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Sample records for lateral internal sphincterotomy

  1. Open versus closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy in the management of chronic anal fissures: A prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Gupta

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Closed lateral internal sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic fissures as it is effective, safe, less expensive, and associated with a lower rate of complications than the open sphincterotomy technique.

  2. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study

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    Abdulwahid M. Salih

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  3. Clinical, manometric, and ultrasonographic results of pneumatic balloon dilatation vs. lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzi, Adolfo; Izzo, Domenico; Di Sarno, Giandomenico; Talento, Pasquale; Torelli, Francesco; Izzo, Giuseppe; Di Martino, Natale

    2008-01-01

    This prospective, randomized, controlled trial was designed to compare the clinical, functional, and morphologic results of pneumatic balloon dilatation with lateral internal sphincterotomy for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. All patients with symptomatic chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to pneumatic balloon dilatation or lateral internal sphincterotomy and invited to complete a standardized questionnaire inquiring about their symptoms. Anal ultrasonography and anal manometry were performed before and six months after surgery. A proctologic examination was performed between the fifth and sixth postoperative weeks. Anal continence, scored by using a validated continence grading scale, was evaluated preoperatively at 1 and 6 weeks and at 12 and 24 months. Fifty-three patients, who satisfied selection criteria, were enrolled in the trial. Four patients (7.5 percent) were lost to follow-up. Twenty-four patients (11 males; mean age, 42 +/- 8.2 years) underwent pneumatic balloon dilatation and 25 patients (10 males; mean age, 44 +/- 7.3 years) underwent lateral internal sphincterotomy. Fissure-healing rates were 83.3 percent in the pneumatic balloon dilatation and 92 percent in the lateral internal sphincterotomy group. Recurrent anal fissure was observed in one patient (4 percent) after lateral internal sphincterotomy. At anal manometry, mean resting pressure decrements obtained after pneumatic balloon dilatation and lateral internal sphincterotomy were 30.5 and 34.3 percent, respectively. After pneumatic balloon dilatation, anal ultrasonography did not show any significant sphincter damage. At 24-month follow-up, the incidence of incontinence, irrespective of severity, was 0 percent in the pneumatic balloon dilatation group and 16 percent in the lateral internal sphincterotomy group (P < 0.0001). As lateral internal sphincterotomy, pneumatic balloon dilatation grants a high anal fissure-healing rate but with a statistically significant reduction in

  4. Clinical and manometric evaluation of women with chronic anal fissure before and after internal subcutaneous lateral sphincterotomy

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    Silvana Marques e Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical and manometric parameters of chronic anal fissure females undergoing lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS. METHODS: A total of eight women with chronic anal fissure who underwent LIS were included in this study. The preoperative assessment was performed one week before surgery and included general and anorectal examination, anorectal manometry, and Jorge Wexner questionnaire. The post operative follow up was made every 15 days until complete healing. Jorge Wexner questionnaires and anorectal manometry were repeated at 1 month and 3 months after the surgery. Time to healing, manometric changes and complications were assessed. RESULTS: All patients had preoperative increased anal resting pressure. The resting pressures and anal canal length were significantly decreased 3 months after surgery. Patients' complaints of itching and bleeding were also reduced. Fissures healed in 7 patients and median healing time was 45 days. No complications were observed due to the procedure. One patient had transient incontinence to flatus. CONCLUSION: Lateral internal sphincterotomy provided clinical improvement and reduced resting pressure of the internal anal sphincter in women with chronic anal fissure.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a evolução clínica e manométrica de mulheres com fissura anal crônica submetidas à esfincterotomia lateral interna subcutânea. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo com oito pacientes. A avaliação inicial foi realizada por meio de questionários, exame físico e manometria anorretal na semana anterior ao procedimento cirúrgico. Durante o período pós-operatório, as pacientes foram avaliadas clinicamente a cada 15 dias, até a cicatrização completa. Os questionários e a manometria anorretal foram repetidos 1 mês e 3 meses após a operação. Foi avaliado o tempo para cicatrização da fissura, as alterações manométricas e as complicações decorrentes do procedimento. RESULTADOS: Todas as pacientes

  5. Comparison of botox and lateral internal sphincterotomy treatment outcomes in chronic anal fissures

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    Tolga Dinç

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Both botox and lateral internal sfinkterotomi are treatment technics used in chronic anal fissure; provide the relaxation of anal sphincter and as a result of this, healing occurs. Aim of this study is to compare efficacy of botox and LIS treatment in chronic anal fissure and discussing with the literature. Methods: 60 of 66 patients who has chronic anal fissure, that we reached, treated but not healed with medical therapy, appealed to the Dr. Sami Ulus Hospital included the study. Gender, age, fissure localization, complaints (pain, bleeding, itching, constipation, complaint length, recurrences after treatment, continence conditions and complications of patients were registered. Results: Sixty patients were enrolled the study. Of the 60 patients; 38(63.3% were male and 22 (27.7% were female. Mean age of all patients was 35.93 ± 11.45 (21 -60. Pain was the common complaint of the all patients. 10 (32.3% recurrence were detected in botox treatment group (Group-I, only 1 (3.4% recurrence was in LIS group (Group-II. There was no complication as an incontinence in group-I but 3 cases with incontinence (10.39% were obtained in group-II. In the evaluation of these 3 cases by Cleveland Clinic Continence Scoring System, 2 cases classified as gas incontinence and 1 case as moderate fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Although botulinum toxin injection seen as an alternative treatment method with low complication rates such as incontinence, high recurrence is an important shortcoming of this technic. LIS performed by experienced surgeons remained the most popular treatment modality with low complication rates and great deal of healing success.

  6. Esfincterotomia lateral interna associada à hemorroidectomia no tratamento da doença hemorroidária: vantagem ou desvantagem? Open haemorrhoidectomy with associated lateral internal sphincterotomy for treatment of haemorrhoids: advantage or disadvantage?

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    Hélio Moreira Junior

    2007-09-01

    submitted to surgical treatment for hemorrhoids. Patients and METHODS: Twenty patients who underwent Milligan Morgan hemorrhoidectomy were distributed in two groups: Group 1: Hemorrhoidectomy without sphincterotomy and Group 2: Hemorrhoidectomy with sphincterotomy. Post-operative pain, complications as well anal continence was evaluated. Moreover, pre and post-operative manometry was performed, and collected data was compared between the two groups of patients. RESULTS: There was no difference in the incidence of post-operative complications. Although group I used more narcotics and analgesics in the post-operative time, pain was significantly higher at 3rd and 7th post-operative day for Group II patients. Wound healing time was similar for both groups. Anal incontinence was significantly higher for patients who underwent sphincterotomy. CONCLUSION: Hemorrhoidectomy with associated internal lateral sphincterotomy did not reduce post-operative pain, and increased the risk of post-operative incontinence.

  7. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF LATERAL SPHINCTEROTOMY AND LOCAL APPLICATION OF 2% DILTIAZEM GEL IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC ANAL FISSURE

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    Rajashekar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Anal fissures are commonly encountered in routine colorectal practice. Chronic fissures have traditionally been treated surgically. Developments in the pharmacological understanding of the internal anal sphincter have resulted in more conservative approaches towards treatment. In this study, we compare topical 2% Diltiazem gel and lateral internal sphincterotomy with respect to symptomatic relief, healing and side effects in the treatment of chronic fissure in ano. METHODS 60 patients with chronic fissure in ano were randomly divided into Diltiazem gel and internal sphincterotomy groups. Patients were followed up at weekly intervals for minimum of eight weeks. Data was recorded accordingly. RESULTS Fissure completely healed in 28(93.33% out of 30 patients treated with 2% Diltiazem gel between 4-8 weeks. Healing was 100% with internal sphincterotomy. The mean duration required for healing of fissure was 4.86 weeks in Diltiazem gel group and 3.66 weeks in internal sphincterotomy group. 61.5% patients were free from pain after treatment with Diltiazem gel whereas in internal sphicterotomy group 66.66% patients had pain relief at the end of 4 weeks. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSION Comparison between Diltiazem gel application and internal sphincterotomy did not show any significant difference in fissure healing and pain relief. No side effects were seen in Diltiazem gel therapy. Topical Diltiazem should be the initial treatment in chronic fissure in ano. It is better to reserve internal sphincterotomy for patients with relapse or therapeutic failure to prior pharmacological treatment.

  8. Frequency of post-operative faecal incontinence in patients with closed and open internal anal sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayas, N.G.; Younus, S.M.; Mirani, A.J.; Ghayasuddin, M.

    2015-01-01

    Fissure in ano is one of the commonest benign and painful proctologic diseases causing considerable morbidity and reduction in quality of life. There are medical as well as surgical treatment options for anal fissure. The study was conducted to compare the frequency of postoperative faecal incontinence in patients with closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy with von-greaves knife versus standard Parks operation (open method) for chronic anal fissure. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at the Department of Surgery, KVSS, S.I.T.E. Hospital, Karachi, for a period of six months from 13th February to 12th August 2011. Ninety four consecutive patients having chronic anal fissure were assigned through blocked randomization to groups A and B, with 47 patients in each group. Closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy (CLIAS) via von-greaves knife was carried out in patients of group-A whereas patients of group-B were subjected to open internal anal sphincterotomy (OIAS) also known as Parks procedure. Faecal incontinence was noted on the 5th post-operative day. Data was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: There were 81 (86.2%) males and 13 (13.8%) females with male to female ratio being 6:1. Mean age was 38.38 mp±14.56 years. Post-operative faecal incontinence in patients undergoing CLIAS was 4.3% while it was 21.3% in those undergoing OIAS with a p-value of 0.027. CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to standard OIAS. Conclusion: CLIAS with von-greaves knife is effective in reducing faecal incontinence on 5th postoperative day as compared to OIAS (Park's procedure). Therefore, this technique may be used in future regularly to treat chronic anal fissure for prevention of this morbidity. (author)

  9. Percutaneous transhepatic sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandin, G.; Zanon, E.; Righi, D.; Fonio, P.; Ferrari, A.; Recchia, S.

    1990-01-01

    The authors describe the techique employed for percutaneous trans-hepatic sphincterotomy as performed on 3 patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones. In all patients, previous endoscopic attempt had failed for anatomical reasons (Billroth II gastric resection or partial gastric resection with brown anastomosis), and the ampulla could not be correctly incannulated with the sphincterotome. In all aptients endoscopy was useful to check the position of the diethermic loop inserted percutaneously. Conplete and immediate success was obtained in all 3 cases. No major complications occurred during transhepatic treatment. To date, 1 recurrence has been observed, and the patient has been retreated with bilioplasty. All patients were followed after 5-6 months with US, plain X-rays of the abdomen and blood tests (γGt, alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubinemia). The authors suggest that percutaneous transhepatic sphincterotomy be employed electively in patients with biliary tree diseases in case the endoscopic approach failes

  10. Importance of radiographic monitoring of endoscopic sphincterotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberg, H.M.; Goldberg, H.I.; Shapiro, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    The radiographic features of endoscopic sphincterotomies performed in 44 patients were evaluated. Radiographic landmarks aided in proper sphincterotome placement and also disclosed conditions and anatomic variations that made catheter placement difficult. Fluoroscopic and radiographic monitoring not only assisted the performance of endoscopic sphincterotomy, but also confirmed successful results and revealed reasons for failure. Radiographic changes in the biliary tract after sphincterotomy, as well as potential complications of sphincterotomy, are discussed and illustrated

  11. Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of severe acute gallstone pancreatitis discovered at diag~osticlaparotomy. ... in these cases Included cholecystectomy and Ttube drainage (2 patients) cholecystostomy drainage (3 patients), and closure of the abdomen without drainage (2 patients).

  12. Post-endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy bleeding: an interventional radiology approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dunne, Ruth

    2013-12-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an integral component of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage is a recognized complication. First line treatment involves a variety of endoscopic techniques performed at the time of sphincterotomy. If these are not successful, transcatheter arterial embolization or open surgical vessel ligation are therapeutic considerations.

  13. Selective Embolization for Post-Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Bleeding: Technical Aspects and Clinical Efficacy

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    So, Young Ho; Choi, Young Ho [Seoul National University Boramae Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and clinical efficacy of selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. We reviewed the records of 10 patients (3%; M:F 6:4; mean age, 63.3 years) that underwent selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding among 344 patients who received arteriography for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed the endoscopic procedure, onset of bleeding, underlying clinical condition, angiographic findings, interventional procedure, and outcomes in these patients. Among the 12 bleeding branches, primary success of hemostasis was achieved in 10 bleeding branches (83%). Secondary success occurred in two additional bleeding branches (100%) after repeated embolization. In 10 patients, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleedings were detected during the endoscopic procedure (n = 2, 20%) or later (n = 8, 80%), and the delay was from one to eight days (mean, 2.9 days; {+-} 2.3). Coagulopathy was observed in three patients. Eight patients had a single bleeding branch, whereas two patients had two branches. On the selective arteriography, bleeding branches originated from the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 8, 67%) and anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 4, 33%), respectively. Superselection was achieved in four branches and the embolization was performed with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. The eight branches were embolized by combined use of coil, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, or Gelfoam. After the last embolization, there was no rebleeding or complication related to embolization. Selective embolization is technically feasible and an effective procedure for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. In addition, the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the main origin of the causative vessels of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

  14. Selective Embolization for Post-Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Bleeding: Technical Aspects and Clinical Efficacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Young Ho; Choi, Young Ho; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung; Song, Soon Young

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical aspects and clinical efficacy of selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. We reviewed the records of 10 patients (3%; M:F 6:4; mean age, 63.3 years) that underwent selective embolization for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding among 344 patients who received arteriography for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding from 2000 to 2009. We analyzed the endoscopic procedure, onset of bleeding, underlying clinical condition, angiographic findings, interventional procedure, and outcomes in these patients. Among the 12 bleeding branches, primary success of hemostasis was achieved in 10 bleeding branches (83%). Secondary success occurred in two additional bleeding branches (100%) after repeated embolization. In 10 patients, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleedings were detected during the endoscopic procedure (n = 2, 20%) or later (n = 8, 80%), and the delay was from one to eight days (mean, 2.9 days; ± 2.3). Coagulopathy was observed in three patients. Eight patients had a single bleeding branch, whereas two patients had two branches. On the selective arteriography, bleeding branches originated from the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 8, 67%) and anterior pancreaticoduodenal artery (n = 4, 33%), respectively. Superselection was achieved in four branches and the embolization was performed with n-butyl cyanoacrylate. The eight branches were embolized by combined use of coil, n-butyl cyanoacrylate, or Gelfoam. After the last embolization, there was no rebleeding or complication related to embolization. Selective embolization is technically feasible and an effective procedure for post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. In addition, the posterior pancreaticoduodenal artery is the main origin of the causative vessels of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

  15. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2012-10-21

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.

  16. A novel data collection and monitoring system for health status measures in patients undergoing lateral internal sphincterotomy: The Knowledge Program (TKP

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    Erman Aytac

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: LIS reduces anorectal pain without worsening quality of life. TKP captures information directly from patients and records it to a database which may reduce the risk of information loss or alteration.

  17. NEEDLE KNIFE SPHINCTEROTOMY - THE CHRIS HANI BARAGWANATH ACADEMIC HOSPITAL EXPERIENCE.

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    Thomson, J T; Smith, M D; Omoshoro-Jones, J A O; Devar, J D; Khan, Z K; Jugmohan, B J

    2017-06-01

    Deep biliary cannulation is essential in performing a therapeutic ERCP. Cannulation can be enhanced through the utilization of a pre-cut by means of a needle knife sphincterotomy. Retrospective analysis of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital's ERCP database was performed. All ERCPs performed with the aid of a needle knife were identified and analysed for successful and unsuccessful deep biliary cannulation. 2830 ERCPs were performed during the study period. 369 (13%) required needle knife sphincterotomies and successful deep biliary cannulation was achieved in 229 (62%) of these patients. Repeat ERCPs were performed on 125 (34%) patients. 61 (49%) of the repeat ERCPs were performed because of previously failed cannulation. 34 (56%) of these repeat ERCPs resulted in successful deep biliary cannulation at re-attempt. 99% of successful cannulations at repeat ERCP had had a needle knife sphincterotomy at the first ERCP. Needle knife sphincterotomy improves deep biliary cannulation at initial ERCP and subsequent ERCPs with low incidences of complications.

  18. Post-biliary sphincterotomy bleeding despite covered metallic stent deployment

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    Gianfranco Donatelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Several endoscopic techniques have been proposed for the management of post-sphincterotomy bleeding. Lately, self-expandable metal stents deployment has gained popularity especially as a rescue therapy when other endoscopic techniques fail. Methods-results: We report the case report of a massive post-sphincterotomy bleeding in a patient with a self-expandable metal stent in the biliary tree. Despite the presence of a correctly positioned self-expandable metal stent, a new endoscopic session was required to control the bleeding. Conclusions: Self-expandable metal stent may be useful to manage post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. However, up to now there is no specifically designed self-expandable metal stent for such complication. Large new designed self-expandable metal stent may be a useful tool for biliary endoscopist.

  19. Goiania, ten years later. Proceedings of an international conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Following the radiological accident that happened in Goiania, Brazil, in late 1987, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was able to turn to the international community for assistance under the terms of the 1986 IAEA sponsored Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; this marked the first time the convention was invoked. Additionally, to prevent the loss of useful information, CNEN and the IAEA designated a panel of international experts to investigate the causes and consequences of the accident and draw up a comprehensive report, `The Radiological Accident in Goiania`, which the IAEA published in 1988. Under its nuclear safety programme, it is the IAEA`s intention to follow up serious radiological accidents with review and analysis, to document the causes and circumstances and to disseminate conclusions, lessons to be learned and recommendations from which all States may benefit. A decade after the Goiania accident, the CNEN convened the international conference `Goiania, Ten Years Later` in co-operation with the IAEA. The purpose of this conference was to share with the local population and the international community the knowledge gained during this tragic event and in the following years. The conference attracted some 400 participants from 17 countries (Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Estonia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Russian Federation, Spain, Uruguay, United States of America and Venezuela). The present IAEA proceedings contain some 50 papers selected for publication by the editorial committee of the conference Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Goiania, ten years later. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    Following the radiological accident that happened in Goiania, Brazil, in late 1987, the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN) was able to turn to the international community for assistance under the terms of the 1986 IAEA sponsored Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency; this marked the first time the convention was invoked. Additionally, to prevent the loss of useful information, CNEN and the IAEA designated a panel of international experts to investigate the causes and consequences of the accident and draw up a comprehensive report, 'The Radiological Accident in Goiania', which the IAEA published in 1988. Under its nuclear safety programme, it is the IAEA's intention to follow up serious radiological accidents with review and analysis, to document the causes and circumstances and to disseminate conclusions, lessons to be learned and recommendations from which all States may benefit. A decade after the Goiania accident, the CNEN convened the international conference 'Goiania, Ten Years Later' in co-operation with the IAEA. The purpose of this conference was to share with the local population and the international community the knowledge gained during this tragic event and in the following years. The conference attracted some 400 participants from 17 countries (Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Estonia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Mexico, Peru, Russian Federation, Spain, Uruguay, United States of America and Venezuela). The present IAEA proceedings contain some 50 papers selected for publication by the editorial committee of the conference

  1. Effect of endoscopic transpapillary biliary drainage with/without endoscopic sphincterotomy on post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis in patients with biliary stricture (E-BEST): a protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shin; Kuwatani, Masaki; Sugiura, Ryo; Sano, Itsuki; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Ono, Kota; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-08-11

    The effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy prior to endoscopic biliary stenting to prevent post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis remains to be fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate the non-inferiority of non-endoscopic sphincterotomy prior to stenting for naïve major duodenal papilla compared with endoscopic sphincterotomy prior to stenting in patients with biliary stricture. We designed a multicentre randomised controlled trial, for which we will recruit 370 patients with biliary stricture requiring endoscopic biliary stenting from 26 high-volume institutions in Japan. Patients will be randomly allocated to the endoscopic sphincterotomy group or the non-endoscopic sphincterotomy group. The main outcome measure is the incidence of pancreatitis within 2 days of initial transpapillary biliary drainage. Data will be analysed on completion of the study. We will calculate the 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of the incidence of pancreatitis in each group and analyse weather the difference in both groups with 95% CIs is within the non-inferiority margin (6%) using the Wald method. This study has been approved by the institutional review board of Hokkaido University Hospital (IRB: 016-0181). Results will be submitted for presentation at an international medical conference and published in a peer-reviewed journal. The University Hospital Medical Information Network ID: UMIN000025727 Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. [Endoscopic sphincterotomy in choledocholithiasis and an intact gallbladder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, B; Petkov, R; Viiachki, I; Damianov, D; Iarŭmov, N

    1996-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with extraction of calculi is a basic method of treating choledocholithiasis in post-cholecystectomy patients (8, 9). Endoscopic treatment contributes to a considerable reduction of the indications for reoperation. The existing views concerning ES done in patients with preserved gallbladder, especially in the era of laparoscopic surgery, are still conflicting (3, 6). There are several options: cholecystectomy with removal of calculi in the common bile duct by ES in a subsequent stage, or vice versa-primary ES with ensuring cholecystectomy. The undertaking of independent surgical or endoscopic treatment is likewise practicable (2, 6).

  3. Clinical endoscopic management and outcome of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chen Lin

    Full Text Available Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding is a common complication of biliary sphincterotomy, and the incidence varies from 1% to 48%. It can be challenging to localize the bleeder or to administer various interventions through a side-viewing endoscope. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and the outcome of endoscopic intervention therapies. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 513 patients who underwent biliary sphincterotomy in Mackay Memorial Hospital between 2011 and 2016. The blood biochemistry, comorbidities, indication for sphincterotomy, severity of bleeding, endoscopic features of bleeder, and type of endoscopic therapy were analyzed. Post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding occurred in 65 (12.6% patients. Forty-five patients had immediate bleeding and 20 patients had delayed bleeding. The multivariate analysis of risk factors associated with post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding were liver cirrhosis (P = 0.029, end-stage renal disease (P = 0.038, previous antiplatelet drug use (P<0.001, and duodenal ulcer (P = 0.023. The complications of pancreatitis and cholangitis were higher in the bleeding group, with statistical significance. Delayed bleeding occurred within 1 to 7 days (mean, 2.5 days, and 60% (12/20 of the patients received endoscopic evaluation. In the delayed bleeding group, the successful hemostasis rate was 71.4% (5/7, and 65% (13/20 of the patients had ceased bleeding without endoscopic hemostasis therapy. Comparison of different therapeutic modalities showed that cholangitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine spray (P = 0.042 and pancreatitis was higher in patients who received epinephrine injection and electrocoagulation (P = 0.041 and P = 0.039 respectively. Clinically, post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding and further endoscopic hemostasis therapy increase the complication rate of pancreatitis and cholangitis. Realizing the effectiveness of each

  4. [Long-term follow up of sphincterotomy in spinal cord injured men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Kimoto, Yasusuke

    2008-01-01

    The long-term outcome of transurethral sphincterotomy (sphincterotomy) for the management of male quadriplegic patients with neurogenic bladder was examined. A total of 39 men with at least 5-years follow-up after sphincterotomy at our institute were included in this retrospective analysis. The mean age was 36.2 years (range 15-61). The mean follow-up period was 13.1 years (range 5-27). Of the 39 patients, 30 patients (77%) were successfully maintained in reflex voiding with a condom catheter and remaining 9 patients (23%) have received another urinary management, including 4 suprapubic cystostomy, 2 clean intermittent catheterization and 2 clean intermittent catheterization by care giver. The main reason that required another urinary management was the augmentation in autonomic hyperreflexia due to poor urinary drainage. Analysis of the urodynamic parameters revealed that the detrusor overactivity is hard to occur with time and this would be one of the reasons for the change of urinary management. In addition, the preoperative maximum bladder pressure in patients who has changed the urinary management due to the augmentation in AH was significantly lower than that in patients that has been successfully followed up in reflex voiding. The long-term outcome of sphincterotomy was relatively good. However detrusor overactivity is hard to occur with time and this would be one of the important points during the postoperative routine follow up.

  5. Santorinicele: secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography findings before and after minor papilla sphincterotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boninsegna, Enrico; Manfredi, Riccardo; Ventriglia, Anna; Negrelli, Riccardo; Pedrinolla, Beatrice; Mehrabi, Sara; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [University of Verona, Department of Radiology - Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Verona (Italy); Gabbrielli, Armando [University of Verona, Department of Medicine - Policlinico G.B. Rossi, Verona (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate secretin-enhanced MRCP (S-MRCP) findings of patients with pancreas divisum and Santorinicele, before and after minor papilla sphincterotomy. S-MRCP examinations of 519 patients with suspected pancreatic disease were included. Size of the main pancreatic duct, presence and calibre of Santorinicele were evaluated. Duodenal filling was assessed on dynamic images. After sphincterotomy the same parameters and the clinical findings were re-evaluated. Pancreas divisum was depicted in 55/519 patients (11 %) by MRCP and an additional 26/519 by S-MRCP (total 81/519, 16 %). Santorinicele was detected in 7/81 patients (8.6 %) with pancreas divisum by MRCP and an additional 20/81 by S-MRCP (total 27/81, 33 %). Dorsal duct in patients with Santorinicele was significantly larger in the head compared with patients with only pancreas divisum (p < 0.01), in basal conditions (average 2.4 versus 1.9 mm) and after secretin administration (average 3.0 versus 2.4 mm). Duodenal filling was impaired in 11/27 patients (41 %) with Santorinicele. After sphincterotomy significant reduction in size of Santorinicele (-33 %) and dorsal duct (-17 %), increase of pancreatic juice and symptoms improvement were observed. Secretin administration increases the accuracy of MRCP in detecting Santorinicele and demonstrates the impaired duodenal filling. S-MRCP is useful to assess results of sphincterotomy. (orig.)

  6. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is safe and effective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Henrik Loft; Vilmann, Peter; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Management strategy for common bile duct (CBD) stones is controversial with several treatment options if stones in the CBD are recognized intraoperatively. The aim of this study was to report our experience with same-session combined endoscopic-laparoscopic treatment of gallbladder and CBD stones....... We retrospectively evaluated 31 patients with cholecystolithiasis and CBD stones undergoing same-session combined endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and endoscopic stone extraction and laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Same-session ERCP and sphincterotomy were...... performed in all patients, and stone extraction was successfully performed in 29 patients (93%) with 2 failures (7%) due to impacted stones. In 8 patients (26%), the laparoscopic procedure was converted to open cholecystectomy because of dense adhesions or unclear anatomy. Two patients (7%) developed mild...

  7. Lateralization of the posterior parietal cortex for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenji; Inui, Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Internal monitoring or state estimation of movements is essential for human motor control to compensate for inherent delays and noise in sensorimotor loops. Two types of internal estimation of movements exist: self-generated movements, and externally generated movements. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate differences in brain activity for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements during visual occlusion. Participants tracked a sinusoidally moving target with a mouse cursor. On some trials, vision of either target (externally generated) or cursor (self-generated) movement was transiently occluded, during which subjects continued tracking by estimating current position of either the invisible target or cursor on screen. Analysis revealed that both occlusion conditions were associated with increased activity in the presupplementary motor area and decreased activity in the right lateral occipital cortex compared to a control condition with no occlusion. Moreover, the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed greater activation during occlusion of target and cursor movements, respectively. This study suggests lateralization of the PPC for internal monitoring of internally versus externally generated movements, fully consistent with previously reported clinical findings.

  8. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy : results, complications and contra-indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Boender (Johannes)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractIn 1986 the departments of Radiology and Internal Medicine II/Gastroenterology initiated a prospective study of therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (TERCP). The project was designed to obtain information which could be used to evaluate immediate and medium-term

  9. Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a review of current international guidelines and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bede, Peter; Oliver, David; Stodart, James; van den Berg, Leonard; Simmons, Zachary; O Brannagáin, Doiminic; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Hardiman, Orla

    2011-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative condition. Optimal management requires a palliative approach from diagnosis with emphasis on patient autonomy, dignity and quality of life. To conduct a systematic analysis of the type, level and timing of specialist palliative care intervention in ALS. Despite an international consensus that ALS management should adopt a multidisciplinary approach, integration of palliative care into ALS management varies considerably across health care systems. Late referral to palliative services in ALS is not uncommon and may impact negatively on the quality of life of ALS patients and their caregivers. However, common themes and principles of engagement can be identified across different jurisdictions, and measurement systems have been established that can assess the impact of palliative care intervention. There is considerable evidence that palliative care intervention improves quality of life in patients and carers. International consensus guidelines would assist in the development of a framework for active palliative care engagement in ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Internal hydration of a metal-transporting ATPase is controlled by membrane lateral pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biophysics; Fischermeier, E. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany); Pospisil, P. [A.S.C. R., Prague (Czech Republic). J. Heyrovsky Inst. Physical Chemistry; Solioz, M. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland); Sayed, A.; Hof, M.

    2017-07-01

    The active transport of ions across biological mem branes requires their hydration shell to interact with the interior of membrane proteins. However, the influence of the external lipid phase on internal dielectric dynamics is hard to access by experiment. Using the octahelical transmembrane architecture of the copper-transporting P{sub 1B}-type ATPase from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) as a model structure, we have established the site-specific labeling of internal cysteines with a polarity-sensitive fluorophore. This enabled dipolar relaxation studies in a solubilized form of the protein and in its lipid-embedded state in nano-discs (NDs). Time-dependent fluorescence shifts revealed the site-specific hydration and dipole mobility around the conserved ion-binding motif. The spatial distribution of both features is shaped significantly and independently of each other by membrane lateral pressure.

  11. Internal hydration of a metal-transporting ATPase is controlled by membrane lateral pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, Karim; Pospisil, P.; Sayed, A.; Hof, M.

    2017-01-01

    The active transport of ions across biological mem branes requires their hydration shell to interact with the interior of membrane proteins. However, the influence of the external lipid phase on internal dielectric dynamics is hard to access by experiment. Using the octahelical transmembrane architecture of the copper-transporting P_1_B-type ATPase from Legionella pneumophila (LpCopA) as a model structure, we have established the site-specific labeling of internal cysteines with a polarity-sensitive fluorophore. This enabled dipolar relaxation studies in a solubilized form of the protein and in its lipid-embedded state in nano-discs (NDs). Time-dependent fluorescence shifts revealed the site-specific hydration and dipole mobility around the conserved ion-binding motif. The spatial distribution of both features is shaped significantly and independently of each other by membrane lateral pressure.

  12. Cholecystectomy or gallbladder in situ after endoscopic sphincterotomy and bile duct stone removal in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, James Y W; Leow, Chon-Kar; Fung, Terence M K; Suen, Bing-Yee; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lai, Paul B S; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Ng, Enders K W; Lau, Wan Yee; Chung, Sydney S C; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2006-01-01

    In patients with stones in their bile ducts and gallbladders, cholecystectomy is generally recommended after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of bile duct stones. However, only approximately 10% of patients with gallbladders left in situ will return with further biliary complications. Expectant management is alternately advocated. In this study, we compared the treatment strategies of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gallbladders left in situ. We randomized patients (>60 years of age) after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of their bile duct stones to receive early laparoscopic cholecystectomy or expectant management. The primary outcome was further biliary complications. Other outcome measures included adverse events after cholecystectomy and late deaths from all causes. One hundred seventy-eight patients entered into the trial (89 in each group); 82 of 89 patients who were randomized to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy underwent the procedure. Conversion to open surgery was needed in 16 of 82 patients (20%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8 patients (9%). Analysis was by intention to treat. With a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, 6 patients (7%) in the cholecystectomy group returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 1). Among those with gallbladders in situ, 21 (24%) returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 13; acute cholecystitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 2; and jaundice, n = 1; log rank, P = .001). Late deaths were similar between groups (cholecystectomy, n = 19; gallbladder in situ, n = 11; P = .12). In the Chinese, cholecystectomy after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones reduces recurrent biliary events and should be recommended.

  13. REVERSE ENGINEERING OF THE MITKOVIC TYPE INTERNAL FIXATOR FOR LATERAL TIBIAL PLATEAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Vitković

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In orthopaedic surgery it is very important to use proper fixation techniques in the treatment of various medical conditions, i.e. bone fractures or other traumas. If an internal fixation method, such as plating, is required, it is possible to use Dynamic Compression Plates (DCP or Locking Compression Plates (LCP and their variants. For DCP implants it is important to match the patient's bone shape with the most possible accuracy, so that the most frequent implant bending is applied in the surgery. For LCP implants it is not so important to match the patient’s bone shape, but additional locking screw holes are required. To improve the geometrical accuracy and anatomical correctness of the shape of DCP and to improve the LCP geometric definition, new geometrical modelling methods for the Mitkovic type internal fixator for Lateral Tibia Plateau are developed and presented in this research. The presented results are quite promising; it can be concluded that these methods can be applied to the creation of geometrical models of internal fixator customized for the given patient or optimized for a group of patients with required geometrical accuracy and morphological correctness.

  14. Wait-and-see policy or laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile-duct stones: a randomised trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, Djemila; Rauws, Erik A. J.; Keulemans, Yolande C. A.; Janssen, Ignace M. C.; Bolwerk, Clemens J. M.; Timmer, Ron; Boerma, Egge J.; Obertop, Huug; Huibregtse, Kees; Gouma, Dirk J.

    2002-01-01

    Background Patients who undergo endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile-duct stones, who have residual gallbladder stones, are referred for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. However, only 10% of patients who do not have this operation are reported to develop recurrent biliary symptoms. We aimed to

  15. Successful outcome of sphincterotomy and 7 French pigtail stent insertion in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnellan, Fergal

    2009-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is widely used to manage post-cholecystectomy bile leaks. However, the best endoscopic intervention remains controversial. We investigated the success of a 7 French double pigtail stent following sphincterotomy in the management of such bile leaks. METHODS: Between July 1998 and June 2008, 48 patients were referred for ERCP for presumed post-cholecystectomy bile leaks. Leaks were confirmed at ERCP and managed by a combination of sphincterotomy and stent insertion unless contraindicated. RESULTS: Bile duct cannulation was successful in 44 (91.7%) patients. A leak of the cystic duct was demonstrated in 19 (43.2%) patients, the duct of Luschka in 11 (25.0%), and the common hepatic duct in 5 (11.4%). Complete transection of the common bile duct occurred in 4 patients. The remaining patients had no cholangiographic evidence of a leak. Sphincterotomy was performed in 34 patients. A 7 French double pigtail plastic stent was placed in all 35 patients with cholangiographic evidence of a bile leak. No bile leaks were demonstrated at a follow-up of 8-16 weeks and all stents were removed successfully. CONCLUSION: The combination of sphincterotomy and insertion of a 7 French double pigtail stent results in excellent outcomes in the management of post-cholecystectomy bile leaks.

  16. Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a review of current international guidelines and initiatives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bede, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive neurodegenerative condition. Optimal management requires a palliative approach from diagnosis with emphasis on patient autonomy, dignity and quality of life.

  17. Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Using the Rendezvous Technique for Choledocholithiasis during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takayuki; Haraguchi, Masashi; Tokai, Hirotaka; Ito, Shinichiro; Kitajima, Masachika; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Onizuka, Shinya; Inoue, Keiji; Motoyoshi, Yasuhide; Kuroki, Tamotsu; Kanemastu, Takashi; Eguchi, Susumu

    2014-05-01

    A 50-year-old male was examined at another hospital for fever, general fatigue and slight abdominal pain. He was treated with antibiotics and observed. However, his symptoms did not lessen, and laboratory tests revealed liver dysfunction, jaundice and an increased inflammatory response. He was then admitted to our hospital and underwent an abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), which revealed common bile duct (CBD) stones. He was diagnosed with mild acute cholangitis. As the same time, he was admitted to our hospital and an emergency endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed. Vater papilla opening in the third portion of the duodenum and presence of a peripapillary duodenal diverticulum made it difficult to perform cannulation of the CBD. In addition, MRCP revealed that the CBD was extremely narrow (diameter 5 mm). We therefore performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopic sphincterotomy using the rendezvous technique for choledocholithiasis simultaneously rather than laparoscopic CBD exploration. After the operation, the patient was discharged with no complications. Although the rendezvous technique has not been very commonly used because several experts in the technique and a large operating room are required, this technique is a very attractive and effective approach for treating choledocholithiasis, for which endoscopic treatment is difficult.

  18. Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Using the Rendezvous Technique for Choledocholithiasis during Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayuki Tanaka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old male was examined at another hospital for fever, general fatigue and slight abdominal pain. He was treated with antibiotics and observed. However, his symptoms did not lessen, and laboratory tests revealed liver dysfunction, jaundice and an increased inflammatory response. He was then admitted to our hospital and underwent an abdominal computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP, which revealed common bile duct (CBD stones. He was diagnosed with mild acute cholangitis. As the same time, he was admitted to our hospital and an emergency endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed. Vater papilla opening in the third portion of the duodenum and presence of a peripapillary duodenal diverticulum made it difficult to perform cannulation of the CBD. In addition, MRCP revealed that the CBD was extremely narrow (diameter 5 mm. We therefore performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy and endoscopic sphincterotomy using the rendezvous technique for choledocholithiasis simultaneously rather than laparoscopic CBD exploration. After the operation, the patient was discharged with no complications. Although the rendezvous technique has not been very commonly used because several experts in the technique and a large operating room are required, this technique is a very attractive and effective approach for treating choledocholithiasis, for which endoscopic treatment is difficult.

  19. Covered Metal Stenting for Malignant Lower Biliary Stricture with Pancreatic Duct Obstruction: Is Endoscopic Sphincterotomy Needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunari Nakahara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To evaluate the need for endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST before covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS deployment for malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Methods. This study included 79 patients who underwent CSEMS deployment for unresectable malignant lower biliary stricture with pancreatic duct obstruction. Treatment outcomes and complications were compared between 38 patients with EST before CSEMS deployment (EST group and 41 without EST (non-EST group. Results. The technical success rates were 100% in both the EST and the non-EST group. The incidence of pancreatitis was 2.6% in the EST, and 2.4% in the non-EST group (. The incidences of overall complications were 18.4% and 14.6%, respectively, (. Within the non-EST groups, the incidence of pancreatitis was 0% in patients with fully covered stent deployment and 3.6% in those with partially covered stent deployment (. In the multivariate analysis, younger age (, OR 12 and nonpancreatic cancer (, OR 24 were significant risk factors for overall complications after CSEMS deployment. EST was not identified as a risk factor. Conclusions. EST did not reduce the incidence of pancreatitis after CSEMS deployment in patients of unresectable distal malignant obstruction with pancreatic duct obstruction.

  20. [Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fracture with lateral anterior decompression, internal fixation with Ventrofix and bone graft with titanic mesh].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-min; Zhang, Zhao-jie; Liu, Yu-zhang; Zhang, Lu-tang; Li, Xing

    2011-11-01

    To discuss the efficacy of lateral anterior decompression, internal fixation with Ventrofix and bone graft with titanic mesh in the treatment of severe thoracolumbar burst fracture. From January 2008 to January 2010, 21 patients with severe thoracolumbar burst fracture were treated with lateral anterior decompression, internal fixation with Ventrofix, bone graft with titanic mesh. There were 15 males and 6 females, ranging in age from 21 to 46 years with an average of 32.2 years. Segment of fracture: 3 cases were in T11, 6 cases in T12, 7 cases in L1, 5 cases in L2. The mean kyphosis angle was 20.1 degrees and loading of fracture was 7.8 scores. Twenty-one cases accompany with incomplete paralysis. Nerves functions were observed according to Frankel grade; correction and maintain of kyphosis angle were observed by X-rays and CT. All the patients were followed up from 12 to 34 months with an average of 18.5 years. Postoperative complication including injury of pleura in 1 case, dynamic ileus in 2 cases, ilioinguinal nerve injury in 1 case, faulty union of wound in 1 case. All the above complications got recovery after symptomatic treatment. The mean kyphosis angle in fusional segment were 4.2 degrees and the rate of correction was 79%. Nerves functions of all patients got improvement and no internal fixation fail, kyphosis angle obviously lost, titanium mesh shifting, loosening and breakage of screw were found at final follow-up. Lateral anterior decompression, bone graft with titanic mesh, internal fixation with Ventrofix is an idea technique for severe thoracolumber burst fracture, but the method can not be used for patient with severity osteoporosis.

  1. Study of Lateral Misalignment Tolerance of a Symmetric Free-Space Optical Link for Intra International Space Station Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Sarah; Schoenholz, Bryan; Suddath, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the study of lateral misalignment tolerance of a symmetric high-rate free-space optical link (FSOL) for use between International Space Station (ISS) payload sites and the main cabin. The link will enable gigabit per second (Gbps) transmission of data, which is up to three orders of magnitude greater than the current capabilities. This application includes 10-20 meter links and requires minimum size, weight, and power (SWaP). The optical power must not present an eye hazard and must be easily integrated into the existing ISS infrastructure. On the ISS, rapid thermal changes and astronaut movement will cause flexure of the structure which will potentially misalign the free space transmit and receive optics 9 cm laterally and 0.2 degrees angularly. If this misalignment is not accounted for, a loss of the link or degradation of link performance will occur. Power measurements were collected to better understand the effect of various system design parameters on lateral misalignment. Parameters that were varied include: the type of small form pluggable (SFP) transceivers, type of fiber, and transmitted power level. A potential solution was identified that can reach the lateral misalignment tolerance (decenter span) required to create an FSOL on the ISS by using 105 m core fibers, a duplex SFP, two channels of light, and two fiber amplifiers.

  2. Cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with mild acute biliary pancreatitis in Sweden 1988 - 2003: a nationwide register study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stenlund Hans C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gallstones represent the most common cause of acute pancreatitis in Sweden. Epidemiological data concerning timing of cholecystectomy and sphincterotomy in patients with first attack of mild acute biliary pancreatitis (MABP are scarce. Our aim was to analyse readmissions for biliary disease, cholecystectomy within one year, and mortality within 90 days of index admission for MABP. Methods Hospital discharge and death certificate data were linked for patients with first attack acute pancreatitis in Sweden 1988-2003. Mortality was calculated as case fatality rate (CFR and standardized mortality ratio (SMR. MABP was defined as acute pancreatitis of biliary aetiology without mortality during an index stay of 10 days or shorter. Patients were analysed according to four different treatment policies: Cholecystectomy during index stay (group 1, no cholecystectomy during index stay but within 30 days of index admission (group 2, sphincterotomy but not cholecystectomy within 30 days of index admission (group 3, and neither cholecystectomy nor sphincterotomy within 30 days of index admission (group 4. Results Of 11636 patients with acute biliary pancreatitis, 8631 patients (74% met the criteria for MABP. After exclusion of those with cholecystectomy or sphincterotomy during the year before index admission (N = 212, 8419 patients with MABP remained for analysis. Patients in group 1 and 2 were significantly younger than patients in group 3 and 4. Length of index stay differed significantly between the groups, from 4 (3-6 days, (representing median, 25 and 75 percentiles in group 2 to 7 (5-8 days in groups 1. In group 1, 4.9% of patients were readmitted at least once for biliary disease within one year after index admission, compared to 100% in group 2, 62.5% in group 3, and 76.3% in group 4. One year after index admission, 30.8% of patients in group 3 and 47.7% of patients in group 4 had undergone cholecystectomy. SMR did not differ

  3. Condylar position on the lateral individualized corrected tomography in internal derangement of temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keun Min; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [College of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To examine the possible relationship between condylar position and disk displacement in the temporomandibular joint. 79 temporomandibular joints in 40 patients having temporomandibular disorders were classified into three categories: no disk displacement (NDD), disk displacement with reduction (DDWR), and disk displacement without reduction (DDWOR). Disk positions were assessed from clinical and MRI findings. The relationship between the three categories and condylar positions was evaluated using lateral individualized corrected tomography. Clinical findings regarding the relationship between condyle and disk positions having anterior, centric, and posterior positions were 27%, 27%, and 46%, respectively, in NDD, 43%, 17%, and 40%, respectively, in DDWR, and 44%, 22%, and 34%, respectively, in DDWOR. There were no significant differences in condylar positions between each of the groups (P>0.05). In the relationship between condyle and disk positions with MRI findings, anterior, centric, and posterior positions were 38%, 38%, and 24%, respectively, in NDD, 29%, 21%, and 50%, respectively, in DDWR, and 44%, 9%, and 47% respectively, in DDWOR. There were significant differences in the condylar positions when MRI was utilized (P<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the condyle and disk positions with MRI findings on lateral individualized corrected tomography.

  4. Later Leaders in Education: Hazel Flannery Gabbard--Specialist in International Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwood, Paul E.

    1993-01-01

    This biography of Hazel Flannery Gabbard discusses her organization of nursery school centers in Rochester, New York; her work as an education specialist in the U.S. Office of Education; her cooperation with national organizations; and her international education activities. (SM)

  5. Strengthening the international legal framework for nuclear security: Better sooner rather than later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherall, Anthony C.

