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Sample records for late sodium current

  1. Reduced Sodium Current in the Lateral Ventricular Wall Induces Inferolateral J-Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijborg, Veronique M F; Potse, Mark; Conrath, Chantal E; Belterman, Charly N W; De Bakker, Jacques M T; Coronel, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    J-waves in inferolateral leads are associated with a higher risk for idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. We aimed to test potential mechanisms (depolarization or repolarization dependent) responsible for inferolateral J-waves. We hypothesized that inferolateral J-waves can be caused by regional delayed activation of myocardium that is activated late during normal conditions. Computer simulations were performed to evaluate how J-point elevation is influenced by reducing sodium current conductivity (GNa), increasing transient outward current conductivity (Gto), or cellular uncoupling in three predefined ventricular regions (lateral, anterior, or septal). Two pig hearts were Langendorff-perfused with selective perfusion with a sodium channel blocker of lateral or anterior/septal regions. Volume-conducted pseudo-electrocardiograms (ECG) were recorded to detect the presence of J-waves. Epicardial unipolar electrograms were simultaneously recorded to obtain activation times (AT). Simulation data showed that conduction slowing, caused by reduced sodium current, in lateral, but not in other regions induced inferolateral J-waves. An increase in transient outward potassium current or cellular uncoupling in the lateral zone elicited slight J-point elevations which did not meet J-wave criteria. Additional conduction slowing in the entire heart attenuated J-waves and J-point elevations on the ECG, because of masking by the QRS. Experimental data confirmed that conduction slowing attributed to sodium channel blockade in the left lateral but not in the anterior/septal ventricular region induced inferolateral J-waves. J-waves coincided with the delayed activation. Reduced sodium current in the left lateral ventricular myocardium can cause inferolateral J-waves on the ECG.

  2. Unusual Voltage-Gated Sodium Currents as Targets for Pain.

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    Barbosa, C; Cummins, T R

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a serious health problem that impacts the lives of many individuals. Hyperexcitability of peripheral sensory neurons contributes to both acute and chronic pain syndromes. Because voltage-gated sodium currents are crucial to the transmission of electrical signals in peripheral sensory neurons, the channels that underlie these currents are attractive targets for pain therapeutics. Sodium currents and channels in peripheral sensory neurons are complex. Multiple-channel isoforms contribute to the macroscopic currents in nociceptive sensory neurons. These different isoforms exhibit substantial variations in their kinetics and pharmacology. Furthermore, sodium current complexity is enhanced by an array of interacting proteins that can substantially modify the properties of voltage-gated sodium channels. Resurgent sodium currents, atypical currents that can enhance recovery from inactivation and neuronal firing, are increasingly being recognized as playing potentially important roles in sensory neuron hyperexcitability and pain sensations. Here we discuss unusual sodium channels and currents that have been identified in nociceptive sensory neurons, describe what is known about the molecular determinants of the complex sodium currents in these neurons. Finally, we provide an overview of therapeutic strategies to target voltage-gated sodium currents in nociceptive neurons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of cardiac sodium currents by toluene exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Silvia L; Orta-Salazar, Gerardo; Gauthereau, Marcia Y; Millan-Perez Peña, Lourdes; Salinas-Stefanón, Eduardo M

    2003-01-01

    Toluene is an industrial solvent widely used as a drug of abuse, which can produce sudden sniffing death due to cardiac arrhythmias. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that toluene inhibits cardiac sodium channels in Xenopus laevis oocytes transfected with Nav1.5 cDNA and in isolated rat ventricular myocytes. In oocytes, toluene inhibited sodium currents (INa+) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 274 μM (confidence limits: 141–407μM). The inhibition was complete, voltage-independent, and slowly reversible. Toluene had no effect on: (i) the shape of the I–V curves; (ii) the reversal potential of Na+; and (iii) the steady-state inactivation. The slow recovery time constant from inactivation of INa+ decreased with toluene exposure, while the fast recovery time constant remained unchanged. Block of INa+ by toluene was use- and frequency-dependent. In rat cardiac myocytes, 300 μM toluene inhibited the sodium current (INa+) by 62%; this inhibition was voltage independent. These results suggest that toluene binds to cardiac Na+ channels in the open state and unbinds either when channels move between inactivated states or from an inactivated to a closed state. The use- and frequency-dependent block of INa+ by toluene might be responsible, at least in part, for its arrhythmogenic effect. PMID:14534149

  4. Influence of sodium deposits in steam generator tubes on remote field eddy current signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirunavukkarasu, S. [EMSI Section, NDE Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Rao, B.P.C. [EMSI Section, NDE Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: bpcrao@igcar.gov.in; Vaidyanathan, S.; Jayakumar, T.; Raj, Baldev [EMSI Section, NDE Division, Metallurgy and Materials Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-04-15

    The presence of sodium deposits in defective regions of steam generator (SG) tubes of fast-breeder reactors is expected to influence the remote field eddy current (RFEC) signals. By exposing five SG tubes having uniform wall loss grooves to a sodium environment in a specially designed test vessel, changes in the shape of RFEC signals were observed and it was possible to approximate the volume of sodium deposited in defects. An invariant signal parameter was determined for quantitative characterization of defects despite the presence of sodium in the defects.

  5. Alterations of sodium and potassium channels of RGCs in RCS rat with the development of retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongshan; Song, Yanping; Yao, Junping; Weng, Chuanhuang; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2013-11-01

    All know that retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a group of hereditary retinal degenerative diseases characterized by progressive dysfunction of photoreceptors and associated with progressive cells loss; nevertheless, little is known about how rods and cones loss affects the surviving inner retinal neurons and networks. Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) process and convey visual information from retina to visual centers in the brain. The healthy various ion channels determine the normal reception and projection of visual signals from RGCs. Previous work on the Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat, as a kind of classical RP animal model, indicated that, at late stages of retinal degeneration in RCS rat, RGCs were also morphologically and functionally affected. Here, retrograde labeling for RGCs with Fluorogold was performed to investigate the distribution, density, and morphological changes of RGCs during retinal degeneration. Then, patch clamp recording, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to study the channels of sodium and potassium properties of RGCs, so as to explore the molecular and proteinic basis for understanding the alterations of RGCs membrane properties and firing functions. We found that the resting membrane potential, input resistance, and capacitance of RGCs changed significantly at the late stage of retinal degeneration. Action potential could not be evoked in a part of RGCs. Inward sodium current and outward potassium current recording showed that sodium current was impaired severely but only slightly in potassium current. Expressions of sodium channel protein were impaired dramatically at the late stage of retinal degeneration. The results suggested that the density of RGCs decreased, process ramification impaired, and sodium ion channel proteins destructed, which led to the impairment of electrophysiological functions of RGCs and eventually resulted in the loss of visual function.

  6. State-of-the-art review of sodium fire analysis and current notions for improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasi, S.S.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium releases from postulated pipe ruptures, as well as failures of sodium handling equipment in liquid metal fast breeder reactors, may lead to substantial pressure-temperature transients in the sodium system cells, as well as in the reactor containment building. Sodium fire analyses are currently performed with analytical tools, such as the SPRAY, SOMIX, SPOOL-FIRE and SOFIRE-II codes. A review and evaluation of the state-of-the-art in sodium fire analysis is presented, and suggestions for further improvements are made. This work is based, in part, on studies made at Brookhaven National Laboratory during the past several years in the areas of model development and improvement associated with the accident analyses of LMFBRs

  7. Calpain inhibition reduces amplitude and accelerates decay of the late sodium current in ventricular myocytes from dogs with chronic heart failure.

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    Albertas Undrovinas

    Full Text Available Calpain is an intracellular Ca²⁺-activated protease that is involved in numerous Ca²⁺ dependent regulation of protein function in many cell types. This paper tests a hypothesis that calpains are involved in Ca²⁺-dependent increase of the late sodium current (INaL in failing heart. Chronic heart failure (HF was induced in 2 dogs by multiple coronary artery embolization. Using a conventional patch-clamp technique, the whole-cell INaL was recorded in enzymatically isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCMs in which INaL was activated by the presence of a higher (1 μM intracellular [Ca²⁺] in the patch pipette. Cell suspensions were exposed to a cell- permeant calpain inhibitor MDL-28170 for 1-2 h before INaL recordings. The numerical excitation-contraction coupling (ECC model was used to evaluate electrophysiological effects of calpain inhibition in silico. MDL caused acceleration of INaL decay evaluated by the two-exponential fit (τ₁ = 42±3.0 ms τ₂ = 435±27 ms, n = 6, in MDL vs. τ₁ = 52±2.1 ms τ₂ = 605±26 control no vehicle, n = 11, and vs. τ₁ = 52±2.8 ms τ₂ = 583±37 ms n = 7, control with vehicle, P<0.05 ANOVA. MDL significantly reduced INaL density recorded at -30 mV (0.488±0.03, n = 12, in control no vehicle, 0.4502±0.0210, n = 9 in vehicle vs. 0.166±0.05pA/pF, n = 5, in MDL. Our measurements of current-voltage relationships demonstrated that the INaL density was decreased by MDL in a wide range of potentials, including that for the action potential plateau. At the same time the membrane potential dependency of the steady-state activation and inactivation remained unchanged in the MDL-treated VCMs. Our ECC model predicted that calpain inhibition greatly improves myocyte function by reducing the action potential duration and intracellular diastolic Ca²⁺ accumulation in the pulse train.Calpain inhibition reverses INaL changes in failing dog ventricular

  8. Sodium current inhibition by nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF)--fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, Arie O.; van Ginneken, Antoni C. G.; Wilders, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    In two recent publications in Bioelectromagnetics it has been demonstrated that the voltage-gated sodium current (I(Na)) is inhibited in response to a nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF). At the same time, there was an increase in a non-inactivating "leak" current (I(leak)), which was

  9. Sodium vapour aerosol formation and sodium deposition current work within the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawtin, P [Chemical Engineering Division, Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Seed, G [Nuclear Power Company (Risley) Ltd, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1977-01-01

    The significance to reactor operation of sodium transport through the cover gas of a sodium-cooled fast reactor and its subsequent deposition on cooled reactor surfaces is fully appreciated in the UK. A programme of work is therefore underway designed to understand the mechanism of sodium transport under these conditions. This paper described the work which has so far been completed, discussed the work presently in progress, and outlines future plans. (author)

  10. Simulation and mechanistic investigation of the arrhythmogenic role of the late sodium current in human heart failure.

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    Beatriz Trenor

    Full Text Available Heart failure constitutes a major public health problem worldwide. The electrophysiological remodeling of failing hearts sets the stage for malignant arrhythmias, in which the role of the late Na(+ current (I(NaL is relevant and is currently under investigation. In this study we examined the role of I(NaL in the electrophysiological phenotype of ventricular myocytes, and its proarrhythmic effects in the failing heart. A model for cellular heart failure was proposed using a modified version of Grandi et al. model for human ventricular action potential that incorporates the formulation of I(NaL. A sensitivity analysis of the model was performed and simulations of the pathological electrical activity of the cell were conducted. The proposed model for the human I(NaL and the electrophysiological remodeling of myocytes from failing hearts accurately reproduce experimental observations. The sensitivity analysis of the modulation of electrophysiological parameters of myocytes from failing hearts due to ion channels remodeling, revealed a role for I(NaL in the prolongation of action potential duration (APD, triangulation of the shape of the AP, and changes in Ca(2+ transient. A mechanistic investigation of intracellular Na(+ accumulation and APD shortening with increasing frequency of stimulation of failing myocytes revealed a role for the Na(+/K(+ pump, the Na(+/Ca(2+ exchanger and I(NaL. The results of the simulations also showed that in failing myocytes, the enhancement of I(NaL increased the reverse rate-dependent APD prolongation and the probability of initiating early afterdepolarizations. The electrophysiological remodeling of failing hearts and especially the enhancement of the I(NaL prolong APD and alter Ca(2+ transient facilitating the development of early afterdepolarizations. An enhanced I(NaL appears to be an important contributor to the electrophysiological phenotype and to the dysregulation of [Ca(2+](i homeostasis of failing myocytes.

  11. Octopamine increases the excitability of neurons in the snail feeding system by modulation of inward sodium current but not outward potassium currents

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    Szabó Henriette

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although octopamine has long been known to have major roles as both transmitter and modulator in arthropods, it has only recently been shown to be functionally important in molluscs, playing a role as a neurotransmitter in the feeding network of the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. The synaptic potentials cannot explain all the effects of octopamine-containing neurons on the feeding network, and here we test the hypothesis that octopamine is also a neuromodulator. Results The excitability of the B1 and B4 motoneurons in the buccal ganglia to depolarising current clamp pulses is significantly (P IA current and a sustained IK delayed-rectifier current, but neither was modulated by octopamine in any of these three buccal neurons. The fast inward current was eliminated in sodium – free saline and so is likely to be carried by sodium ions. 10 μM octopamine enhanced this current by 33 and 45% in the B1 and B4 motoneurons respectively (P Conclusion We conclude that octopamine is also a neuromodulator in snails, changing the excitability of the buccal neurons. This is supported by the close relationship from the voltage clamp data, through the quantitative simulation, to the action potential threshold, changing the properties of neurons in a rhythmic network. The increase in inward sodium current provides an explanation for the polycyclic modulation of the feeding system by the octopamine-containing interneurons, making feeding easier to initiate and making the feeding bursts more intense.

  12. Calcium Homeostasis Modulator 1-Like Currents in Rat Fungiform Taste Cells Expressing Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Currents.

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    Bigiani, Albertino

    2017-05-01

    Salt reception by taste cells is still the less understood transduction process occurring in taste buds, the peripheral sensory organs for the detection of food chemicals. Although there is evidence suggesting that the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) works as sodium receptor, yet it is not clear how salt-detecting cells signal the relevant information to nerve endings. Taste cells responding to sweet, bitter, and umami substances release ATP as neurotransmitter through a nonvesicular mechanism. Three different channel proteins have been proposed as conduit for ATP secretion: pannexin channels, connexin hemichannels, and calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) channels. In heterologous expression systems, these channels mediate outwardly rectifying membrane currents with distinct biophysical and pharmacological properties. I therefore tested whether also salt-detecting taste cells were endowed with these currents. To this aim, I applied the patch-clamp techniques to single cells in isolated taste buds from rat fungiform papillae. Salt-detecting cells were functionally identified by exploiting the effect of amiloride, which induces a current response by shutting down ENaCs. I looked for the presence of outwardly rectifying currents by using appropriate voltage-clamp protocols and specific pharmacological tools. I found that indeed salt-detecting cells possessed these currents with properties consistent with the presence, at least in part, of CALHM1 channels. Unexpectedly, CALHM1-like currents in taste cells were potentiated by known blockers of pannexin, suggesting a possible inhibitory action of this protein on CALMH1. These findings indicate that communication between salt-detecting cells and nerve endings might involve ATP release by CALMH1 channels. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Calcium currents in a fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Slow ionic currents were measured in the rat omohyoid muscle with the three-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Sodium and delayed rectifier potassium currents were blocked pharmacologically. Under these conditions, depolarizing test pulses elicited an early outward current, followed by a transient slow inward current, followed in turn by a late outward current. The early outward current appeared to be a residual delayed rectifier current. The slow inward current was identified as a calci...

  14. Current status of sodium fire and aerosol research in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1989-01-01

    State-of-the-art of the research and development related to sodium fire and aerosol behaviour is presented. This paper covers the Japanese work on sodium leak, leak detector, sodium oxidation and combustion, sodium aerosol release, fire mitigation, reliabilities of the electrical instruments and the reactor components under the sodium aerosols suspended atmosphere, aerosol plugging in a leak path, and the computer codes are presented. (author)

  15. An effective assessment of valproate sodium-induced hepatotoxicity with UPLC-MS and (1)HNMR-based metabonomics approach.

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    Huo, Taoguang; Chen, Xi; Lu, Xiumei; Qu, Lianyue; Liu, Yang; Cai, Shuang

    2014-10-15

    Valproate sodium is one of the most prescribed antiepileptic drugs. However, valproate sodium has various side effects, especially its toxicity on liver. Current markers for toxicity reflect mostly the late stages of tissue damage; thus, more efficient methods for toxicity evaluation are desired. To evaluate the toxicity of valproate sodium on liver, we performed both UPLC-MS and (1)HNMR-based metabonomics analysis of serum samples from 34 epileptic patients (age: 42.0±18.6, 18 male/16 female) after valproate sodium treatment. Compared to conventional markers, the serum metabolic profiles provided clear distinction of the valproate sodium induced normal liver function and abnormal liver function in epileptic patients. Through multivariate statistical analysis, we identified marker metabolites associated with the hepatotoxicity induced by valproate sodium, such as glucose, lactate, acetoacetate, VLDL/LDL, lysophosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylcholines, choline, creatine, amino acids, N-acetyl glycoprotein, pyruvate and uric acid. This metabonomics approach may provide effective way to evaluate the valproate sodium-induced toxicity in a manner that can complement current measures. This approach is expected to find broader application in other drug-induced toxicity assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Fast-slow asymptotics for a Markov chain model of fast sodium current

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    Starý, Tomáš; Biktashev, Vadim N.

    2017-09-01

    We explore the feasibility of using fast-slow asymptotics to eliminate the computational stiffness of discrete-state, continuous-time deterministic Markov chain models of ionic channels underlying cardiac excitability. We focus on a Markov chain model of fast sodium current, and investigate its asymptotic behaviour with respect to small parameters identified in different ways.

  17. Contribution to perfecting eddy current testing of steam generator tubes of sodium cooled breeders: description of the Monacault loop for the study of sodium deposit influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicore, A.; Lemarquis, J.C.; Oberlin, C.; Pigeon, M.

    1981-12-01

    In the event of sodium-water reaction in the steam generator of a sodium cooled breeder reactor, it is essential to be able to monitor the local loss of thickness of the tubes located in the reaction area. A method for monitoring the tubes by an eddy current probe is being developed for Super Phenix. The sodium deposits on the outer wall of the tubes, as well as their prolonged contact with high temperature sodium are likely to bring about a change in the signals picked up. A test loop, Monacault, has been built in order to clarify the importance of these parameters (effect of sodium deposits, reproducibility of the wetting at different temperatures). It includes three test cells containing the sample tubes having a total of 61 standard defects to be tested. The first results on the wetting of tubes are given and discussed [fr

  18. Actions of the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin on sodium channels expressed in rat cerebral cortical neurons.

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    Yang, Lin; Li, Li

    2015-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are important sites for the neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid insecticides in mammals. Here, we studied the mode of action of bifenthrin on the native sodium channels in cerebral cortical neurons prepared from newborn rat brain, where the toxic effects are largely generated. Bifenthrin caused a pronounced late current that persisted at the end of a depolarizing pulse, a slowly-decaying tail current following repolarization and significant resting modification (25.3% modification at 10 μM). No significant bifenthrin-induced effect was observed at the peak current. Bifenthrin also caused a concentration-dependent hyperpolarizing shift in steady-state activation and inactivation as well as slowed recovery from channel inactivation. Repetitive depolarization increased the potency of bifenthrin with high frequency. There was approximately 64% inhibition of modification upon repetitive activation by 10-Hz trains of depolarizing pulses. These results suggest that bifenthrin binds to and modifies sodium channels in both the closed and open states and exhibits the behavior between type I and type II.

  19. Enhanced basal late sodium current appears to underlie the age-related prolongation of action potential duration in guinea pig ventricular myocytes.

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    Song, Yejia; Belardinelli, Luiz

    2017-12-14

    Aging hearts have prolonged QT interval and are vulnerable to oxidative stress. Because the QT interval indirectly reflects the action potential duration (APD), we examined the hypotheses that 1) the APD of ventricular myocytes increases with age; 2) the age-related prolongation of APD is due to an enhancement of basal late Na + current (I NaL ); 3) inhibition of I NaL may protect aging hearts from arrhythmogenic effects of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Experiments were performed on ventricular myocytes isolated from one-month (young) and one-year (old) guinea pigs (GPs). The APD of myocytes from old GPs was significantly longer than that from young GPs and was shortened by the I NaL inhibitors GS967 and tetrodotoxin. The magnitude of I NaL was significantly larger in myocytes from old than from young GPs. The CaMKII inhibitors KN-93 and AIP and the Na V 1.5-channel blocker MTSEA blocked the I NaL . There were no significant differences between myocytes from young and old GPs in L-type Ca 2+ current and the rapidly- and slowly-activating delayed rectifier K + currents, although the inward rectifier K + current was slightly decreased in myocytes from old GPs. H 2 O 2 induced more early afterdepolarizations in myocytes from old than from young GPs. The effect of H 2 O 2 was attenuated by GS967. The results suggest that 1) the APD of myocytes from old GPs is prolonged, 2) a CaMKII-mediated increase in Na V 1.5-channel I NaL is responsible for the prolongation of APD, and 3) Inhibition of I NaL may be beneficial for maintaining electrical stability under oxidative stress in myocytes of old GPs.

  20. Eddy-current flow rate meter for measuring sodium flow rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knaak, J.

    1976-01-01

    For safety reasons flow rate meters for monitoring coolant flow rates are inserted in the core of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors. These are so-called eddy-current flow rate meters which can be mounted directly above the fuel elements. In the present contribution the principle of measurement, the mechanical construction and the circuit design of the flow rate measuring device are described. Special problems and their solution on developing the measuring system are pointed out. Finally, results of measurement and experience with the apparatus in several experiments are reported, where also further possibilities of application were tested. (orig./TK) [de

  1. Carbon monoxide induces cardiac arrhythmia via induction of the late Na+ current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallas, Mark L; Yang, Zhaokang; Boyle, John P; Boycott, Hannah E; Scragg, Jason L; Milligan, Carol J; Elies, Jacobo; Duke, Adrian; Thireau, Jérôme; Reboul, Cyril; Richard, Sylvain; Bernus, Olivier; Steele, Derek S; Peers, Chris

    2012-10-01

    Clinical reports describe life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias after environmental exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) or accidental CO poisoning. Numerous case studies describe disruption of repolarization and prolongation of the QT interval, yet the mechanisms underlying CO-induced arrhythmias are unknown. To understand the cellular basis of CO-induced arrhythmias and to identify an effective therapeutic approach. Patch-clamp electrophysiology and confocal Ca(2+) and nitric oxide (NO) imaging in isolated ventricular myocytes was performed together with protein S-nitrosylation to investigate the effects of CO at the cellular and molecular levels, whereas telemetry was used to investigate effects of CO on electrocardiogram recordings in vivo. CO increased the sustained (late) component of the inward Na(+) current, resulting in prolongation of the action potential and the associated intracellular Ca(2+) transient. In more than 50% of myocytes these changes progressed to early after-depolarization-like arrhythmias. CO elevated NO levels in myocytes and caused S-nitrosylation of the Na(+) channel, Na(v)1.5. All proarrhythmic effects of CO were abolished by the NO synthase inhibitor l-NAME, and reversed by ranolazine, an inhibitor of the late Na(+) current. Ranolazine also corrected QT variability and arrhythmias induced by CO in vivo, as monitored by telemetry. Our data indicate that the proarrhythmic effects of CO arise from activation of NO synthase, leading to NO-mediated nitrosylation of Na(V)1.5 and to induction of the late Na(+) current. We also show that the antianginal drug ranolazine can abolish CO-induced early after-depolarizations, highlighting a novel approach to the treatment of CO-induced arrhythmias.

  2. The early and late effects of digoxin treatment on the sodium transport, sodium content and Na+K+- ATPase or erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, M; Zareian, K; Davidson, C; Morgan, D B; Swaminathan, R

    1981-01-01

    1 Erythrocyte sodium content, sodium transport (ouabain sensitive sodium flux Eos, and ouabain sensitive efflux rate constant ERCos) sodium, potassium activated ouabain sensitive adenosine triphosphatase (Na+K+ATPase) and plasma digoxin were measured in patients during acute digitalisation and in patients who were on long-term digoxin treatment. 2 In the six patients who were studied during digitalisation, the ERCos and Na+K+ATPase activity decreased and erythrocyte sodium content increased during days 2-4 treatment, but there was no change in Eos. 3 In 39 patients on long term digoxin therapy (2-119 months) the erythrocyte sodium content was normal, but the erythrocyte Na+K+ATPase activity was higher than the control group. When the results from these 39 patients were divided according to the duration of treatment it was found that the erythrocyte sodium content was higher in patients treated for 2-4 months than in patients treated for longer periods and the erythrocyte Na+K+ATPase activity increased with duration of treatment. In eight patients (duration of treatment greater than 29 months) in whom ERCos and Eos were measured, ERCos and Eos were higher than the control group. 4 The results suggest that the effects of digoxin on erythrocytes which occur during acute digoxin treatment do not persist in the long term. 5 The possible explanation for the higher ERCos, Eos and Na+K+ATPase activity in patients treated with digoxin for more than 2 months is discussed. PMID:6268133

  3. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

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    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  4. Development of a sodium ionization detector for sodium-to-gas leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, K.; Elumalai, G.

    1984-01-01

    A sensitive sodium-to-gas leak detector has been indigenously developed for use in liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor. The detector relies on the relative ease with which sodium vapour or its aerosols including its oxides and hydroxides can be thermally ionized compared with other possible constituents such as nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour etc. in a carrier gas and is therefore called sodium ionization detector (SID). The ionization current is a measure of sodium concentration in the carrier gas sampled through the detector. Different sensor designs using platinum and rhodium as filament materials in varying sizes were constructed and their responses to different sodium aerosol concentrations in the carrier gas were investigated. Nitrogen was used as the carrier gas. Both the background current and speed of response were found to depend on the diameter of the filament. There was also a particular collector voltage which yielded maximum sensitivity of the detector. The sensor was therefore optimised considering influence of above factors and a detector has been built which demonstrates a sensitivity better than 0.3 nanogram of sodium per cubic centimetre of carrier gas for a signal to background ratio of 1:1. Its usefulness in detecting sodium fires in experimental area was also demonstrated. Currently efforts are under way to improve the life time of the filament used in the above detector. (author)

  5. Cytotoxicity, Bactericidal, and Antioxidant Activity of Sodium Alginate Hydrosols Treated with Direct Electric Current

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    Żaneta Król

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of using direct electric current (DC of 0, 200, and 400 mA for five minutes on the physiochemical properties, cytotoxicity, antibacterial, and antioxidant activity of sodium alginate hydrosols with different sodium chloride concentrations. The pH, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, electrical conductivity (EC, and available chlorine concentration (ACC were measured. The effect of sodium alginate hydrosols treated with DC on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Micrococcus luteus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas fluorescence, and RAW 264.7 and L929 cells was investigated. Subsequently, the antioxidant properties of hydrosols were evaluated by determining the scavenging ability of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results have shown that after applying 400 mA in hydrosol samples with 0.1% and 0.2% NaCl all tested bacteria were inactivated. The ACC concentration of C400 samples with NaCl was equal to 13.95 and 19.71 mg/L, respectively. The cytotoxicity analysis revealed that optimized electric field conditions and the addition of sodium chloride allow for the avoidance of toxicity effects on normal cells without disturbing the antibacterial effects. Due to the presence of oxidizing substances, the DPPH of variants treated with DC was lower than the DPPH of control samples.

  6. Dietary sodium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population...

  7. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

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    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  8. Blockade of persistent sodium currents contributes to the riluzole-induced inhibition of spontaneous activity and oscillations in injured DRG neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rou-Gang Xie

    Full Text Available In addition to a fast activating and immediately inactivating inward sodium current, many types of excitable cells possess a noninactivating or slowly inactivating component: the persistent sodium current (I(NaP. The I(NaP is found in normal primary sensory neurons where it is mediated by tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. The dorsal root ganglion (DRG is the gateway for ectopic impulses that originate in pathological pain signals from the periphery. However, the role of I(NaP in DRG neurons remains unclear, particularly in neuropathic pain states. Using in vivo recordings from single medium- and large-diameter fibers isolated from the compressed DRG in Sprague-Dawley rats, we show that local application of riluzole, which blocks the I(NaP, also inhibits the spontaneous activity of A-type DRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, riluzole also abolished subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (SMPOs, although DRG neurons still responded to intracellular current injection with a single full-sized spike. In addition, the I(NaP was enhanced in medium- and large-sized neurons of the compressed DRG, while bath-applied riluzole significantly inhibited the I(NaP without affecting the transient sodium current (I(NaT. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that the I(NaP blocker riluzole selectively inhibits I(NaP and thereby blocks SMPOs and the ectopic spontaneous activity of injured A-type DRG neurons. This suggests that the I(NaP of DRG neurons is a potential target for treating neuropathic pain at the peripheral level.

  9. Blockade of persistent sodium currents contributes to the riluzole-induced inhibition of spontaneous activity and oscillations in injured DRG neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Rou-Gang; Zheng, Da-Wei; Xing, Jun-Ling; Zhang, Xu-Jie; Song, Ying; Xie, Ya-Bin; Kuang, Fang; Dong, Hui; You, Si-Wei; Xu, Hui; Hu, San-Jue

    2011-04-25

    In addition to a fast activating and immediately inactivating inward sodium current, many types of excitable cells possess a noninactivating or slowly inactivating component: the persistent sodium current (I(NaP)). The I(NaP) is found in normal primary sensory neurons where it is mediated by tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium channels. The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is the gateway for ectopic impulses that originate in pathological pain signals from the periphery. However, the role of I(NaP) in DRG neurons remains unclear, particularly in neuropathic pain states. Using in vivo recordings from single medium- and large-diameter fibers isolated from the compressed DRG in Sprague-Dawley rats, we show that local application of riluzole, which blocks the I(NaP), also inhibits the spontaneous activity of A-type DRG neurons in a dose-dependent manner. Significantly, riluzole also abolished subthreshold membrane potential oscillations (SMPOs), although DRG neurons still responded to intracellular current injection with a single full-sized spike. In addition, the I(NaP) was enhanced in medium- and large-sized neurons of the compressed DRG, while bath-applied riluzole significantly inhibited the I(NaP) without affecting the transient sodium current (I(NaT)). Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time that the I(NaP) blocker riluzole selectively inhibits I(NaP) and thereby blocks SMPOs and the ectopic spontaneous activity of injured A-type DRG neurons. This suggests that the I(NaP) of DRG neurons is a potential target for treating neuropathic pain at the peripheral level.

  10. Sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups and potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology: NHANES Dietary Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Agarwal, Sanjiv; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2014-12-18

    Because excessive dietary sodium intake is a major contributor to hypertension, a reduction in dietary sodium has been recommended for the US population. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake in US population ethnic subgroups and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were analyzed using The National Cancer Institute method to estimate usual intake in population subgroups. Potential impact of SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology on sodium intake was modeled using suggested sodium reductions of 20-30% in 953 foods and assuming various market penetrations. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across age, gender and ethnic groups. Current sodium intake across all population subgroups exceeds the Dietary Guidelines 2010 recommendations and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake has decreased significantly during the last decade for all ethnicities. "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish, & Mixtures" contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake. Sodium reduction, using SODA-LO® Salt Microspheres sodium reduction technology (with 100% market penetration) was estimated to be 185-323 mg/day or 6.3-8.4% of intake depending upon age, gender and ethnic group. Current sodium intake in US ethnic subgroups exceeds the recommendations and sodium reduction technologies could potentially help reduce dietary sodium intake among those groups.

  11. Effects of curcumin on TTX-R sodium currents of dorsal root ganglion neurons in type 2 diabetic rats with diabetic neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Bo; Shen, Lu-Lu; Shi, Xiao-Ting; Gong, Yong-Sheng; Fan, Xiao-Fang; Li, Jun; Cao, Hong

    2015-09-25

    Type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM) has reached pandemic status and shows no signs of abatement. Diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP) is generally considered to be one of the most common complications of T2DM, which is also recognized as one of the most difficult types of pain to treat. As one kind of peripheral neuropathic pain, DNP manifests typical chronic neuralgia symptoms, including hyperalgesia, allodynia, autotomy, and so on. The injured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is considered as the first stage of the sensory pathway impairment, whose neurons display increased frequency of action potential generation and increased spontaneous activities. These are mainly due to the changed properties of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) and the increased sodium currents, especially TTX-R sodium currents. Curcumin, one of the most important phytochemicals from turmeric, has been demonstrated to effectively prevent and/or ameliorate diabetic mellitus and its complications including DNP. The present study demonstrates that the TTX-R sodium currents of small-sized DRG neurons isolated from DNP rats are significantly increased. Such abnormality can be efficaciously ameliorated by curcumin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of newly synthesized compounds 44Bu and 444 on QRS -complex width and fast sodium current

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kilianová, A.; Bébarová, M.; Beránková, K.; Opatřilová, R.; Pásek, Michal; Bartošová, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 1 (2010), s. 41-49 ISSN 0001-7213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : 444 * 44Bu * QRS-complex * sodium current * rat Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 0.534, year: 2010

  13. Sea-anemone toxin ATX-II elicits A-fiber-dependent pain and enhances resurgent and persistent sodium currents in large sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinger Alexandra B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gain-of-function mutations of the nociceptive voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.7 lead to inherited pain syndromes, such as paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD. One characteristic of these mutations is slowed fast-inactivation kinetics, which may give rise to resurgent sodium currents. It is long known that toxins from Anemonia sulcata, such as ATX-II, slow fast inactivation and skin contact for example during diving leads to various symptoms such as pain and itch. Here, we investigated if ATX-II induces resurgent currents in sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRGs and how this may translate into human sensations. Results In large A-fiber related DRGs ATX-II (5 nM enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents, but failed to do so in small C-fiber linked DRGs when investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Resurgent currents are thought to depend on the presence of the sodium channel β4-subunit. Using RT-qPCR experiments, we show that small DRGs express significantly less β4 mRNA than large sensory neurons. With the β4-C-terminus peptide in the pipette solution, it was possible to evoke resurgent currents in small DRGs and in Nav1.7 or Nav1.6 expressing HEK293/N1E115 cells, which were enhanced by the presence of extracellular ATX-II. When injected into the skin of healthy volunteers, ATX-II induces painful and itch-like sensations which were abolished by mechanical nerve block. Increase in superficial blood flow of the skin, measured by Laser doppler imaging is limited to the injection site, so no axon reflex erythema as a correlate for C-fiber activation was detected. Conclusion ATX-II enhances persistent and resurgent sodium currents in large diameter DRGs, whereas small DRGs depend on the addition of β4-peptide to the pipette recording solution for ATX-II to affect resurgent currents. Mechanical A-fiber blockade abolishes all ATX-II effects in human skin (e.g. painful and itch

  14. A Novel Nonsense Variant in Nav1.5 Cofactor MOG1 Eliminates Its Sodium Current Increasing Effect and May Increase the Risk of Arrhythmias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten S; Jensen, Niels F; Holst, Anders G

    2011-01-01

    at a lower frequency (1.8% vs 0.4%, P = 0.078). Electrophysiological investigation showed that the p.E61X variant completely eliminates the sodium current-increasing effect of MOG1 and thereby causes loss of function in the sodium current. When mimicking heterozygosity by coexpression of Nav1.5 with wild......BACKGROUND: The protein MOG1 is a cofactor of the cardiac sodium channel, Nav1.5. Overexpression of MOG1 in Nav1.5-expressing cells increases sodium current markedly. Mutations in the genes encoding Nav1.5 and its accessory proteins have been associated with cardiac arrhythmias of significant...... and 23 were patients with Brugada syndrome. The effect of one variant was investigated functionally by patch-clamping CHO-K1 cells coexpressing Nav1.5 with MOG1. RESULTS: We uncovered a novel heterozygous nonsense variant, c.181G>T (p.E61X), that, however, was also present in control subjects, albeit...

  15. X-ray microanalysis of Plasmodium falciparum and infected red blood cells: effects of qinghaosu and chloroquine on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.; Ye, Z.; Van Dyke, K.; Kirk, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Cryosections of human red blood cells infected by Plasmodium falciparum were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray microanalysis to determine the elemental composition of the parasites and their red cell hosts separately. The effects of two antimalarial drugs, qinghaosu and chloroquine, on potassium, sodium, and phosphorus concentrations were studied. Malarial infection causes a decrease in potassium concentration and an increase in sodium concentration in the host red cells. The drastic change in the cation composition, however, occurs only in red cells infected by late stage parasites (late trophozoite and schizont). Red cells infected by early stage parasites (ring stage) show only small changes in sodium concentration. Furthermore, the noninfected red cells in parasitized cultures show no difference in composition from those of normal red cells. Treatment of the parasitized cultures with qinghaosu (10(-6) M) or chloroquine (10(-6) M) for 8 hr causes phosphorus concentration of both early and late parasites to decrease. An 8 hr treatment with qinghaosu also produces a reduction in potassium and an increase in sodium concentrations in early and late parasites. In contrast, 8 hr treatment with chloroquine only causes a change in the sodium and potassium concentrations of the late stage parasites and does not affect the early stage parasites

  16. Sodium safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.J.; Gardiner, R.L.

    1980-09-01

    The sodium safety manual is based upon more than a decade of experience with liquid sodium at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL). It draws particularly from the expertise and experience developed in the course of research work into sodium fires and sodium water reactions. It draws also on information obtained from the UKAEA and other sodium users. Many of the broad principles will apply to other Establishments but much of the detail is specific to BNL and as a consequence its application at other sites may well be limited. Accidents with sodium are at best unpleasant and at worst lethal in an extremely painful way. The object of this manual is to help prevent sodium accidents. It is not intended to give detailed advice on specific precautions for particular situations, but rather to set out the overall strategy which will ensure that sodium activities will be pursued safely. More detail is generally conveyed to staff by the use of local instructions known as Sodium Working Procedures (SWP's) which are not reproduced in this manual although a list of current SWP's is included. Much attention is properly given to the safe design and operation of larger facilities; nevertheless evidence suggests that sodium accidents most frequently occur in small-scale work particularly in operations associated with sodium cleaning and special care is needed in all such cases. (U.K.)

  17. Annular sodium flowsensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, W.C.; Brewer, J.; Forster, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a unique eddy-current type liquid sodium flowsensor, designed as a joint effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Kaman Instrumentation Corp. Test results are included for operation of the flowsensor mounted on a sodium test loop whose configuration simulates the actual operating conditions, except for the magnetic field of the ALIP

  18. Leak detector of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To arrange a cable core connected to a leakage current detector on the outer wall of piping for liquid sodium, devices or the like and apply a voltage to said core and outer wall to quickly and securely detect the leakage of liquid sodium. Structure: A cable, which is composed of metal coating formed of metal material (copper, steel, stainless, etc.) which is apt to be corroded by reaction products of liquid sodium with water and oxygen in air, and metal oxide (such as magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide, aluminum oxide) as an electric insulator is arranged on the outer wall of pipes or devices. In the event sodium is leaked from the pipes or devices, said metal coating and the insulator are corroded, and the leakage of sodium is sensed by a leakage current detector through the core in the cable. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. The sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum toxin BcIII modulates the sodium current kinetics of rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and is displaced in a voltage-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda, Emilio; López, Omar; Zaharenko, André J; Garateix, Anoland; Soto, Enrique

    2010-03-01

    Sea anemone toxins bind to site 3 of the sodium channels, which is partially formed by the extracellular linker connecting S3 and S4 segments of domain IV, slowing down the inactivation process. In this work we have characterized the actions of BcIII, a sea anemone polypeptide toxin isolated from Bunodosoma caissarum, on neuronal sodium currents using the patch clamp technique. Neurons of the dorsal root ganglia of Wistar rats (P5-9) in primary culture were used for this study (n=65). The main effects of BcIII were a concentration-dependent increase in the sodium current inactivation time course (IC(50)=2.8 microM) as well as an increase in the current peak amplitude. BcIII did not modify the voltage at which 50% of the channels are activated or inactivated, nor the reversal potential of sodium current. BcIII shows a voltage-dependent action. A progressive acceleration of sodium current fast inactivation with longer conditioning pulses was observed, which was steeper as more depolarizing were the prepulses. The same was observed for other two anemone toxins (CgNa, from Condylactis gigantea and ATX-II, from Anemonia viridis). These results suggest that the binding affinity of sea anemone toxins may be reduced in a voltage-dependent manner, as has been described for alpha-scorpion toxins. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary sodium: where science and policy conflict: impact of the 2013 IOM Report on Sodium Intake in Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graudal, Niels

    2015-02-01

    The 2013 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" did not support the current recommendations of the IOM and the American Heart Association (AHA) to reduce daily dietary sodium intake to below 2,300 mg. The report concluded that the population-based health outcome evidence was not sufficient to define a safe upper intake level for sodium. Recent studies have extended this conclusion to show that a sodium intake below 2,300 mg/day is associated with increased mortality. In spite of this increasing body of evidence, the AHA, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), other public health advisory bodies, and major medical journals have continued to support the current policy of reducing dietary sodium.

  1. Investigation of Plugging of Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong; Kim, Tae-joon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle system is known to be a promising power conversion system for improving the efficiency and preventing the sodium water reaction (SWR) of the current SFR concept using a Rankine steam cycle. PCHEs are known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the sodium-to-CO{sub 2} exchangers as well as the heat exchanger mass relative to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Here, we report a study on a plugging test by the interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} to investigate design parameters of sodium channels in the realistic operating conditions. We investigated a plugging test by an interaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} with different cross sectional areas of the sodium channels. It was found that the flow rate of sodium decreased earlier and faster with a narrower cross sectional area compared to a wider one. Our experimental results are expected to be used for determining the sodium channel areas of PCHEs.

  2. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  3. Apparatus for removing impurities in the sodium of sodium cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, A

    1970-11-11

    An apparatus is provided for removing oxygen from liquid sodium flowing in a sodium cooled reactor. The removal of oxygen is complete with high efficiency. The liquid sodium to be purified is disposed outside a cylindrical wall and negatively charged, whereas sodium as a reducing material is disposed inside the same wall. The cylindrical wall is made of zirconia-calcia (ZrO/sub 2/)sub(0.87)(CaO)sub(0.13) solid electrolyte, the cylinder having a thickness of 2.5mm, a diameter of 3cm and a depth of 20cm under the sodium level. Electric resistance of the solid electrolyte is 2.3 ohm at 500/sup 0/C. A current of 1A by the application of 25 volts treats 0.3g of oxygen. Consequently, 1 liter or 1kg of liquid sodium containing 1,000ppm of oxygen can be purified for about 3 hours at an electrical consumption of 7.5 watt-hour. In one embodiment, a cylindrical electrolytic solid made of zirconia-calcia or zirconia-yttria was disposed in a container. Liquid sodium containing oxygen flowed outside of the cylinder. Liquid sodium as a reducing material was present inside the cylinder and the container and the cylinder were electrically insulated. An electrode was inserted at the center of the cylinder and a baffle plate at the upper portion of the electrode to shield heat and rising sodium vapor was provided. The space above the container was filled with an inert gas. The oxygen in the liquid sodium to be purified transferred through the wall of the cylinder into the interior of the cylinder so as to oxydize the reducing sodium material. The supersaturated sodium oxide inside the cylinder was deposited.

