling. Single-point pin-loaded specimens, cut from laminates, were tested for different values of specimen width-to-hole diameter ratio (W/D) and edge distance-to-hole diameter ratio. In the results of the experiment, the specimens with molded in holes made by displacing the fiber yarn showed higher bearing strength values.

  3. Recovery of benthic megafauna from anthropogenic disturbance at a hydrocarbon drilling well (380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Gates

    Full Text Available Recovery from disturbance in deep water is poorly understood, but as anthropogenic impacts increase in deeper water it is important to quantify the process. Exploratory hydrocarbon drilling causes physical disturbance, smothering the seabed near the well. Video transects obtained by remotely operated vehicles were used to assess the change in invertebrate megafaunal density and diversity caused by drilling a well at 380 m depth in the Norwegian Sea in 2006. Transects were carried out one day before drilling commenced and 27 days, 76 days, and three years later. A background survey, further from the well, was also carried out in 2009. Porifera (45% of observations and Cnidaria (40% dominated the megafauna. Porifera accounted for 94% of hard-substratum organisms and cnidarians (Pennatulacea dominated on the soft sediment (78%. Twenty seven and 76 days after drilling commenced, drill cuttings were visible, extending over 100 m from the well. In this area there were low invertebrate megafaunal densities (0.08 and 0.10 individuals m(-2 in comparison to pre-drill conditions (0.21 individuals m(-2. Three years later the visible extent of the cuttings had reduced, reaching 60 m from the well. Within this area the megafaunal density (0.05 individuals m(-2 was lower than pre-drill and reference transects (0.23 individuals m(-2. There was a significant increase in total megafaunal invertebrate densities with both distance from drilling and time since drilling although no significant interaction. Beyond the visible disturbance there were similar megafaunal densities (0.14 individuals m(-2 to pre-drilling and background surveys. Species richness, Shannon-Weiner diversity and multivariate techniques showed similar patterns to density. At this site the effects of exploratory drilling on megafaunal invertebrate density and diversity seem confined to the extent of the visible cuttings pile. However, elevated Barium concentration and reduced sediment grain size

  4. Miniature Low-Mass Drill Actuated by Flextensional Piezo Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments with a flextensional piezoelectric actuator have led to the development of a sampler with a bit that is designed to produce and capture a full set of sample forms including volatiles, powdered cuttings, and core fragments. The flextensional piezoelectric actuator is a part of a series of devices used to amplify the generated strain from piezoelectric actuators. Other examples include stacks, bimorphs, benders, and cantilevers. These devices combine geometric and resonance amplifications to produce large stroke at high power density. The operation of this sampler/drill was demonstrated using a 3x2x1-cm actuator weighing 12 g using power of about 10-W and a preload of about 10 N. A limestone block was drilled to a depth of about 1 cm in five minutes to produce powdered cuttings. It is generally hard to collect volatiles from random surface profiles found in rocks and sediment, powdered cuttings, and core fragments. Toward the end of collecting volatiles, the actuator and the bit are covered with bellows-shaped shrouds to prevent fines and other debris from reaching the analyzer. A tube with a miniature bellows (to provide flexibility) is connected to the bit and directs the flow of the volatiles to the analyzer. Another modality was conceived where the hose is connected to the bellows wall directly to allow the capture of volatiles generated both inside and outside the bit. A wide variety of commercial bellows used in the vacuum and microwave industries can be used to design the volatiles capture mechanism. The piezoelectric drilling mechanism can potentially be operated in a broad temperature range from about-200 to less than 450 C. The actuators used here are similar to the actuators that are currently baselined to fly as part of the inlet funnel shaking mechanism design of MSL (Mars Science Laboratory). The space qualification of these parts gives this drill a higher potential for inclusion in a future mission, especially when considering its

  5. Machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates using candle stick drill and multi-facet drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Dong; Qiu, Kun-Xian; Chen, Ming; Cai, Xiao-Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite laminates are widely used in aerospace and aircraft structural components due to their superior properties. However, they are regarded as difficult-to-cut materials because of bad surface quality and low productivity. Drilling is the most common hole making process for CFRP composite laminates and drilling induced delamination damage usually occurs severely at the exit side of drilling holes, which strongly deteriorate holes quality. In this work, the candle stick drill and multi-facet drill are employed to evaluate the machinability of drilling T700/LT-03A CFRP composite laminates in terms of thrust force, delamination, holes diameter and holes surface roughness. S/N ratio is used to characterize the thrust force while an ellipse-shaped delamination model is established to quantitatively analyze the delamination. The best combination of drilling parameters are determined by full consideration of S/N ratios of thrust force and the delamination. The results indicate that candle stick drill will induce the unexpected ellipse-shaped delamination even at its best drilling parameters of spindle speed of 10,000 rpm and feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth. However, the multi-facet drill cutting at the relative lower feed rate of 0.004 mm/tooth and lower spindle speed of 6000 rpm can effectively prevent the delamination. Comprehensively, holes quality obtained by multi-facet drill is much more superior to those obtained by candle stick drill.

  6. Innovative collaboration important to rotary steerable drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2000-05-01

    Sperry-Sun Drilling Services' recently commercialized Geo-Pilot{sup T}M rotary steerable drilling system is described. The system consists of the Geo-Pilot{sup T}M rotary steerable tool, a logging-while-drilling (LWD) system, specially designed long-gauge bits and the INSITE{sup T}M data acquisition and management system. The system brings a completely new approach to rotary steerable drilling. It uses 'point-the-bit' technology to deflect a rotating drive shaft off center, causing the drive shaft to flex and alter the direction of the drilling. The tool provides real-time steering information and at-bit inclination measurement, both of which are integrated with the INSITE{sup T}M rig information system. The real-time data can be displayed along with other formation evaluation information. The system has been evaluated at the Gas Research Institute's Oklahoma test facility; it has been used commercially by Canadian, Norwegian and US operators, with complete success. Worldwide deployment of the system is in the planning stages.