    2016-01-01

    In this 21. century global environment, the threat of terrorists or other criminals eventually acquiring and using radioactive material for malicious purposes or sabotaging such material or associated facilities, could be calculated as being an inevitable, albeit a preventable catastrophe. Much has been done to address this situation, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) now having a recognised central role in strengthening nuclear security globally. However, concerns still remain regarding the adequacy of the global nuclear security architecture, consisting of legally binding and non-binding instruments, intergovernmental organisations (IGOs), bodies and various initiatives, as well as internationally-accepted guidance and best practices, such as those reflected in the IAEA Nuclear Security Series of publications. Issues arise with respect to the adequacy of the international framework for nuclear security and the level of effective national implementation thereof. Highlighted in this regard, is a lack of universal adherence to the international nuclear security legal instruments, an absence of sustained information sharing (particularly on national implementation) and the non-existence of binding nuclear security standards and mandatory peer review and assessment. This article examines the framework's adequacy, its gaps and weak links, as well as the measures proposed to strengthen it. Part 1 considers some past and recent events, efforts, and developments that have contributed to the current status. Thereafter, the purported gaps and weak links and proposed strengthening measures are identified. While acknowledging progress, it is assumed that some overarching considerations, particularly national sovereignty, secrecy and complacency, continue to restrictively influence and determine the extent of state behaviour. Accordingly, these considerations are also briefly addressed in Part 1. Thereafter, Part 2 provides a concise overview of the current

  6. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity special issue: II International Conference on Radioecological Concentration Processes. (50 years later).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael; Holm, Elis

    2018-06-01

    An international conference on Radioecological Concentration Processes was held in Seville, Spain, 6-9 November 2016 at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores. It was attended by 160 participants from 35 different countries. This was the 2nd conference on this item since 1966, 50 years ago. The conference covered aspects of radiological important radionuclides on terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments and has allowed obtaining a clear picture of the status of the Radioecology as a consolidated discipline in the 21st century. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Surgery of ipsilateral Hawkins Ⅲ talus neck and ankle joint fractures via internal and lateral approaches with Herbert screws].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Dong, Q R; Wang, Z Y; Chen, B; Wan, J H; Wang, L

    2016-11-08

    Objective: To explore the manual operation skills of operative treatment of ipsilateral Hawkins Ⅲ talus neck and ankle joint fractures via internal and lateral approaches with Herbert screws, and to study the clinical results. Method: From Jan 2009 to Dec 2014, the clinical data of 13 patients with ipsilateral Hawkins Ⅲ talus neck and ankle joint fractres via internal and lateral approaches with Herbert screws were retrospectively analyzed in our department.There were 10 males and 3 female, ranging in age from 20 to 60 years with an average age of 31.5 years.The fractures occurred on the right side in 9 patients and on the left side in 4 patients.Three cases had the complication of medial malleolar fracture.Ten cases had the complication of medial and lateral malleolar fracture. Totally 11 cases were made calcaneal skeletal traction, and all the were made CT with three-dimensional image reconstruction.Two cases were treated with emergency operation.Eleven cases were treated with selective operation.The operation time was 5 hours-10 days after injury. The functional results were evaluated by American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS). Result: The average duration of follow-up was 22.6 months (range, 14-65 months). There was skin necrosis in one cases, no incision infection, malunion and nonunion of the fractures and loss of reduction. At final follow-up, AOFAS ankle score was 75.2 (range, 42 to 93), higher than preoperative 39.2 (range, 23 to 60), the difference was statistically significant ( P =0.023). The result was excellent in 4 cases, good in 5 cases, fair in 3 cases and 1 cases in poor, and the overall excellent or good rate was 69.2%. Avascular necrosis occurred in 3 cases (23.1%, 3/13). Traumatic arthritis was found in 5 cases (38.5%, 5/13), involved tibial astragaloid joint in 2 cases, involved subtalar joint in 1 case, involved tibial astragaloid joint and subtalar joint in 2 cases. Conclusion: The effect of surgical treatment for ipsilateral

  8. A randomized trial of endoscopic balloon dilation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for removal of bile duct stones in patients with a prior Billroth II gastrectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, J. J.; van Berkel, A. M.; Bruno, M. J.; Fockens, P.; Rauws, E. A.; Tijssen, J. G.; Tytgat, G. N.; Huibregtse, K.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A prior Billroth II gastrectomy renders endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) more difficult in patients with bile duct stones. Endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD) is a relatively easy procedure that potentially reduces the risk of bleeding and perforation. METHODS: Thirty-four patients with

  9. A mapping review of international guidance on the management and care of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Astrid I W A; Ruytings, Marijke; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Chio, Adriano; Hardiman, Orla; Mcdermott, Christopher J; Meyer, Thomas; Mora, Gabriele; Van Damme, Philip; Van Den Berg, Leonard H; Vanhaecht, Kris; Winkler, Andrea S; Sermeus, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Management of ALS is suboptimal. Consequently, quality improvement interventions are needed to improve ALS care. An evidence-based insight into how patients should be managed is essential when developing quality improvement interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to map, categorize and summarize international guidance on the management and care of ALS and to identify gaps in this guidance by means of a mapping review. Literature was searched for clinical practice guidelines, quality indicators and evidence-based clinical summaries. A content analysis and meta-synthesis of the included literature was performed. Interventions and outcomes used in the management and care of ALS were identified and categorized. Furthermore, the amount of guidance underpinning these interventions and outcomes was analysed. Six clinical practice guidelines, one set of quality indicators and three evidence-based clinical summaries were identified. The results demonstrated that certain domains in ALS care, mainly disease-specific domains such as breathing and swallowing, are extensively addressed in the literature whereas other subjects, such as care coordination, receive little attention. In conclusion, this mapping review provides a scientific basis for targeting and developing the clinical content of a quality improvement intervention for the management of ALS.

  10. 2016 consensus statement of the International Ankle Consortium: prevalence, impact and long-term consequences of lateral ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, Phillip A; Bleakley, Chris M; Caulfield, Brian M; Docherty, Carrie L; Fourchet, François; Fong, Daniel Tik-Pui; Hertel, Jay; Hiller, Claire E; Kaminski, Thomas W; McKeon, Patrick O; Refshauge, Kathryn M; Verhagen, Evert A; Vicenzino, Bill T; Wikstrom, Erik A; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2016-12-01

    The Executive Committee of the International Ankle Consortium presents this 2016 position paper with recommendations for information implementation and continued research based on the paradigm that lateral ankle sprain (LAS), and the development of chronic ankle instability (CAI), serve as a conduit to a significant global healthcare burden. We intend our recommendations to serve as a mechanism to promote efforts to improve prevention and early management of LAS. We believe this will reduce the prevalence of CAI and associated sequelae that have led to the broader public health burdens of decreased physical activity and early onset ankle joint post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Ultimately, this can contribute to healthier lifestyles and promotion of physical activity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. CFD simulation of an internal spin-filter: evidence of lateral migration and exchange flow through the mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueredo-Cardero, Alvio; Chico, Ernesto; Castilho, Leda R; Medronho, Ricardo A

    2009-11-01

    In the present work Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to study the flow field and particle dynamics in an internal spin-filter (SF) bioreactor system. Evidence of a radial exchange flow through the filter mesh was detected, with a magnitude up to 130-fold higher than the perfusion flow, thus significantly contributing to radial drag. The exchange flow magnitude was significantly influenced by the filter rotation rate, but not by the perfusion flow, within the ranges evaluated. Previous reports had only given indirect evidences of this exchange flow phenomenon in spin-filters, but the current simulations were able to quantify and explain it. Flow pattern inside the spin-filter bioreactor resembled a typical Taylor-Couette flow, with vortices being formed in the annular gap and eventually penetrating the internal volume of the filter, thus being the probable reason for the significant exchange flow observed. The simulations also showed that cells become depleted in the vicinity of the mesh due to lateral particle migration. Cell concentration near the filter was approximately 50% of the bulk concentration, explaining why cell separation achieved in SFs is not solely due to size exclusion. The results presented indicate the power of CFD techniques to study and better understand spin-filter systems, aiming at the establishment of effective design, operation and scale-up criteria.

  12. How does lateral tilting affect the internal strains in the sacral region of bed ridden patients? : a contribution to pressure ulcer prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, C.W.J.; Broek, M.; Hemmes, B.; Bader, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Repositioning of individuals with reduced mobility and at risk of pressure ulcers is an essential preventive step. Manual or automatic lateral tilting is a way of doing this and the international guidelines propose a 30° to 40°side lying position. The goal of the present study was to

  13. The Role of Prophylactic Endoscopic Sphincterotomy for Prevention of Postoperative Bile Leak in Hydatid Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ahmed M; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Bedewy, Essam

    2018-03-12

    Bile leak is the main cause of morbidity and mortality after surgery for hydatid liver cysts. Aim was to assess the role of prophylactic endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in reducing postoperative bile leak in patients undergoing partial cystectomy. Fifty-four patients with hepatic hydatid cyst met inclusion criteria, 27 were excluded or declined to participate. Twenty-six women and 28 men (mean age 44.6 ± 10.1, range: 22-61 years) were randomly assigned to either group I with ES (n = 27) or group II without ES (n = 27). Demographics and clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics of cysts were not statistically different between two groups. Group I had a significant decrease in bile leak rate compared with group II (11.1% versus 40.7%, P = .013), with significantly shorter duration of hospital stay (P leak in 3-4 days without intervention. Biliary fistula in group II had a significantly higher need for biliary intervention through postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with ES compared with biliary fistula in group I ( FE P = .002), with significantly longer mean time of fistula closure (P = .011) and longer time to drain removal (P leak rate with shorter hospital stay after partial cystectomy of hydatid cyst. Biliary fistula in patients with ES has significantly lower daily output with shorter time of drain removal and shorter time to closure than patients without ES.

  14. Fluoroscopically guided closed reduction and internal fixation of fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle: prospective clinical study of the technique and results in ten dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J L; Tomlinson, J L; Reed, A L

    1999-01-01

    To report a technique for fluoroscopically guided closed reduction with internal fixation of fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle (FLHC) and determine the long-term results in 10 clinical cases. Prospective clinical case study. Ten dogs with 11 fractures. Fractures of the lateral portion of the humeral condyle were stabilized with transcondylar screws and Kirschner wires. Closed reduction and implant placement were achieved using intraoperative fluoroscopic guidance. After fracture repair, postoperative radiographs were evaluated for articular alignment and implant placement. Dogs were evaluated after surgery by means of lameness scores, elbow range of motion (ROM), radiographic assessment, and owner evaluation of function. Postoperative reduction was considered anatomic in 6 fractures with all other fractures having ROM values between affected and unaffected elbows. All of the dogs in this study regained 90-100% of full function, based on owner assessment. Fluoroscopic guidance for closed reduction and internal fixation of FLHC in dogs is an effective technique.

  15. Endodontic treatment of a maxillary lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption by using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Toshiya; Tsurumachi, Tamotsu; Ogiso, Bunnai

    2011-10-01

    This case report presents the endodontic treatment of a maxillary right lateral incisor with a perforating internal resorption in a 50-year-old woman. Radiographically, internal resorption appears as a fairly uniform, radiolucent enlargement of the pulp canal and distortion of the original root canal outline. The use of cone beam computed tomography can help the clinician in making a confirmatory diagnosis and determining the treatment plan before undertaking the actual treatment. After cleaning the root canal space and the resorptive defect by mechanic instrumentation, irrigation, and interim calcium hydroxide dressing, the apical third canal was filled with a gutta-percha point by lateral condensation. The resorptive defect was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate. Follow-up radiographs at 3 years showed adequate repair of the resorption, and the tooth remained asymptomatic.

  16. Efficacy and safety of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy before self-expandable metal stent insertion for malignant biliary obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Choi, Cheol Woong; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Su Jin; Ryu, Dae Gon

    2017-03-07

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) before placement of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). This was a retrospective analysis of 244 consecutive patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction, who underwent placement of SEMSs following limited ES from December 2008 to February 2015. The diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction and assessment of patient eligibility for the study was established by a combination of clinical findings, laboratory investigations, imaging and pathological results. All patients were monitored in the hospital for at least 24 h following endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP). The incidence of immediate or early post-ERCP complications such as post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and bleeding related to limited ES were considered as primary outcomes. Also, characteristics and complications according to the cancer type were classified. Among the 244 patients included, the underlying diagnosis was cholangiocarcinoma in 118 patients, pancreatic cancer in 79, and non-pancreatic or non-biliary malignancies in the remaining 47 patients. Early post-ERCP complications occurred in 9 patients (3.7%), with PEP in 7 patients (2.9%; mild, 6; moderate, 1) and mild bleeding in 2 patients (0.8%). There was no significant association between the incidence of post-ERCP complications and the type of malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma vs pancreatic cancer vs others, P = 0.696) or the type of SEMS used (uncovered vs covered, P = 1.000). Patients who had more than one SEMS placed at the first instance were at a significantly higher risk of post-ERCP complications (one SEMS vs two SEMS, P = 0.031). No other factors were predictive of post-ERCP complications. Limited ES is feasible and safe, and effectively facilitates the placement of SEMS, without any significant risk of PEP or severe bleeding.

  17. Measurement of the angle formed between the thalamostriate vein and internal cerebral vein in anteroposterior projection: A method of estimating the size of the lateral ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Il Soon; Yoo, Ho Joon; Kim, Myung Sung; Park, Kwang Joo

    1974-01-01

    The size and shape of the lateral ventricle are frequently altered by intracranial lesions, and this may be reflected on cerebral angiogram. The size and dilatation of the lateral ventricle may be estimate by the course of the thalamostirate vein (TSV) and the distance between the midline and the TSV in frontal projection, the course of the pericallosal artery and the distance between the venous angle and subependymal veins in lateral projection. However, little description can be found in the literature about the method of expressing the size and degree of dilatation of the lateral ventricle on cerebral angiogram. The authors have attempted to find out an easy way of precisely estimating the size of the lateral ventricle and to observe how it can be applied in the patients with various expanding intracranial lesions. We measured the angle formed between the internal cerebral vein (ICV) and the TSV in the anteroposterior roentgenograms of venous phase in normal group composed of 61 patients in whom no significant abnormality could be detected neurologically or by other methods, and in 18 patients with expanding intracranial lesions. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In the normal group, the average angle formed between the ICV and TSV on the anteroposterior angiogram obtained with the central beam projected making an angle of 10 to 15 .deg with the orbitomeatal line was 25.7 ± 3.9 .deg, ranging from 19 to 34 .deg. The angle measured from 20 to 30 in 85% of the normal group. There was no significant difference between the male and the female as well as between the children and adults. 2. The measurement of the angle was found to reflect faithfully the size of the lateral ventricle on the side examined, increasing as the lateral ventricle dilated. When the angle measures more than 33.deg. the lateral ventricle would certainly be dilated. The lateral ventricle can be taken as moderately dilated when the measurement exceeds 40.deg and as severely dilated when

  18. [Clinical effect modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening in treating mild-moderate hallux valgus through internal signal approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Qiang; Wu, Qun-Feng; Dong, Wei-Qin; Yu, Li-Xin; Li, Xiong-Feng

    2018-03-25

    To explore clinical effect of modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening for the treatment of mild-moderate hallux valgus through internal signal approach. From July 2015 to June 2016, 26 patients with mild-moderate hallux valgus treated with modified Chevron osteotomy combined with lateral tissue loosening through internal signal approach, including 2 males and 24 females aged from 45 to 65 years old with an average of(54.6±4.8) years old;the courses of diseases ranged from 1 to 5 months with an average of (7.5±3.3) months. Hallux valgus angle(HVA), inter metatarsal angle(IMA) were measured at 12 months after operation, and AOFAS score was applied to evaluate clinical effect before and after operation. All incisions were healed at stage I. No incision occurred infection, metatarsal necrosis and recurrence of hallux valgus deformity. Two patients occurred skin numbness caused by musculocutaneous nerve injury. Twenty-six patients were followed up from 6 to 12 months with an average of(9.12±2.06) months. HVA, IMA were(30.01±3.71)°, (14.00±1.50)° before operation and(9.41±4.16)°, (7.00±0.60)° after operation, which had significant difference. There was statistical significance in AOFAS score before operation 54.77±9.59 and after operation 92.73±5.47, and 19 cases obtained excellent results and 7 moderate. Modified Chevron osteotomy combined with full thread headless pressure screw fixation and lateral tissue loosening for the treatment of mild-moderate hallux valgus has advantages of excellent exposure, simple operation, stable fixation, rapid recovery. Akin osteotomy with internal capsulorrhaphy were used with lateral loosening and could recover soft tissue balance between lateral and internal, and could receive satisfied clinical effects. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  19. An international multicenter study comparing arrhythmia prevalence between the intracardiac lateral tunnel and the extracardiac conduit type of Fontan operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Seshadri; Daga, Ankana; Bradley, David J; Etheridge, Susan P; Law, Ian H; Batra, Anjan S; Sanatani, Shubayan; Singh, Anoop K; Gajewski, Kelly K; Tsao, Sabrina; Singh, Harinder R; Tisma-Dupanovic, Svjetlana; Tateno, Shigeru; Takamuro, Motoki; Nakajima, Hiromichi; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Shah, Maully

    2014-08-01

    The study objective was to determine whether the extracardiac conduit Fontan confers an arrhythmia advantage over the intracardiac lateral tunnel Fontan. This multicenter study of 1271 patients compared bradyarrhythmia (defined as need for pacing) and tachyarrhythmia (defined as needing antiarrhythmic therapy) between 602 patients undergoing the intracardiac Fontan and 669 patients undergoing the extracardiac Fontan. The median age at the time of the Fontan procedure was 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.6-3.2 years) for the intracardiac group and 3.0 years (interquartile range, 2.4-3.9) for the extracardiac group (P 30 days) bradyarrhythmia occurred in 105 patients (18%) in the intracardiac group and 63 patients (9%) in the extracardiac group (P 30 days) tachyarrhythmia occurred in 58 patients (10%) in the intracardiac group and 23 patients (3%) in the extracardiac group (P factoring time since surgery, more patients in the extracardiac group had early bradycardia (odds ratio, 2.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-4.6), with no difference in early tachycardia, late bradycardia, or late tachycardia. Overall arrhythmia burden is similar between the 2 groups, but the extracardiac Fontan group had a higher incidence of early bradyarrhythmias. There was no difference in the incidence of late tachyarrhythmias over time between the 2 operations. Therefore, the type of Fontan performed should be based on factors other than an anticipated reduction in arrhythmia burden from the extracardiac conduit. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Repair of mouse haemopoiesis at later times after long-term external (137Cs) and internal (3H) irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzanov, V.M.; Murzina, L.D.; Kirillova, E.N.

    1982-01-01

    In experiments on CBA mice it was shown that the haemopoiesis recovery was incomplete during 18 months after termination of internal exposure to tritium oxide or external γ-irradiation in the equivalent daily and cumulative doses. in mice given the radionuclide, the increment of CFUsub(s) and bone marrow nucleate cells was accompanied by leuko- and thrombocytopenia. In mice externally exposed to γ-rays, cytopenia did not develop at a lower content of CFUsub(s) and myelocaryocytes. It is suggested that the revealed diversions in the pattern of recovery of the haemopoiesis of mice of the compared groups are conditioned by the changes in functional activity of haemopoietic stem cells

  1. Fear of falling predicts incidence of functional disability two years later: A perspective from an international cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auais, Mohammad; French, Simon; Alvarado, Beatriz; Pirkle, Catherine; Belanger, Emmanuelle; Guralnik, Jack

    2017-12-06

    To study the extent to which fear of falling (FOF) is associated with the onset of functional disability over a 2-year period in older adults using self-reported and performance-based measures. In 2012, 1,601 participants (aged 65-74) were recruited from four sites: Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe, Canada; Manizales, Colombia; and Natal, Brazil. They were re-assessed in 2014. We quantified FOF using the Fall Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I; range: 16-64). Functional disability measures were 1) self-reported incident mobility disability, defined as difficulty climbing a flight of stairs or walking 400 meters and 2) incident poor physical performance, defined as a score <9 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. In the Poisson regression analysis, we included only those participants without functional disability at baseline to calculate incident risk ratios in 2014. 1,355 participants completed the 2014 assessment, of which 917 and 1,078 had no mobility disability and poor physical performance at baseline, respectively. In 2014, 131 (14.3%), and 166 (15.4%) participants reported incident mobility disability and poor physical performance, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic, and health covariates, a one-point increase in FES-I at baseline was associated with a 4% increase in the risk of reporting incident mobility disability (95% CI: 1.02-1.05) and a 3% increase in the risk of developing poor physical performance at follow up in the overall sample (95%CI: 1.01-1.05). FOF is associated with a higher risk of incident mobility disability and poor physical performance in a cohort of older adults. It is increasingly important to study FOF's effect on functional disability and to take necessary measures to prevent the transition to end-stage disability. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Laparoscopic-endoscopic rendezvous versus preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for stones in the gallbladder and bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretto, Nereo; Arezzo, Alberto; Famiglietti, Federico; Cirocchi, Roberto; Moja, Lorenzo; Morino, Mario

    2018-04-11

    The management of gallbladder stones (lithiasis) concomitant with bile duct stones is controversial. The more frequent approach is a two-stage procedure, with endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone removal from the bile duct followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The laparoscopic-endoscopic rendezvous combines the two techniques in a single-stage operation. To compare the benefits and harms of endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone removal followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (the single-stage rendezvous technique) versus preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (two stages) in people with gallbladder and common bile duct stones. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE Ovid, Embase Ovid, Science Citation Index Expanded Web of Science, and two trials registers (February 2017). We included randomised clinical trials that enrolled people with concomitant gallbladder and common bile duct stones, regardless of clinical status or diagnostic work-up, and compared laparoscopic-endoscopic rendezvous versus preoperative endoscopic sphincterotomy procedures in people undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We excluded other endoscopic or surgical methods of intraoperative clearance of the bile duct, e.g. non-aided intraoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or laparoscopic choledocholithotomy (surgical incision of the common bile duct for removal of bile duct stones). We used standard methodological procedures recommended by Cochrane. We included five randomised clinical trials with 517 participants (257 underwent a laparoscopic-endoscopic rendezvous technique versus 260 underwent a sequential approach), which fulfilled our inclusion criteria and provided data for analysis. Trial participants were scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy because of suspected cholecysto-choledocholithiasis. Male/female ratio was 0.7; age of men and women ranged from 21 years to 87

  3. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  4. Macroanatomical Landmarks Featuring Junctions of Major Sulci and Fissures and Scalp Landmarks Based on the International 10–10 System for Analyzing Lateral Cortical Development of Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Tsuzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topographic relationships between the macroanatomical structure of the lateral cortex, including sulci and fissures, and anatomical landmarks on the external surface of the head are known to be consistent. This allows the coregistration of EEG electrodes or functional near-infrared spectroscopy over the scalp with underlying cortical regions. However, limited information is available as to whether the topographic relationships are maintained in rapidly developing infants, whose brains and heads exhibit drastic growth. We used MRIs of infants ranging in age from 3 to 22 months old, and identified 20 macroanatomical landmarks, featuring the junctions of major sulci and fissures, as well as cranial landmarks and virtually determined positions of the international 10-20 and 10-10 systems. A Procrustes analysis revealed developmental trends in changes of shape in both the cortex and head. An analysis of Euclidian distances between selected pairs of cortical landmarks at standard stereotactic coordinates showed anterior shifts of the relative positions of the premotor and parietal cortices with age. Finally, cortical landmark positions and their spatial variability were compared with 10-10 landmark positions. The results indicate that variability in the distribution of each macroanatomical landmark was much smaller than the pitch of the 10-10 landmarks. This study demonstrates that the scalp-based 10-10 system serves as a good frame of reference in infants not only for assessing the development of the macroanatomy of the lateral cortical structure, but also for functional studies of cortical development using transcranial modalities such as EEG and fNIRS.

  5. [Long-term results of calcaneal fracture treatment by open reduction and internal fixation using a calcaneal locking compression plate from an extended lateral approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, P; Zeman, J; Matejka, J; Koudela, K

    2008-12-01

    To report on the surgical treatment of intra-articular calcaneal fractures by open reduction and internal fixation with a calcaneal locking compression plate (LCP) from an extended lateral approach, and to retrospectively analyze the mid-term results in a group of patients treated by this technique. In the period from August 2005 till March 2007, a total of 49 patients with 61 calcaneal fractures were treated. Of these, 11 (18 %) were treated conservatively. Reduction combined with Kirschner-wire fixation was used in four fractures (6.6 %). Open reduction with internal calcaneal LCP fixation (ORIF- calcaneal LCP) from an extended lateral approach was carried out to treat 46 fractures (75.4 %) in 38 patients. The group evaluated here comprised 29 patients with 33 calcaneal fractures treated by ORIF-calcaneal LCP at a follow-up longer than 6 months. The fractures were classified on the basis of computer tomography (CT) findings as Sanders types I to IV. The group had two woman (6.9 %) and 27 men (93.1 %) with an average age of 34.2 years (range, 19-55 years). In 11 fractures (33.3 %), the primary treatment included filling a central cancellous bone defect area. Calcium phosphate bone substitute material (resorbable ChronOS) was used in nine cases (27.3 %), a self-solidifying hydroxyapatite implant was injected in two (6.1 %) cases (X3 Wright and Norian SRS, respectively), and a bone allograft was implanted in one case (3 %). Indicated for surgery were patients with an intra-articular calcaneal fracture, Sanders type II or type III, with articular surface displacement by more than 1 mm. Contraindications included age over sixty years, poor cooperation, smoking habits, peripheral vascular disease or skin infection. Surgery was performed only after oedema had resolved. The aim of our treatment was to achieve anatomical reconstruction of all articular surfaces, to restore the height, length, width and axis of the heel bone, to carry out primary stable osteosynthesis, and

  6. Nonverbal cognitive development in children with cochlear implants: relationship between the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and later performance on the Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudle, Susan E; Katzenstein, Jennifer M; Oghalai, John S; Lin, Jerry; Caudle, Donald D

    2014-02-01

    Methodologically, longitudinal assessment of cognitive development in young children has proven difficult because few measures span infancy through school age. This matter is further complicated when the child presents with a sensory deficit such as hearing loss. Few measures are validated in this population, and children who are evaluated for cochlear implantation are often reevaluated annually. The authors sought to evaluate the predictive validity of subscales of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) on Leiter International Performance Scales-Revised (LIPS-R) Full-Scale IQ scores. To further elucidate the relationship of these two measures, comparisons were also made with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale-Second Edition (VABS), which provides a measure of adaptive functioning across the life span. Participants included 35 children (14 female, 21 male) who were evaluated both as part of the precandidacy process for cochlear implantation using the MSEL and VABS and following implantation with the LIPS-R and VABS. Hierarchical linear regression revealed that the MSEL Visual Reception subdomain score significantly predicted 52% of the variance in LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores at follow-up, F(1, 34) = 35.80, p < .0001, R (2) = .52, β = .72. This result suggests that the Visual Reception subscale offers predictive validity of later LIPS-R Full-Scale IQ scores. The VABS was also significantly correlated with cognitive variables at each time point.

  7. The prevention of falls in later life. A report of the Kellogg International Work Group on the Prevention of Falls by the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    Although falls among the elderly carry high costs to individuals and society, the prevention of falls in later life has not received adequate attention from health care professionals. The prevalence of falls appears to involve roughly one-third of persons aged 65 and over, and the risk of falling and suffering serious injury increases substantially up to the eighth decade of life. The proportion of falls which result in fracture is low, but the absolute number of older people who suffer fractures is high and places heavy demands on health care systems. Even falls which result in no physical injury often have serious social and psychological consequences for the elderly, including loss of confidence and restrictions in mobility, and high proportions of older people report fears of falling. There is a need to provide accurate information about the causes and prevention of falls in later life. Falls are not part of the normal aging process. Rather, they are due to underlying physical illnesses, medications, and environmental hazards, often in interaction. This report provides an overview of the elderly population at risk of falling and suffering serious injury, some of the reasons older people fall, and the methods to prevent falls which have been developed in both community and institutional settings. In addition, it suggests some of the practical steps which can be taken by health and social care professionals and by older people and their families in order to prevent falls. Empirical knowledge about the causes of falls by the elderly and the most effective methods of prevention remains limited. Major barriers to research have been the lack of a clear definition of a fall and the fact that falls are not included in medical diagnostic indices. It is recommended that falls be recorded as a disease entity in Index Medicus and in the International Classification of Diseases Xth Revision. To facilitate future comparisons of research findings on falls, a definition of a

  8. Designing an Internationally Accessible Web-Based Questionnaire to Discover Risk Factors for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin Kullmann, Jane Alana; Hayes, Susan; Wang, Min-Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a typical survival of three to five years. Epidemiological studies using paper-based questionnaires in individual countries or continents have failed to find widely accepted risk factors for the disease. The advantages of online versus paper-based questionnaires have been extensively reviewed, but few online epidemiological studies into human neurodegenerative diseases have so far been undertaken. Objective To design a Web-based questionnaire to identify environmental risk factors for ALS and enable international comparisons of these risk factors. Methods A Web-based epidemiological questionnaire for ALS has been developed based on experience gained from administering a previous continent-wide paper-based questionnaire for this disease. New and modified questions have been added from our previous paper-based questionnaire, from literature searches, and from validated ALS questionnaires supplied by other investigators. New criteria to allow the separation of familial and sporadic ALS cases have been included. The questionnaire addresses many risk factors that have already been proposed for ALS, as well as a number that have not yet been rigorously examined. To encourage participation, responses are collected anonymously and no personally identifiable information is requested. The survey is being translated into a number of languages which will allow many people around the world to read and answer it in their own language. Results After the questionnaire had been online for 4 months, it had 379 respondents compared to only 46 respondents for the same initial period using a paper-based questionnaire. The average age of the first 379 web questionnaire respondents was 54 years compared to the average age of 60 years for the first 379 paper questionnaire respondents. The questionnaire is soon to be promoted in a number of countries through ALS associations and disease

  9. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  10. Lateral Pancreaticojejunostomy for Chronic Pancreatitis and Pancreatic Ductal Dilation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Adil A; Petrosyan, Mikael; Kane, Timothy D

    2018-06-06

    Pancreatic ductal obstruction leading to ductal dilation and recurrent pancreatitis is uncommon in children. Treatment is dependent upon etiology but consists of decompression of the pancreatic duct (PD) proximally, if possible, by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) intervention or surgical decompression with pancreaticojejunal anastomosis. After institutional review board approval, we retrospectively reviewed the records for 2 children who underwent lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for pancreatic ductal dilation. Data, including demographics, diagnostic studies, operative details, complications, outcomes, and follow-up, were analyzed. Case 1 was a 4-year-old female with pancreatic ductal obstruction with multiple episodes of recurrent pancreatitis and failure of ERCP to clear her PD of stones. She underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow procedure). She recovered well with no further episodes of pancreatitis and normal pancreatic function 4 years later. Case 2 was a 2-year-old female who developed recurrent pancreatitis and was found to have papillary stenosis and long common bile-PD channel. Despite multiple sphincterotomies, laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and laparoscopic hepaticoduodenostomy, she continued to experience episodes of pancreatitis. She underwent a laparoscopy converted to open lateral pancreaticojejunostomy. Her recovery was also smooth having had no episodes of pancreatitis or hospital admissions for over 2 years following the Puestow. Indication for lateral pancreaticojejunostomy or Puestow procedure is rare in children and even less often performed using laparoscopy. In our small experience, both patients with pancreatic ductal obstruction managed with Puestow's procedure enjoy durable symptom and pain relief in the long term.

  11. Efficacy and safety of minor endoscopic sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation in treatment of elderly patients with multiple large common bile duct stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HE Yongfeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the clinical effect and safety of minor endoscopic sphincterotomy (mEST combined with endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD in the treatment of elderly patients with multiple large common bile duct stones. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for 229 patients with multiple large common bile duct stones who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP in Endoscopy Center, Ankang Municipal Central Hospital, from January 2012 to December 2016, and the surgical procedure was selected based on the size of stones and the morphology of the common bile duct. According to the endoscopic surgical procedure, the patients were divided into mEST+EPLBD group (treatment group with 136 patients and endoscopic phincterotomy (EST group (control group with 93 patients. The two groups were compared in terms of the success rate of first stone removal, use rate of mechanical lithotripsy (ML, time spent on stone removal, and the incidence rate of complications. The t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. ResultsThere was no significant difference in the success rate of first stone removal between the treatment group and the control group (91.17% vs 87.10%, χ2=0.980, P>0.05, while there were significant differences in the time spent on stone removal (18.2±4.3 min vs 37.4±6.7 min, χ2=37.1526, P<0.01 and use rate of ML (6.71% vs 40.00%, t=24.411, P<0.01. There were no significant differences in the incidence rates of pancreatitis (2.94% vs 6.45%, χ2=1.630, P>0.05 and bleeding (2.21% vs 2.15%, χ2=0.001, P>0.05 between the two groups, and no patient experienced perforation or infection. ConclusionmEST+EPLBD has a good clinical effect in the treatment of elderly patients with multiple large common bile duct stones and can effectively shorten the time spent on stone removal, reduce the

  12. Concerning problems of petroleum refining facilities. ; Promote international lateral work sharing, and strengthening of infrastructures in petroleum industry. Sekiyu seisei setsubi mondai ni tsuite. ; Kokusei suihei bungyo no suishin to sekiyu sangyo no kiban kyoka wo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-06-05

    This paper discusses how to promote international lateral work sharing and how to strengthen infrastructures in the petroleum industry, as a problem prevailing over the petroleum refining facilities in Japan. Excess distillation facilities have been applied with the disposition policy. However, in view of the supply and demand situation in petroleum products for medium to long term span in the world with the pan-Pacific region as the main concern, that applicable to Japan, and that experienced during the Persian Gulf crisis, the excess facility disposition policy was revised, particularly on white kerosene, of which supply and demand tightness is concerned about, so that production capacities may be increased as required. Japan, a large presence in the international economics, is required to work more positively on petroleum refining facilities located in the oil producing countries and intermediate locations to promote the international lateral work sharing. On the one hand, in order to strengthen the infrastructures in the Japanese petroleum industry, it is necessary to promote rationalization and use at higher efficiency of the oil supply system, and convergence of the the petroleum industry, including joint investments for projects exceeding capabilities of individual enterprises. 3 tabs.

  13. Severe acute pancreatitis: clinical findings and therapeutic tools in Internal Medicine practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Generoso Uomo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recent advances in pathophysiology and therapeutic measures suggest that patients suffering from acute pancreatitis (AP should undergo an early evaluation and treatment in Internal Medicine wards. Severe AP, usually associated with pancreatic necrosis and peripancreatic fluid collections, may be frequently complicated by distant organ(s involvement. RESULTS The dreadful multi-organ failure may occur as an early event (during the first week of the disease or in association with the infection of pancreatic necrosis in a later stage. So, during the clinical outcome, physicians may be compelled to counteract cardio-circulatory, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, haematological and hydro-electrolytic complex derangements. Arterial hypotension and shock may be consequence of hypovolemia and/or hearth failure or septic shock syndrome. Pleural effusions are frequent in the early phase of the disease as well as pulmonary densifications and renal insufficiency. Urinary, pulmonary, and biliary infections may intervene during all phases of the disease whereas pancreatic necrosis and fluid collections infections are more frequent after the second week of hospitalization. Prognostic evaluation should be obtained by simple and precise scoring system such as the modified Marshall score and CT-scan severity index. CONCLUSIONS Treatment must be initiated as soon as possible with special focusing on fluid and nutritional supplementation, pain control, cardio-respiratory support, antiproteases and antibiotics. Invasive procedures such as endoscopic sphincterotomy in biliary AP with cholangitis and/or obstruction and percutaneous drainage should be utilized in specific cases. Surgical necrosectomy is mandatory in patients with documented infection of pancreatic necrosis.

  14. Wait-and-see policy versus cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile-duct stones in high-risk patients with co-existing gallbladder stones: a prospective randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, Showkat A; Mushtaq, Mosin; Beg, Mashkoor A; Javaid, Gul; Khan, Bashir A; Hassan, Rayhana; Kasana, Reyaz A; Tabassum, Sameena

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is one of the most important advances in the treatment of common bile duct (CBD) stones. However, the use of ES to remove CBD stones in high-risk patients without cholecystectomy is still debatable. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of a wait-and-see policy versus cholecystectomy after ES for CBD stones in high-risk patients with co-existing cholelithiasis. A total of 162 patients after undergoing ES with the clearance of CBD stones were randomised after informed consent to cholecystectomy or conservative management of their gallbladder stones. The results indicated that cholecystectomy after ES for CBD stones significantly reduced the biliary complications in high-risk patients. Every patient who has both CBD stones and gallstones with significant co-morbid illnesses, after clearance of CBD stones by ES, should undergo early cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2014 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. International

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This rubric reports on 10 short notes about international economical facts about nuclear power: Electricite de France (EdF) and its assistance and management contracts with Eastern Europe countries (Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria); Transnuclear Inc. company (a 100% Cogema daughter company) acquired the US Vectra Technologies company; the construction of the Khumo nuclear power plant in Northern Korea plays in favour of the reconciliation between Northern and Southern Korea; the delivery of two VVER 1000 Russian reactors to China; the enforcement of the cooperation agreement between Euratom and Argentina; Japan requested for the financing of a Russian fast breeder reactor; Russia has planned to sell a floating barge-type nuclear power plant to Indonesia; the control of the Swedish reactor vessels of Sydkraft AB company committed to Tractebel (Belgium); the renewal of the nuclear cooperation agreement between Swiss and USA; the call for bids from the Turkish TEAS electric power company for the building of the Akkuyu nuclear power plant answered by three candidates: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Westinghouse (US) and the French-German NPI company. (J.S.)

  16. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  17. Lateral learning for science reporters | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... In poor countries, science journalists frequently lack training, ... Federation of Science Journalists (WFSJ) is making a good start on ... and may offer little chance for instructors to give close attention to individual students .... In some districts, basic research resources like cheap and reliable telephone service, ...

  18. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  19. Treatment of fissure in ano-revisited | Gupta | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This paper outlines a brief account of the present scenario of different techniques available for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Conclusion: Medical manipulation of the internal sphincter should be a first-line treatment in anal fissure. When this fails or fissures recur, lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy ...

  20. Biliary sphincterotomy dilation for the extraction of difficult common bile duct stones Dilatación de la esfinterotomía biliar para la extracción de coledocolitiasis difíciles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Cano

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP with biliary sphincterotomy (BS is the usual method for extracting common bile duct stones. However, following BS and by means of extraction balloons and Dormia baskets a complete bile duct clearance cannot be achieved in all cases. We present a study on the impact that hydrostatic balloon dilation of a previous BS (BSD may have in the extraction rate of choledocholithiasis. Patients and methods: a prospective study which included 91 consecutive patients diagnosed with choledocholithiasis who underwent ERCP. For stone removal, extraction balloons and Dormia baskets were used, and when necessary BSD was employed. Results: complete bile duct clearance was achieved in 86/91 (94.5% patients. BSD was used in 30 (33% cases. In these cases, extraction was complete in 29/30 (97%; 23 (76% patients in the BSD group had anatomic difficulties or bleeding disorders. The most frequently used hydrostatic balloon diameter was 15 mm (60%. There were 7 (7.6% complications: two self-limited hemorrhage episodes in the BSD group and one episode of cholangitis, one of pancreatitis, and three of bleeding in the group in which BSD was not used. Conclusions: BSD is a very valuable tool for extracting common bile duct stones. In our experience, there has been an increase in the extraction rate from 73% (Rev Esp Enferm Dig 2002; 94: 340-50 to 94.5% (p = 0.0001, OR 0.1, CI 0.05-0.45, with no increase in complications.

  1. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  2. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  3. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  4. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  5. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  6. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  7. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  8. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  9. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  10. Septum formation of the lateral ventricles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Hakan H.; Aldur, Mustafa M.; Tatar, I.; Tascioglu, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    In an MRI study examining anomalies of the septum pellucidum in 505 cases, we detected bilateral septum formation of the lateral ventricles in a 17-months-old-baby. In this study, we evaluate 505 (242 males and 263 females) patients referred to the Emaray Imaging Center, Ankara, Turkey with various prediagnoses. We specially selected all the cases from a non-psychotic population. We obtained MRI scans on a 1-Tesla imager (Picker International, Highland Heights, Ohio, USA), with slices of 5 and 6 mm thickness. In the axial and coronal sections, we observed septum formation laterally between the anterior horn and the ventricular body of the lateral ventricles. Radio opaque septum formations started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the genu of the corpus callosum. There was a second septum formation between the posterior horn and the ventricular body of the right lateral ventricle. It started from the caudate nucleus and stretched to the cavum vergae. (author)

  11. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  12. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  13. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  14. Cholangiography and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of persistent common bile duct (CBD) calculi by. ES. Patients and methods. During the l2-year period 1976-1988, 10 patients with gallstone pancreatitis discovered at diagnostic laparotomy were managed in the Department of Surgery at the Provincial Hospital, Port. Department of Surgery, Provincial Hospital, ...

  15. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  16. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  17. Identificação trans-operatória do óstio do Wirsung após a papilo-esfincterotomia Intra-operatory identification of the ostium of Wirsung's pancreatic duct after sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. da Silva

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Contribuir para o achado do óstio de Wirsung durante a técnica da papilo-esfincteroplastia, prevenindo a pancreatite aguda pós-operatória. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 27 pacientes submetidos a papilo-esfincteroplastia por coledocolitíase com ou sem odite. Após a papilo-esfincterotomia (PET terapêutica, por via duodenal, realizou-se estudo da localização do óstio do ducto de Wirsung. A PET transforma a ampola de Vater em um triângulo isósceles, cujas medidas foram obtidas através de compasso. Utilizando-as, o óstio do Wirsung poderá ser facilmente identificado e cateterizado no trans-operatório, antes de se fazer a sutura muco-mucosa da papila seccionada. RESULTADOS: O óstio geralmente é encontrado medialmente na metade esquerda do triângulo e a uma distância média de 0,19cm a 0,25cm acima da base do triângulo, considerando-se a ausência ou presença de inflamação, respectivamente. CONCLUSÃO: A determinação transoperatória das distâncias padronizadas neste estudo, permite a detecção e cateterização segura do óstio do Wirsung na presença ou não de odite.PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to suggest a feasible method to find the ostium of the Wirsung's duct during sphincteroplasty of the Vater's papilla, in order to avoid post-operative complications such as acute pancreatitis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 27 patients were submitted to sphincteroplasty for choledocolithiasis with or without Odditis. After therapeutic papillotomy and sphincterotomy through the duodenun, the location of the ostium of the Wirsung's duct was determined and studied. After papillotomy, the Vater's papilla becomes an isosceles triangle and its measurements were made with a compass. Thereby the ostium of Wirsung's duct was easily detected and a catheter was inserted before the suture of the mucosa of the papilla. RESULTS: The ostium was generally found medially, on the left side of the triangle, 0.19cm to 0.25cm

  18. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  19. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  20. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  1. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  3. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  4. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  5. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  6. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  7. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  8. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  9. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  10. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  11. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  12. Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation: one year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernard, T.A.; Sofer, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    About one year ago, after 18 years of business as a wholly owned affiliate of Exxon Corporation, Exxon Nuclear Company was acquired by Siemens/KWU and its name was changed to Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF). This profile describes the status of ANF one year later, principally from the European perspective but with some mention of ANF's worldwide operations to provide a balanced picture. After one year of operation as an affiliate of Siemens/KWU, ANF's role remains as an independent international supplier of nuclear fuel and services to utilities in Europe, the USA and the Far East, but with substantially augmented capabilities resulting from the new affiliation

  13. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  14. Supine vs decubitus lateral patient positioning in vertebral fracture assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggiosi, Margaret Anne; Finigan, Judith; Peel, Nicola; Eastell, Richard; Ferrar, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    In vertebral fracture assessment (VFA), lateral scans are obtained with the patient positioned supine (C-arm densitometers) or lateral decubitus (fixed-arm densitometers). We aimed to determine the impact of positioning on image quality and fracture definition. We performed supine and decubitus lateral VFA in 50 postmenopausal women and used the algorithm-based qualitative method to identify vertebral fractures. We compared the 2 techniques for the identification of fractures (kappa analysis) and compared the numbers of unreadable vertebrae (indiscernible endplates) and vertebrae that were projected obliquely (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test). The kappa score for agreement between the VFA techniques (to identify women with vertebral fractures) was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.68-0.99), and for agreement with fracture assessments made from radiographs, kappa was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.57-0.94) for both supine and decubitus lateral VFA. There were more unreadable vertebrae with supine lateral (48 vertebrae in supine lateral compared with 14 in decubitus lateral; p=0.001), but oblique projection was less common (93 vertebrae compared with 145 in decubitus lateral; p=0.002). We conclude that there were significantly different projection effects with supine and decubitus lateral VFA, but these differences did not influence the identification of vertebral fractures in our study sample. Copyright © 2012 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  17. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Lateralization of cortical negative motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borggraefe, Ingo; Catarino, Claudia B; Rémi, Jan; Vollmar, Christian; Peraud, Aurelia; Winkler, Peter A; Noachtar, Soheyl

    2016-10-01

    The lateral and mesial aspects of the central and frontal cortex were studied by direct electrical stimulation of the cortex in epilepsy surgery candidates in order to determine the localization of unilateral and bilateral negative motor responses. Results of electrical cortical stimulation were examined in epilepsy surgery candidates in whom invasive electrodes were implanted. The exact localization of subdural electrodes was defined by fusion of 3-dimensional reconstructed MRI and CT images in 13 patients and by analysis of plane skull X-rays and intraoperative visual localization of the electrodes in another 7 patients. Results of electrical stimulation of the cortex were evaluated in a total of 128 patients in whom invasive electrodes were implanted for planning resective epilepsy surgery. Twenty patients, in whom negative motor responses were obtained, were included in the study. Bilateral upper limb negative motor responses were more often elicited from stimulation of the mesial frontal cortex whereas stimulation of the lateral central cortex leads to contralateral upper limb negative motor responses (pfrontal gyrus whereas contralateral negative motor responses localized predominantly in the anterior part of the precentral gyrus (pgyrus and the mesial fronto-central cortex showing functional differences with regard to unilateral and bilateral upper limb representation. The lateral fronto-central negative motor area serves predominantly contralateral upper limb motor control whereas the mesial frontal negative motor area represents bilateral upper limb movement control. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  20. Turbine airfoil with laterally extending snubber having internal cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribner, Carmen Andrew; Messmann, Stephen John; Marsh, Jan H.