  4. Sodium Channel (Dys)Function and Cardiac Arrhythmias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Bezzina, Connie R.

    2010-01-01

    P>Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are transmembrane proteins located in the cell membrane of cardiomyocytes. Influx of sodium ions through these ion channels is responsible for the initial fast upstroke of the cardiac action potential. This inward sodium current thus triggers the initiation

  5. U.S. Sodium Fast Reactor Codes and Methods: Current Capabilities and Path Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunett, A. J.; Fanning, T. H.

    2017-06-26

    The United States has extensive experience with the design, construction, and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) over the last six decades. Despite the closure of various facilities, the U.S. continues to dedicate research and development (R&D) efforts to the design of innovative experimental, prototype, and commercial facilities. Accordingly, in support of the rich operating history and ongoing design efforts, the U.S. has been developing and maintaining a series of tools with capabilities that envelope all facets of SFR design and safety analyses. This paper provides an overview of the current U.S. SFR analysis toolset, including codes such as SAS4A/SASSYS-1, MC2-3, SE2-ANL, PERSENT, NUBOW-3D, and LIFE-METAL, as well as the higher-fidelity tools (e.g. PROTEUS) being integrated into the toolset. Current capabilities of the codes are described and key ongoing development efforts are highlighted for some codes.

  6. Stakeholder discussion to reduce population-wide sodium intake and decrease sodium in the food supply: a conference report from the American Heart Association Sodium Conference 2013 Planning Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antman, Elliott M; Appel, Lawrence J; Balentine, Douglas; Johnson, Rachel K; Steffen, Lyn M; Miller, Emily Ann; Pappas, Antigoni; Stitzel, Kimberly F; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Whitsel, Laurie

    2014-06-24

    A 2-day interactive forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing sodium in the food supply and to identify opportunities for stakeholder collaboration. Participants included 128 stakeholders engaged in food research and development, food manufacturing and retail, restaurant and food service operations, regulatory and legislative activities, public health initiatives, healthcare, academia and scientific research, and data monitoring and surveillance. Presentation topics included scientific evidence for sodium reduction and public health policy recommendations; consumer sodium intakes, attitudes, and behaviors; food technologies and solutions for sodium reduction and sensory implications; experiences of the food and dining industries; and translation and implementation of sodium intake recommendations. Facilitated breakout sessions were conducted to allow for sharing of current practices, insights, and expertise. A well-established body of scientific research shows that there is a strong relationship between excess sodium intake and high blood pressure and other adverse health outcomes. With Americans getting >75% of their sodium from processed and restaurant food, this evidence creates mounting pressure for less sodium in the food supply. The reduction of sodium in the food supply is a complex issue that involves multiple stakeholders. The success of new technological approaches for reducing sodium will depend on product availability, health effects (both intended and unintended), research and development investments, quality and taste of reformulated foods, supply chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference facilitated an exchange of ideas and set the stage for potential collaboration opportunities among stakeholders with mutual interest in reducing sodium in the food supply and in Americans' diets. Population-wide sodium reduction remains a critically important component of

  7. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  8. Conservative treatment for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in patients with ocular surface disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagara H

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hideto Sagara,1,2 Tomohiro Iida,2,3 Kimimori Saito,4 Hiroki Noji,2 Masashi Ogasawara,2 Hiroshi Oyamada21The Marui Eye Clinic, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 3Tokyo Women's Medical University, Tokyo, 4Matuki Eye Clinic, Fukushima, JapanBackground: Sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops are used to treat ocular surface disease (OSD and are reported to prevent and treat late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a combination of sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drops and treatment for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction as a therapy for late-onset bleb leaks after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C.Methods: This was a retrospective, interventional, nonsimultaneous study of 12 subjects (12 eyes of mean age of 64.3 ± 18.3 years with OSD and apparent late-onset bleb leaks following trabeculectomy with mitomycin C between 1998 and 2008. We compared patients diagnosed with leakages before July 2005, who had been treated with separate eye drop solutions containing 0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.3% ofloxacin (sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group, n = 7, with patients diagnosed from August 2005 to December 2008, who were treated with a combination of eye drops (0.1% sodium hyaluronate, 50% autologous serum, and 0.08% levofloxacin hydrate and eyelid massage and warm compresses for obstructive meibomian gland dysfunction (combination eye drop group, n = 5.Results: Leakage was resolved in one patient (14.3% in the separately treated sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum eye drop group and in five patients (100% in the combination eye drop group (P = 0.015. The period after resolution of leakage with conservative treatment was 23 months in the one eye in the sodium hyaluronate and autologous serum group and 36–61 (mean 52.4 ± 10.1 months in the five eyes in the

  9. Experimental and Numerical Simulation towards Sodium Safety in SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponraju, D.; Rao, Hemanth; Das, Sanjay Kumar; Punitha; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.

    2013-01-01

    Summary and future program on sodium fire: Past - Design verification of LCT by experiments; Small scale experiments on sodium resistant concrete; Small sodium spray: - Fire senario; - particle distribution. Current activities - Containment code development; Demonstration of LCT system, effective LCT design; Qualification of extinguishers and sodium resistant contrete; LBB justification; Aerosol distribution. Future - Sodium school; HR development in handing sodium systems; Collaboration with AERB, IRSN, CEA and other International Organizations; Design guidelines

  10. UK position paper on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, G J [National Nuclear Corporation Ltd., Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Glass, D [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment, Thurso, Caithness (United Kingdom); Newman, R N [Central Electricity Generating Board, Berekely Nuclear Laboratory, Berkeley, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom); Ramsdale, S A [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Safety and Reliability Directorate, Culcheth, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Snelling, K W [United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1989-07-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  11. UK position paper on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, G.J.; Glass, D.; Newman, R.N.; Ramsdale, S.A.; Snelling, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    The UK has over several years developed a philosophy for the prevention, mitigation and extinguishment of sodium fires. The systems which were developed for PFR have been continuously revised and modified and from these considerations systems were proposed for CDFR. The latest phases of this development are described with reference to the CDFR plant. The current analytical and experimental work on fires, aerosols and sodium concrete reactions is also discussed. The UK are developing codes to analyse the effects of a sodium fire in a building and to model aerosol behaviour following a fire. Experimental work on small scale fires, aerosol behaviour, filtration devices and sodium concrete reaction is being carried out on a laboratory scale. Techniques for aerosol measurement and characterisation have also been developed and used both In the laboratory and large scale tests. Larger scale tests of sodium fire extinguishment techniques have also been performed. Currently a programme of tests (SOFA) of large scale fires in the open to investigate the chemical and physical changes in the aerosol and its dispersion in the atmosphere are just beginning. The UK studies are intended to both assist in the development of prevention and mitigation systems for design base and beyond design base accidents in any building which contains sodium (or sodium potassium alloy) and also to provide methods for assessing the risks from such accidents. (author)

  12. Final report on the safety assessment of potassium silicate, sodium metasilicate, and sodium silicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Amy R

    2005-01-01

    Potassium Silicate, Sodium Metasilicate, and Sodium Silicate combine metal cations with silica to form inorganic salts used as corrosion inhibitors in cosmetics. Sodium Metasilicate also functions as a chelating agent and Sodium Silicate as a buffering and pH adjuster. Sodium Metasilicate is currently used in 168 formulations at concentrations ranging from 13% to 18%. Sodium Silicate is currently used in 24 formulations at concentrations ranging from 0.3% to 55%. Potassium Silicate and Sodium Silicate have been reported as being used in industrial cleaners and detergents. Sodium Metasilicate is a GRAS (generally regarded as safe) food ingredient. Aqueous solutions of Sodium Silicate species are a part of a chemical continuum of silicates based on an equilibrium of alkali, water, and silica. pH determines the solubility of silica and, together with concentration, determines the degree of polymerization. Sodium Silicate administered orally is readily absorbed from the alimentary canal and excreted in the urine. The toxicity of these silicates has been related to the molar ratio of SiO2/Na2O and the concentration being used. The Sodium Metasilicate acute oral LD50 ranged from 847 mg/kg in male rats to 1349.3 mg/kg in female rats and from 770 mg/kg in female mice to 820 mg/kg in male mice. Gross lesions of variable severity were found in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, larynx, lungs, and kidneys of dogs receiving 0.25 g/kg or more of a commercial detergent containing Sodium Metasilicate; similar lesions were also seen in pigs administered the same detergent and dose. Male rats orally administered 464 mg/kg of a 20% solution containing either 2.0 or 2.4 to 1.0 ratio of sodium oxide showed no signs of toxicity, whereas doses of 1000 and 2150 mg/kg produced gasping, dypsnea, and acute depression. Dogs fed 2.4 g/kg/day of Sodium Silicate for 4 weeks had gross renal lesions but no impairment of renal function. Dermal irritation of Potassium Silicate, Sodium

  13. Safety assessment of sodium acetate, sodium diacetate and potassium sorbate food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh-Aghdash, Hossein; Sohrabi, Yousef; Mohammadi, Ali; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Dehghan, Parvin; Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar

    2018-08-15

    Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of sodium acetate (SA), sodium diacetate (SDA), and potassium sorbate (PS) was tested on Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Cytotoxicity was investigated by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis, while genotoxicity was evaluated using DNA fragmentation and DAPI staining assays. The growth of treated HUVECs with various concentrations of SA, SDA and PS decreased in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The IC50 of 487.71, 485.82 and 659.96 µM after 24 h and IC50 of 232.05, 190.19 and 123.95 µM after 48 h of treatment were attained for SA, SDA and PS, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis showed that early and late apoptosis percentage in treated cells was not considerable. Also neither considerable DNA fragmentation nor DNA smear was observed using DAPI staining and DNA ladder assays. Overall, it can be concluded that the aforementioned food additives can be used as safe additives at low concentration in food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Annual report 1974. Sodium technology development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The sodium technology development program comprises a number of separate research programs in the field of designing and testing parts and components for the SNR-300 reactor. Design studies and theoretical studies on cold trapping and the behavior of hydrogen in sodium circuits are reported. A preliminary test program for fighting sodium fires is completed. Results of research done on vibration measurements and counter-current mixing in a dummy tube bundle of a S.N.R. spiralized steam generator with counter-current flow are reported briefly. Research done in the field of heat transfer, pressure drop and bubble dynamics of a straight pipe steam generator are also briefly reported. To determine the influence of spiral diameter of the spiralized pipe on heat transfer in a spiralized pipe heat exchanger, a second testsection will be built in 1975. Research was reported on pump viscoseals, bearing stability, rotordynamics and bearing materials for sodium pumps. Research done on the properties of SNR-construction materials at high temperature and long time exposure and corrosion in sodium are reported. Fundamental research on corrosion accompanied this research. The report closes with results of weldability, mechanized-welding and remote welding of sodium-wetted surfaces

  15. Calcium Transient and Sodium-Calcium Exchange Current in Human versus Rabbit Sinoatrial Node Pacemaker Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie O. Verkerk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing debate on the mechanism underlying the pacemaker activity of sinoatrial node (SAN cells, focusing on the relative importance of the “membrane clock” and the “Ca2+ clock” in the generation of the small net membrane current that depolarizes the cell towards the action potential threshold. Specifically, the debate centers around the question whether the membrane clock-driven hyperpolarization-activated current, If, which is also known as the “funny current” or “pacemaker current,” or the Ca2+ clock-driven sodium-calcium exchange current, INaCa, is the main contributor to diastolic depolarization. In our contribution to this journal’s “Special Issue on Cardiac Electrophysiology,” we present a numerical reconstruction of If and INaCa in isolated rabbit and human SAN pacemaker cells based on experimental data on action potentials, If, and intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i that we have acquired from these cells. The human SAN pacemaker cells have a smaller If, a weaker [Ca2+]i transient, and a smaller INaCa than the rabbit cells. However, when compared to the diastolic net membrane current, INaCa is of similar size in human and rabbit SAN pacemaker cells, whereas If is smaller in human than in rabbit cells.

  16. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1996-07-01

    The constructions and performances of lots of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of good linearity. The accurate measurement data of sodium process parameters (flowrate, pressure and level) can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations are possessed of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, mutual isolative the 0∼10 V direct-current analogue output and the CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. Theses intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFBR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic errors of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge are +-2%, +-2.3%, +-0.3% and +-1.9% of measuring ranges respectively. (9 figs.)

  17. Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables

  18. Sodium voiding analysis in Kalimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won-Pyo; Jeong, Kwan-Seong; Hahn, Dohee

    2001-01-01

    A sodium boiling model has been developed for calculations of the void reactivity feedback as well as the fuel and cladding temperatures in the KALIMER core after onset of sodium boiling. The sodium boiling in liquid metal reactors using sodium as coolant should be modeled because of phenomenon difference observed from that in light water reactor systems. The developed model is a multiple -bubble slug ejection model. It allows a finite number of bubbles in a channel at any time. Voiding is assumed to result from formation of bubbles that fill the whole cross section of the coolant channel except for liquid film left on the cladding surface. The vapor pressure, currently, is assumed to be uniform within a bubble. The present study is focused on not only demonstration of the sodium voiding behavior predicted by the developed model, but also confirmation on qualitative acceptance for the model. In results, the model catches important phenomena for sodium boiling, while further effort should be made for the complete analysis. (author)

  19. Intelligent type sodium instrumentations for LMFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daolong Chen

    1996-01-01

    The constructions and their performances of a lot of newly developed intelligent type sodium instrumentations that consist of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type immersed sodium flowmeter, the intelligent type sodium manometer and the intelligent type sodium level gauge are described. The graduation characteristic equations for corresponding transducer using the medium temperature as the parameter are given. Because the operating temperature limit of measured medium (sodium) is wide, so the on-line compensation of the temperature effect of their graduation characteristics much be considered. The tests show that these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of good linearity. The accurate sodium process parameter (flowrate, pressure and level) measurement data can be obtained by means of their on-line compensation function of the temperature effect. Moreover, these intelligent type sodium instrumentations possess of the self-inspection, the electric shutoff protection, the setting of full-scale, the setting of alarm limits (two upper limits and two lower limits alarms), the thermocouple breaking alarm, each other isolative the 0-10V direct-current analogue output and CENTRONICS standard digital output, and the alarm relay contact output. These intelligent type sodium instrumentations are suitable particularly for the instrument, control and protective systems of LMFR by means of these excellent functions based on microprocessor. The basic error of the intelligent type sodium flowmeter, immersed sodium flowmeter, sodium manometer and sodium level gauge is respectively ±2%, ±2.3%, ±0.3% and ±1.9% of measuring range. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  20. Comparison of Prescribed and Measured Dialysate Sodium: A Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, Ambreen; Miskulin, Dana C; Paine, Susan S; Narsipur, Sriram S; Arbeit, Leonard A; Harford, Antonia M; Weiner, Daniel E; Schrader, Ronald; Horowitz, Bruce L; Zager, Philip G

    2016-03-01

    There is controversy regarding the optimal dialysate sodium concentration for hemodialysis patients. Dialysate sodium concentrations of 134 to 138 mEq/L may decrease interdialytic weight gain and improve hypertension control, whereas a higher dialysate sodium concentration may offer protection to patients with low serum sodium concentrations and hypotension. We conducted a quality improvement project to explore the hypothesis that prescribed and delivered dialysate sodium concentrations may differ significantly. Cross-sectional quality improvement project. 333 hemodialysis treatments in 4 facilities operated by Dialysis Clinic, Inc. Measure dialysate sodium to assess the relationships of prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Magnitude of differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Dialysate sodium measured pre- and late dialysis. The least square mean of the difference between prescribed minus measured dialysate sodium concentration was -2.48 (95% CI, -2.87 to -2.10) mEq/L. Clinics with a greater number of different dialysate sodium prescriptions (clinic 1, n=8; clinic 2, n=7) and that mixed dialysate concentrates on site had greater differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. Overall, 57% of measured dialysate sodium concentrations were within ±2 mEq/L of the prescribed dialysate sodium concentration. Differences were greater at higher prescribed dialysate sodium concentrations. We only studied 4 facilities and dialysate delivery machines from 2 manufacturers. Because clinics using premixed dialysate used the same type of machine, we were unable to independently assess the impact of these factors. Pressures in dialysate delivery loops were not measured. There were significant differences between prescribed and measured dialysate sodium concentrations. This may have beneficial or deleterious effects on clinical outcomes, as well as confound results from studies assessing the

  1. Sodium experiments in support of PFBR design safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.; Meikandamurthy, C.; Ramakrishnan, V.; Rajan, K.K.; Kale, R.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The pool type PFBR uses sodium as coolant. It has a roof slab of about 16 metres in diameter with large rotating plug, small rotating plug and control plug. The plugs rotate to orient. the fuel handling canal above the core and the operating and control instruments are supported in the control plug. The roof slab is maintained at 120 degC. The sodium temperature is 550 degC when the reactor is in operation. The axial temperature difference between the sodium and roof slab leads to intense convection of argon cover gas in the annular space of the rotating plugs causing large circumferential temperature difference and unwanted thermal stresses in the plugs and other components supported on roof slab. Experiments were carried out simulating reactor conditions in sodium facilities to control the circumferential temperature difference. The argon cover gas above sodium (550 degC) is at a temperature of about 350 degC. The sodium vapour generated, condenses as sodium mist in the cover gas. Due to convection currents the sodium mist is carried and deposited in cooler areas. The process creates problem for components like CSRDM which has long vertical annular gaps with a large axial temperature gradient. Experiments were carried out to reduce the convection currents inside the CSRDM annular space. A multiple sleeve was developed which reduces convection and hence the sodium deposition in the annular space

  2. Electrochemical properties of polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy Channu, V.S.; Holze, Rudolf; Yeo, In-Hyeong; Mho, Sun-il; Kalluru, Rajamohan R.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium vanadate nanomaterials were synthesized at different pH-values of a sodium hydroxide solution of vanadium pentoxide. Polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate nanomaterials were prepared at room temperature and at 3 C by a chemical polymerization method. The crystal structure and phase purity of the samples have been examined by powder XRD. The samples were identified as HNaV 6 O 16 .4H 2 O and Na 1.1 V 3 O 7.9 . The electrochemical measurements show that polyaniline-modified sodium vanadate hydrated nanomaterials provide higher current density than the sodium vanadate nanomaterials. (orig.)

  3. Towards the Characterization of the Bubble Presence in Liquid Sodium of Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavaro, M.; Jeannot, J.P.; Payan, C.

    2013-06-01

    In a Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFR), different phenomena such as gas entrainment or nucleation can lead to gaseous micro-bubbles presence in the liquid sodium of the primary vessel. Although this free gas presence has no direct impact on the core neutronics, the French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission (CEA) currently works on its characterization to, among others, check the absence of risk of large gas pocket formation and to assess the induced modifications of the sodium acoustic properties. The main objective is to evaluate the void fraction values (volume fraction of free gas) and the radii histogram of the bubbles present in liquid sodium. Acoustics and electromagnetic techniques are currently developed at CEA: - The low-frequency speed of sound measurement, which allows us to link - thanks to Wood's model - the measured speed of sound to the actual void fraction. - The nonlinear mixing of two frequencies, based on the nonlinear resonance behavior of a bubble. This technique allows knowing the radius histogram associated to a bubble cloud. Two different mixing techniques are presented in this paper: the mixing of two high frequencies and the mixing of a high and a low frequency. - The Eddy-current flowmeter (ECFM), the output signal of which is perturbed by free gas presence and in consequence allows detecting bubbles. For each technique, initial results are presented. Some of them are really promising. So far, acoustic experiments have been led with an air-water experimental set-up. Micro-bubbles clouds are generated with a dissolved air flotation device and monitored by an optical device which provides reference measurements. Generated bubbles have radii range from few micrometers to several tens of micrometers. Present and future air/water experiments are presented. Furthermore, a development plan of in-sodium tests is presented in terms of a device set-up, instrumentation, modeling tools and experiments. (authors)

  4. In-test and post-test analyses of sodium-sulfur cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Motoi; Kawamoto, Hiroyuki; Hatoh, Hisamitsu

    1986-01-15

    Cell life of sodium-sulfur cells is often determined by the degradation of the solid electrolyte. Solid electrolyte degradation will cause an increase of electrolyte resistivity, decrease of faradic efficiency, or even an electrolyte rupture which leads to a cell temperature rise due to direct reaction of reactants. Electrolyte degradation in actual sodium-sulfur cells is believed to be caused by the passage of sodium ion current across the solid electrolyte. The degree of degradation has been reported to be a function of amount of charge passed through the electrolyte, and the breakdown of the solid electrolyte was observed to occur above some threshold. For this reason, the concentration of sodium ion current density is to be avoided to prevent solid electrolyte from premature degradation and rupture, and the electrode structure for a sodium-sulfur cell should be determined with enough care to homogenize the current density distribution on the electrolyte. The longitudinal current density distribution of a sodium-sulfur cell was measured by attaching probing terminals on the electrode container. It was found that the current density distribution of a vertically supported cell was inhomogeneous due to the effect of gravity. This setup can be used as a way to locate the place where the first electrolyte cracking occurs. It was also found that the electrolyte cracking accompanies a fluctuation of cycling cell voltage that starts to appear several cycles before the noticeable break down of the electrolyte.

  5. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  6. Dialysate sodium and sodium gradient in maintenance hemodialysis: a neglected sodium restriction approach?

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz Mendoza, Jair; Sun, Sumi; Chertow, Glenn M.; Moran, John; Doss, Sheila; Schiller, Brigitte

    2011-01-01

    Background. A higher sodium gradient (dialysate sodium minus pre-dialysis plasma sodium) during hemodialysis (HD) has been associated with sodium loading; however, its role is not well studied. We hypothesized that a sodium dialysate prescription resulting in a higher sodium gradient is associated with increases in interdialytic weight gain (IDWG), blood pressure (BP) and thirst.

  7. Father-child separation, retrospective and current views of attachment relationship with father, and self-esteem in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, C B; Kennedy, J H

    2000-06-01

    Relationships between paternal separation in childhood and adult measures of self-esteem, paternal acceptance and independence-encouragement were investigated with 236 nonparent college students as subjects. Current relationship with father was measured by a modified version of Epstein's Mother-Father-Peer Scale. Self-esteem was measured by Coopersmith's Self-esteem Inventory. Individuals who experienced separation for all reasons from their fathers during childhood recounted less acceptance by their fathers in late adolescence but not less independence-encouragement. Individuals whose parents had divorced (whether or not they had experienced a significant separation) reported lower acceptance by their fathers in both childhood and in late adolescence, and they attained lower scores on self-esteem.

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium sulfite, potassium sulfite, ammonium sulfite, sodium bisulfite, ammonium bisulfite, sodium metabisulfite and potassium metabisulfite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Bindu; Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    Sodium Sulfite, Ammonium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, Potassium Bisulfite, Ammonium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite are inorganic salts that function as reducing agents in cosmetic formulations. All except Sodium Metabisulfite also function as hair-waving/straightening agents. In addition, Sodium Sulfite, Potassium Sulfite, Sodium Bisulfite, and Sodium Metabisulfite function as antioxidants. Although Ammonium Sulfite is not in current use, the others are widely used in hair care products. Sulfites that enter mammals via ingestion, inhalation, or injection are metabolized by sulfite oxidase to sulfate. In oral-dose animal toxicity studies, hyperplastic changes in the gastric mucosa were the most common findings at high doses. Ammonium Sulfite aerosol had an acute LC(50) of >400 mg/m(3) in guinea pigs. A single exposure to low concentrations of a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced dose-related changes in the lung capacity parameters of guinea pigs. A 3-day exposure of rats to a Sodium Sulfite fine aerosol produced mild pulmonary edema and irritation of the tracheal epithelium. Severe epithelial changes were observed in dogs exposed for 290 days to 1 mg/m(3) of a Sodium Metabisulfite fine aerosol. These fine aerosols contained fine respirable particle sizes that are not found in cosmetic aerosols or pump sprays. None of the cosmetic product types, however, in which these ingredients are used are aerosolized. Sodium Bisulfite (tested at 38%) and Sodium Metabisulfite (undiluted) were not irritants to rabbits following occlusive exposures. Sodium Metabisulfite (tested at 50%) was irritating to guinea pigs following repeated exposure. In rats, Sodium Sulfite heptahydrate at large doses (up to 3.3 g/kg) produced fetal toxicity but not teratogenicity. Sodium Bisulfite, Sodium Metabisulfite, and Potassium Metabisulfite were not teratogenic for mice, rats, hamsters, or rabbits at doses up to 160 mg/kg. Generally, Sodium Sulfite, Sodium

  9. Development of fluctuation monitor type sodium ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Sato, Yoshihiko; Ibe, Eishi; Suzuoki, Akira

    1986-01-01

    In order to improve the sensitivity and the reliability of the sodium leak detection system used in the fast breeder reactors, a new type SID (sodium ionization detector) has been developed, in which the monitored signal is only the fluctuating component of the current between the filament and the ion collector. The fluctuating component was extracted by a band pass filter and its root mean square value was calculated as the SID signal. Fluctuation characteristics of the output current were studied by its frequency spectrum. The results revealed that the current spectrum was affected by the particle size distribution of the aerosol and was most clearly distinguished from that of the background current in the frequency region of 0.5 ∼ 10 Hz. Output characteristics of the fluctuation monitor type SID (FM-SID) were obtained as a function of sodium concentration in the gas. The FM-SID sensitivity was lowered by impurities in the gas, such as oxygen and water vapor. Finally, in comparisons with the conventional DC-SIDs, the background noise level of the FM-SID was much lower and S/N ratio was greatly improved. The detectable sodium concentration level was ten times lower than that of the DC-SID. (author)

  10. Selenoprotein P Inhibits Radiation-Induced Late Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation and Normal Cell Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckers, Jaimee C.; Kalen, Amanda L.; Xiao, Wusheng; Sarsour, Ehab H.; Goswami, Prabhat C., E-mail: prabhat-goswami@uiowa.edu

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Radiation is a common mode of cancer therapy whose outcome is often limited because of normal tissue toxicity. We have shown previously that the accumulation of radiation-induced late reactive oxygen species (ROS) precedes cell death, suggesting that metabolic oxidative stress could regulate cellular radiation response. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether selenoprotein P (SEPP1), a major supplier of selenium to tissues and an antioxidant, regulates late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated normal human fibroblasts (NHFs). Methods and Materials: Flow cytometry analysis of cell viability, cell cycle phase distribution, and dihydroethidium oxidation, along with clonogenic assays, were used to measure oxidative stress and toxicity. Human antioxidant mechanisms array and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure gene expression during late ROS accumulation in irradiated NHFs. Sodium selenite addition and SEPP1 overexpression were used to determine the causality of SEPP1 regulating late ROS accumulation and toxicity in irradiated NHFs. Results: Irradiated NHFs showed late ROS accumulation (4.5-fold increase from control; P<.05) that occurs after activation of the cell cycle checkpoint pathways and precedes cell death. The mRNA levels of CuZn- and Mn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxiredoxin 3, and thioredoxin reductase 1 increased approximately 2- to 3-fold, whereas mRNA levels of cold shock domain containing E1 and SEPP1 increased more than 6-fold (P<.05). The addition of sodium selenite before the radiation treatment suppressed toxicity (45%; P<.05). SEPP1 overexpression suppressed radiation-induced late ROS accumulation (35%; P<.05) and protected NHFs from radiation-induced toxicity (58%; P<.05). Conclusion: SEPP1 mitigates radiation-induced late ROS accumulation and normal cell injury.

  11. Late-life suicide prevention strategies: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kim; Deming, Charlene

    2017-09-08

    Late life suicide prevention differs from suicide prevention for other age groups: first, the number of older adults worldwide is on the rise; second, late-life suicide receives much less attention in all societal spheres, from the media, to federal funding agencies, to healthcare initiatives. Recent findings indicate an association between internalized ageist stereotypes and reduced will to live. Recent research also addresses the role of cognitive control as a contributor to risk and as an intervention target (e.g., through psychotherapies such as problem solving therapy) as well as firearm safety as a promising, though a politicized and challenging strategy to implement. Another strategy that may prove feasible is an approach on upstream prevention strategies in healthcare. One strategy we believe holds great promise is the promotion of high quality geriatric medicine. Geriatricians are trained to work with patients to prioritize the promotion of physical and cognitive functioning (rather than solely absence of disease) and to focus on well-being as a goal. Thus, geriatricians routinely target numerous late-life suicide risk factors-physical illness, functioning, pain, and (dis)satisfaction with life. However, efficacious strategies will not prevent suicide deaths if they are not implemented-addressing ageism as a universal prevention strategy is essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effectiveness of Chlorinated Water, Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluated the efficacy of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium chloride solution and sterile distilled water in eliminating pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of raw vegetables. Lettuce vegetables were dipped in different concentrations of chlorinated water, sodium hypochlorite solution, sodium ...

  13. An assessment of the viability of storing FFTF sodium in tank cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.W.; Burke, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    Current FFTF Transition Project plans call for construction of a Sodium Storage Facility to store the plant sodium until it is processed either as product or waste. This report evaluates an alternative concept which would store the sodium in rail tank cars. It is concluded that utilizing a simple facility for offloading the FFTF sodium to standard industrial tank cars is not technically viable. Mitigation of potential radioactive sodium spills requires that the offload facility incorporate many of the features of the sodium storage facility. With these mitigation features incorporated, there is no significant cost or schedule advantage for the option of storing the FFTF sodium in tank cars when compared to the currently planned SSF. In addition, it is believed that the tank car option results in higher risk to project success because of unknowns associated with technical, regulatory, and public perception issues. It is therefore recommended that the project proceed with definitive design of the SSF

  14. Development of a sodium-pump/neon-lasant photopumped soft X-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanakis, S.J.; Apruzese, J.P.; Burkhalter, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Resonant photopumping of heliumlike neon by heliumlike sodium is investigated to extend this potentially efficient technique for inversion and lasing to shorter wavelengths. Properties of the sodium-pump plasma and the neon-lasant plasma required to optimize fluorescence and lasing are determined. The implosion of a sodium-bearing plasma with a megampere pulsed-power driver (Gamble II) is used to produce a linear Z-pinch with up to 25 GW of sodium-pump-line radiation. A separate neon plasma, driven by part of the return current form the imploding sodium plasma, is created parallel to the sodium line source at a distance of 5 cm. Implosion requirements for the neon plasma and its dynamics in the Gamble II return-current geometry are described. Evidence for population inversion is indicated by fluorescence enhancement of the 11-A resonance line from the n = 4 level of neon when pumped by sodium. The neon spectra are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on the sodium-pump power. Improvements in the experiment required to achieve lasing are discussed

  15. Sodium fires at fast reactors: RF status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasarov, Yu.E.; Buksha, Yu.K.; Drobyshev, A.V.; Zybin, V.A.; Ivanenko, V.N.; Kardash, D.Yu.; Kulikov, E.V.; Yagodkin, I.V.

    1996-01-01

    Scientific and engineering studies carried out in Russian Federation since 1992 up to 1996 in the sodium fire area and their main results are described. A review of activities on modification of the computer codes BOX and AERO developed at IPPE for calculating sodium fire consequences is given. Results of analysis of possible accidental situations at currently designed BN-800 reactor NPP with the use of these codes are presented. Sodium leaks occurring at our domestic fast reactors are briefly analyzed. Experimental work performed are described. Results of comparative analysis of common-cause and sodium fire hazards for fast reactor NPP are presented. (author)

  16. The role of sodium in the body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Sodium is a metallic element with the symbol Na , in the same group with Li, K, Rb, Cs; is widespread in nature in the form of salts (nitrates, carbonates, chlorides, atomic number 11 and atomic weight 22,9898 . It,s a soft metal, reactive and with a low melting point , with a relative density of 0,97 at 200C (680 F. From the commercial point of view, sodium is the most important of all the alkaline metals. Elemental sodium was first isolated by Humpry Davy in 1807 by passing an electric current through molten sodium hydroxide. Elemental sodium does not occur naturally on earth, because it quickly oxidizes in air and is violently reactive with water, so it must be stored in a non-oxidizing medium, such as liquid hydrocarbon . The free metal is used for some chemical synthesis, analysis, and heat transfer applications .

  17. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David Trickett

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH ampersand S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design com- pels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective

  18. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  19. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  20. Increased renal alpha-epithelial sodium channel (ENAC) protein and increased ENAC activity in normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Crystal; Zhang, Zheng; Ecker, Geoffrey; Masilamani, Shyama M E

    2010-11-01

    Pregnancy-mediated sodium (Na) retention is required to provide an increase in plasma volume for the growing fetus. The mechanisms responsible for this Na retention are not clear. We first used a targeted proteomics approach and found that there were no changes in the protein abundance compared with virgin rats of the β or γ ENaC, type 3 Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE3), bumetanide-sensitive cotransporter (NKCC2), or NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in mid- or late pregnancy. In contrast, we observed marked increases in the abundance of the α-ENaC subunit. The plasma volume increased progressively during pregnancy with the greatest plasma volume being evident in late pregnancy. ENaC inhibition abolished the difference in plasma volume status between virgin and pregnant rats. To determine the in vivo activity of ENaC, we conducted in vivo studies of rats in late pregnancy (days 18-20) and virgin rats to measure the natriuretic response to ENaC blockade (with benzamil). The in vivo activity of ENaC (U(Na)V postbenzamil-U(Na)V postvehicle) was markedly increased in late pregnancy, and this difference was abolished by pretreatment with the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone. These findings demonstrate that the increased α-ENaC subunit of pregnancy is associated with an mineralocorticoid-dependent increase in ENaC activity. Further, we show that ENaC activity is a major contributor of plasma volume status in late pregnancy. These changes are likely to contribute to the renal sodium retention and plasma volume expansion required for an optimal pregnancy.

  1. Sodium intake status in United States and potential reduction modeling: an NHANES 2007-2010 analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Spence, Lisa; Samuel, Priscilla

    2015-11-01

    Limiting dietary sodium intake has been a consistent dietary recommendation. Using NHANES 2007-2010 data, we estimated current sodium intake and modeled the potential impact of a new sodium reduction technology on sodium intake. NHANES 2007-2010 data were used to assess current sodium intake. The National Cancer Institute method was used for usual intake determination. Suggested sodium reductions using SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres ranged from 20% to 30% in 953 foods and usual intakes were modeled by using various reduction factors and levels of market penetration. SAS 9.2, SUDAAN 11, and NHANES survey weights were used in all calculations with assessment across gender and age groups. Current (2007-2010) sodium intake (mg/day) exceeds recommendations across all age gender groups and has not changed during the last decade. However, sodium intake measured as a function of food intake (mg/g food) has decreased significantly during the last decade. Two food categories contribute about 2/3rd of total sodium intake: "Grain Products" and "Meat, Poultry, Fish & Mixtures". Sodium reduction, with 100% market penetration of the new technology, was estimated to be 230-300 mg/day or 7-9% of intake depending upon age and gender group. Sodium reduction innovations like SODA-LO (®) Salt Microspheres could contribute to meaningful reductions in sodium intake.

  2. Current Status of Sodium Bicarbonate in Coronary Angiography: An Updated Comprehensive Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Ali-Hassan-Sayegh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review with meta-analysis sought to determine comparison of efficacy and safety of hydration with sodium bicarbonate versus sodium chloride on contrast induced nephropathy and clinical outcomes. We searched major electronic databases for studies in randomized controlled trials. A value of P50% indicated significant heterogeneity between the studies. Literature search of all databases retrieved 650 studies. 29 studies enrolled in meta-analysis. Pooled analysis indicated about the incidence of CIN (OR of 0.718; 95% CI: 0.60 to 0.85; P=0.000, requirement of hemodialysis (OR of 1.00; 95% CI: 0.49 to 2.01; P=0.9, mean changes of serum creatinine (WMD of 2.321; 95% CI: 1.995 to 2.648; P=0.000, length of hospital stays (WMD of −0.774; 95% CI: −1.65 to 0.10; P=0.08, major adverse cardiovascular events (OR = 1.075, 95% CI: 0.59 to 1.95; P=0.8, and mortality (OR of 0.73; 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.26; P=0.2. Overall, hydration with sodium bicarbonate could significantly reduce CIN and the length of hospital stay compared to sodium chloride. In addition NAC added as a supplement to sodium bicarbonate could increase prophylactic effects against nephropathy.

  3. Dietary Sodium and Blood Pressure: How Low Should We Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake in the United States exceeds recommended amounts across all age, gender and ethnic groups. National dietary guidelines advocate reduced intake by at least 1,000mg per day or more, but whether there is population-wide benefit from further reductions to levels of 1500mg per day remains controversial. A brief review of current evidence-based dietary guidelines is provided and key prospective, randomized studies that report dietary and urinary sodium data are summarized. Dietary sources of sodium and eating patterns that offer nutritiously sound approaches to nutrient dense, reduced sodium intake are compared. No studies suggest that high sodium intake at the levels of the population's current diet is optimal. On the contrary, national and international evidence and systematic reviews consistently recommend reducing sodium intake overall, generally by 1000mg/day. Recommendations to reduce intakes to 2400mg/d are generally accepted as beneficial. Whether further reductions to 1500mg/d are useful, feasible and safe among specific subgroups in the population who are at increased risk of hypertension or stroke remains controversial and requires individualized consideration by patients and their health care providers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Direct extraction of a Na- beam from a sodium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Namiko; Fujita, Junji; Yamaoka, Hitoshi; Wada, Motoi.

    1990-07-01

    Negative sodium ions (Na - ) were extracted from a small multi-cusp ion source. A steady state sodium plasma was produced by primary electrons in a sodium gas evaporating from a metal sample placed in the discharge chamber. The Na - current density of 1.5 μA/cm 2 was obtained from a single aperture of 1.5 mm diameter at relatively low discharge power of about 0.4 W and filament power of 50 W. Extraction characteristics were studied by changing the plasma electrode bias. The extracted Na - current showed dependence on the bias voltage similar to that of H - or Li - volume production. (author)

  5. Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table salt is a combination of two minerals - sodium and chloride Your body needs some sodium to work properly. It helps with the function ... in your body. Your kidneys control how much sodium is in your body. If you have too ...

  6. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  7. Dietary sodium in chronic kidney disease: a comprehensive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Julie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2010-01-01

    Despite existing guidelines, dietary sodium intake among people worldwide often exceeds recommended limits. Research evidence is growing in both animal and human studies showing indirect and direct adverse consequences of high dietary sodium on the kidney. In patients with kidney disease, dietary sodium may have important effects on proteinuria, efficacy of antiproteinuric pharmacologic therapy, hypertension control, maintaining an optimal volume status, and immunosuppressant therapy. Dietary sodium intake is an important consideration in patients with all stages of chronic kidney disease, including those receiving dialysis therapy or those who have received a kidney transplant. We review in detail the dietary sodium recommendations suggested by various organizations for patients with kidney disease. Potential barriers to successfully translating current sodium intake guidelines into practice include poor knowledge about the sodium content of food among both patients and providers, complex labeling information, patient preferences related to taste, and limited support for modifications in public policy. Finally, we offer existing and potential solutions that may assist providers in educating and empowering patients to effectively manage their dietary sodium intake.

  8. Sodium source development for pulsed power driven, photopumped NA/NE x-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhalter, P.G.; Cooperstein, G.; Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P.F.; Scherrer, V.E.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Young, F.C.; Hinshelwood, D.D.; Mehlman, G.; Welch, B.L.; Jones, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    A sodium plasma source is being developed for a resonant photopumping x-ray laser scheme in which the 11A 1s 2 - 1s2rho 1 P 1 line in heliumlike Na X is used to pump the Ne IX n=4 singlet level. In their experiment the NRL Gamble II generator is used to produce two z-pinch plasmas in a side-by-side geometry. The sodium plasma is produced on axis and conducts the full 1 MA machine current. A fraction of this current returns through a neon gas puff located 5 cm from the sodium. This separation is determined by the need to prevent the plasmas from mixing and the need to have each plasma's azimuthal magnetic field as symmetric as possible. A minimum separation is desirable to increase coupling efficiency. To improve the pump source, a more confined source of pure sodium involving a coaxial plasma gun is being developed. They are currently studying both the operation of this source on a test stand and implosions of the resulting plasma on Gamble II. In initial experiments aluminum is substituted for sodium. Test stand diagnostics include photodiodes, witness plates, and current monitors designed to investigate the early motion of the annular plasma. Results from test stand and Gamble II experiments with both aluminum and sodium, as well as sodium handling techniques, are presented

  9. Pet food safety: sodium in pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Marjorie L

    2008-08-01

    Healthy dogs and cats appear to be able to adjust to differing amounts of sodium in their diet via the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanisms. There is no strong evidence that increased dietary sodium increases the risk of hypertension in dogs and cats, and the current recommendation for hypertensive animals is to avoid high dietary salt intake without making a specific effort to restrict it. The prevalence of salt sensitivity and its effect on blood pressure has not been determined for cats or dogs. The ideal amount of sodium in the diet of dogs and cats with cardiac deficiency has not been determined, as increasing may detrimentally increase the extracellular fluid volume, but decreasing it may detrimentally increase the activation of the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Increased dietary sodium increases urine output and may decrease the risk of forming calcium oxalate uroliths due to the decrease in relative supersaturation of solutes. However, caution should be used in increasing the sodium intake of patients with renal disease as increased dietary sodium may have a negative effect on the kidneys independent of any effect on blood pressure.

  10. Late onset depression: A recent update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Mahapatra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Late onset depression has recently emerged as a serious mental health issue in the geriatric population with significant public health implications. It is often challenging to diagnose and treat this entity. Various theories have been postulated to elucidate the etiology of late onset depression, but a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Although the vascular hypothesis is most researched; a complex interaction of multiple vulnerability factors is the current focus of attention. Numerous psychosocial variables have been implicated to play a significant role in predicting the onset and severity of late-life depression. Phenomenological differences have been delineated from depression occurring at a younger age, but the findings are equivocal. A better understanding of the natural trajectory of depression in the elderly is required for early diagnosis and effective treatment. This review attempts to summarize the current status of evidence regarding epidemiology, etiology, clinical features, and treatment options available for late-onset depression.