  7. Drilling: medical indications and surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kallás Hueb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: anovulation is a major cause of female infertility, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the leading cause of anovulation. While undergoing drug-induced ovulation, women with PCOS usually have a satisfactory response recruiting follicles, but some are unable to recruit follicles or often produce an excessive number of follicles, which can result in ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and/or multiple pregnancy. Surgical laparoscopy with ovarian "drilling" may prevent or reduce the need for drug-induced ovulation. Objective: to identify the current indications of laparoscopic ovarian drilling and the best surgical technique. Method: a review of the medical literature based on systematic search in the Medline, Lilacs and Cochrane databases, using as keywords laparoscopy, polycystic ovary syndrome, and drilling. Results: we found 105 articles in the literature, 27 of these highly relevant, describing findings on ovarian drilling. Conclusion: laparoscopic drilling is indicated for patients with polycystic ovary syndrome with ovulatory resistance to the use of clomiphene citrate, body mass index less than 30 kg/m2 and preoperative luteinizing hormone above 10 IU/L. The preferred surgical technique should be the realization of 5 to 10 perforations on the surface of each ovary bilaterally using monopolar energy.

  8. Physical demand of seven closed agility drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Mark; Rosalie, Simon; Netto, Kevin

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the demand of seven generic, closed agility drills. Twenty males with experience in invasion sports volunteered to participate in this study. They performed seven, closed agility drills over a standardised 30-m distance. Physical demand measures of peak velocity, total foot contacts, peak impacts, completion time, and maximum heart rate were obtained via the use of wearable sensor technologies. A subjective rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was also obtained. All measures, with the exception of maximum heart rates and RPE were able to delineate drills in terms of physical and physiological demand. The findings of this study exemplify the differences in demand of agility-type movements. Drill demand was dictated by the type of agility movement initiated with the increase in repetitiveness of a given movement type also contributing to increased demand. Findings from this study suggest agility drills can be manipulated to vary physical and physiological demand. This allows for the optimal application of training principles such as overload, progression, and periodisation.

  9. Beyond the Next Generation in Drilling Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroud, Tom; Heysse, Dale

    1998-12-31

    This presentation looks back at the history of offshore drilling and then projects a number of evolutionary developments into the years from 1998 to 2005: (1) By the end of 1999, LWD formation testers and nuclear magnetic resonance tools will become field proven. (2) Global personal networks should be further enhanced when such new communications satellites as Motorola`s Iridium enter operation. Global communications will lead to remote pay zone steering of offshore wells. (3) Casing will be expanded downhole, enabling drilling of smaller uniform diameter wells. (4) Riserless drilling will become available for more applications. (5) There will be increased used of multilateral well designs. (6) Somebody will drill an extended reach well longer than 15 km. (7) The current trend toward subsea production and large floating facilities will continue. (8) `Smart` well completions will mature and become more common, including downhole separation of oil, gas and water. Beyond 2005, rig efficiency will increase, riserless drilling will become commercially available for deepwater applications, computing and communication will become integrated worldwide, and seafloor gas-to-liquids conversion may become commercial. 16 refs.

  10. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Johnson, Monte L.; Bartholomew, David B.; Fox, Joe

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  11. Ground truth : vertical seismic profile data enables geophysicists to image ahead of the drill bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, S. [SR ECO Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-08-01

    used in the Terra Nova field to image laterally, away from existing boreholes. Seismic-while-drilling (SWD), a recent development in downhole seismic technology, makes it possible to mitigate some of the costs associated with look-ahead VSPs. SWD is a method requiring no downhole tools and no loss of rig time, but neither Schlumberger Canada Ltd., nor Baker Atlas have yet used SWD in Canada. It was emphasized that companies should make VSP technology part of their proactive drilling and not use the technology reactively only when a well drilling program has failed. 4 figs.

  12. Impact of Drilling Operations on Lunar Volatiles Capture: Thermal Vacuum Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Paulsen, Gale; Zacny, Kris; Smith, Jim

    2015-01-01

    In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) enables future planetary exploration by using local resources to supply mission consumables. This idea of 'living off the land' has the potential to reduce mission cost and risk. On the moon, water has been identified as a potential resource (for life support or propellant) at the lunar poles, where it exists as ice in the subsurface. However, the depth and content of this resource has yet to be confirmed on the ground; only remote detection data exists. The upcoming Resource Prospector mission (RP) will 'ground-truth' the water using a rover, drill, and the RESOLVE science package. As the 2020 planned mission date nears, component level hardware is being tested in relevant lunar conditions (thermal vacuum). In August 2014 a series of drilling tests were performed using the Honeybee Robotics Lunar Prospecting Drill inside a 'dirty' thermal vacuum chamber at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The drill used a unique auger design to capture and retain the lunar regolith simulant. The goal of these tests was to investigate volatiles (water) loss during drilling and sample transfer to a sample crucible in order to validate this regolith sampling method. Twelve soil samples were captured over the course of two tests at pressures of 10(exp-5) Torr and ambient temperatures between -80C to -20C. Each sample was obtained from a depth of 40 cm to 50 cm within a cryogenically frozen bed of NU-LHT-3M lunar regolith simulant doped with 5 wt% water. Upon acquisition, each sample was transferred and hermetically sealed inside a crucible. The samples were later baked out to determine water wt% and in turn volatile loss by following ASTM standard practices. Of the twelve tests, four sealed properly and lost an average of 30% of their available water during drilling and transfer. The variability in the results correlated well with ambient temperature (lower the temperature lower volatiles loss) and the trend agreed with the sublimation rates for the

  13. Laser drilling of via micro-holes in single-crystal semiconductor substrates using a 1070 nm fibre laser with millisecond pulse widths

    OpenAIRE

    Maclean, Jessica O.; Hodson, Jonathan R.; Voisey, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Micro-machining of semiconductors is relevant to fabrication challenges within the semiconductor industry. For via holes for solar cells, laser drilling potentially avoids deep plasma etching which requires sophisticated equipment and corrosive, high purity gases. Other applications include backside loading of cold atoms into atom chips and ion traps for quantum physics research, for which holes through the semiconductor substrate are needed. Laser drilling, exploiting the melt ejection mater...