    2016-09-06

    A turbine airfoil usable in a turbine engine and having at least one snubber with a snubber cooling system positioned therein and in communication with an airfoil cooling system is disclosed. The snubber may extend from the outer housing of the airfoil toward an adjacent turbine airfoil positioned within a row of airfoils. The snubber cooling system may include an inner cooling channel separated from an outer cooling channel by an inner wall. The inner wall may include a plurality of impingement cooling orifices that direct impingement fluid against an outer wall defining the outer cooling channel. In one embodiment, the cooling fluids may be exhausted from the snubber, and in another embodiment, the cooling fluids may be returned to the airfoil cooling system. Flow guides may be positioned in the outer cooling channel, which may reduce cross-flow by the impingement orifices, thereby increasing effectiveness.

  1. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  2. Vertical and lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Okuno, Yae L.; Bowers, John E.; Jayaraman, Vijay

    2001-09-01

    A technique for achieving large-scale monolithic integration of lattice-mismatched materials in the vertical direction and the lateral integration of dissimilar lattice-matched structures has been developed. The technique uses a single nonplanar direct-wafer-bond step to transform vertically integrated epitaxial structures into lateral epitaxial variation across the surface of a wafer. Nonplanar wafer bonding is demonstrated by integrating four different unstrained multi-quantum-well active regions lattice matched to InP on a GaAs wafer surface. Microscopy is used to verify the quality of the bonded interface, and photoluminescence is used to verify that the bonding process does not degrade the optical quality of the laterally integrated wells. The authors propose this technique as a means to achieve greater levels of wafer-scale integration in optical, electrical, and micromechanical devices.

  3. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Audiometric asymmetry and tinnitus laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Betty S; Sweetow, Robert W; Cheung, Steven W

    2012-05-01

    To identify an optimal audiometric asymmetry index for predicting tinnitus laterality. Retrospective medical record review. Data from adult tinnitus patients (80 men and 44 women) were extracted for demographic, audiometric, tinnitus laterality, and related information. The main measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Three audiometric asymmetry indices were constructed using one, two, or three frequency elements to compute the average interaural threshold difference (aITD). Tinnitus laterality predictive performance of a particular index was assessed by increasing the cutoff or minimum magnitude of the aITD from 10 to 35 dB in 5-dB steps to determine its ROC curve. Single frequency index performance was inferior to the other two (P .05). Two adjoining frequency elements with aITD ≥ 15 dB performed optimally for predicting tinnitus laterality (sensitivity = 0.59, specificity = 0.71, and PPV = 0.76). Absolute and relative magnitudes of hearing loss in the poorer ear were uncorrelated with tinnitus distress. An optimal audiometric asymmetry index to predict tinnitus laterality is one whereby 15 dB is the minimum aITD of two adjoining frequencies, inclusive of the maximal ITD. Tinnitus laterality dependency on magnitude of interaural asymmetry may inform design and interpretation of neuroimaging studies. Monaural acoustic tinnitus therapy may be an initial consideration for asymmetric hearing loss meeting the criterion of aITD ≥ 15 dB. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  6. Computerized lateral-shear interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegan, Sorin A.; Jianu, Angela; Vlad, Valentin I.

    1998-07-01

    A lateral-shear interferometer, coupled with a computer for laser wavefront analysis, is described. A CCD camera is used to transfer the fringe images through a frame-grabber into a PC. 3D phase maps are obtained by fringe pattern processing using a new algorithm for direct spatial reconstruction of the optical phase. The program describes phase maps by Zernike polynomials yielding an analytical description of the wavefront aberration. A compact lateral-shear interferometer has been built using a laser diode as light source, a CCD camera and a rechargeable battery supply, which allows measurements in-situ, if necessary.

  7. Should the lateral chest radiograph be routinely performed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Fatuma; Williams, Imelda

    2014-01-01

    Background: The chest x-ray is one of the most common plain film radiographic examinations performed. Inclusion of the lateral chest radiograph varies internationally and nationally across radiology departments and states in Australia. Search strategy: A search strategy of the databases Cochrane Library, Ovid Medline/Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Science Direct was conducted. The results were restricted to those published between 1985 and 2013 and those published in English. The following search terms were used: ‘lateral chest’, ‘radiograph’, ‘digital radiography’, ‘chest x-ray’, ‘plain film radiography’, ‘ionising radiation’. The results were restricted to publications with these terms in the title, abstract and/or keywords. Main findings: There are few national or international guidelines pertaining to the inclusion of the lateral chest x-ray as routine. Primary concerns are the increased radiation dose associated with the additional chest view and reduction of medical imaging services cost. Modern digital imaging systems result in a lower radiation dose. The diagnostic yield of the lateral chest x-ray is highly dependent on the clinical indications of the patient. Further research into the routine inclusion of the lateral chest x-ray is recommended. Conclusion: Review of the literature suggests that the lateral chest radiograph should not be performed routinely unless clinically indicated

  8. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  9. Laterality of basic auditory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sininger, Yvonne S; Bhatara, Anjali

    2012-01-01

    Laterality (left-right ear differences) of auditory processing was assessed using basic auditory skills: (1) gap detection, (2) frequency discrimination, and (3) intensity discrimination. Stimuli included tones (500, 1000, and 4000 Hz) and wide-band noise presented monaurally to each ear of typical adult listeners. The hypothesis tested was that processing of tonal stimuli would be enhanced by left ear (LE) stimulation and noise by right ear (RE) presentations. To investigate the limits of laterality by (1) spectral width, a narrow-band noise (NBN) of 450-Hz bandwidth was evaluated using intensity discrimination, and (2) stimulus duration, 200, 500, and 1000 ms duration tones were evaluated using frequency discrimination. A left ear advantage (LEA) was demonstrated with tonal stimuli in all experiments, but an expected REA for noise stimuli was not found. The NBN stimulus demonstrated no LEA and was characterised as a noise. No change in laterality was found with changes in stimulus durations. The LEA for tonal stimuli is felt to be due to more direct connections between the left ear and the right auditory cortex, which has been shown to be primary for spectral analysis and tonal processing. The lack of a REA for noise stimuli is unexplained. Sex differences in laterality for noise stimuli were noted but were not statistically significant. This study did establish a subtle but clear pattern of LEA for processing of tonal stimuli.

  10. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mimic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Majid

    2016-04-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) misdiagnosis has many broad implications for the patient and the neurologist. Potentially curative treatments exist for certain ALS mimic syndromes, but delay in starting these therapies may have an unfavorable effect on outcome. Hence, it is important to exclude similar conditions. In this review, we discuss some of the important mimics of ALS.

  11. MRI of discoid lateral meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ootani, Masatoshi; Furukawa, Tomoaki; Yamamoto, Tadatsuka; Tomoda, Kaname; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Mitomo, Masanori.

    1991-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the MR examinations of 10 patients (17 knees) with surgically documented discoid lateral meniscus of the knee joint. As MRI of the knee is being used more often, the criteria for diagnosis of this entity with MRI need to be established. We tried to define MRI criteria for the detection of discoid menisci by performing numerical measurements of MR images on a display screen. The transverse diameter of the midbody of a discoid lateral meniscus averaged 21.9 mm (normal control: 8.6 mm), and its proportion to the transverse width of the tibia averaged 29.4% (normal control: 12.0%). The measurable difference in height between the discoid and the medial meniscus was negligible. The number of sagittal sections on which the anterior and posterior horns connected varied from two to five in cases of discoid lateral meniscus, and from zero to two in normal controls. Among these parameters, the transverse diameter and its proportion of the transverse width of the tibia proved to be the most reliable. We concluded that a discoid meniscus is indicated if a transverse diameter of a lateral meniscus exceeds 15 mm (proportion to the tibia: 20%). (author)

  12. Guesstimation of posterior malleolar fractures on lateral plain radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, D. T.; Doornberg, J. N.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Mallee, W. H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Kerkhoffs, G. M.; Stufkens, S. A.; Palmanovich, Ezequiel; van Sterkenburg, Maayke; Engvall, Andreas; Arroyo, Ernesto; Golovakha, Maksym; Pereira, Ernesto; Josep Torrent, Eugene Toh; Haverkamp, Daniel; Bojanic, Ivan; Sousa, Manuel; Aragon, Oscar Castro; Russo, Alessandro; Cortes, Carlos; Pánics, Gergely; Vide, João; Spanos, Loannis; Carvalho, Manuel Santos; Maggi, Pablo; Thomas, Zach; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Dinato, Mauro; Fay, Jakob; Kimtys, Vytautas; Correia Moreira, António José; Hatziemmanuil, Dimitrios; Low, Tze-Choong; van der Plaat, Laurens Wessel; Mora, Allan David; van Rensen, Inge; del Vecchio, Javier; Ramos, James; Azevedo, Jorge; Bustamante, Carlos; Oliveira, Alexandre; Zaw, Htwe; Kurup, Harish; Yli-Kyyny, Tero; Baca, Emre; Haapasalo, Heidi; Bakhtamyan, Gurgen; Zbikowski, Piotr; van den Bekerom, Michel; de Muinck Keizer, Robert-Jan

    2015-01-01

    Accurate assessment of articular involvement of the posterior malleolar fracture fragments in ankle fractures is essential, as this is the leading argument for internal fixation. The purpose of this study is to assess diagnostic accuracy of measurements on plain lateral radiographs. Quantification

  13. International Trade. International Business

    OpenAIRE

    Мохнюк, А. М.; Mokhniuk, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Work programme of the study course “International Trade. International Business” was prepared in accordance with educational and vocational training program for bachelors of training direction 6.030601 “Management”.

  14. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  15. MR imaging appearance of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvlin, M.J.; Fielding, R.; Rajan, S.S.; Muraki, A.; Manz, G.; Schellinger, D.; Hackney, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have investigated fresh (normal) and fixed (histologically proven amyotrophic lateral sclerosis [ALS]) cord specimens using high-resolution MR techniques in order to document, accurately and noninvasively, the internal structure of the spinal cord. Short TR/TE (500/27 [repetition time/echo time, msec]) and long TR/TE (2,00/54) spin-echo images were obtained in the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes at 4.7 T (Varian), with inplane resolution of either 85 x 150 or 40 x 50 μm, section thickness of 0.8-1.5 mm. In the ALS cords, the bilateral degeneration of corticospinal tracts was well visualized as areas of high signal intensity on both short TR/TE and long TR/TE images

  16. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests...... in the laboratory show ultimate resistances close to the estimated limits and p - y curves close to curves based on test results from full-scale piles. Rough and smooth piles with circular and square cross sections are investigated....

  17. Manual lateralization in macaques: handedness, target laterality and task complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regaiolli, Barbara; Spiezio, Caterina; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates represent models to understand the evolution of handedness in humans. Despite several researches have been investigating non-human primates handedness, few studies examined the relationship between target position, hand preference and task complexity. This study aimed at investigating macaque handedness in relation to target laterality and tastiness, as well as task complexity. Seven pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) were involved in three different "two alternative choice" tests: one low-level task and two high-level tasks (HLTs). During the first and the third tests macaques could select a preferred food and a non-preferred food, whereas by modifying the design of the second test, macaques were presented with no-difference alternative per trial. Furthermore, a simple-reaching test was administered to assess hand preference in a social context. Macaques showed hand preference at individual level both in simple and complex tasks, but not in the simple-reaching test. Moreover, target position seemed to affect hand preference in retrieving an object in the low-level task, but not in the HLT. Additionally, individual hand preference seemed to be affected from the tastiness of the item to be retrieved. The results suggest that both target laterality and individual motivation might influence hand preference of macaques, especially in simple tasks.

  18. Diagnosis of laterality in the school environment

    OpenAIRE

    Šnajdrová, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis contains theoretical principals of expressions of the dominance of the brain hemispheres - laterality. It solves the development of laterality, its genotype and phenotype, levels, laterality types and species, refers to the educational consequences of the improper educational influence on genotype laterality and subsequent corrections. It also deals with the diagnosis of laterality, especially from a position of a teacher. The basic idea of this work is to support the nat...

  19. Influence of ankle joint plantarflexion and dorsiflexion on lateral ankle sprain: A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Kim, Kyungsoo; Batbaatar, Myagmarbayar; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2018-05-01

    Understanding the mechanism of injury involved in lateral ankle sprain is essential to prevent injury, to establish surgical repair and reconstruction, and to plan reliable rehabilitation protocols. Most studies for lateral ankle sprain posit that ankle inversion, internal rotation, and plantarflexion are involved in the mechanism of injury. However, recent studies indicated that ankle dorsiflexion also plays an important role in the lateral ankle sprain mechanism. In this study, the contributions of ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion on the ankle joint were evaluated under complex combinations of internal and inversion moments. A multibody ankle joint model including 24 ligaments was developed and validated against two experimental cadaveric studies. The effects of ankle plantarflexion (up to 60°) and dorsiflexion (up to 30°) on the lateral ankle sprain mechanism under ankle inversion moment coupled with internal rotational moment were investigated using the validated model. Lateral ankle sprain injuries can occur during ankle dorsiflexion, in which the calcaneofibular ligament and anterior talofibular ligament tears may occur associated with excessive inversion and internal rotational moment, respectively. Various combinations of inversion and internal moment may lead to anterior talofibular ligament injuries at early ankle plantarflexion, while the inversion moment acts as a primary factor to tear the anterior talofibular ligament in early plantarflexion. It is better to consider inversion and internal rotation as primary factors of the lateral ankle sprain mechanism, while plantarflexion or dorsiflexion can be secondary factor. This information will help to clarify the lateral ankle sprain mechanism of injury.

  20. Clinical neurogenetics: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B; Baloh, Robert H

    2013-11-01

    Our understanding of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease, is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways as targets for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS and provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Neurogenetics: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Matthew B.; Baloh, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease, about which our understanding is expanding rapidly as its genetic causes are uncovered. The pace of new gene discovery over the last 5 years has accelerated, providing new insights into the pathogenesis of disease and highlighting biological pathways for target for therapeutic development. This article reviews our current understanding of the heritability of ALS, provides an overview of each of the major ALS genes, highlighting their phenotypic characteristics and frequencies as a guide for clinicians evaluating patients with ALS. PMID:24176417

  2. Inconscious, brain lateralization and parapsychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alečković-Nikolić Mila S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have tried to show that it is impossible to study and understand the language of parapsychology without knowing the problem of 'conscious' and 'unconscious' process and issues of brain lateralization. We tried to clarify the different concepts of the notion of the unconscious and to classify all parapsychological phenomena that can be explored. But the real survey of human creativity and those of physical and cognitive abilities of the human mind which are not sufficiently explained today, can not be possible without the cooperation of psychological sciences, clinical psychology, psychopathology, biochemistry, linguistics and quantum physics.

  3. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  4. Epicondilite lateral do cotovelo Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A epicondilite lateral, também conhecida como cotovelo do tenista, é uma condição comum que acomete de 1 a 3% da população. O termo epicondilite sugere inflamação, embora a análise histológica tecidual não demonstre um processo inflamatório. A estrutura acometida com mais frequência é a origem do tendão extensor radial curto do carpo e o mecanismo de lesão está associado à sua sobrecarga. O tratamento incruento é o de escolha e inclui: repouso, fisioterapia, infiltração com cortisona ou plasma rico em plaquetas e a utilização de imobilização específica. O tratamento cirúrgico é recomendado quando persistem impotência funcional e dor. Tanto a técnica cirúrgica aberta quanto a artroscópica com ressecção da área tendinosa degenerada apresenta bons resultados na literatura.Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common condition that is estimated to affect 1% to 3% of the population. The word epicondylitis suggests inflammation, although histological analysis on the tissue fails to show any inflammatory process. The structure most commonly affected is the origin of the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the mechanism of injury is associated with overloading. Nonsurgical treatment is the preferred method, and this includes rest, physiotherapy, cortisone infiltration, platelet-rich plasma injections and use of specific immobilization. Surgical treatment is recommended when functional disability and pain persist. Both the open and the arthroscopic surgical technique with resection of the degenerated tendon tissue present good results in the literature.

  5. Craving creativity in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine

    2013-01-01

    The societal norms of ageing and old age are changing in society today, due to demographic changes that favour a pedagogicalization of society, focusing on the management of human resources throughout the entire lifespan. The discourse on active ageing mot only reveals ‘better’ ways of ageing...... discourses on ‘active ageing’ are challenged by the focus of museums and archives on using heritage and participatory arts as an arena to performAGE in later life by craving creativity as a notion of age and opportunity....... but it also raises questions as to what constitutes a ‘good’ and ‘active’ life in all societies. The conflicting aspect of the discursive battlefield on active ageing constitutes a fight for authority: Who has the ‘right’ to define the meaning of being ‘active’ and how can ‘activity’ be identified? ‘Active...

  6. Relativism in Feyerabend's later writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusch, Martin

    2016-06-01

    This paper reconstructs, and distinguishes between, Feyerabend's different forms of relativism in his later writings. Science in a Free Society remains close to familiar forms of relativism, while, at the same time, developing an original but under-argued form of political relativism, and rejecting "conversion" models of cultural exchange. Farewell to Reason moves away from common renderings of relativism, and develops a range of different new forms. Central here are links between relativism, skepticism and infallibilism. In the last six years of his life, Feyerabend often criticizes a peculiar radical form of relativism that arguably no-one has ever proposed or defended. In the same context, Feyerabend sketches an "ontological" form of relativism. It combines "Kantian humility", metaphysical pluralism and constructivism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  8. MRI and SPECT findings in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukada, F.; Sawada, H.; Seriu, N.; Shindou, K.; Nishitani, N.; Kameyama, M.

    1992-01-01

    MRI was performed in 21 patients and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with N-isopropyl-p- 123 I iodoamphetamine in 16 patients, to visualize upper motor neurone lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. T2-weighted MRI revealed high signal along the course of the pyramidal tract in the internal capsule and cerebral peduncle in 4 of 21 patients. SPECT images were normal in 4 patients, but uptake was reduced in the cerebral cortex that includes the motor area in 11. (orig.)

  9. Noninvasive ventilation reduces energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Georges , Marjolaine; Morélot-Panzini , Capucine; Similowski , Thomas; Gonzalez-Bermejo , Jesus

    2014-01-01

    International audience; BackgroundAmyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) leads to chronic respiratory failure. Diaphragmatic dysfunction, a major driver of dyspnea and mortality, is associated with a shift of the burden of ventilation to extradiaphragmatic inspiratory muscles, including neck muscles. Besides, energy expenditure is often abnormally high in ALS, and this is associated with a negative prognostic value. We hypothesized that noninvasive ventilation (NIV) would relieve inspiratory nec...

  10. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee

    OpenAIRE

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2007-01-01

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex ta...

  11. Hemispheric Laterality in Music and Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirony, Gary Michael; Burgin, John S.; Pearson, L. Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    Hemispheric laterality may be a useful concept in teaching, learning, training, and in understanding more about human development. To address this issue, a measure of hemispheric laterality was compared to musical and mathematical ability. The Human Information Processing Survey (HIPS) instrument, designed to measure hemispheric laterality, was…

  12. Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey: Instrument Development and Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne S. Nemeth

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available An examination of the psychometric properties of the Lateral Violence in Nursing Survey (LVNS, an instrument previously developed to measure the perceived incidence and severity of lateral violence (LV in the nursing workplace, was carried out. Conceptual clustering and principal components analysis were used with survey responses from 663 registered nurses and ancillary nursing staff in a southeastern tertiary care medical center. Where appropriate, Cronbach’s alpha (α evaluated internal consistency. The prevalence/severity of lateral violence items constitute two distinct subscales (LV by self and others with Cronbach’s alpha of 0.74 and 0.86, respectively. The items asking about potential causes of LV are unidimensional and internally consistent (alpha = 0.77 but there is no conceptually coherent theme underlying the various causes. Respondents rating a potential LV cause as “major” scored higher on both prevalence/severity subscales than those rating it a “minor” cause or not a cause. Subsets of items on the LVNS are internally reliable, supporting construct validity. Revisions of the original LVNS instrument will improve its use in future work.

  13. LATER RETIREMENT? PATTERNS, PREFERENCES, POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kohli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pension systems are a major part of the political economy of current societies – much beyond providing old-age income security. The well-known demographics of population aging as well as globalization today challenge their financial viability. Later retirement seems to be a good way to meet these challenges. However, it is not only unpopular but also inequitable in terms of differential longevity. The paper first discusses these problems, with a particular focus on the social stratification of mortality. It then analyzes the preferences towards retirement age at several levels:  in terms of attitudes towards public spending on pensions or towards the state’s responsibility in this matter, of support for pension policy alternatives, and of preferred individual age of retirement. Results show that large majorities across all age groups are in favour of more government spending on pensions. There is a substantial amount of ‘involuntary retirement’, meaning that people would have preferred to work longer than they actually did, as well as a somewhat lower amount of ‘involuntary work’, but the preferred ages are everywhere below 65, and in some countries still below 60. Finally, the paper examines the policies of raising the retirement age adopted during the last two decades. What has especially been lacking in these policies is a consideration of socially differentiated longevity.

  14. Lateral type of intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagami, Tatsuhito; Gotoh, Yasunobu; Imataka, Kiyoharu; Niijima, Kyo; Handa, Hajime.

    1987-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracerebral hemorrhages (lateral type) was studied. The strength of the magnetic field was 0.2 Tesla. Four cases were studied with inversion recovery (IR) and saturation recovery (SR) images. The findings of the acute stage (within 1 week) were a central isointensity and a peripheral low intensity on the IR image. On the SR image we recognized a central isointensity and a peripheral high intensity holding a faintly high intensity area around the hematoma. The findings of the subacute stage (from 1 to 3 weeks) were characterized by a central isointensity and a peripheral high-intensity ring, with a low-intensity area outside the hematoma on the IR image. A widespread high-intensity area including the hematoma itself and the surrounding white matter was observed on the SR image. The findings of the chronic stage (over 3 weeks) were the disapperance of a high-intensity ring and a change to a low-intensity area on the IR image. The hematoma itself and surrounding white matter had a high intensity, which has decreased in size in comparison with that of the subacute stage. The hypointensity rim was found in the immediately adjacent part of the original hematoma on the SR image. The MRI of a small hematoma 70 days from the onset showed an almost normal brain structure. Some magnetic resonance findings of intracerebral hemorrhage were reviewed. (author)

  15. Acupuncture for Lateral Epicondylitis: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhi Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for lateral epicondylitis (LE. Methods. Seven databases and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform Search Portal were searched to identify relevant studies. The data were extracted and assessed by two independent authors, and Review Manager Software (V.5.3 was used for data synthesis with effect estimate presented as standard mean difference (SMD and mean difference (MD with a 95% confidence interval. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE was used to assess the level of evidence. Results. Four RCTs with 309 participants were included with poor methodological quality. Participants who received acupuncture and acupuncture plus moxibustion with material insulation were likely to have an improvement in elbow functional status and/or myodynamia. The overall quality rated by GRADE was from very low to low. Two studies reported that the needle pain would be the main reason for the dropout. Conclusion. For the small number of included studies with poor methodological quality, no firm conclusion can be drawn regarding the effect of acupuncture of elbow functional status and myodynamia for LE. This trial is registered with CRD42015016199.

  16. Imaging techniques in evaluation of juvenile angiofibroma with lateral extension in the pterygopalatine and infratemporal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanska, A.; Pietura, R.; Drelich-Zbroja, A.; Trojanowski, P.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile angiofibroma is a benign tumour arising in the nasopharynx and penetrating laterally into the pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and orbit. Precise preoperative evaluation of the presence and extension of its lateral spread is crucial for choosing the best surgical approach and performing radical operation. The aim of the study was to assess usefulness of imaging methods in diagnosis and evaluation of lateral extension of juvenile angiofibroma. In a group of 39 patients operated on from 1973 to 2002 due to juvenile angiofibroma in 21 (54%) cases a lateral extension of the tumor was diagnosed. All patients underwent carotid angiography (CA) and lateral plain skull X-ray. Computed tomography (CT) was performed in 18,and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 4 patients. In all cases the extension of the tumor and its lateral spread was verified during surgery. A widening of the pterygopalatine fossa on lateral plain X-ray was present in 13 (62%) patients. CT and MRI demonstrated the presence of lateral extension in all patients diagnosed with these methods. In 9 cases, lateral CA revealed dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery by the tumor in the pterygopalatine fossa. The presence of big lateral extension of the juvenile angiofibroma is demonstrated on lateral plain X-ray as anterior bowing of the posterior wall of the maxillary sinus (Holman-Miller sign). MRI shows better than CT the extent and margins of the tumor in soft tissues. Lateral CA shows dislodgement of the internal maxillary artery and its course in relation to the lateral extension of the tumor, which is important for surgical planning. (author)

  17. The Later Wittgenstein and the Later Husserl on Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ricoeur

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an edited version of lectures given by Paul Ricœur at Johns Hopkins University in April 1966. Ricœur offers a comparative analysis of Wittgenstein’s and Husserl’s late works, taking the problem of language as the common ground of investigation for these two central figures of phenomenology and analytic philosophy. Ricœur develops his study in two parts. The first part considers Husserl’s approach to language after the Logical Investigations and concentrates on Formal and Transcendental Logic; leaving a transcendental reflection on language behind it re-examines a phenomenological conception, according to which the sphere of logic is not separable from that of experience. The main focus of the second part is Wittgenstein’s later philosophy as it moved on from the conception of an isomorphic relation between language and the world, as set out in the picture theory in the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, to the more pragmatic notion of a language-game in the Philosophical Investigations. In order to get beyond the irrevocable differences between the two philosophies and the unresolved theoretical issues on both sides, Ricœur suggests turning to a semiological paradigm based on the Saussurean distinction between “language” and “speaking.” Keywords: Analytic Philosophy, Husserl, Phenomenology, Semiology, Wittgenstein.Résumé Cet article est une version éditée de conférences données par Paul Ricœur à la Johns Hopkins University en avril 1966. Ricœur propose une analyse comparée des dernières œuvres de Wittgenstein et Husserl, avec le problème du langage comme sol commun d’investigations pour ces deux figures centrales de la phénoménologie et la philosophie analytique. Cette analyse de Ricœur se joue à travers deux parties. La première partie revient sur l'approche du langage chez Husserl depuis Recherches logiques avec une attention particulière aux développements de Logique formelle et

  18. CT recognition of lateral lumbar disk herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.L.; Haughton, V.M.; Daniels, D.L.; Thornton, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Although computed tomography (CT) has been shown to be useful in diagnosing posterolateral and central lumbar disk herniations, its effectiveness in demonstrating lateral herniated disks has not been emphasized. The myelographic recognition of those herniations may be difficult because root sheaths or dural sacs may not be deformed. A total of 274 CT scans interpreted as showing lumbar disk herniation was reviewed. Fourteen (5%) showed a lateral disk herniation. The CT features of a lateral herniated disk included: (1) focal protrusion of the disk margin within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen: (2) displacement of epidural fat within the intervertebral foramen; (3) absence of dural sac deformity; and (4) soft-tissue mass within or lateral to the intervertebral foramen. Because it can image the disk margin and free disk fragments irrespective of dural sac or root sheath deformity, CT may be more effective than myelography for demonstrating the presence and extent of lateral disk herniation

  19. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  20. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  1. Measuring Risk Perception in Later Life: The Perceived Risk Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Rinat; Nimrod, Galit; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2016-11-01

    Risk perception is a subjective assessment of the actual or potential threat to one's life or, more broadly, to one's psychological well-being. Given the various risks associated with later life, a valid and reliable integrative screening tool for assessing risk perception among the elderly is warranted. The study examined the psychometric properties and factor structure of a new integrative risk perception instrument, the Perceived Risk Scale. This eight-item measure refers to various risks simultaneously, including terror, health issues, traffic accidents, violence, and financial loss, and was developed specifically for older adults. An online survey was conducted with 306 participants aged 50 years and older. The scale was examined using exploratory factor analysis and concurrent validity testing. Factor analysis revealed a two-factor structure: later-life risks and terror risks A high percentage of explained variance, as well as internal consistency, was found for the entire scale and for both factors. Concurrent validity was supported by significant positive associations with participants' depression and negative correlations with their life satisfaction. These findings suggest that the Perceived Risk Scale is internally reliable, valid, and appropriate for evaluating risk perception in later life. The scale's potential applications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Inferior hilar window on lateral chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.K.; Webb, W.R.; Klein, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper determines the accuracy of lateral chest radiography in the detection of masses in the inferior hilar window, a normally avascular hilar region anterior to the lower lobe bronchi. Fifty patients with normal thoracic CT scans and 25 with hilar masses/adenopathy were selected retrospectively. The 75 corresponding lateral chest radiographs were blindly evaluated for visibility of the anterior walls of the lower lobe bronchi and the presence and laterality of abnormal soft tissue (>1 cm) in the inferior hilar window. Only a 7 x 7-cm square of the lateral radiograph was viewed

  3. Laterality of radiographic osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Daigo; Ikeuchi, Kazuma; Kojima, Toshihisa; Takegami, Yasuhiko; Amano, Takafumi; Tsuboi, Masaki; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hasegawa, Yukiharu

    2017-05-01

    There are few reports of the laterality in radiological knee osteoarthritis (ROA). This study aimed to evaluate laterality in terms of the minimum joint space width (mJSW) and osteophyte areas (OFs) in a cross-sectorial general population screen and elucidate the association between laterality and risk of osteoarthritis. We enrolled 330 participants (mean age 64.6 years) and examined the presence of ROA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade ≧ 2) laterality in terms of the mJSW and OF on the medial tibia using auto-measuring software. Moreover, we examined the association between laterality and leg dominance. The right and left medial mJSWs were 4.02 ± 0.98 mm and 4.05 ± 1.01 mm, respectively, showing no laterality; the laterals were also similar. The participants who had osteophytes ≥1 mm 2 in the right, left, and bilateral knees were 15, 37, and 57 respectively, with osteophytes being significantly more common in the left knee. The OF was significantly larger in the left knee. Conversely, the medial and lateral mJSWs and OF did not differ according to leg dominance. The prevalence of ROA was higher and the OF was more pronounced in the left knee. However, the mJSW showed no laterality. Additionally, the mJSW and OF showed no differences according to leg dominance.

  4. Vehicle lateral dynamics stabilization using active suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drobný V.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the investigation of active nonlinear suspension control in order to stabilize the lateral vehicle motion in similar way as systems like ESP do. The lateral stabilization of vehicle based on braking forces can be alternatively provided by the different setting of suspension forces. The basis of this control is the nonlinear property of the tyres. The vehicle has at least four wheels and it gives one or more redundant vertical forces that can be used for the different distribution of vertical suspension forces in such a way that resulting lateral and/or longitudinal forces create the required correction moment for lateral dynamic vehicle stabilization.

  5. Simplified analysis of laterally loaded pile groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.M. Abdrabbo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of laterally loaded pile groups is a complicated soil–structure interaction problem. Although fairly reliable methods are developed to predicate the lateral behavior of single piles, the lateral response of pile groups has attracted less attention due to the required high cost and complication implication. This study presents a simplified method to analyze laterally loaded pile groups. The proposed method implements p-multiplier factors in combination with the horizontal modulus of subgrade reaction. Shadowing effects in closely spaced piles in a group were taken into consideration. It is proven that laterally loaded piles embedded in sand can be analyzed within the working load range assuming a linear relationship between lateral load and lateral displacement. The proposed method estimates the distribution of lateral loads among piles in a pile group and predicts the safe design lateral load of a pile group. The benefit of the proposed method is in its simplicity for the preliminary design stage with a little computational effort.

  6. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsson, Einar Thor; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  7. Pedestrian-induced lateral forces on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2011-01-01

    of the underlying pavement. An extensive experimental analysis has been carried out to determine the lateral forces generated by pedestrians when walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal...... motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33-1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5-48 mm). The component of the pedestrian-induced force which is caused by the laterally moving surface is herewith quantified through equivalent velocity and acceleration proportional coefficients. It is shown that large...

  8. Lateralization of visual learning in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letzkus, Pinar; Boeddeker, Norbert; Wood, Jeff T; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Srinivasan, Mandyam V

    2008-02-23

    Lateralization is a well-described phenomenon in humans and other vertebrates and there are interesting parallels across a variety of different vertebrate species. However, there are only a few studies of lateralization in invertebrates. In a recent report, we showed lateralization of olfactory learning in the honeybee (Apis mellifera). Here, we investigate lateralization of another sensory modality, vision. By training honeybees on a modified version of a visual proboscis extension reflex task, we find that bees learn a colour stimulus better with their right eye.

  9. Numerical analysis of lateral illumination lightpipes using elliptical grooves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerrero, Guillermo E.; Viera-González, Perla M.; Martínez-Guerra, Edgar; Ceballos-Herrera, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Lightpipes are used for illumination in applications such as back-lighting or solar cell concentrators due to the high irradiance uniformity, but its optimal design requires several parameters. This work presents a procedure to design a square lightpipe to control the light-extraction on its lateral face using commercial LEDs placed symmetrically in the lightpipe frontal face. We propose the use of grooves using total internal reflection placed successively in the same face of extraction to control the area of emission. The LED area of emission is small compared with the illuminated area, and, as expected, the lateral face total power is attenuated. These grooves reduce the optical elements in the system and can control areas of illumination. A mathematical and numerical analysis are presented to determine the dependencies on the light-extraction.

  10. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  11. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harith M. Alkhateeb

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: (1 Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2 A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3 Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective.

  12. Herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.; Kesek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Herniography frequently reveals clinically undetected groin hernia. Thereby herniography contributes to the clinical work-up in patients with obscure groin pain. However, the distinction between clinically important and unimportant abnormalities within the lateral inguinal fossa can be difficult. This study was therefore designed in order to elucidate the herniographic appearance of the lateral inguinal fossa in patients with obscure groin pain. Herniographic findings were compared with laterality of the patients' symptoms. The lateral umbilical fold was visible in only 47% of the groins. A triangular shaped outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa and a patent processus vaginalis were found with equal frequency on the left and right side. They were five times as frequent in men as in women. Their presence did not correlate with laterality of the patients' symptoms. Indirect hernias were almost twice as common on the symptomatic side as compared with the asymptomatic side. On the left side they were found twice as often in men as in women while there was no significant sex difference on the right side. Our results show that neither a patent processus vaginalis nor a triangular outpouching from the lateral inguinal fossa correlate with the laterality of the patients' symptoms while true indirect hernias do. (orig.)

  13. Diagnosing Dyslexia: The Screening of Auditory Laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Kjeld

    A study investigated whether a correlation exists between the degree and nature of left-brain laterality and specific reading and spelling difficulties. Subjects, 50 normal readers and 50 reading disabled persons native to the island of Bornholm, had their auditory laterality screened using pure-tone audiometry and dichotic listening. Results…

  14. Self-caring in later life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Tine; Grut, Sara

    2015-01-01

    . The phenomenon of gerontopedagogicalisation is a process of becoming a juvenile and entrepreneurial self in later life, conceptualised as performAGE (Fristrup, 2012a). PerformAGE is an approach to understanding the different ways of performing age in later life which favours the performing of this juvenile...

  15. Lateral Pharyngeal Diverticulum presenting with Dysphagia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lateral pharyngeal diverticulum (Pharyngocele) is the protrusion of pharyngeal mucosa through the pharyngeal wall, usually through either of two weak areas in the pharyngeal wall as an acquired or congenital case. Lateral diverticula are very rare and not to be mistaken for the rather more frequent and abundantly ...

  16. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  17. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1996-01-01

    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular....... Division of the posterolateral capsule caused no further laxity. Cutting the lateral collateral ligament induced a maximum laxity of 11.8 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced varus and a maximum laxity of 20.6 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced external rotation. The corresponding maximal...... posterior radial head translation was observed at 80 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion and was 5.7 mm in forced varus and 8.1 mm in forced external rotation. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be an important stabilizer of the humeroulnar joint and the radial head in forced varus...

  18. Publications | Page 25 | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 241 - 250 of 6341 ... Journal articles. Papers. Reports. Research in Action. Studies ... Half a year later, on. ... Over the past two decades, the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) has established and subsequently devolved ...

  19. Internal hiring or external recruitment?

    OpenAIRE

    DeVaro, Jed

    2016-01-01

    Hiring is one of a firm’s most important decisions. When an employer fills a vacancy with one of its own workers (through promotion or lateral transfer), it forgoes the opportunity to fill the position with a new hire from outside the firm. Although both internal and external hiring methods are used, firms frequently have a bias favoring insiders. Internal and external hires differ in observable characteristics (such as skill levels), as do the employers making each type of hiring decision. U...

  20. Radiographic and Clinical Analysis of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, Matthew; Soong, Maximillian; Martin, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The literature suggests that radiographs may be unnecessary in the initial evaluation of lateral epicondylitis because treatment is rarely altered as a result of the radiographic findings. The most commonly reported radiographic finding is calcification at the lateral epicondyle. Our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this finding to determine its importance and possible relationship with various clinical factors and patient-reported measures. All patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis by a single surgeon during a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, laterality, hand dominance, pain visual analog scale, duration of symptoms, Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, and history of steroid injection were recorded. Calcifications on standard elbow radiographs, acquired digitally and viewed at 200% magnification on a 24-inch monitor, were characterized by size and relationship with the lateral epicondyle. We reviewed 245 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. A total of 115 elbows (47%) demonstrated lateral epicondyle calcifications. Patients with and without calcifications were similar with regard to clinical factors, as were patients with larger or smaller lesions. Eighty-five elbows (35%) had additional radiographic findings. Treatment was not altered by the radiographic findings in any case. Lateral epicondyle calcifications are much more common in lateral epicondylitis than previously reported, possibly owing to modern digital radiography and magnification, although they do not appear to be related to clinical factors including patient-reported measures. Thus, patients and surgeons should be careful to avoid overinterpretation of such findings. Although radiographs may be helpful in ruling out additional pathology, we did not find other clinically important contributions to the initial evaluation and management of this condition, and thus we do not recommend their routine use

  1. Bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi

    failure envelopes. A jacked installation test is successfully compared with existing models. Tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading applied at different loading rates are analysed. As expected, the bearing capacity of bucket foundations under transient lateral loading increases dramatically...... documents on bearing capacity and installation of bucket foundations are reviewed and the results from the models found in literature are compared to the experimental results obtained in the current study. Monotonic tests of bucket foundations under lateral loading until failure are compared with existing...

  2. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media

  3. Lateral cervical puncture for cervical myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon; Kim, Yoon Hwan; Suh, Won Hyuck [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Eleven cervical myelograms were performed by lateral cervical puncture using Metrizamide. So, following results were obtained: 1. Site of lateral cervical puncture; Posterior one third of bony cervical canal at C 1-2 level. 2. Advantages as compared with lumbar puncture for cervical myelograms; 1) Small amount of contrast media 2) Excellent image 3) Less position charge 4) Short time 5) Well visualization of superior margin of obstructive lesion in spinal canal 3. Cessation of lateral cervical puncture, when; 1) Pain during injection of contrast media 2) Localized collection of contrast media.

  4. International recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo

    1986-01-01

    Full text: This short presentation will indicate the general radiation protection background to protective measures against foodstuffs contaminated with radioactive substances. A number of international organizations are involved in various aspects of radiation protection, for example, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Health Organization (WHO). Two international organizations, however, provide the basic background. These are the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). UNSCEAR provides the scientific information on radiation levels and effects. It consists of 21 member countries, with truly international coverage. It issues reports to the UN General Assembly, including comprehensive scientific annexes. Its latest comprehensive report was issued in 1982, the next is expected to be published in 1988. That report will include an assessment of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The ICRP is a non-governmental organization. It has issued recommendations on radiation protection since 1928. The postulated biological basis for radiation protection recommendations involves two types of biological effects. The so-called non-stochastic effects, mainly due to cell death, appear only when the radiation doses exceed a certain threshold value. These effects, therefore, can only appear after high accidental exposures. After the Chernobyl accident, they only affected about 200 individuals involved in fire extinction and rescue work at the damaged nuclear power plant. Stochastic effects, with some simplification, may be seen as the result of initial changes in the genetic code of some surviving cells. If these cells are germ cells, this may lead to hereditary harm. If they are somatic cells, the result could be cancer

  5. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stensby, J.D.; Baker, Jonathan C.; Fox, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  6. Athletic injuries of the lateral abdominal wall: review of anatomy and MR imaging appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensby, J.D. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Baker, Jonathan C. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, 510 S. Kingshighway, Campus Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Fox, Michael G. [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, 1218 Lee Street, Box 800170, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The lateral abdominal wall is comprised of three muscles, each with a different function and orientation. The transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles span the abdominal cavity between the iliocostalis lumborum and quadratus lumborum posteriorly and the rectus abdominis anteriorly. The lateral abdominal wall is bound superiorly by the lower ribs and costal cartilages and inferiorly by the iliac crest and inguinal ligament. The lateral abdominal wall may be acutely or chronically injured in a variety of athletic endeavors, with occasional acute injuries in the setting of high-energy trauma such as motor vehicle collisions. Injuries to the lateral abdominal wall may result in lumbar hernia formation, unique for its high incarceration rate, and also Spigelian hernias. This article will review the anatomy, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging approach, and the features and complications of lateral abdominal wall injuries. (orig.)

  7. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  8. Projectile Aerodynamic Jump Due to Lateral Impulsives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cooper, Gene

    2003-01-01

    .... The formulation shows for sufficiently long-range target interception; lateral impulse trajectory response for a guided projectile is independent of when the impulse is activated during the yaw cycle...

  9. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang; Pu, Jiang; Huang, Jing-Kai; Miyauchi, Yuhei; Matsuda, Kazunari; Takenobu, Taishi; Li, Lain-Jong

    2018-01-01

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p

  10. Carrier illumination measurement of dopant lateral diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiarto, E.; Segovia, M.; Borden, P.; Felch, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the carrier illumination technique to non-destructively measure the lateral diffusion of implanted dopants after annealing. Experiments to validate the feasibility of this method employed test structures with a constant line width of 300 nm and varying undoped spaces of 100-5000 nm. The test patterns were implanted with a p-type dopant and annealed in a 3 x 3 matrix. For each implant condition, the measured lateral diffusion was found to increase with annealing temperature, as expected. More interestingly, the lateral diffusion was not observed to relate to the vertical diffusion by a fixed proportionality factor, as is usually assumed. The ratio of lateral to vertical diffusion varies with annealing temperature, with a trend that depends on the implant condition

  11. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    .2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response......The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  12. C-reactive protein and later preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebelo, Fernanda; Schlüssel, Michael M; Vaz, Juliana S

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether high C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration during pregnancy is associated with later preeclampsia and whether weight status (BMI) is a potential modifier of the relation between CRP and preeclampsia....

  13. Lateral power transistors in integrated circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Erlbacher, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    This book details and compares recent advancements in the development of novel lateral power transistors (LDMOS devices) for integrated circuits in power electronic applications. It includes the state-of-the-art concept of double-acting RESURF topologies.

  14. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór

    by pedestrians during walking on a laterally moving treadmill. Two different conditions are investigated; initially the treadmill is fixed and then it is laterally driven in a sinusoidal motion at varying combinations of frequencies (0.33 – 1.07 Hz) and amplitudes (4.5 – 48mm). The experimental campaign involved...... is triggered. This disproportionate increase in the lateral vibration response is caused by a dynamic interaction between the pedestrian and the laterally moving structure, although the governing mechanism which generates the load is still disputed. In this thesis, a comprehensive literature review...... 71 test subjects who covered approximately 55 km of walking distributed on almost 5000 individual tests. An in-depth analysis of the movement of the pedestrians that participated in the experimental campaign reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the ix development of large amplitude...

  15. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  16. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illus...

  17. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  18. The equine flexed lateral fetlock radiographic view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Recommendations for obtaining the flexed lateral radiographic view of the equine fetlock are provided. By tilting the X-ray tube in a 10-degrees dorsal direction, the angle of the flexed lateral fetlock joint is matched. While this view will not be effective on all horses, utilizing the flexed view aids in evaluating those horses that present an abnormal conformation when the fetlock joint is flexed

  19. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  20. Analisis Tekuk Lateral Pipa Gas Bawah Laut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrotul Laeli Hidayaturrohmah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To prevent solidification on the pipeline, hydrocarbon is transferred in high temperature and high pressure. High presure and temperature lead to axial tension appearence along the pipeline. Interaction between soil and the surface of pipeline trigering frictional resistance which holding axial force on the pipeline and could cause the occurence of global buckling. According to DNV RP F110, global buckling may occur in several directions which one of them is in the lateral direction. Lateral buckling usually occurs only in the exposed pipe which occurs when the compressive force on the pipe imperfection released at one point so that the excess force in the slip zone turn into buckling. According to DNV RP F 110, there are three methods of analysis that can be used to perform the analysis of lateral buckling the pipe. Those are methods of Hobbs, Van GAF, and Spinazle. In this paper, lateral buckling analysis performed on a 7.67 km subsea gas pipeline by using Hobbs method which concluded that the pipeline has the potential to lateral buckling. Analysis by using software ABAQUS was also carried out to determine the location of the lateral buckling which is the location where overstressed occur.

  1. Possible evolutionary origins of cognitive brain lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallortigara, G; Rogers, L J; Bisazza, A

    1999-08-01

    Despite the substantial literature on the functional architecture of the asymmetries of the human brain, which has been accumulating for more than 130 years since Dax and Broca's early reports, the biological foundations of cerebral asymmetries are still poorly understood. Recent advances in comparative cognitive neurosciences have made available new animal models that have started to provide unexpected insights into the evolutionary origins and neuronal mechanisms of cerebral asymmetries. Animal model-systems, particularly those provided by the avian brain, highlight the interrelations of genetic, hormonal and environmental events to produce neural and behavioural asymmetries. Novel evidences showing that functional and structural lateralization of the brain is widespread among vertebrates (including fish, reptiles and amphibians) have accumulated rapidly. Perceptual asymmetries, in particular, seem to be ubiquitous in everyday behaviour of most species of animals with laterally placed eyes; in organisms with wider binocular overlap (e.g., amphibians), they appear to be retained for initial detection of stimuli in the extreme lateral fields. We speculate that adjustment of head position and eye movements may play a similar role in mammals with frontal vision as does the choice for right or left lateral visual fields in animals with laterally placed eyes. A first attempt to trace back the origins of brain asymmetry to early vertebrates is presented, based on the hypothesis that functional incompatibility between the logical demands associated with very basic cognitive functions is central to the phenomenon of cerebral lateralization.