  11. Differential state-dependent modification of rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Bingjun [College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Soderlund, David M., E-mail: dms6@cornell.edu [Department of Entomology, Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, Geneva, NY 14456 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    We expressed rat Na{sub v}1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat {beta}1 and {beta}2 auxiliary subunits in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin on expressed sodium currents using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Both pyrethroids produced concentration-dependent, resting modification of Na{sub v}1.6 channels, prolonging the kinetics of channel inactivation and deactivation to produce persistent 'late' currents during depolarization and tail currents following repolarization. Both pyrethroids also produced concentration dependent hyperpolarizing shifts in the voltage dependence of channel activation and steady-state inactivation. Maximal shifts in activation, determined from the voltage dependence of the pyrethroid-induced late and tail currents, were {approx} 25 mV for tefluthrin and {approx} 20 mV for deltamethrin. The highest attainable concentrations of these compounds also caused shifts of {approx} 5-10 mV in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. In addition to their effects on the voltage dependence of inactivation, both compounds caused concentration-dependent increases in the fraction of sodium current that was resistant to inactivation following strong depolarizing prepulses. We assessed the use-dependent effects of tefluthrin and deltamethrin on Na{sub v}1.6 channels by determining the effect of trains of 1 to 100 5-ms depolarizing prepulses at frequencies of 20 or 66.7 Hz on the extent of channel modification. Repetitive depolarization at either frequency increased modification by deltamethrin by {approx} 2.3-fold but had no effect on modification by tefluthrin. Tefluthrin and deltamethrin were equally potent as modifiers of Na{sub v}1.6 channels in HEK293 cells using the conditions producing maximal modification as the basis for comparison. These findings show that the actions of tefluthrin and deltamethrin of Na{sub v}1.6 channels

  12. Sodium fire tests for investigating the sodium leak in Monju

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seino, Hiroshi; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    1996-01-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in Monju on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) sodium leak test, (2) sodium fire test-I, and (3) sodium fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PNC. Main objectives of these tests are to confirm leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and effects of the sodium fire on integrity of the surrounding structure, etc. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are shown as below. 1) Average sodium leak rate obtained from the sodium leak test was about 50 g/sec. This was equivalent to the value estimated from level change in the sodium overflow tank in the Monju accident. 2) Observation from video cameras in the sodium fire tests revealed that in early stages of sodium leak, sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube of thermometer in drips. This dripping and burning were expanded in range as sodium splashed on the duct. 3) Though, in the sodium fire test-I, there was a decrease of about 1 mm at a thickness of the burning pan in the vicinity in just under in the leak point, there were completely no crack and failure. In the meantime, in the sodium fire test-II the six open holes were found in the floor liner. By this liner failure, the reaction between sodium and concrete might take place. At present, while the detailed evaluation on the sodium fire test-II has been mainly carried out, the investigation for clarifying the cause of the liner failure has been also carried out. (author)

  13. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

    2012-05-16

    Test Facility, and Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of {approx}550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at {approx}1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable

  14. Corrosion performance of advanced structural materials in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Momozaki, Y.; Li, M.; Rink, D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Clinch River Breeder Reactor. Among the nonmetallic elements discussed, oxygen is deemed controllable and its concentration in sodium can be maintained in sodium for long reactor life by using cold-trap method. It was concluded that among the cold-trap and getter-trap methods, the use of cold trap is sufficient to achieve oxygen concentration of the order of 1 part per million. Under these oxygen conditions in sodium, the corrosion performance of structural materials such as austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels will be acceptable at a maximum core outlet sodium temperature of ∼550 C. In the current sodium compatibility studies, the oxygen concentration in sodium will be controlled and maintained at ∼1 ppm by controlling the cold trap temperature. The oxygen concentration in sodium in the forced convection sodium loop will be controlled and monitored by maintaining the cold trap temperature in the range of 120-150 C, which would result in oxygen concentration in the range of 1-2 ppm. Uniaxial tensile specimens are being exposed to flowing sodium and will be retrieved and analyzed for corrosion and post-exposure tensile properties. Advanced materials for sodium exposure include austenitic alloy HT-UPS and ferritic-martensitic steels modified 9Cr-1Mo and NF616. Among the nonmetallic elements in sodium, carbon was assessed to have the most influence on structural materials since carbon, as an impurity, is not amenable to control and maintenance by any of the simple purification methods. The dynamic equilibrium value for carbon in sodium systems is dependent on several factors, details of which were discussed in the earlier report. The current sodium compatibility studies will examine the role of carbon concentration in sodium on the carburization-decarburization of advanced structural materials at temperatures up to 650 C. Carbon will be added to the sodium by exposure of carbon-filled iron tubes, which over time will enable carbon to diffuse through iron and

  15. Sodium technology handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document was published as a textbook for the education and training of personnel working for operations and maintenances of sodium facilities including FBR plants and those engaged in R and D activities related to sodium technology. This handbook covers the following technical areas. Properties of sodium. Compatibilities of sodium with materials. Thermalhydraulics and structural integrity. Sodium systems and components. Sodium instrumentations. Sodium handling technology. Sodium related accident evaluation and countermeasures for FBRs. Operation, maintenance and repair technology of sodium facilities. Safety measures related to sodium. Laws, regulations and internal rules related to sodium. The plannings and discussions of the handbook were made in the Sodium Technology Education Committee organized in O-arai Engineering Center consisting of the representatives of the related departments including Tsuruga headquarters. Experts in various departments participated in writing individual technical subjects. (author)

  16. Slack, Slick, and Sodium-Activated Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    The Slack and Slick genes encode potassium channels that are very widely expressed in the central nervous system. These channels are activated by elevations in intracellular sodium, such as those that occur during trains of one or more action potentials, or following activation of nonselective cationic neurotransmitter receptors such as AMPA receptors. This review covers the cellular and molecular properties of Slack and Slick channels and compares them with findings on the properties of sodium-activated potassium currents (termed KNa currents) in native neurons. Human mutations in Slack channels produce extremely severe defects in learning and development, suggesting that KNa channels play a central role in neuronal plasticity and intellectual function. PMID:24319675

  17. Phenomenological Studies on Sodium for CSP Applications: A Safety Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, Kenneth Miguel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.; Andraka, Charles E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Concentrating Solar Technologies Dept.

    2016-09-01

    Sodium as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) can achieve temperatures above 700°C to improve power cycle performance for reducing large infrastructure costs of high-temperature systems. Current concentrating solar power (CSP) sensible HTF’s (e.g. air, salts) have poor thermal conductivity, and thus low heat transfer capabilities, requiring a large receiver. The high thermal conductivity of sodium has demonstrated high heat transfer rates on dish and towers systems, which allow a reduction in receiver area by a factor of two to four, reducing re-radiation and convection losses and cost by a similar factor. Sodium produces saturated vapor at pressures suitable for transport starting at 600°C and reaches one atmosphere at 870°C, providing a wide range of suitable latent operating conditions that match proposed high temperature, isothermal input power cycles. This advantage could increase the receiver and system efficiency while lowering the cost of CSP tower systems. Although there are a number of desirable thermal performance advantages associated with sodium, its propensity to rapidly oxidize presents safety challenges. This investigation presents a literature review that captures historical operations/handling lessons for advanced sodium systems, and the current state-of-knowledge related to sodium combustion behavior. Technical and operational solutions addressing sodium safety and applications in CSP will be discussed, including unique safety hazards and advantages using latent sodium. Operation and maintenance experience from the nuclear industry with sensible and latent systems will also be discussed in the context of safety challenges and risk mitigation solutions.

  18. Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Ganesan, V.; Chandran, K.; Periaswami, G.

    1996-01-01

    Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities. Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. (author)

  19. Inhibitin: a specific inhibitor of sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes.

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, K; Brown, R C; Spurlock, G; Southgate, K; Mir, M A

    1986-01-01

    An inhibitor of ouabain-insensitive sodium/sodium exchange in erythrocytes has been isolated from leukemic promyelocytes. To explore the specific effects of this inhibitor, named inhibitin, sodium transport experiments were carried out in human erythrocytes. Inhibitin reduced ouabain-insensitive bidirectional sodium transport. It did not change net sodium fluxes, had no significant effect on rubidium influx, and did not inhibit sodium-potassium-ATPase activity. The inhibitory effect of inhibi...

  20. Sodium-based hydrides for thermal energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, D. A.; Humphries, T. D.; Buckley, C. E.

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating solar-thermal power (CSP) with thermal energy storage (TES) represents an attractive alternative to conventional fossil fuels for base-load power generation. Sodium alanate (NaAlH4) is a well-known sodium-based complex metal hydride but, more recently, high-temperature sodium-based complex metal hydrides have been considered for TES. This review considers the current state of the art for NaH, NaMgH3- x F x , Na-based transition metal hydrides, NaBH4 and Na3AlH6 for TES and heat pumping applications. These metal hydrides have a number of advantages over other classes of heat storage materials such as high thermal energy storage capacity, low volume, relatively low cost and a wide range of operating temperatures (100 °C to more than 650 °C). Potential safety issues associated with the use of high-temperature sodium-based hydrides are also addressed.

  1. Evaluation of steam-to-sodium leak detectors in the sodium components test installation (SCTI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, J M; Simmons, W R

    1975-07-01

    Two nickel diffusion-membrane type hydrogen detectors were installed in the secondary sodium system of the Sodium Components Test Installation and evaluated during the 12-month performance test of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG). Hydrogen in the expansion tank cover gas was monitored with a gas chromatograph. During this period, numerous steam and hydrogen injections were made, simulating steam leaks into the sodium of an LMFBR steam generator. The response of the detectors was evaluated for leak sizes ranging from 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -4} 1b H{sub 2}O/sec, injection periods of 0.5 to 300 min, secondary sodium flow rates of 0.2 x 10{sup 6} to 1.5 x 10{sup 6} 1b/hr, and sodium temperatures of 400 to 950 deg. F. The response of the leak detection system was influenced significantly by two regimes of sodium temperature. Below 600 deg. F, the cover gas hydrogen detector gave the largest response; this is attributed to the long dissolution time of hydrogen bubbles relative to the transit time of hydrogen to the expansion tank. Above 600 deg. F, the hydrogen apparently dissolved rapidly and the detectors were much more effective in the sodium than in the cover gas. At least 75% of the hydrogen and 50% of the oxygen content of injected steam appeared as detectable activity if the reaction products were dispersed in the sodium stream and the sodium was above 600 deg. F. Hydrogen injections into semi-stagnant sodium at the MSG tube sheets were detected with better sensitivity than steam injections into the main sodium stream. It appeared that high local concentrations of hydrogen were quickly carried to the nearest detector by upward currents created by the injected gas. The alarm system functioned as expected, 2.1 ppb/min being the smallest rate-of-rise in hydrogen concentration to give an automatic alarm. With more sensitive rate-of-rise alarm settings, leaks as small as 2 x 10{sup -5} 1b H{sub 2}O/sec could be detected in a system such as the Clinch River Breeder

  2. Evaluation of steam-to-sodium leak detectors in the sodium components test installation (SCTI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, J.M.; Simmons, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Two nickel diffusion-membrane type hydrogen detectors were installed in the secondary sodium system of the Sodium Components Test Installation and evaluated during the 12-month performance test of the Modular Steam Generator (MSG). Hydrogen in the expansion tank cover gas was monitored with a gas chromatograph. During this period, numerous steam and hydrogen injections were made, simulating steam leaks into the sodium of an LMFBR steam generator. The response of the detectors was evaluated for leak sizes ranging from 10 -6 to 10 -4 1b H 2 O/sec, injection periods of 0.5 to 300 min, secondary sodium flow rates of 0.2 x 10 6 to 1.5 x 10 6 1b/hr, and sodium temperatures of 400 to 950 deg. F. The response of the leak detection system was influenced significantly by two regimes of sodium temperature. Below 600 deg. F, the cover gas hydrogen detector gave the largest response; this is attributed to the long dissolution time of hydrogen bubbles relative to the transit time of hydrogen to the expansion tank. Above 600 deg. F, the hydrogen apparently dissolved rapidly and the detectors were much more effective in the sodium than in the cover gas. At least 75% of the hydrogen and 50% of the oxygen content of injected steam appeared as detectable activity if the reaction products were dispersed in the sodium stream and the sodium was above 600 deg. F. Hydrogen injections into semi-stagnant sodium at the MSG tube sheets were detected with better sensitivity than steam injections into the main sodium stream. It appeared that high local concentrations of hydrogen were quickly carried to the nearest detector by upward currents created by the injected gas. The alarm system functioned as expected, 2.1 ppb/min being the smallest rate-of-rise in hydrogen concentration to give an automatic alarm. With more sensitive rate-of-rise alarm settings, leaks as small as 2 x 10 -5 1b H 2 O/sec could be detected in a system such as the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. A preliminary

  3. The development of a realistic source term for sodium-cooled fast reactors : assessment of current status and future needs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Phillips, Jesse; Parma, Edward J., Jr.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Middleton, Bobby D.

    2011-06-01

    Sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs) continue to be proposed and designed throughout the United States and the world. Although the number of SFRs actually operating has declined substantially since the 1980s, a significant interest in advancing these types of reactor systems remains. Of the many issues associated with the development and deployment of SFRs, one of high regulatory importance is the source term to be used in the siting of the reactor. A substantial amount of modeling and experimental work has been performed over the past four decades on accident analysis, sodium coolant behavior, and radionuclide release for SFRs. The objective of this report is to aid in determining the gaps and issues related to the development of a realistic, mechanistically derived source term for SFRs. This report will allow the reader to become familiar with the severe accident source term concept and gain a broad understanding of the current status of the models and experimental work. Further, this report will allow insight into future work, in terms of both model development and experimental validation, which is necessary in order to develop a realistic source term for SFRs.

  4. Mutants induced in winter rye (Secale cereale L.): Short straw-mutant No. 2714 and late-senescence mutant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muszynski, S; Darlewska, M [Department of Plant Breeding and Seed Science, Warsaw Agricultural University, Warsaw (Poland)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutants were induced by treating dormant seeds with ionizing radiation (fast neutrons) or chemicals (N-nitroso-N-ethyl urea or sodium azide). Among several mutants obtained, of special value is the short-straw mutant No. 2714 and a late senescent mutant. (author)

  5. Sodium glucose CoTransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors: Current status and future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madaan, Tushar; Akhtar, Mohd; Najmi, Abul Kalam

    2016-10-10

    Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects millions of people worldwide and its prevalence is estimated to rise in the future. Billions of dollars are spent each year around the world in health expenditure related to diabetes. There are several anti-diabetic drugs in the market for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In this article, we will be talking about a relatively new class of anti-diabetic drugs called sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. This class of drugs has a unique mechanism of action focusing on inhibition of glucose reabsorption that separates it from other classes. This article covers the mechanism of glucose reabsorption in the kidneys, the mechanism of action of SGLT2 inhibitors, several SGLT2 inhibitors currently available in the market as well as those in various phases of development, their individual pharmacokinetics as well as the discussion about the future role of SGLT2 inhibitors, not only for the treatment of diabetes, but also for various other diseases like obesity, hepatic steatosis, and cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of sodium channel isoforms that mediate action potential firing in lamina I/II spinal cord neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paula L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated sodium channels play key roles in acute and chronic pain processing. The molecular, biophysical, and pharmacological properties of sodium channel currents have been extensively studied for peripheral nociceptors while the properties of sodium channel currents in dorsal horn spinal cord neurons remain incompletely understood. Thus far, investigations into the roles of sodium channel function in nociceptive signaling have primarily focused on recombinant channels or peripheral nociceptors. Here, we utilize recordings from lamina I/II neurons withdrawn from the surface of spinal cord slices to systematically determine the functional properties of sodium channels expressed within the superficial dorsal horn. Results Sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons exhibited relatively hyperpolarized voltage-dependent properties and fast kinetics of both inactivation and recovery from inactivation, enabling small changes in neuronal membrane potentials to have large effects on intrinsic excitability. By combining biophysical and pharmacological channel properties with quantitative real-time PCR results, we demonstrate that functional sodium channel currents within lamina I/II neurons are predominantly composed of the NaV1.2 and NaV1.3 isoforms. Conclusions Overall, lamina I/II neurons express a unique combination of functional sodium channels that are highly divergent from the sodium channel isoforms found within peripheral nociceptors, creating potentially complementary or distinct ion channel targets for future pain therapeutics.

  7. Strategies to reduce sodium consumption: a food industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötsch, Mariska; Busch, Johanneke; Batenburg, Max; Liem, Gie; Tareilus, Erwin; Mueller, Rudi; Meijer, Gert

    2009-11-01

    The global high prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease has raised concerns regarding the sodium content of the foods which we consume. Over 75% of sodium intake in industrialized diets is likely to come from processed and restaurant foods. Therefore international authorities, such as the World Health Organisation, are encouraging the food industry to reduce sodium levels in their products. Significant sodium reduction is not without complications as salt plays an important role in taste, and in some products is needed also for preservation and processing. The most promising sodium reduction strategy is to adapt the preference of consumers for saltiness by reducing sodium in products in small steps. However, this is a time-consuming approach that needs to be applied industry-wide in order to be effective. Therefore the food industry is also investigating solutions that will maintain the same perceived salt intensity at lower sodium levels. Each of these has specific advantages, disadvantages, and time lines for implementation. Currently applied approaches are resulting in sodium reduction between 20-30%. Further reduction will require new technologies. Research into the physiology of taste perception and salt receptors is an emerging area of science that is needed in order to achieve larger sodium reductions.

  8. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Peterson , R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation.

  9. Excess Sodium Tetraphenylborate and Intermediates Decomposition Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.

    1998-04-01

    The stability of excess amounts of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) in the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) facility depends on a number of variables. Concentration of palladium, initial benzene, and sodium ion as well as temperature provide the best opportunities for controlling the decomposition rate. This study examined the influence of these four variables on the reactivity of palladium-catalyzed sodium tetraphenylborate decomposition. Also, single effects tests investigated the reactivity of simulants with continuous stirring and nitrogen ventilation, with very high benzene concentrations, under washed sodium concentrations, with very high palladium concentrations, and with minimal quantities of excess NaTPB. These tests showed the following.The testing demonstrates that current facility configuration does not provide assured safety of operations relative to the hazards of benzene (in particular to maintain the tank headspace below 60 percent of the lower flammability limit (lfl) for benzene generation rates of greater than 7 mg/(L.h)) from possible accelerated reaction of excess NaTPB. Current maximal operating temperatures of 40 degrees C and the lack of protection against palladium entering Tank 48H provide insufficient protection against the onset of the reaction. Similarly, control of the amount of excess NaTPB, purification of the organic, or limiting the benzene content of the slurry (via stirring) and ionic strength of the waste mixture prove inadequate to assure safe operation

  10. Adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and sodium-water reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Y.; Yamaguchi, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, background information of sodium fire and sodium-water reaction accidents of LMFBR (liquid metal fast breeder reactor) is mentioned at first. Next, numerical analysis method of GENESYS is described in detail. Next, adiabatic flame temperature and composition of sodium combustion are analyzed, and affect of reactant composition, such oxygen and moisture, is discussed. Finally, adiabatic reaction zone temperature and composition of sodium-water reaction are calculated, and affects of reactant composition, sodium vaporization, and pressure are stated. Chemical equilibrium calculation program for generic chemical system (GENESYS) is developed in this study for the research on adiabatic flame temperature of sodium combustion and adiabatic reaction zone temperature of sodium-water reaction. The maximum flame temperature of the sodium combustion is 1,950 K at the standard atmospheric condition, and is not affected by the existence of moisture. The main reaction product is Na 2 O (l) , and in combustion in moist air, with NaOH (g) . The maximum reaction zone temperature of the sodium-water reaction is 1,600 K, and increases with the system pressure. The main products are NaOH (g) , NaOH (l) and H2 (g) . Sodium evaporation should be considered in the cases of sodium-rich and high pressure above 10 bar

  11. Sodium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diet - sodium (salt); Hyponatremia - sodium in diet; Hypernatremia - sodium in diet; Heart failure - sodium in diet ... Too much sodium in the diet may lead to: High blood pressure in some people A serious buildup of fluid in people with heart failure , cirrhosis of ...

  12. Antiepileptic drugs targeting sodium channels: subunit and neuron-type specific interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Certain antiepileptic drugs (e.g. carbamazepine and lamotrigine) block sodium channels in an use-dependent manner and this mechanism contributes to the anti-convulsant properties of these drugs. There are, however, subtle differences in sodium current blocking properties of the antiepileptic drugs

  13. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  14. The sodium coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    2004-01-01

    The sodium is the best appropriate coolant for the fast neutrons reactors technology. Thus the fast neutrons reactors development is intimately bound to the sodium technology. This document presents the sodium as a coolant point of view: atomic structure and characteristics, sodium impacts on the fast neutron reactors technology, chemical properties of the sodium and the consequences, quality control in a nuclear reactor, sodium treatment. (A.L.B.)

  15. Propylparaben reduces the excitability of hippocampal neurons by blocking sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Valderrábano, Leonardo; Rocha, Luisa; Galván, Emilio J

    2016-12-01

    Propylparaben (PPB) is an antimicrobial preservative widely used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Virtual screening methodologies predicted anticonvulsant activity of PPB that was confirmed in vivo. Thus, we explored the effects of PPB on the excitability of hippocampal neurons by using standard patch clamp techniques. Bath perfusion of PPB reduced the fast-inactivating sodium current (I Na ) amplitude, causing a hyperpolarizing shift in the inactivation curve of the I Na, and markedly delayed the sodium channel recovery from the inactivation state. Also, PPB effectively suppressed the riluzole-sensitive, persistent sodium current (I NaP ). PPB perfusion also modified the action potential kinetics, and higher concentrations of PPB suppressed the spike activity. Nevertheless, the modulatory effects of PPB did not occur when PPB was internally applied by whole-cell dialysis. These results indicate that PPB reduces the excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons by modulating voltage-dependent sodium channels. The mechanistic basis of this effect is a marked delay in the recovery from inactivation state of the voltage-sensitive sodium channels. Our results indicate that similar to local anesthetics and anticonvulsant drugs that act on sodium channels, PPB acts in a use-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Prevalence and Morbidity of Late Preterm Infants: Current Status in a Medical Center of Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Luen Tsai

    2012-06-01

    Conclusion: Late-preterm infants have increased risk of neonatal morbidities associated with organ immaturity. The results of this study emphasize the importance of judicious obstetrical decision-making when considering late preterm delivery, and the need to set up anticipatory clinical guidelines for the care of late preterm infants.

  17. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers...

  18. Sodium pool fire analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor by calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hong; Xu Mi; Jin Degui

    2002-01-01

    Theoretical models were established according to the characteristic of sodium pool fire, and the SPOOL code was created independently. Some transient processes in sodium pool fire were modeled, including chemical reaction of sodium and oxygen; sodium combustion heat transfer modes in several kids of media; production, deposition and discharge of sodium aerosol; mass and energy exchange between different media in different ventilating conditions. The important characteristic parameters were calculated, such as pressure and temperature of gas, temperature of building materials, mass concentration of sodium aerosol, and so on. The SPOOL code, which provided available safety analysis tool for sodium pool fire accidents in sodium-cooled fast reactor, was well demonstrated with experimental data

  19. Study of thermophysical and thermohydraulic properties of sodium for fast sodium cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega R, A. K.; Espinosa P, G.; Gomez T, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    The importance of liquid sodium lies in its use as a coolant for fast reactors, but why should liquid metal be used as a coolant instead of water? Water is difficult to use as a coolant for a fast nuclear reactor because its acts as a neutron moderator, that is, stop the fast neutrons and converts them to thermal neutrons. Nuclear reactors such as the Pressurized Water Reactor or the Boiling Water Reactor are thermal reactors, which mean they need thermal neutrons for their operation. However, is necessary for fast reactors to conserve as much fast neutrons, so that the liquid metal coolants that do have this capability are implemented. Sodium does not need to be pressurized, its low melting point and its high boiling point, higher than the operating temperature of the reactor, make it an adequate coolant, also has a high thermal conductivity, which is necessary to transfer thermal energy and its viscosity is close to that of the water, which indicates that is an easily transportable liquid and does not corrode the steel parts of the reactor. This paper presents a brief state of the art of the rapid nuclear reactors that operated and currently operate, as well as projects in the door in some countries; types of nuclear reactors which are cooled by liquid sodium and their operation; the mathematical models for obtaining the properties of liquid sodium in a range of 393 to 1673 Kelvin degrees and a pressure atmosphere. Finally a program is presented in FORTRAN named Thermo-Sodium for the calculation of the properties, which requires as input data the Kelvin temperature in which the liquid sodium is found and provides at the user the thermo-physical and thermo-hydraulic properties for that data temperature. Additional to this the user is asked the Reynolds number and the hydraulic diameter in case of knowing them, and in this way the program will provide the value of the convective coefficient and that of the dimensionless numbers: Nusselt, Prandtl and Peclet. (Author)

  20. Bumetanide increases Cl--dependent short-circuit current in late distal colon: Evidence for the presence of active electrogenic Cl- absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lieqi; Fang, Xiefan; Winesett, Steven P; Cheng, Catherine Y; Binder, Henry J; Rivkees, Scott A; Cheng, Sam X

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian colonic epithelia consist of cells that are capable of both absorbing and secreting Cl-. The present studies employing Ussing chamber technique identified two opposing short-circuit current (Isc) responses to basolateral bumetanide in rat distal colon. Apart from the transepithelial Cl--secretory Isc in early distal colon that was inhibited by bumetanide, bumetanide also stimulated Isc in late distal colon that had not previously been identified. Since bumetanide inhibits basolateral Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC) in crypt cells and basolateral K+-Cl- cotransporter (KCC) in surface epithelium, we proposed this stimulatory Isc could represent a KCC-mediated Cl- absorptive current. In support of this hypothesis, ion substitution experiments established Cl- dependency of this absorptive Isc and transport inhibitor studies demonstrated the involvement of an apical Cl- conductance. Current distribution and RNA sequencing analyses revealed that this Cl- absorptive Isc is closely associated with epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) but is not dependent on ENaC activity. Thus, inhibition of ENaC by 10 μM amiloride or benzamil neither altered the direction nor its activity. Physiological studies suggested that this Cl- absorptive Isc senses dietary Cl- content; thus when dietary Cl- was low, Cl- absorptive Isc was up-regulated. In contrast, when dietary Cl- was increased, Cl- absorptive Isc was down-regulated. We conclude that an active Cl- extrusion mechanism exists in ENaC-expressing late distal colon and likely operates in parallel with ENaC to facilitate NaCl absorption.

  1. The Renal Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe2: Is It a Major Contributor to Sodium and pH Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A; Jose, Pedro A; Xu, Peng; Gildea, John J

    2016-09-01

    The sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe2, aka NBC4) was originally isolated from the human testis and heart (Pushkin et al. IUBMB Life 50:13-19, 2000). Subsequently, NBCe2 was found in diverse locations where it plays a role in regulating sodium and bicarbonate transport, influencing intracellular, extracellular, interstitial, and ultimately plasma pH (Boron et al. J Exp Biol. 212:1697-1706, 2009; Parker and Boron, Physiol Rev. 93:803-959, 2013; Romero et al. Mol Asp Med. 34:159-182, 2013). NBCe2 is located in human and rodent renal-collecting duct and proximal tubule. While much is known about the two electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporters, NBCe1 and NBCe2, in the regulation of sodium homeostasis and pH balance in the rodent kidney, little is known about their roles in human renal physiology. NBCe2 is located in the proximal tubule Golgi apparatus under basal conditions and then disperses throughout the cell, but particularly into the apical membrane microvilli, during various maneuvers that increase intracellular sodium. This review will summarize our current understanding of the distribution and function of NBCe2 in the human kidney and how genetic variants of its gene, SLC4A5, contribute to salt sensitivity of blood pressure.

  2. The human Nav1.5 F1486 deletion associated with long QT syndrome leads to impaired sodium channel inactivation and reduced lidocaine sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Weihua; Xiao, Yucheng; Chen, Hanying; Ashpole, Nicole M; Piekarz, Andrew D; Ma, Peilin; Hudmon, Andy; Cummins, Theodore R; Shou, Weinian

    2012-01-01

    The deletion of phenylalanine 1486 (F1486del) in the human cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (hNav1.5) is associated with fatal long QT (LQT) syndrome. In this study we determined how F1486del impairs the functional properties of hNav1.5 and alters action potential firing in heterologous expression systems (human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells) and their native cardiomyocyte background. Cells expressing hNav1.5-F1486del exhibited a loss-of-function alteration, reflected by an 80% reduction of peak current density, and several gain-of-function alterations, including reduced channel inactivation, enlarged window current, substantial augmentation of persistent late sodium current and an increase in ramp current. We also observed substantial action potential duration (APD) prolongation and prominent early afterdepolarizations (EADs) in neonatal cardiomyocytes expressing the F1486del channels, as well as in computer simulations of myocyte activity. In addition, lidocaine sensitivity was dramatically reduced, which probably contributed to the poor therapeutic outcome observed in the patient carrying the hNav1.5-F1486del mutation. Therefore, despite the significant reduction in peak current density, the F1486del mutation also leads to substantial gain-of-function alterations that are sufficient to cause APD prolongation and EADs, the predominant characteristic of LQTs. These data demonstrate that hNav1.5 mutations can have complex functional consequences and highlight the importance of identifying the specific molecular defect when evaluating potential treatments for individuals with prolonged QT intervals. PMID:22826127

  3. Low sodium diet (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, ...

  4. Scientific Opinion on the safety evaluation of the active substances, sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate, bentonite, sodium chloride, sodium carbonate for use in active food contact materials

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF)

    2013-01-01

    This scientific opinion of the Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety evaluation of the powder mixture of the active substances sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate coated with sodium carbonate and sodium silicate (FCM substance No 1009), bentonite (CAS No 1302-78-9, FCM No 393), sodium chloride (CAS No 7647-14-5, FCM No 985), sodium carbonate (CAS No 497-19-8, FCM No 1008) which are intended to be used as combined oxygen generator and carbon...

  5. Development of sodium disposal technology. Experiment of sodium compound solidification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Toshiyuki; Ohura, Masato; Yatoh, Yasuo

    2007-07-01

    A large amount of sodium containing radioactive waste will come up at the time of final shutdown/decommission of FBR plant. The radioactive waste is managed as solid state material in a closed can in Japan. As for the sodium, there is no established method to convert the radioactive sodium to solid waste. Further, the sodium is highly reactive. Thus, it is recommended to convert the sodium to a stable substance before the solidification process. One of the stabilizing methods is conversion of sodium into sodium hydroxide solution. These stabilization and solidification processes should be safe, economical, and efficient. In order to develop such sodium disposal technology, nonradioactive sodium was used and a basic experiment was performed. Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method was employed as the solidification process of sodium hydroxide solution. Experimental parameters were mixing ratio of the sodium hydroxide and the slag solidification material, temperature and concentration of the sodium hydroxide. The best parameters were obtained to achieve the maximum filling ratio of the sodium hydroxide under a condition of enough high compressive strength of the solidified waste. In a beaker level test, the solidified waste was kept in a long term and it was shown that there was no change of appearance, density, and also the compressive strength was kept at a target value. In a real scale test, homogeneous profiles of the density and the compressive strength were obtained. The compressive strength was higher than the target value. It was shown that the Waste-fluid Slag Solidification method can be applied to the solidification process of the sodium hydroxide solution, which was produced by the stabilization process. (author)

  6. C-Scan Performance Test of Under-Sodium ultrasonic Waveguide Sensor in Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Young Sang; Bae, Jin Ho; Kim, Jong Bum

    2011-01-01

    Reactor core and in-vessel structures of a sodium-cooled fast (SFR) are submerged in opaque liquid sodium in the reactor vessel. The ultrasonic inspection techniques should be applied for observing the in-vessel structures under hot liquid sodium. Ultrasonic sensors such as immersion sensors and rod-type waveguide sensors have developed in order to apply under-sodium viewing of the in-vessel structures of SFR. Recently the novel plate-type ultrasonic waveguide sensor has been developed for the versatile application of under-sodium viewing in SFR. In previous studies, the ultrasonic waveguide sensor module was designed and manufactured, and the feasibility study of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor was performed. To improve the performance of the ultrasonic waveguide sensor in the under-sodium application, a new concept of ultrasonic waveguide sensors with a Be coated SS304 plate is suggested for the effective generation of a leaky wave in liquid sodium and the non-dispersive propagation of A 0 -mode Lamb wave in an ultrasonic waveguide sensor. In this study, the C-scan performance of the under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium has been investigated by the experimental test in sodium. The under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor and the sodium test facility with a glove box system and a sodium tank are designed and manufactured to carry out the performance test of under-sodium ultrasonic waveguide sensor in sodium environment condition

  7. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium in Maputo, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Queiroz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, and to estimate the main food sources of sodium in Maputo dwellers. A cross-sectional evaluation of a sample of 100 hospital workers was conducted between October 2012 and May 2013. Sodium and potassium urinary excretion was assessed in a 24-h urine sample; creatinine excretion was used to exclude unlikely urine values. Food intake in the same period of urine collection was assessed using a 24-h dietary recall. The Food Processor Plus® was used to estimate sodium intake corresponding to naturally occurring sodium and sodium added to processed foods (non-discretionary sodium. Salt added during culinary preparations (discretionary sodium was computed as the difference between urinary sodium excretion and non-discretionary sodium. The mean (standard deviation urinary sodium excretion was 4220 (1830 mg/day, and 92% of the participants were above the World Health Organization (WHO recommendations. Discretionary sodium contributed 60.1% of total dietary sodium intake, followed by sodium from processed foods (29.0% and naturally occurring sodium (10.9%. The mean (standard deviation urinary potassium excretion was 1909 (778 mg/day, and 96% of the participants were below the WHO potassium intake recommendation. The mean (standard deviation sodium to potassium molar ratio was 4.2 (2.4. Interventions to decrease sodium and increase potassium intake are needed in Mozambique.

  8. Corrosion of steels in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Hawtin, P.

    1976-01-01

    Proposed expressions for the corrosion and deposition rates and other relevant data are examined theoretically using models which treat both particle and molecular transport and the coupling between particle and molecular concentrations. It is difficult to reconcile some properties of the observed rates, including sodium velocity dependence, with currently accepted best values for the equilibrium iron concentration in sodium. To overcome this difficulty a new model is proposed which contains two iron solubilities, one with and one without association with oxygen, which can also explain some existing anomalies in solubility measurements. The models also give a qualitative understanding of some properties of particles in circuits including the observed size distribution

  9. Evaporative removal of sodium: interim progress report and preliminary facility specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the current Evaporative Removal of Sodium (ERNA) activities at the Energy Systems Group is presented. Also included is a review of earlier work on sodium evaporation. As a result of this work it was concluded that the ERNA process was extremely successful and worthy of future consideration as a recognized process for reactor components. Also included in the report is a Preliminary Outline Specification for a large facility to remove sodium from full size CRBR fuel rod assemblies

  10. Fast reactors bulk sodium coolant disposal NOAH process application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magny, E. de; Berte, M.

    1997-01-01

    Within the frame of the fast reactors decommissioning, the becoming of contaminated sodium coolant from primary, secondary and auxiliary circuits is an important aspect. The 'NOAH' sodium disposal process, developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), is presented as the only process, for destroying large quantities of contaminated sodium, that has attained industrial status. The principles and technical options of the process are described and main advantages such as safety , operating simplicity and compactness of the plant are put forward. The process has been industrially validated in 1993/1994 by successfully reacting the 37 metric tons of primary contaminated sodium from the French Rapsodie experimental reactor. The main outstanding aspects and experience gained from this so called 'DESORA' operation (DEstruction of SOdium from RApsodie) are recalled. Another industrial application concerns the current project for destroying more than 1500 metric tons of contaminated sodium from the British PFR (Prototype Fast Reactor) in Scotland. Although the design is in the continuity of DESORA, it has taken into account the specific requirements of PFR application and the experience feed back from Rapsodie. The main technical options and performances of the PFR sodium reaction unit are presented while mentioning the design evolution. (author)

  11. Assessment of flow induced vibration in a sodium-sodium heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, V. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: prakash@igcar.gov.in; Thirumalai, M.; Prabhakar, R.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-01-15

    The 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is under construction at Kalpakkam. It is a liquid metal sodium cooled pool type fast reactor with all primary components located inside a sodium pool. The heat produced due to fission in the core is transported by primary sodium to the secondary sodium in a sodium to sodium Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX), which in turn is transferred to water in the steam generator. PFBR IHX is a shell and tube type heat exchanger with primary sodium on shell side and secondary sodium in the tube side. Since IHX is one of the critical components placed inside the radioactive primary sodium, trouble-free operation of the IHX is very much essential for power plant availability. To validate the design and the adequacy of the support system provided for the IHX, flow induced vibration (FIV) experiments were carried out in a water test loop on a 60 deg. sector model. This paper discusses the flow induced vibration measurements carried out in 60 deg. sector model of IHX, the modeling criteria, the results and conclusion.

  12. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1978-01-01

    Sodium vapour and sodium mist in the cover gas of a sodium system of a fast breeder reactor cause various problems. In this report, with the results of measurements of sodium mist concentration, the distribution of sodium mist diameter in cover gas was analytically obtained. The analysis was made by using the different nucleus model B. The measurement of the concentration of sodium mist was carried out with a sodium mist pot designed by the author. The experiment was done at the sodium temperature of 400 and 500 degree centigrade. The relations among sodium temperature, upper wall temperature, and the sodium mist concentration in cover gas were obtained. Evaluation of effective condensed nuclear radius in the cover gas was made by the comparison of analysis and experimental results. The results of this evaluation shows the following conclusions. It is impossible to express the distribution of sodium mist diameter by normal distribution or logarithmic normal distribution. Drop of sodium temperature results in the decrease of weight mean radius of generated sodium mist. Drop of upper wall temperature causes the decrease of weight mean radius, and increases sodium mist concentration. (Kato, T.)

  13. An investigation of sodium iodide solubility in sodium-stainless steel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, Norihiko; Tashiro, Suguru

    1996-01-01

    Sodium iodide and major constituents of stainless steel in sodium are determined by using the steel capsules to obtain a better understanding on contribution of the constituents to the apparent iodide solubility in sodium. The capsule loaded with 20 g sodium and 0.1 - 0.3 g powder of sodium iodide is heated at its upper part in a furnace and cooled at its bottom on brass plates to establish a large temperature gradient along the capsule tube. After a given period of equilibration, the iodide and constituents are fixed in solidified sodium by quick quenching of the capsules. Sodium samples are taken from the sectioned capsule tube and submitted to sodium dissolution by vaporized water for determination of the iodine and to vacuum distillation for determination of the metal elements. Iron and nickel concentrations are observed to be lower in the samples at higher iodine concentrations. Chromium and manganese concentrations are seen to be insensitive to the iodine concentrations. The observations can be interpreted by a model that sodium oxide combines with metal iodide in sodium to form a complex compound and with consideration that the compound will fall and deposit onto the bottom of the capsule by thermal diffusion. (author)

  14. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. 173.189 Section 173.189 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a...

  15. Analogy of water as compared to sodium in cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisci, R.; Courbiere, P.

    1976-01-01

    After outlining the major aspects of the cavitation research and test program undertaken by the CEA(3) (survey of the parameters defining the onset of cavitation in water and sodium flow, and the consequences of operation under sustained cavitating conditions on sodium reactor structural components), this paper describes the test and measuring equipment that has been developed for such studies. The results of the initial tests in water and in sodium using a thin 20 mm dia.orifices plate, are then presented. Except for uncertainties about the measurements themselves, the cavitation threshold values in cold water and in sodium at temperatures above 400 0 C has shown rather good concordance. Testing is currently in progress to confirm these findings. (1) EEC engineer assigned to DRNR/SEDC, (2) CEA engineer (DRNR/STRS), (3) French Atomic Energy Commision. (author)

  16. CFD Modeling of Sodium-Oxide Deposition in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Compact Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatli, Emre; Ferroni, Paolo; Mazzoccoli, Jason

    2015-09-02

    The possible use of compact heat exchangers (HXs) in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFR) employing a Brayton cycle is promising due to their high power density and resulting small volume in comparison with conventional shell-and-tube HXs. However, the small diameter of their channels makes them more susceptible to plugging due to Na2O deposition during accident conditions. Although cold traps are designed to reduce oxygen impurity levels in the sodium coolant, their failure, in conjunction with accidental air ingress into the sodium boundary, could result in coolant oxygen levels that are above the saturation limit in the cooler parts of the HX channels. This can result in Na2O crystallization and the formation of solid deposits on cooled channel surfaces, limiting or even blocking coolant flow. The development of analysis tools capable of modeling the formation of these deposits in the presence of sodium flow will allow designers of SFRs to properly size the HX channels so that, in the scenario mentioned above, the reactor operator has sufficient time to detect and react to the affected HX. Until now, analytical methodologies to predict the formation of these deposits have been developed, but never implemented in a high-fidelity computational tool suited to modern reactor design techniques. This paper summarizes the challenges and the current status in the development of a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methodology to predict deposit formation, with particular emphasis on sensitivity studies on some parameters affecting deposition.

  17. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan - Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludewig, H.; Powers, D.A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A.; Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R.; Clement, B.; Garner, Frank; Walters, Leon; Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J.; Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ohno, S.; Miyhara, S.; Yacout, Abdellatif; Farmer, M.; Wade, D.; Grandy, C.; Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J.; Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R.; Tobita, Yoshiharu; Serre, Frederic; Natesan, Ken; Carbajo, Juan J.; Jeong, Hae-Yong; Wigeland, Roald; Corradini, Michael; Thomas, Justin; Wei, Tom; Sofu, Tanju; Flanagan, George F.; Bari, R.; Porter D.

    2012-01-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  18. Sodium fast reactor safety and licensing research plan. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludewig, H. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Powers, D. A.; Hewson, John C.; LaChance, Jeffrey L.; Wright, A. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Phillips, J.; Zeyen, R. (Institute for Energy Petten, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Clement, B. (IRSN/DPAM.SEMIC Bt 702, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France); Garner, Frank (Radiation Effects Consulting, Richland, WA); Walters, Leon (Advanced Reactor Concepts, Los Alamos, NM); Wright, Steve; Ott, Larry J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Suo-Anttila, Ahti Jorma; Denning, Richard (Ohio State University, Columbus, OH); Ohshima, Hiroyuki (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Ohno, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Miyhara, S. (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Yacout, Abdellatif (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Farmer, M. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wade, D. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Grandy, C. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Schmidt, R.; Cahalen, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Olivier, Tara Jean; Budnitz, R. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA); Tobita, Yoshiharu (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Ibaraki, Japan); Serre, Frederic (Centre d' %C3%94etudes nucl%C3%94eaires de Cadarache, Cea, France); Natesan, Ken (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Carbajo, Juan J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Jeong, Hae-Yong (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon, Korea); Wigeland, Roald (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Corradini, Michael (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI); Thomas, Justin (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Wei, Tom (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Sofu, Tanju (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Flanagan, George F. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN); Bari, R. (Brokhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY); Porter D. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Lambert, J. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Hayes, S. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Sackett, J. (Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID); Denman, Matthew R.