  14. High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Kamalesh [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Aaron, Dick [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States); Macpherson, John [Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Many countries around the world, including the USA, have untapped geothermal energy potential. Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) technology is needed to economically utilize this resource. Temperatures in some EGS reservoirs can exceed 300°C. To effectively utilize EGS resources, an array of injector and production wells must be accurately placed in the formation fracture network. This requires a high temperature directional drilling system. Most commercial services for directional drilling systems are rated for 175°C while geothermal wells require operation at much higher temperatures. Two U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP) projects have been initiated to develop a 300°C capable directional drilling system, the first developing a drill bit, directional motor, and drilling fluid, and the second adding navigation and telemetry systems. This report is for the first project, “High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System, including drill bit, directional motor and drilling fluid, for enhanced geothermal systems,” award number DE-EE0002782. The drilling system consists of a drill bit, a directional motor, and drilling fluid. The DOE deliverables are three prototype drilling systems. We have developed three drilling motors; we have developed four roller-cone and five Kymera® bits; and finally, we have developed a 300°C stable drilling fluid, along with a lubricant additive for the metal-to-metal motor. Metal-to-metal directional motors require coatings to the rotor and stator for wear and corrosion resistance, and this coating research has been a significant part of the project. The drill bits performed well in the drill bit simulator test, and the complete drilling system has been tested drilling granite at Baker Hughes’ Experimental Test Facility in Oklahoma. The metal-to-metal motor was additionally subjected to a flow loop test in Baker Hughes’ Celle Technology Center in Germany, where it ran for more than 100

  15. Drill System Development for the Lunar Subsurface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, Kris; Davis, Kiel; Paulsen, Gale; Roberts, Dustyn; Wilson, Jack; Hernandez, Wilson

    Reaching the cold traps at the lunar poles and directly sensing the subsurface regolith is a primary goal of lunar exploration, especially as a means of prospecting for future In Situ Resource Utilization efforts. As part of the development of a lunar drill capable of reaching a depth of two meters or more, Honeybee Robotics has built a laboratory drill system with a total linear stroke of 1 meter, capability to produce as much as 45 N-m of torque at a rotational speed of 200 rpm, and a capability of delivering maximum downforce of 1000 N. Since this is a test-bed, the motors were purposely chosen to be relative large to provide ample power to the drill system (the Apollo drill was a 500 Watt drill, i.e. not small in current standards). In addition, the drill is capable of using three different drilling modes: rotary, rotary percussive and percussive. The frequency of percussive impact can be varied if needed while rotational speed can be held constant. An integral part of this test bed is a vacuum chamber that is currently being constructed. The drill test-bed is used for analyzing various drilling modes and testing different drill bit and auger systems under low pressure conditions and in lunar regolith simulant. The results of the tests are used to develop final lunar drill design as well as efficient drilling protocols. The drill was also designed to accommodate a downhole neutron spectrometer for measuring the amount of hydrated material in the area surrounding the borehole, as well as downhole temperature sensors, accelerometers, and electrical properties tester. The presentation will include history of lunar drilling, challenges of drilling on the Moon, a description of the drill and chamber as well as preliminary drilling test results conducted in the ice-bound lunar regolith simulant with a variety of drill bits and augers systems.

  16. Drilling on Mars---Mathematical Model for Rotary-Ultrasonic Core Drilling of Brittle Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Mera Fayez

    The results from the Phoenix mission led scientists to believe it is possible that primitive life exists below the Martian surface. Therefore, drilling in Martian soil in search for organisms is the next logical step. Drilling on Mars is a major engineering challenge due to the drilling depth requirement. Mars lacks a thick atmosphere and a continuous magnetic field that shield the planet's surface from solar radiation and solar flares. As a result, the Martian surface is sterile and if life ever existed, it must be found below the surface. In 2001, NASA's Mars Exploration Payload Advisory Group proposed that drilling should be considered as a priority investigation on Mars in an effort of finding evidence of extinct or extant life. On August 6, 2012, the team of engineers landed the spacecraft Curiosity on the surface of Mars by using a revolutionary hovering platform. The results from the Curiosity mission suggested the next logical step, which is drilling six meters deep in the red planet in search of life. Excavation tools deployed to Mars so far have been able to drill to a maximum depth of 6.5 cm. Thus, the drilling capabilities need to be increased by a factor or approximately 100 to achieve the goal of drilling six meters deep. This requirement puts a demand on developing a new and more effective technologies to reach this goal. Previous research shows evidence of a promising drilling mechanism in rotary-ultrasonic for what it offers in terms of high surface quality, faster rate of penetration and higher material removal rate. This research addresses the need to understand the mechanics of the drill bit tip and rock interface in rotary-ultrasonic drilling of brittle materials. A mathematical model identifying all contributing independent parameters, such as drill bit design parameters, drilling process parameters, ultrasonic wave amplitude and rocks' material properties, that have effect on rate of penetration is developed. Analytical and experimental

  17. New developments of steerable motorsystems for drilling for oil and gas. Neue Entwicklungen und Felderfahrungen auf dem Gebiet steuerbarer Motorsysteme fuer Tiefbohrungen auf Erdoel und Erdgas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergens, R.; Krueger, V. (Eastman Christensen GmbH, Celle (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-04-01

    The improvements regarding drilling techniques and exploitation of oil and gas reservoirs are a major challenge to achieve better economics and to take care of the only limited resources. A significant contribution to achieve this objective is the development of steerable drilling motors, that allow faster and more precise directional drilling and also enable to reach laterally extended and horizontal reservoirs. Beginning with first steerable motors in the early eighties, systems have been enhanced, their range of application was enlarged and tailormade new systems were developed and introduced in the field. (orig.).

  18. Investigation on drilling-grinding of CFRP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanming QUAN; Wenwang ZHONG

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to machine polymer matrix composites reinforced by carbon fibre, and the hole-making process is the most necessary machining process for composite plate products. Conventional drills have a very short life in the drilling of this kind of composites and the quality of the hole is very poor. In this paper, the cemented or plated diamond core tools are tested to make holes in carbon fibre/epoxy composite plates. The effects of machining parameters, cooling and chip removal on the tool life, and the hole quality are investigated. The results indicate that the material removal mechanism of the two kinds of diamond tools is not like the cutting effect of the conventional drilling but similar to that of grinding. Satisfactory effects in making holes in the composites are obtained--quite acceptable machined hole quality, low costs, and long wear-resistant endurance.