  2. Internal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fractures (Part II) Additional Content Medical News Internal Bleeding By Amy H. Kaji, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, ... Emergency First Aid Priorities Cardiac Arrest Choking Internal Bleeding Severed or Constricted Limbs or Digits Soft-Tissue ...

  3. International Relations

    OpenAIRE

    McGlinchey, S.

    2017-01-01

    A ‘Day 0’ introduction to International Relations for beginners. Written by a range of emerging and established experts, the chapters offer a broad sweep of the basic components of International Relations and the key contemporary issues that concern the discipline. The narrative arc forms a complete circle, taking readers from no knowledge to competency. The journey starts by examining how the international system was formed and ends by reflecting that International Relations is always adapti...

  4. Segmental sensory disturbance in brain stem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Sadayuki; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Maya, Kiyomi; Imai, Terukuni; Okuda, Bungo.

    1987-01-01

    We reported on seven cases of brainstem infarctions of the lateral lower pons and lateral medulla, the sensory deficit manifested over the trunk or the leg namely segmental sensory disturbances. All patients showed dissociated sensory disturbance of pain and temperature with retained deep sensations except two cases in which touch was also slightly impaired. The sensory distribution was classified into two types. The first ''crossed type'', ipsilatral face and contralateral trunk and leg below the level was involved in 4 cases, and the second ''unilateral type'' contralateral face and trunk above the level in 3 cases. Clinico-anatomical evaluation was executed by MRI. Lesions were detected in the lateral lower pons in two cases and in the lateral medulla in one case. The location of lesions by MRI revealed more lateral lesions showed ''crossed type'' of segmental sensory disturbance and more medial lesions ''unilateral type''. It was shown that the segmental sensory disturbance could be explained by the partial involvement of the lateral spinothalamic tract, which is arranged with the fibers from the sacral segments most lateral. We considered it very important to differentiate the segmental sensory disturbance by brainstem lesion in practical clinical diagnosis. We also emphasize the type of segmental sensory disturbance could be a localizing sign in the lateral brainstem as such, ''crossed type'' indicating the lesion of the lateral portion and ''unilateral type'' the medial portion of the lateral lower brainstem. (author)

  5. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBreast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer.MethodsFrom September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons.ResultsThe average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15, the lower lateral quadrant (n=2, and the central lateral area (n=3. Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes.ConclusionsPartial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer.

  6. Usefulness of a Lateral Thoracodorsal Flap after Breast Conserving Surgery in Laterally Located Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Yong Park

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast-conserving surgery is widely accepted as an appropriate method in breast cancer, and the lateral thoracodorsal flap provides a simple, reliable technique, especially when a mass is located in the lateral breast. This study describes the usefulness of a lateral thoracodorsal flap after breast conserving surgery in laterally located breast cancer.Methods From September 2008 to February 2013, a lateral thoracodorsal flap was used in 20 patients with laterally located breast cancer treated at our institution. The technique involves a local medially based, wedge shaped, fasciocutaneous transposition flap from the lateral region of the thoracic area. Overall satisfaction and aesthetic satisfaction surveys were conducted with the patients during a 6-month postoperative follow-up period. Aesthetic results in terms of breast shape and symmetry were evaluated by plastic surgeons.Results The average specimen weight was 76.8 g. The locations of the masses were the upper lateral quadrant (n=15, the lower lateral quadrant (n=2, and the central lateral area (n=3. Complications developed in four of the cases, partial flap necrosis in one, wound dehiscence in one, and fat necrosis in two. The majority of the patients were satisfied with their cosmetic outcomes.Conclusions Partial breast reconstruction using a lateral thoracodorsal flap is well matched with breast color and texture, and the surgery is less aggressive than other techniques with few complications. Therefore, the lateral thoracodorsal flap can be a useful, reliable technique in correcting breast deformity after breast conserving surgery, especially in laterally located breast cancer.

  7. International law

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Malcolm N

    2017-01-01

    International Law is the definitive and authoritative text on the subject, offering Shaw's unbeatable combination of clarity of expression and academic rigour and ensuring both understanding and critical analysis in an engaging and authoritative style. Encompassing the leading principles, practice and cases, and retaining and developing the detailed references which encourage and assist the reader in further study, this new edition motivates and challenges students and professionals while remaining accessible and engaging. Fully updated to reflect recent case law and treaty developments, this edition contains an expanded treatment of the relationship between international and domestic law, the principles of international humanitarian law, and international criminal law alongside additional material on international economic law.

  8. Ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis of humerus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ha, Doo Heo

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis and their relationship with clinical outcome. The findings of ultrasonographic examinations of eighteen elbow joints in 15 patients (M:F=5:10; age:38-65(mean, 47.6) years) with lateral epicondylitis were reviewed. Two patients underwent surgery, two were not treated, and the remaining 11 were treated conservatively. Symptomatic improvement was noted 1 week after conservative treatment in two cases, at 2 weeks in five cases, at 3 weeks in three cases, and at 5 weeks in one case. With patients in the 90 degree flexed elbow position and in a supinated wrist, weexamined the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon around the lateral epicondyle using ultrasound equipment with a 7-11 MHz linear transducer. The findings were assessed in terms of swelling of the tendon, changes in its echotexture, the presence of calcification of cystic degeneration, loss of the hypoechoic band between the tendon and bony cortex of the lateral epicondyle, cortical irregularity of the lateral epicondyle, and fluid collection around the tendon. Any relationships between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted were evaluated. In the 18 joints, change was heterogeneous hypoechogenicity in 13, and heterogeneous mixed echogenicity in three. Other ultrasonographic findings were swelling of the tendon in ten cases, loss of the hypoechoic band in 14, cortical irregularity in five, calcification in four, cystic degeneration in nine, and fluid collection around the tendon in four. In patients treated conservatively, there was no statistically significant difference between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted. Ultrasonography can be used to assess changes in the ECRB tendon and lateral epicondyle occurring in lateral epicondylitis, but fails to provide information on the rapidity of symptomatic

  9. Ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis of humerus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon Hyuk; Ha, Doo Heo [Pundang CHA Univ., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the ultrasonographic findings of lateral epicondylitis and their relationship with clinical outcome. The findings of ultrasonographic examinations of eighteen elbow joints in 15 patients (M:F=5:10; age:38-65(mean, 47.6) years) with lateral epicondylitis were reviewed. Two patients underwent surgery, two were not treated, and the remaining 11 were treated conservatively. Symptomatic improvement was noted 1 week after conservative treatment in two cases, at 2 weeks in five cases, at 3 weeks in three cases, and at 5 weeks in one case. With patients in the 90 degree flexed elbow position and in a supinated wrist, weexamined the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon around the lateral epicondyle using ultrasound equipment with a 7-11 MHz linear transducer. The findings were assessed in terms of swelling of the tendon, changes in its echotexture, the presence of calcification of cystic degeneration, loss of the hypoechoic band between the tendon and bony cortex of the lateral epicondyle, cortical irregularity of the lateral epicondyle, and fluid collection around the tendon. Any relationships between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted were evaluated. In the 18 joints, change was heterogeneous hypoechogenicity in 13, and heterogeneous mixed echogenicity in three. Other ultrasonographic findings were swelling of the tendon in ten cases, loss of the hypoechoic band in 14, cortical irregularity in five, calcification in four, cystic degeneration in nine, and fluid collection around the tendon in four. In patients treated conservatively, there was no statistically significant difference between each ultrasonographic finding and the treatment interval after which symptomatic improvement was noted. Ultrasonography can be used to assess changes in the ECRB tendon and lateral epicondyle occurring in lateral epicondylitis, but fails to provide information on the rapidity of symptomatic

  10. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  11. Language Lateralization Shifts with Learning by Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Elena; Almryde, Kyle; Patterson, Dianne K.; Vance, Christopher J.; Asbjørnsen, Arve E.

    2014-01-01

    For the majority of the population, language is a left hemisphere lateralized function. During childhood, a pattern of increasing left lateralization for language has been described in brain imaging studies, suggesting this trait develops. This development could reflect change due to brain maturation or change due to skill acquisition, given that children acquire and refine language skills as they mature. We test the possibility that skill acquisition, independent of age-associated maturation can result in shifts in language lateralization in classic language cortex. We imaged adults exposed to unfamiliar language during three successive fMRI scans. Participants were then asked to identify specific words embedded in Norwegian sentences. Exposure to these sentences, relative to complex tones, resulted in consistent activation in the left and right superior temporal gyrus. Activation in this region became increasingly left lateralized with repeated exposure to the unfamiliar language. These results demonstrate that shifts in lateralization can be produced in the short-term within a learning context, independent of maturation. PMID:25285756

  12. Absence of lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Goold

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Lucy Goold1, Hirohiko Kakizaki1,2,3, Raman Malhotra3, Dinesh Selva11South Australian Institute of Ophthalmology and Discipline of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Adelaide, Australia; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; 3Corneoplastic Unit and Eye Bank, Queen Victoria Hospital NHS Trust, East Grinstead, West Sussex, United KingdomAbstract: Classical anatomical teaching reports the presence of the lateral palpebral raphe formed at the union in the preseptal and orbital parts of the orbicularis oculi muscle, or by the tendon adhering these to the underlying zygomatic bone. The lateral palpebral raphe has been shown to be absent in Asian cadavers. The current study uses both evidence from the anatomical dissection of five eyelids from three Caucasian cadavers, and histological assessment of the lateral canthus of 13 eyelids from seven Caucasian cadavers to illustrate the absence of the lateral palpebral raphe in Caucasian population.Keywords: lateral palpebral raphe, orbicularis oculi muscle, Caucasian, cadavers

  13. -MoS2 Lateral Heterojunctions

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming-yang

    2018-02-28

    2D layered heterostructures have attracted intensive interests due to their unique optical, transport, and interfacial properties. The laterally stitched heterojunction based on dissimilar 2D transition metal dichalcogenides forms an intrinsic p–n junction without the necessity of applying an external voltage. However, no scalable processes are reported to construct the devices with such lateral heterostructures. Here, a scalable strategy, two-step and location-selective chemical vapor deposition, is reported to synthesize self-aligned WSe2–MoS2 monolayer lateral heterojunction arrays and demonstrates their light-emitting devices. The proposed fabrication process enables the growth of high-quality interfaces and the first successful observation of electroluminescence at the WSe2–MoS2 lateral heterojunction. The electroluminescence study has confirmed the type-I alignment at the interface rather than commonly believed type-II alignment. This self-aligned growth process paves the way for constructing various 2D lateral heterostructures in a scalable manner, practically important for integrated 2D circuit applications.

  14. Laterality, spatial abilities, and accident proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Susan D; Voyer, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Although handedness as a measure of cerebral specialization has been linked to accident proneness, more direct measures of laterality are rarely considered. The present study aimed to fill that gap in the existing research. In addition, individual difference factors in accident proneness were further examined with the inclusion of mental rotation and navigation abilities measures. One hundred and forty participants were asked to complete the Mental Rotations Test, the Santa Barbara Sense of Direction scale, the Greyscales task, the Fused Dichotic Word Test, the Waterloo Handedness Questionnaire, and a grip strength task before answering questions related to number of accidents in five areas. Results indicated that handedness scores, absolute visual laterality score, absolute response time on the auditory laterality index, and navigation ability were significant predictors of the total number of accidents. Results are discussed with respect to cerebral hemispheric specialization and risk-taking attitudes and behavior.

  15. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  16. Recovery of Dysphagia in lateral medullary stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function.

  17. Lateral human-structure interaction on footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos; Ricciardelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    generated by pedestrians during walking on an instrumented moving treadmill. The treadmill was driven sinusoidally in a lateral motion at various vibration frequencies and amplitudes. Visual observations made during the experiments and testimonies from the walkers, as well as subsequent analysis of video...... recordings, suggested that synchronisation is not as pronounced as generally believed. To confirm this, further analyses were undertaken on the walking patterns of 10 test subjects that were instrumented with waist-mounted tri-axial accelerometers. In this paper, the results from these tests are presented....... The tests reveal that synchronisation is not a pre-condition for the development of large amplitude lateral vibrations on footbridges, as walking frequencies and phase angles remain largely unaffected by lateral motion at most frequencies and amplitudes. Instead, large amplitude vibrations are the result...

  18. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia and its outcome in brainstem stroke particularly lateral medullary stroke motivated the author to present an actual case study of a patient who had dysphagia following a lateral medullary infarct. This paper documents the severity and management approach of dysphagia in brainstem stroke, with traditional dysphagia therapy and VitalStim therapy. Despite being diagnosed with a severe form of dysphagia followed by late treatment intervention, the patient had complete recovery of the swallowing function. PMID:25045555

  19. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70-94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked design. Vertical ground reaction forces were measured using a forceplate, and the number and latency of postural adjustments were quantified. Subjects were assigned to groups based on their stepping strategy. The frequency of trials with one or two postural adjustments was compared with data from 20 younger adults (mean age 38 y, range 21-58 y). Logistic regression was used to relate presence of a fall in the previous year with the number and latency of postural adjustments. In comparison with younger adults, who almost always demonstrated one postural adjustment when stepping laterally, older adults constituted a continuous distribution in the percentage of step trials made with one postural adjustment (from 0% to 100% of trials). Latencies of the initial postural adjustment and foot liftoff varied depending on the number of postural adjustments made. A history of falls was associated a larger percentage of two postural adjustments, and a longer latency of foot liftoff. In conclusion, the number and latency of postural adjustments made during voluntary lateral stepping provides additional evidence that lateral control of posture may be a critical indicator of aging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reversible transinsular herniation of the lateral ventricle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holodny, Andrei I. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States); Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, The Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Gor, Devang M.; Thaver, Hussain; Millian, Brian R. [UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School, Department of Radiology, Newark, NJ (United States)

    2004-11-01

    We present a 7-year-old boy, with a history of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage, leading to hydrocephalus with multiple shunt revisions. The current presentation of shunt failure and resultant hydrocephalus was complicated by herniation of the trigone of the lateral ventricle into the posterior fossa. Despite the dramatic radiological appearance, this herniation of the lateral ventricle was not accompanied by any additional clinical signs or symptoms other than those usually attributed to hydrocephalus. Following successful shunt revision, the patient returned to his baseline clinically with the trigone reverting back to its normal position. We also present a second companion case. (orig.)

  1. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig Børsen

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...

  2. internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rai, Anu; Omanga, Josphat

    2014-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  3. Internal branding

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal, Ramesh; Dhakal, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    The project report provides an insight into internal branding of two different leading firms – Coca-Cola and Google. The aim of this project report is to study how these two companies use internal branding to promote or build brand performance of the company. This report follows a qualitative research method. The report is deductive in nature and hence, it is guided by the literatures of internal branding. The project report conducted research on brand identity, brand commitment and brand loy...

  4. Internal core tightener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Snyder, H.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An internal core tightener is disclosed which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a ''fixed'' outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change. 5 claims, 12 drawing figures

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF MEDIAL TO LATERAL TAPING WITH EXERCISE PROGRAMME IN SUBJECTS WITH LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Dattaram Desai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medial to lateral tapping and exercise programme has been found to be effective in Lateral epicondylitis. The purpose to find the combined effect of Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme for subjects with lateral epicondylitis on pain intensity and functional ability. Method: An experimental study design, selected 40 subjects with Lateral epicondylitis randomized 20 subjects each into Study and Control group. Control group received only exercise programme while study group received combined medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme thrice a week for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was measured using Visual analogue scale and functional ability was measured using Patient Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation questionnaire before and after 4 weeks of treatment. Results: When the post-intervention means were compared between Study and Control group after 4 weeks of treatment found statistically significant difference in the improvement in outcomes measures in means of VAS and PRTEE before and after intervention within the groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that the Medial to lateral tapping with exercise programme is more effective than the exercise programme in reduction of pain and improve functional abilities for subjects with Lateral epicondylitis.

  6. Motor neuron disease (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) arising from longstanding primary lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruyn, R. P.; Koelman, J. H.; Troost, D.; de Jong, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Three men were initially diagnosed as having primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), but eventually developed amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after 7.5, 9, and at least 27 years. Non-familial ALS and PLS might be different manifestations of a single disease or constitute completely distinct entities.

  7. Early mathematical competencies and later achievement: insights from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Amy; Carmichael, Colin

    2017-11-01

    International research suggests that early mathematical competence predicts later mathematical achievement. In this article, we explore the relationship between mathematical competencies at 4-5 years, as measured by teacher ratings, and later results on Years 3, 5, 7 and 9 National Assessment Program - Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN) numeracy tests. Data from a nationally representative sample of 2343 children participating in the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) are examined. In line with international studies, we report moderate correlations between preschool-entry mathematics and later NAPLAN numeracy test results. However, analysis of individual growth trajectories indicates that early mathematics predicts the initial (Year 3) level, but not subsequent growth. This suggests that early mathematical competencies are important for enhancing achievement in early schooling, but that the quality of mathematics education provided in the schooling years is critical for future development.

  8. Lateral restraint assembly in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, W.

    1977-01-01

    A lateral restraint assembly is described for a reactor of, for example, the high temperature gas-cooled type which commonly includes a reactor core of relatively complex construction supported within a shell or vessel providing a shielded cavity for containing the reactor core. (U.K.)

  9. Motorcycle state estimation for lateral dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerhuis, A.P.; Jansen, S.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    The motorcycle lean (or roll) angle development is one of the main characteristics of motorcycle lateral dynamics. Control of motorcycle motions requires an accurate assessment of this quantity and for safety applications also the risk of sliding needs to be considered. Direct measurement of the

  10. Monopod bucket foundations under cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on bucket foundations under lateral cyclic loading. The test setup is described in detail and a comprehensive experimental campaign is presented. The foundation is subjected to cyclic overturning moment, cyclic horizontal loading and constant vertical loading, acting on the same plane for thousands...

  11. Laterality of Symptomatic Recurrent Calcium Nephrolithiasis | Ketata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Although it is presumed that both kidneys excrete similar urinary constituents, it is a general observation that the majority of patients present with unilateral stone disease. The aim of this work was to study the laterality of recurrence in calcium stone formers. Patients and Methods: In a retrospective study of 154 ...

  12. Traces of disease in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraete, E.

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease of the motor system involving both upper motor neurons in the brain and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Patients suffer from progressive wasting and weakness of limb, bulbar and respiratory muscles. Onset and disease course in ALS

  13. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  14. Pedestrian-induced lateral vibrations of footbridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingólfsson, Einar Thór; Georgakis, Christos T.; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2012-01-01

    . Following the unexpected serviceability failures of Paris’ Solférino and London’s Millennium footbridges in 1999 and 2000, a new tract of research was initiated, focused on understanding the phenomenon which has become known as Synchronous Lateral Excitation (SLE). In this paper, a comprehensive review...

  15. The Advantages of Lateral Tarsal Strip Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Generally in surgery, an ideal operation should be effective, cause minimal discomfort and morbidity, give an aesthetic result, and have a lasting effect.[4]. Lateral strip procedure (LSP) has those characteristics and it does restore normal lid function and give a rapid rehabilitation with few complications and excellent.

  16. Laterally and longitudinally dispersive recoil mass separators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Principles of laterally dispersive and time-of-flight mass separators are outlined. Special emphasis is given to separators for very energetic recoils for which electrostatic fields would be technologically impossible. The principle of energy isochronous time-of-flight mass separators is shown to be applicable to storage rings. (orig.)

  17. Lateral Transpsoas Fusion: Indications and Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal C. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal fusion historically has been used extensively, and, recently, the lateral transpsoas approach to the thoracic and lumbar spine has become an increasingly common method to achieve fusion. Recent literature on this approach has elucidated its advantage over more traditional anterior and posterior approaches, which include a smaller tissue dissection, potentially lower blood loss, no need for an access surgeon, and a shorter hospital stay. Indications for the procedure have now expanded to include degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, degenerative scoliosis, nonunion, trauma, infection, and low-grade spondylolisthesis. Lateral interbody fusion has a similar if not lower rate of complications compared to traditional anterior and posterior approaches to interbody fusion. However, lateral interbody fusion has unique complications that include transient neurologic symptoms, motor deficits, and neural injuries that range from 1 to 60% in the literature. Additional studies are required to further evaluate and monitor the short- and long-term safety, efficacy, outcomes, and complications of lateral transpsoas procedures.

  18. A review of lateral driver support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Arem, Bart; Tillema, Frans; Dailey, D.

    2007-01-01

    Lateral driver support systems have the potential to reduce the number of accidents associated with -both intentional and unintentional -lane departures. Additionally, such systems may increase driving comfort and stimulate a more efficient traffic flow, thereby reducing traffic emissions and the

  19. Quantitative muscle ultrasonography in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.M.P.; Rooij, F.G. van; Overeem, S.; Pillen, S.; Janssen, H.M.; Schelhaas, H.J.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether quantitative muscle ultrasonography can detect structural muscle changes in early-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Bilateral transverse scans were made of five muscles or muscle groups (sternocleidomastoid, biceps brachii/brachialis, forearm flexor group,

  20. Clinical psychology and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Pagnini

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a fatal and progressive disease, characterized by progressive muscles weakness, with consequent loss of physical capacities. Psychologists can play an important role in ALS care, by providing clinical activities in every step of the disease, including support and counseling activities directed to patients, their caregivers and to physicians.

  1. Lateral root organogenesis - from cell to organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benková, Eva; Bielach, Agnieszka

    2010-12-01

    Unlike locomotive organisms capable of actively approaching essential resources, sessile plants must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. This involves root-mediated underground interactions allowing plants to adapt to soils of diverse qualities. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure that modulates primary root growth and root branching by continuous integration of environmental inputs, such as nutrition availability, soil aeration, humidity, or salinity. Root branching is an extremely flexible means to rapidly adjust the overall surface of the root system and plants have evolved efficient control mechanisms, including, firstly initiation, when and where to start lateral root formation; secondly lateral root primordia organogenesis, during which the development of primordia can be arrested for a certain time; and thirdly lateral root emergence. Our review will focus on the most recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root initiation and organogenesis with the main focus on root system of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep and Fasciculations in Amyothropic Lateral Sclerosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šonka, K.; Fiksa, J.; Horváth, E.; Kemlink, D.; Süssová, J.; Böhm, J.; Šebesta, Václav; Volná, J.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2004), s. 25-30 ISSN 1432-9123 R&D Projects: GA MZd NF5999 Keywords : amyothropic lateral sclerosis ALS * fasciculation * fragmentary myoclonus * periodic leg movements in sleep PLMS * polysomnography PSG * electromyography EMG * REM sleep Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information

  3. Arthroscopic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corte-Real, Nuno M; Moreira, Rodrigo M

    2009-03-01

    The current "gold standard'' for treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability is the Broström-Gould procedure. Most authors recommend this type of operation even after an arthroscopic inspection of the joint. We review our results with an arthroscopic method of lateral ankle ligament repair. A method of arthroscopic lateral ligament repair with an anchor placed in the fibula is described. We used this technique on 31 consecutive patients (28 were available for followup). Twenty-one patients had work or traffic accidents, four suffered casual falls. and three had sport-related lesions. The patients were evaluated after 24.5 month average followup. The average postoperative AOFAS score was 85.3 (82.3 in the workers-compensation group and 94.4 in the others) and average satisfaction was 3.8 (3.5 to workers-compensation and 4.6 for the others). Complications occurred in nine patients (29%), but only three cases had ongoing problems. We had two recurrences (another sprain without instability on the stress radiograph). Three patients had some wound healing problems and three had injuries of the superficial peroneal nerve, one of which is persistent. One patient developed a deep venous thrombosis postoperatively. With this method, we achieved good clinical results. We had several complications but most of them were minor. It was a simple procedure with less morbidity to most patients. We believe it produced an anatomical repair of the lateral ligament with clinical and functional results similar to other techniques.

  4. Lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baoukina, Svetlana; Marrink, Siewert J.; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2010-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations with coarse-grained and atomistic models to study the lateral pressure profiles in lipid monolayers. We first consider simple oil/air and oil/water interfaces, and then proceed to lipid monolayers at air/water and oil/water interfaces. The results are

  5. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.C.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with

  6. Lateralization of the human mirror neuron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa; Koski, Lisa; Zaidel, Eran; Mazziotta, John; Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-03-15

    A cortical network consisting of the inferior frontal, rostral inferior parietal, and posterior superior temporal cortices has been implicated in representing actions in the primate brain and is critical to imitation in humans. This neural circuitry may be an evolutionary precursor of neural systems associated with language. However, language is predominantly lateralized to the left hemisphere, whereas the degree of lateralization of the imitation circuitry in humans is unclear. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of imitation of finger movements with lateralized stimuli and responses. During imitation, activity in the inferior frontal and rostral inferior parietal cortex, although fairly bilateral, was stronger in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the visual stimulus and response hand. This ipsilateral pattern is at variance with the typical contralateral activity of primary visual and motor areas. Reliably increased signal in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) was observed for both left-sided and right-sided imitation tasks, although subthreshold activity was also observed in the left STS. Overall, the data indicate that visual and motor components of the human mirror system are not left-lateralized. The left hemisphere superiority for language, then, must be have been favored by other types of language precursors, perhaps auditory or multimodal action representations.

  7. One hand clapping: lateralization of motor control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin eWelniarz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Lateralization of motor control refers to the ability to produce pure unilateral or asymmetric movements. It is required for a variety of coordinated activities, including skilled bimanual tasks and locomotion. Here we discuss the neuroanatomical substrates and pathophysiological underpinnings of lateralized motor outputs. Significant breakthroughs have been made in the past few years by studying the two known conditions characterized by the inability to properly produce unilateral or asymmetric movements, namely human patients with congenital mirror movements and model rodents with a hopping gait. Whereas mirror movements are associated with altered interhemispheric connectivity and abnormal corticospinal projections, abnormal spinal cord interneurons trajectory is responsible for the hopping gait. Proper commissural axon guidance is a critical requirement for these mechanisms. Interestingly, the analysis of these two conditions reveals that the production of asymmetric movements involves similar anatomical and functional requirements but in two different structures: i lateralized activation of the brain or spinal cord through contralateral silencing by cross-midline inhibition; and ii unilateral transmission of this activation, resulting in lateralized motor output.

  8. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter international cooperation of the Division for Radiation Safety, NPP Decommissioning and Radwaste Management of the VUJE, a. s. is presented. Very important is cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency. This cooperation has various forms - national and regional projects of technical cooperation, coordinated research activities, participation of our experts in preparation of the IAEA documentation etc.

  9. International indsats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachs, Therese

    En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer......En analyse af Beredskabsstyrelsens internationale engagement og muligheder for international indsats fremover. Forslag til struktur logistisk og materielt samt til udvikling af personel-kompetencer...

  10. International Curriculums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Larry L.

    This workshop presentation on international curriculums in the field of parks, recreation, leisure, cultural services, and travel/tourism comments that the literature is replete with articles addressing what the field is about, but not about curriculum issues, models, and structure. It reports an international survey of 12 college educators…

  11. International Illiquidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malkhozov, Aytek; Mueller, Philippe; Vedolin, Andrea

    -predicted effect of funding conditions on asset prices internationally. Global illiquidity lowers the slope and increases the intercept of the international security market line. Local illiquidity helps explain the variation in alphas, Sharpe ratios, and the performance of betting-against-beta (BAB) strategies...

  12. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Concerning international relations, the different meetings in the field of nuclear safety are reported (Western european nuclear regulator association or Wenra, Nea, IAEA, northern dimension environmental partnership or N.D.E.P., nuclear safety and security group or N.S.S.G., international nuclear regulators association or I.N.R.A.). (N.C.)

  13. Kinesio taping in patients with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Banu; Batmaz, Ibrahim; Sarıyıldız, Mustafa Akif; Sahin, Ebru; Ilter, Leman; Gulbahar, Selmin; Cevik, Remzi; Nas, Kemal

    2016-11-21

    Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a painful condition that affects the tendinous tissue of the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and leads to loss of function of the affected limb. Therefore it can have a major impact on the patient's social and personal life. Many treatments are recommended for lateral epicondylitis; unfortunately the evidence is limited. The aim of study was to investigate the effect of kinesio taping (KT) on pain, grip strength and function in patients LE. Thirty-one (23 females, 8 males) patients with LE were included. KT was applied twice a week for 2 weeks. Pain at rest, activity of daily living (ADL), night and palpation on lateral epicondyle was evaluated with the visual analog scale (VAS 0-10 cm), and the grip strength was measured with a hand held dynamometer. The stage of the disease was evaluated by the Nirschl score and the functional status was assessed with Patient-Rated Forearm Evaluation Questionnaire (PRTEQ) score. These parameters were evaluated before, at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after treatment. Patients' satisfaction was also recorded on a Likert scale after treatment at 2 weeks and 6 weeks. The average age of the patients was 43.58 ± 9.02. The dominant limb was affected in 64.5% (20) of the patients. After the application of KT on lateral epicondyle, there was a significant improvement in all parameters in terms of pain, Nirschl score, hand grip strength, patient satisfaction, and PRTEQ scores at 2 and 6 weeks. Kinesio taping can be an effective treatment method in LE. This application improves pain, grip strength and functional status of the patients with LE.

  14. International Specialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleindienst, Ingo; Geisler Asmussen, Christian; Hutzschenreuter, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Whether and how international diversification and cross-border arbitrage affects firm performance remains one of the major unresolved research questions in the strategy and international business literatures. We propose that knowing how much a firm has internationally diversified tells us very...... little about performance implications, if we do not know, and do not ask, how the firm has diversified. Therefore, building on the two broad arguments of operating flexibility and location-specific commitment, we develop a theoretical framework that focuses on the extent to which a firm's international...... arbitrage strategy is characterized by specialization versus replication and argue that these different strategies may have differential impact on profitability and risk reduction. Developing a sophisticated measure of international specialization and using a unique panel data set of 92 German MNEs to test...

  15. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  16. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron

    2014-01-01

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  17. Increasing lateral tibial slope: is there an association with articular cartilage changes in the knee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Nasir; Shepel, Michael; Leswick, David A.; Obaid, Haron [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Medical Imaging, Royal University Hospital, and College of Medicine, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2014-04-15

    The geometry of the lateral tibial slope (LTS) plays an important role in the overall biomechanics of the knee. Through this study, we aim to assess the impact of LTS on cartilage degeneration in the knee. A retrospective analysis of 93 knee MRI scans (1.5 T or 3 T) for patients aged 20-45 years with no history of trauma or knee surgery, and absence of internal derangement. The LTS was calculated using the circle method. Chondropathy was graded from 0 (normal) to 3 (severe). Linear regression analysis was used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05). In our cohort of patients, a statistically significant association was seen between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patellar articular surface and the lateral tibial articular surface (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening chondropathy of the lateral patellar, medial trochlea, lateral trochlea, medial femoral, lateral femoral, and medial tibial articular surfaces. Our results show a statistically significant association between increasing LTS and worsening cartilage degenerative changes in the medial patella and the lateral tibial plateau. We speculate that increased LTS may result in increased femoral glide over the lateral tibial plateau with subsequent increased external rotation of the femur predisposing to patellofemoral articular changes. Future arthroscopic studies are needed to further confirm our findings. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of nitride hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory by using a random telegraph signal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Heng; Jiang, Cheng-Min; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Wang, Tahui; Tsai, Wen-Jer; Lu, Tao-Cheng; Chen, Kuang-Chao; Lu, Chih-Yuan

    2017-07-01

    We use a random telegraph signal method to investigate nitride trapped hole lateral transport in a charge trap flash memory. The concept of this method is to utilize an interface oxide trap and its associated random telegraph signal as an internal probe to detect a local channel potential change resulting from nitride charge lateral movement. We apply different voltages to the drain of a memory cell and vary a bake temperature in retention to study the electric field and temperature dependence of hole lateral movement in a nitride. Thermal energy absorption by trapped holes in lateral transport is characterized. Mechanisms of hole lateral transport in retention are investigated. From the measured and modeled results, we find that thermally assisted trap-to-band tunneling is a major trapped hole emission mechanism in nitride hole lateral transport.

  19. Lateral angle: a method for sexing using the petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, Anna; Lynnerup, Niels; Czarnetzki, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    skeletal remains or cremated bones, where the petrous bone may still be readily recognizable. The method was tested using a forensic sample of 113 petrous bones with known sex. Intra- and interobserver testing was also performed. We found a statistically significant difference in angle size between males...... and females (mean angle size of males, 39.3 degrees ; mean angle size of females, 48.2 degrees ; P tested the lateral angle method against an archaeological skeletal...... of the proximal part of the internal acoustic canal and determining the angle at which the canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone. The method has the great advantage of utilizing one of the sturdiest bone elements of the human skeleton, and may thus be especially suited for analyses of very fragmented...

  20. Thomson Reuters to release Book Citation Index later this year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Maxine

    2011-08-01

    Thomson Reuters will launch its new Book Citation Index later this year. Projected to include 25,000 volumes from major publishers and university presses in science, social science, and the humanities, the Book Citation Index will cover scholarly books (both series and nonseries) that present original research or literature reviews. The current effort regarding the science section is focused on books published from 2005 to the present. AGU has sent copies of its catalog for inclusion in the Book Citation Index, but the final selection will be made by Thomson Reuters, using its internal selection criteria, which may be found at http://wokinfo.com/wok/media/pdf/BKCI-SelectionEssay_web.pdf.

  1. Response format, magnitude of laterality effects, and sex differences in laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyer, Daniel; Doyle, Randi A

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the evidence for the claim that response format might affect the magnitude of laterality effects by means of a meta-analysis. The analysis included the 396 effect sizes drawn from 266 studies retrieved by Voyer (1996) and relevant to the main effect of laterality and sex differences in laterality for verbal and non-verbal tasks in the auditory, tactile, and visual sensory modality. The response format used in specific studies was the only moderator variable of interest in the present analysis, resulting in four broad response categories (oral, written, computer, and pointing). A meta-analysis analogue to ANOVA showed no significant influence of response format on either the main effect of laterality or sex differences in laterality when all sensory modalities were combined. However, when modalities were considered separately, response format affected the main effect of laterality in the visual modality, with a clear advantage for written responses. Further pointed analyses revealed some specific differences among response formats. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the measurement of laterality.

  2. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-07-01

    The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no influences observed on the root apical meristem

  3. Lateral root development in the maize (Zea mays) lateral rootless1 mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husakova, Eva; Hochholdinger, Frank; Soukup, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The maize lrt1 (lateral rootless1) mutant is impaired in its development of lateral roots during early post-embryonic development. The aim of this study was to characterize, in detail, the influences that the mutation exerts on lateral root initiation and the subsequent developments, as well as to describe the behaviour of the entire plant under variable environmental conditions. Methods Mutant lrt1 plants were cultivated under different conditions of hydroponics, and in between sheets of moist paper. Cleared whole mounts and anatomical sections were used in combination with both selected staining procedures and histochemical tests to follow root development. Root surface permeability tests and the biochemical quantification of lignin were performed to complement the structural data. Key Results The data presented suggest a redefinition of lrt1 function in lateral roots as a promoter of later development; however, neither the complete absence of lateral roots nor the frequency of their initiation is linked to lrt1 function. The developmental effects of lrt1 are under strong environmental influences. Mutant primordia are affected in structure, growth and emergence; and the majority of primordia terminate their growth during this last step, or shortly thereafter. The lateral roots are impaired in the maintenance of the root apical meristem. The primary root shows disturbances in the organization of both epidermal and subepidermal layers. The lrt1-related cell-wall modifications include: lignification in peripheral layers, the deposition of polyphenolic substances and a higher activity of peroxidase. Conclusions The present study provides novel insights into the function of the lrt1 gene in root system development. The lrt1 gene participates in the spatial distribution of initiation, but not in its frequency. Later, the development of lateral roots is strongly affected. The effect of the lrt1 mutation is not as obvious in the primary root, with no

  4. Early Taste Experiences and Later Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina De Cosmi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nutrition in early life is increasingly considered to be an important factor influencing later health. Food preferences are formed in infancy, are tracked into childhood and beyond, and complementary feeding practices are crucial to prevent obesity later in life. Methods. Through a literature search strategy, we have investigated the role of breastfeeding, of complementary feeding, and the parental and sociocultural factors which contribute to set food preferences early in life. Results. Children are predisposed to prefer high-energy, -sugar, and -salt foods, and in pre-school age to reject new foods (food neophobia. While genetically determined individual differences exist, repeated offering of foods can modify innate preferences. Conclusions. Starting in the prenatal period, a varied exposure through amniotic fluid and repeated experiences with novel flavors during breastfeeding and complementary feeding increase children’s willingness to try new foods within a positive social environment.

  5. Lateral force transmission between human tendon fascicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraldsson, Bjarki T; Aagaard, Per; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Whether adjacent collagen fascicles transmit force in parallel is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to examine the magnitude of lateral force transmission between adjacent collagen fascicles from the human patellar and Achilles tendon. From each sample two adjacent strands of fascicles...... was transversally cut while the other fascicle and the fascicular membrane were kept intact. Cycle 3: both fascicles were cut in opposite ends while the fascicular membrane was left intact. A decline in peak force of 45% and 55% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and 93% and 92% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed...... in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. A decline in stiffness of 39% and 60% from cycle 1 to cycle 2, and of 93% and 100% from cycle 2 to cycle 3 was observed in the patellar and Achilles tendon fascicles, respectively. The present data demonstrate that lateral force transmission between...

  6. Tonoplast aquaporins facilitate lateral root emergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Hagen; Hachez, Charles; Bienert, Manuela Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are water channels allowing fast and passive diffusion of water across cell membranes. It was hypothesized that AQPs contribute to cell elongation processes by allowing water influx across the plasma membrane and the tonoplast to maintain adequate turgor pressure. Here, we report...... mutants showed no or minor reduction in growth of the main root. This phenotype was due to the retardation of LRP emergence. Live cell imaging revealed that tight spatiotemporal control of TIP abundance in the tonoplast of the different LRP cells is pivotal to mediating this developmental process. While...... lateral root emergence is correlated to a reduction of AtTIP1;1 and AtTIP1;2 protein levels in LRPs, expression of AtTIP2;1 is specifically needed in a restricted cell population at the base, then later at the flanks, of developing LRPs. Interestingly, the LRP emergence phenotype of the triple tip mutants...

  7. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Teimournezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critical concepts such as handedness and its main features, the theoretical bases for this phenomenon, the nature and functions of lateralization, and the relationship between these two concepts have been shed light on for a better understanding. Finally, the general differences between the left-handers vs. right-handers have been drawn into consideration.

  8. Lateral resolution of eddy current imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, W.; Blodgett, M.; Nagy, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    Analytical, finite element simulation, and experimental methods were used to investigate the lateral resolution of eddy current microscopy. It was found that the lateral resolution of eddy current imaging is ultimately limited by the probe-coil geometry and dimensions, but both the inspection frequency and the phase angle can be used to optimize the resolution, to some degree, at the expense of sensitivity. Electric anisotropy exhibited by noncubic crystallographic classes of materials such as titanium alloys can play a very similar role in electromagnetic materials characterization of polycrystalline metals to that of elastic anisotropy in ultrasonic materials characterization. Our results demonstrate that eddy current microscopy can be enhanced via a high-resolution, small diameter probe-coil which delivers a unique materials characterization tool well suited for the evaluation of Ti alloys

  9. Effect of hemorrhoidectomy on anorectal physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyslouzil, Kamil; Zboril, Pavel; Skalický, Pavel; Vomácková, Katherine

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether overactivity of the anal sphincter in patients with hemorhhoids is primary or secondary and thus assess indication of lateral internal sphincterotomy to surgical treatment of hemorrhoids. Tonic contraction of the sphincter muscle in patients with advanced stages of hemorrhoids is considered by many authors as a primary cause, and therefore, they complete hemorrhoid surgery with lateral internal sphincteroomy. If hypertension of anal sphincter is secondary during hemorrhoid disease, lateral internal sphincterotomy is not indicated. Although examinations made immediately after sphincterotomy proved no changes of anal continence, certain sequelae of lateral internal sphincterotomy cannot be excluded and may later negatively affect patient's anal continence. The prospective study comprised 385 patients treated in 2002-2006 by Hemoron or surgery according to Milligan-Morgan or Longo. Patients with history of another disease of the anal canal, radiotherapy of pelvis, Crohn's disease or ulcerous colitis were excluded. Manometry was performed before and after surgery at intervals of 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after operation using a perfusion flow method, six-channels catheter with radial arrangement of channel tips. In all three groups (Hemoron, sec. Milligan-Morgan, sec. Longo), there were 60-65% of patients with third degree hemorrhoids. Normal resting anal pressure before surgery was recorded in only 25% of men and 30% of women. Patients with advanced hemorrhoid degrees were found to have significant hypertension of the anal sphincter. The most significantly improved state of sphincter overactivity was observed after surgery according to Longo and application of Hemoron. After surgery, according to Milligan-Morgan, recovery of anal sphincter tension was the longest; even 6 months after operation, a mean increased resting anal pressure persisted (91-110 mmHg) in 25% of men and 19% of women. After 12 months, recovery of anal

  10. The management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phukan, Julie

    2009-02-01

    The terms amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or motor neuron disease (MND) refer to a condition characterized by motor system degeneration with relative preservation of other pathways. Although there have been advances in symptomatic treatment, ALS remains an incurable condition. Advances in ALS management prolong survival but simultaneously raise challenging ethical dilemmas for physicians, patients and their families. Here, we review current practice in the management of ALS including pharmacological treatment, nutritional management, respiratory care, and evolving strategies in the management of cognitive impairment.

  11. Formal Research Writing - Organizations using Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi D. Butterfield

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  12. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Barcellos Terra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. METHODS: Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS for pain. RESULTS: A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100. The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used ( p 0.05. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  13. School Psychologists' Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Travis G.

    2004-01-01

    School Psychologistsâ Job Satisfaction: Ten Years Later (ABSTRACT) This study was designed to replicate nationwide surveys completed in 1982 and 1992. The purpose was to examine and describe the levels of job satisfaction and the relationship between the variables in a national sample of school psychologists belonging to the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP). The sample for this study consisted of respondents who reported being full-time school practitioners. ...

  14. Lateral resistance of plybamboo wall-panels

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez Beltran, G.E.; Herwijnen, van, F.; Janssen, J.J.A.; Moonen, S.P.G.; Gutierrez, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental and theoretical behavior of plybamboo (kind of plywood made out of bamboo) wall-panels subjected to lateral load. The wall-panels are part of a house design method proposed in the author's PhD thesis for prefabricated social housing in developing countries. Sixteen fullscaled wallpanels with or without window and door openings were tested and their theoretical capacities estimated. Design wind and seismic loads were determined according to the Internatio...

  15. Lateral medullary syndrome after a scorpion sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineeth Varghese Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion bites are a common problem in Southern parts of India. The sting of Mesobuthus tamulus belonging to the Buthidae family is known for being fatal. The toxidrome of scorpion sting is known for its effect on the cardiovascular system, and there have been rare reports of cerebrovascular accidents as well. We describe a case of lateral medullary syndrome secondary to scorpion sting. As per the knowledge of the authors, this is the first case report of the same.

  16. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  17. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Filho, Anis Nahssen; de Almeida, Gustavo Dalla Bernardina; Cavatte, José Maria; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC) in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. Methods Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy) had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. Results A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100). The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used (p  0.05). Conclusion Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure. PMID:26401498

  18. Arthroscopic treatment for chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terra, Bernardo Barcellos; Rodrigues, Leandro Marano; Filho, Anis Nahssen; de Almeida, Gustavo Dalla Bernardina; Cavatte, José Maria; De Nadai, Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To report the clinical and functional results from arthroscopic release of the short radial extensor of the carpus (SREC) in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis that was refractory to conservative treatment. Over the period from January 2012 to November 2013, 15 patients underwent arthroscopic treatment. The surgical technique used was the one described by Romeo and Cohen, based on anatomical studies on cadavers. The inclusion criteria were that the patients needed to present lateral epicondylitis and that conservative treatment (analgesics, anti-inflammatory agents, corticoid infiltration or physiotherapy) had failed over a period of more than six months. The patients were evaluated based on the elbow functional score of the Mayo Clinic, Nirschl's staging system and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. A total of 15 patients (9 men and 6 women) were included. The mean Mayo elbow functional score after the operation was 95 (ranging from 90 to 100). The pain VAS improved from a mean of 9.2 before the operation to 0.64 after the operation. On Nirschl's scale, the patients presented an improvement from a mean of 6.5 before the operation to approximately one. There were significant differences from before to after the surgery for the three functional scores used (p  0.05). Arthroscopic treatment for lateral epicondylitis was shown to be a safe and effective therapeutic option when appropriately indicated and performed, in refractory cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. It also allowed excellent viewing of the joint space for diagnosing and treating associated pathological conditions, with a minimally invasive procedure.

  19. Recovery of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Hitesh; Banerjee, Alakananda

    2014-01-01

    Lateral medullary stroke is typically associated with increased likelihood of occurrence of dysphagia and exhibits the most severe and persistent form. Worldwide little research exists on dysphagia in brainstem stroke. An estimated 15% of all patients admitted to stroke rehabilitation units experience a brainstem stroke out of which about 47% suffer from dysphagia. In India, a study showed that 22.3% of posterior circulation stroke patients develop dysphagia. Dearth of literature on dysphagia...

  20. International Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create refugee populations with immediate and long-term health problems. Some of the major diseases currently affecting ... also an international problem which can affect people's health. Many countries and health organizations are working together ...