    2012-05-01

    Expert panels comprised of subject matter experts identified at the U.S. National Laboratories (SNL, ANL, INL, ORNL, LBL, and BNL), universities (University of Wisconsin and Ohio State University), international agencies (IRSN, CEA, JAEA, KAERI, and JRC-IE) and private consultation companies (Radiation Effects Consulting) were assembled to perform a gap analysis for sodium fast reactor licensing. Expert-opinion elicitation was performed to qualitatively assess the current state of sodium fast reactor technologies. Five independent gap analyses were performed resulting in the following topical reports: (1) Accident Initiators and Sequences (i.e., Initiators/Sequences Technology Gap Analysis), (2) Sodium Technology Phenomena (i.e., Advanced Burner Reactor Sodium Technology Gap Analysis), (3) Fuels and Materials (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Fuels and Materials: Research Needs), (4) Source Term Characterization (i.e., Advanced Sodium Fast Reactor Accident Source Terms: Research Needs), and (5) Computer Codes and Models (i.e., Sodium Fast Reactor Gaps Analysis of Computer Codes and Models for Accident Analysis and Reactor Safety). Volume II of the Sodium Research Plan consolidates the five gap analysis reports produced by each expert panel, wherein the importance of the identified phenomena and necessities of further experimental research and code development were addressed. The findings from these five reports comprised the basis for the analysis in Sodium Fast Reactor Research Plan Volume I.

  19. Cavitation erosion in sodium flow, sodium cavitation tunnel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courbiere, Pierre.

    1981-04-01

    The high-volume sodium flows present in fast neutron reactors are liable to induce cavitation phenomena in various portion of the sodium lines and pumps. The absence of sufficient data in this area led the C.E.A. to undertake an erosion research program in cavitating sodium flow. This paper discusses the considerations leading to the definition and execution of sodium cavitation erosion tests, and reviews the tests run with 400 0 C sodium on various steel grades: 316, 316 L, 316 Ti (Z8CNDT17-12), Poral (Z3CND18-12), 304 L and LN2 - clad 316 L (Ni coating-clad 316 L). Acoustic detection and signal processing methods were used with an instrument package designed and implemented at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center

  20. V color centers in electrolytically colored hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Song Cuiying; Han Li

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals were successfully colored electrolytically by using pointed anode and flat cathode at various temperatures and under various electric field strengths. V 2 and V 3 color centers were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V 2 and V 3 color center migration was determined. Production of the V 2 and V 3 color centers and formation of current zones for the electrolytic colorations of the hydroxyl-doped sodium chloride crystals are explained

  1. Removal of sodium from the component of the sodium purification loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high-oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  2. Operating experience and design criteria of sodium valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markford, D.

    1974-01-01

    The information presented refers to sodium valve development for KNK and SNR-300 as well as for sodium test facilities on the INTERATOM site at Bensberg. Well in advance of KNK-I a number of sodium test facilities have been operated containing small and medium size valves of different design and manufacturer. The more stringent requirements for long range safe and reliable operation in KNK-I put forth a development program for the main primary and secondary circuit sodium valves. Operational experience gave rise to modification of the stem seal arrangement mainly, so KNK-II (which is the fast core for KNK reactor) will be run with modified sodium valves. Main pipe diameters in SNR-300 are in the range of 600 mm. Valve designs with rising shafts would require excessive space in the primary circuit cavities, therefore efforts have been directed towards introduction of different type valves. Due to the requirements of after-heat-removal a valve type with control capability had to be chosen. A special design of butterfly valves was selected for the primary and secondary circuits of SNR-300. The development and tests performed with this type of valve are described. In the field of small sodium valves, tests with a 50 mm diameter freeze-seal valve are reported, and the current status of bellows-seal-valves to be inserted into SNR-300 is discussed. (U.S.)

  3. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  4. Effect of sodium lactate /sodium diacetate in combination with sodium nitrite on physiochemical, microbial properties and sensory evaluation of cow sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sedghi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sodium nitrite has been always considered as one of the common additives due to its antibacterial effects on Clostridium botulinum and meat products' color, however it produces cancer creating nitrosamine. Recently, organic acids and their salts such as lactates have been employed as antimicrobial compounds. Lactates also improve organileptic properties including color, texture and taste and antioxidant properties. Sodium lactate causes to more reduction of anaerobic spore former bacteria than nitrite, inhibits botulin produced by Clostridium botulinum. Sodium lactate produces a permanent reddish pink color through reduction of deoxymygloboline and producing deoxymyoglobuline. In this study, the decrease of sodium nitrite amount from 120ppm to 15ppm by adding sodium lactate / sodium diacetate led to achieve an acceptable product. The best results revealed through adding 3.0625% of sodium lactate / sodium diacetate in combination with 30ppm sodium nitrite. Results also exhibited more reduction of pathogens' growth than nitrite, enhanced flavor slightly, but unable to produce reddish pink color as produced by nitrite. Results also exhibited that sodium lactate / diacetate cause to retard in microbial growth, reducing chemical change, enhance sensory properties, partially improvement in taste and texture. Although inappropriate color demonstrated sodium lactate / diacetate's inability in red pink color production in 4th sample (contains 15 ppm nitrite, its synergy effect in combination with sodium nitrite on nitroso myoglobuline production has been proven, led to sodium nitrite reduction in sausages.

  5. The neuropsychology and neurobiology of late-onset schizophrenia and very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis : a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Assche, Van, Lies; Morrens, Manuel; Luyten, Patrick; Ven, Van de, Luc; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: OBJECTIVE: The current review discusses neuropsychological profiles and the longitudinal course of cognitive dysfunction in Late Onset Schizophrenia (LOS) and Very-late-onset schizophrenia-like psychosis (VLOSLP), and attempts to clarify its neurobiological underpinnings. METHOD: A systematic literature search resulted in 29 publications describing original research on the neuropsychology of LOS/VLOSLP and 46 studies focussing on neurobiology. RESULTS: Although mildly progressive co...

  6. Electrolytic process to produce sodium hypochlorite using sodium ion conductive ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagopal, Shekar; Malhotra, Vinod; Pendleton, Justin; Reid, Kathy Jo

    2012-09-18

    An electrochemical process for the production of sodium hypochlorite is disclosed. The process may potentially be used to produce sodium hypochlorite from seawater or low purity un-softened or NaCl-based salt solutions. The process utilizes a sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane, such as membranes based on NASICON-type materials, in an electrolytic cell. In the process, water is reduced at a cathode to form hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. Chloride ions from a sodium chloride solution are oxidized in the anolyte compartment to produce chlorine gas which reacts with water to produce hypochlorous and hydrochloric acid. Sodium ions are transported from the anolyte compartment to the catholyte compartment across the sodium ion conductive ceramic membrane. Sodium hydroxide is transported from the catholyte compartment to the anolyte compartment to produce sodium hypochlorite within the anolyte compartment.

  7. An Assessment of Fission Product Scrubbing in Sodium Pools Following a Core Damage Event in a Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucknor, M.; Farmer, M.; Grabaskas, D.

    2017-06-26

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has stated that mechanistic source term (MST) calculations are expected to be required as part of the advanced reactor licensing process. A recent study by Argonne National Laboratory has concluded that fission product scrubbing in sodium pools is an important aspect of an MST calculation for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). To model the phenomena associated with sodium pool scrubbing, a computational tool, developed as part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) program, was utilized in an MST trial calculation. This tool was developed by applying classical theories of aerosol scrubbing to the decontamination of gases produced as a result of postulated fuel pin failures during an SFR accident scenario. The model currently considers aerosol capture by Brownian diffusion, inertial deposition, and gravitational sedimentation. The effects of sodium vapour condensation on aerosol scrubbing are also treated. This paper provides details of the individual scrubbing mechanisms utilized in the IFR code as well as results from a trial mechanistic source term assessment led by Argonne National Laboratory in 2016.

  8. Report of sodium cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Hitoshi; Shima, Akira; Oba, Toshisaburo; Kobayashi, Ryoji; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki

    1975-01-01

    The damage of components for LMFBRs due to sodium cavitation is serious problem. This report summarizes the following items, (1) mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation, (2) damage due to sodium cavitation, (3) detection method for sodium cavitation, and (4) estimation method for sodium cavitation by the comparison with water cavitation. Materials were collected from the reports on liquid metal cavitation, sodium cavitation and water cavitation published from 1965 to now. The mechanism of the incipience of sodium cavitation cavitation parameters (mean location, distributed amount or occurrence aspect and stability), experiment of causing cavitation with Venturi tube, and growth of bubbles within superheated sodium. The sodium cavitation damage was caused by magnetostriction vibration method and with Venturi tube. The state of damage was investigated with the cavitation performance of a sodium pump, and the damage was examined in view of the safety of LMFBR plants. Sodium cavitation was detected with acoustic method, radiation method, and electric method. The effect of physical property of liquid on incipient cavitation was studied. These are thermodynamic effect based on quasistatic thermal equilibrium condition and the effect of the physical property of liquid based on bubble dynamics. (Iwase, T.)

  9. Using quasi-elastic neutron diffraction to study positive electrode for lithium and sodium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramudita, James C.; Sharma, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Sodium-ion batteries has recently been proposed as the alternative for lithium-ion batteries to be the low cost energy storage system. However, challenges still remains for the development of sodium-ion batteries. Optimization of electrode materials and electrolyte capable of insertion/extraction of sodium-ion in a safe and economic way under high current density is needed in order to produce commercially viable sodium-ion batteries. While possible positive electrode material is more prevalent than negative electrode material, many of these material still need further understanding. Quasi-elastic Neutron Scatteringis a technique that utilize the inelastic Neutron Scatteringthat can be used to study solid-state diffusion in materials. This technique can be used to study the diffusion of sodium-ion under electric field through the electrolyte and positive electrode materials in order to further understand the mechanism of sodium insertion/extraction in a working battery. This technique can also be used to study available positive electrode material for lithium-ion batteries to further understand the mechanism of lithium-ion diffusion in current working lithiumion batteries.

  10. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared to those with late-onset dysthymia, early-onset patients are more likely to harbor psychiatric comorbidity both on Axis I and II, exhibit less psychological resilience, and have more prominent family loadings for mood disorders. These findings suggest that this distinction is meaningful and that the early-onset subtype of dysthymia is more difficult to effectively treat. PMID:20049145

  11. Total-body sodium and sodium excess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloia, J.F.; Cohn, S.H.; Abesamis, C.; Babu, T.; Zanzi, I.; Ellis, K.

    1980-01-01

    Total-body levels of sodium (TBNa), chlorine (TBCI), calcium (TBCa), and potassium (TBK) were measured by neutron activation and analysis of results by whole body counting in 66 postmenopausal women. The relationship between TBNa, and TBCl, TBK, and TBCa on the one hand, and height and weight on the other, were found to compare with those previously reported. The hypothesis that TBNa and TBCl are distributed normally could not be rejected. The sodium excess (Na/sub es/) is defined as the sodium that is present in excess of that associated with the extracellular fluid (chlorine) space; the Na/sub es/ approximates nonexchangeable bone sodium. In these 66 postmenopausal women, and in patients with different endocrinopathies previously described, the values on Na/sub es/ did not differ from the normal values except in the thyrotoxicosis patients, where they were decreased. A close relationship between Na/sub es/ and TBCa was maintained in the endocrinopathies studied. This relationship was found in conditions accompanied by either an increment or a loss of skeletal mass. It appears that the NA/sub es/ value is primarily dependent upon the calcium content of bone

  12. United States position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The first Specialists' Meeting on sodium fire technology sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was held in Richland, Washington in 1972. The group concluded that the state-of-technology at that time was inadequate to support the growing LMFBR industry. During the second IWGFR Specialists' Meeting on sodium fires, held in Cadarache, France in 1978, a large quantity of technical information was exchanged and areas were identified where additional work was needed. Advances in several important areas of sodium fire technology have been made in the United States since that time, including improved computer codes, design of a sodium fire protection system for the CRBRP, measurement of water release from heated concrete, and testing and modeling of the sodium-concrete reaction. Research in the U.S. related to sodium fire technology is performed chiefly at the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International (including Atomics International), the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The work at the first two laboratories is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, while that at the latter is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Various aspects of sodium fire related work is also performed at several other laboratories. The current status of sodium fire technology in the U.S. is summarized in this report

  13. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  14. Reaction velocity of sodium hydration in humid air and sodium carbonation in humid carbon dioxide atmosphere. Fundamental study on sodium carbonate process in FBR bulk sodium coolant disposal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadokoro, Yutaka; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1999-11-01

    A sodium carbonate processing method, which changes sodium to sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate by humid carbon dioxide, has been examined and about to be applied to large test loops dismantling. However, that the basic data regarding the progress of the reaction is insufficient on the other hand, is a present condition. The present report therefore aims at presenting basic data regarding the reaction velocity of sodium hydration in humid air and sodium carbonation in humid carbon dioxide atmosphere, and observing the reaction progress, for the application to large test loops dismantling. The test result is summarized as follows. (1) Although the reaction velocity of sodium varied with sodium specimen sizes and velocity measurement methods, the reaction velocity of sodium hydration was in about 0.16 ∼ 0.34 mmh -1 (0.016 ∼ 0.033g cm -2 h -1 , 6.8x10 -4 ∼ 1.4x10 -3 mol cm -2 h -1 ) and that of sodium carbonation was in about 0.16 ∼ 0.27mmh -1 (0.016 ∼ 0.023g cm -2 h -1 , 6.8x10 -4 ∼ 1.1x10 -3 mol cm -2 h -1 ) (26 ∼ 31degC, RH 100%). (2) The reaction velocity of sodium in carbon dioxide atmosphere was greatly affected by vapor partial pressure (absolutely humidity). And the velocity was estimated in 0.08 ∼ 0.12mmh -1 (0.008 ∼ 0.012g cm -2 h -1 , 3.4x10 -4 ∼ 5.2x10 -4 mol cm -2 h -1 ) in the carbon dioxide atmosphere, whose temperature of 20degC and relative humidity of 80% are assumed real sodium carbonate process condition. (3) By the X-ray diffraction method, NaOH was found in humid air reaction product. Na 2 CO 3 , NaHCO 3 were found in carbon dioxide atmosphere reaction product. It was considered that Sodium changes to NaOH, and subsequently to NaHCO 3 through Na 2 CO 3 . (4) For the application to large test loops dismantling, it is considered possible to change sodium to a target amount of sodium carbonate (or sodium bicarbonate) by setting up gas supply quantity and also processing time appropriately according to the surface area

  15. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Bata Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Methods. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. Results. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake. The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7% and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%. Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. Conclusion. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  16. Parametric Effect of Sodium Hydroxide and Sodium Carbonate on the Potency of a Degreaser

    OpenAIRE

    Babatope Abimbola Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Experimental and statistical analysis was carried out on the comparative effect of sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate on the potency of a laboratory produced degreaser in this work. The materials used include; octadecyl benzene sulphonic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium metasilicate, carboxyl methyl cellulose (C.M.C), formadelhyde, perfume, colourant and distilled water. Different samples of degreaser were produced with varying composition of sodium hydroxide and sodium car...

  17. Small sodium valve design and operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGough, C.B.

    1974-01-01

    The United States Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor program (LMFBR) includes an extensive program devoted to the development of small sodium valves. This program is now focused on the development and production of valves for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) now under construction near Richland, Washington. Other AEC support facilities, such as various test loops located at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC), Los Angeles, California, and at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), Richland, Washington, also have significant requirements for small sodium valves, and valves similar in design to the FFTF valves are being supplied to these AEC laboratories for use in their critical test installations. A principal motivation for these valve programs, beyond the immediate need to provide high-reliability valves for FFTF and the support facilities, is the necessity to develop small valve technology for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). FFTF small sodium valve design and development experience will be directly applied to the CRBRP program. Various test programs have been, and are being, conducted to verify the performance and integrity of the FFTF valves, and to uncover any potential problems so that they can be corrected before the valves are placed in service in FFTF. The principal small sodium valve designs being utilized in current U.S. programs, the test and operational experience obtained to date on them, problems uncovered, and future development and testing efforts being planned are reviewed. The standards and requirements to which the valves are being designed and fabricated, the valve designs in current use, valve operators, test and operating experience, and future valve development plans are summarized. (U.S.)

  18. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  19. Mechanical properties test program on structural materials in a sodium environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Chopra, O.K.; Kassner, T.F.

    1979-10-01

    This document describes in detail the ongoing and planned US Test program on the mechanical properties of sodium-exposed Type 316 austenitic stainless and Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo ferritic steels. The test program is based on the Development Requirement Specifications (DRS) established by the DOE/Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) Program Office, the general need for the development of LMFBR structural-design criteria established by the Nuclear Systems Materials Handbook, and the need for a fundamental understanding of materials behavior in a sodium environment, which is generic to LMFBR systems. The planned test program is an extension of work based on current knowledge of sodium chemistry and the influence of sodium purity on the mechanical properties of structural materials

  20. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B H; Kim, J M; Jeong, J Y; Choi, B H

    2008-06-15

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described.

  1. Methods to Compose Sodium Fire Extinguishing Equipment on Sodium Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.

    2008-06-01

    Sodium fire is graded 'D' and it is difficult to extinguish sodium fire. In this report, the characteristics of sodium fire and the methods composing the suitable fire extinguishing systems to suppress fire effectively were described

  2. TWIK-1 two-pore domain potassium channels change ion selectivity and conduct inward leak sodium currents in hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liqun; Zhang, Xuexin; Chen, Haijun

    2011-06-07

    Background potassium (K+) channels, which are normally selectively permeable to K+, maintain the cardiac resting membrane potential at around -80 mV. In subphysiological extracellular K+ concentrations ([K+]o), which occur in pathological hypokalemia, the resting membrane potential of human cardiomyocytes can depolarize to around -50 mV, whereas rat and mouse cardiomyocytes become hyperpolarized, consistent with the Nernst equation for K+. This paradoxical depolarization of cardiomyocytes in subphysiological [K+]o, which may contribute to cardiac arrhythmias, is thought to involve an inward leak sodium (Na+) current. Here, we show that human cardiac TWIK-1 (also known as K2P1) two-pore domain K+ channels change ion selectivity, becoming permeable to external Na+, and conduct inward leak Na+ currents in subphysiological [K+]o. A specific threonine residue (Thr118) within the pore selectivity sequence TxGYG was required for this altered ion selectivity. Mouse cardiomyocyte-derived HL-1 cells exhibited paradoxical depolarization with ectopic expression of TWIK-1 channels, whereas TWIK-1 knockdown in human spherical primary cardiac myocytes eliminated paradoxical depolarization. These findings indicate that ion selectivity of TWIK-1 K+ channels changes during pathological hypokalemia, elucidate a molecular basis for inward leak Na+ currents that could trigger or contribute to cardiac paradoxical depolarization in lowered [K+]o, and identify a mechanism for regulating cardiac excitability.

  3. Transformation of sodium from the Rapsodie fast breeder reactor into sodium hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger, J.; Latge, C.; Rodriguez, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major problems raised by decommissioning a fast breeder reactor (FBR) concerns the disposal of the sodium coolant. The Desora operation was undertaken to eliminate the Rapsodie primary sodium as part of the partial decommissioning program, and to develop an operational sodium treatment unit for other needs. The process involves reacting small quantities of sodium in water inside a closed vessel, producing aqueous sodium hydroxide and hydrogen gas. It is described in this work. (O.L.). 4 figs

  4. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  5. A study of atomic interaction between suspended nanoparticles and sodium atoms in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Jun-ichi; Ara, Kuniaki

    2010-01-01

    A feasibility study of suppression of the chemical reactivity of sodium itself using an atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium atoms has been carried out. We expected that the atomic interaction strengthens when the nanoparticle metal is the transition element which has a major difference in electronegativity from sodium. We also calculated the atomic interaction between nanoparticle and sodium atoms. It became clear that the atomic bond between the nanoparticle atom and the sodium atom is larger than that between sodium atoms, and the charge transfer takes place to the nanoparticle atom from the sodium atom. Using sodium with suspended nanoparticles, the fundamental physical properties related to the atomic interaction were investigated to verify the atomic bond. The surface tension of sodium with suspended nanoparticles increased, and the evaporation rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles also decreased compared with that of sodium. Therefore the presence of the atomic interaction between nanoparticles and sodium was verified from these experiments. Because the fundamental physical property changes by the atomic interaction, we expected changes in the chemical reactivity characteristics. The chemical reaction properties of sodium with suspended nanoparticles with water were investigated experimentally. The released reaction heat and the reaction rate of sodium with suspended nanoparticles were reduced than those of sodium. The influence of the charge state of nanoparticle on the chemical process with water was theoretically investigated to speculate on the cause of reaction suppression. The potential energy in both primary and side reactions changed by the charge transfer, and the free energy of activation of the reaction with water increased. Accordingly, the reaction barrier also increased. This suggests there is a possibility of the reduction in the reaction of sodium by the suspension of nanoparticles. Consequently the possibility of the

  6. Auger recombination in sodium iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Andrew; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Åberg, Daniel; Schleife, André

    2014-03-01

    Scintillators are an important tool used to detect high energy radiation - both in the interest of national security and in medicine. However, scintillator detectors currently suffer from lower energy resolutions than expected from basic counting statistics. This has been attributed to non-proportional light yield compared to incoming radiation, but the specific mechanism for this non-proportionality has not been identified. Auger recombination is a non-radiative process that could be contributing to the non-proportionality of scintillating materials. Auger recombination comes in two types - direct and phonon-assisted. We have used first-principles calculations to study Auger recombination in sodium iodide, a well characterized scintillating material. Our findings indicate that phonon-assisted Auger recombination is stronger in sodium iodide than direct Auger recombination. Computational resources provided by LLNL and NERSC. Funding provided by NA-22.

  7. Sodium Butyrate, a Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Reverses Behavioral and Mitochondrial Alterations in Animal Models of Depression Induced by Early- or Late-life Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valvassori, Samira S; Resende, Wilson R; Budni, Josiane; Dal-Pont, Gustavo C; Bavaresco, Daniela V; Réus, Gislaine Z; Carvalho, André F; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Furlanetto, Camila B; Streck, Emilio L; Quevedo, João

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sodium butyrate on depressive-like behavior and mitochondrial alteration parameters in animal models of depression induced by maternal deprivation or chronic mild stress in Wistar rats. maternal deprivation was established by separating pups from their mothers for 3 h daily from postnatal day 1 to day 10. Chronic mild stress was established by water deprivation, food deprivation, restraint stress, isolation and flashing lights. Sodium butyrate or saline was administered twice a day for 7 days before the behavioral tests. Depressive behavior was evaluated using the forced swim test. The activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes (succinate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase) and of mitochondrial chain complexes (I, II, II-III and IV) was measured in the striatum of rats. From these analyses it can be observed that sodium butyrate reversed the depressive-like behavior observed in both animal models of depression. Additionally, maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress inhibited mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes and increased the activity of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. Sodium butyrate treatment reversed -maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress- induced dysfunction in the striatum of rats. In conclusion, sodium butyrate showed antidepressant effects in maternal deprivation and chronic mild stress-treated rats, and this effect can be attributed to its action on the neurochemical pathways related to depression.

  8. Analytical study of sodium combustion phenomena under sodium leak accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, J. Y.; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2001-12-01

    The rise of temperature and pressure, the release of aerosol in the buildings as a result of sodium fire must be considered for the safety measures of LMR. Therefore for the safety of the LMR, it is necessary to understand the characteristics of sodium fire, resulting from the various type of leakage. ASSCOPS(Analysis of Simultaneous Sodium Combustion in Pool and Spray) is the computer code for the analysis of the thermal consequence of sodium leak and fire in LMR that has been developed by Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute(JNC) in Japan. In this study, a preliminary analysis of sodium leak and fire accidents in S/G building of KALIMER is made by using ASSCOPS code. Various phenomena of interest are spray and pool burning, peak pressure, temperature change, local structure temperature, aerosol behavior, drain system into smothering tank, ventilation characteristics at each cell with the safety venting system and nitrogen injection system. In this calculation, the dimension of the S/G building was chosen in accordance with the selected options of LMR name KALIMER(Korea). As a result of this study, it was shown that subsequent effect of sodium fire depended upon whether the sodium continued to leak from the pipe or not, whether the ventilation system was running, whether the inert gas injection system was provided, whether the sodium on floor was drained into the smothering tank or not, whether the building was sealed or not, etc. Specially the excessive rise of pressure into each cell was prevented by installing the pressure release plates on wall of the building

  9. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na + -K + -ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional 22 Na and 36 Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na + -K + -ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until ∼64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s)

  10. Sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Kazuhiko; Hirata, Masaru.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium vapor deposition onto a horizontal flat plate above liquid sodium surface was studied. The analysis was performed by assuming that the sodium mist is emitted into the main flow without condensation and then grows up in the main flow and drops on the sodium surface. The effects of growth of sodium mist to the system were investigated. The model of the phenomena is the sodium deposition onto a horizontal flat plate which is placed above the sodium surface with the medium cover gas. One-dimensional analysis can be done. The rate of deposition is greatly reduced when the temperature of the flat plate is lowered. For the analysis of this phenomena, it is assumed that the sodium mist grows by condensation. One of results is that the real state may be the state between the state that the condensation of mist is made in the boundary layer and the state that the mist is condensed in the main flow. Others are that there is no effect of sodium mist condensation on the rate of deposition, and that the rate of the vaporization of sodium is given by the original and the modified model. (Kato, T.)

  11. Sodium Flux Growth of Bulk Gallium Nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dollen, Paul Martin

    This dissertation focused on development of a novel apparatus and techniques for crystal growth of bulk gallium nitride (GaN) using the sodium flux method. Though several methods exist to produce bulk GaN, none have been commercialized on an industrial scale. The sodium flux method offers potentially lower cost production due to relatively mild process conditions while maintaining high crystal quality. But the current equipment and methods for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN are generally not amenable to large-scale crystal growth or in situ investigation of growth processes, which has hampered progress. A key task was to prevent sodium loss or migration from the sodium-gallium growth melt while permitting N2 gas to access the growing crystal, which was accomplished by implementing a reflux condensing stem along with a reusable sealed capsule. The reflux condensing stem also enabled direct monitoring and control of the melt temperature, which has not been previously reported for the sodium flux method. Molybdenum-based materials were identified from a corrosion study as candidates for direct containment of the corrosive sodium-gallium melt. Successful introduction of these materials allowed implementation of a crucible-free containment system, which improved process control and can potentially reduce crystal impurity levels. Using the new growth system, the (0001) Ga face (+c plane) growth rate was >50 mum/hr, which is the highest bulk GaN growth rate reported for the sodium flux method. Omega X-ray rocking curve (?-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were 1020 atoms/cm3, possibly due to reactor cleaning and handling procedures. This dissertation also introduced an in situ technique to correlate changes in N2 pressure with dissolution of nitrogen and precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Different stages of N2 pressure decay were identified and linked to

  12. Operating experience with sodium valves in the TNO-sodium test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasselt, M.L.G. van

    1974-01-01

    The development of sodium components for the SNR-300 in Holland has reached the stage where full scale testing in sodium has almost been finished and construction is at its height. It is against this background that a review is given of the weaknesses in one area or the other of the commercially available types of sodium valves used in TNO's smaller test facilities at Apeldoorn and TNO's 50 MW sodium components test facility at Hengelo. (U.S.)

  13. Calcium currents in a fast-twitch skeletal muscle of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, P L; Beam, K G

    1983-10-01

    Slow ionic currents were measured in the rat omohyoid muscle with the three-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Sodium and delayed rectifier potassium currents were blocked pharmacologically. Under these conditions, depolarizing test pulses elicited an early outward current, followed by a transient slow inward current, followed in turn by a late outward current. The early outward current appeared to be a residual delayed rectifier current. The slow inward current was identified as a calcium current on the basis that (a) its magnitude depended on extracellular calcium concentration, (b) it was blocked by the addition of the divalent cations cadmium or nickel, and reduced in magnitude by the addition of manganese or cobalt, and (c) barium was able to replace calcium as an inward current carrier. The threshold potential for inward calcium current was around -20 mV in 10mM extracellular calcium and about -35 mV in 2 mM calcium. Currents were net inward over part of their time course for potentials up to at least +30 mV. At temperatures of 20-26 degrees C, the peak inward current (at approximately 0 mV) was 139 +/- 14 microA/cm2 (mean +/- SD), increasing to 226 +/- 28 microA/cm2 at temperatures of 27-37 degrees C. The late outward current exhibited considerable fiber-to-fiber variability. In some fibers it was primarily a time-independent, nonlinear leakage current. In other fibers it was primarily a time-independent, nonlinear leakage current. In other fibers it appeared to be the sum of both leak and a slowly activated outward current. The rate of activation of inward calcium current was strongly temperature dependent. For example, in a representative fiber, the time-to-peak inward current for a +10-mV test pulse decreased from approximately 250 ms at 20 degrees C to 100 ms at 30 degrees C. At 37 degrees C, the time-to-peak current was typically approximately 25 ms. The earliest phase of activation was difficult to quantify because the ionic current was partially

  14. Astrocyte Sodium Signalling and Panglial Spread of Sodium Signals in Brain White Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshrefi-Ravasdjani, Behrouz; Hammel, Evelyn L; Kafitz, Karl W; Rose, Christine R

    2017-09-01

    In brain grey matter, excitatory synaptic transmission activates glutamate uptake into astrocytes, inducing sodium signals which propagate into neighboring astrocytes through gap junctions. These sodium signals have been suggested to serve an important role in neuro-metabolic coupling. So far, it is unknown if astrocytes in white matter-that is in brain regions devoid of synapses-are also able to undergo such intra- and intercellular sodium signalling. In the present study, we have addressed this question by performing quantitative sodium imaging in acute tissue slices of mouse corpus callosum. Focal application of glutamate induced sodium transients in SR101-positive astrocytes. These were largely unaltered in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptors blockers, but strongly dampened upon pharmacological inhibition of glutamate uptake. Sodium signals induced in individual astrocytes readily spread into neighboring SR101-positive cells with peak amplitudes decaying monoexponentially with distance from the stimulated cell. In addition, spread of sodium was largely unaltered during pharmacological inhibition of purinergic and glutamate receptors, indicating gap junction-mediated, passive diffusion of sodium between astrocytes. Using cell-type-specific, transgenic reporter mice, we found that sodium signals also propagated, albeit less effectively, from astrocytes to neighboring oligodendrocytes and NG2 cells. Again, panglial spread was unaltered with purinergic and glutamate receptors blocked. Taken together, our results demonstrate that activation of sodium-dependent glutamate transporters induces sodium signals in white matter astrocytes, which spread within the astrocyte syncytium. In addition, we found a panglial passage of sodium signals from astrocytes to NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes, indicating functional coupling between these macroglial cells in white matter.

  15. Solid state sodium cells. Faststof natriumbatterier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. [eds.

    1989-04-15

    The report describes the results from the project: ''Secondary Sodium Cells with Intercalation Electrodes'' which was financed by the Danish Department of Energy. The work was carried out by the Solid State Electrochemistry Group at the Technical University of Denmark which is formed by collaborators from the Institute of Physical Chemistry and Physics Laboratory III. The use of sodium has several advantages in theory compared to lithium systems: Sodium is much more abundant and lower priced than lithium, it may be easier to find solid electrolytes of sufficiently high conductivity, sodium forms no alloy with aluminium thereby making it possible to use this metal for current collectors instead of the costlier and heavier nickel. The softness of sodium metal may make it easier to achieve and maintain contact to other components in the battery during repeated cycling. This might be of importance for room temperature operation especially. Results from the project have primarily been published in the form of articles in international scientific journals and as contributions to monographs. Copies of these articles form the backbone of the report together with a short commentary to each article. Also included in the report are some general observations, as well as results that are unsuited for publication (e.g. unsuccessful experiments) but which may still contain relevant information for other experimental workers. Lastly, the report includes results on several intercalation compounds that will be published at a later stage as well as some details about the experimental equipment. The report is divided into three main sections, Intercalation Cathode Materials, Polymer Electrolytes and Battery Cycling Equipment. (AB).

  16. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the voltage gated sodium ion channel TcNav causes mortality in Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Halim, Hesham M; Alshukri, Baida M H; Ahmad, Munawar S; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Awwad, Mohammed H; Salama, Elham M; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Edwards, Martin G

    2016-07-14

    The voltage-gated sodium ion channel (VGSC) belongs to the largest superfamily of ion channels. Since VGSCs play key roles in physiological processes they are major targets for effective insecticides. RNA interference (RNAi) is widely used to analyse gene function, but recently, it has shown potential to contribute to novel strategies for selectively controlling agricultural insect pests. The current study evaluates the delivery of dsRNA targeted to the sodium ion channel paralytic A (TcNav) gene in Tribolium castaneum as a viable means of controlling this insect pest. Delivery of TcNav dsRNA caused severe developmental arrest with larval mortalities up to 73% post injection of dsRNA. Injected larvae showed significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression between 30-60%. Expression was also significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in pupae following injection causing 30% and 42% knockdown for early and late pupal stages, respectively. Oral delivery of dsRNA caused dose-dependant mortalities of between 19 and 51.34%; this was accompanied by significant (p < 0.05) knockdown in gene expression following 3 days of continuous feeding. The majority of larvae injected with, or fed, dsRNA died during the final larval stage prior to pupation. This work provides evidence of a viable RNAi-based strategy for insect control.

  17. Dynamic thermal baffle on lower head of FBR sodium-sodium intermediate heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, A.; Foussat, C.

    1981-01-01

    The cover head of the heat exchanger is bathed on the one side by the primary sodium of the 'cold' header of the vessel and on the other side by the secondary sodium which feeds the heat exchange tube bank through the lower tubesheet. In the case of transient or permanent operating conditions at partial ratings, there are large temperature differences between the inner sodium (inlet temperature conditions of secondary sodium) and the outer sodium (mean temperature conditions in the primary sodium outlet port), hence the necessity of designing a thermal baffle which protects the head and its connection to the tubesheet. A 'static' thermal baffle consisting of a thick steel plate enclosing static sodium around the head proves inadequate during transient operating conditions. This is why a 'dynamic' thermal baffle is used whose design is based on the fact that the primary sodium in the lower part of the outlet port is always at a temperature close to that of the secondary sodium in the inlet header and the head. The primary sodium is taken from the bottom of the outlet port by a ring deflector and circulates in an annulus created by a double housing and the head. It flows out through openings in the lower part of the housing. (orig./GL)

  18. Small liquid sodium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufresne, J.; Rochedereux, Y.; Antonakas, D.; Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Usually, pessimistic considerations inassessing the safety of secondary sodium loops in LMFBR reactor lead to assume guillotine rupture releasing a large amount of sodium estimate the consequences of large sodium fires. In order to reduce these consequences, one has to detect the smallest leak as soon as possible and to evaluate the future of an initial small leak. Analysis of the relationship between crack size and sodium outflow rate; Analysis of a sodium pipe with a small open crack

  19. Parental and Late Adolescent Psychopathology: Mothers May Provide Support When Needed Most

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Cliff; Milone, Mary Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Research links negative parenting and parental psychopathology to poorer outcomes among youth. Less research examines these effects simultaneously during late adolescence. The current study examines parenting, parental psychopathology, and late adolescent psychopathology as reported by late adolescents (N = 328) with the use of structural equation…

  20. Effects of topical flurbiprofen sodium, diclofenac sodium, ketorolac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate corneal sensitivity by using the Cochet-Bonnet® esthesiometer in normal canine eyes at different time points following instillation of three different topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (flurbiprofen sodium 0.03%, diclofenac sodium 0.1% and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5%) and benzalkonium chloride ...

  1. Oral Versus Topical Diclofenac Sodium in the Treatment of Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieppo Francio, Vinicius; Davani, Saeid; Towery, Chris; Brown, Tony L

    2017-06-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common causes of joint pain in the United States and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs), such as Diclofenac sodium, which is currently available in two main routes of administration; oral and topical distribution have been established as one of the standard treatments for OA. Generally, oral NSAIDs are well tolerated; however our narrative review suggests that the topical solution had a better tolerability property than oral Diclofenac sodium, especially due to side effects of gastrointestinal bleeding with the utilization of the oral format. In addition, the topical route may be considered a reasonable selection by clinicians for management of musculoskeletal pain in those patients with a history of potential risk and adverse side effects. Most studies reviewed comparing oral versus topical solution of Diclofenac sodium revealed comparable efficacy, with minimal side effects utilizing the topical route. The key point of this narrative review is to help clinicians that currently must decide between very inexpensive diclofenac oral presentations and expensive topical presentations especially in the elderly population and the pros and cons of such decision-making process.

  2. Liquid sodium pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casselman, C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  3. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  4. Quick evaluation of the neutron dose following a criticality accident by measurement of sodium 24 activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabardel, R.; Ricourt, A.; Parmentier, N.

    1984-07-01

    In order to quickly sort out the irradiated individuals following a criticality accident, the neutron dose can be evaluated quickly by measuring the sodium-24 activity induced in the human body. The report supplies the information necessary for this evaluation from the response of various detectors of current use in radiation protection. The first part describes the method of evaluation of sodium-24 activity (A) given by the reading (M) of each instrument. The second part describes the method of kerma evaluation from the measured sodium-24 activity. The third part is an experimental application of the method of kerma evaluation from the sodium-24 activity measured in a phantom irradiated in the SILENE reactor flux. The results given by radiation protection instruments are in good agreement with the calculated values for a front exposure and demonstrate the usefulness of measuring the induced sodium-24 activity by radiation protection instruments of current use [fr

  5. Optimization of the cold trap design for the KASOLA sodium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onea, Alexandru; Lux, Martin; Hering, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The KASOLA (KArlsruhe SOdium LAboratory) experimental facility is currently under construction at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The facility serves for research activities on thermal-hydraulics for liquid metal operated systems for transmutation (fast systems, normal operation, transient behaviour, testing of emergency cooling systems), accelerator target development, applications and development of free surface liquid metal targets for accelerators, as well as feasibility studies of liquid metals for solar applications. Supporting heat transfer studies regarding the development of turbulent liquid metal heat transfer models for CFD tools are also foreseen. In sodium operated facilities several impurities can be released during operation, e.g. argon, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon etc., with several adverse effects such as reducing the thermal performance and/or damaging structural materials. The major impurities monitored are sodium oxide Na 2 O and sodium hydride NaH. Hydrogen can diffuse through the steel pipes of the sodium-air heat exchanger or, in a worse case can be generated by a sodium-water reaction, denoting therefore a leak in the tubes of the heat exchanger. Oxygen may origin from the contact with air during maintenance or from the oxide layer of metallic structures initially exposed to sodium during set into operation procedures. The oxygen as an impurity leads to the corrosion of the steel surfaces, therefore values < 2 ppm have to be ensured, while for hydrogen the accepted amount is about 50 ppb (Hemanath et al.). The sodium purification is performed in a cold trap that allows the agglomeration of sodium oxide and sodium hydride on the large surface of a wire mesh. (orig.)

  6. Investigation for the sodium leak Monju. Sodium fire test-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Naoki; Takai, Toshihide; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2000-08-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in the Monju reactor (hereinafter referred to as Monju), sodium fire test-II was carried out using the SOLFA-1 (Sodium Leak, Fire and Aerosol) facility at OEC/PNC. In the test, the piping, ventilation duct, grating and floor liner were all full-sized and arranged in a rectangular concrete cell in the same manner as in Monju. The main objectives of the test were to confirm the leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and the effects of the sodium fire on the integrity of the surrounding structure. The main conclusions obtained from the test are shown below: (1) Burning Behavior of Leaked Sodium : Images taken with a cameras in the test reveal that in the early stages of the sodium leak, the sodium dropped down out of the flexible tube in drips. (2) Damage to the Ventilation Duct and Grating : The temperature of the ventilation duct's inner surface fluctuated between approximately 600degC and 700degC. The temperature of the grating began rising at the outset of the test, then fluctuated between roughly 600degC and 900degC. The maximum temperature was about 1000degC. After the test, damage to the ventilation duct and the grating was found. Damage to the duct was greater than that at Monju. (3) Effects on the Floor Liner : The temperature of the floor liner under the leak point exceed 1,000degC at 3 hours and 20 minutes into the test. A post test inspection of the liner revealed five holes in an area about 1m x 1m square under the leak point. There was also a decrease of the liner thickness on the north and west side of the leak point. (4) Effects on Concrete : The post test inspection revealed no surface damage on either the concrete side walls or the ceiling. However, the floor concrete was eroded to a maximum depth 8 cm due to a sodium-concrete reaction. The compressive strength of the concrete was not degraded in spite of the thermal effect. (5) Chemical

  7. Control of sodium fires and sodium-water reactions in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Ruloff, G.; Voss, J.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent neutronic and thermodynamic properties of sodium as a fast-reactor coolant are somewhat counterbalanced by its high oxygen affinity. Because incidents like sodium fires and sodium-water reactions cannot be absolutely excluded, their effects and preventive measures have to be investigated. Characteristics and counter-measures are discussed. (orig.) [de

  8. Sodium aerosol recovering device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimori, Koji; Ueda, Mitsuo; Tanaka, Kazuhisa.

    1997-01-01

    A main body of a recovering device is disposed in a sodium cooled reactor or a sodium cooled test device. Air containing sodium aerosol is sucked into the main body of the recovering device by a recycling fan and introduced to a multi-staged metal mesh filter portion. The air about against each of the metal mesh filters, and the sodium aerosol in the air is collected. The air having a reduced sodium aerosol concentration circulates passing through a recycling fan and pipelines to form a circulation air streams. Sodium aerosol deposited on each of the metal mesh filters is scraped off periodically by a scraper driving device to prevent clogging of each of the metal filters. (I.N.)