  19. Rapid Development of Drilling Technology and Market of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Guanqing; Ni Rongfu

    1994-01-01

    @@ China's developing drilling market Now, CNPC is the owner of more than 1 000 rigs of large and medium size, including imported electric-drive rigs with 6 000 to 9 000 m drilling capacity, imported mechanical drive rigs with 5 000 to 6 000 m drilling capacity, imported mobile rigs with 1 500 to 3 000 m drilling capacity and a lot of home-made mechanical rigs with 2 000,3 200, 4 500 and 6 000m drilling capacity, which can meet the requirement of the domestic and foreign drilling market.

  20. Use of Hardware Battery Drill in Orthopedic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Bhava R J; Shahdi, Masood; Ramarao, Duddupudi; Ranganadham, Atmakuri V; Kalamegam, Sundaresan

    2017-03-01

    Among the power drills (Electrical/Pneumatic/Battery) used in Orthopedic surgery, battery drill has got several advantages. Surgeons in low resource settings could not routinely use Orthopedic battery drills (OBD) due to the prohibitive cost of good drills or poor quality of other drills. "Hardware" or Engineering battery drill (HBD) is a viable alternative to OBD. HBD is easy to procure, rugged in nature, easy to maintain, durable, easily serviceable and 70 to 75 times cheaper than the standard high end OBD. We consider HBD as one of the cost effective equipment in Orthopedic operation theatres.

  1. Technology strategy for cost-effective drilling and intervention; Technology Target Areas; TTA4 - Cost effective drilling and intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The main goals of the OG21 initiative are to (1) develop new technology and knowledge to increase the value creation of Norwegian oil and gas resources and (2) enhance the export of Norwegian oil and gas technology. The OG21 Cost-effective Drilling and Intervention (CEDI) Technology Target Area (TTA) has identified some key strategic drilling and well intervention needs to help meet the goals of OG21. These key strategic drilling and well intervention needs are based on a review of present and anticipated future offshore-Norway drilling and well intervention conditions and the Norwegian drilling and well intervention industry. A gap analysis has been performed to assess the extent to which current drilling and well intervention research and development and other activities will meet the key strategic needs. Based on the identified strategic drilling and well intervention needs and the current industry res each and development and other activities, the most important technology areas for meeting the OG21 goals are: environment-friendly and low-cost exploration wells; low-cost methods for well intervention/sidetracks; faster and extended-reach drilling; deep water drilling, completion and intervention; offshore automated drilling; subsea and sub-ice drilling; drilling through basalt and tight carbonates; drilling and completion in salt formation. More specific goals for each area: reduce cost of exploration wells by 50%; reduce cost for well intervention/sidetracks by 50%; increase drilling efficiency by 40%; reduce drilling cost in deep water by 40 %; enable offshore automated drilling before 2012; enable automated drilling from seabed in 2020. Particular focus should be placed on developing new technology for low-cost exploration wells to stem the downward trends in the number of exploration wells drilled and the volume of discovered resources. The CEDI TTA has the following additional recommendations: The perceived gaps in addressing the key strategic drilling and

  2. Effects of implant drilling parameters for pilot and twist drills on temperature rise in bone analog and alveolar bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chuan; Hsiao, Chih-Kun; Ciou, Ji-Sih; Tsai, Yi-Jung; Tu, Yuan-Kun

    2016-11-01

    This study concerns the effects of different drilling parameters of pilot drills and twist drills on the temperature rise of alveolar bones during dental implant procedures. The drilling parameters studied here include the feed rate and rotation speed of the drill. The bone temperature distribution was analyzed through experiments and numerical simulations of the drilling process. In this study, a three dimensional (3D) elasto-plastic dynamic finite element model (DFEM) was proposed to investigate the effects of drilling parameters on the bone temperature rise. In addition, the FE model is validated with drilling experiments on artificial human bones and porcine alveolar bones. The results indicate that 3D DFEM can effectively simulate the bone temperature rise during the drilling process. During the drilling process with pilot drills or twist drills, the maximum bone temperature occurred in the region of the cancellous bones close to the cortical bones. The feed rate was one of the important factors affecting the time when the maximum bone temperature occurred. Our results also demonstrate that the elevation of bone temperature was reduced as the feed rate increased and the drill speed decreased, which also effectively reduced the risk region of osteonecrosis. These findings can serve as a reference for dentists in choosing drilling parameters for dental implant surgeries.

  3. The effect of drilling parameters for surface roughness in drilling of AA7075 alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Nafiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AA7075 aluminum alloy has been very popular significantly interest in the production of structural components in automotive and aviation applications due to its high strength, low density, good plasticity and better machinability comparable to many metals. Particularly, final products must have uniformly high quality to ensure essential safety standards in the aircraft industry. The optimization of hole quality which can variable according to tool geometry and drilling parameters is important in spite of high machinability rate of AA7075 alloy. In this study, the effects of drilling parameters on average surface roughness (Ra has been investigated in drilling of AA7075 with tungsten carbide drills. Machining experiments were performed with three different drill point angles and three different levels of cutting parameters (feed rate, cutting speed. The effects of drilling parameters on thrust force has been determined with ANOVA in %95 confidence level. Feed rate was determined as the most important factor on Ra according to ANOVA results. Moreover, it was shown that increasing feed rate leads to increase of Ra while increasing drill point angle leads to decrease of Ra. The optimum surface roughness was obtained with point angle of 130°, cutting speed of 40 m/min and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev, thereby the validity of optimization was confirmed with Taguchi method.

  4. Comparative study for surface topography of bone drilling using conventional drilling and loose abrasive machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Jain, Vivek; Gupta, Dheeraj

    2015-03-01

    Drilling through the bone is a complicated process in orthopaedic surgery. It involves human as a part of the work so it needs better perfection and quality which leads to the sustainability. Different studies were carried out on this curious topic and some interesting results were obtained, which help the orthopaedic surgeon on the operation table. Major problems faced during bone drilling were crack initiation, thermal necrosis and burr formation. The surface topography of the bone is an indirect indication for the sustainability of bone joint. In this study, a comparison is made between conventional and a loose abrasive unconventional drilling technique for the surface characterization of the bone. The attempt has been made to show the feasibility of bone drilling with non-conventional technique and its aftereffect on the bone structure. The burr formation during conventional bone drilling was found to be more which leads to problems such as crack initiation and thermal necrosis. Scanning electrode microscope and surface roughness tester were used to characterize the surface of the fine drilled bone specimen and the results testified quite better surface finish and least crack formation while drilling with loose abrasive unconventional technique.