  1. Juris International

    CERN Document Server

    A database on international trade law aimed at lawyers and legal counsel in developing and transition economies. Juris International is a multilingual collection (English, Spanish, and French) of legal information on international trade. Juris International aims to facilitate and reduce the work involved in research for business lawyers, advisers and in-house counsel, and state organizations in developing nd transition economies, by providing access to texts which have often been difficult to obtain. Its objective is to gather a large quantity of basic information at one site (favoring complete legal texts), without the need to send for the information, and consequently without excessive communication costs for users who d benefit from an efficient and cheap telecommunications network.

  2. Childhood and later life stressors and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Roper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of psychosis consists of a complex integration of several risk factors including genetic vulnerability, adverse life events and trauma, and substance use. This review discusses the current theories of the genesis of psychosis, with an emphasis on the importance of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs and later life events. ACEs in particular have a profound impact on an individual’s health later in life; and specifically, those who have experienced ACEs are at an increased risk for psychosis. In addition, stressful life events later in life may be relevant for onset and relapse of psychotic episodes. Associations between types of life adversity and specific symptomatology of a psychotic episode have also been suggested. A multi-factorial approach is suggested for linking genetic and environmental contributors to the onset of psychosis. This approach may have an advantage over a purely bio-medical model by focusing less on disability and more on underlying contributors that may be responsive to intervention.

  3. Upper Blepharoplasty and Lateral Wound Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Sharzad, Sahab; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan

    2015-01-01

    To report the frequency of lateral wound dehiscence (LWD) after upper blepharoplasty (UB), a technique and its outcome to prevent LWD. A retrospective review was performed for cases of LWD after UB presenting between 2003 and 2009, and then a prospective comparative study was performed between February 2009 and March 2013. For the comparison, subjects were divided into two groups based on intraoperative assessment of lateral wound tension (same technique and surgeon). Group 1 received 1-3 orbicularis/subcutaneous buried sutures (6-0 polyglactin) before interrupted 6-0 nylon skin closure. Group 2 underwent skin closure only. Subjects, who had re-operation, skin healing disorders, and incomplete follow-up (LWD with a mean age of 36.2 years in the audit (2003-2009). The prospective study included 68 subjects (68/293, 23.2%) in Group 1 and 225 in Group 2. Gender and simultaneous forehead and eyebrow procedures were similar between groups (P = 0.3 and P = 0.4 respectively). Group 1 was statistically significantly younger at mean age of 41.4 years, compared to Group 2 at 56.1 years (P = 0.000). The frequency of LWD significantly (P = 0.04) decreased to 0.3% (1/293). In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment), tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  4. Autologous proliferative therapies in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetschke, Elisa; Rudolf, Margit; Lohmann, Christoph H; Stärke, Christian

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the clinical effects of autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) injections and low-level laser application as therapy options for chronic lateral epicondylitis. A total of 52 patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis were evaluated in this study; 26 of these patients received three ACP injections and the control group, with 26 patients, received 12 laser applications, with standardized physical therapy for all patients afterward. Control examinations took place before treatment, after 2 and 6 mos, and in the 1 yr final follow-up. The control examination included the visual analog scale for pain and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand outcome measure scores. The analysis at final follow-up after 1 yr showed that both treatment options resulted in successful therapy outcome for the patients. In total, 63.5 % were successfully treated. Successful treatment was defined as more than 30% improvement in the visual analog score and more than 10.2 points in the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score. Both groups showed a significant improvement in time response. This study demonstrates the beneficial effects of autologous proliferative therapies in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. The data show that laser application and ACP therapy lead to a clinical improvement in epicondylopathia. Especially the new treatment with ACP can be highlighted as an alternative and as an easy-to-apply therapy option for clinical practice.

  5. Lateral rigidity of cracked concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, A.; Chesi, C.

    1979-01-01

    Numerical results are discussed on the lateral rigidity of reinforced concrete structures with a given crack distribution. They have been favourably checked with experimental results for cylindrical shells under the effect of a thermal gradient producing vertical cracking or vertical plus horizontal cracking. The main effects characterizing the concrete behaviour are: (1) The shear transfer across a crack; (2) The shear transfer degradation after cyclic loading; (3) The tension stiffening provided by the concrete between crack and crack, in the normal stress transfer; (4) The temperature effect on the elastic moduli of concrete, when cracks are of thermal origin. Only the 1st effect is discussed on an experimental basis. Two broad cathegories of reinforced concrete structures have been investigated in this respect: shear walls of buildings and cylindrical containment structures. The main conclusions so far reached are: (1) Vertical cracks are unlikely to decrease the lateral rigidity to less than 80% of the original one, and to less than 90% when they do not involve the entire thickness of the wall; (2) The appearence of horizontal cracks can reduce the lateral rigidity by some 30% or more; (3) A noticeable but not yet evaluated influence is shown by cyclic loading. (orig.)

  6. Regulating Internalities

    OpenAIRE

    Sunstein, Cass Robert; Allcott, Hunt

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a framework for regulating internalities. Using a simple economic model, we provide four principles for designing and evaluating behaviorally-motivated policy. We then outline rules for determining which contexts reliably reflect true preferences and discuss empirical strategies for measuring internalities. As a case study, we focus on energy efficiency policy, including Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and appliance and lighting energy efficiency standards.

  7. Recalcitrant Lateral Premalleolar Bursitis of the Ankle Associated with Lateral Ankle Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Naito

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle is a rarely reported disorder in the English literature although it is not uncommon in Asian countries where people commonly sit on their feet. Here, we present the case of a 66-year-old woman with recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis associated with lateral ankle instability which was successfully treated with surgical resection of the bursa and repair of the anterior talofibular ligament. Operative findings revealed a communication between the bursa and articular cavity of the ankle joint via the sheath of the extensor digitorum longus tendon, which was considered to act as a check valve leading to a large and recalcitrant bursitis. This report provides a novel concept about the etiology of recalcitrant lateral premalleolar bursitis of the ankle.

  8. Genetic factors and breast cancer laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, Magid H

    2014-01-01

    Women are more likely to develop cancer in the left breast than the right. Such laterality may influence subsequent management, especially in elderly patients with heart disease who may require radiation therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore possible factors for such cancer laterality. In this work, clinical data for consecutive patients with histologically confirmed breast cancer were reviewed, with emphasis on clinical presentation and family history. Between 2005 and 2012, 687 patients with breast cancer were seen. Two women with incomplete data and eleven men were excluded. In total, 343 (50.9%) patients presented with left breast cancer, 311 (46.1%) with right breast cancer, and 20 (3.0%) with simultaneous bilateral malignancy. There were no significant differences between the three groups, especially in regards to clinical presentation and tumor characteristics. A total of 622 (92.3%) patients had unilateral primary, 20 (3.0%) had simultaneous bilateral, and 32 (4.7%) had metachronous primary breast cancer with subsequent contralateral breast cancer after 7.5–236 months. The worst 10-year survival was for bilateral simultaneous (18%) compared with unilateral (28%) and metachronous primaries (90%). There were no differences in survival in relation to breast cancer laterality, handedness, and presence or absence of a family history of cancer. There were significant similarities between patients and first-degree relatives in regards to breast cancer laterality, namely same breast (30/66, 45.5%), opposite breast (9/66, 13.6%), and bilateral cancer (27/66, 40.9, P=0.01163). This was more evident among patients and their sisters (17/32, 53.1%) or mothers (11/27, 40.7%, P=0.0689). There were also close similarities in relation to age at initial diagnosis of cancer for patients and their first-degree relatives for age differences of ≤5 years (48/166, 28.9%), 6–10 years (34/166, 20.5%), and >11 years (84/166, 50.6%, P=0.12065). High similarities

  9. The temporary international collective chronicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, Yu.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    The temporary international collective brief history is presented from the time of its establishment in 1972 (and even earlier) till the termination of its activity in 1990 (and even later). Works in the temporary international collective framework demonstrate an example of successful cooperation of specialists from different countries in the field of calculation-theoretical and experimental research on the WWER reactor physics. The results of experimental and calculation studies were reported to the topical meetings, workshops, conferences, and symposia as well as were published in the temporary international collective reports and proceedings. The answers to the questions about the temporary international collective activity-What? Where? When?-are presented in this chronicle (Authors)

  10. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A.; Chiavaras, Mary M.; Harish, Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  11. Lateral epicondylitis and beyond: imaging of lateral elbow pain with clinical-radiologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotnis, Nikhil A. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Sheffield Teaching Hospitals, Department of Medical Physics and Medical Imaging, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Chiavaras, Mary M. [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); Harish, Srinivasan [McMaster University, Departments of Radiology, Hamilton, ON (Canada); St. Joseph' s Healthcare, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Hamilton, ON (Canada)

    2012-04-15

    The diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis is often straightforward and can be made on the basis of clinical findings. However, radiological assessment is valuable where the clinical picture is less clear or where symptoms are refractory to treatment. Demographics, aspects of clinical history, or certain physical signs may suggest an alternate diagnosis. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentation and imaging findings of lateral epicondylitis, in addition to other potential causes of lateral elbow pain, is necessary. These include entrapment of the posterior interosseous and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves, posterolateral rotatory instability, posterolateral plica syndrome, Panner's disease, osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum, radiocapitellar overload syndrome, occult fractures and chondral-osseous impaction injuries, and radiocapitellar arthritis. Knowledge of these potential masquerades of lateral epicondylitis and their characteristic clinical and imaging features is essential for accurate diagnosis. The goal of this review is to provide an approach to the imaging of lateral elbow pain, discussing the relevant anatomy, various causes, and discriminating factors, which will allow for an accurate diagnosis. (orig.)

  12. Prolonged lateral steep position impairs respiratory mechanics during continuous lateral rotation therapy in respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellongowski, Peter; Losert, Heidrun; Locker, Gottfried J; Laczika, Klaus; Frass, Michael; Holzinger, Ulrike; Bojic, Andja; Staudinger, Thomas

    2007-04-01

    To establish whether prolonged lateral steep position during continuous rotation therapy leads to improvement on pulmonary gas exchange, respiratory mechanics and hemodynamics. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a university hospital. Twelve consecutive patients suffering from acute lung injury or adult respiratory distress syndrome undergoing continuous rotation therapy. Blood gas analysis, static lung compliance, blood pressure, cardiac index and pulmonary shunt fraction were measured in supine as well as in left and right lateral steep position at 62 degrees during continuous rotation therapy (phase I). Rotation was then stopped for 30 min with the patients in supine position, left and right lateral steep position, and the same measurements were performed every 10 min (phase II). Phase I and II revealed no significant changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio, mean arterial blood pressure, pulmonary shunt fraction, or cardiac index. Significantly lower static compliance was observed in lateral steep position than in supine position (pposition than in left and right lateral steep position (ppositioning impairs the compliance of the respiratory system. Prolonged lateral steep position does not lead to benefits with respect to oxygenation or hemodynamics. Individual response to the different positions is unpredictable. The pauses in "extreme" positions should be as short as possible.

  13. International Criminalization of International Terrorizm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Grigoryevich Volevodz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and studying of the terrorism in all its facets is a complex entangled problem with less clear legal regulation that it might seem at first glance, especially after its transformation from local phenomenon into a world threat. Hitherto terrorism and actions connected to it have been criminalized by the majority of states. There are in modern criminal law whole systems of rules on criminal liability for terrorism which differs considerably from country to country. Terrorism has been criminalized in numerous international regional and universal antiterrorist legal instruments. The author notes that differences in definitions that are enshrined in them hinders international cooperation in criminal matters with respect to terrorist cases. Difficulties reside in the necessity to meet the dual criminality requirement and in the political offense exception. These difficulties can only be overcome through elaboration of a universally recognized definition of the notion of international terrorism and making it legally binding via its inclusion into a universal convention. The issue of definition of international terrorism is an important part of an efficient mutual assistance among states in fight against this crime. In this article the author accounts of actual ways of tackling by the international community of the issue of criminalization of international terrorism and of factors influencing them.

  14. Lateral interactions and non-equilibrium in surface kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Dietrich

    2016-08-01

    Work modelling reactions between surface species frequently use Langmuir kinetics, assuming that the layer is in internal equilibrium, and that the chemical potential of adsorbates corresponds to that of an ideal gas. Coverage dependences of reacting species and of site blocking are usually treated with simple power law coverage dependences (linear in the simplest case), neglecting that lateral interactions are strong in adsorbate and co-adsorbate layers which may influence kinetics considerably. My research group has in the past investigated many co-adsorbate systems and simple reactions in them. We have collected a number of examples where strong deviations from simple coverage dependences exist, in blocking, promoting, and selecting reactions. Interactions can range from those between next neighbors to larger distances, and can be quite complex. In addition, internal equilibrium in the layer as well as equilibrium distributions over product degrees of freedom can be violated. The latter effect leads to non-equipartition of energy over molecular degrees of freedom (for products) or non-equal response to those of reactants. While such behavior can usually be described by dynamic or kinetic models, the deeper reasons require detailed theoretical analysis. Here, a selection of such cases is reviewed to exemplify these points.

  15. Denervation of the lateral humeral epicondyle for treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nicholas E; Forman, Scott K; Dellon, A Lee

    2013-02-01

    Chronic lateral epicondylitis remains a treatment challenge. Traditional surgical treatments for lateral epicondylitis involve variations of the classic Nirschl lateral release. Anatomic studies reveal that the posterior branch or branches of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm consistently innervate the lateral humeral epicondyle. We undertook the present study to determine the effectiveness of denervation of the lateral humeral epicondyle in treating chronic lateral epicondylitis. An institutional review board-approved prospective study included 30 elbows in 26 patients. Inclusion criteria included failure to respond to nonoperative treatment for more than 6 months and improvement in grip strength and in visual analog pain scale after diagnostic nerve block of the posterior branches of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm proximal to the lateral humeral epicondyle. We excluded patients who had undergone previous surgery for lateral epicondylitis. Outcome measures included visual analog pain scale and grip strength testing. Denervation surgery involved identification and transection of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the forearm branches with implantation into the triceps. The presence of radial tunnel syndrome was noted but did not affect inclusion criteria; if it was present, we did not correct it surgically. We used no postoperative splinting and permitted immediate return to activities of daily living. At a mean of 28 months of follow-up, the average visual analog scale score decreased from 7.9 to 1.9. Average grip strength with the elbow extended improved from 13 to 24 kg. A total of 80% of patients had good or excellent results, as defined by an improvement of 5 or more points on the visual analog scale for pain. Denervation of the lateral epicondyle was effective in relieving pain in 80% of patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis who had a positive response to a local anesthetic block of the posterior branches of the posterior

  16. Maxillary lateral incisors with two canals and two separate curved roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit George Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variation in the roots and root canal anatomy seems to be the norm rather than an exception. For a successful endodontic treatment, a clinician should have a thorough knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy and its variations. Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit single canal with a single root. In this case, clinical examination and radiographs clearly demonstrates the presence of two root canals with two separate curved roots. This case report emphasizes the need for attention during endodontic management of maxillary lateral incisors.

  17. International Relations:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This is the textbook for the Open University module International Relations: Continuity and Change in Global Politics. Instead of leading with a succession of theoretical 'isms', the module structures its presentation of the subject around six teaching ‘blocks’, each of which explores a dilemma...... • Block 6: Continuity or change in global politics? Each block introduces new IR theories through discussions of the substantive dilemmas and adds in a layered way levels of analysis and conceptual complexity......., or dimension of variation. The dilemmas in question were chosen for the way they capture key themes in the field of International Studies (IR) as well as central aspects of the ‘international’ itself (ir). The six Blocks are: • Block 1: Co-operation or conflict? Introducing international relations • Block 2...

  18. Lateral patellar luxation: magnetic resonance findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armesto, V.; Pulpeiro, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the magnetic resonance (MR) findings associated with lateral patellar luxation. The series consisted of eight patients, all of whom presented joint effusion, damage to the medical retinaculum and cortical contusion or fracture of medical aspect of the patella or of anterolateral surface of the outer condyle. Five patients also presented patellar sub luxation. Diagnosis depends on the technique employed, with axial planes being very useful. Thus, it is recommended that they be used as the standard plane, especially in pathologies that are clinically unsuspicious as in this case. MR can also provide information that leads to surgical treatment rather than the standard conservative treatment. (Author)

  19. Deontological aspects of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Alekseeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the significant problems in deontology is the degree of awareness of terminally ill patients regarding the diagnosis and prognosis of their disease. This topic is complex and relevant, it touches ethical and psychological, legal and medical aspects. The article discusses the positive and negative aspects of fully informing patients  with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis about the fatal diagnosis. There are 2  clinical cases reflecting different approaches of this complex issue: full awareness and concealment of the diagnosis.

  20. MR imaging of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, Hiroshi; Monzawa, Shuichi (Yamanashi Medical College, Nakakoma (Japan). Hospital); Araki, Tsutomu (and others)

    1992-04-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) provides a sensitive method for mapping the normal and pathological distribution of iron in the brain. High field strength MR imaging (1.5 T) was used to evaluate eight patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and 49 neurological normal control patients. All eight ALS patients showed decreased signal intensity in the motor cortex on T2-weighted images, while only one of the normal control patients showed this finding. The results suggested that the decreased signal intensity in the motor cortex in ALS was caused by the deposition of iron in this area. (author).

  1. Lateral Interactions in Monolayer Thick Mercury Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kime, Yolanda Jan

    An understanding of lateral adatom-adatom interactions is often an important part of understanding electronic structure and adsorption energetics in monolayer thick films. In this dissertation I use angle-resolved photoemission and thermal desorption spectroscopies to explore the relationship between the adatom-adatom interaction and other characteristics of the adlayer, such as electronic structure, defects, or coexistent structural phases in the adlayer. Since Hg binds weakly to many substrates, the lateral interactions are often a major contribution to the dynamics of the overlayer. Hg adlayer systems are thus ideal for probing lateral interactions. The electronic structures of Hg adlayers on Ag(100), Cu(100), and Cu_3Au(100) are studied with angle-resolved ultraviolet photoemission. The Hg atomic 5d_{5/2} electronic band is observed to split into two levels following adsorption onto some surfaces. The energetic splitting of the Hg 5d_{5/2} level is found to be directly correlated to the adlayer homogeneous strain energy. The existence of the split off level also depends on the order or disorder of the Hg adlayer. The energetics of Hg adsorption on Cu(100) are probed using thermal desorption spectroscopy. Two different ordered adlayer structures are observed for Hg adsorption on Cu(100) at 200 K. Under some adsorption conditions and over a range of exposures, the two phases are seen to coexist on the surface prior to the thermal desorption process. A phase transition from the more dense to the less dense phase is observed to occur during the thermal desorption process. Inherent differences in defect densities are responsible for the observed differences between lateral interactions measured previously with equilibrium (atom beam scattering) and as measured by the non-equilibrium (thermal desorption) technique reported here. Theoretical and experimental evidence for an indirect through-metal interaction between adatoms is also discussed. Although through

  2. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, and by use of a new method, using a "virtual cast". The cranial base was quantified by placing 12 landmarks in the posterior fossa. Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and cross-validation test were performed. The "cast method" was found to be less accurate than...

  3. [Local demyelination in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvirkvelia, N; Shakarishvili, R

    2013-02-01

    It is well known that the demyelination of peripheral nerves can be diffuse or local. Pathogenesis of acute or chronic inflamentary demyelination polyneurophathy is based on diffuse demyelination. Local demyelination occured by conduction block with electoneuromyographic (ENMG) researches. It is the main characteristic of multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). Generally it is considered, that conduction block is not usual for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). More over, its existance excludes this diagnosis. The article discribes 3 cases of ALS with conduction block verified with ENMG researches. Article also deals with pathogenetic mechanisms of conduction block in ALS and MMN. In addition it observes the issues of differential diagnosis between ALS and MMW.

  4. Handedness and Lateralization of the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Shohreh Teimournezhad; Parvaneh Khosravizadeh

    2011-01-01

    The present study is a review of the key concepts in relation to the nature of handedness and in line with that, the phenomenon of brain lateralization. To this end, a number of articles have been overviewed and the critic...

  5. Sound lateralization test in adolescent blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Takao; Kaga, Kimitaka

    2005-06-21

    Blind individuals require to compensate for the lack of visual information by other sensory inputs. In particular, auditory inputs are crucial to such individuals. To investigate whether blind individuals localize sound in space better than sighted individuals, we tested the auditory ability of adolescent blind individuals using a sound lateralization method. The interaural time difference discrimination thresholds of blind individuals were statistically significantly shorter than those of blind individuals with residual vision and controls. These findings suggest that blind individuals have better auditory spatial ability than individuals with visual cues; therefore, some perceptual compensation occurred in the former.

  6. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    It looks doubtless that the need for an international cooperation to solve the worldwide energy problems is already a concern of individuals, institutions, and governments. This is an improvement. But there is something lacking. The author refers to the Atoms for Peace speech, the origin of the IAEA and of the subsequent spreading of the nuclear option. He also refers back to the call made by the Mexican government for a worldwide energy cooperation. He stresses the need for governments to cooperate, so that this international cooperation on energy can be put into operation for the benefit of mankind

  7. International collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the wake of the demise of the US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) project last year which empoverished both US and world science, some rapid scene shifting is going on. The SSC may be dead, but the underlying physics quest lives on. In the US, the 'future vision' subpanel of the High Energy Physics Advisory Board (HEPAP) is at work formulating its recommendations. On the international front, the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) at a special meeting in Vancouver in January drafted a statement

  8. Stress changes of lateral collateral ligament at different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHONG Yan-lin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: To create a 3-dimensional finite element model of knee ligaments and to analyse the stress changes of lateral collateral ligament (LCL with or without displaced movements at different knee flexion conditions. Methods: A four-major-ligament contained knee specimen from an adult died of skull injury was prepared for CT scanning with the detectable ligament insertion footprints, locations and orientations precisely marked in advance. The CT scanning images were converted to a 3-dimensional model of the knee with the 3-dimensional reconstruction technique and transformed into finite element model by the software of ANSYS. The model was validated using experimental and numerical results obtained by other scientists. The natural stress changes of LCL at five different knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, 120° and under various motions of anterior-posterior tibial translation, tibial varus rotation and internal-external tibial rotation were measured. Results: The maximum stress reached to 87%-113% versus natural stress in varus motion at early 30° of knee flexions. The stress values were smaller than the peak value of natural stress at 0° (knee full extension when knee bending was over 60° of flexion in anterior-posterior tibial translation and internal-external rotation. Conclusion: LCL is vulnerable to varus motion in almost all knee bending positions and susceptible to anterior- posterior tibial translation or internal-external rotation at early 30° of knee flexions. Key words: Knee joint; Collateral ligaments; Finite element analysis

  9. Lateral Preoptic Control of the Lateral Habenula through Convergent Glutamate and GABA Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Barker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO, little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA onto single LHb neurons. In vivo, both LPO-glutamatergic and LPO-GABAergic inputs to the LHb are activated by aversive stimuli, and their predictive cues yet produce opposing behaviors when stimulated independently. These results support a model wherein the balanced response of converging LPO-glutamate and LPO-GABA are necessary for a normal response to noxious stimuli, and an imbalance in LPO→LHb glutamate or GABA results in the type of aberrant processing that may underlie mental disorders. : Barker et al. show that distinct populations of lateral preoptic area glutamate and GABA neurons synapse together on single lateral habenula neurons and find that this “convergent neurotransmission” allows preoptic area neurons to exert bivalent control over single lateral habenula neurons and drive opposing motivational states. Keywords: preoptic, habenula, reward, aversion, synapse, glutamate, GABA, stress, calcium imaging, optogenetics, electron microscopy

  10. Adenoidal size in lateral roentgenogram of skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, H. S.; Byun, Y. S.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Adenoid is a kind of tonsil located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Enlargement of the adenoid can produce obstruction of the nasopharynx and eustachian tube. Disturbance in discharge of nasal and paranasal secretions can be a cause of chronic rhinitis, sinusitis and otitis media. The diagnosis of enlarged adenoid by inspection is difficult due to its location. In the lateral roentgenogram of the skull the anterior wall of the adenoid is sharply delineated by air in the nasopharynx. The authors measured the sizes of adenoid and nasopharynx and calculated the adenoid-nasopharyngeal ratio (AN ratio) from 1,000 simple skull lateral roentgenograms of the children between the age of 0 to 16 years. Adenoid size is gradually increasing in the children up to 9 years of age but almost uncharged in the older age group. The AN ratio is highest in the age group of 8-9 years. In the age groups above 9 years of age the AN ratio is gradually decreased due to atrophic changes of the adenoid

  11. Adenoidal size in lateral roentgenogram of skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, H. S.; Byun, Y. S.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J. [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Adenoid is a kind of tonsil located in the posterior wall of the nasopharynx. Enlargement of the adenoid can produce obstruction of the nasopharynx and eustachian tube. Disturbance in discharge of nasal and paranasal secretions can be a cause of chronic rhinitis, sinusitis and otitis media. The diagnosis of enlarged adenoid by inspection is difficult due to its location. In the lateral roentgenogram of the skull the anterior wall of the adenoid is sharply delineated by air in the nasopharynx. The authors measured the sizes of adenoid and nasopharynx and calculated the adenoid-nasopharyngeal ratio (AN ratio) from 1,000 simple skull lateral roentgenograms of the children between the age of 0 to 16 years. Adenoid size is gradually increasing in the children up to 9 years of age but almost uncharged in the older age group. The AN ratio is highest in the age group of 8-9 years. In the age groups above 9 years of age the AN ratio is gradually decreased due to atrophic changes of the adenoid.

  12. The cortical signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Agosta

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of regional cortical thickness in patients with non-familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and to investigate whether cortical thinning is associated with disease progression rate. Cortical thickness analysis was performed in 44 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls. Group differences in cortical thickness and the age-by-group effects were assessed using vertex-by-vertex and multivariate linear models. The discriminatory ability of MRI variables in distinguishing patients from controls was estimated using the Concordance Statistics (C-statistic within logistic regression analyses. Correlations between cortical thickness measures and disease progression rate were tested using the Pearson coefficient. Relative to controls, ALS patients showed a bilateral cortical thinning of the primary motor, prefrontal and ventral frontal cortices, cingulate gyrus, insula, superior and inferior temporal and parietal regions, and medial and lateral occipital areas. There was a significant age-by-group effect in the sensorimotor cortices bilaterally, suggesting a stronger association between age and cortical thinning in ALS patients compared to controls. The mean cortical thickness of the sensorimotor cortices distinguished patients with ALS from controls (C-statistic ≥ 0.74. Cortical thinning of the left sensorimotor cortices was related to a faster clinical progression (r = -0.33, p = 0.03. Cortical thickness measurements allowed the detection and quantification of motor and extramotor involvement in patients with ALS. Cortical thinning of the precentral gyrus might offer a marker of upper motor neuron involvement and disease progression.

  13. The cortical signature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Valsasina, Paola; Riva, Nilo; Copetti, Massimiliano; Messina, Maria Josè; Prelle, Alessandro; Comi, Giancarlo; Filippi, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of regional cortical thickness in patients with non-familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to investigate whether cortical thinning is associated with disease progression rate. Cortical thickness analysis was performed in 44 ALS patients and 26 healthy controls. Group differences in cortical thickness and the age-by-group effects were assessed using vertex-by-vertex and multivariate linear models. The discriminatory ability of MRI variables in distinguishing patients from controls was estimated using the Concordance Statistics (C-statistic) within logistic regression analyses. Correlations between cortical thickness measures and disease progression rate were tested using the Pearson coefficient. Relative to controls, ALS patients showed a bilateral cortical thinning of the primary motor, prefrontal and ventral frontal cortices, cingulate gyrus, insula, superior and inferior temporal and parietal regions, and medial and lateral occipital areas. There was a significant age-by-group effect in the sensorimotor cortices bilaterally, suggesting a stronger association between age and cortical thinning in ALS patients compared to controls. The mean cortical thickness of the sensorimotor cortices distinguished patients with ALS from controls (C-statistic ≥ 0.74). Cortical thinning of the left sensorimotor cortices was related to a faster clinical progression (r = -0.33, p = 0.03). Cortical thickness measurements allowed the detection and quantification of motor and extramotor involvement in patients with ALS. Cortical thinning of the precentral gyrus might offer a marker of upper motor neuron involvement and disease progression.

  14. Halifax Lateral Pipeline Project : comprehensive study report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    The National Energy Board has requested the preparation of a comprehensive study report (CSR) for the proposed Halifax Lateral Pipeline Project in support of Maritimes and Northeast Pipeline Company's proposal to construct the lateral pipeline to transport natural gas produced in offshore Nova Scotia to the Tufts Cove electric generating station in the Halifax Regional Municipality. The project will also enhance the access of natural gas to potential markets located along the pipeline route. This CSR was prepared according to guidelines of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency. The report presents: (1) an overview of the project, (2) a summary of the regulatory requirements for assessment, (3) a description of the environmental assessment and regulatory process to date, (4) a summary of the predicted residual environmental and socio-economic effects associated with the project, and (5) a summary of the public consultation process. The environmental and socio-economic assessment focused on these eleven issues: groundwater resources, surface water resources, wetlands, soils, air quality, fish habitat, rare herpetiles, mammals, avifauna, rare plants and archaeological heritage resources. The report identified potential interactions between the project and valued socio-economic and environmental components. These were addressed in combination with recommended mitigative measures to reduce potential adverse effects. It was concluded that the overall environmental effects from the proposed project are likely to be minimal and can be effectively managed with good environmental management methods. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: one or multiple causes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Aline Furtado; Orsini, Marco; Machado, Dionis; Mello, Mariana Pimentel; Nader, Sergio; Silva, Júlio Guilherme; da Silva Catharino, Antonio M.; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Pereira, Alessandra; Pessoa, Luciane Lacerda; Sztajnbok, Flavio R.; Leite, Marco Araújo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2011-01-01

    The Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease in the adulthood, and it is characterized by rapid and progressive compromise of the upper and lower motor neurons. The majority of the cases of ALS are classified as sporadic and, until now, a specific cause for these cases still is unknown. To present the different hypotheses on the etiology of ALS. It was carried out a search in the databases: Bireme, Scielo and Pubmed, in the period of 1987 to 2011, using the following keywords: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor neuron disease, etiology, causes and epidemiology and its similar in Portuguese and Spanish. It did not have consensus as regards the etiology of ALS. Researches demonstrates evidences as regards intoxication by heavy metals, environmental and occupational causes, genetic mutations (superoxide dismutase 1), certain viral infections and the accomplishment of vigorous physical activity for the development of the disease. There is still no consensus regarding the involved factors in the etiology of ALS. In this way, new research about these etiologies are necessary, for a better approach of the patients, promoting preventive programs for the disease and improving the quality of life of the patients. PMID:21785676

  16. Single port access for laparoscopic lateral segmentectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yoshihiro; Asakuma, Mitsuhiro; Hirokawa, Fumitoshi; Hayashi, Michihiro; Shimizu, Tetsunosuke; Uchiyama, Kazuhisa

    2017-12-01

    Single-port access laparoscopic lateral segmentectomy (LLS) has been developed as a novel minimally invasive surgery. We have experience with this LLS technique. To report our technique and patients' postoperative course in a series of single-port access LLS performed in our department. We also examine the cosmetic outcome, safety, and utility of the procedure. Between February 2010 and October 2016, 54 patients who underwent single- or multiple-port laparoscopic or open lateral segmentectomy (LS) were retrospectively analyzed with respect to cosmetic outcome, safety, and utility. In the single LLS group, the laparoscopic procedure was successfully completed for all 14 patients. The median operative time was significantly shorter in the single LLS group (123 min; range: 50-270 min) than in the other groups. Estimated blood loss was also significantly lower in the single LLS group (10 ml; range: 0-330 ml). During the first 7 postoperative days, the visual analog scale pain score and the use of additional analgesia were not significantly different between groups. The single LLS group had a 7.1% complication rate (Clavien-Dindo classification > IIIA); this was not significantly different between groups. Single-port access LLS is a procedure with excellent cosmetic results, although, with regard to invasiveness, there are no major differences from conventional LLS.

  17. The Paradox of Leisure in Later Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrod, Galit; Shrira, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Numerous studies have shown that involvement in leisure activity has a significant impact on older adults’ physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being. This study explores whether the association between leisure involvement and well-being in later life changes over time. Method. Data were drawn from the first 4 waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Growth curve models were applied to examine whether leisure moderated change in quality of life (QoL) over time among 7,875 retirees aged 60 and older. Results. Findings indicated that the association between leisure and QoL increased with time, as nonactive respondents displayed a decline in QoL over time, whereas those with high levels of leisure involvement showed an increase. Findings remained significant after controlling for sociodemographics, health, and cognitive functioning. Discussion. Results indicated that the significance of leisure to well-being increases throughout the later life course, and that leisure may act as a resource for resilience in old age. They also pointed out a paradoxical situation in which the older seniors, who may benefit from leisure involvement more than their younger peers, are precisely the ones who face the greater number of constraints to beneficial use of leisure. PMID:25315158

  18. Lateral regulation of synaptic transmission by astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covelo, A; Araque, A

    2016-05-26

    Fifteen years ago the concept of the "tripartite synapse" was proposed to conceptualize the functional view that astrocytes are integral elements of synapses. The signaling exchange between astrocytes and neurons within the tripartite synapse results in the synaptic regulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity through an autocrine form of communication. However, recent evidence indicates that the astrocyte synaptic regulation is not restricted to the active tripartite synapse but can be manifested through astrocyte signaling at synapses relatively distant from active synapses, a process termed lateral astrocyte synaptic regulation. This phenomenon resembles the classical heterosynaptic modulation but is mechanistically different because it involves astrocytes and its properties critically depend on the morphological and functional features of astrocytes. Therefore, the functional concept of the tripartite synapse as a fundamental unit must be expanded to include the interaction between tripartite synapses. Through lateral synaptic regulation, astrocytes serve as an active processing bridge for synaptic interaction and crosstalk between synapses with no direct neuronal connectivity, supporting the idea that neural network function results from the coordinated activity of astrocytes and neurons. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Is the lateral radiograph necessary for the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korim, Muhammad Tawfiq; Mohan Reddy, Venthurla Ram; Gibbs, David; Wildin, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To investigate if a lateral hip radiograph is always needed in the management of intra-capsular proximal femoral fractures. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate if a radiographer could accurately identify cases in which the lateral radiograph is not required. Methods: All patients who underwent surgical management of an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture over a 3 month period at our unit were identified. Radiographs were reviewed by 6 observers: 2 consultant orthopaedic surgeons, 2 registrars, and 2 radiographers. Initially the observers viewed the AP radiographs alone and classified the fractures into displaced, undisplaced, or unclear categories. They were then shown the lateral view and asked for a diagnosis and management plan. Comparison of diagnosis and management based on AP views alone, and AP in-combination with a lateral view was made. Results: 90 patients were included; the mean age was 80.8 years with a range of 42–100 years. 73 underwent arthroplasty and 17 had internal fixation. All observers, including the radiographer were able to make a surgical decision in 90% of the cases based on AP views alone. Lateral radiographs improved the diagnostic accuracy by 6%. The availability of the lateral view did not alter the management in patients where the AP clearly demonstrated a displaced fracture. Conclusion: Elderly patients with a displaced intra-capsular fracture identifiable on the AP do not require a lateral radiograph. Such patients can be accurately identified by the radiographer. Patient discomfort experienced during positioning for the lateral view would be avoided, and a financial saving made.

  20. Transparency International

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulten, van M. (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    Established in 1993, Transparency International (TI) defines itself as “the global civil society organization leading the fight against corruption, that brings people together in a powerful worldwide coalition to end the devastating impact of corruption on men, women and children around the

  1. International Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pests and diseases of plants in agriculture are a shared international problem. Yet some of the very places that pest invaders come from often lack the institutional structure and organization necessary to help in understanding the biology of the pest or disease. Strengthening entomology by stimulat...

  2. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, B.; Ha Vinh Phuong

    1976-01-01

    Since the start of the post-war era, international safeguards were considered essential to ensure that nuclear materials should not be diverted to unauthorised uses. In parallel, it was proposed to set up an international atomic energy agency within the United Nations through which international cooperation in nuclear matters would be channelled and controlled. Created in 1957, the IAEA was authorized to administer safeguards in connection with any assistance it provided as well as at the request of Member State and of any party to bilateral or multilateral arrangements in its ambit. Today, there are two international treaties requiring that its parties should accept Agency safeguards unilaterally, the Latin America Tlatelolco Treaty of 1967, and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), operative since 1970, which requires in particular that non-nuclear weapon states should accept Agency safeguards on its peaceful nuclear activities. Thus while NPT covers peaceful nuclear activities indiscriminately in a country, the Agency's original safeguards system is applied according to specific agreements and to given facilities. A basic conflict has now emerged between commercial interests and the increasing wish that transfer of nuclear equipment and know-how should not result in proliferation of military nuclear capacity; however, serious efforts are currently in progress to ensure universal application of IAEA safeguards and to develop them in step with the uses of nuclear energy. (N.E.A.) [fr

  3. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). The angle of internal friction ... compression chambers. Lorenzen, 1957 (quoted by Mohsenin,. 1986), reported that the design of deep ... tiongiven for lateral pressure in deep bins as presented by Mohsenin. (1986). The presence of moisture ...

  4. Centrifuge modelling of lateral displacement of buried pipelines; Modelagem fisica centrifuga de flambagem lateral de dutos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Jose Renato Moreira da Silva de; Almeida, Marcio de Souza Soares de; Marques, Maria Esther Soares; Almeida, Maria Cascao Ferreira de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Costa, Alvaro Maia da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2003-07-01

    This work discusses soil-structure interaction applied to the buckling phenomena of buried pipelines subjected to heated oil flow. A set of physical modelling tests on lateral buckling of pipelines buried on soft clay is presented using COPPE/UFRJ geotechnical centrifuge. A 1:30 pipeline model was moved side ward through a soft clay layer during centrifuge flight, varying the burial depth, in order to simulate the lateral buckling in plane strain condition. The results show different behaviour concerning horizontal and vertical forces measured at pipeline level due to soil reaction. (author)

  5. Percutaneous lateral ligament reconstruction with allograft for chronic lateral ankle instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyunkook; Kim, Yong Sang; Lee, Jongseok; Choi, Woo Jin; Lee, Jin Woo

    2012-02-01

    The majority of lateral ankle instability can be treated successfully with conservative method. However, if such treatments fail, surgical treatment should be considered. A wide variety of procedures have been introduced to treat chronic lateral ankle instability. The percutaneous method avoids dissection which is associated with open surgery and can lead to excessive morbidity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcomes of percutaneous lateral ligament reconstruction with an allograft in the treatment of chronic lateral ankle instability. Between October 2006 and April 2009, percutaneous lateral ligament reconstruction using an allograft was performed on 15 ankles in 13 patients for chronic lateral ankle instability. The patients included in this study satisfied at least one of the following criteria: a previously failed reconstruction of the ligament, severe ankle instability (more than 15 degrees of talar tilt, more than 10 mm of anterior drawer), general laxity of ligaments, body mass index (BMI) higher than 25. The mean followup period was 18.1 (range, 12 to 40) months. The grafted tendon was secured by double tenodeses at both the talus and calcaneus or triple tenodeses which included a fibular tenodesis. The clinical outcomes were evaluated with Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, Karlsson-Peterson ankle score, and patients' subjective satisfaction. The radiological results were evaluated using the varus tilting angle and the anterior displacement distance. The VAS improved from preoperative 3.7 ±2.2 to 1.6 ±1.3 at the last followup (p = 0.002). The Karlsson-Peterson ankle score increased from 54.2 ±8.8 to 80.9 ±7.2 (p = 0.001). Patients were satisfied in 13 cases (86.7%) with excellent or good results. Radiologically, the mean varus tilting angle was 15.5 ±4.4 degrees preoperatively and 7.3 ±3.6 at the last followup (p = 0.001). The anterior drawer distance was 10.1 ±3.3 mm preoperatively and 7.2 ±2.7 mm at

  6. [Management of occult malformations at the lateral skull base].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, E; Draf, W; Hofmann, E; Bockmühl, U

    2005-12-01

    Occult malformations of the lateral skull base are rare anomalies, but can cause severe complications such as recurrent meningitis. Therefore, they need to be precisely delineated and sufficient surgical closure is mandatory. Between 1986 and 2004 twenty patients (10 children and 10 adults) with occult malformations at the lateral skull base were treated surgically at the ENT-Department of the Hospital Fulda gAG. Of these 3 Mondini-malformations, 11 defects of the tegmen tympani or the mastoidal roof, 2 dural lesions to the posterior fossa and 4 malformations within the pyramidal apex have been found. Four patients have had multiple anomalies. Routing symptom was in all cases at least one previous meningitis. Radiological diagnostics included high-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as well as CT- or MR-cisternography. Depending on type and localisation of the defect the following surgical algorithm was carried out: The trans-mastoidal approach was used in all cases of Mondini-malformation (including obliteration of the ear), in case of lesions to the posterior fossa as well as partly in anomalies at the tegmen tympani and mastoidal roof, respectively. Defects of the pyramidal apex should be explored via the trans-mastoidal way if the lesion is located caudally to the inner auditory canal (IAC), whereas the trans-temporal approach should be used if the lesion is situated ventral to the IAC and dorso-medially to the internal carotid artery (ICA). The trans-temporal approach was also performed in large defects of the tegmen tympani and mastoidal roof as well as in recurrences. In all cases of recurrent meningitis caused by agents of the upper airway tract the basic principle should be to search for occult skull base malformations radiologically as well as by sodium fluorescein endoscopy as long as the anomaly is detected.

  7. Optical fiber head for providing lateral viewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Matthew J.; Colston, Billy W.; James, Dale L.; Brown, Steve; Da Silva, Luiz

    2002-01-01

    The head of an optical fiber comprising the sensing probe of an optical heterodyne sensing device includes a planar surface that intersects the perpendicular to axial centerline of the fiber at a polishing angle .theta.. The planar surface is coated with a reflective material so that light traveling axially through the fiber is reflected transverse to the fiber's axial centerline, and is emitted laterally through the side of the fiber. Alternatively, the planar surface can be left uncoated. The polishing angle .theta. must be no greater than 39.degree. or must be at least 51.degree.. The emitted light is reflected from adjacent biological tissue, collected by the head, and then processed to provide real-time images of the tissue. The method for forming the planar surface includes shearing the end of the optical fiber and applying the reflective material before removing the buffer that circumscribes the cladding and the core.

  8. Primary lateral sclerosis mimicking atypical parkinsonism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norlinah, Ibrahim M; Bhatia, Kailash P; Østergaard, Karen

    2007-01-01

    of the atypical parkinsonian syndromes. Here we describe five patients initially referred with a diagnosis of levodopa-unresponsive atypical parkinsonism (n = 4) or primary progressive multiple sclerosis (n = 1), but subsequently found to have features consistent with PLS instead. Onset age varied from 49 to 67......Primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), the upper motor neurone variant of motor neurone disease, is characterized by progressive spinal or bulbar spasticity with minimal motor weakness. Rarely, PLS may present with clinical features resembling parkinsonism resulting in occasional misdiagnosis as one...... in all patients. Anterior horn cell involvement developed in three cases. Early gait disturbances resulting in falls were seen in all patients and none of them responded to dopaminergic medications. Two patients underwent dopamine transporter (DaT) SPECT scanning with normal results. Other features...

  9. System modelling of a lateral force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michal, Guillaume; Lu, Cheng; Kiet Tieu, A

    2008-01-01

    To quantitatively analyse lateral force microscope measurements one needs to develop a model able to relate the photodiode signal to the force acting on the tip apex. In this paper we focus on the modelling of the interaction between the cantilever and the optical chain. The laser beam is discretized by a set of rays which propagates in the system. The analytical equation of a single ray's position on the optical sensor is presented as a function of the reflection's state on top of the cantilever. We use a finite element analysis on the cantilever to connect the optical model with the force acting on the tip apex. A first-order approximation of the constitutive equations are derived along with a definition of the system's crosstalk. Finally, the model is used to analytically simulate the 'wedge method' in the presence of crosstalk in 2D. The analysis shows how the torsion loop and torsion offset signals are affected by the crosstalk.

  10. Lateral translation of covalently bound fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphry, M J; Beton, P H; Keeling, D L; Fawcett, R H J; Moriarty, P; Butcher, M J; Birkett, P R; Walton, D R M; Taylor, R; Kroto, H W

    2006-01-01

    Lateral manipulation of fullerenes on clean silicon surfaces may be induced by either an attractive or repulsive interaction between adsorbed molecules and the tip of a scanning probe microscope, and can result in a complex response arising from molecular rolling. The model for rolling is supported by new results which show that manipulation is suppressed for adsorbed functionalized fullerenes due to the presence of phenyl sidegroups. The influence of varying the dwell time of the tip during manipulation is also reported. By reducing this time to a value which is less than the response time of the feedback control loop it is possible to induce manipulation in a quasi-constant height mode which is accompanied by large increases/decreases in current

  11. Lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Xue-jun; True, Hans; Li, Ying-hui

    2016-01-01

    The lateral dynamic features of a railway vehicle are investigated using two similar wheel/rail contact models: the Vermeulen-Johnson and the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins models. The symmetric/asymmetric bifurcation behaviour and chaotic motions of the railway vehicle are investigated in great detail......, resulting in problems for safe operation of the vehicle. Therefore, it should be avoided in everyday operation. Furthermore, the creation of multiple solution branches suggests that the critical speed of a vehicle should be determined from a comprehensive analysis of the various kinds of possible...... by varying the speed and using the resultant bifurcation diagram' method. It is found that multiple solution branches exist and they can lead to more steady states in the dynamic behaviour of the railway vehicle. The coexistence of multiple steady states can lead to jumps in the amplitude of oscillations...

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tyagi, A

    2012-02-03

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common, progressive motor neurone disease but is rare in the obstetric population. Only 4 cases have been described in the English literature since 1975. We describe a 29 year old woman who presented with ataxia, lower limb weakness and dysarthria 4 weeks after the birth of her first child. The symptoms had onset during the pregnancy but had not been considered remarkable. There were clinical features of upper and lower motor neurone involvement without any sensory loss. MRI of brain and spine was normal. CSF analysis was negative. EMG studies confirmed the presence of widespread anterior horn cell dysfunction compatible with ALS. The patient was commenced on Riluzole and has progressed clinically, at 12 months post diagnosis.