  9. US consumer attitudes toward sodium in baby and toddler foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Katherine A; Cogswell, Mary E; Zhao, Lixia; Maalouf, Joyce; Gunn, Janelle P; Merritt, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Dietary data from a nationally representative survey indicate about 80% of US toddlers aged 1-3 years consume too much dietary sodium, which can influence their preference for salty foods in later life. Information on consumer attitudes can inform strategies to reduce sodium in baby and toddler foods. Data were obtained from a 2012 online survey sent to a sample of 11636 US adults aged ≥18 years enrolled in a national probability-based consumer panel; 6378 completed the survey and had non-missing responses to the question of interest, "It is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium." Prevalence of agreement was estimated. Logistic regression was used to describe associations of respondent characteristics with agreement. The majority of respondents were non-Hispanic white and had a household income ≥$60,000. About 7 in 10 (68%, 95% CI: 66%-70%) respondents agreed it is important for baby or toddler foods to be low in sodium. More than 6 of 10 respondents in most subgroups agreed. Among parents with a child currently aged <2 years (N = 390), 82% agreed (95% CI: 77%-87%); the highest agreement included parents who thought sodium was very harmful to their own health (92%, 95% CI: 85%-99%) or who were watching/reducing their own sodium intake (95%, 95% CI: 90%-100%). After adjusting for sex, age, race-ethnicity, agreement was most strongly associated with being a parent of a child <2 years, thinking sodium was harmful, and watching/reducing sodium intake (adjusted odds ratios ≥ 2.5, 95% CI's ≠1.0). The majority of respondents including most parents agreed it is important for baby and toddler foods to be low in sodium, suggesting wide consumer support for strategies to lower sodium in these foods. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Cold trap dismantling and sodium removal at a fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, Anja; Petrick, Holger; Stutz, Uwe [WAK GmbH, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Hauptabt. Dekontaminationsbetriebe Rueckbau Kompakte Natriumgekuehlte Kernreaktoranlage (KNK); Hosking, Paul [Nuclear Decommissioning Services Limited (NDSL), Sutherland, Dornoch (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-15

    The first German prototype Fast Breeder Nuclear Reactor (KNK) is currently being dismantled after being the only operating Fast Breeder-type reactor in Germany. As this reactor type used sodium as a coolant in its primary and secondary circuit, 7 cold traps containing various amounts of partially activated sodium needed to be disposed of as part of the dismantling. The resulting combined difficulties of radioactive contamination and high chemical reactivity were handled by treating the cold traps differently depending on their size and the amount of sodium contained inside. Six small cold traps were processed on-site by cutting them up into small parts using a band saw under a protective atmosphere. The sodium was then converted to sodium hydroxide by using water. The remaining large cold trap could not be handled in the same way due to its dimensions (2.9 m x 1.1 m) and the declared amount of sodium inside (1,700 kg). It was therefore manually dismantled inside a large box filled with a protective atmosphere, while the resulting pieces were packaged for later burning in a special facility. The experiences gained by KNK during this process may be advantageous for future dismantling projects in similar sodium-cooled reactors worldwide. (orig.)

  11. Sodium characterization during the starting period of a sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Parmentier, C.; Soenen, M.

    1976-01-01

    A sodium loop for analytical chemistry studies has been built by S.C.K./C.E.N. at Mol Belgium. Its first working period was used to test analytical methods, to characterize the sodium and to define the operating parameters of the loop. This report covers the working parameters of the loop, the characterization of the filling sodium and its purity evolution during the first working period of the loop

  12. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  13. Final report on the safety assessment of sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates as used in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Klaassen, Curtis D; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Alan Andersen, F

    2010-05-01

    Sodium cetearyl sulfate is the sodium salt of a mixture of cetyl and stearyl sulfate. The other ingredients in this safety assessment are also alkyl salts, including ammonium coco-sulfate, ammonium myristyl sulfate, magnesium coco-sulfate, sodium cetyl sulfate, sodium coco/hydrogenated tallow sulfate, sodium coco-sulfate, sodium decyl sulfate, sodium ethylhexyl sulfate, sodium myristyl sulfate, sodium oleyl sulfate, sodium stearyl sulfate, sodium tallow sulfate, sodium tridecyl sulfate, and zinc coco-sulfate. These ingredients are surfactants used at concentrations from 0.1% to 29%, primarily in soaps and shampoos. Many of these ingredients are not in current use. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel previously completed a safety assessment of sodium and ammonium lauryl sulfate. The data available for sodium lauryl sulfate and ammonium lauryl sulfate provide sufficient basis for concluding that sodium cetearyl sulfate and related alkyl sulfates are safe in the practices of use and concentration described in the safety assessment.

  14. Sodium Reduction in Processed Foods in Brazil: Analysis of Food Categories and Voluntary Targets from 2011 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilson, Eduardo A F; Spaniol, Ana M; Gonçalves, Vivian S S; Moura, Iracema; Silva, Sara A; L'Abbé, Mary; Jaime, Patricia C

    2017-07-12

    Non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, are responsible for over 70% of deaths in Brazil. Currently, over 25% of Brazilian adults are diagnosed as hypertensive; overall, current dietary sodium intake in Brazil (4700 mg/person) is over twice the international recommendations, and 70-90% of adolescents and adults consume excessive sodium. National sodium reduction strategies consider the main dietary sources of sodium to be added salt to foods, foods consumed outside of the household, and sodium in processed foods. The national voluntary strategy for sodium reduction in priority food categories has been continuously monitored over a 6-year period (2011-2017) and there was a significant 8-34% reduction in the average sodium content of over half food categories. Different food categories have undergone differing reductions in sodium over time, aiding gradual biannual targets to allow industries to develop new technologies and consumers to adapt to foods with less salt. By 2017, most products of all food categories had met the regional targets proposed by the Pan American Health Organization, showing that voluntary sodium reduction strategies can potentially contribute to food reformulation. Nevertheless, regulatory approaches may still be necessary in the future in order to reach all food producers and to allow stronger enforcement to meet more stringent regional targets.

  15. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  16. Assertion based verification methodology for HDL designs of primary sodium pump speed and eddy current flow measurement systems of PFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, M.K.; Menon, Saritha P.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.

    2013-01-01

    With the growing complexity and size of digital designs, functional verification has become a huge challenge. The validation and testing process accounts for a significant percentage of the overall development effort and cost for electronic systems. Many studies have shown that up to 70% of the design development time and resources are spent on functional verification. Functional errors manifest themselves very early in the design flow, and unless they are detected upfront, they can result in severe consequences - both financially and from a safety viewpoint. This paper covers the various types of verification methodologies and focuses on Assertion Based Verification Methodology for HDL designs, taking as case studies, the Primary Sodium Pump Speed and Eddy Current Flow Measurement Systems of PFBR. (author)

  17. Mechanisms of Sodium Transport in Plants—Progresses and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Keisham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms of sodium (Na+ influx, effective compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants is crucial to manipulate Na+ accumulation and assure the maintenance of low Na+ concentration in the cytosol and, hence, plant tolerance to salt stress. Na+ influx across the plasma membrane in the roots occur mainly via nonselective cation channels (NSCCs. Na+ is compartmentalized into vacuoles by Na+/H+ exchangers (NHXs. Na+ efflux from the plant roots is mediated by the activity of Na+/H+ antiporters catalyzed by the salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1 protein. In animals, ouabain (OU-sensitive Na+, K+-ATPase (a P-type ATPase mediates sodium efflux. The evolution of P-type ATPases in higher plants does not exclude the possibility of sodium efflux mechanisms similar to the Na+, K+-ATPase-dependent mechanisms characteristic of animal cells. Using novel fluorescence imaging and spectrofluorometric methodologies, an OU-sensitive sodium efflux system has recently been reported to be physiologically active in roots. This review summarizes and analyzes the current knowledge on Na+ influx, compartmentalization, and efflux in higher plants in response to salt stress.

  18. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meihui Wang.

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na{sub 2}S{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 5} were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360{degree}C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  19. Sodium fire aerosol behaviour: a review of studies carried out under the auspices of the CEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunbar, I.H.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present report was to produce a synthesis of the results of four studies (Reports EUR 9172 EN, EUR 9203 EN, SESRU No. EF.21.12.R/88.527 and EUR 13274 EN) bringing out their overall contribution to our understanding of the way sodium fire aerosols behave in secondary containment buildings. In particular the following questions are addressed in the light of the information produced by the CONT group studies: (i) Are current instrumentation techniques capable of obtaining the data about aerosols needed to validate the computer models. (ii) Is the current database produced by sodium fire experiments sufficient to validate the computer models. (iii) Can the current computer codes predict the behaviour of sodium fire aerosols in hypothetical LMFBR accidents with sufficient accuracy

  20. Liquid sodium technology research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W.C.; Lee, Y.W.; Nam, H.Y.; Chun, S.Y.; Kim, J.; Won, S.Y.

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the technology of impurity control and measurement of liquid sodium, problems associated with material degradation and change of heat transfer characteristics in liquid sodium, and the conceptual design of multipurpose sodium test loop. Discussion and the subsequent analysis are also made with regard to the test results for the sodium-H 2 0 reaction and its effects on the system. (author)

  1. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Jae Heum; Min, Byong Hun [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    A small sodium-concrete reaction facility was designed, manufactured and installed. this facility has been operated under inert gas(N{sub 2}) with different experimental variables such as sodium injection temperature, injection amount of sodium, aging period of concrete, sodium reservoir temperature. As a result, it was found that sodium injection temperature and injected amount of sodium has little effect on sodium-concrete reaction. However, sodium reservoir temperature and aging period of concrete has relatively high impact on sodium-concrete reaction. Sodium-concrete reaction model has also been developed and compared with experimental results. (Author) 51 refs., 16 tabs., 64 figs.

  2. Impaired sodium-dependent adaptation of arterial stiffness in formerly preeclamptic women : the RETAP-vascular study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Paauw, Nina D.; Toering, Tsjitske J.; Feelisch, Martin; Faas, Marijke M.; Sutton, Thomas R.; Minnion, Magdalena; Lefrandt, Joop. D.; Scherjon, Sicco A.; Franx, Arie; Navis, Gerjan; Lely, A. Titia

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of preeclampsia have an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases later in life. Persistent vascular alterations in the postpartum period might contribute to this increased risk. The current study assessed arterial stiffness under low sodium (LS) and high sodium (HS) conditions

  3. Mutations in sodium channel {beta}-subunit SCN3B are associated with early-onset lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Morten Salling; Jespersen, Thomas; Nielsen, Jonas Bille

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequent arrhythmia. Screening of SCN5A-the gene encoding the a-subunit of the cardiac sodium channel-has indicated that disturbances of the sodium current may play a central role in the mechanism of lone AF. We tested the hypothesis that lone AF in young...... across species. Electrophysiological studies on the SCN3B mutation were carried out and all three SCN3B mutations caused a functionally reduced sodium channel current. One synonymous variant was found in SCN4B. CONCLUSION: In 192 young lone AF patients, we found three patients with suspected disease...

  4. WILDFIRES IN THE LATE PALAEOZOIC AND MESOZOIC OF THE SOUTHERN ALPS THE LATE PERMIAN OF THE BLETTERBACH-BUTTERLOCH AREA (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIETER UHL

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time fossil macroscopic remains of charcoal as direct evidence of palaeo-wildfires from the Late Permian Gröden Formation of the Bletterbach-Butterloch area in Northern Italy is described. The charcoal consists of pycnoxylic wood and originates from gymnosperms, but a more specific affiliation is not possible due to the fragmentary nature of the material. On a global scale our knowledge about Late Permian fire-ecology is still rather scarce and this finding helps to fill one of the numerous geographical gaps in our current knowledge about Late Permian wildfires. 

  5. Preliminary Plugging tests in Narrow Sodium Channels by Sodium and Carbon Dioxide reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    This report is on the investigation of the physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in PCHEs in realistic operating conditions. The first phenomenon is potential channel plugging inside the narrow PCHE channel. Unlike a conventional shell and- tube type HXs, failures in a PCHE are expected to be small cracks. If the faulted channel is blocked, it may have a positive function for plant safety because the pressure boundary would automatically recover due to this self-plugging. The other one is damage propagation on pressure boundary, which is referred to as potential wastage with combined corrosion/erosion effect. Physical/chemical phenomena that a slow loss of CO{sub 2} inventory into sodium after the sodium-CO{sub 2} boundary failure in printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHEs) were investigated. Our preliminary experimental results of plugging show that sodium flow immediately stopped as CO{sub 2} was injected through the nozzle at 300-400 .deg. C in 3 mm sodium channels, whereas sodium flow stopped about 60 min after CO{sub 2} injection in 5 mm sodium channels.

  6. Structure-activity relationships for the action of 11 pyrethroid insecticides on rat Nav1.8 sodium channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-S.; Soderlund, David M.

    2006-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides bind to voltage-sensitive sodium channels and modify their gating kinetics, thereby disrupting nerve function. This paper describes the action of 11 structurally diverse commercial pyrethroid insecticides on the rat Na v 1.8 sodium channel isoform, the principal carrier of the tetrodotoxin-resistant, pyrethroid-sensitive sodium current of sensory neurons, expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. All 11 compounds produced characteristic sodium tail currents following a depolarizing pulse that ranged from rapidly-decaying monoexponential currents (allethrin, cismethrin and permethrin) to persistent biexponential currents (cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin). Tail currents for the remaining compounds (bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and tefluthrin) were monoexponential and decayed with kinetics intermediate between these extremes. Reconstruction of currents carried solely by the pyrethroid-modified subpopulation of channels revealed two types of pyrethroid-modified currents. The first type, found with cismethrin, allethrin, permethrin and tefluthrin, activated relatively rapidly and inactivated partially during a 40-ms depolarization. The second type, found with cypermethrin, cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin and fenvalerate, activated more slowly and did not detectably inactivate during a 40-ms depolarization. Only bifenthrin did not produce modified currents that fit clearly into either of these categories. In all cases, the rate of activation of modified channels was strongly correlated with the rate of tail current decay following repolarization. Modification of Na v 1.8 sodium channels by cyfluthrin, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and deltamethrin was enhanced 2.3- to 3.4-fold by repetitive stimulation; this effect appeared to result from the accumulation of persistently open channels rather than preferential binding to open channel states. Fenpropathrin was the most effective compound against Na v 1

  7. Corrosion behaviors of ceramics against liquid sodium. Sodium corrosion characteristics of sintering additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachi, Yoshiaki; Kano, Shigeki; Hirakawa, Yasushi; Yoshida, Eiichi

    1998-01-01

    It has been progressed as the Frontier Materials Research to research and develop ceramics to apply for several components of fast breeder reactor using liquid sodium as coolant instead of metallic materials. Grain boundary of ceramics has peculiar properties compared with matrix because most of ceramics are produced by hardening and firing their raw powders. Some previous researchers indicated that ceramics were mainly corroded at grain boundaries by liquid sodium, and ceramics could not be used under corrosive environment. Thus, it is the most important for the usage of ceramics in liquid sodium to improve corrosion resistance of grain boundaries. In order to develop the advanced ceramics having good sodium corrosion resistance among fine ceramics, which have recently been progressed in quality and characteristics remarkably, sodium corrosion behaviors of typical sintering additives such as MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN etc. have been examined and evaluated. As a result, the followings have been clarified and some useful knowledge about developing advanced ceramics having good corrosion resistance against liquid sodium has been obtained. (1) Sodium corrosion behavior of MgO depended on Si content. Samples containing large amount of Si were corroded severely by liquid sodium, whereas others with low Si contents showed good corrosion resistance. (2) Both Y 2 O 3 and AlN, which contained little Si, showed good sodium corrosion resistance. (3) MgO, Y 2 O 3 and AlN are thought to be corroded by liquid sodium, if they contain some SiO 2 . Therefore, in order to improve sodium corrosion resistance, it is very important for these ceramics to prevent the contamination of matrix with SiO 2 through purity control of their raw powders. (author)

  8. Sodium waste technology: A summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Sodium Waste Technology (SWT) Program was established to resolve long-standing issues regarding disposal of sodium-bearing waste and equipment. Comprehensive SWT research programs investigated a variety of approaches for either removing sodium from sodium-bearing items, or disposal of items containing sodium residuals. The most successful of these programs was the design, test, and the production operation of the Sodium Process Demonstration Facility at ANL-W. The technology used was a series of melt-drain-evaporate operations to remove nonradioactive sodium from sodium-bearing items and then converting the sodium to storable compounds

  9. Parametric study of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheth, A.

    1975-03-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in the cover-gas space of a sodium-cooled reactor. A review of the literature was first made to examine methods of aerosol generation, mathematical expressions representing aerosol behavior, and pertinent experimental investigations of sodium aerosols. In the development of the model, some terms were derived from basic principles and other terms were estimated from available correlations. The model was simulated on a computer, and important parameters were studied to determine their effects on the overall behavior of sodium aerosols. The parameters studied were sodium pool temperature, source and initial size of particles, film thickness at the sodium pool/cover gas interface, wall plating parameters, cover-gas flow rate, and type of cover gas (argon and helium). The model satisfactorily describes the behavior of sodium aerosol in argon, but not in helium. Possible reasons are given for the failure of the model with helium, and further experimental work is recommended. The mathematical model, with appropriate modifications to describe the behavior of sodium aerosols in helium, would be very useful in designing traps to remove aerosols from the cover gas of sodium-cooled reactors. (U.S.)

  10. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  11. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate after biliopancreatic bypass with a duodenal switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo-Filho, Irami; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Villarim-Neto, Arthur; Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Study with the purpose to examine the effects of duodenal switch (DS), regularly performed in morbidly obese patients, on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in several organs of rats. There was no early or late mortality in either rats groups. The values of percent radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g), showed no significant difference in liver, stomach, small bowel, duodenum, kidney, heart, bladder, bone and brain, when compared the DS rats with sham and controls rats. A postoperative significant increase (p<0.05) in mean %ATI/g levels was observed in spleen, pancreas and muscle in group DS rats, as compared to group S and C rats. In the lung there was an increase and in thyroid a decrease in mean %ATI/g of DS rats, when compared to sham rats (p<0.05). In conclusion, the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch in rats modified the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in thyroid, lung, pancreas, spleen and muscle. (author)

  12. Biodistribution of the radiopharmaceutical sodium pertechnetate after biliopancreatic bypass with a duodenal switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Filho, Irami; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Villarim-Neto, Arthur; Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.br

    2007-09-15

    Study with the purpose to examine the effects of duodenal switch (DS), regularly performed in morbidly obese patients, on biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in several organs of rats. There was no early or late mortality in either rats groups. The values of percent radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g), showed no significant difference in liver, stomach, small bowel, duodenum, kidney, heart, bladder, bone and brain, when compared the DS rats with sham and controls rats. A postoperative significant increase (p<0.05) in mean %ATI/g levels was observed in spleen, pancreas and muscle in group DS rats, as compared to group S and C rats. In the lung there was an increase and in thyroid a decrease in mean %ATI/g of DS rats, when compared to sham rats (p<0.05). In conclusion, the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch in rats modified the biodistribution of sodium pertechnetate in thyroid, lung, pancreas, spleen and muscle. (author)

  13. Hidden Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-04

    In this podcast, learn about reducing sodium intake by knowing what to eat and the main sources of sodium in the diet. It's important for a healthy lifestyle.  Created: 3/4/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/4/2013.

  14. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

    1999-10-23

    International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

  15. Review of the sodium fire experiments including sodium-concrete-reactions and summary of the results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherdron, W.

    1996-01-01

    In the technical and design concept of containment systems of sodium cooled breeder reactors it has to be considered, that leakages in sodium pipes lead to sodium fires. The temperature and pressure rise caused by sodium fires makes it indispensable to analyse these accidents to be able to assess the safety of the whole system. Generally sodium leakages may lead to three different types of fires with different consequences. The main influences are the geometry of the leakage, shape, size, location, and the sodium conditions, such as temperature, flow rate and velocity. It must be also considered the reaction of sodium with surfaces like concrete. The paper gives an overview over all the sodium fire experiments performed in the FAUNA-facility (220 m 3 ) of the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe in the years 1979 to 1993. The experimental program started with the investigation of pool fires on burning areas between 2 and 12 m 2 with up to 500 kg of Sodium. The experiments had been continued with 3 combined fires and 40 experiments on spray fires. 7 experiments on sodium-concrete reactions completed the program. (author)

  16. Fast reactor shield sensitivity studies for steel--sodium--iron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oblow, E.M.; Weisbin, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of the adequacy of the current ENDF/B-IV sodium and iron neutron cross section data files for fast reactor shield design work. Experimental data from 21 fast reactor shield configurations containing large thicknesses of steel, sodium, and iron were analyzed with discrete ordinates calculations and sensitivity methods to assess the data files. This study represents the largest full-scale sensitivity analysis of benchmark quality experimental data to date. Included in the sensitivity studies were the results of the new cross section adjustment algorithms added to the FORSS code system. Conclusions were drawn about the need for more accurate data for sodium and iron elastic and discrete inelastic cross sections above 1 MeV and the values of the total cross section in the vicinity of important minima

  17. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  18. The electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Meihui [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The sodium polysulfide melt has been described by a macroscopic model. This model considers the melt to be composed of sodium cations, monosulfide anions, and neutral sulfur solvent. The transport equations of concentrated-solution theory are used to derived the governing equations for this binaryelectrolyte melt model. These equations relate measurable transport properties to fundamental transport parameters. The focus of this research is to measure the electrical conductivity of sodium polysulfide melts and calculate one of fundamental transport parameters from the experimental data. The conductance cells used in the conductivity measurements are axisymmetric cylindrical cells with a microelectrode. The electrode effects, including double-layer capacity, charge transfer resistance, and concentration overpotential, were minimized by the use of the alternating current at an adequately high frequency. The high cell constants of the conductance cells not only enhanced the experimental accuracy but also made the electrode effects negligible. The electrical conductivities of sodium polysulfide Na2S4 and Na2S5 were measured as a function of temperature (range: 300 to 360°C). Variations between experiments were only up to 2%. The values of the Arrhenius activation energy derived from the experimental data are about 33 kJ/mol. The fundamental transport parameter which quantifies the interaction within sodium cations and monosulfide anions are of interest and expected to be positive. Values of it were calculated from the experimental conductivity data and most of them are positive. Some negative values were obtained probably due to the experimental errors of transference number, diffusion coefficient, density or conductivity data.

  19. Expression of the Sodium/Calcium/Potassium Exchanger, NCKX4, in Ameloblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Smith, Charles E.; Smith, Susan M.; Kurtz, Ira; Paine, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Transcellular calcium transport is an essential activity in mineralized tissue formation, including dental hard tissues. In many organ systems, this activity is regulated by membrane-bound sodium/calcium (Na+/Ca2+) exchangers, which include the NCX and NCKX [sodium/calcium-potassium (Na+/Ca2+-K+ ) exchanger] proteins. During enamel maturation, when crystals expand in thickness, Ca2+ requirements vastly increase but exactly how Ca2+ traffics through ameloblasts remains uncertain. Previous studies have shown that several NCX proteins are expressed in ameloblasts, although no significant shifts in expression were observed during maturation which pointed to the possible identification of other Ca2+ membrane transporters. NCKX proteins are encoded by members of the solute carrier gene family, Slc24a, which include 6 different proteins (NCKX1–6). NCKX are bidirectional electrogenic transporters regulating Ca2+ transport in and out of cells dependent on the transmembrane ion gradient. In this study we show that all NCKX mRNAs are expressed in dental tissues. Real-time PCR indicates that of all the members of the NCKX group, NCKX4 is the most highly expressed gene transcript during the late stages of amelogenesis. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization analyses clearly establish that in the enamel organ, NCKX4 is expressed primarily by ameloblasts during the maturation stage. Further, during the mid-late maturation stages of amelogenesis, the expression of NCKX4 in ameloblasts is most prominent at the apical poles and at the lateral membranes proximal to the apical ends. These data suggest that NCKX4 might be an important regulator of Ca2+ transport during amelogenesis. PMID:22677781

  20. Toxicology of plutonium-sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackett, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    Scenarios for liquid-metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) accidents predict the loss of sodium coolant, with subsequent core melt-down and release of mixed sodium-fuel aerosols [Na-(PuU)O 2 ] into the environment. Studies in other laboratories demonstrated that mixed aerosols of Na 2 O-PuO 2 were more readily transported from the lung than PuO 2 aerosols. We therefore devised a continuous aerosol-generating system for animal exposures in which laser-generated fuel aerosols were swept through sodium vapor to form sodium-fuel aerosols. These fuel and sodium-fuel aerosols were compared with regard to their physicochemical properties and their biological behavior following inhalation studies in rats and dogs

  1. Sodium sieving in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusthoven, Esther; Krediet, Raymond T.; Willems, Hans L.; Monnens, Leo A.; Schröder, Cornelis H.

    2005-01-01

    Sodium sieving is a consequence of dissociation between the amount of water and sodium transported over the peritoneal membrane. This dissociation occurs in the presence of aquaporin-mediated water transport. Sieving of sodium can be used as a rough measure for aquaporin-mediated water transport.

  2. Investigation for the sodium leak in Monju. Sodium leak and fire test-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Ohno, Shuji; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi

    2000-08-01

    As a part of the work for investigating the sodium leak accident which occurred in the Monju reactor (hereinafter referred to as Monju) on December 8, 1995, three tests, (1) a sodium leak test, (2) a sodium leak and fire test-1, and (3) a sodium leak and fire test-II, were carried out at OEC/PEC. The main objectives of these tests were to confirm the leak and burning behavior of sodium from the damaged thermometer, and the effects of the sodium fire on the integrity of the surrounding structure. This report describes the results of the sodium fire test-I carried out as a preliminary test. The test was performed using the SOLFA-2 (Sodium Leak, Fire and Aerosol) facility on April 8, 1996. In this test, sodium heated to 480degC was leaked for approximately 1.5 hours from a leak simulating apparatus and caused to drop onto a ventilation duct and a grating with the same dimensions and layout as those in Monju. The main conclusions obtained from the test are shown below: 1) Observation from video cameras in the test revealed that in the early stages of the sodium leak, sodium dripped out of the flexible tube of the thermometer. This dripping and burning expanded in range as the sodium splashed on the duct. 2) No damage to the duct itself was detected. However, the aluminum louver frame of the ventilation duct's lower inlet was damaged. Its machine screws came off, leaving half of the grill (on the grating side) detached. 3) No large hole, like the one seen at Monju, was found when the grating was removed from the testing system for inspection, although the area centered on the point were the sodium dripped was damaged in a way indicating the first stages of grating failure. The 5mm square lattice was corroded through in some parts, and numerous blades (originally 3.2 mm thick) had become sharpened like the blade of a knife. 4) The burning pan underside thermocouple near the leak point measured 700degC in within approximately 10 minutes, and for the next hour remained

  3. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    OpenAIRE

    K?se, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; U?ar, Sema Kalkan; ?oker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreo...

  4. Sodium-NaK engineering handbook. Volume III. Sodium systems, safety, handling, and instrumentation. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, O J [ed.

    1978-01-01

    The handbook is intended for use by present and future designers in the Liquid Metals Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program and by the engineering and scientific community performing other type investigation and exprimentation requiring high-temperature sodium and NaK technology. The arrangement of subject matter progresses from a technological discussion of sodium and sodium--potassium alloy (NaK) to discussions of varius categories and uses of hardware in sodium and NaK systems. Emphasis is placed on sodium and NaK as heat-transport media. Sufficient detail is included for basic understanding of sodium and NaK technology and of technical aspects of sodium and NaK components and instrument systems. Information presented is considered adequate for use in feasibility studies and conceptual design, sizing components and systems, developing preliminary component and system descriptions, identifying technological limitations and problem areas, and defining basic constraints and parameters.

  5. Divergent actions of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, tefluthrin, and deltamethrin on rat Nav1.6 sodium channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jianguo; Soderlund, David M.

    2010-01-01

    We expressed rat Na v 1.6 sodium channels in combination with the rat β 1 and β 2 auxiliary subunits in Xenopus laevis oocytes and evaluated the effects of the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, deltamethrin, and tefluthrin on expressed sodium currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. S-Bioallethrin, a type I structure, produced transient modification evident in the induction of rapidly decaying sodium tail currents, weak resting modification (5.7% modification at 100 μM), and no further enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation by high-frequency trains of depolarizing pulses. By contrast deltamethrin, a type II structure, produced sodium tail currents that were ∼ 9-fold more persistent than those caused by S-bioallethrin, barely detectable resting modification (2.5% modification at 100 μM), and 3.7-fold enhancement of modification upon repetitive activation. Tefluthrin, a type I structure with high mammalian toxicity, exhibited properties intermediate between S-bioallethrin and deltamethrin: intermediate tail current decay kinetics, much greater resting modification (14.1% at 100 μM), and 2.8-fold enhancement of resting modification upon repetitive activation. Comparison of concentration-effect data showed that repetitive depolarization increased the potency of tefluthrin ∼ 15-fold and that tefluthrin was ∼ 10-fold more potent than deltamethrin as a use-dependent modifier of Na v 1.6 sodium channels. Concentration-effect data from parallel experiments with the rat Na v 1.2 sodium channel coexpressed with the rat β 1 and β 2 subunits in oocytes showed that the Na v 1.6 isoform was at least 15-fold more sensitive to tefluthrin and deltamethrin than the Na v 1.2 isoform. These results implicate sodium channels containing the Na v 1.6 isoform as potential targets for the central neurotoxic effects of pyrethroids.

  6. Atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosol due to a sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punitha, G.; Sudha, A. Jasmin; Kasinathan, N.; Rajan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid sodium at high temperatures (470 K to 825 K) is used as the primary and secondary coolant in Liquid Metal cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). In the event of a postulated sodium leak in the Steam Generator Building (SGB) of a LMFBR, sodium readily combusts in the ambient air, especially at temperatures above 523 K. Intense sodium fire results and sodium oxide fumes are released as sodium aerosols. Sodium oxides are readily converted to sodium hydroxide in air due to the presence of moisture in it. Hence, sodium aerosols are invariably in the form of particulate sodium hydroxide. These aerosols damage not only the equipment and instruments due to their corrosive nature but also pose health hazard to humans. Hence, it is essential to estimate the concentration of sodium aerosols within the plant boundary for a sodium leak event. The Gaussian Plume Dispersion Model can obtain the atmospheric dispersion of sodium aerosols in an open terrain. However, this model dose not give accurate results for dispersion in spaces close to the point of release and with buildings in between. The velocity field due to the wind is altered to a large extent by the intervening buildings and structures. Therefore, a detailed 3-D estimation of the velocity field and concentration has to be obtained through rigorous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. PHOENICS code has been employed to determine concentration of sodium aerosols at various distances from the point of release. The dispersion studies have been carried out for the release of sodium aerosols at different elevations from the ground and for different wind directions. (author)

  7. Sodium intake and dietary sources of sodium in a sample of undergraduate students from Novi Sad, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Data on sodium intake and sources of sodium in the diet in Serbia are limited. The aim of this study was to estimate the sodium intake and identify the sources of sodium in the diet of undergraduate students attending the University of Novi Sad. Students completed a questionnaire to gather data on their gender, age and university faculty attended, and then a 24 h dietary recall. The sodium intake of the students was calculated using the dietary recall data and data on the sodium content of foods. The contribution of different food groups as well as of specific foodstuffs to the total sodium intake was calculated. The mean estimated sodium intake of the students was 3,938.5 ± 1,708.1 mg/day. The sodium intake of 89.1% of the surveyed students exceeded the guideline for sodium intake, the majority of the sodium coming from processed foods (78.9% of the total sodium intake). The food groups that contributed the most to the total sodium intake of the students were meat and meat products (21.7%) and cereals and cereal-based products (18.6%). Bread and other bakery products were responsible for 13.1% of the total sodium intake. High sodium intake in students of the University of Novi Sad puts them at high risk of developing high blood pressure. The food industry should work towards reformulating products with high sodium content, especially bread and other bakery products. Efforts should be taken to reduce sodium intake among undergraduate students in Novi Sad.

  8. Technology for sodium purity control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    When sodium is used as heat transfer fluid, the plugging in coolant flow, the corrosion of structure material and the transfer of radioactive material caused by the impurities in sodium are worth considerable. Accordingly, these impurities must be monitored and controlled continuously by sodium purification devices in the heat transfer system which sodium is used as coolant. Sodium purification loop was constructed for the purpose of accumulating the technology for purity control of the coolant, developing and verifying further efficient instruments for sodium purification. The plugging meter and the cold trap is used as the implement for measuring and controlling the oxygen and the hydrogen, the main impurities in sodium coolant. They are capable of excellent performance as the implements which could detect and monitor the impurities to the concentration limit required for nuclear reactor. Sodium purification loop could be used variably according to the experimental purpose. 18 refs., 34 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  9. Cation gating and selectivity in a purified, reconstituted, voltage-dependent sodium channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchi, R.L.; Tanaka, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    In excitable membranes, the voltage-dependent sodium channel controls the primary membrane conductance change necessary for the generation of an action potential. Over the past four decades, the time- and voltage-dependent sodium currents gated by this channel have been thoroughly documented with increasingly sophisticated voltage-clamp techniques. Recent advances in the biochemistry of membrane proteins have led to the solubilization and purification of this channel protein from nerve (6) and from muscle (4) or muscle-derived (1) membranes, and have provided an approach to the correlation of the channel's molecular structure with its functional properties. Each of these sodium channel preparations appears to contain a large glycoprotein either as its sole component (2) or in association with several small subunits (6, 3). Evidence that these purified proteins represent the excitable membrane sodium channel is presented. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  10. Characteristics of the Na/beta-alumina/Na cell as a sodium vapor pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takikawa, O.; Imai, A.; Harata, M.

    1982-01-01

    The EMF and voltage-current characteristics for a galvanic cell with the configuration Na vapor (P 1 )/sodium beta-alumina/Na vapor (P 2 ) were studied. It was verified that the EMF followed the Nernst relation over a wide pressure range. For example, when P 1 = 2 x 10 -2 mm Hg and beta-alumina temperature = 340 0 C, the measured EMF agreed with the calculated value in P 2 range from 10 -5 to 10 -2 mm Hg. At lower pressure range, the measured EMF showed a negative deviation. Coexisting argon gas did not influence the cell EMF characteristic. In an atmosphere containing oxygen, the measured EMF was very high at first. Then it decreased and finally approached a value which agreed with the Nernst equation after several hours. At low beta-alumina temperatures, current saturation was observed in the voltage versus current relation with the anode on the P 2 side. Although the sodium pressure could be determined from saturating current measurement, the measurable pressure range was narrower than that for EMF measurement. At high beta-alumina temperature, current saturation was not clear. Values of 6 x 10 -6 (Ω cm) -1 for the electron conductivity and 6 x 10 -10 (Ω cm) -1 for the hole conductivity at 340 0 C were obtained for beta-alumina from the voltage-current characteristics at low sodium pressure. (Auth.)

  11. Naproxen sodium overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002507.htm Naproxen sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Naproxen sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used ...

  12. Metal-Organic Framework-Derived Materials for Sodium Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guoqiang; Hou, Hongshuai; Ge, Peng; Huang, Zhaodong; Zhao, Ganggang; Yin, Dulin; Ji, Xiaobo

    2018-01-01

    Recently, sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) are extensively explored and are regarded as one of the most promising alternatives to lithium-ion batteries for electrochemical energy conversion and storage, owing to the abundant raw material resources, low cost, and similar electrochemical behavior of elemental sodium compared to lithium. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted enormous attention due to their high surface areas, tunable structures, and diverse applications in drug delivery, gas storage, and catalysis. Recently, there has been an escalating interest in exploiting MOF-derived materials as anodes for sodium energy storage due to their fast mass transport resulting from their highly porous structures and relatively simple preparation methods originating from in situ thermal treatment processes. In this Review, the recent progress of the sodium-ion storage performances of MOF-derived materials, including MOF-derived porous carbons, metal oxides, metal oxide/carbon nanocomposites, and other materials (e.g., metal phosphides, metal sulfides, and metal selenides), as SIB anodes is systematically and completely presented and discussed. Moreover, the current challenges and perspectives of MOF-derived materials in electrochemical energy storage are discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Early adulthood: an overlooked age group in national sodium reduction initiatives in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Lee, Jounghee; Kwon, Kwang-Il; Kim, Jong-Wook; Byun, Jae-Eon; Kang, Baeg-Won; Choi, Bo Youl; Park, Hye-Kyung

    2014-12-01

    South Korean's sodium consumption level is more than twice the upper limit level suggested by the WHO. Steep increases in the prevalence of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in Korea necessitate more effective sodium reduction programs. This study was conducted in order to compare sodium intake-related eating behaviors and key psychosocial factors according to age group and gender. Using an online survey, a total of 1,564 adults (20-59 years old) considered to be geographically representative of South Korea were recruited and surveyed. The major outcomes were perceived behaviors, knowledge, intentions, and self-efficacy related to sodium intake. The results show that perceived behavior and level of self-efficacy related to low sodium consumption differed by age and gender. Female participants showed better behavior and intention towards low sodium intake than male counterparts. Young participants in their 20s showed the lowest intention to change their current sodium intake as well as lowest self-efficacy measures. Future sodium reduction interventions should be developed with tailored messages targeting different age and gender groups. Specifically, interventions can be planned and implemented at the college level or for workers in their early career to increase their intention and self-efficacy as a means of preventing future health complications associated with high sodium intake.

  14. Effects of Amiodarone and N-Desethylamiodarone on Cardiac Voltage-gated Sodium Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Reza eGhovanloo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone (AMD is a potent antiarrhythmic drug with high efficacy for treating atrial fibrillation and tachycardia. The pharmacologic profile of AMD is complex. AMD possesses biophysical characteristics of all of class I, II, III, and IV agents. Despite its adverse side effects, AMD remains the most commonly prescribed antiarrhythmic drug. AMD was described to prolong the QT interval and can lead to torsades de pointes. Our goal was to study the effects of AMD on peak and late sodium currents (INa,P and INa,L and determine whether these effects change as AMD is metabolized into N-Desethylamiodarone (DES. We hypothesized that AMD and DES block both INa,P and INa,L with similar profiles due to structural similarities. Given the inherent small amounts of INa,L in NaV1.5, we screened AMD and DES against the Long QT-3-causing mutation, ∆KPQ, to better detect any drug-mediated effect on INa,L. Our results show that AMD and DES do not affect WT or ∆KPQ activation; however, both drugs altered the apparent valence of steady-state fast-inactivation. In addition, AMD and DES preferentially block ∆KPQ peak conductance compared to WT. Both compounds significantly increase INa,L and window currents. We conclude that both compounds have pro-arrhythmic effects on NaV1.5, especially ∆KPQ; however, DES seems to have a greater pro-arrhythmic effect than AMD.

  15. Carbon in sodium - A review of work in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorley, A.W.; Hobdell, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    It has been shown experimentally that when a difference in carbon potential exists between two points in a sodium circuit, carbon will move from regions of high carbon potential to regions of low carbon potential. Instrumental in this transport process is the liquid sodium which provides an efficient. means of transport between sources and sinks. In terms of operation of LMFBRs the point of concern is that impairment of mechanical properties may occur if significant amounts of carbon are gained or lost from structures exposed to sodium. In the UK the behaviour of carbon in liquid sodium is being studied at AERE Harwell, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL), the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment (DNE), and the Risley Nuclear Laboratories (RNL). The scope of this review reflects the type of work being carried out at various establishments and presents our current views on certain topics. A survey of the UK position and an indication of where more work is required is also included in the paper. Specialist material is provided in the form of appendices

  16. Carbon in sodium - A review of work in the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorley, A W; Hobdell, M R [CEGB, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories, Berkely, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom)

    1980-05-01

    It has been shown experimentally that when a difference in carbon potential exists between two points in a sodium circuit, carbon will move from regions of high carbon potential to regions of low carbon potential. Instrumental in this transport process is the liquid sodium which provides an efficient. means of transport between sources and sinks. In terms of operation of LMFBRs the point of concern is that impairment of mechanical properties may occur if significant amounts of carbon are gained or lost from structures exposed to sodium. In the UK the behaviour of carbon in liquid sodium is being studied at AERE Harwell, Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories (BNL), the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment (DNE), and the Risley Nuclear Laboratories (RNL). The scope of this review reflects the type of work being carried out at various establishments and presents our current views on certain topics. A survey of the UK position and an indication of where more work is required is also included in the paper. Specialist material is provided in the form of appendices.

  17. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  18. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  19. Plasmin in Nephrotic Urine Activates the Epithelial Sodium Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Bistrup, Claus; Friis, Ulla G

    2009-01-01

    stimulated amiloride-sensitive transepithelial sodium transport in M-1 cells and increased amiloride-sensitive whole-cell currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes heterologously expressing ENaC. Activation of ENaC by plasmin involved cleavage and release of an inhibitory peptide from the ENaC gamma subunit...

  20. Sodium hydroxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium hydroxide is a very strong chemical. It is also known as lye and caustic soda. This ... poisoning from touching, breathing in (inhaling), or swallowing sodium hydroxide. This article is for information only. Do ...

  1. Assessment of sodium status in large ruminants by measuring the sodium-to-potassium ratio in muzzle secretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S P; Rani, D

    1999-09-01

    To develop a simple diagnostic test to assess sodium status in large ruminants on the basis of the sodium-to-potassium ratio (Na:K) and to determine its relevance. 7 buffalo heifers and 21 lactating, pregnant, and nonpregnant dairy cows and heifers. Buffalo heifers were subjected in 2 experiments to variable dietary sodium intake or sodium depletion and changes in sodium and potassium concentrations; Na:K was simultaneously monitored in various body fluids to study its value for indicating sodium status. Validity of the muzzle secretion test was assessed. Muzzle secretion and urinary Na:K and sodium concentration, but not serum electrolyte concentrations, reflected the sodium status of buffalo heifers in response to the widely variable intake of sodium (0.03 to 0.16% of dry matter [DM]). Progressive sodium depletion during an 11-day period, using saliva deprivation caused reciprocal changes in sodium and potassium concentrations in saliva and muzzle secretion, but not in urine. Decreasing urine sodium concentration was associated with decreasing urine potassium concentration. Saliva, urine, and muzzle secretion Na:K closely reflected the degree of sodium deficit. Buffaloes or dairy cows maintained on optimal sodium intake had muzzle secretion and urine Na:K > 0.30. Muzzle secretion or urine Na:K muzzle secretion Na:K, and to a large extent urine Na:K, may be used as a convenient diagnostic tool to assess sodium status in large ruminants. It has accuracy similar to that of saliva Na:K.

  2. Development and deployment of miniature MI type sodium leak detector for FBTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, B.; Sylvia, J.I.; Sureshkumar, K.V.; Rajan, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development and commissioning of SG leak detection system for FBTR. ► Performance satisfactory except for a sodium leak due to failure of nicked diffuser. ► Available sodium leak detection systems explored. ► Mutual inductance leak detector designed and developed for sodium leak detection. ► System was tested and deployed in FBTR with satisfactory performance. -- Abstract: The energy produced in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is transferred to feed water for generating superheated steam in once-through shell and tube type counter current steam generator (SG). Sodium and water/steam flow in shell and tube side respectively are separated by thin-walls of ferritic steel tubes. Material defects in these tubes can lead to leakage of water/steam into sodium, resulting in sodium water reactions leading to undesirable consequences. Detection of a leak at its inception, therefore, is important for the safe and reliable operation of the reactor. Monitoring hydrogen in sodium, produced during reaction of sodium with the leaked water or steam is a convenient way to accomplish this. Nickel diffuser based instrumentation has been developed for real time detection of steam generator leak of FBTR at Kalpakkam. Though the performance of the system has been satisfactory, the failure of Nickel diffuser cannot be ruled out. This paper deals with the development and deployment of a miniature Mutual Inductance (MI) type leak detector for detection of sodium leak resulting from failure/rupture of the Nickel diffuser tubes in the SG leak detection system in FBTR

  3. Sodium fill of FFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldo, J.B.; Greenwell, R.K.; Keasling, T.A.; Collins, J.R.; Klos, D.B.