  5. Great Wall Drilling Company Operating Worldwide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Great changes have taken place in Great Wall Drilling Company (GWDC) since the start of the new century, when GWDC conducted a profound reorganization in response to CNPC's (China National Petroleum Corporation)continuously restructuring strategy. The reorganization leads to a new top management full of youthful spirit and rich experience in international business by inviting applications for its key positions from the whole drilling sector of CNPC. Also, an effective organization structure forms with its characteristic of centering on international market development and overseas operations, aiming to raise its competitiveness internationally.

  6. Ergonomic exposure on a drilling rig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Jensen, Chris

    , absence from work due to other health problems may not show a similar trend towards lower absenteeism. Sickness absence was reported by Maersk Contractors to have increased among their drilling rig personnel in the Danish Sector of the North Sea from 2000 to 2004 (Steffensen 2005). Their statistics were....... In a relatively old study on American drilling rigs it was indicated that lower back problems was a frequent cause of absence (Clemmer et al. 1991). Most of the incidents causing lower back injuries were associated with heavy lifting or pushing/pulling objects by roustabouts, floorhands, derrickmen and welders...

  7. GREATWALL DRILLING COMPANY HEADING FOR THE WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Rongfu; Wang Ni; Du Deling

    1997-01-01

    @@ Ready to Enter the International Market Based on the strategy of transnational operations, China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) had established a technical service group company by the end of 1996. The main mission of the group company is to integratively organize the contracting of drilling,wireline logging, mud logging, well testing and other services from the overseas markets,including services in some leases in China where the operators are foreign companies. Greatwall Drilling Company(GWDC) is the core enterprise of the newly-founded group company.

  8. Wellbore Surveying While Drilling Based on Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud ElGizawy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Oil and gas are global fuels obtained primarily from drilling wells in underground terrestrial reservoirs. Vertical drilling is preferred because of its simplicity and therefore low cost, but subsurface targets can often be procured only by directing the wellbore along predefined non-vertical trajectories. For instance, directional drilling must be employed to reach locations inaccessible to the drilling rig, to side track an existing well (multilateral drilling, or to drill multiple wells from the same offshore platform (horizontal drilling. Approach: A complete knowledge of the wellbore direction and orientation during the drilling process is essential to guarantee proper directional drilling procedure. Results: Thus, besides the conventional drilling assembly, directional drilling operations require sensors to provide azimuth, inclination and toolface angles of the drill. These sensors are part of the Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD tool, which in current technology is installed several feet behind the drill bit. In such systems, values for inclination and toolface angles are determined from accelerometer measurements at predetermined stationary surveying stations; these values are then incorporated with magnetometer measurements to deliver the azimuth angle. Values for inclination and azimuth angles at the current surveying station are combined with those from the previous station to compute the position of the probe. However, there is no accurate information about the wellbore trajectory between survey stations. Additionally, the magnetic field of the magnetometers has deleterious effect on the overall accuracy of surveying measurements. Conclusion: A method to provide continuous information about the wellbore trajectory has been developed in this study. The module developed integrates a Rotary Steerable System (RSS and MWD tool into one drilling probe utilizing Inertial Navigation System (INS technology. This is achieved

  9. Advances in developing the air-lift drilling technology. Concept of a portal drilling rig - trial of a steerable shaft drilling bit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.

    1988-12-01

    The Federal Minister of Research and Technology is supporting a project of Wirth GmbH to develop a new drilling rig suitable for drilling deep shafts from the surface through ground of almost any condition, from unstable formations to solid rock. The development of such drilling rig is based on the blind drilling method with air-assisted reverse circulation. - Various concepts of drilling rigs have been developed in accordance with different planning stages of a combined RD-project. Based on the experience of an extensive R and D program a steerable vertical drilling bit has been developed by which deviations from the vertical can be positively corrected. The prototype of this steerable bit with a diameter of 2.1 m has been tested successfully while drilling a well with a depth of more than 200 m in an open pit coal mine.

  10. Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

    2008-12-31

    This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

  11. 水平静力荷载作用下桩伴侣工作性状有限元模拟及与无伴侣构造形式的比较分析%FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF LATERALLY LOADED PILE WITH OR WITHOUT PARTNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛江炜; 葛忻声; 杨勇; 蔡景珞

    2013-01-01

    Reference on lateral load test and numerical simulation of large diameter pipe pile by using cast-in-place concrete(PCC),finite element model of a single pile with or without pile partner under lateral load is established. Comparison calculations show that pile partner can ensure lateral loads delivering from pile cap to foundation soil, and double reduce stress and displacement of pile. Pile partner can also make some improvement on lateral bearing characters for the pile foundation with low cap even though the modulus of foundation soil is small. When pile partner is equipped,and the connection mode between pile cap and pile changing from rigid connection to hinge joint,pile body internal force can also be drastically reduced;and pile and pile caps by distance can only be considered to meet the requirement of vertical bearing capacity or optimization design of pile foundation stiffness to reduce differential settlement. Pillow is not necessary and can be cancelled in composite foundation when pile partner is applied. The height of pile partner has little influence on internal force and displacement of pile. Under rare earthquake action,pile partner may sacrifice firstly to keep pile perform well.%借鉴现浇混凝土大直径管桩(PCC 桩)水平承载足尺试验和数值模拟的成果,建立水平荷载作用下多个构造形式有无伴侣的单桩有限元数值模型。对比计算与分析表明,对于低承台桩基设置桩伴侣可确保承台向地基土传递水平荷载,成倍减小基桩的应力和位移;对于桩身范围地基土模量低的低承台桩基的水平承载性状也有一定的改善;配备桩伴侣后,将桩与承台的连接方式由刚接改为铰接也能大幅度减小桩身内力,桩顶与承台的距离可单纯考虑竖向承载力和变刚度调平基础底板沉降的需要;设置桩伴侣后可取消褥垫层;桩伴侣的高度变化对水平荷载作用下桩内力和位移影响很小;在罕遇

  12. Fatigue of Clip connectors for offshore drilling risers under biaxial tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Vidit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drilling riser connectors designed by IFPEN undergo cyclic in-phase biaxial tension in their critical area. This type of loading was reproduced on steel tubular specimens loaded in cyclic tension and internal pressure. The fatigue lives were substantially reduced when the load biaxiality was increased from 0 to 0.4 and then further to 1, which was not captured by existing fatigue criteria. A deeper investigation is thus in progress. Emphasis is laid on the separate evaluation of mean stress and biaxiality effects, often treated in the same way in existing criteria. The influence of load biaxiality on the resistance of the steel to fatigue-corrosion in seawater will also be investigated.