  13. Distractor inhibition: Evidence from lateralized readiness potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramme, Lisa; Dierolf, Angelika M; Naumann, Ewald; Frings, Christian

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated distractor inhibition on the level of stimulus representation. In a sequential distractor-to-distractor priming task participants had to respond to target letters flanked by distractor digits. Reaction time and stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potentials (S-LRPs) of probe responses were measured. Distractor-target onset asynchrony was varied. For RTs responses to probe targets were faster in the case of prime-distractor repetition compared to distractor changes indicating distractor inhibition. Benefits in RTs and the latency of S-LRP onsets for distractor repetition were also modulated by distractor-target onset asynchrony. For S-LRPs distractor inhibition was only present with a simultaneous onset of distractors and target. The results confirm previous results indicating inhibitory mechanisms of object-based selective attention on the level of distractor representations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune system alterations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovden, H; Frederiksen, J L; Pedersen, S W

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease of which the underlying cause and pathogenesis are unknown. Cumulatative data clearly indicates an active participation by the immune system in the disease. An increasingly recognized theory suggests a non-cell autonomous mechanism, meaning that multiple...... cells working together are necessary for the pathogenesis of the disease. Observed immune system alterations could indicate an active participation in this mechanism. Damaged motor neurons are able to activate microglia, astrocytes and the complement system, which further can influence each other...... and contribute to neurodegeneration. Infiltrating peripheral immune cells appears to correlate with disease progression, but their significance and composition is unclear. The deleterious effects of this collaborating system of cells appear to outweigh the protective aspects, and revealing this interplay might...

  15. A comprehensive review of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Sara; Carr, Karen; Reiley, Luz; Diaz, Kelvin; Guerra, Orleiquis; Altamirano, Pablo Fernandez; Pagani, Wilfredo; Lodin, Daud; Orozco, Gloria; Chinea, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons with an incidence of about 1/100,000. Most ALS cases are sporadic, but 5–10% of the cases are familial ALS. Both sporadic and familial ALS (FALS) are associated with degeneration of cortical and spinal motor neurons. The etiology of ALS remains unknown. However, mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 have been known as the most common cause of FALS. In this study, we provide a comprehensive review of ALS. We cover all aspects of the disease including epidemiology, comorbidities, environmental risk factor, molecular mechanism, genetic factors, symptoms, diagnostic, treatment, and even the available supplement and management of ALS. This will provide the reader with an advantage of receiving a broad range of information about the disease. PMID:26629397

  16. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: update and new developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Ashley J; Getzoff, Elizabeth D; Perry, J Jefferson P

    2012-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common form of motor neuron disease. It is typically characterized by adult-onset degeneration of the upper and lower motor neurons, and is usually fatal within a few years of onset. A subset of ALS patients has an inherited form of the disease, and a few of the known mutant genes identified in familial cases have also been found in sporadic forms of ALS. Precisely how the diverse ALS-linked gene products dictate the course of the disease, resulting in compromised voluntary muscular ability, is not entirely known. This review addresses the major advances that are being made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms giving rise to the disease, which may eventually translate into new treatment options. PMID:23019386

  17. Therapeutic neuroprotective agents for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Rachna S.; Zhu, Haining; Li, Wei; Bowser, Robert; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal chronic neurodegenerative disease whose hallmark is proteinaceous, ubiquitinated, cytoplasmic inclusions in motor neurons and surrounding cells. Multiple mechanisms proposed as responsible for ALS pathogenesis include dysfunction of protein degradation, glutamate excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation. It is therefore essential to gain a better understanding of the underlying disease etiology and search for neuroprotective agents that might delay disease onset, slow progression, prolong survival, and ultimately reduce the burden of disease. Because riluzole, the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment, prolongs the ALS patient’s life by only 3 months, new therapeutic agents are urgently needed. In this review, we focus on studies of various small pharmacological compounds targeting the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of ALS and discuss their impact on disease progression. PMID:23864030

  18. [Lateral column lengthening osteotomy of calcaneus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermann, B

    2015-08-01

    Lengthening of the lateral column for adduction of forefoot and restoration of the medial arch. Stabilization of the ankle joint complex. Supple flatfoot deformity (posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage II). Instability of the medial ankle joint complex (superficial deltoid and spring ligament). Posttraumatic valgus and pronation deformity of the foot. Rigid flatfoot deformity (posterior tibial tendon dysfunction stage III and IV). Talocalcaneal and naviculocalcaneal coalition. Osteoarthritis of calcaneocuboid joint. Exposition of calcaneus at sinus tarsi. Osteotomy through sinus tarsi and widening until desired correction of the foot is achieved. Insertion of bone graft. Screw fixation. Immobilization in a cast for 6 weeks. Weight-bearing as tolerated from the beginning. In the majority of cases, part of hindfoot reconstruction. Reliable and stable correction. Safe procedure with few complications.

  19. Large-scale lateral nanowire arrays nanogenerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L; Xu, Chen; Qin, Yong; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Rusen; Hu, Youfan; Zhang, Yan

    2014-01-07

    In a method of making a generating device, a plurality of spaced apart elongated seen members are deposited onto a surface of a flexible non-conductive substrate. An elongated conductive layer is applied to a top surface and a first side of each seed member, thereby leaving an exposed second side opposite the first side. A plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures is grown laterally from the second side of each seed layer. A second conductive material is deposited onto the substrate adjacent each elongated first conductive layer so as to be soupled the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures. The second conductive material is selected so as to form a Schottky barrier between the second conductive material and the distal end of each of the plurality of elongated piezoelectric nanostructures and so as to form an electrical contact with the first conductive layer.

  20. [Neurophysiological investigations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camdessanché, Jean-Philippe; Lenglet, Timothée

    2014-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disease which prognosis is poor. Early diagnosis permits to set up immediately adapted treatment and cares. Available diagnostic criteria are based on the detection of both the central and peripheral motor neuron injury in bulbar, cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions. Electromyographic study is the key tool to identify peripheral motor neuron involvement. Conduction velocities are systematically performed to rule out differential diagnosis. Needle examination records abnormal activities at rest and looks for neurogenic pattern during muscle contraction. Motor unit potentials morphology is modified primary to recruitment. Motor evoked potentials remain the test of choice to identify impairment of central motor neurons. For the monitoring of ALS patients, the MUNE technique (motor unit number estimation) seems the most interesting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Motoneuron firing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamede eDe Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder involving the classical motor system and the frontal effector brain, causing muscular weakness and atrophy, with variable upper motor neuron signs and often an associated fronto-temporal dementia. The physiological disturbance consequent on the motor system degeneration is beginning to be well understood. In this review we describe aspects of the motor cortical, neuronal and lower motor neuron dysfunction. We show how studies of the changes in the pattern of motor unit firing help delineate the underlying pathophysiological disturbance as the disease progresses. Such studies are beginning to illuminate the underlying disordered pathophysiological processes in the disease, and are important in designing new approaches to therapy and especially for clinical trials.

  2. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-06-01

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  3. Analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, D. F.; Razavi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Three methods for analysis of flexible structures under lateral impact are presented. The first proposed method (Method A) consists of: (1) modifying an available deceleration on a rigid target with conservation principles to account for structural flexibility; and (2) transient nonlinear analysis of the structure with the corrected forcing function. The second proposed method (Method B) is similar to Method A in obtaining the forcing function but it solves the equations of motion of an idealized two-degree-of-freedom system instead of directly using conservation principles. The last method simply provides the maximum force in the structure using the conservation of energy and linear momentum. A coupled simulation is also performed in LS-DYNA and compared against the proposed methods. A case study is presented to illustrate the applicability of all three methods and the LS-DYNA simulation. (authors)

  4. Internal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushima, Jun; Hayashi, Youjiro; Ueda, Masayuki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an internal pump. A water hole allowing communication between internal and external circumferences of a stretch tube is provided at the portion of the stretch tube corresponding to a position where an end face of a nozzle portion of a motor case and an end face of a diffuser are joined with each other so that hot filtered water inside a pressure container which has entered from where the end face of the nozzle portion of the motor case and the end face of the diffuser are joined with each other is combined with the purged water so that it can be sent back to the pressure container again. (author) figs

  5. Fractal analysis of lateral movement in biomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmachowski, Lech

    2018-04-01

    Lateral movement of a molecule in a biomembrane containing small compartments (0.23-μm diameter) and large ones (0.75 μm) is analyzed using a fractal description of its walk. The early time dependence of the mean square displacement varies from linear due to the contribution of ballistic motion. In small compartments, walking molecules do not have sufficient time or space to develop an asymptotic relation and the diffusion coefficient deduced from the experimental records is lower than that measured without restrictions. The model makes it possible to deduce the molecule step parameters, namely the step length and time, from data concerning confined and unrestricted diffusion coefficients. This is also possible using experimental results for sub-diffusive transport. The transition from normal to anomalous diffusion does not affect the molecule step parameters. The experimental literature data on molecular trajectories recorded at a high time resolution appear to confirm the modeled value of the mean free path length of DOPE for Brownian and anomalous diffusion. Although the step length and time give the proper values of diffusion coefficient, the DOPE speed calculated as their quotient is several orders of magnitude lower than the thermal speed. This is interpreted as a result of intermolecular interactions, as confirmed by lateral diffusion of other molecules in different membranes. The molecule step parameters are then utilized to analyze the problem of multiple visits in small compartments. The modeling of the diffusion exponent results in a smooth transition to normal diffusion on entering a large compartment, as observed in experiments.

  6. [Lateralization of behavioral reactions and otolith asymmetry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lychakov, D V

    2013-01-01

    Lateralized behavior is widely spread among vertebrate animals and is determined first of ally by structural-functional brain asymmetry as well as by the presence of somatic and visceral asymmetry. Some kinds of asymmetric reactions are suggested to be due to the presence of asymmetry at the level of sense organs, in particular, of otolith organs. This review presents data on value and character of otolith asymmetry (OA) in animals of various species and classes, on action upon it of weightlessness and hypergravity; the problem of effect of OA on vestibular and auditory functions is considered. In symmetric vertebrates, OA has been shown to be of fluctuation character and its chi coefficient varies in diapason from -0.2 to 0.2; in the overwhelmed majority of individuals, /chi/ otolith organs to work coordinately; this it why OA is at the equally low level regardless of the individual's taxonomic and ecologic position, its size, age, and otolith growth rate. Individuals with abnormally high OA level can experience difficulties in analysis of auditory and vestibular stimuli, therefore in nature the majority of such individuals are eliminated in the process of natural selection. Unlike symmetrical vertebrates, labyrinths of many Pleuronectiformes have pronounced OA--otoliths of the lower labyrinth, on a average, are significantly heavier than those of the upper labyrinth. Their organs are the only example when OA with directed character seem to play an essential role in lateralized behavior and are suggested to be used in the spatial localization of the sound source. The short-time action of weightlessness and relatively weak hypergravity ( or = 3g, as well as some diseases and shifts connected with processes of aging can enhance OA and cause several functional disturbances.

  7. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The system of international safeguards carried out by the IAEA is designed to verify that governments are living up to pledges to use nuclear energy only for peaceful purposes under the NPT (Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons) and similar agreements. The film illustrates the range of field inspections and analytical work involved. It also shows how new approaches are helping to strengthen the system

  8. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1995, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured foreign cooperation particularly in the frame of the Slovak Republic is membership in the IAEA, as well as cooperation with the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD NEA), cooperation with European Union in the frame of PHARE programmes, and intergovernmental cooperation and cooperation among nuclear regulatory authorities. With respect to an international importance, prestige and a wide-scope possibilities of a technical assistance , either a direct one (expert assessments, technology supplies, work placement, scientific trips, training courses) or indirect one (participation at various conferences, seminars, technical committees, etc), the most important cooperation with the IAEA in Vienna. In 1994, the Slovak Republic, was elected to the Board Governors, the represent the group of Eastern European countries. The Slovak Government entrusted the NRA SR's Chairman with representing the Slovak Republic in the Board of Governors. Owing to a good name of Slovakia was elected to the one of two Vice-Chairmen of the Board of Governors at the 882-nd session on the Board. IAEA approved and developed 8 national projects for Slovakia in 1995. Generally, IAEA is contracting scientific contracts with research institutes, nuclear power plants and other organizations. Slovak organizations used these contracts as complementary funding of their tasks. In 1995, there were 12 scientific contracts in progress, or approved respectively. Other international activities of the NRA SR, international co-operations as well as foreign affairs are reported

  9. Biomechanical Study about Lateral Ankle Laxity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Voicu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the contribution of the anterior talofibular ligament to ankle laxity at 18 cadaver ankles. For this, there was made an original, bipolar transoseus system, in a monitorized test stand Mx-500N Schmidt with a digital force gauge Imada. It was measured the motion response for applied antero-posterior force, inversion-eversion moment and internal-external rotary torque, in three positions of flexion of the ankle, with an intact anterior talofibular ligament and after it’s sectioning. The results showed a significant increases in laxity in plantar flexion for the inversion and internal rotary torque, this mechanism coresponding with common modes of injury.

  10. Decision-Tree Formulation With Order-1 Lateral Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2007-01-01

    A compact symbolic formulation enables mapping of an arbitrarily complex decision tree of a certain type into a highly computationally efficient multidimensional software object. The type of decision trees to which this formulation applies is that known in the art as the Boolean class of balanced decision trees. Parallel lateral slices of an object created by means of this formulation can be executed in constant time considerably less time than would otherwise be required. Decision trees of various forms are incorporated into almost all large software systems. A decision tree is a way of hierarchically solving a problem, proceeding through a set of true/false responses to a conclusion. By definition, a decision tree has a tree-like structure, wherein each internal node denotes a test on an attribute, each branch from an internal node represents an outcome of a test, and leaf nodes represent classes or class distributions that, in turn represent possible conclusions. The drawback of decision trees is that execution of them can be computationally expensive (and, hence, time-consuming) because each non-leaf node must be examined to determine whether to progress deeper into a tree structure or to examine an alternative. The present formulation was conceived as an efficient means of representing a decision tree and executing it in as little time as possible. The formulation involves the use of a set of symbolic algorithms to transform a decision tree into a multi-dimensional object, the rank of which equals the number of lateral non-leaf nodes. The tree can then be executed in constant time by means of an order-one table lookup. The sequence of operations performed by the algorithms is summarized as follows: 1. Determination of whether the tree under consideration can be encoded by means of this formulation. 2. Extraction of decision variables. 3. Symbolic optimization of the decision tree to minimize its form. 4. Expansion and transformation of all nested conjunctive

  11. Rate of displacement for Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures treated with a cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zale, C; Winthrop, Z A; Hennrikus, W

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to report the rate of displacement of Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures that were initially treated in a cast. We performed a retrospective review of all patients that were treated for a non-displaced (Jakob Type 1 displaced and were converted to a closed pinning treatment plan with a conversion rate of 8.5%. There was a mean of 13.2 days (4 to 21) between treatment by initial casting and closed pinning. This study demonstrates an 8.5% displacement and conversion rate from cast treatment to closed pinning for initially non-displaced Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures of the humerus. The internal oblique radiograph is most accurate to determine displacement. We recommend obtaining an internal oblique view at initial evaluation and at follow-up in the cast for lateral condyle fractures. To minimize movement at the fracture site, we recommend treating Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures with a long arm cast with the elbow at 90° and the forearm in the supine position with a sling-loop design. IV - retrospective therapeutic study.

  12. All-inside, anatomical lateral ankle stabilization for revision and complex primary lateral ankle stabilization: a technique guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prissel, Mark A; Roukis, Thomas S

    2014-12-01

    Lateral ankle instability is a common mechanical problem that often requires surgical management when conservative efforts fail. Historically, myriad open surgical approaches have been proposed. Recently, consideration for arthroscopic management of lateral ankle instability has become popular, with promising results. Unfortunately, recurrent inversion ankle injury following lateral ankle stabilization can occur and require revision surgery. To date, arthroscopic management for revision lateral ankle stabilization has not been described. We present a novel arthroscopic technique combining an arthroscopic lateral ankle stabilization kit with a suture anchor ligament augmentation system for revision as well as complex primary lateral ankle stabilization. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. Lateral control strategy for a hypersonic cruise missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Fan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.

  14. Epigenesis of behavioural lateralization in humans and other animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, S. M.; Riedstra, B. J.; Pfannkuche, K. A.; Bouma, A.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2009-01-01

    Despite several decades of research, the epigenesis of behavioural and brain lateralization is still elusive, although its knowledge is important in understanding developmental plasticity, function and evolution of lateralization, and its relationship with developmental disorders. Over the last

  15. Corticosteroid injections for lateral epicondylitis: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt, Nynke; Assendelft, Willem J J; van der Windt, Danielle A W M; Hay, Elaine M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bouter, Lex M

    Patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) are frequently treated with corticosteroid injections, in order to relieve pain and diminish disability. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of corticosteroid injections for lateral epicondylitis. Randomised controlled

  16. Diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based morphometry study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: relationships with motor disability

    OpenAIRE

    Thivard, Lionel; Pradat, Pierre‐François; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Lacomblez, Lucette; Dormont, Didier; Chiras, Jacques; Benali, Habib; Meininger, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of cortical and subcortical lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using, in combination, voxel based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM). We included 15 patients with definite or probable ALS and 25 healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed using the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R). In patients, reduced fractional anisotropy was found in bilateral corticospinal tra...

  17. Talar anchor placement for modified Brostrom lateral ankle stabilization procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angirasa, Arush K; Barrett, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    The modified Brostrom procedure has been a proven procedure with excellent utility in the treatment of lateral ankle instability within limitation. Multiple variations of the original technique have been described in the literature to date. Included in these variations are differences in anchor placement, suture technique, or both. In this research study, we propose placing a bone screw anchor into the lateral shoulder of the talus rather than the typical placement at the lateral malleolus for anatomic reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments.

  18. Sex Differences in Cerebral Laterality of Language and Visuospatial Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, A. M.; Rimrodt, S. L.; Abel, J. R.; Blankner, J. G.; Mostofsky, S. H.; Pekar, J. J.; Denckla, M. B.; Cutting, L. E.

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences on language and visuospatial tasks are of great interest, with differences in hemispheric laterality hypothesized to exist between males and females. Some functional imaging studies examining sex differences have shown that males are more left lateralized on language tasks and females are more right lateralized on visuospatial…

  19. Comparison of reliability of lateral cephalogram and computed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of malocclusion and airway space using lateral cephalogram and computed tomography (CT) and to compare its reliability. To obtain important information on the morphology of the soft palate on lateral cephalogram and to determine its etiopathogenesis in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Materials and Methods: Lateral ...

  20. Comparative investigation of methods for determining the lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the lateral stiffness of coupled RC shear walls is studied using the continuum method, equivalent frame and finite element methods. For this purpose, asix-story coupled shear walls with typical dimensions are considered and the lateral displacements of system are calculated under a variety of lateral loads such ...

  1. Diageotropica and lateral rooting, the rest of the story

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nature of the control of lateral root initiation has been controversial for 80+ years. A mutant tomato (diageotropica), incapable of producing lateral roots, was first classified as ethylene requiring since exceptionally low concentrations of ethylene, applied to the shoot, stimulated lateral r...

  2. Is performance better when brain functions are typically lateralized?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, Reint; Zickert, Nele; Beking, Tess; Groothuis, Antonius

    2014-01-01

    Lateralization refers to the dominant involvement of one homologous region of the brain over the other in functional task performance. Direction and strength of lateralization depend on the functional task. It is well known that language is lateralized to the left hemisphere, even in most

  3. Ultrastructure and regulation of lateralized connexin43 in the failing heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Geoffrey G; Shah, Manish H; Halperin, Victoria L; Cooke, Carol A; Akar, Fadi G; Yen, Timothy E; Kass, David A; Machamer, Carolyn E; Van Eyk, Jennifer E; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2010-04-02

    Gap junctions mediate cell-to-cell electric coupling of cardiomyocytes. The primary gap junction protein in the working myocardium, connexin43 (Cx43), exhibits increased localization at the lateral membranes of cardiomyocytes in a variety of heart diseases, although the precise location and function of this population is unknown. To define the subcellular location of lateralized gap junctions at the light and electron microscopic level, and further characterize the biochemical regulation of gap junction turnover. By electron microscopy, we characterized gap junctions formed between cardiomyocyte lateral membranes in failing canine ventricular myocardium. These gap junctions were varied in structure and appeared to be extensively internalizing. Internalized gap junctions were incorporated into multilamellar membrane structures, with features characteristic of autophagosomes. Intracellular Cx43 extensively colocalized with the autophagosome marker GFP-LC3 when both proteins were exogenously expressed in HeLa cells, and endogenous Cx43 colocalized with GFP-LC3 in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Furthermore, a distinct phosphorylated form of Cx43, as well as the autophagosome-targeted form of LC3 (microtubule-associated protein light chain 3) targeted to lipid rafts in cardiac tissue, and both were increased in heart failure. Our data demonstrate a previously unrecognized pathway of gap junction internalization and degradation in the heart and identify a cellular pathway with potential therapeutic implications.

  4. Effects of counteracting external valgus moment on lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions and tibial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriram, Duraisamy; Parween, Rizuwana; Lee, Yee Han Dave; Subburaj, Karupppasamy

    2017-07-01

    Knee osteoarthritis that prevalently occurs at the medial compartment is a progressive chronic disorder affecting the articular cartilage of the knee joint, and lead to loss of joint functionality. Valgus braces have been used as a treatment procedure to unload the medial compartment for patients with medial osteoarthritis. Valgus braces through the application of counteracting external valgus moment shift the load from medial compartment towards the lateral compartment. Previous biomechanical studies focused only on the changes in varus moments before and after wearing the brace. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of opposing external valgus moment applied by knee braces on the lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions using a 3D finite element model of the knee joint. Finite element simulations were performed on the knee joint model without and with the application of opposing valgus moment to mimic the unbraced and braced conditions. Lateral tibial cartilage contact pressures and contact area, and tibial rotation (varus-valgus and internal-external) were estimated for the complete walking gait cycle. The opposing valgus moment increased the maximum contact pressure and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage compared to the normal gait moment. A peak contact pressure of 8.2 MPa and maximum cartilage loaded area of 28% (loaded cartilage nodes) on the lateral cartilage with the application of external valgus moment were induced at 50% of the gait cycle. The results show that the use of opposing valgus moment may significantly increase the maximum contact pressures and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage and increases the risk of articular cartilage damage on the lateral compartment.

  5. Longitudinal modeling to predict vital capacity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahandideh, Samad; Taylor, Albert A; Beaulieu, Danielle; Keymer, Mike; Meng, Lisa; Bian, Amy; Atassi, Nazem; Andrews, Jinsy; Ennist, David L

    2018-05-01

    Death in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients is related to respiratory failure, which is assessed in clinical settings by measuring vital capacity. We developed ALS-VC, a modeling tool for longitudinal prediction of vital capacity in ALS patients. A gradient boosting machine (GBM) model was trained using the PRO-ACT (Pooled Resource Open-access ALS Clinical Trials) database of over 10,000 ALS patient records. We hypothesized that a reliable vital capacity predictive model could be developed using PRO-ACT. The model was used to compare FVC predictions with a 30-day run-in period to predictions made from just baseline. The internal root mean square deviations (RMSD) of the run-in and baseline models were 0.534 and 0.539, respectively, across the 7L FVC range captured in PRO-ACT. The RMSDs of the run-in and baseline models using an unrelated, contemporary external validation dataset (0.553 and 0.538, respectively) were comparable to the internal validation. The model was shown to have similar accuracy for predicting SVC (RMSD = 0.562). The most important features for both run-in and baseline models were "Baseline forced vital capacity" and "Days since baseline." We developed ALS-VC, a GBM model trained with the PRO-ACT ALS dataset that provides vital capacity predictions generalizable to external datasets. The ALS-VC model could be helpful in advising and counseling patients, and, in clinical trials, it could be used to generate virtual control arms against which observed outcomes could be compared, or used to stratify patients into slowly, average, and rapidly progressing subgroups.

  6. Reflections on Dead Theory in International Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Vineet

    2016-01-01

    In this short autobiographical essay, I trace my journey in the discipline of International Relations. While entering the discipline, I, along with a host of my classmates, were enamoured by the exciting possibilities of thinking theoretically. Almost a decade later, those promises look bleak. From the perspective of a student in the discipline, I…

  7. Implicit Recognition Based on Lateralized Perceptual Fluency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliana M. Vargas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this “implicit recognition” results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  8. Altered cortical communication in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E; Lee, Uncheol

    2013-05-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4-35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fertility History and Cognition in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sanna L; Grundy, Emily M D

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between fertility history and cognition in older men and women. We analyzed associations between number of children (parity) and timing of births with level and change in cognition among 11,233 men and women aged 50+ in England using latent growth curve models. Models were adjusted for age, socioeconomic position, health, depressive symptoms, control, social contacts, activities, and isolation. Low (0-1 child) and high parity (3+ children) compared to medium parity (2 children) were associated with poorer cognitive functioning, as was an early age at entry to parenthood (cognition. Late motherhood (>35) was associated with better cognitive function. Associations between fertility history and cognition were to large extent accounted for socioeconomic position, partly because this influenced health and social engagement. Poorer cognition in childless people and better cognition among mothers experiencing child birth at higher ages suggest factors related to childbearing/rearing that are beneficial for later cognitive functioning, although further research into possible earlier selection factors is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  10. Three dimensional analysis of laterally loaded piles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, C.

    1987-01-01

    In this study static analysis of laterally loaded pile is studied by the three models. The first model is the beam on discrete elastic springs. This model is analyzed using a flexibility method. The second model is the beam on a two-parameter elastic foundation. This model is analyzed using the linear finite element method. The third model is the finite element model, using the three-dimensional iso-parametric parabolic brick element. Three-dimensional pile group analysis is also performed using elastic constants of single pile obtained by any one of the above analyses. The main objective is to develop computer programs for each model related to single piles and to group analysis. Then, the deflections, rotations, moments, shears, stresses and strains of the single pile are obtained at any arbitrary point. Comparison is made between each model and with other studies such as Poulos 1971, Desai and Appel 1976. In addition, to provide a benchmark of three-dimensional finite element analysis, the Boussinesq problem is analyzed. (orig.)

  11. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Volunteering in later life: research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2010-07-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge about volunteering in later life and suggests 5 research questions at the forefront of knowledge development. Rates of volunteering do not decline significantly until the middle of the 7th decade, and older volunteers commit more hours than younger volunteers. Older adults with more human and social capital tend to volunteer, and there is good evidence of a reciprocal relationship between volunteering and well-being. Program and policy developments in the field are outstripping production of knowledge to support evidence-based practices. Research on the dynamics of volunteering over the life course as well as the patterns of activities that co-occur with volunteering is needed to guide program development. Research methods and findings from transdisciplinary work on the mechanisms through which psychosocial conditions affect health must be extended to the study of the effects of volunteering on older adults. Finally, we need to engage in more applied social science aimed at improving volunteer management, especially recruitment and retention of older volunteers.

  13. Motivation in later life: theory and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallerand, R J; O'Connor, B P; Hamel, M

    1995-01-01

    A framework that has been found useful in research on young adults, Deci and Ryan's self-determination theory [1, 2], is suggested as a promising direction for research on motivation in later life. The theory proposes the existence of four types of motivation (intrinsic, self-determined extrinsic, nonself-determined extrinsic, and amotivation) which are assumed to have varying consequences for adaptation and well-being. A previously published French measure of motivational styles which is known to be reliable and valid was translated into English and was tested on seventy-seven nursing home residents (aged 60 to 98 years). It was found that the four motivational styles can be reliably measured; that the intercorrelations between the motivational styles are consistent with theoretical predictions; and that the four types of motivation are related to other important aspects of the lives of elderly people in a theoretically meaningful manner. Suggestions are made for further research using self-determination theory and the present scales.

  14. The Lateralizing Asymmetry of Adrenal Adenomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Meng; Lopez, Diana; Luque-Fernandez, Miguel Angel; Cote, Kathryn; Newfield, Jessica; Connors, Molly; Vaidya, Anand

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Context It is presumed that the incidence of adrenal adenomas is symmetric between the left and right adrenal gland; however, anecdotal observations suggest a potential lateralizing asymmetry. Objective To investigate the symmetry in detection of adrenal adenomas and relevance to patient care. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. Population and Setting One thousand three hundred seventy-six patients with abdominal computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating benign-appearing adrenal adenomas. Main Outcome Location and size of adrenal adenomas. Results Left-sided adenomas were discovered in 65% of patients, right-sided in 21%, and bilateral adenomas in 14%. Among unilateral adenomas, 75% were left-sided. Left-sided adenomas were more prevalent than right-sided adenomas in each size category except the largest: Adrenal adenomas are substantially more likely to be identified on the left adrenal than the right. This observation may be due to detection bias attributed to the location of the right adrenal, which may preclude identification of right-sided adenomas until they are substantially larger. These findings suggest the potential for an underrecognition of right-sided adenomas that may also impair the accurate detection of bilateral adrenal diseases. PMID:29644340

  15. Implicit recognition based on lateralized perceptual fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Iliana M; Voss, Joel L; Paller, Ken A

    2012-02-06

    In some circumstances, accurate recognition of repeated images in an explicit memory test is driven by implicit memory. We propose that this "implicit recognition" results from perceptual fluency that influences responding without awareness of memory retrieval. Here we examined whether recognition would vary if images appeared in the same or different visual hemifield during learning and testing. Kaleidoscope images were briefly presented left or right of fixation during divided-attention encoding. Presentation in the same visual hemifield at test produced higher recognition accuracy than presentation in the opposite visual hemifield, but only for guess responses. These correct guesses likely reflect a contribution from implicit recognition, given that when the stimulated visual hemifield was the same at study and test, recognition accuracy was higher for guess responses than for responses with any level of confidence. The dramatic difference in guessing accuracy as a function of lateralized perceptual overlap between study and test suggests that implicit recognition arises from memory storage in visual cortical networks that mediate repetition-induced fluency increments.

  16. Risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre, Caroline; Roos, Per M; Piehl, Fredrik; Kamel, Freya; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease. It is typically fatal within 2–5 years of symptom onset. The incidence of ALS is largely uniform across most parts of the world, but an increasing ALS incidence during the last decades has been suggested. Although recent genetic studies have substantially improved our understanding of the causes of ALS, especially familial ALS, an important role of non-genetic factors in ALS is recognized and needs further study. In this review, we briefly discuss several major genetic contributors to ALS identified to date, followed by a more focused discussion on the most commonly examined non-genetic risk factors for ALS. We first review factors related to lifestyle choices, including smoking, intake of antioxidants, physical fitness, body mass index, and physical exercise, followed by factors related to occupational and environmental exposures, including electromagnetic fields, metals, pesticides, β-methylamino-L-alanine, and viral infection. Potential links between ALS and other medical conditions, including head trauma, metabolic diseases, cancer, and inflammatory diseases, are also discussed. Finally, we outline several future directions aiming to more efficiently examine the role of non-genetic risk factors in ALS. PMID:25709501

  17. Redox Regulation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parakh, Sonam; Spencer, Damian M.; Halloran, Mark A.; Soo, Kai Y.; Atkin, Julie D.

    2013-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that results from the death of upper and lower motor neurons. Due to a lack of effective treatment, it is imperative to understand the underlying mechanisms and processes involved in disease progression. Regulations in cellular reduction/oxidation (redox) processes are being increasingly implicated in disease. Here we discuss the possible involvement of redox dysregulation in the pathophysiology of ALS, either as a cause of cellular abnormalities or a consequence. We focus on its possible role in oxidative stress, protein misfolding, glutamate excitotoxicity, lipid peroxidation and cholesterol esterification, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired axonal transport and neurofilament aggregation, autophagic stress, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We also speculate that an ER chaperone protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) could play a key role in this dysregulation. PDI is essential for normal protein folding by oxidation and reduction of disulphide bonds, and hence any disruption to this process may have consequences for motor neurons. Addressing the mechanism underlying redox regulation and dysregulation may therefore help to unravel the molecular mechanism involved in ALS. PMID:23533690

  18. Migration of cochlear lateral wall cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaway, George; Mhaskar, Yashanad; Armour, Gary; Whitworth, Craig; Rybak, Leonard

    2003-03-01

    The role of apoptosis and proliferation in maintenance of cochlear lateral wall cells was examined. The methods employed for detection of apoptosis were the Hoechst fluorescence stain and TUNEL (TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end-labeling) assay, and proliferations were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and presence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The incidence of apoptosis in the strial marginal cell was 50% greater (32.9+/-3.7%) than strial intermediate and basal cells but similar to spiral ligament cells. Although division of marginal strial cells was rarely detected, a significant number of proliferating cells in the remaining stria vascularis and spiral ligament were observed. These data implied that replacement of marginal cells arose elsewhere and could be followed by a BrdU-deoxythymidine pulse-chase study. At 2 h post injection, nuclear BrdU in marginal cells was not detected; however, by 24 h post injection, 20-25% of marginal cell nuclei were BrdU-positive. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that marginal cells were replaced by underlying cells. Cell migration appears to be an important mechanism for preserving the function and structure of the stria vascularis.

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: New Perpectives and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, Marco; Oliveira, Acary Bulle; Nascimento, Osvaldo J.M.; Reis, Carlos Henrique Melo; Leite, Marco Antonio Araujo; de Souza, Jano Alves; Pupe, Camila; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Bastos, Victor Hugo; de Freitas, Marcos R.G.; Teixeira, Silmar; Bruno, Carlos; Davidovich, Eduardo; Smidt, Benny

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot’s disease or Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a term used to cover the spetrum of syndromes caracterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, a paralytic disorder caused by motor neuron degeneration. Currently, there are approximately 25,000 patients with ALS in the USA, with an average age of onset of 55 years. The incidence and prevalence of ALS are 1-2 and 4-6 per 100,000 each year, respectively, with a lifetime ALS risk of 1/600 to 1/1000. It causes progressive and cumulative physical disabilities, and leads to eventual death due to respiratory muscle failure. ALS is diverse in its presentation, course, and progression. We do not yet fully understand the causes of the disease, nor the mechanisms for its progression; thus, we lack effective means for treating this disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the diagnosis, treatment, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life based on of our experience, guidelines, and clinical trials. Nowadays ALS seems to be a more complex disease than it did two decades – or even one decade – ago, but new insights have been plentiful. Clinical trials should be seen more as experiments on pathogenic mechanisms. A medication or combination of medications that targets more than one pathogenic pathway may slow disease progression in an additive or synergistic fashion. PMID:26487927

  20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: sonographic evaluation of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, S; Solazzo, A; Sagnelli, A; Del Vecchio, L; Reginelli, A; Monsorrò, M; Grassi, R

    2010-08-01

    The authors sought to determine the role of video ultrasonography (VUS) in the diagnostic assessment of dysphagia in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Nine patients underwent simultaneous static and dynamic VUS examination and videofluoroscopy (VFS) of swallowing. At the static phase, VUS showed 5/9 patients had lingual atrophy. Abnormal bolus position was observed in 6/9 patients at VUS and 3/9 at VFS. Both techniques identified an inability to keep the bolus in the oral cavity in 4/9 patients. At the dynamic phase, reduced lingual movement was observed in 5/9 patients at VUS and 2/9 at VFS. Disorganised tongue movement was seen in 3/9 patients at VUS and in 2/9 at VFS. Fragmented swallowing was only visualised at VUS. Stagnation of ingested material was never visualised at VUS, whereas it was clearly depicted in 2/9 patients at VFS. VUS can be integrated into the diagnostic protocol for evaluating swallowing in patients with ALS, as it has higher sensitivity than VFS in assessing the dynamic factors that represent the early signs of dysphagia.

  1. Respiratory exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Susana; Swash, Michael; de Carvalho, Mamede

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the potential role of respiratory exercise by implementing specific inspiratory muscle training in a selected population of early-affected amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We studied 26 patients with ALS with normal respiratory function using two groups of patients in a parallel, control-group, randomized, delayed-start design. Patients in the first group (G1) started the active inspiratory exercise programme at entry and were followed for eight months, while the second group (G2) of patients followed a placebo exercise programme for the first four months and then active exercise for the second four-month period. The primary outcome measure was the ALSFRS. Respiratory tests, neurophysiological measurements, fatigue and quality of life scales were secondary outcomes. Analysis of covariance was used to compare changes between and within groups. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two patient groups. Within-group analysis suggested that inspiratory exercise promotes a transient improvement in the respiratory subscore and in the maximal voluntary ventilation, peak expiratory flow, and sniff inspiratory pressure. In conclusion, there was no clear positive or negative outcome of the respiratory exercise protocol we have proposed, but we cannot rule out a minor positive effect. Exercise regimes merit more detailed clinical evaluation in ALS.

  2. Internal education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Zagorc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: The importance of internal trainings in an organization. Purpose: The purpose of research is to examine and present internal trainings in an organization and their contribution to greater success of an organization. The paper studies employee training in a company, how the organization itself looks after its employees during training, how trainings contribute to further development of organization and the advancement of knowledge for successful operation of organization. Method: How to achieve the purpose of research, used methods and theoretical approach. Results: Specific examples and opinions of employees. Results show the importance of trainings for an organization. We can see that all employees are fairly motivated and ready to participate in trainings and can adapt to changing business environment very well. The results demonstrate that all trainings in the organization are very important and welcome. Only with continuous learning, the organization can be successful and survive in the market despite strong competition. Organization: Trainings are designed for all employees inside an organization. Different employees participate in trainings in a different way as all trainings are divided into certain work and fields that are important for each individual or department in an organization. Society: Trainings have an impact on the whole organization by contributing to its development. Originality: The originality of study is what was new in the research, what is the value and originality of research. Limitations/Future Research: Research was limited to a small number of sources.

  3. Assessment of the upper motor neuron in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, William; Simon, Neil G; Grosskreutz, Julian; Turner, Martin R; Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2016-07-01

    Clinical signs of upper motor neuron (UMN) involvement are an important component in supporting the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but are often not easily appreciated in a limb that is concurrently affected by muscle wasting and lower motor neuron degeneration, particularly in the early symptomatic stages of ALS. Whilst recent criteria have been proposed to facilitate improved detection of lower motor neuron impairment through electrophysiological features that have improved diagnostic sensitivity, assessment of upper motor neuron involvement remains essentially clinical. As a result, there is often a significant diagnostic delay that in turn may impact institution of disease-modifying therapy and access to other optimal patient management. Biomarkers of pathological UMN involvement are also required to ensure patients with suspected ALS have timely access to appropriate therapeutic trials. The present review provides an analysis of current and recently developed assessment techniques, including novel imaging and electrophysiological approaches used to study corticomotoneuronal pathology in ALS. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual performance and leader's laterality in interactive contests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Satyam

    2017-05-01

    Left-handedness is known to provide an intrinsic and tactical advantage at top level in many sports involving interactive contests. Again, most of the renowned leaders of the world are known to have been left-handed. Leadership plays an important role in politics, sports and mentorship. In this paper we show that Cricket captains who bat left-handed have a strategic advantage over the right-handed captains in One Day International (ODI) and Test matches. The present study involving 46 left-handed captains and 148 right-handed captains in ODI matches, reveal a strong relation between leader's laterality and team member performance, demonstrating the critical importance of left-handedness and successful leadership. The odds for superior batting performance in an ODI match under left-handed captains are 89% higher than the odds under right-handed captains. Our study shows that left-handed captains are more successful in extracting superior performance from the batsmen and bowlers in ODI and Test matches; perhaps indicating left-handed leaders are better motivators as leaders when compared to right-handed captains.

  5. Early mathematics development and later achievement: Further evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrey, Carol; Godfrey, Ray; Dahl, Sarah

    2006-05-01

    There is a growing international recognition of the importance of the early years of schooling as well as an interest being shown in the relationship of early education to later achievement. This article focuses on a cohort of English pupils who have been tracked through primary school during the first five years of the new National Numeracy Strategy. It reports a limited longitudinal study of young children's early mathematical development, initially within three testing cycles: at the mid-point and towards the end of their reception year (at five years-of-age) and again at the mid-point of Year 1 (at six years-ofage). These cycles were located within the broader context of progress through to the end of Key Stage 1 (at seven years) and Key Stage 2 (at eleven years) on the basis of national standardised assessment tests (SATs). Results showed that children who bring into school early mathematical knowledge do appear to be advantaged in terms of their mathematical progress through primary school. Numerical attainment increases in importance across the primary years and practical problem solving remains an important element of this. This finding is significant given the current emphasis on numerical calculation in the English curriculum. It is concluded that without active intervention, it is likely that children with little mathematical knowledge at the beginning of formal schooling will remain low achievers throughout their primary years and, probably, beyond.

  6. Evaluation of muscle MRI in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Yuri; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki

    2005-01-01

    Various objective measurements can be used to diagnose amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). T2-weighted brain MRI images revealed high signal areas at the posterior limb of the internal capsules in ALS patients. Recently, muscle MRI proved useful to evaluate abnormalities of the muscle in myositis patients. Therefore, in the present study, we examined muscle MRI of leg muscles in ALS patients, and correlated MRI with functional measurements, such as muscle strength, and compound muscle action potential amplitude of the tibialis anterior (TA) after stimulation of the peroneal nerve. The subjects consisted of 10 ALS patients (7 males and 3 females), ranging in age from 49 to 87. Neurologic symptoms at the onset of ALS consisted of bulbar dysfunction in one patient, upper extremity involvement in three patients, and lower extremity involvement in six patients. Muscle MRI of the legs was performed in 9 (ALS patients. A peripheral nerve conduction study was performed on the peroneal nerve, with the recording electrode over the TA. The T2-weighted muscle MRI images revealed high signal aeras in the muscle in six ALS patients, whose muscle weakness existed predominantly in the lower extremities. Extracellular fluid accumulation has been proposed to be responsible for the signal increase of denervated muscles on T2-weighted muscle MRI images. We assume that muscle MRI is useful to demonstrate the distribution of muscle involvement in ALS patients and to assess the disease's stage. (author)

  7. Clinical care of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radunović, Aleksandar; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi; Leigh, P Nigel

    2007-10-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and its variants are readily recognised by neurologists, about 10% of patients are misdiagnosed, and delays in diagnosis are common. Prompt diagnosis, sensitive communication of the diagnosis, the involvement of the patient and their family, and a positive care plan are prerequisites for good clinical management. A multidisciplinary, palliative approach can prolong survival and maintain quality of life. Treatment with riluzole improves survival but has a marginal effect on the rate of functional deterioration, whereas non-invasive ventilation prolongs survival and improves or maintains quality of life. In this Review, we discuss the diagnosis, management, and how to cope with impaired function and end of life on the basis of our experience, the opinions of experts, existing guidelines, and clinical trials. We highlight the need for research on the effectiveness of gastrostomy, access to non-invasive ventilation and palliative care, communication between the care team, the patient and his or her family, and recognition of the clinical and social effects of cognitive impairment. We recommend that the plethora of evidence-based guidelines should be compiled into an internationally agreed guideline of best practice.

  8. Lateral shift in one-dimensional quasiperiodic chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da, Jian, E-mail: dajian521@sina.com [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Mo, Qi, E-mail: moqiyueyang@163.com [School of Software, Yunnan University, Cuihu Bai Road, Kunming City, Yunnan Province 650091 (China); Cheng, Yaokun [Department of Information Engineering, Huaian Senior Vocational and Technical School, Feiyao road, Huaian 223005, Jiangsu Province (China); Liu, Taixiang [Taishan Vocational College of Nursing, Shandong Province 271000 (China)

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the lateral shift of a one-dimensional quasiperiodic photonic crystal consisting of chiral and conventional dielectric materials. The effect of structural irregularity on lateral shift is evaluated by stationary-phase approach. Our results show that the lateral shift can be modulated by varying the structural irregularity in quasiperiodic structure. Besides, the position of peak in lateral shift spectrum stays sensitive to the chiral factor of chiral materials. In comparison with that of periodic structure, quasiperiodic structure provides an extra degree of freedom to manipulate the lateral shift.

  9. The MR diagnosis of discoid lateral meniscus of the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yutaka; Ishida, Tsuyoshi; Ohtani, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yamamoto, Tadasi; Tsukaguchi, Isao; Nakamura, Hitonobu.

    1992-01-01

    To establish the criteria for the diagnosis of discoid lateral meniscus, we introduced a discriminant analysis to our statistical study. Materials included surgically proved 38 discoid lateral menisci and 36 normal menisci imaged by means of MR. Numerical measurements were performed interactively on the MR monitor with eight possible parameters of these parameters, a discriminant analysis revealed that the transverse width of the lateral meniscus on the coronal image was the best parameter. Our study showed that discoid lateral meniscus should be present if the transverse width of the lateral meniscus exceeded 14.3 mm. (author)

  10. Wound infections following open reduction and internal fixation of calcaneal fractures with an extended lateral approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Backes, Manouk; Schepers, Tim; Beerekamp, M. Suzan H.; Luitse, Jan S. K.; Goslings, J. Carel; Schep, Niels W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Post-operative wound infections (PWI) following calcaneal fracture surgery can lead to prolonged hospital stay and additional treatment with antibiotics, surgical debridement or implant removal. Our aim was to determine the incidence of superficial and deep PWI and to identify risk factors (RF).