    1980-02-01

    With construction of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) completed, the first major objective in the startup program was to fill the sodium systems. A sodium fill sequence was developed to match construction completion, and as systems became available, they were inerted, preheated, and filled with sodium. The secondary sodium systems were filled first while dry refueling system testing was in progress in the reactor vessel. The reactor vessel and the primary loops were filled last. This paper describes the methods used and some of the key results achieved for this major FFTF objective

  4. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  5. Late Pleistocene Age Model for Site U1460, Perth Basin, SW Australian Shelf: Implications for Leeuwin Current History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Takayanagi, H.; Petrick, B.; Ishiwa, T.; Henderiks, J.; Groeneveld, J.; Mamo, B. L.; De Vleeschouwer, D.; Auer, G.; Deik, H.; Fulthorpe, C.; Gallagher, S. J.; McHugh, C.; Reuning, L.; Yokoyama, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The Leeuwin Current (LC) exerts an important control on modern Australian climate, but its onset is not well defined. The LC is the only southward flowing eastern boundary current. Driven by a pressure gradient set up in the Indonesian Throughflow, its warm waters support reefs to 29°S. It is seasonally controlled south of the Western Cape. Determination of the onset of the LC was a major objective of IODP Expedition 356. Expedition 356 drilling on the western Australian margin provides an opportunity to explore depositional patterns and timing in the region influenced by the current. Site U1460 was drilled in 214.5 m w.d. (Gallagher et al., 2017). Integrated calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the upper 86.5 m firmly within the late Pleistocene. However, the glacial- interglacial stratigraphy is uncertain because of the complexity of this shelfal depositional environment. Here we present a likely late Pleistocene stratigraphy based on integrated geochemical and paleontological datasets. A benthic foraminifer (Uvigerina peregrina) stable isotope record provides the foundation for the age model and the data are supported by SST estimates based on Tex86 and alkenones. Our age model places MIS 16 between 104 and 99 m-CSF-A, followed by an expanded MIS 15 section (99 - 50 m-CSF-A). We correlate the interval from 50 - 5 m-CSF-A with MIS 14 to MIS 8, with the largest magnitude glacial events (MIS 12, MIS 6) either condensed or represented as depositional hiatuses. A Recent 14C date at 0.34 mbsf constrains the interval from 2 - 0.5 m-CSF-A to MIS 4-3, which is in good agreement with the base of common Emiliania huxleyi (0.09 Ma) at 2.13 m-CSF-A. Thus MIS 5 is equivalent to the interval from 5 to 2 m-CSF-A. The expanded MIS 15 section follows a geometric change from slope to prograding shelf. It is associated with a shift to infaunal benthic foraminiferal assemblages, abundant sponge spicules, and a reduction in CaCO3%, suggesting

  6. Enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Steven; Tran, Jennifer L; Clarkson, Michael R

    2003-11-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of mycophenolate sodium. Primary literature was obtained via a MEDLINE search (1966-June 2003). Abstracts were obtained from the manufacturer and included in the analysis. All studies and abstracts evaluating mycophenolate sodium in solid organ transplantation were considered for inclusion. English-language studies and abstracts were selected for inclusion, but were limited to those consisting of human subjects. Mycophenolate sodium, a mycophenolic acid prodrug, is an inhibitor of T-lymphocyte proliferation. Mycophenolic acid reduces the incidence of acute rejection in renal transplantation. Mycophenolate sodium is enteric coated and has been suggested as a potential method to reduce the gastrointestinal adverse events seen with mycophenolate mofetil. Both mycophenolate mofetil and mycophenolate sodium have been shown to be therapeutically equivalent at decreasing the incidence of allograft rejection and loss. The frequency of adverse events is similar between both compounds, with the most common events being diarrhea and leukopenia. Mycophenolate sodium is effective in preventing acute rejection in renal transplant recipients. At doses of 720 mg twice daily, the efficacy and safety profiles are similar to those of mycophenolate mofetil 1000 mg twice daily. Mycophenolate sodium has been approved in Switzerland; approval in the US is pending.

  7. The various sodium purification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courouau, J.L.; Masse, F.; Rodriguez, G.; Latge, C.; Redon, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of sodium waste treatment, the sodium purification phase plays an essential role in the chain of operations leading to the transformation of the active sodium, considered as waste, into a stable sodium salt. The objectives of the purification operations are: To keep a low impurity level, particularly a low concentration in oxygen and hydrogen, in order to allow its transfer to a processing plant, and in order to avoid risks of plugging and/or corrosion in sodium facilities; To reduce the sodium activity in order to limit the dose rate close to the facilities, and in order to reduce the activity of the liquid and gaseous effluents. After a recall of the different kind of impurities that can be present in sodium, and of the different purification methods that could be associated with, the following points are highlighted: (i) Oxygen and hydrogen purification needs, and presentation of some selection criteria for a purification unit adapted to a sodium processing plant, as well as 2 cold trap concepts that are in accordance with these criteria: PSICHOS and PIRAMIDE. (ii) Tritium reduction in a bulk of liquid sodium by swamping, isotopic exchange, or permeation throughout a membrane. (iii) Caesium trapping on carbonaceous matrix. The main matrices used at present are R.V.C. (Reticulated Vitreous Carbon) and Actitex/Pica products. Tests in the laboratory and on an experimental device have demonstrated the performances of these materials, which are able to reduce sodium activity in Cs 134 and Cs 137 to very low values. The sodium purification processes as regards to the hydrogen, oxygen and caesium, that are aimed at facilitating the subsequent treatment of sodium, are therefore mastered operations. Regarding the operations associated with the reduction of the tritium activity, the methods are in the process of being qualified, or to be qualified. (author)

  8. Resonant photopumping of a neon lasant plasma by a sodium pump plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, F.C.; Apruzese, J.P.; Burkhalter, P.G.; Cooperstein, G.; Davis, J.; Mosher, D.; Ottinger, P.F.; Scherrer, V.E.; Stephanakis, S.J.; Mehlman, C.; Welch, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Resonant photopumping of heliumlike neon by helium like sodium is being investigated to extend this pumping technique to the soft x-ray region. In the Na-pump/Ne-lasant system, the 1s 2 -1s2p 1 P 1 line of Na X at 11.0027 A differs by 2 parts in 10 4 from the 1s 2 -1s 4 p 1 P 1 line of Ne 1X at 11.0003 A. This wavelength difference corresponds to about one Doppler width at the sodium plasma temperatures (200-500 eV) required for strong Na X pump radiation. Sodium line radiation of sufficient power irradiating a properly prepared neon plasma will cause overpopulation of the Ne 1X n = 4 singlet level leading to lasing in the 4-3, 4-2, and possibly 3-2 singlet transitions. Experimentally, the current pulse from the NRL Gamble-II generator is used to produce side-by-side z-pinch plasmas of sodium fluoride (NaF) and neon. The discharges are viewed radially with x-ray diagnostics including time-integrated pinhole cameras, time-resolved x-ray diodes, and a time-integrated curved-crystal spectrograph. Measurements of the neon plasma indicate that a discharge current of about 200 kA is required to produce a neon lasant with a dominant heliumlike ground-state population. For fluorescence experiments, appropriate neon lasant conditions (density of about 10 18 cm -3 and temperature of 50-100 eV) must be produced at the time of the intense sodium pump-line radiation. Fluorescence is demonstrated by observing enhancement of the 4-1 line (He-γ) from the neon plasma relative to the 3-1 line (He-γ) when the neon is pumped by sodium. An increase in this γ-to-β ratio of 25% has been observed when the sodium pump radiation is present. The results of recent experiments are reported, and their implications for future experiments are discussed

  9. Sodium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium carbonate (known as washing soda or soda ash) is a chemical found in many household and industrial products. This article focuses on poisoning due to sodium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  10. Sodium removal disassembly and examination of the Fermi secondary sodium pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maffei, H.P.; Funk, C.W.; Ballif, J.L.

    1974-01-01

    The Fermi secondary pump is a centrifugal single stage design. The pump had been operated more than 42,000 hours between 450 and 800 0 F. Sodium was drained from the pump in 1973 and the system was back filled with carbon dioxide. The pump was fabricated for 2.25 Cr-1 Mo Croloy steel. Prior to cleaning the pump was inerted and heated with 150 0 F nitrogen using the pump casing as the containment vessel. The water-vapor-nitrogen process was used in three increasing stages of water concentration. The hydrogen concentration in the discharge line was followed as an indicator of the sodium-water reaction rate. Upon completion of the hydrogen evolution, the pump was rinsed several times with hot water. Six pounds of sodium were removed from the pump during a process cycle of 79 hours including rinsing. The maximum pump temperature recorded was 175 0 F with no variation exceeding 10 0 F. The hydrogen concentration in the effluent provided a very satisfactory index for control of the reaction by adjustment of the water-vapor concentration feed to the system. Rinsing effectiveness was limited by a pool of water in the volute that was not drainable with the available system hook up. Sodium and its compounds were removed from all internal surfaces that could be observed by the first stage of disassembly. All such surfaces were coated with a black deposit. Areas above the sodium liquid level were coated with a vermillion colored oxide. Sodium was found on the (1) threads of the impeller nut lock screw, (2) impeller nut-tapered shaft interface, and (3) vapor deposited sodium was found in the oil seal

  11. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Nisbet, A.; Thome, D.; Savkin, M.; Hoe, S.; Brynildsen, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the late phase of a radioactive release, and the development of the initial late phase strategy. It discusses the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Based on this the following recommendations are made: (1) the issues that will arise at the start of the late phase response to a radioactive release require preparation work in advance of any release; (2) this preparation should consider the adequacy of legislation, technical data and modelling, options for waste storage and disposal, resources for monitoring and implementing clean up; (3) late phase preparedness requires regular exercising and (4) the possibility of terrorist releases adds further emphasis to the need for preparedness for the late phase. (authors)

  12. Sodium-concrete reaction model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.H.; Muhlestein, L.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1982-07-01

    Major observations have been formulated after reviewing test results for over 100 sodium-concrete reaction tests. The observations form the basis for developing a mechanistic model to predict the transient behavior of sodium-concrete reactions. The major observations are listed. Mechanisms associated with sodium and water transport to the reaction zone are identified, and represented by appropriate mathematical expressions. The model attempts to explain large-scale, long-term (100 h) test results were sodium-concrete reactions terminated even in the presence of unreacted sodium and concrete

  13. Recent Progress in Design of Biomass-Derived Hard Carbons for Sodium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Górka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sodium ion batteries (SIBs have attracted lots of attention over last few years due to the abundance and wide availability of sodium resources, making SIBs the most cost-effective alternative to the currently used lithium ion batteries (LIBs. Many efforts are underway to find effective anodes for SIBs since the commercial anode for LIBs, graphite, has shown very limited capacity for SIBs. Among many different types of carbons, hard carbons—especially these derived from biomass—hold a great deal of promise for SIB technology thanks to their constantly improving performance and low cost. The main scope of this mini-review is to present current progress in preparation of negative electrodes from biomass including aspects related to precursor types used and their impact on the final carbon characteristics (structure, texture and composition. Another aspect discussed is how certain macro- and microstructure characteristics of the materials translate to their performance as anode for Na-ion batteries. In the last part, current understanding of factors governing sodium insertion into hard carbons is summarized, specifically those that could help solve existing performance bottlenecks such as irreversible capacity, initial low Coulombic efficiency and poor rate performance.

  14. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhavi Joshipura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  15. Sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement with pre-existing chronic periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshipura, Vaibhavi

    2012-04-01

    Gingival enlargement is a common clinical feature of gingival and periodontal diseases. Currently, more than 20 prescription medications are associated with gingival enlargement. Although the mechanisms of action may be different, the clinical and microscopic appearance of drug-induced gingival enlargement is similar with any drug. Gingival enlargement produces esthetic changes, and clinical symptoms including pain, tenderness, bleeding, speech disturbances, abnormal tooth movement, dental occlusion problems, enhancement of caries development and periodontal disorders. Sodium valproate is considered to produce gingival enlargement, but very rarely. This case report features sodium valproate induced gingival enlargement in a patient with pre-existing chronic periodontitis, who came to the Dental Department, Chinmaya Mission Hospital, Bangalore. The case is special as the patient did not develop the enlargement in spite of taking phenytoin for 1 year and developed enlargement with sodium valproate within 6 months.

  16. Mobile ICT Acceptance in Late Adopter Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid global diffusion of the smartphone, some countries have experienced much slower uptake of the technology. The low smartphone penetration within Slovakia provides the opportunity to explore what drives smartphone use in late majority countries. Slovakia is a central European nation...... and part of the Eurozone. It has advanced telecommunications infrastructure and is subject to the same telecommunications regulations as other EU members. While neighbours have high smartphone penetration, Slovakia is a late majority adopter. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behavior...... to investigate the question: What drives the use of smartphones in late majority countries? By studying the differences between current and potential smartphone users, the study revisits Karahanna et al.’s research question: Do potential adopters and users of IT hold the same behavioral and normative beliefs...

  17. Late radiation responses in man: Current evaluation from results from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, William J.

    Among the late effects of exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, none looms larger than radiation related malignancies. Indeed, the late effects of A-bomb radiation on mortality appear to be limited to an increase in malignant tumors. At present, it can be shown that cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, lungs, stomach, thyroid, and urinary tract as well as leukemia and multiple myeloma increase in frequency with an increase in exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, nor cancers of the rectum, pancreas or uterus. Radiation induced malignancies other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risks tend to be higher for those of younger age at the time of bombing. Other late effects include radiation-related lenticular opacities, disturbances of growth among those survivors still growing at the time of exposure, and mental retardation and small head sizes among the in utero exposed. Chromosomal abnormalities too are more frequently encountered in the peripheral leucocytes of survivors, and this increase is functionally related to their exposure. Some uncertainty continues to surround both the quantity and quality of the radiation released by these two nuclear devices, particularly the Hiroshima bomb. A recent reassessment suggests that the gamma radiation estimates which have been used in the past may be too low at some distances and the neutron radiation estimates too high at all distances; moreover, the energies of the neutrons released now appear ``softer'' than previously conjectured. These uncertainties not sufficiently large, however, to compromise the reality of the increased frequency of malignancy, but make estimates of the dose response, particularly in terms of gamma and neutron exposures, tentative.

  18. Safety and efficacy of a Nav1.7 selective sodium channel blocker in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Joanna M; Palmer, Joanne; Morisset, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current standard of care for trigeminal neuralgia is treatment with the sodium channel blockers carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which although effective are associated with poor tolerability and the need for titration. BIIB074, a Nav1.7-selective, state-dependent sodium-channel blocker...

  19. Sodium cleaning from sodium contaminated components and operation for experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. H.; Kim, J. M.; Kim, T. J.; Nam, H. Y.; Jeong, J. Y.; Choi, B. H.; Choi, J. H

    2007-11-15

    An objective of washing technology development for sodium contaminated equipment is to clean and reuse safely and effectively the used equipment through a washing and maintenance, and recovery of the sodium wastes generated during washing.

  20. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  1. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  2. Tables of thermodynamic properties of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, J.K.

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of saturated sodium, superheated sodium, and subcooled sodium are tabulated as a function of temperature. The temperature ranges are 380 to 2508 K for saturated sodium, 500 to 2500 K for subcooled sodium, and 400 to 1600 K for superheated sodium. Tabulated thermodynamic properties are enthalpy, heat capacity, pressure, entropy, density, instantaneous thermal expansion coefficient, compressibility, and thermal pressure coefficient. Tables are given in SI units and cgs units

  3. Toddler foods, children's foods: assessing sodium in packaged supermarket foods targeted at children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Charlene D; Conlon, Martin J

    2011-03-01

    To critically examine child-oriented packaged food products sold in Canada for their sodium content, and to assess them light of intake recommendations, the current policy context and suggested targets. Baby/toddler foods (n 186) and child-oriented packaged foods (n 354) were coded for various attributes (including sodium). Summary statistics were created for sodium, then the children's food products were compared with the UK Food Standards Agency (FSA) 'targets' for sodium in packaged foods. Also assessed were the products' per-serving sodium levels were assessed in light of the US Institute of Medicine's dietary reference intakes and Canada's Food Guide. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. None. Twenty per cent of products could be classified as having high sodium levels. Certain sub-categories of food (i.e. toddler entrées, children's packaged lunches, soups and canned pastas) were problematic. Significantly, when scaled in according to Schedule M or viewed in light of the serving sizes on the Nutrition Facts table, the sodium level in various dry goods products generally fell within, and below, the Adequate Intake (AI)/Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) band for sodium. When scaled in accordance with the UK FSA targets, however, none of the (same) products met the targets. In light of AI/UL thresholds based on age and per-serving cut-offs, packaged foodstuffs for youngsters fare relatively well, with the exception of some problematic areas. 'Stealth sodium' and 'subtle sodium' are important considerations; so is use of the FSA's scaling method to evaluate sodium content, because it is highly sensitive to the difference between the reference amount and the actual real-world serving size for the product being considered.

  4. Intravitreal flomoxef sodium in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Torisaki, M; Yamashita, Y; Komatsu, M; Tanahashi, T

    1993-01-01

    We studied the intraocular concentration of flomoxef sodium in nonvitrectomized and vitrectomized eyes of albino rabbits after intravenous administration of 100 mg/kg flomoxef sodium. The concentration of flomoxef sodium in the vitreous body was undetectable (flomoxef sodium was investigated with ophthalmoscopy, electroretinography (ERG) and light microscopy after intravitreal injection of 200, 500, 1,000 and 2,000 micrograms flomoxef sodium in albino and pigmented rabbits. No ERG changes were induced with 200 micrograms. Other higher doses caused transient ERG changes. After the 200-micrograms injection, the intravitreal concentration decreased exponentially, the half-life being 4.4 h. The antibacterial activity, broad coverage and low intravitreal toxicity of flomoxef sodium suggest that this compound may be used to treat bacterial endophthalmitis.

  5. Late-onset hypogonadism: current concepts and controversies of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2014-01-01

    Although suppressed serum testosterone (T) is common in ageing men, only a small proportion of them develop the genuine syndrome of low T associated with diffuse sexual (e.g., erectile dysfunction), physical (e.g. loss of vigor and frailty) and psychological (e.g., depression) symptoms. This syndrome carries many names, including male menopause or climacterium, andropause and partial androgen deficiency of the ageing male (PADAM). Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) describes it best and is therefore generally preferred. The decrease of T in LOH is often marginal, and hypogonadism can be either due to primary testicular failure (low T, high luteinizing hormone (LH)) or secondary to a hypothalamic-pituitary failure (low T, low or inappropriately normal LH). The latter form is more common and it is usually associated with overweight/obesity or chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frailty). A problem with the diagnosis of LOH is that often the symptoms (in 20%-40% of unselected men) and low circulating T (in 20% of men >70 years of age) do not coincide in the same individual. The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) has recently defined the strict diagnostic criteria for LOH to include the simultaneous presence of reproducibly low serum T (total T treatment of comorbid diseases. T replacement is widely used for the treatment, but evidence-based information about its real benefi ts and short- and long-term risks, is not yet available. In this review, we will summarize the current concepts and controversies in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of LOH.

  6. More Efficient Sodium Removal by Ultrafiltration Compared to Diuretics in Acute Heart Failure; Underexplored and Overstated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazory, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced removal of sodium has often been cited as an advantage of ultrafiltration (UF) therapy over diuretic-based medical treatment in the management of acute decompensated heart failure. However, so far clinical studies have rarely evaluated the precise magnitude of sodium removal, and this assumption is largely based on the physiologic mechanisms and anecdotal observations that predate the contemporary management of heart failure. Recent data suggest that patients treated with UF experience substantial reduction in urinary sodium excretion possibly due to prolonged intravascular volume contraction. Consequently, the efficient sodium extraction through production of isotonic ultrafiltrate can be offset by urine hypotonicity. Based on the limited currently available data, it seems unlikely that the persistent benefits of UF could be solely explained by its greater efficiency in sodium removal. The design of the future studies should include frequent measurements of urine sodium to precisely compare the impact of UF and diuretics on sodium balance. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Sodium outleakage detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Effective detection of outleakage from sodium facilities permits timely intervention capable of limiting the consequences of such leakage. Two types of detection systems are described: local and overall detection. The use of two independent systems in sodium facilities is recommended. (author)

  8. Compatibility of refractory materials with boiling sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meacham, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    The program employed to determine the compatibility of commercially available refractories with boiling sodium is described. The effects of impurities contained within the refractory material, and their relations with the refractory's physical stability are discussed. Also, since consideration of refractories for use as an insulating material within Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Plants (LMFBR's) is currently under investigation; recommendations, based upon this program, are presented

  9. Hyperammonemic coma in a patient with late-onset OTC deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Onofrio

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urea Cycle Disorders ( UCD are among the most common genetic diseases of the metabolism and ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTC, an X-linked defect is the most frequent among them. It is responsible for hyperammonemia that can lead to chronic neurological illness and potentially to death in case of delayed diagnosis and treatment. With regards to the OTC deficiency there is great clinical heterogeneity with early-onset phenotypes with mostly poor prognosis and late-onset phenotypes with a better one. In the article it is reported the case of a 8 years old patient with diagnosis of OTC deficit with late-onset phenotype. The kid was brought to our hospital because of continuous vomiting and gastro- intestinal disorders, associated with irritability and lethargy later resulted into coma. Measurement of plasma ammonia concentration, followed by measurement of plasma amino acid and urine orotic acid levels allowed to diagnose the OTC deficit, lately confirmed by molecular genetic studies. The patient has been promptly treated with Sodium Phenylbutyrate, Arginine and discontinuing the protein intake. Gradually the ammonemia value decreased, and general and neurological conditions improved with resolution of the coma. To conclude, for patients presenting unexplained neurological symptoms, confusion and decreased level of consciousness, up to coma, urea cycle disorders and in particularly OTC deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis and an urgent ammonia level determined. In case of hyperammonemia, the treatment should be started immediately , even without a precise ethiologic diagnosis.

  10. Effects of low sodium diet versus high sodium diet on blood pressure, renin, aldosterone, catecholamines, cholesterol, and triglyceride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels Albert; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjorn; Jurgens, Gesche

    2017-01-01

    Background: In spite of more than 100 years of investigations the question of whether a reduced sodium intake improves health is still unsolved. Objectives: To estimate the effects of low sodium intake versus high sodium intake on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), plasma or serum...... results: A total of 185 studies were included. The average sodium intake was reduced from 201 mmol/day (corresponding to high usual level) to 66 mmol/day (corresponding to the recommended level). The effect of sodium reduction on blood pressure (BP) was as follows: white people with normotension: SBP.......0005) and triglyceride (P sodium intake as compared with high sodium intake. All effects were stable in 125 study populations with a sodium intake below 250 mmol/day and a sodium reduction intervention of at least one week. Authors' conclusions: Sodium reduction from an average high usual sodium...

  11. Current vegetation characteristics within tree-kill zones of F- and H-Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, E.A.; Irwin, J.E.

    1994-04-01

    Vegetation of two wetland areas previously adversely affected by outcropping groundwater was characterized to evaluate the type and extent of revegetation. When the damage first became evident in the late 1970s and early 1980s the areas were examined and described to try to establish the cause of the extensive tree mortality. The F- and H-Area seepage basins above the wetland areas received waste products from the separation areas beginning in 1955. The operation, estimated loading, and current status of the basins were summarized by Killian et al. Analysis of soil and water at the affected seeplines where the tree-kill was occurring confirmed that the surface water was strongly influenced by constituents of the F- and H-Area seepage basins. While no single cause of the forest mortality was defined, alterations in the hydrology and siltation patterns, pH changes, increased conductivity, and increased levels of sodium, nitrogen compounds, and aluminum were believed to be interacting to cause the mortality.

  12. Current vegetation characteristics within tree-kill zones of F- and H-Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.; Irwin, J.E.

    1994-04-01

    Vegetation of two wetland areas previously adversely affected by outcropping groundwater was characterized to evaluate the type and extent of revegetation. When the damage first became evident in the late 1970s and early 1980s the areas were examined and described to try to establish the cause of the extensive tree mortality. The F- and H-Area seepage basins above the wetland areas received waste products from the separation areas beginning in 1955. The operation, estimated loading, and current status of the basins were summarized by Killian et al. Analysis of soil and water at the affected seeplines where the tree-kill was occurring confirmed that the surface water was strongly influenced by constituents of the F- and H-Area seepage basins. While no single cause of the forest mortality was defined, alterations in the hydrology and siltation patterns, pH changes, increased conductivity, and increased levels of sodium, nitrogen compounds, and aluminum were believed to be interacting to cause the mortality

  13. [The effect of enzymatic treatment using proteases on properties of persistent sodium current in CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun'ko, O O; Isaiev, D S; Maxymiuk, O P; Kryshtal', O O; Isaieva, O V

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effect of proteases, widely used for neuron isolation in electrophysiological studies, on the amplitude and kinetic characteristics of persistent sodium current (I(NaP)) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Properties of I(NaP) were studied on neurons isolated by mechanical treatment (control group) and by mechanical and enzymatic treatment using pronase E (from Streptomyces griseus) or protease type XXIII (from Aspergillus oryzae). We show that in neurons isolated with pronase E kinetic of activation and density of I(NaP) was unaltered. Enzymatic treatment with protease type XXIII did not alter I(NaP) activation but result in significant decrease in I(NaP) density. Our data indicates that enzymatic treatment using pronase E for neuron isolation is preferable for investigation of I(NaP).

  14. Current-voltage curve of sodium channels and concentration dependence of sodium permeability in frog skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, W; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Lindemann, B

    1977-01-01

    1. The inward facing membranes of in vitro frog skin epithelium were depolarized with solutions of high K concentration. The electrical properties of the epithelium are then expected to be governed by the outward facing, Na-selective membrane.2. In this state, the transepithelial voltage (V...... was recorded. This procedure was repeated after blocking the Na channels with amiloride to obtain the current-voltage curve of transmembrane and paracellular shunt pathways. The current-voltage curve of the Na channels was computed by subtracting the shunt current from the total current.4. The instantaneous I...... of the inward facing membranes but reflects the true behaviour of P(Na).6. The steady-state P(Na) at a given (Na)(o) is smaller than the transient P(Na) observed right after a stepwise increase of (Na)(o) to this value. The time constant of P(Na)-relaxation is in the order of seconds.7. In conclusion, Na...

  15. Caustic Recycling Pilot Unit to Separate Sodium from LLW at Hanford Site - 12279

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendleton, Justin; Bhavaraju, Sai; Priday, George; Desai, Aditya; Duffey, Kean; Balagopal, Shekar [Ceramatec Inc., Salt Lake City, UT 84119 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    simulant from the Parsons process in the CRU. The modular CRU is easily scalable as a standalone system for caustic recycling, or for NTTS integration or for use as an In-Tank Treatment System to process sodium bearing waste to meet LLW processing needs at the Hanford site. The standalone pilot operation of the CRU to recycle sodium from NTCR effluent places the technology demonstration at TRL level 6. Multiple operations were performed with the CRU to process up to 500 gallons of the NTCR effluent and demonstrate an efficient separation of up to 70 % of the sodium without solids precipitation while producing 10 M caustic. Batch mode operation was conducted to study the effects of chemistry variation, establish the processing rate, and optimize the process operating conditions to recycle caustic from the NTCR effluent. The performance of the CRU was monitored by tracking the density parameter to control the concentration of caustic produced. Different levels of sodium were separated in tests from the effluent at a fixed operating current density and temperature. The voltage of the modules remained stable during the unit operation which demonstrated steady operation to separate sodium from the NTCR effluent. The sodium transfer current efficiency was measured in testing based on the concentration of caustic produced. Measurements showed a current efficiency of 99.8% for sodium transfer from the NTCR effluent to make sodium hydroxide. The sodium and hydroxide contents of the anolyte (NTCR feed) and catholyte (caustic product) were measured before and after each batch test. In two separate batch tests, samples were taken at different levels of sodium separation and analyzed to determine the stability of the NTCR effluent after sodium separation. The stability characteristics and changes in physical and chemical properties of the NTCR effluent chemistry after separation of sodium hydroxide as a function of storage time were evaluated. Parameters such as level of precipitated

  16. Sodium distiller II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Castro, P.M. e; Torres, A.R.; Correa, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    A sodium distiller allows the evaluation of the sodium purity, contained in plants and circuits of Fast Reactors. The sodium distillers of the IEN Reactor's Department was developed initially as a prototype, for the testing of the distillation process and in a second step, as a equipment dedicated to attendance the operation of these circuits. This last one was build in stainless steel, with external heat, rotating crucible of nickel for four samples, purge system for pipe cleaning and a sight glass that permits the observation of the distillation during all the operation. The major advantage of this equipment is the short time to do a distillation operation, which permits its routine utilization. As a consequence of the development of the distillers and its auxiliary systems an important amount of new information was gathered concerning components and systems behaviour under high temperature, vacuum and sodium. (author)

  17. Clinical and experimental applications of sodium phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannitti, Tommaso; Palmieri, Beniamino

    2011-09-01

    Histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase are enzymes responsible for histone acetylation and deacetylation, respectively, in which the histones are acetylated and deacetylated on lysine residues in the N-terminal tail and on the surface of the nucleosome core. These processes are considered the most important epigenetic mechanisms for remodeling the chromatin structure and controlling the gene expression. Histone acetylation is associated with gene activation. Sodium phenylbutyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has been approved for treatement of urea cycle disorders and is under investigation in cancer, hemoglobinopathies, motor neuron diseases, and cystic fibrosis clinical trials. Due to its characteristics, not only of histone deacetylase inhibitor, but also of ammonia sink and chemical chaperone, the interest towards this molecule is growing worldwide. This review aims to update the current literature, involving the use of sodium phenylbutyrate in experimental studies and clinical trials.

  18. Effects of dietary sodium on metabolites: the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Andriy; Sampson, Joshua; Joseph, Justin; Playdon, Mary C; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z

    2017-10-01

    Background: High sodium intake is known to increase blood pressure and is difficult to measure in epidemiologic studies. Objective: We examined the effect of sodium intake on metabolites within the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial)-Sodium Trial to further our understanding of the biological effects of sodium intake beyond blood pressure. Design: The DASH-Sodium Trial randomly assigned individuals to either the DASH diet (low in fat and high in protein, low-fat dairy, and fruits and vegetables) or a control diet for 12 wk. Participants within each diet arm received, in random order, diets containing high (150 nmol or 3450 mg), medium (100 nmol or 2300 mg), and low (50 nmol or 1150 mg) amounts of sodium for 30 d (crossover design). Fasting blood samples were collected at the end of each sodium intervention. We measured 531 identified plasma metabolites in 73 participants at the end of their high- and low-sodium interventions and in 46 participants at the end of their high- and medium-sodium interventions ( N = 119). We used linear mixed-effects regression to model the relation between each log-transformed metabolite and sodium intake. We also combined the resulting P values with Fisher's method to estimate the association between sodium intake and 38 metabolic pathways or groups. Results: Six pathways were associated with sodium intake at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of 0.0013 (e.g., fatty acid, food component or plant, benzoate, γ-glutamyl amino acid, methionine, and tryptophan). Although 82 metabolites were associated with sodium intake at a false discovery rate ≤0.10, only 4-ethylphenylsufate, a xenobiotic related to benzoate metabolism, was significant at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold ( P Sodium intake is associated with changes in circulating metabolites, including gut microbial, tryptophan, plant component, and γ-glutamyl amino acid-related metabolites. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000608. © 2017

  19. Sodium-to-Potassium Ratio and Blood Pressure, Hypertension, and Related Factors12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Vanessa; Chang, Ellen T.

    2014-01-01

    The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted. PMID:25398734

  20. Intermediates in monensin biosynthesis: A late step in biosynthesis of the polyether ionophore monensin is crucial for the integrity of cation binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hüttel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyether antibiotics such as monensin are biosynthesised via a cascade of directed ring expansions operating on a putative polyepoxide precursor. The resulting structures containing fused cyclic ethers and a lipophilic backbone can form strong ionophoric complexes with certain metal cations. In this work, we demonstrate for monensin biosynthesis that, as well as ether formation, a late-stage hydroxylation step is crucial for the correct formation of the sodium monensin complex. We have investigated the last two steps in monensin biosynthesis, namely hydroxylation catalysed by the P450 monooxygenase MonD and O-methylation catalysed by the methyl-transferase MonE. The corresponding genes were deleted in-frame in a monensin-overproducing strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis. The mutants produced the expected monensin derivatives in excellent yields (ΔmonD: 1.13 g L−1 dehydroxymonensin; ΔmonE: 0.50 g L−1 demethylmonensin; and double mutant ΔmonDΔmonE: 0.34 g L−1 dehydroxydemethylmonensin. Single crystals were obtained from purified fractions of dehydroxymonensin and demethylmonensin. X-ray structure analysis revealed that the conformation of sodium dimethylmonensin is very similar to that of sodium monensin. In contrast, the coordination of the sodium ion is significantly different in the sodium dehydroxymonensin complex. This shows that the final constitution of the sodium monensin complex requires this tailoring step as well as polyether formation.

  1. Intermediates in monensin biosynthesis: A late step in biosynthesis of the polyether ionophore monensin is crucial for the integrity of cation binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüttel, Wolfgang; Spencer, Jonathan B; Leadlay, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Polyether antibiotics such as monensin are biosynthesised via a cascade of directed ring expansions operating on a putative polyepoxide precursor. The resulting structures containing fused cyclic ethers and a lipophilic backbone can form strong ionophoric complexes with certain metal cations. In this work, we demonstrate for monensin biosynthesis that, as well as ether formation, a late-stage hydroxylation step is crucial for the correct formation of the sodium monensin complex. We have investigated the last two steps in monensin biosynthesis, namely hydroxylation catalysed by the P450 monooxygenase MonD and O-methylation catalysed by the methyl-transferase MonE. The corresponding genes were deleted in-frame in a monensin-overproducing strain of Streptomyces cinnamonensis. The mutants produced the expected monensin derivatives in excellent yields (ΔmonD: 1.13 g L(-1) dehydroxymonensin; ΔmonE: 0.50 g L(-1) demethylmonensin; and double mutant ΔmonDΔmonE: 0.34 g L(-1) dehydroxydemethylmonensin). Single crystals were obtained from purified fractions of dehydroxymonensin and demethylmonensin. X-ray structure analysis revealed that the conformation of sodium dimethylmonensin is very similar to that of sodium monensin. In contrast, the coordination of the sodium ion is significantly different in the sodium dehydroxymonensin complex. This shows that the final constitution of the sodium monensin complex requires this tailoring step as well as polyether formation.

  2. The Outwardly Rectifying Current of Layer 5 Neocortical Neurons that was Originally Identified as "Non-Specific Cationic" Is Essentially a Potassium Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Revah

    Full Text Available In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from layer 5 neocortical neurons, blockade of voltage gated sodium and calcium channels leaves a cesium current that is outward rectifying. This current was originally identified as a "non-specific cationic current", and subsequently it was hypothesized that it is mediated by TRP channels. In order to test this hypothesis, we used fluorescence imaging of intracellular sodium and calcium indicators, and found no evidence to suggest that it is associated with influx of either of these ions to the cell body or dendrites. Moreover, the current is still prominent in neurons from TRPC1-/- and TRPC5-/- mice. The effects on the current of various blocking agents, and especially its sensitivity to intracellular tetraethylammonium, suggest that it is not a non-specific cationic current, but rather that it is generated by cesium-permeable delayed rectifier potassium channels.

  3. Sodium and cover gas chemistry in the high temperature sodium facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Duncan, H.C.

    1976-01-01

    The equipment and procedures used in following sodium and cover gas chemistry changes in the High Temperature Sodium Facility are presented. The methods of analysis and results obtained are given. Impurity trends which have been measured during the facility operations are discussed

  4. Evolution and variation of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary: Evidence from planktonic foraminifera, oxygen and carbon isotopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The evolution and variation history of the Tsushima warm current during the late Quaternary was reconstructed based on the quantitative census data of planktonic foraminiferal fauna, together with oxygen and carbon isotope records of mixed layer dweller G. ruber and thermocline dweller N. dutertrei in piston core CSH1 and core DGKS9603 collected separately from the Tsushima warm current and the Kuroshio dominated area. The result showed that the Tsushima warm current vanished in the lowstand period during 40―24 cal ka BP, while the Kuroshio still flowed across the Okinawa Trough, arousing strong upwelling in the northern Trough. Meanwhile, the influence of freshwater greatly increased in the northern Okinawa Trough, as the broad East China Sea continental shelf emerged. The freshwater reached its maximum during the last glacial maximum (LGM), when the upwelling obviously weakened for the lowest sea-level and the depression of the Kuroshio. The modern Tsushima warm current began its development since 16 cal ka BP, and the impact of the Kuroshio increased in the middle and north- ern Okinawa Trough synchronously during the deglaciation and gradually evolved as the main water source of the Tsushima current. The modern Tsushima current finally formed at about 8.5 cal ka BP, since then the circulation structure has been relatively stable. The water of the modern Tsushima cur- rent primarily came from the Kuroshio axis. A short-term wiggle of the current occurred at about 3 cal ka BP, probably for the influences from the enhancement of the winter monsoon and the depression of the Kuroshio. The cold water masses greatly strengthened during the wiggle.

  5. Method of processing waste sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Takahashi, Kazuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable safety store of waste sodium in the form of intermetallic compounds. Method: Waste sodium used in a reactor is mixed with molten metal under an inert gas atmosphere and resulted intermetallic compounds are stored in a closely sealed container to enable quasi-permanent safety store as inert compound. Used waste sodium particularly, waste sodium in the primary system containing radioactive substances is charged in a waste sodium melting tank having a heater on the side, the tank is evacuated by a vacuum pump and then sealed with gaseous argon supplied from a gaseous argon tank, and waste sodium is melted under heating. The temperature and the amount of the liquid are measured by a thermometer and a level meter respectively. While on the other hand, molten metal such as Sn, Pb and Zn having melting point above 300 0 C are charged in a metal melting tank and heated by a heater. The molten sodium and the molten metals are charged into a mixing tank and agitated to mix by an induction type agitator. Sodium vapors in the tank are collected by traps. The air in the tank is replaced with gaseous argon. The molten mixture is closely sealed in a drum can and cooled to solidify for safety storage. (Seki, T.)

  6. Corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, P.C.S.; Grundy, B.R.; Miller, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of sodium-exposed stainless steels in chloride-containing aqueous solutions was investigated. Results showed that sodium-corroded Type 316 stainless steel (prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) fuel cladding) maintains its integrity after five months exposure in these solutions at 82 0 C and with chloride content up to 500 ppM. In contrast, sensitized and sodium mass transfer deposit-containing Type 304 stainless steel failed in the high chloride solution (500 ppM) within ten days at the same temperature. The failure was initiated by pitting and subsequently accelerated by intergranular attack. The results also show that high pH tends to reduce the susceptibility to failure while procedures commonly used for sodium removal have no significant effect on the water corrosion behavior of the test material. Based on the current results, it is concluded that water shortage is feasible for spent fuels in a LMFBR reprocessing plant

  7. Contribution to the prediction of sodium-water reactions effects: application to confinement losses inside a steam generator building of a sodium fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daudin, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Study of sodium-water reaction (SWR) consequences in open air represents a challenge in the frame of safety assessments of sodium fast reactors (SFR). In case of major accident and to predict consequences of SWR, it is necessary to better appreciate phenomena and especially quantity and rate of the energy release. The objective is thus to strengthen the understanding of such reactions in order to predict with lore accuracy its consequences on mechanical equipment in the surroundings. This work focuses on three areas : research of accidental sequences, experimental investigation, and phenomenological analysis before the explosive contact. At first, a tree structure risk analysis with calculations of dangerous phenomena permitted to suggest how the contact between reactants may happen. Then, demonstrative experimental studies were performed to deepen some practical aspects of the phenomenology, like the influence of the way the reactants get in contact. Data analysis conducted to the development of a phenomenological model, implemented into a software platform for numerical simulations. Although numerous hypothesis, transient heat transfer consideration enables to reproduce experimental observations, especially the influence of mixing conditions (sodium mass and initial temperatures) on the phenomenology. This study of the premixing step of sodium-water explosion is relevant in the frame of current prediction methods of mechanical loadings on structures. (author) [fr

  8. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia: A Meaningful Clinical Distinction?

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared ...

  9. 30 CFR 870.21 - Late payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Government. The Treasury current value of funds rate is published annually in the Federal Register and on... fees and interest. (c) When a reclamation fee debt is more than 91 days overdue, a 6 percent annual... fee was owed are subject to interest. Late reclamation fee payments are subject to interest at the...