  13. Iron load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Cassarà

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research addressed the main role of hepcidin in the regulation of iron metabolism. However, while this mechanism could be relevant in causing iron load in Thalassemia Intermedia and Sickle-Cell Anemia, its role in Thalassemia Major (TM is marginal. This is mainly due to the high impact of transfusional requirement into the severe increase of body iron. Moreover, the damage of iron load may be worsened by infections, as HCV hepatitis, or liver and endocrinological damage. One of the most relevant associations was found between splenectomy and increase of risk for mortality due,probably, to more severe iron load. These issues suggest as morbidity and mortality of this group of patients they do not depend only by our ability in controlling heart damage but even in preventing or treating particular infections and complications. This finding is supported by the impairment of survival curves in patients with complications different from heart damage. However, because, during recent years different direct and indirect methods to detect iron overload in patients affected by secondary hemochromatosis have been implemented, our ability to maintain under control iron load is significantly improved. Anyway, the future in iron load management remains to be able to have an iron load map of our body for targeting chelation and other medical treatment according to the single organ damage.

  14. High Temperature Venus Drill and Sample Delivery System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposed to design, build and test a high temperature Pneumatic Drill and Trencher system for Venus subsurface exploration. The Venus Drill and Trencher will be...

  15. Emplacement hole drill evaluation and specification study. Volume II. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-30

    This appendix contains pertinent data sheets, drawings, and photographs provided by the drill manufacturers Acker Drill Co, Calweld, Dresser Industries, Gus Pech, Hughes Tool, Ingersoll-Rand, Robbins, and Subterranean Tools.

  16. NanoDrill: 1 Actuator Core Acquisition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build, and test a sample acquisition drill weighing less than 1 kg. The drill uses a novel method of core or powder acquisition, and is...

  17. NanoDrill: 1 Actuator Core Acquisition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to design, build and test a 1 kg, single actuator, sample acquisition drill. The drill uses a novel method of core or powder acquisition. The core...

  18. Ultra-Deepwater Riserless Mud Circulation with Dual Gradient Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Myers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drilling deep holes in very deep water presents the offshore drilling community with major wellbore stability challenges that are typically mitigated through the circulation of dense drilling mud to prevent hole collapse and to remove drilling debris (“cuttings”. This is normally accomplished through the application of a riser system (Fig. 1; however, riser lengths ; are presently limited to use in water depths of around 3047 m. In the scientific ocean drilling realm, we have been very successful in drilling relatively shallow holes (<1500 m in water depths greater than 3657 m, a range we call “hyper-deep”. Drilling in these extreme water depths requires the use of the “riserless” drilling technique (Fig. 1A which is not constrained by the length limitations of a riser system (“riser”.

  19. 21 CFR 882.4325 - Cranial drill handpiece (brace).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4325 Cranial drill handpiece (brace). (a) Identification. A cranial drill handpiece (brace) is a hand holder, which is...

  20. Experimental survey on geothermal well drilling for improvement of the drilling work efficiency. Chinetsui kussakuno noritsu kojoni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-05-01

    In order to reduce the geothermal well drilling cost which amounts to 40 to 60 % of the total geothermal energy development cost, various factors relevant to the drilling operation have been extracted and examined, aiming at the reduction in the well drilling time which is the most definite factor for the well drilling cost. The following items have been studied on their current situations: drilling time analysis on 13 geothermal wells drilled by NEDO; questionare to 9 domestic geothermal developer enterprises to obtain information on their bussiness status; to investigate current activities of 5 geothermal well drilling companies in U.S.A. and Italy. Investigations of countermeasures for improving well drilling work efficiency, such as reducing the time of rig-up and rig-down, prevention and countermeasures against borehole troubles, improvement of rate of penetration have been carried out. Furthermore, investigations of organization for well drilling work such as education and training of drilling crew and secure of drilling supervisors have been conducted. Having summerized the items examined for improving the geothermal well drilling efficiency, the goals of improvement of the efficiency and the future tasks in the mainly technical aspect are extracted. Example of the content is as follows, shortening rig-up and down time set to less than 15 days for rig-up and less than 10 days for rig-down, by securing drilling site area. (50 figs, 13 tabs, 13 refs)

  1. Drilling fluids engineering to drill extra-heavy oil reservoir on the Orinoco Oil Belt, eastern Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pino, R.; Gonazalez, W. [Proamsa, Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)

    2008-07-01

    Petrocedeno is an exploration and development company operating in Venezuela. As part of a multidisciplinary group, Proamsa has been working with Petrocedeno to drill horizontal wells while minimizing issues related to the handling of drilling fluids. Proamsa is the only 100 per cent Venezuelan Company involved in drilling extra-heavy oil wells. The drilling plan for Petrocedeno was divided into two campaigns. More than 400 horizontal wells were drilled during the first campaign from 1999 to 2003 which represented over 2,500,000 drilled feet into the Oficina Formation (pay zone of the field). From 2006, during the second drilling campaign, and another 154 horizontal wells having been drilled until 2006 utilizing the xantam gum viscoelastic fluid. This paper discussed the field geology of the Orinoco oil belt. Well design was also explained and discussed and drilling fluid design and new fluid formations were presented. The benefits of xantam gum viscoelastic fluid were also discussed. It was concluded that recycling of drilling fluid from well to well minimized volume and reduced costs. In addition, centrifugation of drilling fluids either on intermediate or horizontals sections while the rig was skidding was always a very good practice avoiding mixing additional volumes. It was also demonstrated that the initial idea to provide a drilling fluid service company with a 100 per cent national value was a success, as demonstrated by the high performance shown by Proamsa during the second drilling campaign with external technologic support. 6 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  2. Development of a Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domm, Lukas N.