  11. Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Horie, Takeo; Chen, Geng; Bao, Hongcun; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Weihong; Horie, Ryoko; Liang, Tao; Dong, Biyu; Feng, Qianqian; Tao, Qinghua; Liu, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors. First, like in vertebrates, the conserved neuroectoderm lateral border specifier Msx/vab-15 specifies lateral neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans Second, orthologs of the vertebrate NPB specification module ( Msx/vab-15 , Pax3/7/pax-3 , and Zic/ref-2 ) are significantly enriched in worm lateral neuroblasts. In addition, like in other bilaterians, the expression domain of Msx/vab-15 is more lateral than those of Pax3/7/pax-3 and Zic/ref- 2 in C. elegans Third, we show that Msx/vab-15 regulates the development of mechanosensory neurons derived from lateral neural progenitors in multiple invertebrate species, including C. elegans , Drosophila melanogaster , and Ciona intestinalis We also identify a novel lateral neural border specifier, ZNF703/tlp-1 , which functions synergistically with Msx/vab- 15 in both C. elegans and Xenopus laevis These data suggest a common origin of the molecular mechanism specifying lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

  12. Laterality patterns of brain functional connectivity: gender effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Dardo; Volkow, Nora D

    2012-06-01

    Lateralization of brain connectivity may be essential for normal brain function and may be sexually dimorphic. Here, we study the laterality patterns of short-range (implicated in functional specialization) and long-range (implicated in functional integration) connectivity and the gender effects on these laterality patterns. Parallel computing was used to quantify short- and long-range functional connectivity densities in 913 healthy subjects. Short-range connectivity was rightward lateralized and most asymmetrical in areas around the lateral sulcus, whereas long-range connectivity was rightward lateralized in lateral sulcus and leftward lateralizated in inferior prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus. The posterior inferior occipital cortex was leftward lateralized (short- and long-range connectivity). Males had greater rightward lateralization of brain connectivity in superior temporal (short- and long-range), inferior frontal, and inferior occipital cortices (short-range), whereas females had greater leftward lateralization of long-range connectivity in the inferior frontal cortex. The greater lateralization of the male's brain (rightward and predominantly short-range) may underlie their greater vulnerability to disorders with disrupted brain asymmetries (schizophrenia, autism).

  13. Value and pitfalls of the lateral lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.M.; Krol, G.; Faunce, H.; Bay, R.

    1975-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-one of 443 lung scans composed of anterior, posterior, and lateral projections (done in our hospital) demonstrated defects. In 3.9 percent of them (11 cases), the defects were delineated in the lateral views only, while in 29.2 percent (82 cases), the lateral views either outlined additional defects not appreciated on the straight views, or showed more extensive lung involvement. In the majority of instances, 56.6 percent (159 cases), the lateral views showed comparable findings and also tended to segmentally localize the defects better. However, in 10.3 percent (29 cases), defects present on the straight projections were not detected on the lateral views. Various causes that could give rise to artefactual abnormalities in the lateral lung scan and therefore inhibit its proper interpretation are reviewed and discussed. Despite these problems, the lateral may be the only view to demonstrate abnormalities and, in fact, frequently provides additional useful information

  14. Coverage of Exposed Bone of the Lateral Malleolus With a Proximally Based Lateral Malleolar Perforator Flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Caroline W; Moerman, Esther; Haverlag, Robert; Schepers, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of soft tissue defects of the ankle, combined with an implant-related infection, remains a challenge. The present case report illustrates the use of a pedicled perforator flap for soft tissue reconstruction to cover a postoperative defect at the lateral malleolus after an ankle fracture. Copyright © 2015 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anatomy of the lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve in relation to the lateral epicondyle and cephalic vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkerdsook, Wachara; Agthong, Sithiporn; Amarase, Chavarin; Yotnuengnit, Pattarapol; Huanmanop, Thanasil; Chentanez, Vilai

    2011-01-01

    The lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve (LACN) is the terminal sensory branch of the musculocutaneous nerve supplying the lateral aspect of forearm. Because of its close proximity to the biceps brachii tendon (BBT), the lateral epicondyle (LE), and the cephalic vein (CV), surgery and venipuncture in the cubital fossa can injure the LACN. Measurement data regarding the relative anatomy of LACN are scarce. We, therefore, dissected 96 upper extremities from 26 males and 22 females to expose the LACN in the cubital fossa and forearm. The LACN consistently emerged from the lateral margin of BBT. It then pierced the deep fascia distal to the interepicondylar line (IEL) in 84.4% with mean distances of 1.8 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 0.9 cm (male and female, respectively). At the level of IEL, the LACN in all cases was medial to the LE (5.9 ± 1.1 cm male and 5.2 ± 0.9 cm female). Two types of branching were observed: single trunk (78.1%) and bifurcation (21.9%). Asymmetry in the branching pattern was observed in 6 males and 1 female. Concerning the relationship to the CV, the LACN ran medially within 1 cm at the level of IEL in 78.7%. Moreover, in 10 specimens, the LACN was directly beneath the CV. In the forearm, the LACN tends to course medial to the CV. Significant differences in the measurement data between genders but not sides were found in some parameters. These data are important for avoiding LACN injury and locating the LACN during relevant medical procedures. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. International safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, A.

    1991-01-01

    The IAEA has now 200 Inspectors or so, and Euratom a similar number. People in Vienna are talking about increases of this staff, in the range of a possible doubling in the five years to come, although even an immediate restart of the expansion of nuclear industry, would not materialize significantly within this period. This means that keeping the same safeguarding approach would probably lead to another doubling of such staff in the ten following years, which is completely unrealistic. Such a staff is our of proportion with those of national inspectorates in other fields. The paper analyzes the basic irrealistic dogma which have hindered the progress of international safeguards, and recall the suggestions made since ten years to improve them

  17. International food aid – directions of changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Sapa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Permanently unsolved world food insecurity problem makes the international community search for solutions. One of the used methods is international food aid directed to developing countries. Long term analyses of the food aid flows allow to identify some tendencies that show: increase of emergency food aid and decrease of direct transfer. These tendencies also apply to the two biggest food donors i.e. the USA and the EU. The noticeable directions of changes are based on the international community initiatives, on which the national regulation are formed later.

  18. Lateral Scapular Slide Test and Scapular Mobility in Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Context: The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. Objective: To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). Results: In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t66 = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t66 = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t66 = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation

  19. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Sebastião

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present review we discuss the potential involvement of adenosinergic signaling, in particular the role of adenosine receptors, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Though the literature on this topic is not abundant, the information so far available on adenosine receptors in animal models of ALS highlights the interest to continue to explore the role of these receptors in this neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, all motor neurons affected in ALS are responsive to adenosine receptor ligands but interestingly, there are alterations in pre-symptomatic or early symptomatic stages that mirror those in advanced disease stages. Information starts to emerge pointing toward a beneficial role of A2A receptors (A2AR, most probably at early disease states, and a detrimental role of caffeine, in clear contrast with what occurs in other neurodegenerative diseases. However, some evidence also exists on a beneficial action of A2AR antagonists. It may happen that there are time windows where A2AR prove beneficial and others where their blockade is required. Furthermore, the same changes may not occur simultaneously at the different synapses. In line with this, it is not fully understood if ALS is a dying back disease or if it propagates in a centrifugal way. It thus seems crucial to understand how motor neuron dysfunction occurs, how adenosine receptors are involved in those dysfunctions and whether the early changes in purinergic signaling are compensatory or triggers for the disease. Getting this information is crucial before starting the design of purinergic based strategies to halt or delay disease progression.

  20. [Clinical polymorphism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovrazhkina, E A; Razinskaya, O D; Gubsky, L V

    To clarify clinical polymorphism of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The study was based on records of a hospital personalized register. Ninety-four patients, aged from 25 to 81 years, diagnosed with ALS according to El Escorial criteria were included. Electromyography and, if necessary, transcranial magnetic stimulation and magnetic-resonance tomography were used to confirm the diagnosis. Disease progression was assessed with the ARSFRS. Age at disease onset, progression rate and duration of survival of patients, rare symptoms of ALS ('extramotor'), time for palliative care (gastrostomy, non-invasive and invasive lung ventilation) and provision of the care to the patient, family history were recorded in a specially designed questionnaire. Most of the patients had sporadic ALS, only two familial cases were identified. Spinal onset ALS was found in 66.0% of the patients, bulbar onset in 29.8%, diffuse onset (spinal and bulbar motor neurons were affected simultaneously) in 4.2%. Moderate ALS progression was observed in 42.6% of the patients, mean time till death was 3.0±1.2 years. A slow progression was found in patients with cervical, low back and bulbar onset. A rapid and even 'momentary' type of progression was in diffuse and breast onset. An extremely slow progression with the long-term hospital treatment and survival >5 years was found in 9.7%. Rare ALS symptoms were represented by specific cognitive and psychological impairments, a type of frontal/temporal dysfunction, but only 5 (5.3%) patients were diagnosed with ALS-dementia. Signs of pathological muscle fatigue (myasthenic syndrome) were identified in 18 (19.1%), extrapyramidal disorders in 5 (5.3%), coordination disorders in 4 (4.3%), pain in 12 (12.8%), sensory symptoms in 5 (5.3%) of the patients. ALS is a multisystemic neurodegeneration disease though the progressive motor neuron death determines the fatal outcome.

  1. Cortical influences drive amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Andrew; Braak, Heiko; Del Tredici, Kelly; Lemon, Roger; Ludolph, Albert C; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2017-11-01

    The early motor manifestations of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), while rarely documented, reflect failure of adaptive complex motor skills. The development of these skills correlates with progressive evolution of a direct corticomotoneuronal system that is unique to primates and markedly enhanced in humans. The failure of this system in ALS may translate into the split hand presentation, gait disturbance, split leg syndrome and bulbar symptomatology related to vocalisation and breathing, and possibly diffuse fasciculation, characteristic of ALS. Clinical neurophysiology of the brain employing transcranial magnetic stimulation has convincingly demonstrated a presymptomatic reduction or absence of short interval intracortical inhibition, accompanied by increased intracortical facilitation, indicating cortical hyperexcitability. The hallmark of the TDP-43 pathological signature of sporadic ALS is restricted to cortical areas as well as to subcortical nuclei that are under the direct control of corticofugal projections. This provides anatomical support that the origins of the TDP-43 pathology reside in the cerebral cortex itself, secondarily in corticofugal fibres and the subcortical targets with which they make monosynaptic connections. The latter feature explains the multisystem degeneration that characterises ALS. Consideration of ALS as a primary neurodegenerative disorder of the human brain may incorporate concepts of prion-like spread at synaptic terminals of corticofugal axons. Further, such a concept could explain the recognised widespread imaging abnormalities of the ALS neocortex and the accepted relationship between ALS and frontotemporal dementia. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Physiological models of the lateral superior olive.

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    Go Ashida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In computational biology, modeling is a fundamental tool for formulating, analyzing and predicting complex phenomena. Most neuron models, however, are designed to reproduce certain small sets of empirical data. Hence their outcome is usually not compatible or comparable with other models or datasets, making it unclear how widely applicable such models are. In this study, we investigate these aspects of modeling, namely credibility and generalizability, with a specific focus on auditory neurons involved in the localization of sound sources. The primary cues for binaural sound localization are comprised of interaural time and level differences (ITD/ILD, which are the timing and intensity differences of the sound waves arriving at the two ears. The lateral superior olive (LSO in the auditory brainstem is one of the locations where such acoustic information is first computed. An LSO neuron receives temporally structured excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs that are driven by ipsi- and contralateral sound stimuli, respectively, and changes its spike rate according to binaural acoustic differences. Here we examine seven contemporary models of LSO neurons with different levels of biophysical complexity, from predominantly functional ones ('shot-noise' models to those with more detailed physiological components (variations of integrate-and-fire and Hodgkin-Huxley-type. These models, calibrated to reproduce known monaural and binaural characteristics of LSO, generate largely similar results to each other in simulating ITD and ILD coding. Our comparisons of physiological detail, computational efficiency, predictive performances, and further expandability of the models demonstrate (1 that the simplistic, functional LSO models are suitable for applications where low computational costs and mathematical transparency are needed, (2 that more complex models with detailed membrane potential dynamics are necessary for simulation studies where sub

  3. Laterally constrained inversion for CSAMT data interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruo; Yin, Changchun; Wang, Miaoyue; Di, Qingyun

    2015-10-01

    Laterally constrained inversion (LCI) has been successfully applied to the inversion of dc resistivity, TEM and airborne EM data. However, it hasn't been yet applied to the interpretation of controlled-source audio-frequency magnetotelluric (CSAMT) data. In this paper, we apply the LCI method for CSAMT data inversion by preconditioning the Jacobian matrix. We apply a weighting matrix to Jacobian to balance the sensitivity of model parameters, so that the resolution with respect to different model parameters becomes more uniform. Numerical experiments confirm that this can improve the convergence of the inversion. We first invert a synthetic dataset with and without noise to investigate the effect of LCI applications to CSAMT data, for the noise free data, the results show that the LCI method can recover the true model better compared to the traditional single-station inversion; and for the noisy data, the true model is recovered even with a noise level of 8%, indicating that LCI inversions are to some extent noise insensitive. Then, we re-invert two CSAMT datasets collected respectively in a watershed and a coal mine area in Northern China and compare our results with those from previous inversions. The comparison with the previous inversion in a coal mine shows that LCI method delivers smoother layer interfaces that well correlate to seismic data, while comparison with a global searching algorithm of simulated annealing (SA) in a watershed shows that though both methods deliver very similar good results, however, LCI algorithm presented in this paper runs much faster. The inversion results for the coal mine CSAMT survey show that a conductive water-bearing zone that was not revealed by the previous inversions has been identified by the LCI. This further demonstrates that the method presented in this paper works for CSAMT data inversion.

  4. Axonal excitability properties in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Steve; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2006-07-01

    To investigate axolemmal ion channel function in patients diagnosed with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A recently described threshold tracking protocol was implemented to measure multiple indices of axonal excitability in 26 ALS patients by stimulating the median motor nerve at the wrist. The excitability indices studied included: stimulus-response curve (SR); strength-duration time constant (tauSD); current/threshold relationship; threshold electrotonus to a 100 ms polarizing current; and recovery curves to a supramaximal stimulus. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitudes were significantly reduced in ALS patients (ALS, 2.84+/-1.17 mV; controls, 8.27+/-1.09 mV, P<0.0005) and the SR curves for both 0.2 and 1 ms pulse widths were shifted in a hyperpolarized direction. Threshold electrotonus revealed a greater threshold change to both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing conditioning stimuli, similar to the 'fanned out' appearance that occurs with membrane hyperpolarization. The tauSD was significantly increased in ALS patients (ALS, 0.50+/-0.03 ms; controls, 0.42+/-0.02 ms, P<0.05). The recovery cycle of excitability following a conditioning supramaximal stimulus revealed increased superexcitability in ALS patients (ALS, 29.63+/-1.25%; controls, 25.11+/-1.01%, P<0.01). Threshold tracking studies revealed changes indicative of widespread dysfunction in axonal ion channel conduction, including increased persistent Na+ channel conduction, and abnormalities of fast paranodal K+ and internodal slow K+ channel function, in ALS patients. An increase in persistent Na+ conductances coupled with reduction in K+ currents would predispose axons of ALS patients to generation of fasciculations and cramps. Axonal excitability studies may provide insight into mechanisms responsible for motor neuron loss in ALS.

  5. Nutritional intervention for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morassutti, I; Giometto, M; Baruffi, C; Marcon, M L; Michieletto, S; Giometto, B; Spinella, N; Paccagnella, A

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the consequences of early and systematic nutritional intervention on the clinical conditions of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and on the opportunity to maintain a good nutritional status for as long as possible. Thirty-three subjects with ALS. Protocol Group: 12 subjects (9 M and 3 F) monitored according to a precise nutritional intervention protocol. 21 subjects (10 M and 11 F) monitored before applying the protocol. Data recorded at the time of initial assessment were compared and expressed as the mean ± standard deviation for the Protocol Group vs. the BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 4.1 vs. 21.6 ± 3.5; weight loss as a percentage of usual weight 6.6 ± 7.9 vs. 16.3 ± 8.8 (P=0.003). At six months: weight loss as a percentage of usual weight 4.9 ± 6.2 vs. 16.9 ± 10.2 (P=0.002). At 12 months: weight loss as a percentage of usual weight 7.3 ± 7.1 vs. 17.5 ± 11.1 (P=0.03). At the first follow-up visit, fewer patients in the Protocol Group were receiving enteral nutrition (25%) than patients in the CONTROL GROUP (60%). At six-month follow-up visit: 30% vs. 68%. Standard enteral nutrition formulas were used. One year after initial assessment, the mortality rate was 17% for the Protocol Group, whereas it was 24% at six months and 33% after one year for the CONTROL GROUP. If patients are treated before any significant weight loss occurs, early and specific nutritional intervention allows good nutritional status to be maintained for a longer period; if artificial nutrition is required, standard diets are able to ensure adequate clinical results.

  6. A description of the lumbar interfascial triangle and its relation with the lateral raphe: anatomical constituents of load transfer through the lateral margin of the thoracolumbar fascia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuenke, M D; Vleeming, A; Van Hoof, T; Willard, F H

    2012-01-01

    Movement and stability of the lumbosacral region is contingent on the balance of forces distributed through the myofascial planes associated with the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF). This structure is located at the common intersection of several extremity muscles (e.g. latissimus dorsi and gluteus maximus), as well as hypaxial (e.g. ventral trunk muscles) and epaxial (paraspinal) muscles. The mechanical properties of the fascial constituents establish the parameters guiding the dynamic interaction of muscle groups that stabilize the lumbosacral spine. Understanding the construction of this complex myofascial junction is fundamental to biomechanical analysis and implementation of effective rehabilitation in individuals with low back and pelvic girdle pain. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to describe the anatomy of the lateral margin of the TLF, and specifically the interface between the fascial sheath surrounding the paraspinal muscles and the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis (TA) and internal oblique (IO) muscles. The lateral margin of the TLF was exposed via serial reduction dissections from anterior and posterior approaches. Axial sections (cadaveric and magnetic resonance imaging) were examined to characterize the region between the TA and IO aponeurosis and the paraspinal muscles. It is confirmed that the paraspinal muscles are enveloped by a continuous paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS), formed by the deep lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF. The PRS extends from the spinous process to transverse process, and is distinct from both the superficial lamina of the posterior layer and middle layer of the TLF. As the aponeurosis approaches the lateral border of the PRS, it appears to separate into two distinct laminae, which join the anterior and posterior walls of the PRS. This configuration creates a previously undescribed fat-filled lumbar interfascial triangle situated along the lateral border of the paraspinal muscles from the 12th

  7. Association between the Brain Laterality, Gender and Birth Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Baghdasarians

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: in recent years different hypotheses with respect to the formation of cerebral laterality were proposed. Some of the researchers claim that cerebral dominance and laterality are determined by genetic factors, just as the case with eye color and blood type. However, another group states that in addition to genetic factors, environmental factors, too, have a remarkable role in hemispheric dominance and lateral dominance. Hence, the present research was designed to study the relationship between 1- lateral dominance and birth season 2- lateral dominance and gender. "n "nMethod:1355(girls and boys fifth graders from the 19 educational regions of Tehran were selected using multi stage cluster sampling in the 2003-2004 school year. Coren lateral preference and personal information questionnaire were applied. "nResults:The following results were obtained at the level of ل=0.05 and probability of 95%. There were significant association between lateral dominance and birth season, between lateral dominance and gender, between ambidexterity and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and birth season, between dexterality and gender, between ambidexterity and gender, between genetic sinistrality and gender. There were no significant associations between dexterality and birth season, genetic sinistrality and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and gender. "nConclusion: The gestational environmental factors can have significant effect on the formation of lateral dominance and cerebral laterality.

  8. Geological conditions for lateral sealing of active faults and relevant research methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang Fu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers worked a lot on geologic conditions for lateral sealing of faults, but none of their studies took the effect of internal structures of fault zones on the lateral sealing capacity of faults. Therefore, the lateral sealing of active faults has rarely been discussed. In this paper, based on the analysis of the composition and structure characteristics of fault fillings, the geological conditions for lateral sealing of active faults and relevant research method were discussed in reference to the lateral sealing mechanisms of inactive fault rocks. It is shown that, in order to satisfy geologically the lateral sealing of active faults, the faults should be antithetic and the faulted strata should be mainly composed of mudstone, so that the displacement pressure of fault fillings is higher than or equal to that of reservoir rocks in oil and gas migration block. Then, a research method for the lateral sealing of active faults was established by comparing the displacement pressure of fillings in the fault with that of reservoir rocks in oil and gas migration block. This method was applied to three antithetic faults (F1, F2 and F3 in No. 1 structure of the Nanpu Sag, Bohai Bay Basin. As revealed, the fillings of these three active faults were mostly argillaceous at the stage of natural gas accumulation (the late stage of Neogene Minghuazhen Fm sedimentation, and their displacement pressures were higher than that of reservoir rocks in the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm (F1 and F3 and the Neogene Guantao Fm (F2. Accordingly, they are laterally sealed for natural gas, which is conducive to the accumulation and preservation of natural gas. Industrial gas flow has been produced from the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm in Well Np101, the Guantao Fm in Well Np1-2 and the first member of Paleogene Dongying Fm in Well Np1, which is in agreement with the analysis result. It is verified that this method is feasible for investigating the

  9. Lateral malleolus hook plate for comminuted Weber A and B fractures: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Zhenhua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of managing the comminuted fracture of lateral malleolus is to restore length, rotation and alignment which might be more challenging with extensive comminution around the area of the distal tip. The common osteosynthesis techniques such as the one-third tubular plate, tension band wiring, K-wires, screws, or intramedullary nail may be insufficient in cases with a comminuted lateral malleolus. The anatomical hook plate is an alternative implant in such cases. We present our results of the comminuted lateral malleolar fractures (Weber A, B, managed by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF with an anatomical hook plate of lateral malleolus (Königsee Implant Company, Germany. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients of comminuted fracture of distal lateral malleolus between 2008 and 2010. There were 12 males and 8 females, right side was involved in 18 patients and left in 2. The mean age was 51.9 years (range 18-75 years. The fractures were categorized by Denis-Weber classification type A (n=1, B1 (n=1, B2 (n=13 and B3 (n=5. Nineteen cases were of closed injury and one of open injury (Gustilo Anderson type II. These patients underwent ORIF with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. Followup including radiographs and clinical examinations were performed. The American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS ankle hindfoot scores were documented at followups. Results: The mean followup was 21.4 months (range 16-27 months. The average AOFAS score was 94.3 (range 78-100 points. A stable anatomic reduction and bony union were obtained in all the cases. The average time was 3.1 months (range 2.5-4 months. Four cases had complications like posttraumatic osteoarthritis, hardware impingement and superficial wound infection. Conclusion: A reasonably good stability can be obtained in distal most comminuted fractures of lateral malleolus with a lateral malleolus anatomical hook plate. We believe this

  10. International relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The French nuclear safety authority (A.S.N.) has participated at different meeting in European Union as nuclear decommissioning assistance programme(N.D.A.P.), Regulatory assistance management group (R.A.M.G.) and Instrument for nuclear safety cooperation (I.N.S.C.). The members of Western European nuclear regulator association (W.E.N.R.A.) met and discussed about the future of W.E.N.R.A. and its representativeness and its cooperation with European nuclear safety regulator group (E.N.S.R.E.G.) and head of European radiation control authorities (H.E.R.C.A.). About International relations it is to noticed a meeting at the invitation of IAEA to discuss about the possibility to resort to the Ines scale for medical events. An audit mission under the IAEA aegis stood at Fessenheim, O.S.A.R.T. for operational safety review team. Two years and a half passed by between the audit mission Integrated regulatory review service (I.R.S.S.) welcome by A.S.N. in november 2006 and the audit mission follow up in 2009, 12 experts from 11 different countries and coordinated by three representatives of IAEA worked, the conclusions were that 90% of recommendations made to A.S.N. in 2006 were treated in a satisfying way; the evaluation gives three new recommendations, 7 new suggestions and 11 new correct practices. A meeting of the commission on safety standards (C.S.S.) stood in april 2009. Some others meeting are to be noticed: nuclear safety and security group (N.S.S.G.), expert group on nuclear and radiation safety (E.G.N.R.S.) instituted by the council of the Baltic sea states (C.B.S.S.) treats data exchange on the national networks of dose rates and surveillance of radioactivity in air. International nuclear regulator association (I.N.R.A.) held its first meeting in april 2009 at Seoul (Korea). Bilateral relations with Poland, Italy, Ukraine and Germany planed cooperation or information exchange in the field of nuclear safety. Participation to conference in Usa, meetings with United

  11. In pursuit of our ancestors' hand laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargalló, Amèlia; Mosquera, Marina; Lozano, Sergi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply a previously published method (Bargalló and Mosquera, 2014) to the archaeological record, allowing us to identify the hand laterality of our ancestors and determine when and how this feature, which is exhibited most strongly in humans, appeared in our evolutionary history. The method focuses on identifying handedness by looking at the technical features of the flakes produced by a single knapper, and discovering how many flakes are required to ascertain their hand preference. This method can potentially be applied to the majority of archaeological sites, since flakes are the most abundant stone tools, and stone tools are the most widespread and widely-preserved remains from prehistory. For our study, we selected two Spanish sites: Gran Dolina-TD10.1 (Atapuerca) and Abric Romaní (Barcelona), which were occupied by pre-Neanderthal and Neanderthal populations, respectively. Our analyses indicate that a minimum number of eight flakes produced by the same knapper is required to ascertain their hand preference. Even though this figure is relatively low, it is quite difficult to obtain from many archaeological sites. In addition, there is no single technical feature that provides information about handedness, instead there is a combination of eight technical features, localised on the striking platforms and ventral surfaces. The raw material is not relevant where good quality rocks are used, in this case quartzite and flint, since most of them retain the technical features required for the analysis. Expertise is not an issue either, since the technical features analysed here only correlate with handedness (Bargalló and Mosquera, 2014). Our results allow us to tentatively identify one right-handed knapper among the pre-Neanderthals of level TD10.1 at Gran Dolina (Atapuerca), while four of the five Neanderthals analysed from Abric Romaní were right-handed. The hand preference of the fifth knapper from that location (AR5) remains unclear

  12. Breastfeeding and later cognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the associations between duration of breastfeeding and childhood cognitive ability and academic achievement over the period from 8 to 18 years using data collected during the course of an 18-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of >1000 New Zealand children. During the period from birth to age 1 year, information was collected on maternal breastfeeding practices. Over the period from 8 to 18 years, sample members were assessed on a range of measures of cognitive and academic outcomes including measures of child intelligence quotient; teacher ratings of school performance; standardized tests of reading comprehension, mathematics, and scholastic ability; pass rates in school leaving examinations; and leaving school without qualifications. Increasing duration of breastfeeding was associated with consistent and statistically significant increases in 1) intelligence quotient assessed at ages 8 and 9 years; 2) reading comprehension, mathematical ability, and scholastic ability assessed during the period from 10 to 13 years; 3) teacher ratings of reading and mathematics assessed at 8 and 12 years; and 4) higher levels of attainment in school leaving examinations. Children who were breastfed for >/=8 months had mean test scores that were between 0. 35 and 0.59 SD units higher than children who were bottle-fed. Mothers who elected to breastfeed tended to be older; better educated; from upper socioeconomic status families; were in a two-parent family; did not smoke during pregnancy; and experienced above average income and living standards. Additionally, rates of breastfeeding increased with increasing birth weight, and first-born children were more likely to be breastfed. Regression adjustment for maternal and other factors associated with breastfeeding reduced the associations between breastfeeding and cognitive or educational outcomes. Nonetheless, in 10 of the 12 models, fitted duration of breastfeeding remained a significant predictor of later

  13. Lack of consensus on the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in acute biliary pancreatitis in published meta-analyses and guidelines: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, E.J.M. van; Santvoort, H.C. van; Besselink, M.G.; Peet, D.L. van der; Erpecum, K.J. van; Fockens, P.; Mulder, C.J.; Bruno, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several randomized controlled trials studied the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). No study assessed whether these trials resulted in international consensus in published meta-analyses

  14. Lack of Consensus on the Role of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiography in Acute Biliary Pancreatitis in Published Meta-Analyses and Guidelines A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geenen, Erwin-Jan M.; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C.; Besselink, Marc G. H.; van der Peet, Donald L.; van Erpecum, Karel J.; Fockens, Paul; Mulder, Chris J. J.; Bruno, Marco J.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Several randomized controlled trials studied the role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) in acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). No study assessed whether these trials resulted in international consensus in published meta-analyses

  15. Cerclage wire and lag screw fixation of the lateral malleolus in supination and external rotation fractures of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwa, Amarjit S; Gantz, D E

    2005-01-01

    Wound dehiscence and exposed lateral hardware can occur after open reduction internal fixation of lateral malleolus. The bulk of a lateral plate and the minimum soft tissue over the lateral malleolus may contribute to this situation. The objective of this study was to evaluate a series of patients with lateral malleolar fractures treated with operative reduction using minimal hardware. We wanted to observe whether there was any loss of reduction and whether there were any incidences of soft tissue disruption. Fifty-two patients with long spiral fracture of the lateral malleolus in a supination-external rotation injury were treated with two or three 3.5-mm lag screws inserted 1 cm apart and 1 or 2 circlage wires. Less rigid fixation was supplemented with a below-the-knee plaster cast. All patients were followed up until clinical and radiological evidence of fracture healing at 6, 10, and 14 weeks postoperatively. By 10 weeks, all patients were full weight bearing, although most patients still limped. At 14 weeks' follow-up, there were no infections or wound dehiscences. All patients were able to return to their activities of daily living. All the fractures had united without loss of original position. Two fractures of the posterior bone spikes seen during surgery united uneventfully. Long spiral fractures of the lateral malleolus of the ankle can be treated successfully with 2 or 3 lag screws and circlage wires without compromising the outcome of the fracture healing.

  16. Medical tourism: a review of the literature and analysis of a role for bi-lateral trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Martínez Álvarez, Melisa; Chanda, Rupa

    2011-12-01

    With increasing globalization, many countries are considering opening their health systems to greater cross-border movement of patients. This is usually done from the viewpoint of a multi-lateral trade relationship. This paper considers the issues that arise from this debate from a bi-lateral perspective. A systematic literature review was carried out on 'Medical Tourism' from the perspective of a bi-lateral trade relationship, using the UK and India as a case study. There is a dearth of data and discussion on such bi-lateral trade. This limited evidence offers some suggestions. Exporting countries may benefit from medical tourism by generating foreign exchange and reversing the brain drain, but run the risk of creating a dual system, where the local population is crowded out. Importing countries can benefit from alleviating waiting lists and lowering healthcare costs, but may risk quality of care and legal liability. However, evidence from a bi-lateral perspective suggests that the positive aspects can be capitalised, and the negative ones reduced. The key recommendations from this paper are for more evidence to be collected at the country and international level, and for countries to consider trade in health services from a bi-lateral rather than multi-lateral perspective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Right Lateral Cerebellum Represents Linguistic Predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Elise; Hansen, Peter C; Miall, R Chris

    2017-06-28

    Mounting evidence indicates that posterolateral portions of the cerebellum (right Crus I/II) contribute to language processing, but the nature of this role remains unclear. Based on a well-supported theory of cerebellar motor function, which ascribes to the cerebellum a role in short-term prediction through internal modeling, we hypothesize that right cerebellar Crus I/II supports prediction of upcoming sentence content. We tested this hypothesis using event-related fMRI in male and female human subjects by manipulating the predictability of written sentences. Our design controlled for motor planning and execution, as well as for linguistic features and working memory load; it also allowed separation of the prediction interval from the presentation of the final sentence item. In addition, three further fMRI tasks captured semantic, phonological, and orthographic processing to shed light on the nature of the information processed. As hypothesized, activity in right posterolateral cerebellum correlated with the predictability of the upcoming target word. This cerebellar region also responded to prediction error during the outcome of the trial. Further, this region was engaged in phonological, but not semantic or orthographic, processing. This is the first imaging study to demonstrate a right cerebellar contribution in language comprehension independently from motor, cognitive, and linguistic confounds. These results complement our work using other methodologies showing cerebellar engagement in linguistic prediction and suggest that internal modeling of phonological representations aids language production and comprehension. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The cerebellum is traditionally seen as a motor structure that allows for smooth movement by predicting upcoming signals. However, the cerebellum is also consistently implicated in nonmotor functions such as language and working memory. Using fMRI, we identify a cerebellar area that is active when words are predicted and

  18. International perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The workshop dealt with two distinct cases: - In Port Hope - an existing situation impacting a set of communities affected by the nuclear fuel industry since the 1930's. This situation concerns the remediation of soil 'tainted' by a low level of radioactivity resulting from the processing of uranium. The facility that produced those wastes is still in town but it has changed ownership and it no longer stores or disposes of the waste in the area. - The issuance and upcoming implementation of the Nuclear Fuel Waste Act (NWF Act) charting a path towards the identification of a national, long-term management solution for nuclear fuel (high level) waste in Canada. The NWF Act restarts a process that was interrupted a few years ago, after the Seaborn Environmental Assessment Panel concluded that the solution proposed by proponent Atomic Energy Canada Ltd. had not been demonstrated to have broad public support. From an international perspective, numerous observations can be made and lessons can be drawn both from the individual and the combined cases. Some of the most prominent observations, in the view of the NEA Secretariat, are presented hereafter. (author)

  19. Experimental study on lateral strength of wall-slab joint subjected to lateral cyclic load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrom, Mohd Asha'ari; Mohamad, Mohd Elfie; Hamid, Nor Hayati Abdul; Yusuff, Amer

    2017-10-01

    Tunnel form building has been utilised in building construction since 1960 in Malaysia. This method of construction has been applied extensively in the construction of high rise residential house (multistory building) such as condominium and apartment. Most of the tunnel form buildings have been designed according to British standard (BS) whereby there is no provision for seismic loading. The high-rise tunnel form buildings are vulnerable to seismic loading. The connections between slab and shear walls in the tunnel-form building constitute an essential link in the lateral load resisting mechanism. Malaysia is undergoing a shifting process from BS code to Eurocode (EC) for building construction since the country has realised the safety threats of earthquake. Hence, this study is intended to compare the performance of the interior wall slab joint for a tunnel form structure designed based on Euro and British codes. The experiment included a full scale test of the wall slab joint sub-assemblages under reversible lateral cyclic loading. Two sub-assemblage specimens of the wall slab joint were designed and constructed based on both codes. Each specimen was tested using lateral displacement control (drift control). The specimen designed by using Eurocode was found could survive up to 3.0% drift while BS specimen could last to 1.5% drift. The analysis results indicated that the BS specimen was governed by brittle failure modes with Ductility Class Low (DCL) while the EC specimen behaved in a ductile manner with Ductility Class Medium (DCM). The low ductility recorded in BS specimen was resulted from insufficient reinforcement provided in the BS code specimen. Consequently, the BS specimen could not absorb energy efficiently (low energy dissipation) and further sustain under inelastic deformation.

  20. Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yuan; Chen Changyuan

    2012-01-01

    We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.

  1. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  2. Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Judith; Workman, Lance; Mayer, Peter; Crowley, Kevin

    2002-11-01

    Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not-and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English-Welsh bilinguals which differ in their age of acquisition and in their environment of acquisition. Using a split visual field paradigm we present evidence which, supports the notion of greater right hemisphere processing in a later learned language. Our findings also suggest the pattern of lateralization in bilinguals is strongly affected by the specific language environment during development such that the shift toward greater right hemisphere involvement for the later learned language will be more pronounced in individuals which are brought up in areas where that language is not regularly heard.

  3. Lateral shifting in one dimensional chiral photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You Yuan, E-mail: yctcyouyuan@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China); Chen Changyuan [School of Physics and Electronics, Yancheng Teachers University, Yancheng, 224002 Jiangsu (China)

    2012-07-01

    We report the lateral shifts of the transmitted waves in a one dimensional chiral photonic crystal by using the stationary-phase approach. It is revealed that two kinds of lateral shifts are observed due to the existence of cross coupling in chiral materials, which is different from what has been observed in previous non-chiral photonic crystals. Unlike the chiral slab, the positions of lateral shift peaks are closely related to the band edges of band gap characteristics of periodic structure and lateral shifts can be positive as well as negative. Besides, the lateral shifts show a strong dependence on the chiral factor, which varies the lateral shift peaks in both magnitudes and positions. These features are desirable for future device applications.

  4. Artificial lateral line with biomimetic neuromasts to emulate fish sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingchen; Chen Nannan; Tucker, Craig; Hu Huan; Liu Chang; Nguyen, Nam; Lockwood, Michael; Jones, Douglas L; Bleckmann, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Hydrodynamic imaging using the lateral line plays a critical role in fish behavior. To engineer such a biologically inspired sensing system, we developed an artificial lateral line using MEMS (microelectromechanical system) technology and explored its localization capability. Arrays of biomimetic neuromasts constituted an artificial lateral line wrapped around a cylinder. A beamforming algorithm further enabled the artificial lateral line to image real-world hydrodynamic events in a 3D domain. We demonstrate that the artificial lateral line system can accurately localize an artificial dipole source and a natural tail-flicking crayfish under various conditions. The artificial lateral line provides a new sense to man-made underwater vehicles and marine robots so that they can sense like fish.

  5. The Gastroenterology Fellowship Match: A Decade Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Robert J; Triadafilopoulos, George; Limsui, David

    2017-06-01

    Following a period of uncertainty and disorganization, the gastroenterology (GI) national leadership decided to reinstitute the fellowship match (the Match) under the auspices of the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP) in 2006. Although it has now been a decade since the rebirth of the Match, there have been limited data published regarding progress made. In this piece, we discuss reasons for the original collapse of the GI Match, including most notably a perceived oversupply of GI physicians and a poor job market. We discuss the negative impacts the absence of the Match had on programs and on applicants, as well as the impetus to reorganize the Match under the NRMP. We then utilize data published annually by the NRMP to demonstrate that in the decade since its rebirth, the GI Match has been remarkably successful in terms of attracting the participation of applicants and programs. We show that previous misguided concerns of an oversupply of GI physicians were not realized, and that GI fellowship positions remain highly competitive for internal medicine applicants. Finally, we discuss possible implications of recent changes in the healthcare landscape on the GI Match.

  6. The Evolution of Lateralized Brain Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Corballis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the vast clade of animals known as the bilateria, cerebral and behavioral asymmetries emerge against the backdrop of bilateral symmetry, with a functional trade-off between the two. Asymmetries can lead to more efficient processing and packaging of internal structures, but at the expense of efficient adaptation to a natural world without systematic left-right bias. Asymmetries may arise through the fissioning of ancestral structures that are largely symmetrical, creating new circuits. In humans these may include asymmetrical adaptations to language and manufacture, and as one or other hemisphere gains dominance for functions that were previously represented bilaterally. This is best illustrated in the evolution of such functions as language and tool manufacture in humans, which may derive from the mirror-neuron system in primates, but similar principles probably apply to the many other asymmetries now evident in a wide range of animals. Asymmetries arise in largely independent manner with multi-genetic sources, rather than as a single over-riding principle.

  7. Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Craig Matthew; Papadimitriou, Iakovos; Tomizuka, Masayoshi

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research results of TO4233, "Fault Tolerant Autonomous Lateral Control for Heavy Vehicles". This project represents a continuing effort of PATH's research on Automated Highway Systems (AHS) and more specifically in the area of heavy vehicles. Research on the lateral control of heavy vehicles for AHS has been going on at PATH since 1993. MOU129, "Steering and Braking Control of Heavy Duty Vehicles" was the first project and it was followed by MOU242, "Lateral Control...

  8. Reduction of lateral loads in abutments using ground anchors

    OpenAIRE

    Laefer, Debra F.; Truong-Hong, Linh; Le, Khanh Ba

    2013-01-01

    In bridge design, economically addressing large, lateral earth pressures on bridge abutments is a major challenge. Traditional approaches employ enlargement of the abutment components to resist these pressures. This approach results in higher construction costs. As an alternative, a formal approach using ground anchors to resist lateral soil pressure on bridge abutments is proposed herein. The ground anchors are designed to minimise lateral forces at the pile cap base. Design examples for hig...

  9. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    OpenAIRE

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial ...

  10. Value of the lateral view in diagnosing pleural plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillerdal, G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the value of the lateral view in the diagnosis of pleural plaques, 2018 chest roentgenograms from the general population were scrutinized for such plaques. The lateral and posterior-anterior (PA) views were read separately and without knowledge of the occupational history or other clinical data. Of the males, 4.8% had pleural plaques in the PA view and 2% had dorsal pleural plaques in the lateral view. A total of 54% of the positive cases in the PA view also showed typical plaques in the PA view. Thus, there remained a number of cases which were diagnosed only in the lateral view; in all, these constituted 18.8%

  11. Large-area, laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung; Song, Jie; Chen, Danti

    2017-07-18

    Structures and methods for confined lateral-guided growth of a large-area semiconductor layer on an insulating layer are described. The semiconductor layer may be formed by heteroepitaxial growth from a selective growth area in a vertically-confined, lateral-growth guiding structure. Lateral-growth guiding structures may be formed in arrays over a region of a substrate, so as to cover a majority of the substrate region with laterally-grown epitaxial semiconductor tiles. Quality regions of low-defect, stress-free GaN may be grown on silicon.

  12. Relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío BERENGUER SÁNCHEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In primary education is essential to know and develop methodologies using the development of creativity and laterality in the process of teaching and learning in our student. It is an ideal place to study the relationship between these variables period. As we understand creativity as an integral part of all the languages in which student in early childhood education (verbal and written language, plastic body… are expressed, for all languages represent a creative process, a way to communicate with others, either verbal or written form, plastic. All these forms of communication is also related to another concept as laterality. It is essential to identify and examine the importance of laterality and dominations in kindergarten because all these processes are required before accessing other languages such as literacy. The objective of this study is to describe the relationship between creativity and laterality in Early Childhood Education. This has been evaluated 60 children in the second cycle of Infant Education and creativity variables defined and undefined laterality. In the development of this research test Torrance Creative Thinking (1974 of figurative expression and the test of laterality of the neuropsychological test (2011 it was applied. The results show that most of the student have defined laterality with 75%. These student earn higher average scores on each component of creativity, the group with undefined laterality and more creativity than the group with undefined laterality.

  13. Effect of Acupotomy Therapy on Lateral Epicondylitis Diagnosed by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Nara

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This observation was to report the clinical effects of acupotomy in treating lateral epicondylitis. Methods: Three patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis were treated with acupotomy. Two were male and one was female. The improvement of symptom were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS and self-consciousness symptoms of Cozen test. Results: After one treatments, patient's chief complaint and the pain near the lateral epicondyle while cozen test were notably improved. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that oriental medical treatment with acuputomy therapy has significant effect in improving symptoms of lateral epicondylitis. As though we had not wide experienced in this treatment, more research is needed.

  14. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    phenomena and brain lateralization. More precisely, on the basis of substantial neurolinguistic research it is argued that novel speech is represented in the left hemisphere, whereas formulaic speech is modulated by a subcortical right hemisphere circuit. Within the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013 it is argued that there is a similar correlation between two domains of grammar, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar: Aphasic patients and other persons with left hemisphere damage appear to draw mainly on linguistic expressions within the domain of Thetical Grammar; persons with right hemisphere damage, by contrast, use primarily Sentence Grammar as their main domain of structuring speech (Heine et al. 2014. While arriving at similar conclusions, there are a few differences between these two frameworks. In particular, the dual process model relies on the distinction between novel and formulaic speech as its main parameter, while in the framework of Discourse Grammar it is distinctions in the functions and the syntactic and prosodic independence of linguistic units that are most central. The present paper argues that such differences can be accounted for with reference to the differential role played by the situation of discourse in linguistic communication.

  15. Lateral supraorbital approach to ipsilateral PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehre, Felix; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Elsharkawy, Ahmed; Lehto, Hanna; Shekhtman, Oleg; Andrade-Barazarte, Hugo; Munoz, Francisco; Hijazy, Ferzat; Makhkamov, Makhkam; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) are rare and often associated with anterior circulation aneurysms. The lateral supraorbital approach allows for a very fast and safe approach to the ipsilateral lesions Circle of Willis. A technical note on the successful clip occlusion of two aneurysms in the anterior and posterior Circle of Willis via this less invasive approach has not been published before. The objective of this technical note is to describe the simultaneous microsurgical clip occlusion of an ipsilateral PCA-P1 and an internal carotid artery - posterior communicating artery (ICA-PCoA) aneurysm via the lateral supraorbital approach. The authors present a technical report of successful clip occlusions of ipsilateral located PCA-P1 and ICA-PCoA aneurysms. A 59-year-old female patient was diagnosed with a PCA-P1 and an ipsilateral ICA-PCoA aneurysm by computed tomography angiography (CTA) after an ischemic stroke secondary to a contralateral ICA dissection. The patient underwent microsurgical clipping after a lateral supraorbital craniotomy. The intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography and the postoperative CTA showed a complete occlusion of both aneurysms; the parent vessels (ICA and PCA) were patent. The patient presents postoperative no new neurologic deficit. The lateral supraorbital approach is suitable for the simultaneous microsurgical treatment of proximal anterior circulation and ipsilateral proximal PCA aneurysms. Compared to endovascular treatment, direct visual control of brainstem perforators is possible.

  16. Remagnetization effects due to lateral displacement above a PMG on bulk HTS magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Wang, J. S.; Ma, G. T.; Zheng, J.; Ren, J. F.; Li, L. L.; Yang, X. F.; Ye, C. Q.; Wang, S. Y.

    2012-12-01

    For a high-Tc superconducting (HTS) maglev system with large force requirements, the use of magnetized bulk high-Tc superconductor magnets (MBSCMs) is a good candidate because of its strong flux pinning ability and corresponding high trapped flux. Different from the rare-earth permanent magnet (PM), the trapped flux of a MBSCM is sustained by the supercurrent produced by a magnetizing process, so the trapped flux is sensitive to variations of the supercurrent. The lateral displacement of a MBSCM above a PM guideway (PMG) will provide disturbance of the applied field and then alter the supercurrent as a process of remagnetization. Different magnetization histories will bring different remagnetization characteristics and consequently diverse levitation performances for a MBSCM during the lateral displacements. When the MBSCMs are applied into the HTS maglev system, the influence of lateral displacements on levitation performance should be taken into consideration. This article investigates the remagnetization characteristics of a MBSCM when it is subject to the lateral displacements above a PMG with different trapped magnetic flux and opposite magnetization polarities. Relevant analyses about the internal supercurrent configuration based on the critical state model are also included to better understand the remagnetization characteristic of a MBSCM.