  10. Conceptual core design study for Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor: Review of sodium void reactivity worth evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2012-01-01

    The conceptual core design study for a large-scale Japan sodium-cooled fast reactor (JSFR) have been carried out in the framework of the FaCT project. The reference “High-internal conversion” core can satisfy the requirements for enhanced safety, as well as achieving economic competitiveness. In order to increase the design reliability, more rigorous uncertainty evaluation is important. Development of the verification and validation methodology of the core neutronic design method is currently underway. (author)

  11. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β″-Al 2O 3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 °C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

  12. Advanced materials for sodium-beta alumina batteries: Status, challenges and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2010-01-01

    The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a β''-Al 2 O 3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300-350 C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However, there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement. (author)

  13. Some techniques for sodium removal in CIAE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Waimai; Ding Dejun; Guo Huanfang; Hong Shuzhang; Zhou Shuxia; Shen Fenyang; Yang Zhongmin; Xu Yongxing

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the experiment and application on sodium removal and sodium disposal are presented. Steam-nitrogen process was used in CIAE for cleaning cold traps, sodium vapor traps, a sodium tank. Atomized water-nitrogen process was used for cleaning dummy fuel assembly for CEFR and a sintered stainless steel filter. Sprinkle process was used for cleaning some tubes. Bultylcellosolve was used for cleaning sintered stainless steel filter and sodium flow measurement device. Ethanol alcohol was used for cleaning electromagnetic pump. Paraffin, transformer-oil or their mixture was used for cleaning sodium valves, a sodium vapor trap and sodium-potassium alloy absorber. A small sintered stainless steel filter was distillated in vacuum. A simple sodium disposal device has been served for several years in CIA.E. It can dispose about 10 Kg sodium each time and the disposal process is no-aerosol. It operates in open air for non-radioactive sodium. In recent years a small sodium cleaning plant has been built. It can use atomized water, steam or organic alcohol to removal of sodium. The LAVEL cleaning plant and SLAPSO cleaning plant were introduced from Italy. And CEFR preliminary design on sodium cleaning for spent fuel assembly and on sodium removal-decontamination for large reactor components is introduced. Vapour-nitrogen process is planned to use in them. (author)

  14. The Design of the Annular Linear Induction EM Pump with a Sodium Flowrate of 35 kg/sec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Reyoung; Lee, Tae Ho; Lee, Yong Bum

    2010-01-01

    Generally, an electromagnetic (EM) pump has been employed to circulate liquid metal with a high electrical conductivity by the electromagnetic force (Lorentz force) which is the cross product of the magnetic field and its perpendicular current. Therefore, an EM pump has its advantages over a mechanical pump such as no noise, no rotating parts, and its simplicity. Actually, it can be used for the Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) which uses liquid sodium with a high electrical conductivity as a coolant. In the present study, the annular linear induction EM pump with a flowrate of 2,265 L/min and a head of 4 bar is designed by using an electrical equivalent circuit method which is applied to linear induction machines. The designed pump will be used for the verification of the elements, which are IHX, AHX and DHX, in the component performance test sodium loop for the sodium thermo-hydraulic experimental facility. The pump is manufactured and fabricated to meet the requirements of the material and a functioning in high temperature-sodium environments. The P-Q characteristic is theoretically calculated on the designed pump according to the input currents and voltage

  15. Slicing sodium from bakery products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.

    2012-01-01

    The need for sodium reduction in our diet is clear to consumers, dieticians and food manufacturers. As sodium concentration has a strengthening effect on gluten, sodium reduction decreases dough mixing tolerance, dough resistance and induces dough stickiness. In particular, the latter may cause

  16. Containment Sodium Chemistry Models in MELCOR.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-04-01

    To meet regulatory needs for sodium fast reactors’ future development, including licensing requirements, Sandia National Laboratories is modernizing MELCOR, a severe accident analysis computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, Sandia is modernizing MELCOR to include the capability to model sodium reactors. However, Sandia’s modernization effort primarily focuses on the containment response aspects of the sodium reactor accidents. Sandia began modernizing MELCOR in 2013 to allow a sodium coolant, rather than water, for conventional light water reactors. In the past three years, Sandia has been implementing the sodium chemistry containment models in CONTAIN-LMR, a legacy NRC code, into MELCOR. These chemistry models include spray fire, pool fire and atmosphere chemistry models. Only the first two chemistry models have been implemented though it is intended to implement all these models into MELCOR. A new package called “NAC” has been created to manage the sodium chemistry model more efficiently. In 2017 Sandia began validating the implemented models in MELCOR by simulating available experiments. The CONTAIN-LMR sodium models include sodium atmosphere chemistry and sodium-concrete interaction models. This paper presents sodium property models, the implemented models, implementation issues, and a path towards validation against existing experimental data.

  17. Evolutionary primacy of sodium bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The F- and V-type ATPases are rotary molecular machines that couple translocation of protons or sodium ions across the membrane to the synthesis or hydrolysis of ATP. Both the F-type (found in most bacteria and eukaryotic mitochondria and chloroplasts and V-type (found in archaea, some bacteria, and eukaryotic vacuoles ATPases can translocate either protons or sodium ions. The prevalent proton-dependent ATPases are generally viewed as the primary form of the enzyme whereas the sodium-translocating ATPases of some prokaryotes are usually construed as an exotic adaptation to survival in extreme environments. Results We combine structural and phylogenetic analyses to clarify the evolutionary relation between the proton- and sodium-translocating ATPases. A comparison of the structures of the membrane-embedded oligomeric proteolipid rings of sodium-dependent F- and V-ATPases reveals nearly identical sets of amino acids involved in sodium binding. We show that the sodium-dependent ATPases are scattered among proton-dependent ATPases in both the F- and the V-branches of the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion Barring convergent emergence of the same set of ligands in several lineages, these findings indicate that the use of sodium gradient for ATP synthesis is the ancestral modality of membrane bioenergetics. Thus, a primitive, sodium-impermeable but proton-permeable cell membrane that harboured a set of sodium-transporting enzymes appears to have been the evolutionary predecessor of the more structurally demanding proton-tight membranes. The use of proton as the coupling ion appears to be a later innovation that emerged on several independent occasions. Reviewers This article was reviewed by J. Peter Gogarten, Martijn A. Huynen, and Igor B. Zhulin. For the full reviews, please go to the Reviewers' comments section.

  18. Sodium fire test at broad ranges of temperature and oxygen concentration. 4. Low temperature sodium spray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawata, Koji; Miyahara, Shinya

    2005-08-01

    Sodium spray fire tests at the initial sodium temperature of 250degC were conducted under the atmospheric conditions of air and 3% oxygen containing nitrogen to determine the sodium burning rate and the aerosol release fraction and compare them with the test results at the initial sodium temperature of 500degC in air atmosphere. In the tests, sodium was supplied using a commercial spray nozzle into a stainless steel vessel of 100 m 3 volume (SOLFA-2). The sodium burning rate was calculated from two independent methods: the consumption rate of oxygen in the vessel and the enthalpy change of vessel components during the test. The aerosol release fraction was determined from the comparison between the measured aerosol concentrations and the calculated ones by the ABC-INTG code. The main conclusions were as follows, (1) In air atmosphere, a) sodium droplets ignited instantaneously and the spray fire was observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 440 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was about 70%. (2) In 3% oxygen containing nitrogen, a) ignition of sodium droplets was not observed, and b) the sodium burning rate was about 44 g-Na/s and the fraction of supplied sodium was less than 10%. (author)

  19. Hemodialysis for near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity in a child receiving sodium phosphate enemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Smoyer, William E; O'Brien, Nicole F

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to demonstrate the importance of considering hemodialysis as a treatment option in the management of sodium phosphate toxicity. This is a case report of a 4-year-old who presented to the emergency department with shock, decreased mental status, seizures, and tetany due to sodium phosphate toxicity from sodium phosphate enemas. Traditional management of hyperphosphatemia with aggressive hydration and diuretics was insufficient to reverse the hemodynamic and neurological abnormalities in this child. This is the first report of the use of hemodialysis in a child without preexisting renal failure for the successful management of near-fatal sodium phosphate toxicity. Hemodialysis can safely be used as an adjunctive therapy in sodium phosphate toxicity to rapidly reduce serum phosphate levels and increase serum calcium levels in children not responding to conventional management.

  20. Sodium sampling and impurities determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Docekal, J.; Kovar, C.; Stuchlik, S.

    1980-01-01

    Samples may be obtained from tubes in-built in the sodium facility and further processed or they are taken into crucibles, stored and processed later. Another sampling method is a method involving vacuum distillation of sodium, thus concentrating impurities. Oxygen is determined by malgamation, distillation or vanadium balance methods. Hydrogen is determined by the metal diaphragm extraction, direct extraction or amalgamation methods. Carbon is determined using dry techniques involving burning a sodium sample at 1100 degC or using wet techniques by dissolving the sample with an acid. Trace amounts of metal impurities are determined after dissolving sodium in ethanol. The trace metals are concentrated and sodium excess is removed. (M.S.)

  1. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  2. Is it safe to re-access sodium bicarbonate bottles for use in minor surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornson, Lindsay; Bucevska, Marija; Tilley, Peter; Verchere, Cynthia

    2018-04-06

    Sodium bicarbonate is added to lidocaine to reduce injection pain. In Canada, it is available in vials exceeding the injection volume 100-fold. These are single-use vials that should be disposed of after one access. Some surgeons re-use vials to reduce waste, potentially causing contamination. This study aims to review the safety of sodium bicarbonate and assess alternatives to current practice. Strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cepacia were used to assess bacterial growth in vials of sodium bicarbonate. Each pathogen was inoculated into a vial for 14 days at room temperature. At several time points, 1 mL of solution was removed and diluted. One hundred microliters were transferred to blood agar plates and incubated at 35 °C. Colony counts were calculated, averaged and plotted onto a logarithmic graph. Colony counts of all strains fell below observational threshold after 7 days in sodium bicarbonate. Although all strains were reduced, bacteria can survive in sodium bicarbonate for several days, during which transmission may occur. Sodium bicarbonate vials should be treated as single-dose, as indicated by the manufacturers. To reduce waste, hospital pharmacies can repackage sodium bicarbonate into smaller vials or pre-alkalize lidocaine with sodium bicarbonate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Mark E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. Results We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. Conclusion SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  4. Voltage-gated sodium channels in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Na; Lu, Min; Echeverri, Fernando; Laita, Bianca; Kalabat, Dalia; Williams, Mark E; Hevezi, Peter; Zlotnik, Albert; Moyer, Bryan D

    2009-03-12

    Taste bud cells transmit information regarding the contents of food from taste receptors embedded in apical microvilli to gustatory nerve fibers innervating basolateral membranes. In particular, taste cells depolarize, activate voltage-gated sodium channels, and fire action potentials in response to tastants. Initial cell depolarization is attributable to sodium influx through TRPM5 in sweet, bitter, and umami cells and an undetermined cation influx through an ion channel in sour cells expressing PKD2L1, a candidate sour taste receptor. The molecular identity of the voltage-gated sodium channels that sense depolarizing signals and subsequently initiate action potentials coding taste information to gustatory nerve fibers is unknown. We describe the molecular and histological expression profiles of cation channels involved in electrical signal transmission from apical to basolateral membrane domains. TRPM5 was positioned immediately beneath tight junctions to receive calcium signals originating from sweet, bitter, and umami receptor activation, while PKD2L1 was positioned at the taste pore. Using mouse taste bud and lingual epithelial cells collected by laser capture microdissection, SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channel transcripts were expressed in taste tissue. SCN2A, SCN3A, and SCN9A were expressed beneath tight junctions in subsets of taste cells. SCN3A and SCN9A were expressed in TRPM5 cells, while SCN2A was expressed in TRPM5 and PKD2L1 cells. HCN4, a gene previously implicated in sour taste, was expressed in PKD2L1 cells and localized to cell processes beneath the taste pore. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A voltage-gated sodium channels are positioned to sense initial depolarizing signals stemming from taste receptor activation and initiate taste cell action potentials. SCN2A, SCN3A and SCN9A gene products likely account for the tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium currents in taste receptor cells.

  5. ELTA: Citatrademark: Sodium measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauvais, O.

    2002-01-01

    ELTA is pleased to present its last model of Sodium analyzers: CITA 2340: Automatically controlled sodium meter, integrating more automation and performances results respecting costs and wastes reduction. (authors)

  6. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  7. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillard, R.K.

    1978-10-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related informaion on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-3B aerosol behavior computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking

  8. Safety measuring for sodium handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, T J; Kim, B H; Choi, J H

    2001-09-01

    This is the report for the safety measures of sodium handling. These contents are prerequisites for the development of sodium technology and thus the workers participate in sodium handling and experiments have to know them perfectly. As an appendix, the relating parts of the laws are presented.

  9. Urinary Sodium Excretion and Dietary Sources of Sodium Intake in Chinese Postmenopausal Women with Prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C.; Tang, Nelson; Chan, Ruth; Chen, Yu-ming; Woo, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Background Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion. Methods This was a cross-sectional study among 655 Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension who were screened for a randomized controlled trial. Data collection included 24 h urine collection for the measurement of sodium, potassium and creatinine, 3-day dietary records, anthropometric measures and questionnaire survey on demographic data and dietary habits. Results The average salt intake estimated from urinary excretion was 7.8±3.2 g/d with 82.1% women above WHO recommendation of 5 g/day. Food groups as soup (21.6%), rice and noodles (13.5%), baked cereals (12.3%), salted/preserved foods (10.8%), Chinese dim sum (10.2%) and sea foods (10.1%) were the major contributors of non-discretionary salt. Discretionary salt use in cooking made a modest contribution to overall intake. Vegetable and fruit intake, age, sodium intake from salted foods, sea foods and soup were the independent determinants of urinary sodium excretion. Conclusions Our data revealed a significant room for reduction of the sodium intake. Efforts to reduce sodium from diets in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women should focus on both processed foods and discretionary salt during cooking. Sodium reduction in soup and increase in fruit intake would be potentially effective strategy for reducing sodium. PMID:25083775

  10. 21 CFR 522.460 - Cloprostenol sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cloprostenol sodium. 522.460 Section 522.460 Food... Cloprostenol sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of the aqueous solution contains 263 micrograms of cloprostenol sodium (equivalent to 250 micrograms of cloprostenol) in a sodium citrate, anhydrous citric acid...

  11. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-01-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety. PMID:29389843

  13. Adoptable Interventions, Human Health, and Food Safety Considerations for Reducing Sodium Content of Processed Food Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Abimbola; Fouladkhah, Aliyar

    2018-02-01

    Although vital for maintaining health when consumed in moderation, various epidemiological studies in recent years have shown a strong association between excess dietary sodium with an array of health complications. These associations are robust and clinically significant for development of hypertension and prehypertension, two of the leading causes of preventable mortality worldwide, in adults with a high-sodium diet. Data from developed nations and transition economies show worldwide sodium intake of higher than recommended amounts in various nations. While natural foods typically contain a moderate amount of sodium, manufactured food products are the main contributor to dietary sodium intake, up to 75% of sodium in diet of American adults, as an example. Lower cost in formulation, positive effects on organoleptic properties of food products, effects on food quality during shelf-life, and microbiological food safety, make sodium chloride a notable candidate and an indispensable part of formulation of various products. Although low-sodium formulation of each product possesses a unique set of challenges, review of literature shows an abundance of successful experiences for products of many categories. The current study discusses adoptable interventions for product development and reformulation of products to achieve a modest amount of final sodium content while maintaining taste, quality, shelf-stability, and microbiological food safety.

  14. Compared With Usual Sodium Intake, Low- and Excessive-Sodium Diets Are Associated With Increased Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels; Jürgens, Gesche; Baslund, Bo

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of sodium intake on population health remains controversial. The objective was to investigate the incidence of all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiovascular disease events (CVDEs) in populations exposed to dietary intakes of low sodium (<115 mmol), usual sodium (low usual so...

  15. Effect of sodium borohydride synthesis on NaBH4-H2 system economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabakoglu, F. oeznur; Kurtulus, Guelbahar

    2007-01-01

    The hazards and negative impacts of fossil fuel usage on environment and the prospect of fossil fuel depletion in near future have urged scientists to search for and use clean energy sources and alternative fuels. Hydrogen is the best fuel among others, which can minimize the effects of global warming. Although it is currently more expensive than other fuels, it will be cheaper following further developments in hydrogen technologies from production till end-use. Hydrogen storage is a critical issue in terms of safety and economics of hydrogen energy system. Chemical hydrides are an attractive hydrogen storage method due to their potential of achieving high volumetric and gravimetric storage densities. Among chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) is given a big attention, due to its 10.8% theoretical hydrogen storage capacity. Hydrogen, which can be released by sodium borohydride hydrolysis reaction on-site, can be used in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) at anode. on the other hand, sodium borohydride solution can be used directly in a borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) at anode. Like the other chemical hydrides, sodium borohydride has been an expensive material up to now, constituting a major obstacle to commercialization of sodium borohydride as a hydrogen storage method. This paper aims to give an approximate estimation process cost of the NaBH 4 -H 2 system by taking into account both the energy and raw material costs, starting with sodium borohydride production till recycling of it. Two different methods to synthesize sodium borohydride are analyzed and their effects on total cost are compared. It was found that the usage of Bayer process to synthesize sodium borohydride makes the overall sodium borohydride - hydrogen system cost higher than the total cost of the alternative process which starts with the production of sodium borohydride from borax decahydrate. (authors)

  16. Development of the immersed sodium flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1994-09-01

    An immersed sodium flowmeter of the range 3 m 3 /h is developed. It is a flowmeter of entire-sealed construction, it can be operated in sodium. Its construction, the theoretical calculation of the calibration characteristic and the pressure loss, the test facility and the calibration test are presented in detail. It analytical expression of the calibration characteristic in the temperature limit 200∼600 degree C and the error analysis are given. The basic error of this immersed sodium flowmeter is below +-2.3% of the measuring range. The immersed sodium flowmeter can be used to resolve the sodium flowrate measuring problems of the in-reactor component of LMFBR, for example, the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor sodium purification loop, the flowrate measuring of the immersed sodium pump and the flowrate measuring of the in-reactor test component

  17. Methodology for sodium fire vulnerability assessment of sodium cooled fast reactor based on the Monte-Carlo principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wei [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, P. O. Box 8088, Beijing (China); Wu, Yuanyu [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 Saint-Paul-lès-Durance (France); Hu, Wenjun [China Institute of Atomic Energy, P. O. Box 275(34), Beijing (China); Zuo, Jiaxu, E-mail: zuojiaxu@chinansc.cn [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Center, P. O. Box 8088, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Monte-Carlo principle coupling with fire dynamic code is adopted to perform sodium fire vulnerability assessment. • The method can be used to calculate the failure probability of sodium fire scenarios. • A calculation example and results are given to illustrate the feasibility of the methodology. • Some critical parameters and experience are shared. - Abstract: Sodium fire is a typical and distinctive hazard in sodium cooled fast reactors, which is significant for nuclear safety. In this paper, a method of sodium fire vulnerability assessment based on the Monte-Carlo principle was introduced, which could be used to calculate the probabilities of every failure mode in sodium fire scenarios. After that, the sodium fire scenario vulnerability assessment of primary cold trap room of China Experimental Fast Reactor was performed to illustrate the feasibility of the methodology. The calculation result of the example shows that the conditional failure probability of key cable is 23.6% in the sodium fire scenario which is caused by continuous sodium leakage because of the isolation device failure, but the wall temperature, the room pressure and the aerosol discharge mass are all lower than the safety limits.

  18. Methodology for sodium fire vulnerability assessment of sodium cooled fast reactor based on the Monte-Carlo principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wei; Wu, Yuanyu; Hu, Wenjun; Zuo, Jiaxu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Monte-Carlo principle coupling with fire dynamic code is adopted to perform sodium fire vulnerability assessment. • The method can be used to calculate the failure probability of sodium fire scenarios. • A calculation example and results are given to illustrate the feasibility of the methodology. • Some critical parameters and experience are shared. - Abstract: Sodium fire is a typical and distinctive hazard in sodium cooled fast reactors, which is significant for nuclear safety. In this paper, a method of sodium fire vulnerability assessment based on the Monte-Carlo principle was introduced, which could be used to calculate the probabilities of every failure mode in sodium fire scenarios. After that, the sodium fire scenario vulnerability assessment of primary cold trap room of China Experimental Fast Reactor was performed to illustrate the feasibility of the methodology. The calculation result of the example shows that the conditional failure probability of key cable is 23.6% in the sodium fire scenario which is caused by continuous sodium leakage because of the isolation device failure, but the wall temperature, the room pressure and the aerosol discharge mass are all lower than the safety limits.

  19. Multi-frequencies ECT algorithms to remove sodium noise in ISI of ferromagnetic SG tubes of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, Ovidiu

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents developments and application of multi-frequency eddy current to be used during In-Service Inspection (ISI) of ferromagnetic steam generator (SG) tubes of Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). Signal enhancement by means of multi-frequency ECT techniques are validated through 3D simulations of both signals and noise due to sodium forms around SG tube or SP. The purpose of such algorithms is to remove from ECT signal the electromagnetic noise resulting from sodium accumulated outside of SG tubes after SG vessel draining. Finite element method (FEM) simulations are used to analyse different sodium build-up scenarios observed experimentally, and to determine optimal multi-frequency ECT algorithms to suppress the most efficiently sodium noise. Also a new 'window multi-frequency' algorithm is applied and validated using 3-dimensional FEM simulations of SP and sodium forms. (author)

  20. Sodium pumping: pump problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guer, M.; Guiton, P.

    Information on sodium pumps for LMFBR type reactors is presented concerning ring pump design, pool reactor pump design, secondary pumps, sodium bearings, swivel joints of the oscillating annulus, and thermal shock loads

  1. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.

    1979-01-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m 3 CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  2. Summary of HEDL sodium fire tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilliard, R K [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1979-03-01

    The sodium fire test program and related studies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), covering the period from 1972 to 1978, are described. The program is analytical and experimental in scope, with computer code development and experimental verification. Tests have ranged in size from gram quantity laboratory tests to 1600-kg sodium spills. The experimental work is performed in two facilities: the Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF) and the Containment Systems Test Facility (CSTF). The facilities are described and the experimental results summarized. Sodium fire extinguishment tests which verified the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) secondary sodium fire protection system are described and related information on sodium burning rates and smoke release rates are correlated. The burning rates are compared to theoretical predictions based on heat and mass transfer analogy, with good agreement. Comparisons with the SOFIRE-II code are also made. Sodium combustion aerosol properties are defined as to chemical and physical nature, settling in closed vessels and effect of added water vapor. The HAA-38 aerosol behaviour computer code is compared to tests in the 850-m{sup 3} CSTF containment vessel. Sodium spray tests in the CSTF are compared with the SPRAY computer code. An air cleaning program is described, which has the objective of removing high mass concentration sodium combustion aerosols from vented cells and containment buildings. The aerosol mass holding capacity of commercial filters was measured and an aqueous scrubber system is described. The effects of sodium spills on cell structures were investigated, including water release from heated concrete, the reaction of sodium with concrete, the formation and spontaneous recombination of hydrogen, and the ability of steel cell liners to withstand large spills of high temperature sodium without leaking. (author)

  3. Uncertainty quantification of fast sodium current steady-state inactivation for multi-scale models of cardiac electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Pras; Shotwell, Matthew S; Gavaghan, David J; Cordeiro, Jonathan M; Gray, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps the most mature area of multi-scale systems biology is the modelling of the heart. Current models are grounded in over fifty years of research in the development of biophysically detailed models of the electrophysiology (EP) of cardiac cells, but one aspect which is inadequately addressed is the incorporation of uncertainty and physiological variability. Uncertainty quantification (UQ) is the identification and characterisation of the uncertainty in model parameters derived from experimental data, and the computation of the resultant uncertainty in model outputs. It is a necessary tool for establishing the credibility of computational models, and will likely be expected of EP models for future safety-critical clinical applications. The focus of this paper is formal UQ of one major sub-component of cardiac EP models, the steady-state inactivation of the fast sodium current, INa. To better capture average behaviour and quantify variability across cells, we have applied for the first time an 'individual-based' statistical methodology to assess voltage clamp data. Advantages of this approach over a more traditional 'population-averaged' approach are highlighted. The method was used to characterise variability amongst cells isolated from canine epi and endocardium, and this variability was then 'propagated forward' through a canine model to determine the resultant uncertainty in model predictions at different scales, such as of upstroke velocity and spiral wave dynamics. Statistically significant differences between epi and endocardial cells (greater half-inactivation and less steep slope of steady state inactivation curve for endo) was observed, and the forward propagation revealed a lack of robustness of the model to underlying variability, but also surprising robustness to variability at the tissue scale. Overall, the methodology can be used to: (i) better analyse voltage clamp data; (ii) characterise underlying population variability; (iii) investigate

  4. Post-Formation Sodium Loss on the Moon: A Bulk Estimate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, P.; Killen, R. M.; Airapetian, V.; Petro, N. E.; Mandell, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    The Moon and Earth are generally similar in terms of composition, but there exist variations in the abundance of certain elements among the two bodies. These differences are a likely consequence of differing physical evolution of the two bodies over the solar system's history. While previous works have assumed this may be due to conditions during the Moonâ€"TM"s formation, we explore the likelihood that the observed depletion in Sodium in lunar samples may be partially due to post-formation mechanisms. Solar effects, loss from a primordial atmosphere and impacts are some of the dominant post-formation mechanisms that we examine. We describe how our past and current modeling efforts indicate that a significant fraction of the observed depletion of sodium in lunar samples relative to a bulk silicate earth composition may have been due to solar activity, atmospheric loss and impacts. Using profiles of sodium abundances from lunar crustal samples may thus serve as a powerful tool towards exploring conditions on the Moon's surface throughout solar system history. Conditions on the Moon immediately after formation may still be recorded in the lunar crust and may provide a window towards interpreting observations from some of the first rocky exoplanets that will be most amenable to characterization. Potential spatial variation of sodium in the lunar crust may be a relevant consideration for future sample return efforts. Sodium Depletion in the Lunar Crust: Lunar

  5. Wastage of Steam Generator Tubes by Sodium-Water Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Tae Joon; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum; Park, Nam Cook

    2010-01-01

    The Korea Advanced LIquid MEtal Reactor (KALIMER) steam generator is a helical coil, vertically oriented, shell-and-tube type heat exchanger with fixed tube-sheet. The conceptual design and outline drawing of the steam generator are shown in Figure 1. Flow is counter-current, with sodium on the shell side and water/steam on the tube side. Sodium flow enters the steam generator through the upper inlet nozzles and then flows down through the tube bundle. Feedwater enters the steam generator through the feedwater nozzles at the bottom of steam generator. Therefore, if there is a hole or a crack in a heat transfer tube, a leakage of water/steam into the sodium may occur, resulting in a sodium-water reaction. When such a leak occurs, so-called 'wastage' is the result which may cause damage to or a failure of the adjacent tubes. If a steam generator is operated for some time in this condition, it is possible that it might create an intermediate leak state which would then give rise to the problems of a multi-target wastage in a very short time. Therefore, it is very important to predict these phenomena quantitatively from the view of designing a steam generator and its leak detection systems. For this, multi-target wastage tests for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel tube bundle by intermediate leaks are being prepared

  6. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  7. Cooling Performance of ALIP according to the Air or Sodium Cooling Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Huee-Youl; Yoon, Jung; Lee, Tae-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    ALIP pumps the liquid sodium by Lorentz force produced by the interaction of induced current in the liquid metal and their associated magnetic field. Even though the efficiency of the ALIP is very low compared to conventional mechanical pumps, it is very useful due to the absence of moving parts, low noise and vibration level, simplicity of flow rate regulation and maintenance, and high temperature operation capability. Problems in utilization of ALIP concern a countermeasure for elevation of internal temperature of the coil due to joule heating and how to increase magnetic flux density of Na channel gap. The conventional ALIP usually used cooling methods by circulating the air or water. On the other hand, GE-Toshiba developed a double stator pump adopting the sodium-immersed self-cooled type, and it recovered the heat loss in sodium. Therefore, the station load factor of the plant could be reduced. In this study, the cooling performance with cooling types of ALIP is analyzed. We developed thermal analysis models to evaluate the cooling performance of air or sodium cooling type of ALIP. The cooling performance is analyzed for operating parameters and evaluated with cooling type. 1-D and 3-D thermal analysis model for IHTS ALIP was developed, and the cooling performance was analyzed for air or sodium cooling type. The cooling performance for air cooling type was better than sodium cooling type at higher air velocity than 0.2 m/s. Also, the air temperature of below 270 .deg. demonstrated the better cooling performance as compared to sodium.

  8. Thermal analysis experiment for elucidating sodium-water chemical reaction mechanism in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Shin; Kurihara, Akikazu; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of the sodium-water surface reaction in a steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactors, kinetic study of the sodium (Na)-sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reaction has been carried out by using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) technique. The parameters, including melting points of Na and NaOH, phase transition temperature of NaOH, Na-NaOH reaction temperature, and decomposition temperature of sodium hydride (NaH) have been identified from DTA curves. Based on the measured reaction temperature, rate constant of sodium monoxide (Na 2 O) generation was obtained. Thermal analysis results indicated that Na 2 O generation at the secondary overall reaction should be considered during the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  9. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.; Raaij, J.M.A. van

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400 mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  10. Nutritional impact of sodium reduction strategies on sodium intake from processed foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Noort, M.W.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Background/objectives: Sodium intake in the Netherlands is substantially above the recommended intake of 2400¿mg/day. This study aimed to estimate the effect of two sodium reduction strategies, that is, modification of the composition of industrially processed foods toward the technologically

  11. An effective method to screen sodium-based layered materials for sodium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Zihe; Yao, Sai; Chen, An; Zhao, Xudong; Zhou, Zhen

    2018-03-01

    Due to the high cost and insufficient resource of lithium, sodium-ion batteries are widely investigated for large-scale applications. Typically, insertion-type materials possess better cyclic stability than alloy-type and conversion-type ones. Therefore, in this work, we proposed a facile and effective method to screen sodium-based layered materials based on Materials Project database as potential candidate insertion-type materials for sodium ion batteries. The obtained Na-based layered materials contains 38 kinds of space group, which reveals that the credibility of our screening approach would not be affected by the space group. Then, some important indexes of the representative materials, including the average voltage, volume change and sodium ion mobility, were further studied by means of density functional theory computations. Some materials with extremely low volume changes and Na diffusion barriers are promising candidates for sodium ion batteries. We believe that our classification algorithm could also be used to search for other alkali and multivalent ion-based layered materials, to accelerate the development of battery materials.

  12. The dismantling of fast reactors: sodium processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Berte, M.; Serpante, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Fast reactors require a coolant that does not slow down neutrons so water can not be used. Metallic sodium has been chosen because of its outstanding neutronic and thermal properties but sodium reacts easily with air and water and this implies that sodium-smeary components can not be considered as usual nuclear wastes. A stage of sodium neutralizing is necessary in the processing of wastes from fast reactors. Metallic sodium is turned into a chemically stable compound: soda, carbonates or sodium salts. This article presents several methods used by Framatome in an industrial way when dismantling sodium-cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  13. Friction and wear in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, N.J.; Droher, J.J.

    1973-01-01

    In the design of a safe and reliable sodium-cooled reactor one of the more important problem areas is that of friction and wear of components immersed in liquid sodium or exposed to sodium vapor. Sodium coolant at elevated temperatures may severely affect most oxide-bearing surface layers which provide corrosion resistance and, to some extent, lubrication and surface hardness. Consequently, accelerated deterioration may be experienced on engaged-motion contact surfaces, which could result in unexpected reactor shutdown from component malfunction or failure due to galling and seizure. An overall view of the friction and wear phenomena encountered during oscillatory rubbing of surfaces in high-temperature, liquid-sodium environments is presented. Specific data generated at the Liquid Metal Engineering Center (LMEC) on this subject is also presented. (U.S.)

  14. Sodium ionization detector and sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrizo, J.; Bauerle, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Work conducted on a basic technology development effort with the Westinghouse Sodium Ionization Detector (SID) sensor is reported. Included are results obtained for three task areas: (1) On-line operational response testing - in-situ calibration techniques; (2) Performance-reliability characteristics of aged filaments; and (3) Evaluation of chemical interference effects. The results showed that a calibrator filament coated with a sodium compound, when activated, does supply the necessary sodium atoms to provide a valid operational in-situ test. The life time of new Cr 2 0 3 -protected SID sensor filaments can be extended by operating at a reduced temperature. However, there also is a reduction in the sensitivity. Non-sodium species, such as products from a smoldering fire and organic aerosols, produce an interference response from the sensor comparable to a typical sodium response

  15. In-service examination of IHX tubing with eddy current NDT equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.

    1972-01-01

    Single and multiple frequency eddy current (ET) nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques and equipment were investigated for in-service inspection of sodium-contaminated intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) tubing. A four frequency technique, demonstrated in the laboratory, was relatively insensitive to signals caused by probe motion, tube support plates, and residual sodium on the outer surface of the tubes. No method was found to avoid the signals from residual sodium on the inside surfaces of the tube. (U.S.)

  16. Methods in the treatment of sodium wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.

    1997-01-01

    In the domain of sodium waste processing, we have followed a logical route that has enabled us to propose a global method with respect to sodium wastes. This approach has led to: The choice of only those sodium processes using water; The development of sodium purification methods; The development of methods for cutting metallic wastes soiled by or filled with sodium; The transformation of the resulting sodium hydroxide into ultimate solid wastes for surface storage. (author)

  17. Impact of sodium on the secondary phases and current pathway in Cu{sub 2}(Zn,Sn)Se{sub 4} thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yi-Cheng, E-mail: ielinyc@cc.ncue.edu.tw [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lai, Chien-Mu [Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Hung-Ru [Green Energy & Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the influence of Na content on secondary phases and current pathway in Cu{sub 2}(Zn,Sn)Se{sub 4} (CZTSe) thin film solar cells with the following structure: Ti/Mo:Na/Mo/CZTSe/CdS/i-ZnO/ZnO:Al/Al. The application of Na-doped Mo target as a source of sodium. Experimental results demonstrate that increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} on the surface of the absorber layer; however, it did not appear to affect the secondary phases of Cu{sub 2}SnSe{sub 3} (CTSe) or ZnSe. Excessive quantities of Na were shown to have an adverse effect on device efficiency. Our results using conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) revealed that an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} can shift the current pathway on the surface of CZTSe from CZTSe grain boundaries (GBs) to the SnSe{sub 2} grains. The role of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} of the CZTSe acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current and low device efficiency. - Highlights: • Increasing the Na content leads to an increase in the quantity of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2}. • An increase of secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} can shift the current pathway from CZTSe grain boundaries to the SnSe{sub 2} grains. • The secondary phase SnSe{sub 2} acted as a channel for the current flow, which results in high leakage current.

  18. Molecular and kinetic determinants of local anaesthetic action on sodium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R J; Zamponi, G W; Sierralta, I E

    1998-11-23

    (1) Local anaesthetics (LA) rely for their clinical actions on state-dependent inhibition of voltage-dependent sodium channels. (2) Single, batrachoxin-modified sodium channels in planar lipid bilayers allow direct observation of drug-channel interactions. Two modes of inhibition of single-channel current are observed: fast block of the open channels and prolongation of a long-lived closed state, some of whose properties resemble those of the inactivated state of unmodified channels. (3) Analogues of different parts of the LA molecule separately mimic each blocking mode: amines--fast block, and water-soluble aromatics--closed state prolongation. (4) Interaction between a mu-conotoxin derivative and diethylammonium indicate an intrapore site of fast, open-state block. (5) Site-directed mutagenesis studies suggest that hydrophobic residues in transmembrane segment 6 of repeat domain 4 of sodium channels are critical for both LA binding and stabilization of the inactivated state.

  19. Sodium Fire Demonstration Facility Design and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Youngil; Kim, Jong-Man; Lee, Jewhan; Hong, Jonggan; Yeom, Sujin; Cho, Chungho; Jung, Min-Hwan; Gam, Da-Young; Jeong, Ji-Young

    2014-01-01

    Although sodium has good characteristics such as high heat transfer rate and stable nuclear property, it is difficult to manage because of high reactivity. Sodium is solid at the room temperature and it easily reacts with oxygen resulting in fire due to the reaction heat. Thus, sodium must be stored in a chemically stable place, i.e., an inert gas-sealed or oil filled vessel. When a sodium fire occurs, the Na 2 O of white fume is formed. It is mainly composed of Na 2 O 2 , NaOH, and Na 2 CO 3 , ranging from 0.1 to several tens of micrometers in size. It is known that the particle size increases by aggregation during floating in air. Thus, the protection method is important and should be considered in the design and operation of a sodium system. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics are described, and the demonstration utility of outbreak of sodium fire and its extinguishing is introduced. In this paper, sodium fire characteristics and a demonstration facility are described. The introduced sodium fire demonstration facility is the only training device used to observe a sodium fire and extinguish it domestically. Furthermore, the type of sodium fire will be diversified with the enhancement of the utility. It is expected that this utility will contribute to experience in the safe treatment of sodium by the handlers

  20. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Z. Zyman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  1. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. 21 CFR 172.822 - Sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lauryl sulfate. 172.822 Section 172.822 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.822 Sodium lauryl sulfate. The food additive sodium lauryl sulfate may be safely... specifications: (1) It is a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates consisting chiefly of sodium lauryl sulfate [CH2(CH2...

  3. Sodium, Iodine and Bromine in Polar Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolo

    Abstract: This research focuses on sodium, bromine and iodine in polar ice cores, with the aim of reviewing and advancing their current understanding with additional measurements and records, and investigating the connections of these tracers with sea ice and their feasibility as sea ice indicators...... with a description of the main analytic al techniques used to measure ionic and elemental species in ice cores. Chapter 4 introduces sodium, bromine and iodine with a theoretical perspective and a particular focus on their connections with sea ice. Some of the physical and chemical properties that are believed...... back trajectory analyses of the past 17 years. The results identify the aerosol source area influencing the Renland ice cap, a result necessary for the interpretation of impurity records obtained from the ice core. Chapter 6 reviews the published ice/snow measurements of bromine and iodine at polar...

  4. Sodium setpoint and gradient in bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Carlo; Libutti, Pasquale; Lisi, Piero; Vernaglione, Luigi; Casucci, Francesco; Losurdo, Nicola; Teutonico, Annalisa; Lomonte, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    The demonstration of an individual osmolar setpoint in hemodialysis (HD) is crucial to individualize dialysate sodium concentrations. Furthermore, the diffusive gradient between plasma and dialysate sodium is important in the "fine tuning" of the intradialytic sodium mass balance (MB). The design of this study included part A: a retrospective analysis of predialysis plasma sodium concentrations extracted from a 6-year database in our HD population (147 prevalent white anuric patients); and part B: study of intradialytic sodium kinetics in 48 patients undergoing one 4-hour bicarbonate HD session. Direct potentiometry with an ion-selective electrode was used for sodium measurements. Study part A: the mean number of plasma sodium measurements per patient was 16.06 ± 14.03 over a mean follow-up of 3.55 ± 1.76 years. The mean of the averaged plasma sodium concentrations was 136.7 ± 2.1 mmol/L, with a low mean intraindividual coefficient of variation (1.39 ± 0.4). Study part B: mean predialysis and postdialysis plasma sodium concentrations were 135.8 ± 0.9 and 138.0 ± 0.9 mmol/L (p<0.001). Mean inlet dialyzer sodium concentration was 138.7 ± 1.1 mmol/L; the hourly diffusion concentration gradients showed a statistically significant transfer from dialysate to plasma (Wilks ? <0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was found between sodium MB and diffusion gradient (p<0.02), and between sodium MB and ultrafiltration volume (p<0.01). A relatively "fixed" and individual osmolar setpoint in HD patients was shown for the first time in a long-term follow-up. A dialysate sodium concentration of 140 mmol/L determined a dialysate to plasma sodium gradient.

  5. Performance characterization of geopolymer composites for hot sodium exposed sacrificial layer in fast breeder reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haneefa, K. Mohammed, E-mail: mhkolakkadan@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Santhanam, Manu [Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras, Chennai (India); Parida, F. C. [Radiological Safety Division, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of geopolymers subjected to hot liquid sodium is performed. • Apart from mechanical properties, micro-analytical techniques are used for material characterization. • The geopolymer composite showed comparatively lesser damage than conventional cement composites. • Geopolymer technology can emerge as a new choice for sacrificial layer in SCFBRs. - Abstract: A sacrificial layer of concrete is used in sodium cooled fast breeder reactors (SCFBRs) to mitigate thermo-chemical effect of accidentally spilled sodium at and above 550 °C on structural concrete. Performance of this layer is governed by thermo-chemical stability of the ingredients of sacrificial layer concrete. Concrete with limestone aggregate is generally used as a sacrificial layer. Conventional cement based systems exhibit instability in hot liquid sodium environment. Geo-polymer composites are well known to perform excellently at elevated temperatures compared to conventional cement systems. This paper discusses performance of such composites subjected to exposure of hot liquid sodium in air. The investigation includes comprehensive evaluation of various geo-polymer composites before any exposure, after heating to 550 °C in air, and after immersing in hot liquid sodium initially heated to 550 °C in air. Results from the current study indicate that hot liquid sodium produces less damage to geopolymer composites than to the existing conventional cement based system. Hence, the geopolymer technology has potential application in mitigating the degrading effects of sodium fires and can emerge as a new choice for sodium exposed sacrificial layer in SCFBRs.

  6. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a risk of miscarriage. Can use of docusate sodium during pregnancy cause birth defects? Few studies have been done to look at the possible risks of docusate sodium during pregnancy. However, the available studies show that when used ...

  7. Thermal performance tests on a sodium-to-sodium heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prahlad, B.; Kale, R.D.; Rajan, K.K.

    1990-01-01

    Thermal performance of a 3 MW sodium-to-sodium intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) was evaluated under temperature conditions typical of a Fast Breeder Reactor IHX. A regenerative figure of eight loop was used with the heat exchanger at the cross over point, and a 500 kW heat source and an air cooled sink to maintain the desired test conditions. The overall heat transfer coefficient was found to vary from 4.02 to 4.87 kW/m 2 ·K for Peclet numbers varying from 37 to 112.5 on the shell side and 44.4 to 133.5 on the tube side respectively. The Peclet numbers were representative of low turbulent regime in this case. While the overall heat transfer coefficient was found close to predictions using Lubarsky's correlation, it was somewhat lower than that predicted by later correlations of Spukunsky and Borishansky. The reasons for the lower overall heat transfer coefficient have been explained in terms of possible maldistribution of shell side flow in low turbulent regime reducing the effective heat transfer area and increased thermal contact resistance. Based on their findings the authors feel that heat transfer in a sodium-to-sodium heat exchanger at low Peclet numbers is expected to differ from that obtained with large Peclet numbers. (author)

  8. Selective sodium intercalation into sodium nickel-manganese sulfate for dual Na-Li-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova, Delyana M; Kukeva, Rosica R; Zhecheva, Ekaterina N; Stoyanova, Radostina K

    2018-04-26

    Double sodium transition metal sulfates combine in themselves unique intercalation properties with eco-compatible compositions - a specific feature that makes them attractive electrode materials for lithium and sodium ion batteries. Herein, we examine the intercalation properties of novel double sodium nickel-manganese sulfate, Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2, having a large monoclinic unit cell, through electrochemical and ex situ diffraction and spectroscopic methods. The sulfate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 is prepared by thermal dehydration of the corresponding hydrate salt Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2·4H2O having a blödite structure. The intercalation reactions on Na2Ni1-xMnx(SO4)2 are studied in two model cells: half-ion cell versus Li metal anode and full-ion cell versus Li4Ti5O12 anode by using lithium (LiPF6 dissolved in EC/DMC) and sodium electrolytes (NaPF6 dissolved in EC:DEC). Based on ex situ XRD and TEM analysis, it is found that sodium intercalation into Na2Ni1/2Mn1/2(SO4)2 takes place via phase separation into the Ni-rich monoclinic phase and Mn-rich alluaudite phase. The redox reactions involving participation of manganese and titanium ions are monitored by ex situ EPR spectroscopy. It has been demonstrated that manganese ions from the sulfate salt are participating in the electrochemical reaction, while the nickel ions remain intact. As a result, a reversible capacity of about 65 mA h g-1 is reached. The selective intercalation properties determine sodium nickel-manganese sulfate as a new electrode material for hybrid lithium-sodium ion batteries that is thought to combine the advantages of individual lithium and sodium batteries.