    2011-01-01

    The Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill is designed to core through rock using a combination of rotation and high frequency hammering powered by a single piezoelectric actuator. It is designed as a low axial preload, low mass, and low power device for sample acquisition on future missions to extraterrestrial bodies. The purpose of this internship is to develop and test a prototype of the Piezoelectric Rotary Hammer Drill in order to verify the use of a horn with helical or angled cuts as a hammering and torque inducing mechanism. Through an iterative design process using models in ANSYS Finite Element software and a Mason's Equivalent Circuit model in MATLAB, a horn design was chosen for fabrication based on the predicted horn tip motion, electromechanical coupling, and neutral plane location. The design was then machined and a test bed assembled. The completed prototype has proven that a single piezoelectric actuator can be used to produce both rotation and hammering in a drill string through the use of a torque inducing horn. Final data results include bit rotation produced versus input power, and best drilling rate achieved with the prototype.

  3. Field Testing of Environmentally Friendly Drilling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Burnett

    2009-05-31

    The Environmentally Friendly Drilling (EFD) program addresses new low-impact technology that reduces the footprint of drilling activities, integrates light weight drilling rigs with reduced emission engine packages, addresses on-site waste management, optimizes the systems to fit the needs of a specific development sites and provides stewardship of the environment. In addition, the program includes industry, the public, environmental organizations, and elected officials in a collaboration that addresses concerns on development of unconventional natural gas resources in environmentally sensitive areas. The EFD program provides the fundamentals to result in greater access, reasonable regulatory controls, lower development cost and reduction of the environmental footprint associated with operations for unconventional natural gas. Industry Sponsors have supported the program with significant financial and technical support. This final report compendium is organized into segments corresponding directly with the DOE approved scope of work for the term 2005-2009 (10 Sections). Each specific project is defined by (a) its goals, (b) its deliverable, and (c) its future direction. A web site has been established that contains all of these detailed engineering reports produced with their efforts. The goals of the project are to (1) identify critical enabling technologies for a prototype low-impact drilling system, (2) test the prototype systems in field laboratories, and (3) demonstrate the advanced technology to show how these practices would benefit the environment.

  4. Electric motor for laser-mechanical drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grubb, Daryl L.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2017-10-10

    A high power laser drilling system utilizing an electric motor laser bottom hole assembly. A high power laser beam travels within the electric motor for performing a laser operation. A system includes a down hole electrical motor having a hollow rotor for conveying a high power laser beam having a wavelength less than 1060 nm through the electrical motor.

  5. Learning from Disaster Simulation Drills in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    Large-scale natural disasters are a frequent and common occurrence in Japan. Over the years, Japan has evolved its disaster management system to address all phases of a disaster: from disaster prevention, mitigation, and preparedness, to emergency response, recovery, and rehabilitation. This report consists of four parts: Introduction (Chapter 1, 2, 3), Simulation drills (Chapter 4, 5, 6, ...

  6. Impedance-matched drilling telemetry system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normann, Randy A.; Mansure, Arthur J.

    2008-04-22

    A downhole telemetry system that uses inductance or capacitance as a mode through which signal is communicated across joints between assembled lengths of pipe wherein efficiency of signal propagation through a drill string, for example, over multiple successive pipe segments is enhanced through matching impedances associated with the various telemetry system components.

  7. An Improved Triangular Element With Drilling Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Grønne, Mikael

    2002-01-01

    by rotations in the corner nodes. Compared to Allman's plane element which was the first succesfull implementation of drilling rotations the proposed element has extra displacements in the mid-side nodes parallel to the element sides. The performance should therefore be better and closer to the LST...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... specific bottom-founded drilling unit under the site-specific soil and oceanographic conditions, the District Manager may require that additional surveys and soil borings be performed and the results... string of casing, or production liner, and at total depth. Composite directional surveys shall...

  9. Forecast of geothermal-drilling activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A.J.; Brown, G.L.

    1982-07-01

    The number of geothermal wells that will be drilled to support electric power production in the United States through 2000 A.D. are forecasted. Results of the forecast are presented by 5-year periods for the five most significant geothermal resources.

  10. Reporting from the Iceland Deep Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Karl

    2017-04-01

    Geoscience-related topics are in many cases difficult to communicate to the public: Often they include dead soil which not easily tells lively stories. And it is hard to sell those topics to editors of public media. In addition the topics might also be politically supercharged if they are resource-related with a visible environmental impact. Therefore any researcher involved might be overcautious while talking to journalists. With a grant from the EGU Science Journalist Fellowship I travelled to Iceland in autumn 2016 to report about the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP). The project which started just weeks prior to my arrival aimed to drill the deepest borehole in a volcanically active region. During earlier trials the borehole collapsed or the drill string unintentionally hit magma. If successful the IDDP promises a much higher level of geothermal energy harvested. The IDDP was therefore ideally suited to be sold to public media outlets since Iceland's volcanic legacy easily tells a lively story. But the drilling's potential environmental impact makes it a political topic in Iceland - even though geothermal energy has a positive public perception. Therefore the IDDP included some pitfalls I observed several times before while reporting about geoscience research. Those could be circumvented if researchers and journalists knew better about their expectations before any interview takes place.

  11. Dexterity Drills for the Student Violinist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    Practical dexterity exercises are essential for the student violinist. Dimitri Hadjipetkov, the tricampus strings director at the Montclair Kimberley Academy in Montclair, New Jersey, identifies three main benefits resulting from dexterity drills and exercises: (1) strengthening the third and fourth finger in first position; (2) improving…

  12. 14 CFR 23.363 - Side load on engine mount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Side load on engine mount. 23.363 Section....363 Side load on engine mount. (a) Each engine mount and its supporting structure must be designed for a limit load factor in a lateral direction, for the side load on the engine mount, of not less...