  17. Sibling differentiation, identity development, and the lateral dimension of psychic life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2007-01-01

    The lateral dimension of psychic life, lived through relationships with siblings and their substitutes, is structured around a distinct psychic challenge: to find one's unique place in a world of similar others. Like the challenge that structures the vertical parent-child dimension, the lateral challenge is fraught with conflict and ambivalence; its resolution imbues psychic structure. That resolution may be accomplished through a process of differentiation, an active and unconscious process of identity development by which a child amplifies differences with siblings and minimizes similarities. Differentiation from siblings serves to mitigate interpersonal rivalry with them and to ease internal conflict associated with the lateral dimension. Three clinical examples are offered to illustrate the operation of sibling differentiation and its costs, particularly in terms of constricted identity and attenuated relationships with siblings and peers. Differentiation as a process of becoming what the other is not has been eclipsed by identification in psychoanalytic theories of identity development. Yet differentiation is a common strategy for resolving the primary rivalries and conflicts of the lateral dimension, and has unique developmental and clinical implications.

  18. Lateral abdominal wall hematoma as a rare complication after carotid artery stenting: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satomi Jyunichiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Abdominal wall hematoma is a rare and life-threatening complication after carotid artery stenting (CAS, but it can occur when activated clotting time is prolonged. We report a right lateral abdominal wall hematoma caused by rupture of the superficial circumflex iliac artery after CAS in a 72-year-old man with severe stenosis of the origin of the right internal carotid artery. We performed CAS for the targeted lesion while activated clotting time exceeded 300 seconds. After 2 hours, he complained of right lateral abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography revealed an extensive hematoma in the right lateral abdominal wall. Activated clotting time was 180 seconds at this point. Seven hours later, he developed hypotension and hemoglobin level dropped to 11.3 g/dl. Subsequent computed tomography showed enlargement of the hematoma. Emergent selective angiography of the external iliac artery revealed active bleeding from the right superficial circumflex iliac artery. Transcatheter arterial embolization with Gelfoam and microcoils was performed successfully. With more CAS procedures being performed, it is important for endovascular surgeons and radiologists to consider the possibility of abdominal wall hematoma in this situation.

  19. Internal Audit Service | Internal Audit Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    their internal auditing function in the areas of professional excellence, quality of service and Students and teachers Media Internal Audit Service Navbar Toggle Home About the Staff Risk Assessment and Planning Internal Audit Process Search for Search Home The mission of the Fermilab Internal Audit Service

  20. Luxação lateral bilateral isolada do cotovelo Elbow bilateral lateral dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Reckers

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de luxação lateral bilateral isolada de cotovelo em uma paciente do sexo feminino de 48 anos. Optou-se pelo tratamento conservador através de redução fechada sob anestesia geral. Ambos os cotovelos foram imobilizados com gesso axilo-palmar e mantidos a 90º de flexão por três semanas, quando se iniciou a reabilitação. No seguimento de dezoito meses observou-se boa estabilidade e recuperação do arco de movimento de ambos os cotovelos.The authors present an isolated case of bilateral lateral dislocation of the elbow joint in a 48-year old female patient. The conservative treatment was chosen, through closed reduction under general anesthesia. Both elbows were placed in an axillopalmar splint cast and held at a 90 degree angle of flexion for three weeks when rehabilitation began. In the eighteen-month follow-up period, good stability as well as the recovery of the range of motion was observed in both elbows

  1. Orbitotomía lateral mediante abordaje temporal Lateral orbitotomy using a temporal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Herencia Nieto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La orbitotomía lateral sigue siendo en el momento actual la técnica quirúrgica de elección para la biopsia o extirpación de lesiones intraorbitarias laterales al nervio óptico, la biopsia del propio nervio óptico y la extirpación de la glándula lacrimal. Se han descrito múltiples incisiones cutáneas para llevar a cabo esta intervención; la más frecuentemente empleada por el momento es la incisión palpebral, que discurre a nivel de alguna arruga del párpado superior. Aunque los resultados obtenidos con esta incisión suelen ser aceptables, no está exenta de complicaciones, ni estéticas ni funcionales. Por esto, en los últimos años han ido apareciendo nuevas incisiones que intentan evitar estas complicaciones. Entre estas nuevas vías de abordaje a la pared lateral de la órbita se encuentra la incisión temporal. En los últimos 3 años, se ha intervenido en nuestro servicio a cuatro pacientes para llevar a cabo biopsia o extirpación de masas intraorbitarias mediante orbitotomía lateral, siempre a través de una incisión temporal. En todos los casos esta incisión permitió una amplia exposición del campo quirúrgico y la cómoda realización de la intervención, obteniéndose resultados estéticos y funcionales excelentes, y sin ninguna secuela ni complicación permanente. La complicación específica más frecuente de esta incisión es la paresia de la rama frontal del nervio facial. Una técnica de disección cuidadosa suele ser suficiente para evitarla. Todo esto hace que esta incisión, tal y como la describimos aquí, sea de elección para llevar a cabo la orbitotomía lateral, constituyendo en nuestro criterio una alternativa perfectamente válida y a tener en cuenta frente a las incisiones «clásicas», a las que llega a superar en muchos aspectos.The lateral orbitotomy it still the surgical technique of choice for biopsies or the removal of intraorbital lesions that are lateral to the optic nerve, for biopsies of

  2. Laterality of a second player position affects lateral deviation of basketball shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggiano, Andrea; Chieffi, Sergio; Tafuri, Domenico; Messina, Giovanni; Monda, Marcellino; De Luca, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetrically placed visual distractors are known to cause a lateral bias in the execution of a movement directed toward a target. The aim of the present experiment was to verify if the trajectory of the ball and the trajectory of the jump for a basket-shot can be affected by the sole position of a second player, who stays in front of the shooting player in one of three possible positions (centre, left or right) but too far to physically interfere with the shot. Young basketball players were asked to perform 60 shots at 6.25 m from a regular basket, with or without a second player staying in front of them in, alternately, a centre, left or right position. A computerised system measured the angular deviation of the jump direction from the vertical direction and the lateral deviation of the ball trajectory from the midline. The results showed that both the jump direction and the entry position of the ball deviated toward the opposite side from the second player's side; however, these effects were too small to significantly affect the mean goal percentage. This result confirms that some placements of the players can have an effect as visual distractors. Further studies are necessary to find what game conditions can make such distractors harmful for the athletic performance.

  3. Trends in nuclear physics. 100 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nifenecker, H.; Blaizot, J.P.; Bertsch, G.F.; Weise, W.; David, F.

    1998-01-01

    In the first years after the discovery of radioactivity it became clear that nuclear physics was, by excellence, the science of small quantum systems. Between the fifties and the eighties nuclear physics and elementary particles physics lived their own lives, without much interaction. During this period the basic concepts were defined. Recently, contrary to the specialization law often observed in science, the overlap between nuclear and elementary particle physics has become somewhat blurred. This Les Houches Summer School was set up with the aim of fighting off the excessive specialization evident in many international meetings, and return to the roots. The twofold challenge of setting up a fruitful exchange between experimentalists and theorists in the first place, and between nuclear and hadronic matter physicists in the second place was successfully met. The volume presents high quality, up-to-date reviews starting with an account of the birth and first developments of nuclear physics. Further chapters discuss the description of the nuclear structure, the physics of nuclei at very high spin, the existence of super-heavy nuclei as a consequence of shell structure, liquid-gas transition, including both a description and a review of the experimental situation. Other topics dealt with include the interactions between moderately relativistic heavy ions, the concept of a nucleon dressed by a cloud of pions, the presence of pions in the nucleus, the subnucleonic phenomena in nuclei and quark-gluons deconfinement transition, both theoretical and experimental aspects. Nuclear physics continues to influence many other fields, such as astrophysics, and is also inspired by these same fields. This cross-fertilisation is illustrated by the treatment of neutron stars in one of the final chapters. The last chapter provides an overview of a recent development in which particle and nuclear physicists have cooperated to revitalize an alternative method for nuclear energy

  4. 1H-MR spectroscopy study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jing; Ma Lin; Yu Shengyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To characterize the features of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and its correlations with clinical scale. Methods: Fifteen patients with definite or probable ALS and 15 age and gender matched normal controls were enrolled. 1 H-MRS was performed on a 3.0 T GE imaging system (GE Medical System, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA). TE-averaged point resolved selective spectroscopy was used. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine (Cr), Glu and Glx (glutamate + glutamine) values of subcortical motor area and posterior limb of the internal capsule were acquired, t test was used to compare differences between groups, the correlations between the above values and clinical scale were analyzed. Results: The motor area and posterior limb of the internal capsule in ALS patients had significantly lower NAA/Cr (1.91±0.34, 1.53±0.17) compared with normal subjects (2.23±0.33, 1.66±0.07) (t=4.25,2.90,P=0.00,0.01). ALS patients had significantly higher Glu/Cr (0.34±0.05, 0.29±0.06) and Glx/Cr (0.40±0.04, 0.33±0.06), compared with normal subjects (0.30±0.03,0.25±0.04) and (0.32±0.05,0.26±0.03) (t=2.56, 2.40,7.34,5.30, P=0.02,0.03,0.00,0.00). The Norris scale of ALS patients were 57±8, ALSFRS were 29±4. The Norris scale was negatively correlated with Glx/Cr of primary motor cortex by lineal correlation analysis (r=-0.75, P=0.00), while ALSFRS had no correlation with Glx/Cr. Conclusions: Neuronal loss and Glu + Gln increase can be detected by using proton MRS in ALS patients. 1 H-MRS is an useful tool in reflecting the characteristic changes of metabolite in ALS. (authors)

  5. The 'hidden work' of a hospital neurologist: 1000 consults later.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, E

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A new Web-based, internal neurology referral service was introduced in our department to expedite inpatient review for other departments and to allow assessment of the impact of neurology consults on patient care throughout the hospital, especially in the emergency department (ED). The results of the analysis of the first 1000 referrals using the new system are presented. Methods: An intranet referral system was designed by the consultant neurologists. The previous method of referral was by handwritten letter. The electronic template included \\'drop-down\\' menus and mandatory fields to help guide referring teams. An outcome section is completed by the neurology team. Results: An average of 17 referrals was seen weekly. Seventy-seven per cent were seen within 24 h of referral. A consultant neurologist saw 87% of the referrals directly; 13% were first seen by a registrar and later discussed with a consultant. Forty per cent were seen in the ED of which a one-third of the patients were discharged following assessment. The most common reason for referral was seizure(s) or an episode of collapse (28%). Patients presenting with stroke\\/transient ischaemic attack represented 13.5%, and 12.5% presented with headaches. The management of 79% of referred cases was deemed to have been significantly changed after neurology review. Discussion: The introduction of a neurology consultant-designed and consultant-led intranet referral service has greatly enhanced the delivery of the consult service to patients in our hospital. This referral system contributes significantly to hospital efficiency and to access for patients to specialist assessment.

  6. Development of prenatal lateralization: evidence from fetal mouth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Exley, K

    2014-05-28

    Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22weeks of gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increased gestation. This longitudinal study investigated whether fetuses from 24 to 36weeks of gestation showed increasing lateralized behaviors during mouth opening and whether lateralized mouth movements are related to fetal age, gender and maternal self-reported prenatal stress. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy fetuses (8 girls) of primagravid mothers were scanned four times from 24 to 36-gestation. Two types of mouth opening movements - upper lip raiser and mouth stretch - were coded in 60 scans for 10min. We modeled the proportion of right mouth opening for each fetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, which takes account of the repeated measures design. There was a significant increase in the proportion of lateralized mouth openings over the period increasing by 11% for each week of gestational age (LRT change in deviance=10.92, 1df; pgender differences were found nor was there any effect of maternally reported stress on fetal lateralized mouth movements. There was also evidence of left lateralization preference in mouth movement, although no evidence of changes in lateralization bias over time. This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the development of lateralized mouth movements from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  8. Comparison of lateral abdominal muscle thickness between weightlifters and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitilertpisan, Patraporn; Pirunsan, Ubon; Puangmali, Aatit; Ratanapinunchai, Jonjin; Kiatwattanacharoen, Suchart; Neamin, Hudsaleark; Laskin, James J

    2011-11-01

    To compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness between weightlifters and matched controls. A case control study design. University laboratory. 16 female Thai national weightlifters and 16 matched controls participated in this study. Ultrasound imaging with a 12-MHz linear array was used to measure the resting thickness of transversus abdominis (TrA), internal oblique (IO) and total thickness (Total) of lateral abdominal muscle (LAM) on the right side of abdominal wall. The absolute muscle thickness and the relative contribution of each muscle to the total thickness were determined. Weightlifters had significantly thicker absolute TrA and IO muscles than matched controls (p routine Olympic style weight training among female weightlifters appears to result in preferential hypertrophy or adaptation of the IO muscle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative effectiveness of injection therapies in lateral epicondylitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Bartels, Else Marie; Ellingsen, Torkell Juulsgaad

    2013-01-01

    Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available.......Injection therapy with glucocorticoids has been used since the 1950s as a treatment strategy for lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Lately, several novel injection therapies have become available....

  10. First-trimester vaginal bleeding and complications later in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Jacob Alexander; Dideriksen, Katrine Lehrmann; Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the association of first-trimester bleeding without miscarriage and complications later in the first pregnancy as well as in the next pregnancy.......To evaluate the association of first-trimester bleeding without miscarriage and complications later in the first pregnancy as well as in the next pregnancy....

  11. The Evolution of Lateralization in Group Hunting Sailfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurvers, Ralf H J M; Krause, Stefan; Viblanc, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Lateralization is widespread throughout the animal kingdom [1–7] and can increase task efficiency via shortening reaction times and saving on neural tissue [8–16]. However, lateralization might be costly because it increases predictability [17–21]. In predator-prey interactions, for example...

  12. Sieve-based lateral displacement technology for suspension separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.P.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Sparse lateral displacement arrays are easier to scale up than full deterministic lateral displacement arrays or deterministic ratchets, because they require lower pressure drop and simplify the construction of the device. However, the asymmetry of sparse arrays leads to a non-homogeneous pressure

  13. The question of symptom lateralization in conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not conversion symptoms are lateralized. Studies have shown a predominant left-oriented manifestation of symptoms for most somatoform disorders. The reports in the literature on the lateralization of conversion symptoms, however, are

  14. Race and Gender Differences in Cognitive Laterality: Implications for Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Linda Hampton; Holman, David

    Replicating research completed in 1986, a study determined the relationship among cognitive laterality, gender, and reading comprehension for African-American students, as well as gender differences in cognitive laterality and in reading comprehension. Subjects, 40 African-American males, 41 African-American females, 12 White males, and 17 White…

  15. LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF UPPER AIRWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influenced of respiration to dentocraniofacial growth and development is still controversial. The accurate radiologic examination is important factor for proper diagnosis. Deviation of upper airway (i.e. nasopharynx, oropharymx and nasal cavity could be evaluated by lateral and anteroposterior cephalometric projection technique. This paper explains several methods to evaluate upper respiratory tract by lateral radiograph.

  16. Does the lateral intercondylar ridge disappear in ACL deficient patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eck, C.F.; Martins, C.A.Q.; Vyas, S.M.; Celentano, U.; van Dijk, C.N.; Fu, F.H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a difference in the presence of the lateral intercondylar ridge and the lateral bifurcate ridge between patients with sub-acute and chronic ACL injuries. We hypothesized that the ridges would be present less often with chronic ACL deficiency.

  17. Lateral resistance of piles near vertical MSE abutment walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...

  18. Dynamic interplay between adhesive and lateral E-cadherin dimers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingelhöfer, Jörg; Laur, Oscar Y; Troyanovsky, Regina B

    2002-01-01

    M. The disappearance of adhesive dimers was counterbalanced by an increase in Trp156-dependent lateral dimers. Increasing the calcium concentration to a normal level rapidly restored the original balance between adhesive and lateral dimers. We also present evidence that E-cadherin dimers in vivo have a short lifetime...

  19. 45 CFR 602.51 - Later disallowances and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... FOUNDATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS TO STATE AND LOCAL... later audit or other review; (b) The grantee's obligation to return any funds due as a result of later... management requirements in §§ 602.31 and 602.32; and (e) Audit requirements in § 602.26. ...

  20. Decreased language lateralization is characteristic of psychosis, not auditory hallucinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diederen, Kelly M. J.; De Weijer, Antoin D.; Daalman, Kirstin; Blom, Jan Dirk; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Kahn, Rene S.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    2010-01-01

    Decreased language lateralization is a well-replicated finding in psychotic patients. It is currently unclear, however, whether this abnormality is related to a particular symptom of psychosis or to psychosis in general. It has been argued that decreased language lateralization may be related to

  1. Comparison between open and arthroscopic procedure for lateral clavicle resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duindam, N.; Kuiper, J.W.P.; Hoozemans, M.J.M.; Burger, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Arthroscopic lateral clavicle resection (LCR) is increasingly used, compared to an open approach, but literature does not clearly indicate which approach is preferable. The goal of this study was to compare function and pain between patients who underwent lateral clavicle resection using an

  2. Insight into the lateral response of offshore shallow foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Suction caissons are often subjected to cyclic lateral loads caused by the action of wind or waves. •Excessive lateral deformations may be induced during a caisson’s service life. •Results of performance measure parameters for caissons harmonically oscillating on homogeneous soil are ...

  3. Lateral ring metal elastic wheel absorbs shock loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, L.

    1966-01-01

    Lateral ring metal elastic wheel absorbs practically all shock loading when operated over extremely rough terrain and delivers only a negligible shock residue to associated suspension components. The wheel consists of a rigid aluminum assembly to which lateral titanium ring flexible elements with treads are attached.

  4. Evaluation of Small-Scale Laterally Loaded Monopiles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Thomassen, Kristina; Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal

    2011-01-01

    In current designs of offshore wind turbines, monopiles are often used as foundation. The behaviour of the monopoles when subjected to lateral loading has not been fully investigated. In this paper the diameter effect on laterally loaded non-slender piles in sand is evaluated by means of results ...

  5. The influence of sex hormones on brain lateralization : Research Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, Tess; Geuze, Reint; Groothuis, Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Between and within sexes individuals differ in lateralization of brain and behaviour that might affect cognitive performance. There is long standing debate to what extent variation in lateralization is due to variation in early or late exposure to sex hormones. We will use two unique data sets to

  6. Gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Lydia K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to use a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States to investigate the effect gender and religiosity has on volunteer behavior in later life. This study looks specifically at the gender and religious differences associated with volunteering in later life. Accounting for gender and religious differences, more specifically, this study examines the assumption that older women are more likely to volunteer in later life as opposed to men, and that gender is a better predictor than being religious for the likelihood of occupying a volunteer role in later life. This study poses questions about the differences in gender and religiosity associated with volunteering in later life; the results indicate there is more work to be done as we conduct research that is clearer about how volunteerism and religiosity are measured in relation to gender, and the overall impact these differences have for older women and their respective communities.

  7. Patterns of prokaryotic lateral gene transfers affecting parasitic microbial eukaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmark, Cecilia; Foster, Peter G; Sicheritz-Pontén, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The influence of lateral gene transfer on gene origins and biology in eukaryotes is poorly understood compared with those of prokaryotes. A number of independent investigations focusing on specific genes, individual genomes, or specific functional categories from various eukaryotes have...... approach to systematically investigate lateral gene transfer affecting the proteomes of thirteen, mainly parasitic, microbial eukaryotes, representing four of the six eukaryotic super-groups. All of the genomes investigated have been significantly affected by prokaryote-to-eukaryote lateral gene transfers...... indicated that lateral gene transfer does indeed affect eukaryotic genomes. However, the lack of common methodology and criteria in these studies makes it difficult to assess the general importance and influence of lateral gene transfer on eukaryotic genome evolution. RESULTS: We used a phylogenomic...

  8. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  9. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical in the service......Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  10. Lateral convection and diffusion of sediment in straight rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bo; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    and a higher level of turbulence at the channel centre, than in the near bank zones, which means that the ability to support suspended sediment will decrease from the channel centre. The two turbulence models give different estimates for the lateral transport, which mainly are caused by turbulence generated......The lateral transport of suspended sediment in a straight river cross section with a parabolic shaped bed is studied be use of a k-e and a full Reynolds stress turbulence model. Due to depth variations a lateral transport of suspended sediment is generated. This is mainly caused by the slopping bed...... secondary flow cells in the Reynolds stress model. The flow cells make zones with alternately high and low sediment concentration, and thereby much higher local gradients in the lateral direction. Both models found a net inward lateral transport. The transport by convection was found more dominant than...

  11. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  12. Imaging Findings Associated with Cognitive Performance in Primary Lateral Sclerosis and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avner Meoded

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Executive dysfunction occurs in many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but it has not been well studied in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS. The aims of this study were to (1 compare cognitive function in PLS to that in ALS patients, (2 explore the relationship between performance on specific cognitive tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI metrics of white matter tracts and gray matter volumes, and (3 compare DTI metrics in patients with and without cognitive and behavioral changes. Methods: The Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS, the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (DRS-2, and other behavior and mood scales were administered to 25 ALS patients and 25 PLS patients. Seventeen of the PLS patients, 13 of the ALS patients, and 17 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and DTI. Atlas-based analysis using MRI Studio software was used to measure fractional anisotropy, and axial and radial diffusivity of selected white matter tracts. Voxel-based morphometry was used to assess gray matter volumes. The relationship between diffusion properties of selected association and commissural white matter and performance on executive function and memory tests was explored using a linear regression model. Results: More ALS than PLS patients had abnormal scores on the DRS-2. DRS-2 and D-KEFS scores were related to DTI metrics in several long association tracts and the callosum. Reduced gray matter volumes in motor and perirolandic areas were not associated with cognitive scores. Conclusion: The changes in diffusion metrics of white matter long association tracts suggest that the loss of integrity of the networks connecting fronto-temporal areas to parietal and occipital areas contributes to cognitive impairment.

  13. Age-Dependent Mesial Temporal Lobe Lateralization in Language FMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepeta, Leigh N.; Berl, Madison M.; Wilke, Marko; You, Xiaozhen; Mehta, Meera; Xu, Benjamin; Inati, Sara; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Austermuehle, Alison; Theodore, William H.; Gaillard, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective FMRI activation of the mesial temporal lobe (MTL) may be important for epilepsy surgical planning. We examined MTL activation and lateralization during language fMRI in children and adults with focal epilepsy. Methods 142 controls and patients with left hemisphere focal epilepsy (Pediatric: epilepsy, n = 17, mean age = 9.9 ± 2.0; controls, n = 48; mean age = 9.1 ± 2.6; Adult: epilepsy, n = 20, mean age = 26.7 ± 5.8; controls, n = 57, mean age = 26.2 ± 7.5) underwent 3T fMRI using a language task (auditory description decision task). Image processing and analyses were conducted in SPM8; ROIs included MTL, Broca’s area, and Wernicke’s area. We assessed group and individual MTL activation, and examined degree of lateralization. Results Patients and controls (pediatric and adult) demonstrated group and individual MTL activation during language fMRI. MTL activation was left lateralized for adults but less so in children (p’s < 0.005). Patients did not differ from controls in either age group. Stronger left-lateralized MTL activation was related to older age (p = 0.02). Language lateralization (Broca’s and Wernicke’s) predicted 19% of the variance in MTL lateralization for adults (p = 0.001), but not children. Significance Language fMRI may be used to elicit group and individual MTL activation. The developmental difference in MTL lateralization and its association with language lateralization suggests a developmental shift in lateralization of MTL function, with increased left lateralization across the age span. This shift may help explain why children have better memory outcomes following resection compared to adults. PMID:26696589

  14. Contributions to lateral balance control in ambulatory older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, Patrick J; Newman, A B; Simonsick, E M; Caserotti, P; Strotmeyer, E S; Kritchevsky, S B; Yaffe, K; Rosano, C

    2018-06-01

    In older adults, impaired control of standing balance in the lateral direction is associated with the increased risk of falling. Assessing the factors that contribute to impaired standing balance control may identify areas to address to reduce falls risk. To investigate the contributions of physiological factors to standing lateral balance control. Two hundred twenty-two participants from the Pittsburgh site of the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study had lateral balance control assessed using a clinical sensory integration balance test (standing on level and foam surface with eyes open and closed) and a lateral center of pressure tracking test using visual feedback. The center of pressure was recorded from a force platform. Multiple linear regression models examined contributors of lateral control of balance performance, including concurrently measured tests of lower extremity sensation, knee extensor strength, executive function, and clinical balance tests. Models were adjusted for age, body mass index, and sex. Larger lateral sway during the sensory integration test performed on foam was associated with longer repeated chair stands time. During the lateral center of pressure tracking task, the error in tracking increased at higher frequencies; greater error was associated with worse executive function. The relationship between sway performance and physical and cognitive function differed between women and men. Contributors to control of lateral balance were task-dependent. Lateral standing performance on an unstable surface may be more dependent upon general lower extremity strength, whereas visual tracking performance may be more dependent upon cognitive factors. Lateral balance control in ambulatory older adults is associated with deficits in strength and executive function.

  15. Oblique and lateral impact response of the PMHS thorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Joshua M; Herriott, Rodney G; McFadden, Joseph D; Donnelly, Bruce R; Bolte, John H

    2006-11-01

    This study characterizes the PMHS thoracic response to blunt impact in oblique and lateral directions. A significant amount of data has been collected from lateral impacts conducted on human cadavers. Substantially less data has been collected from impacts that are anterior of lateral in an oblique direction. In the past, data collected from the handful of oblique impact studies were considered to be similar enough to the data from purely lateral impacts such that the oblique data were combined with data from lateral impacts. Defining the biomechanical response of the PMHS thorax to oblique impact is of great importance in side impact vehicle crashes where the loading is often anterior-oblique in direction. Data in this study was obtained from a chestband placed on the thorax at the level of impact to measure thoracic deflection. Two low energy impacts were conducted on each of seven subjects at 2.5 m/s, with one lateral impact and one oblique impact to opposite sides of each PMHS. Data was normalized using the Mertz-Viano method for a two mass system to allow for inter-subject comparisons. Force versus deflection response corridors were generated for the two impact types using an objective mathematical approach and compared to one another. Results were also compared to existing data for oblique and lateral thoracic impacts. The oblique thoracic response in low speed pendulum impacts was found to be different than the lateral thoracic response, in terms of force and deflection. Specifically, the lateral force was greater than the oblique force, and oblique deflection greater than lateral deflection for equal energy impacts.

  16. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  18. Functional cerebral lateralization and dual-task efficiency-testing the function of human brain lateralization using fTCD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lust, J. M.; Geuze, R. H.; Groothuis, A. G. G.; Bouma, A.; Bouma, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that functional cerebral lateralization enhances cognitive performance. Evidence was found in birds and fish. Our study aimed to test this hypothesis by analyzing the relationship between cerebral lateralization and both single-task performance and dual-task efficiency in

  19. Lateral force calibration in atomic force microscopy: A new lateral force calibration method and general guidelines for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannara, Rachel J.; Eglin, Michael; Carpick, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Proper force calibration is a critical step in atomic and lateral force microscopies (AFM/LFM). The recently published torsional Sader method [C. P. Green et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1988 (2004)] facilitates the calculation of torsional spring constants of rectangular AFM cantilevers by eliminating the need to obtain information or make assumptions regarding the cantilever's material properties and thickness, both of which are difficult to measure. Complete force calibration of the lateral signal in LFM requires measurement of the lateral signal deflection sensitivity as well. In this article, we introduce a complete lateral force calibration procedure that employs the torsional Sader method and does not require making contact between the tip and any sample. In this method, a colloidal sphere is attached to a 'test' cantilever of the same width, but different length and material as the 'target' cantilever of interest. The lateral signal sensitivity is calibrated by loading the colloidal sphere laterally against a vertical sidewall. The signal sensitivity for the target cantilever is then corrected for the tip length, total signal strength, and in-plane bending of the cantilevers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach in comparison with the other established lateral force calibration techniques, and make a direct comparison with the 'wedge' calibration method. The methods agree to within 5%. The propagation of errors is explicitly considered for both methods and the sources of disagreement discussed. Finally, we show that the lateral signal sensitivity is substantially reduced when the laser spot is not centered on the detector

  20. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Ohashi Hospital); Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko

    1994-09-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T[sub 2]- and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T[sub 2]-weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author).

  1. MRI of paraventricular white matter lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Analysis by diffusion-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, Fuminori; Kinoshita, Masao; Kishibayashi, Jun; Kamada, Kazuhiko; Sunohara, Nobuhiko.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance images in some cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) revealed abnormal signals in both the paraventriculer white matter and in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule. We examined T 2 - and diffusion-weighted MR images of these lesions in 18 cases of ALS. There were symmetrical high-signal areas in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule in all of the cases. The high-signal areas in the internal capsule corresponded to the pyramidal tracts in the anatomical atlas by Talairach. In 5 of the cases of ALS, T 2 -weighted MR images showed discrete paraventricular white matter lesions as well. The mean age of the ALS patients with paraventricular white matter lesions was higher than that of the ALS patients without such lesions. Proton densities calculated from the conventional MR images were higher in both the capsular and paraventricular lesions. The diffusion coefficients perpendicular to the pyramidal tract in the internal capsular lesions were within the normal range, where as the diffusion coefficients in the paraventricular lesions were increased in all directions. Thus, diffusion anisotropy was lost in the paraventricular lesions. These findings are similar to those observed in the white matter lesions of cerebro-vascular origin. As a result, the pathology of the paraventricular lesions in ALS was confirmed to be different from that of the internal capsular lesions. (author)

  2. Does Humeral Component Lateralization in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Affect Rotator Cuff Torque? Evaluation in a Cadaver Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin; Langohr, G Daniel G; Mahaffy, Matthew; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S

    2017-10-01

    Humeral component lateralization in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) may improve the biomechanical advantage of the rotator cuff, which could improve the torque generated by the rotator cuff and increase internal and external rotation of the shoulder. The purpose of this in vitro biomechanical study was to evaluate the effect of humeral component lateralization (or lateral offset) on the torque of the anterior and posterior rotator cuff. Eight fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulders from eight separate donors (74 ± 8 years; six males, two females) were tested using an in vitro simulator. All shoulders were prescreened for soft tissue deficit and/or deformity before testing. A custom RTSA prosthesis was implanted that allowed five levels of humeral component lateralization (15, 20, 25, 30, 35 mm), which avoided restrictions imposed by commercially available designs. The torques exerted by the anterior and posterior rotator cuff were measured three times and then averaged for varying humeral lateralization, abduction angle (0°, 45°, 90°), and internal and external rotation (-60°, -30°, 0°, 30°, 60°). A three-way repeated measures ANOVA (abduction angle, humeral lateralization, internal rotation and external rotation angles) with a significance level of α = 0.05 was used for statistical analysis. Humeral lateralization only affected posterior rotator cuff torque at 0° abduction, where increasing humeral lateralization from 15 to 35 mm at 60° internal rotation decreased external rotation torque by 1.6 ± 0.4 Nm (95% CI, -0.07 -1.56 Nm; p = 0.06) from 4.0 ± 0.3 Nm to 2.4 ± 0.6 Nm, respectively, but at 60° external rotation increased external rotation torque by 2.2 ± 0.5 Nm (95% CI, -4.2 to -0.2 Nm; p = 0.029) from 6.2 ± 0.5 Nm to 8.3 ± 0.5 Nm, respectively. Anterior cuff torque was affected by humeral lateralization in more arm positions than the posterior cuff, where increasing humeral lateralization from 15 to 35 mm when at 60° internal rotation

  3. DISTRACTION EXTERNAL FIXATIONS OF PELVIC FRACTURES CAUSED BY A LATERAL COMPRESSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin Apostolov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors represent a distraction external pelvic fixation technique, which they use in pelvic fractures caused by a lateral compression. They consider the indications and mounting techniques. The authors recommend the early movement activities (on the 3rd - 5th day after the external fixator placement. This method had been used in 8 patients and 3 cases are analyzed in details. The priority of this technique over open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF mainly are: (1 the implementation of good reduction of the fracture preventing the risk of ORIF; (2 the possibility for early movement activities for the patient.

  4. International Ecohealth Forum 2008 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... the International Forum on Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Montreal, ... the International Association of Ecology and Health (IAEH), and a Brazilian ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  5. Later abortions and mental health: psychological experiences of women having later abortions--a critical review of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Julia R

    2011-01-01

    Some abortion policies in the U.S. are based on the notion that abortion harms women's mental health. The American Psychological Association (APA) Task Force on Abortion and Mental Health concluded that first-trimester abortions do not harm women's mental health. However, the APA task force does not make conclusions regarding later abortions (second trimester or beyond) and mental health. This paper critically evaluates studies on later abortion and mental health in order to inform both policy and practice. Using guidelines outlined by Steinberg and Russo (2009), post 1989 quantitative studies on later abortion and mental health were evaluated on the following qualities: 1) composition of comparison groups, 2) how prior mental health was assessed, and 3) whether common risk factors were controlled for in analyses if a significant relationship between abortion and mental health was found. Studies were evaluated with respect to the claim that later abortions harm women's mental health. Eleven quantitative studies that compared the mental health of women having later abortions (for reasons of fetal anomaly) with other groups were evaluated. Findings differed depending on the comparison group. No studies considered the role of prepregnancy mental health, and one study considered whether factors common among women having later abortions and mental health problems drove the association between later abortion and mental health. Policies based on the notion that later abortions (because of fetal anomaly) harm women's mental health are unwarranted. Because research suggests that most women who have later abortions do so for reasons other than fetal anomaly, future investigations should examine women's psychological experiences around later abortions. Copyright © 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Significance of lateral release in the therapy of patellar chondromalacia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, T; Göbel, F; Huschenbett, A; Hein, W

    2002-10-01

    A retrospective study was performed in 26 patients who underwent an operation for femoro-patellar pain due to a patellar chondromalacia with or without minor patellar dislocation/lateral pressure syndrome. The average age of the patients was 28.5 (15-39) years. 22 of the 26 patients revealed minor chondral damages of the stages 1 and 2 according to Outerbridge. In 12 patients ("lavage" group), an arthroscopic joint debridement only was carried out, while an additional open, lateral retinaculum release was made in 14 patients ("lateral release" group). The patella's distance of dislocation according to Hepp was reduced on an average of 3.0 (0-7) mm (p = 0.0019). The results of Bentley's score obtained during the follow-up interval on an average of 30.1 (9 to 60) months were almost identical for both groups. "Good" and "very good" results were achieved in the "lavage" group (83.3 %) and "lateral release" group (78.6 % of the patients). Lateral release should be used in cases of patellar decentration between 5 and 10 mm and adequate pain symptoms. The post-operative distance of dislocation should be less than 5 mm. Under such conditions and with minor chondral damage, a combined approach by using an arthroscopic joint debridement and open lateral release is promising to treat a patellar dislocation/lateral pressure syndrome.

  7. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil; Burda, Hynek

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and "pull of the north" are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts.

  8. Spatial MEG laterality maps for language: clinical applications in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, Ryan C N; Bardouille, Timothy; Newman, Aaron J; McWhinney, Sean R; Debay, Drew; Sadler, R Mark; Clarke, David B; Esser, Michael J

    2013-08-01

    Functional imaging is increasingly being used to provide a noninvasive alternative to intracarotid sodium amobarbitol testing (i.e., the Wada test). Although magnetoencephalography (MEG) has shown significant potential in this regard, the resultant output is often reduced to a simplified estimate of laterality. Such estimates belie the richness of functional imaging data and consequently limit the potential value. We present a novel approach that utilizes MEG data to compute "complex laterality vectors" and consequently "laterality maps" for a given function. Language function was examined in healthy controls and in people with epilepsy. When compared with traditional laterality index (LI) approaches, the resultant maps provided critical information about the magnitude and spatial characteristics of lateralized function. Specifically, it was possible to more clearly define low LI scores resulting from strong bilateral activation, high LI scores resulting from weak unilateral activation, and most importantly, the spatial distribution of lateralized activation. We argue that the laterality concept is better presented with the inherent spatial sensitivity of activation maps, rather than being collapsed into a one-dimensional index. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Muscle sparing lateral thoracotomy: the standard incision for thoracic procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Dumitrescu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lateral thoracotomy is a versatile approach with many variations and is currently the most widely used incision in thoracic surgery. In the current article we are presenting the muscle-sparing lateral thoracotomy in the lateral decubitus position which we consider to be the “standard” for lateral thoracotomies. Indications, surgical technique and pitfalls are described alongside our experience with thoracic drainage. Although there is no consensus regarding the name of this incision, some authors call it “axillary thoracotomy” while others call it a “modified lateral thoracotomy”, they all agree on one aspect – the importance of muscle sparing – which makes it the go-to thoracotomy for both small and large procedures involving the lung. Lateral muscle sparing thoracotomy allows for good exposure of the pulmonary hilum, fissures, apex and diaphragm. The approach is easy and quick to perform while at the same time ensuring faster postoperative recovery by sparing the latissimus dorsi muscle, better cosmetics and lower postoperative pain score when compared to the posterolateral or classical lateral thoracotomies.

  10. Directional preference in dogs: Laterality and "pull of the north"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adámková, Jana; Svoboda, Jan; Benediktová, Kateřina; Martini, Sabine; Nováková, Petra; Tůma, David; Kučerová, Michaela; Divišová, Michaela; Begall, Sabine; Hart, Vlastimil

    2017-01-01

    Laterality is a well described phenomenon in domestic dogs. It was shown that dogs, under calm Earth's magnetic field conditions, when marking their home ranges, tend to head about north- or southwards and display thus magnetic alignment. The question arises whether magnetic alignment might be affected or even compromised by laterality and vice versa. We tested the preference of dogs to choose between two dishes with snacks that were placed left and right, in different compass directions (north and east, east and south, south and west or west and north) in front of them. Some dogs were right-lateral, some left-lateral but most of them were ambilateral. There was a preference for the dish placed north compared to the one placed east of the dog ("pull of the north"). This effect was highly significant in small and medium-sized breeds but not in larger breeds, highly significant in females, in older dogs, in lateralized dogs but less significant or not significant in males, younger dogs, or ambilateral dogs. Laterality and “pull of the north” are phenomena which should be considered in diverse tasks and behavioral tests with which dogs or other animals might be confronted. The interaction and possible conflict between lateralization and "pull of the north" might be also considered as a reason for shifted magnetic alignment observed in different animal species in different contexts. PMID:28945773

  11. MONJU AS AN INTERNATIONAL ASSET: INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE AND COOPERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Wisner, R.S.; Stuart, R.

    2004-01-01

    The role of the fast breeder reactor prototype Monju has expanded to meet the challenges of the 21st century. Today instead of being merely a demonstration of an economical, safe, environmentally responsible source of energy, as originally designed, it has also the capability to be transformed into a unique International Irradiations Test Facility. The potential for Monju's role in the Generation IV nuclear energy systems development, and fast reactor research and development area is clear. Its incomparable fast neutron spectrum density will be a major interest not only for Sodium Fast Reactor but for all the Generation IV concepts. As Monju's potential future role is laid out, plans for future tests can be made. Tests of advanced fuels and materials in support of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative, as well as Minor Actinide Burning can be envisaged. Tests planned on transmutation of minor actinides have the objectives of an industrial demonstration of the reduction of toxic wastes and the stewardship burden of the long-lived wastes. Tests and demonstrations carried out at Monju will provide a bridge from existing Generation III fast reactor systems, now in the later stages of their projected operational lifetimes, to Generation IV nuclear energy systems. The JNC founded the International Cooperation and Technology Development Center and the International Research Fellowship program to facilitate this international effort. The Center exists specifically to formulate and perform projects ensuring the maximum technical benefit from Monju. The staff includes physicists, engineers and nuclear industry leaders from around the world. Research Fellowships center is based on several technical areas: advanced instrumentation, inspection techniques, plant reliability and safety, nucleonics, sodium handling technologies, irradiation and experiment management and coordination and advanced post-irradiation examination capabilities and techniques. This paper describes the recent

  12. [Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro; Ishiguro, Toru; Ohsawa, Tomonori; Okada, Norimichi; Nakata, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Masaru; Haga, Norihiro; Ishida, Hideyuki

    2010-11-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm.

  13. Eye-hand laterality and right thoracic idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzariti, Jean-François; Guyot, Marc-Alexandre; Agnani, Olivier; Demaille, Samantha; Kolanowski, Elisabeth; Donze, Cécile

    2014-06-01

    The adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) pathogenesis remains unknown. Certain studies have shown that there is a correlation between manual laterality and scoliotic deviation. A full study of manual laterality needs to be paired with one for visual dominance. With the aim of physiopathological research, we have evaluated the manual and visual laterality in AIS. A retrospective study from prospective data collection is used to evaluate the distribution of eye-hand laterality (homogeneous or crossed) of 65 right thoracic AIS (mean age 14.8 ± 1.8 years; mean Cobb angle: 32.8°) and a control group of 65 sex and age-matched (mean age 14.6 ± 1.8 years). The manual laterality was defined by the modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. The evaluation of the visual laterality is done using three tests (kaleidoscope test, hole-in-the-card test, distance-hole-in-the-card test). The group of right thoracic AIS presents a significantly higher frequency of crossed eye-hand laterality (63 %) than the control group (63 vs. 29.2 %; p laterality is "right hand dominant-left eye dominant" (82.9 %). There is no relationship with the Cobb angle. Those with right thoracic AIS show a higher occurrence of crossed eye-hand laterality. This could point physiopathological research of AIS towards functional abnormality of the optic chiasma through underuse of cross visual pathways, and in particular accessory optic pathways. It would be useful to explore this by carrying out research on AISs through neuroimaging and neurofunctional exploration.

  14. Prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Satoshi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ishibashi, Keiichiro

    2010-01-01

    Considering the advantages and disadvantages of lateral lymph node dissection in patients with advanced lower rectal cancer, it would be ideal to select candidates for lateral lymph node dissection by preoperative imaging study including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have reported that the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node could be set at 6 mm for indication of lateral lymph node dissection. In the present study, we evaluated whether it would be appropriate to apply the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node in MRI. Forty-four patients with advanced lower rectal cancer underwent a curative surgery with lateral lymph node dissection or sampling from 1997 to 2009 in our institute. Among them, 25 patients received MRI preoperatively and analyzed. The images were obtained by a sagittal method that was diagonal along sacro-iliac joint with 5 mm thick sections. Lateral lymph node metastasis was detected in 5 cases, one side in 4 cases and both sides in 1 case. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predict value, and accuracy for predicting metastasis was 50%, 90%, 42.9% and 84.8% respectively, when the cut-off value of the minimal diameter was set at 6 mm in MRI. Our results indicated that a 6 mm set as the cut-off value of minimal diameter of lateral lymph node was suitable for the prediction of lateral lymph node metastasis since the accuracy was relatively high (84.8%), though it was hardly to detect metastatic lymph node less than 6 mm. (author)

  15. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  16. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  17. Neocortical synaptophysin asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D

    2010-01-01

    Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin-immunoreacti......Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin...... density. In contrast, puncta densities were symmetrical in right-handed chimpanzees. These findings support the conclusion that synapse asymmetry is modulated by lateralization of skilled motor behavior in chimpanzees....

  18. Fatigue crack growth analysis of a 450 PWR - lateral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taupin, P.; Flamand, F.

    1988-01-01

    Fatigue Crack Growth analysis of a 5 mm deep surface crack in the crotch region of a 45 0 Lateral (12 inch diameter) was performed on a 3-Loop 900 MWe PWR Plant under Normal and upset loading conditions. Stress Intensity factors were computed using the weight-function technique. The latter were obtained for a polynomial stress distribution at the corner of the lateral under contract with the Pressure Vessel Research Committee of the WRC. The study shows that after 40 years of normal operation the size of the end of life crack is limited to about 25 mm for the chosen lateral with a thickness of 300 mm

  19. Medial vs lateral unicompartmental knee arthrroplasty: clinical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiocchi, Andrea; Condello, Vincenzo; Madonna, Vincenzo; Bonomo, M; Zorzi, Claudio

    2017-06-07

    Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty (UKA) is a common procedure for the management of isolated osteoarthritis. UKA is considered less invasive compared to total knee arthroplasty, associated with less operative time, blood loss and faster recovery. Isolated lateral osteoarthritis is a relatively uncommon clinical problem, with an incidence about ten times lower than the medial compartment. In fact, lateral UKA are about 5-10% of the total amount of the UKAs. In addition, it's historically considered more challenging and with poorer results. The aim of this paper was to compare current indications, modes of failure, survivorship and clinical results of medial and lateral UKA by a narrative review of the latest literature.

  20. International cooperation workshop. Regional workshop for CTBTO international cooperation: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Pursuant to the 1999 programme of work, and following the International Cooperation Workshop held in Vienna, Austria, in 1998, the Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Preparatory Commission for the CTBTO (Prep Com) held a regional Workshop for CTBTO International Cooperation in Cairo. The purpose of the workshop was to identify how and by what means the Africa region can promote international cooperation in CTBT verification related technologies, and how the region can benefit from and contribute to Prep Com activity. PTS staff briefed the 40 participants from 22 African States who attended the Workshop on general aspects, including costs, of the establishment and operation of the CTBT verification system, including its four monitoring technologies. Participants were informed on opportunities for local institutions in the establishment of monitoring stations and on possible support for national and regional data centres. National experts presented their research and development activities and reviewed existing experiences on bi/multi-lateral cooperation. The main points of the discussion focused on the need to engage governments to advance signature/ratification, and further training opportunities for African states