  13. Overview of CN PC's Drilling Fluids Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Meiquan; Yang Qingli; Zheng Yi

    2012-01-01

    CNPC's drilling fluids sector, being one of the important components of the company's engineering service business, had experienced a golden development phase as the company continuously expanded its engineering service activities in the last decade. The development of drilling fluids had played a crucial role in fulfilling the company's goal of drilling more than 1000 wells (among which about 350 wells are UBD) and an annual drilling footage of 27 million meters.

  14. Instrumentation for the PICO deep ice coring drill

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    An electronic data collection and control system has been developed for the PICO 13.2cm deep ice coring drill. It monitors a variety of drilling parameters including inclination, depth, temperature, pressure, RPM, weight and others. It also displays this data for the drill operator and allows the operator to control speed and direction of the drill motor. The display program allows setting limits on all parameters so an alarm sounds if anything goes wrong. This instrumentation package will be...

  15. Freezing drillings at the shaft deepening at Lyukobanya in 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csiszar, L.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminaries of freezing drilling in Hungary are summarized and the deepening of the Lyukobanya shaft by means of this method is discussed. The drilling equipment and the drilling parameters are listed and the incorporation of freezing tubes is dealt with in detail. The problems and measurement of vertical drilling with this technology are presented on the basis of experiments carried out on the Lyukobanya shaft.

  16. Casing drilling - first experience in Brazil; Casing drilling - primeira experiencia no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placido, Joao Carlos Ribeiro; Medeiros, Fernando; Lucena, Humberto; Medeiros, Joao Carlos Martins de; Costa, Vicente Abel Soares Rosa da; Silva, Paulo Roberto Correa da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alves, Renato J.M. [Tesco, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the 'Casing Drilling' technology and its first experience in Brazil. This new process of casing while drilling was first developed to reduce costs. This system integrates the drilling process and casing running in one operation, promoting a more efficient well construction system, reducing trip time and costs of drill pipes and their transportation. Besides, this methodology intends to eliminate hole problems related to trouble zones with abnormal pressure with loss circulation, to overcome zones with wellbore instabilities, and to facilitate well control. Two companies have been identified using this technology: Tesco and Weatherford. However, there are differences between the techniques used by these companies, which are described in this paper. In the first experience in Brazil, it was decided to field test the technology developed by Tesco. This paper describes the preparation, the operation and the results of this first test. (author)

  17. 3D Model Optimization of Four-Facet Drill for 3D Drilling Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buranský Ivan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on optimization of four-facet drill for 3D drilling numerical modelling. For optimization, the process of reverse engineering by PowerShape software was used. The design of four-facet drill was created in NumrotoPlus software. The modified 3D model of the drill was used in the numerical analysis of cutting forces. Verification of the accuracy of 3D models for reverse engineering was implemented using the colour deviation maps. The CAD model was in the STEP format. For simulation software, 3D model in the STEP format is ideal. STEP is a solid model. Simulation software automatically splits the 3D model into finite elements. The STEP model was therefore more suitable than the STL model.

  18. EIA completes corrections to drilling estimates series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trapmann, W.; Shambaugh, P. [Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-11-23

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has published monthly and annual estimates of US oil and gas drilling activity since 1978. These data are key information for many industry analysts, serving as a leading indicator of trends in the industry and a barometer of general industry status. They are assessed directly for trends, as well as in combination with other measures to assess the productivity and profitability of upstream industry operations. They are major reference points for federal and state policymakers. EIA does not itself collect drilling activity data. Instead, it relies on an external source for data on oil, bas, and dry well completions. These data are provided to EIA monthly on an as reported basis. During a recent effort to enhance EIA`s well completion data system, the detection of unusual patterns in the well completion data as received led to an expanded examination of these data. Substantial discrepancies between the data as received by EIA and correct record counts since 1987 were identified. For total wells by year, the errors ranged up to more than 2,300 wells, 11% of the 1995 total, and the impact of these errors extended backward in time to at least the early 1980s. When the magnitude and extent of the as reported well completion data problem were confirmed, EIA suspended its publication and distribution of updated drilling data. EIA staff proceeded to acquire replacement files with the as reported records and then revise the statistical portion of its drilling data system to reflect the new information. The replacement files unfortunately also included erroneous data based on the improper allocation of wells between exploration and development. EIA has now resolved the two data problems and generated revised time series estimates for well completions and footage drilled. The paper describes the problems in the data, differences between the series, and maintaining future data quality.

  19. Horizontal Directional Drilling-Length Detection Technology While Drilling Based on Bi-Electro-Magnetic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudan Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The drilling length is an important parameter in the process of horizontal directional drilling (HDD exploration and recovery, but there has been a lack of accurate, automatically obtained statistics regarding this parameter. Herein, a technique for real-time HDD length detection and a management system based on the electromagnetic detection method with a microprocessor and two magnetoresistive sensors employing the software LabVIEW are proposed. The basic principle is to detect the change in the magnetic-field strength near a current coil while the drill stem and drill-stem joint successively pass through the current coil forward or backward. The detection system consists of a hardware subsystem and a software subsystem. The hardware subsystem employs a single-chip microprocessor as the main controller. A current coil is installed in front of the clamping unit, and two magneto resistive sensors are installed on the sides of the coil symmetrically and perpendicular to the direction of movement of the drill pipe. Their responses are used to judge whether the drill-stem joint is passing through the clamping unit; then, the order of their responses is used to judge the movement direction. The software subsystem is composed of a visual software running on the host computer and a software running in the slave microprocessor. The host-computer software processes, displays, and saves the drilling-length data, whereas the slave microprocessor software operates the hardware system. A combined test demonstrated the feasibility of the entire drilling-length detection system.

  20. A Fast Inspection of Tool Electrode and Drilling Depth in EDM Drilling by Detection Line Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo-Yi Huang

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a novel measurement method using a machine vision system. Besides using image processing techniques, the proposed system employs a detection line algorithm that detects the tool electrode length and drilling depth of a workpiece accurately and effectively. Different boundaries of areas on the tool electrode are defined: a baseline between base and normal areas, a ND-line between normal and drilling areas (accumulating carbon area), and a DD-line betwee...