  9. Environmental, health, and safety issues of sodium-sulfur batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles. Volume 3, Transport of sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammel, C J

    1992-09-01

    This report examines the shipping regulations that govern the shipment of dangerous goods. Since the elemental sodium contained in both sodium-sulfur and sodium-metal-chloride batteries is classified as a dangerous good, and is listed on both the national and international hazardous materials listings, both national and international regulatory processes are considered in this report The interrelationships as well as the differences between the two processes are highlighted. It is important to note that the transport regulatory processes examined in this report are reviewed within the context of assessing the necessary steps needed to provide for the domestic and international transport of sodium-beta batteries. The need for such an assessment was determined by the Shipping Sub-Working Group (SSWG) of the EV Battery Readiness Working Group (Working Group), created in 1990. The Working Group was created to examine the regulatory issues pertaining to in-vehicle safety, shipping, and recycling of sodium-sulfur batteries, each of which is addressed by a sub-working group. The mission of the SSWG is to establish basic provisions that will ensure the safe and efficient transport of sodium-beta batteries. To support that end, a proposal to the UN Committee of Experts was prepared by the SSWG, with the goal of obtaining a proper shipping name and UN number for sodium-beta batteries and to establish the basic transport requirements for such batteries (see the appendix for the proposal as submitted). It is emphasized that because batteries are large articles containing elemental sodium and, in some cases, sulfur, there is no existing UN entry under which they can be classified and for which modal transport requirements, such as the use of packaging appropriate for such large articles, are provided for. It is for this reason that a specific UN entry for sodium-beta batteries is considered essential.

  10. Instrumentation for Sodium Circuits; Instrumentation des Circuits de Sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cambillard, E. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lions, N. [CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache (France)

    1967-06-15

    Electromagnetic flow meters, level gauges and differential pressure gauges are among the main measurement instruments designed and tested at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) for sodium reactors. The main characteristics of the flow meters used with RAPSODIE are indicated. The instruments used in this connection are of the permanent -magnet or electromagnet type (in the primary circuits). A description is given of the calibration methods employed - use is made of diaphragms or Venturi tubes as standard flow meters - and information is given on the results measured for maximum sodium flows of 400 m{sup 3}/h. Three types of continuous level gauge have been studied. Resistance gauge. Two varieties used for the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of RAPSODIE are described. In one there is a compensation resistance along the whole height of the measuring element (the continuous gauges used with the RAPSODIE reactor are at present of this type). In the other type of gauge a device is incorporated to heat the measurement element and prevent the formation of conducting deposits (prototype sodium tests have been completed). Induction gauge. This type has two coupled coils and is fitted with a device to compensate for temperature effects. A description is given of a prototype which has been built and the results obtained in the course of sodium tests are described. Ultrasonic gauge. With this type, a transmitter is fitted on top of the outside of the sodium container; there is also a vertical wave guide, the bottom of which is immersed in the liquid metal and possesses a reflector system which returns the ultrasonic beam towards the surface. Fixed reference marks provide a permanent means of calibration and the whole apparatus is welded. This type of gauge is now being constructed. The differential pressure gauges that have been built, and used in particular with Venturi tube flow meters, are modified versions of the devices employed with the 1 - and 10-MW test circuits of

  11. Targeting sodium channels in cardiac arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remme, Carol Ann; Wilde, Arthur A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for proper electrical conduction in the heart. During acquired pathological conditions and inherited sodium channelopathies, altered sodium channel function causes conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias. Although the clinical,

  12. Simultaneous HPLC method for determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkaew Lakkanatinaporn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC method has been developed for the separation and determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary preparations. Both drugs were separated well on a Kromasil C18 column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine in 1% acetic acid, pH 3 (18:82, v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.5 ml/ min. The presence of both substances was monitored by UV absorption detection at 271 nm. The retention times of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline were 3.2 and 16.0 min, respectively. The performance of the developed method was tested. Linear responses of both drugs were achieved between 48-145% of labeled amount over the concentration ranges of 35-101 µg/ml and 102-306 µg/ ml for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9980 and 0.9998, respectively. Accuracy expressed in term of recoveries were 101.4± 1.21% (n=6 for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and 99.7±0.92% (n=6 for sodium sulfaquinoxaline. Precision of the method in terms of the relative standard deviation is not more than 2% in all cases. These figures of merit indicated the validity of the developed method.

  13. SNL/JAEA Collaborations on Sodium Fire Benchmarking.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Andrew Jordan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Takata, Takashi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ohshima, Hiroyuki [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Two sodium spray fire experiments performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) were used for a code - to - code comparison between CONTAIN - LMR and SPHINCS. Both computer codes are used for modeling sodium accidents in sodium fast reactors. The comparison between the two codes provides insights into the ability of both codes to model sodium spray fires. The SNL T3 and T4 experiments are 20 kg sodium spray fires with sodium spray temperature s of 200 deg C and 500 deg C, respe ctively. Given the relatively low sodium temperature in the SNL T3 experiment, the sodium spray experienced a period of non - combustion. The vessel in the SNL T4 experiment experienced a rapid pressurization that caused of the instrumentation ports to fail during the sodium spray. Despite these unforeseen difficulties, both codes were shown in good agreement with the experiment s . The subsequent pool fire that develops from the unburned sodium spray is a significant characteristic of the T3 experiment. SPHIN CS showed better long - term agreement with the SNL T3 experiment than CONTAIN - LMR. The unexpected port failure during the SNL T4 experiment presented modelling challenges. The time at which the port failure occurred is unknown, but is believed to have occur red at about 11 seconds into the sodium spray fire. The sensitivity analysis for the SNL T4 experiment shows that with a port failure, the sodium spray fire can still maintain elevated pressures during the spray.

  14. Wireless sensor network for sodium leak detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satya Murty, S.A.V.; Raj, Baldev; Sivalingam, Krishna M.; Ebenezer, Jemimah; Chandran, T.; Shanmugavel, M.; Rajan, K.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Early detection of sodium leak is mandatory in any reactor handling liquid sodium. ► Wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced for detecting sodium leak. ► We designed and developed a wireless sensor node in-house. ► We deployed a pilot wireless sensor network for handling nine sodium leak signals. - Abstract: To study the mechanical properties of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor component materials under the influence of sodium, the IN Sodium Test (INSOT) facility has been erected and commissioned at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research. Sodium reacts violently with air/moisture leading to fire. Hence early detection of sodium leak if any is mandatory for such plants and almost 140 sodium leak detectors are placed throughout the loop. All these detectors are wired to the control room for data collection and monitoring. To reduce the cost, space and maintenance that are involved in cabling, the wireless sensor networking technology has been introduced in the sodium leak detection system of INSOT. This paper describes about the deployment details of the pilot wireless sensor network and the measures taken for the successful deployment.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of sodium alkoxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    technique and IR spectroscopy. The elemental ... for maintenance or disposal, need to be cleaned free of sodium for the ... scenario on sodium removal using different alcohols are ... ethoxide and sodium n-propoxide by KBr pellet method.

  16. Reduced-Sodium Lunches Are Well-Accepted by Uninformed Consumers Over a 3-Week Period and Result in Decreased Daily Dietary Sodium Sodium Intakes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Kremer, S.; Stipriaan, van W.L.; Noort, M.W.J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Temme, E.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Processed foods are major contributors to excessive sodium intake in Western populations. We investigated the effect of food reformulation on daily dietary sodium intake. Objective To determine whether uninformed consumers accept reduced-sodium lunches and to determine the effect of

  17. Design and selection of materials for sodium cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium cooled fast reactors are currently in operation, under construction or under design by a number of countries. The design of sodium cooled fast reactor is covered by French RCC - MR code and ASME code NH. The codes cover rules as regards to materials, design and construction. These codes do not cover the effect of irradiation and environment. Elevated temperature design criteria in nuclear codes are much stringent in comparison to non nuclear codes. Sodium corrosion is not an issue in selection of materials provided oxygen impurity in sodium is controlled for which excellent reactor operating experience is available. Austenitic stainless steels have remained the choice for the permanent structures of primary sodium system. Stabilized austenitic stainless steel are rejected because of poor operating experience and non inclusion in the design codes. Route for improved creep behaviour lies in compositional modifications in 316 class steel. However, the weldability needs to be ensured. For cold leg component is non creep regime, SS 304 class steel is favoured from overall economics. Enhanced fuel burn up can be realized by the use of 9-12%Cr 1%Mo class steel for the wrapper of MOX fuel design, and cladding and wrapper for metal fuel reactors. Minor compositional modifications of 20% cold worked 15Cr-15Ni class austenitic stainless steel will be a strong candidate for the cladding of MOX fuel design in the short term. Long term objective for the cladding will be to develop oxide dispersion strengthened steel. 9%Cr 1%Mo class steel (Gr 91) is an ideal choice for integrated once through sodium heated steam generators. One needs to incorporate operating experience from reactors and thermal power stations, industrial capability and R and D feedback in preparing the technical specifications for procurement of wrought products and welding consumables to ensure reliable operation of the components and systems over the design life. The paper highlights the design approach

  18. Salt craving: the psychobiology of pathogenic sodium intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael J; Na, Elisa S; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2008-08-06

    Ionic sodium, obtained from dietary sources usually in the form of sodium chloride (NaCl, common table salt) is essential to physiological function, and in humans salt is generally regarded as highly palatable. This marriage of pleasant taste and physiological utility might appear fortunate--an appealing taste helps to ensure that such a vital substance is ingested. However, the powerful mechanisms governing sodium retention and sodium balance are unfortunately best adapted for an environment in which few humans still exist. Our physiological and behavioral means for maintaining body sodium and fluid homeostasis evolved in hot climates where sources of dietary sodium were scarce. For many reasons, contemporary diets are high in salt and daily sodium intakes are excessive. High sodium consumption can have pathological consequences. Although there are a number of obstacles to limiting salt ingestion, high sodium intake, like smoking, is a modifiable behavioral risk factor for many cardiovascular diseases. This review discusses the psychobiological mechanisms that promote and maintain excessive dietary sodium intake. Of particular importance are experience-dependent processes including the sensitization of the neural systems underlying sodium appetite and the effects of sodium balance on hedonic state and mood. Accumulating evidence suggests that plasticity within the central nervous system as a result of experience with high salt intake, sodium depletion, or a chronic unresolved sodium appetite fosters enduring changes in sodium related appetitive and consummatory behaviors.

  19. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.

  20. Current Status of Experimental and Theoretical Work on Sodium/Fuel Interaction (SFI) at Karlsruhe 'Code Developments'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beutel, H.; Bojarsky, E.; Reiser, H.; Caldarola, L.; Jacobs, H.; Zyszkowski, W.

    1976-01-01

    The theoretical work follows two main lines: A. Code development; B. Theoretical work on fragmentation. Two computer codes have been developed. The first code contains a heat transfer model (during the vaporization phase) based on the inverse Leidenfrost phenomenon (which has been observed experimentally in water). The exact solution of the heat diffusion equation in a sphere is included in the code. The code accounts for the time history of each fuel particle by means of specially averaged temperature values. The presence of fission gases can also be taken into account. A size distribution of fuel particles has also been incorporated in the code as well as the effect of the friction due to the channel walls and that of the pressure losses at channel outlet. An extensive parametric study has been carried out with this code. The main conclusions are the following: 1. Total mechanical work strongly decreases with the fragmentation and/or mixing time constants. 2. Vapour blanketing during the vaporization phase is effective only if accompanied by a relatively slow process of fragmentation and mixing. In this case total mechanical work strongly decreased with degree of vapour blanketing. 3. Total mechanical work rises with initial length of sodium piston. 4. Time to empty the 120 cm long channel is 15-20 msecs. for values of the fragmentation and/or mixing time constants of the order of 5-10 msecs. 5. Effects due to particle size distribution and gas content are important only fora rapid fragmentation and mixing process. It must be painted out that (as far as the gas is concerned) this conclusion is valid only within the limits of the effects (due to the gas) which have been considered in the model. Propagation effects can be analysed by using the second code. The interaction region can be subdivided into an arbitrary number of sections, each containing fuel and coolant. The thermal conductivity of the liquid sodium has also been taken into account, as well as the

  1. Effect of angiotensin II on voltage-gated sodium currents in aortic baroreceptor neurons and arterial baroreflex sensitivity in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongze; Liu, Jinxu; Zheng, Hong; Tu, Huiyin; Muelleman, Robert L; Li, Yu-Long

    2015-07-01

    Impairment of arterial baroreflex sensitivity is associated with mortality in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Elevation of plasma angiotension II (Ang II) contributes to arterial baroreflex dysfunction in CHF. A reduced number of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels in aortic baroreceptor neurons are involved in CHF-blunted arterial baroreflex. In this study, we investigated acute effect of Ang II on Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neuron and on arterial baroreflex in sham and coronary artery ligation-induced CHF rats. Using Ang II I radioimmunoassay, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and western blot, we found that Ang II levels, and mRNA and protein expression of angiotension II type 1 receptor in nodose ganglia from CHF rats were higher than that from sham rats. Local microinjection of Ang II (0.2  nmol) into the nodose ganglia decreased the arterial baroreflex sensitivity in sham rats, whereas losartan (1  nmol, an angiotension II type 1 receptor antagonist) improved the arterial baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Data from patch-clamp recording showed that Ang II (100  nmol/l) acutely inhibited Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neurons from sham and CHF rats. In particular, inhibitory effect of Ang II on Nav currents in the aortic baroreceptor neurons was larger in CHF rats than that in sham rats. Losartan (1  μmol/l) totally abolished the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Nav currents in sham and CHF aortic baroreceptor neurons. These results suggest that elevation of endogenous Ang II in the nodose ganglia contributes to impairment of the arterial baroreflex function in CHF rats through inhibiting Nav channels.

  2. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions

  3. Sodium technology at EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, J.T.; Smith, C.R.F.; Olson, W.H.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of purity monitoring systems in 1967, the control of the purity of the primary and secondary sodium and cover gas systems at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has been excellent. A rigorous monitoring program is being used to assure that operating limits for more than 25 chemical and radioactive impurities are not exceeded. The program involves the use of sophisticated sampling and analysis techniques and on-line monitors for both sodium and cover gas systems. Sodium purity control is accomplished by essentially continuous cold trapping of a small side stream of the total circulating sodium. The cold traps have been found to be very effective for the removal of the major chemical impurities (oxygen and hydrogen) and tritium but are almost ineffective for 131 I and 137 Cs that enter the sodium from fuel cladding breaks. Purging with pure argon maintains the cover gas purity

  4. A study on sodium-concrete reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pae, Jae Huem; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Sik; Lee, Choong Hui; Chung, Ki Hong; Keum, Choong Ki [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    Sodium is commonly used as a coolant in liquid metal reactor. A large amount of its leakage may be possible in hypothetical accidents, even though the possibility is very low. In case that the leaked hot sodium comes in direct contact with structural concrete of liquid metal reactor, the reactor`s integrity can be challenged by the rupture of structure materials, hydrogen generation and its explosion, and release of radioactive aerosols due to sodium-concrete reaction. The knowledge of sodium-concrete reaction is evaluated to be one of the important and indispensable technologies for the establishment of safety measure in liquid metal reactor. In this study, the experimental facility of sodium-concrete reaction is to be designed, constructed and operated. And the reaction phenomena of sodium-concrete reaction is also to be analyzed through the experimental results. The aim of this study is to establish the measure of safety and protection for sodium-related facilities and to secure one of the fundamental technologies of liquid metal reactor safety. 47 refs., 7 figs., 13 tab.

  5. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  6. Electrodissolution studies of 304 stainless steel in sodium nitrate electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbrod, K.R.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1997-12-01

    To explore the impact of a wide range of operating parameters upon 304 stainless steel (SS) dissolution in sodium nitrate (NaNO 3 ) electrolyte, the staff of Engineering Science Applications-Energy and Process Engineering performed a series of beaker experiments. The variables that the authors explored included NaNO 3 concentration, chromate concentration, pH, stirring rate, and current density. They adjusted the run length to obtain approximately 10 mg/cm 2 metal removal so that they could compare surface finishes under similar test conditions. Key findings may be summarized as follows. Current efficiency during dissolution depends most strongly upon current density and electrolyte concentration. At 0.05 A/cm 2 , current density is more dependent upon chromium concentration than they previously thought. They obtained the best surface finish in a classical electropolishing regime at current densities above 1.5 A/cm 2 . Mirror-like finishes were obtained at near 100% current efficiency. At 0.05 a/cm 2 they obtained reasonable surface finishes, particularly at lower electrolyte concentration. Current efficiency was low (30%). At intermediate current densities, they obtained the worst surface finishes, that is, surfaces with severe pitting. Also, they explored preferential attack of the weld zone during electrodissolution of 304 stainless steel cans. Electrodissolution removed approximately twice as much material from cans with unshielded weld zones as from cans with shielded weld zones. The following implications are apparent. While operation above 1 A/cm 2 yields the best surface finish at 100% current efficiency, equipment size and power feedthrough limitations reduce the attractiveness of this option. Because other Los Alamos researchers, obtained more favorable results with the sulfate electrolyte, the authors recommend no further work for the sodium nitrate electrolyte system

  7. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (Prose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Andropause: Current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Andropause or late-onset hypogonadism is a common disorder which increases in prevalence with advancing age. Diagnosis of late-onset of hypogonadism is based on presence of symptoms suggestive of testosterone deficiency - prominent among them are sexual symptoms like loss of libido, morning penile erection and erectile dysfunction; and demonstration of low testosterone levels. Adequate therapeutic modalities are currently available, but disparate results of clinical trial suggest further evaluation of complex interaction between androgen deficiency and ageing. Before initiating therapy benefits and risk should be discussed with patients and in case of poor response , alternative cause should be investigated.

  9. Mesoporous Prussian blue analogues: template-free synthesis and sodium-ion battery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yanfeng; Binder, Andrew J; Guo, Bingkun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Qiao, Zhen-An; Tian, Chengcheng; Dai, Sheng

    2014-03-17

    The synthesis of mesoporous Prussian blue analogues through a template-free methodology and the application of these mesoporous materials as high-performance cathode materials in sodium-ion batteries is presented. Crystalline mesostructures were produced through a synergistically coupled nanocrystal formation and aggregation mechanism. As cathodes for sodium-ion batteries, the Prussian blue analogues all show a reversible capacity of 65 mA h g-1 at low current rate and show excellent cycle stability. The reported method stands as an environmentally friendly and low-cost alternative to hard or soft templating for the fabrication of mesoporous materials.

  10. Delaminated sodium nonatitanate and a method for producing delaminated sodium nonatitanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, May D.

    2016-02-02

    A hydrothermal synthesis method of making a delaminated titanate is disclosed. The delaminated titanate has a unique structure or morphology. The delaminated titanate is first formed by forming at a low temperature a layered sodium nonatitanate (SNT), which may be referred to as layered sodium titanate. The layered SNT has a unique morphology. The layered SNT is then synthesized into a delaminated titanate having a unique morphology.

  11. Application of objective provision tree to development of standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Moo-Hoon; Suh, Namduk; Choi, Yongwon; Shin, Andong [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A systematic methodology was developed for the standard review plan for sodium-cooled fast reactor nuclear design. The process is first to develop an objective provision tree of sodium-cooled fast reactor for the reactivity control safety function. The provision tree is generally developed by designer to confirm whether the design satisfies the defense-in-depth concept. Then applicability of the current standard review plan of nuclear design for light water reactor to sodium-cooled fast reactor was evaluated and complemented by the developed objective provision tree.

  12. Haematological evaluation of sodium fluoride toxicity in oryctolagus cunniculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abbas

    Full Text Available Blood is promptly affected by environmental pollutants and toxicants that can cause many metabolic disorders. The high level of fluoride acts as a potential pollutant, insecticide and rodenticide with very high toxicity, associated with the hematological damage. This study aimed to determine the toxicity of Sodium Fluoride on hematological parameters in Oryctolagus cunniculus. Twenty rabbits were acclimatized and divided in to control group and three experimental groups.Experimental group-I, II and III were treated with 10, 30 and 50 mg/kg body weight doses of Sodium Fluoride orally. Various blood parameters such as TEC, Hb, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, TLC and PLT count were investigated. Result findings showed that values of blood indices in experimental groups were significantly lower than the control group. Oneway ANOVA was applied for statistical analysis. The outcomes of the current studies indicated the reduction in RBC counts (anemia, leukocyte count (leukocytopenia, monocytosis, eosinopenia, neutrophilia and thrombocytosis on fluoride intoxication. Hematological disruptions like microcytic hypochromic anemia and decreased leukocyte count may be linked to the inflammatory effects of Sodium Fluoride on lymphatic organs. Keywords: Fluoride intoxication, Hypochromic anemia, Hematological, Parameters, Leukocyte alterations, Fluorosis

  13. Effects of sodium fires on structures and materials. Practical experience with sodium leakage accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenstein, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    A few sodium leakage, incidents happened in SNR 300 nuclear power plant during pre-nuclear operation which were of minor importance with respect to sodium fires. The most important sodium fire accident in the past happened in the Almeria Solar platform in Spain during the attempt to repair a valve while leaving accidentally the circuit under 4 bar overpressure. Considerable damage to pipes, valves, its insulation and its support structures was observed in the influence zone of the fire. Post accident analysis gave a leaked mass of about 14 m 3 , at a sodium temperature of 225 deg. C, the leakage lasting approximately half an hour, and burning under convective heat exchange with the external air in a section of 40 m 2 up to a height of 6 m down to the catch pans. Some local temperatures were determined by metallurgical means, integral support temperatures estimated from mechanical deformation observed. From these temperatures it was concluded that a massive spray type fire must have happened. The results fall in the interpretation range of sodium-spray fire test results. (author)

  14. Sodium Bicarbonate for Control of ICP: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Sader, Nicholas; West, Michael; Gillman, Lawrence M

    2018-01-01

    Our goal was to perform a systematic review of the literature on the use of intravenous sodium bicarbonate for intracranial pressure (ICP) reduction in patients with neurologic illness. Data sources: articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to April 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. 2 reviewers independently extracted data including population characteristics and treatment characteristics. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education methodology. Our search strategy produced a total 559 citations. Three original articles were included in the review. There were 2 prospective studies, 1 randomized control trial and 1 single arm, and 1 retrospective case report.Across all studies there were a total of 19 patients studied, with 31 episodes of elevated ICP being treated. Twenty-one of those episodes were treated with sodium bicarbonate infusion, with the remaining 10 treated with hypertonic saline in a control model. All elevated ICP episodes treated with sodium bicarbonate solution demonstrated a significant drop in ICP, without an elevation of serum partial pressure of carbon dioxide. No significant complications were described. There currently exists Oxford level 4, Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education D evidence to support an ICP reduction effect with intravenous sodium bicarbonate in TBI. No comments on its impact in other neuropathologic states, or on patient outcomes, can be made at this time.

  15. GOLD NANOPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED IN A POLYMERIC MATRIX OF SODIUM ALGINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Lelia POP

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic nanoparticles can be used as building blocks for the design of multifunctional systems based on polymeric capsules. The use of functionalised particles in therapeutics and imaging and understanding their effect on the cell functions are among the current challenges in nanobiotechnology and nanomedicine. The aim of the study was to manufacture and characterize polymeric microstructures by encapsulating plasmonic gold nanoparticles in biocompatible matrix of sodium alginate. The gold nanoparticles were obtained by reduction of tetracluoroauric acid with sodium citrate. To characterize the microcapsules, UV-Vis and FTIR spectroscopy, optical and confocal microscopy experiments were performed. In vitro cytotoxicity tests on HFL-1 cells were also performed. The capsules have spherical shape and 120 μm diameter. The presence of encapsulated gold nanoparticles is also shown by confocal microscopy. In vitro tests show that the microcapsules are not cytotoxic upon 24 h of cells exposure to microcapsules concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 25 capsules per cell. The obtained microcapsules of sodium alginate loaded with plasmonic gold nanoparticles could potentially be considered as release systems for biologically relevant molecules.

  16. Development of sodium technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H. Y.; Choi, Y. D.

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, τ c = δ·g -0.83 ·10 (3570/T Na -3.34) , in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics of pressure propagation and gas flow, and

  17. Development of sodium technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Sung Tai; Nam, H Y; Choi, Y D [and others

    2000-05-01

    The objective of present study is to produce the experimental data for development and verification of computer codes for development of LMR and to develop the preliminary technologies for the future large scale verification experiments. A MHD experimental test loop has been constructed for the quantitative analysis of the effect of magnetic field on the sodium flow and experiments are carried out for three EM pumps. The previous pressure drop correlations are evaluated using the experimental data obtained from the pressure drop experiment in a 19-pin fuel assembly with wire spacer. An dimensionless variable is proposed to describe the amplitude and frequency of the fluctuation of free surface using the experimental data obtained from free surface experimental apparatus and an empirical correlation is developed using this dimensionless variable. An experimental test loop is constructed to measure the flow characteristics in IHX shell side and the local pressure drop in fuel assembly, and to test the vibration behaviour of fuel pins due to flow induced vibration. The sodium two-phase flow measuring technique using the electromagnetic flowmeter is developed and the sodium differential pressure drop measuring technique using the method of direct contact of sodium and oil is established. The work on the analysis of sodium fire characteristics and produce data for vlidation of computer code is performed. Perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen appeared to be double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2mm diameter on sodium side. In small water leakage experiments, the following correlation equation about the reopen time between sodium temperature and initial leak rate was obtained, {tau}{sub c} = {delta}{center_dot}g{sup -0.83}{center_dot}10{sup (3570/T{sub Na}-3.34)}, in 400-500 deg C of liquid sodium atmosphere. The characteristics

  18. Gas Generation during Sodium Permanganate Addition to HB-Line Phase II Filtrate Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.C.

    2002-01-01

    HB-Line Phase II process requires the addition of sodium permanganate followed by a sodium nitrite addition to prevent the precipitation of plutonium solids in a non-geometrically safe vessel. Previous experimental work has shown this method effective. Current concerns are related to the gas generated by the reaction. Potential difficulties include tank over-pressurization and tank overflow due to foaming or eructation. It is also necessary to verify that the quantity of permanganate specified by the facility is sufficient to reach the desired endpoint in a single addition

  19. Characterization of ion distributions near the surface of sodium-containing and sodium-depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrales, Louis R.; Du, Jincheng

    2006-01-01

    The distribution of cation and anion components of sodium containing calcium aluminosilicate glass was studied by classical molecular dynamics simulations in a high temperature melt in the bulk and at the vacuum-melt interface. A significant redistribution of the sodium and non-bridging oxygen ions was observed. Subsequently, a sodium depleted calcium aluminosilicate glass melt was simulated to determine the sensitivity of the redistribution of ions near the vacuum-melt interface to the presence of sodium ions. It is found that the thermodynamic equilibrium condition near a surface favors the enrichment of non-bridging oxygen ions that is closely associated with enrichment of the sodium ions

  20. Under-Sodium-Viewing as one technique for periodic inspections in sodium-cooled fast reactors-- possibilities and limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.

    1979-07-01

    Periodic inspections are gaining increasingly technical importance for fast sodium cooled reactors. Among others the reactor tank and its internals have to be inspected, whereby licensing experts partly are requesting the standards of Light Water Reactors. This leads to difficulties in sodium cooled reactors because of the non-transparent coolant sodium and their compact structure. In order to avoid the complete dumping of the sodium, the under sodium viewing shall be applied besides other inspection methods. Since this is a new method, which is still in its development phase, this report presents and discusses the technical and physical basis and outlines possibilities and limits [de

  1. Spot urine sodium measurements do not accurately estimate dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougher, Carly E; Rifkin, Dena E; Anderson, Cheryl AM; Smits, Gerard; Persky, Martha S; Block, Geoffrey A; Ix, Joachim H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sodium intake influences blood pressure and proteinuria, yet the impact on long-term outcomes is uncertain in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Accurate assessment is essential for clinical and public policy recommendations, but few large-scale studies use 24-h urine collections. Recent studies that used spot urine sodium and associated estimating equations suggest that they may provide a suitable alternative, but their accuracy in patients with CKD is unknown. Objective: We compared the accuracy of 4 equations [the Nerbass, INTERSALT (International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure), Tanaka, and Kawasaki equations] that use spot urine sodium to estimate 24-h sodium excretion in patients with moderate to advanced CKD. Design: We evaluated the accuracy of spot urine sodium to predict mean 24-h urine sodium excretion over 9 mo in 129 participants with stage 3–4 CKD. Spot morning urine sodium was used in 4 estimating equations. Bias, precision, and accuracy were assessed and compared across each equation. Results: The mean age of the participants was 67 y, 52% were female, and the mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 31 ± 9 mL · min–1 · 1.73 m–2. The mean ± SD number of 24-h urine collections was 3.5 ± 0.8/participant, and the mean 24-h sodium excretion was 168.2 ± 67.5 mmol/d. Although the Tanaka equation demonstrated the least bias (mean: −8.2 mmol/d), all 4 equations had poor precision and accuracy. The INTERSALT equation demonstrated the highest accuracy but derived an estimate only within 30% of mean measured sodium excretion in only 57% of observations. Bland-Altman plots revealed systematic bias with the Nerbass, INTERSALT, and Tanaka equations, underestimating sodium excretion when intake was high. Conclusion: These findings do not support the use of spot urine specimens to estimate dietary sodium intake in patients with CKD and research studies enriched with patients with CKD. The parent data for this

  2. Clinical impact of nonosmotic sodium storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Engberink, R.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    High sodium intake is associated with hypertension and increased cardiovascular and renal risk. In this thesis we assessed whether these negative effects of sodium can be neutralised by glycosaminoglycans in the endothelial surface layer (i.e. nonosmotic sodium storage). Also, we investigate the

  3. Designing solid-liquid interphases for sodium batteries

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2017-10-06

    Secondary batteries based on earth-abundant sodium metal anodes are desirable for both stationary and portable electrical energy storage. Room-temperature sodium metal batteries are impractical today because morphological instability during recharge drives rough, dendritic electrodeposition. Chemical instability of liquid electrolytes also leads to premature cell failure as a result of parasitic reactions with the anode. Here we use joint density-functional theoretical analysis to show that the surface diffusion barrier for sodium ion transport is a sensitive function of the chemistry of solid–electrolyte interphase. In particular, we find that a sodium bromide interphase presents an exceptionally low energy barrier to ion transport, comparable to that of metallic magnesium. We evaluate this prediction by means of electrochemical measurements and direct visualization studies. These experiments reveal an approximately three-fold reduction in activation energy for ion transport at a sodium bromide interphase. Direct visualization of sodium electrodeposition confirms large improvements in stability of sodium deposition at sodium bromide-rich interphases.

  4. Sodium leak at Monju (II): Sodium leak, burning and aerosol behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funada, T.; Yamagishi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The amount of leaked sodium was estimated as approximately 640 kg during the 220 minute leak. The ventilation duct and the walkway grating under the leak site were severely damaged by Na-Fe-O reaction, but the floor liner and the concrete wall were not. A total 100 kg of sodium aerosol was deposited in the reactor auxiliary building and 230 kg was released to the atmosphere. The sodium concentration at the site boundary was calculated as 0.05 mg/m 3 , NaOH equivalent, which was low in comparison with the permitted level of 2 mg/m 3 . The tritium quantity released was estimated as 4.4 x 10 7 Bq, which was about 0.03% of the average released value per month for a LWR. (author)

  5. Mapping of sodium void worth and doppler effect for sodium-cooled fast reactor - 15458

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, J.; Pelloni, S.; Bortot, S.; Panadero, A.L.; Mikityuk, K.

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) represents the reference and the most technologically mastered system among the Generation-IV reactors. Nevertheless, the sodium void worth in the fuel regions of SFR is usually positive. To overcome this safety drawback, low-void sodium-cooled fast spectrum core (CFV) was proposed by CEA. Such a CFV core is used in the frame of WP6 'Core safety' of the FP7 Euratom ESNII+ project as a reference SFR design. The overall sodium void effect is negative for the CFV core. Nevertheless, locally it is positive in the fuel region and negative in the sodium plenum. Similarly, also the Doppler effect is spatially dependent and it varies between the inner and outer fuel regions and between the middle and lower blankets. Accordingly, knowledge of the local distributions or actually mappings of the two safety-related parameters will be necessary, before safety assessment and transient analysis can be done. In this study these maps have been produced using the deterministic code ERANOS. The obtained mapping shows strong local dependency of both safety-related effects. A sensitivity of the void effect to the sodium plenum modeling was also demonstrated. The results may serve as an input for the transient analysis of the CFV core or as a cross-check for the Monte Carlo method based maps. (authors)

  6. Carbon transport in sodium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Espigares, M.; Lapena, J.; La Torre, M. de

    1983-01-01

    Carbon activities in dynamic non isothermal sodium system are determined using an equilibratium method. Foils of Fe-18 w% Cr-8 W% Ni alloy with low carbon content (in the as received condition) are exposed to dynamic liquid sodium in the temperature range between 450 0 C and 700 0 C. The analysis was used to evaluate the carburization-decarburization behaviour of type 304 stainless steel exposed to sodium. (author)

  7. Water Mock-up for the Sodium Waste Treatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho; Lee, Yong Bum [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    It is important to safely treat the waste sodium which was produced from the sodium cooled fast reactors and the sodium facilities. About 1.3 tons of sodium waste has accumulated at KAERI from the sodium experiments which have been carried out since 1990. Also, large scaled sodium experiments are scheduled to verify the design of the sodium cooled fast reactor. As a treatment method for the waste sodium produced at the sodium facility, an investigation of the reaction procedure of the waste sodium with the sodium hydroxide aqueous has been developed. The NOAH process was developed in France for the treatment of waste sodium produced from sodium facilities and reactors. In the NOAH process, a small amount of sodium waste is continuously injected into the upper space which is formed on the free surface of the aqueous and slowly reacted with sodium hydroxide aqueous. Since the density of the sodium is lower than that of the aqueous, the injected sodium waste sometimes accumulates above the free surface of the sodium hydroxide aqueous, and its reaction rate becomes slow or suddenly increases. In the improved process, the sodium was injected into a reaction vessel filled with a sodium hydroxide aqueous through an atomizing nozzle installed on a lower level than that of the aqueous to maintain the reaction uniformly. Fig.1 shows the sodium waste process which was proposed in KAERI. The aqueous is composed of 60% sodium hydroxide, and its temperature is about 60 .deg. C. The process is an exothermic reaction. The hydrogen gas is generated, and the concentration of the sodium hydroxide increases in this process. It needs several systems for the process, i.e. a waste sodium injection, a cooling of the aqueous, hydrogen ventilation, and neutralization with nitric acid. The atomizing nozzle was designed to inject the sodium with the nitrogen gas which supplies a heat to the sodium to prevent its solidification and to uniformly mix the sodium with the aqueous. There are

  8. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubeigt, E. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S. [Laboratoire de Mecanique et d' Acoustique, CNRS UPR 7051, 13402 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Gobillot, G. [CEA Cadarache, DEN/DTN/STCP/LIET, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-07-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  9. Ultrasonic imaging in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubeigt, E.; Mensah, S.; Chaix, J.F.; Rakotonarivo, S.; Gobillot, G.

    2015-01-01

    The fourth generation of nuclear reactor can use liquid sodium as the core coolant. When the reactor is operating, sodium temperatures can reach up to 600 deg. C. During maintenance periods, when the reactor is shut down, the coolant temperature is reduced to 200 deg. C. Because molten sodium is optically opaque, ultrasonic imaging techniques are developed for maintenance activities. Under-sodium imaging aims at i) checking the health of immersed structures. It should also allow ii) to assess component degradation or damage as cracks and shape defects as well as iii) the detection of lost objects. The under-sodium imaging system has to sustain high temperature (up to 300 deg. C) and hostility of the sodium environment. Furthermore, specific constraints such as transducers characteristics or the limited sensor mobility in the reactor vessel have to be considered. This work focuses on developing a methodology for detecting damages such as crack defects with ultrasound devices. Surface-breaking cracks or deep cracks are sought in the weld area, as welds are more subject to defects. Traditional methods enabled us to detect emerging cracks of submillimeter size with sodium-compatible high-temperature transducer. The presented approach relies on making use of prior knowledge about the environment through the implementation of differential imaging and time-reversal techniques. Indeed, this approach allows to detect a change by comparison with a reference measurement and by focusing back to any change in the environment. It is a means of analysis and understanding of the physical phenomena making it possible to design more effective inspection strategies. Difference between the measured signals reveals the acoustic field scattered by a perturbation (a crack for instance), which may occur between periodical measurements. The imaging method relies on the adequate combination of two computed ultrasonic fields, one forward and one adjoint. The adjoint field, which carries the

  10. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig, E-mail: cgerardi@anl.gov; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Distributed temperature sensors measured high-resolution liquid-sodium temperatures. • DTSs worked well up to 400 °C. • A single DTS simultaneously detected sodium level and temperature. - Abstract: Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400 °C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 μm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  11. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  12. Computational methodology of sodium-water reaction phenomenon in steam generator of sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takata, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Akira; Uchibori, Akihiro; Ohshima, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    A new computational methodology of sodium-water reaction (SWR), which occurs in a steam generator of a liquid-sodium-cooled fast reactor when a heat transfer tube in the steam generator fails, has been developed considering multidimensional and multiphysics thermal hydraulics. Two kinds of reaction models are proposed in accordance with a phase of sodium as a reactant. One is the surface reaction model in which water vapor reacts directly with liquid sodium at the interface between the liquid sodium and the water vapor. The reaction heat will lead to a vigorous evaporation of liquid sodium, resulting in a reaction of gas-phase sodium. This is designated as the gas-phase reaction model. These two models are coupled with a multidimensional, multicomponent gas, and multiphase thermal hydraulics simulation method with compressibility (named the 'SERAPHIM' code). Using the present methodology, a numerical investigation of the SWR under a pin-bundle configuration (a benchmark analysis of the SWAT-1R experiment) has been carried out. As a result, the maximum gas temperature of approximately 1,300degC is predicted stably, which lies within the range of previous experimental observations. It is also demonstrated that the maximum temperature of the mass weighted average in the analysis agrees reasonably well with the experimental result measured by thermocouples. The present methodology will be promising to establish a theoretical and mechanical modeling of secondary failure propagation of heat transfer tubes due to such as an overheating rupture and a wastage. (author)

  13. Sodium concrete reaction - Structural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferskakis, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the sodium concrete reaction phenomenon, with emphasis on structural considerations, is presented. Available test results for limestone, basalt, and magnetite concrete with various test article configurations are reviewed. Generally, tests indicate reaction is self limiting before all sodium is used. Uncertainties, however, concerning the mechanism for penetration of sodium into concrete have resulted in different theories about a reaction model. Structural behavior may be significant in the progression of the reaction due to thermal-structuralchemical interactions involving tensile cracking, compressive crushing, or general deterioration of concrete and the exposure of fresh concrete surfaces to react with sodium. Structural behavior of test articles and potential factors that could enhance the progression of the reaction are discussed

  14. Tumorigenicity of sodium ascorbate in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S M; Anderson, T A; de Oliveira, L M; Arnold, L L

    1998-06-15

    Sodium ascorbate, like other sodium salts such as saccharin, glutamate, and bicarbonate, produces urinary alterations when fed at high doses to rats, which results in mild superficial urothelial cytotoxicity and regeneration but not tumors in a standard 2-year bioassay. Sodium saccharin was shown to produce a low incidence of bladder tumors in rats if administered in a two-generation bioassay. In the present study, we evaluated sodium ascorbate in a two-generation bioassay that involved feeding to the male and female parental F344 rats for 4 weeks before mating, feeding the dams during gestation and lactation, and then feeding the weaned (at 28 days of age) male F1 generation rats for the remainder of their lifetime (up to 128 weeks of the experiment). Dietary levels of 1.0, 5.0, and 7.0% sodium ascorbate were tested. At 5.0 and 7.0% sodium ascorbate, there was an increase in urinary bladder urothelial papillary and nodular hyperplasia and the induction of a few papillomas and carcinomas. There was a dose-responsive increase in renal pelvic calcification and hyperplasia and inhibition of the aging nephropathy of rats even at the level of 1% sodium ascorbate. Because the short-term urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate in rats are inhibited by treatments producing urinary acidification to pH sodium ascorbate to evaluate the long-term effects. The combination of 7.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.78% NH4Cl in the diet was toxic, and the group was terminated early during the course of the experiment. The group fed 5.0% sodium ascorbate plus 2.04% NH4Cl showed complete inhibition of the urothelial effects of sodium ascorbate and significant inhibition of its renal effects. We also demonstrated the presence of a calcium phosphate-containing urinary precipitate in rats fed sodium ascorbate at all doses, in a dose-responsive manner. The formation of the precipitate was inhibited by coadministration with NH4Cl. The proliferative effects of sodium ascorbate on the male rat

  15. Study on In-Service Inspection Program and Inspection Technologies for Commercialized Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masato Ando; Shigenobu Kubo; Yoshio Kamishima; Toru Iitsuka

    2006-01-01

    The objective of in-service inspection of a nuclear power plant is to confirm integrity of function of components necessary to safety, and satisfy the needs to protect plant investment and to achieve high plant ability. The sodium-cooled fast reactor, which is designed in the feasibility study on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems in Japan, has two characteristics related to in-service inspection. The first is that all sodium coolant boundary structures have double-wall system. Continuous monitoring of the sodium coolant boundary structures are adopted for inspection. The second characteristic is the steam generator with double-wall-tubes. Volumetric testing is adopted to make sure that one of the tubes can maintain the boundary function in case of the other tube failure. A rational in-service inspection concept was developed taking these features into account. The inspection technologies were developed to implement in-service inspection plan. The under-sodium viewing system consisted of multi ultrasonic scanning transducers, which was used for imaging under-sodium structures. The under-sodium viewing system was mounted on the under-sodium vehicle and delivered to core internals. The prototype of under-sodium viewing system and vehicle were fabricated and performance tests were carried out under water. The laboratory experiments of volumetric testing for double-wall-tubes of steam generator, such as ultrasonic testing and remote-field eddy current testing, were performed and technical feasibility was assessed. (authors)

  16. New version of the reactor dynamics code DYN3D for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, Evgeny [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany); Fridman, Emil; Bilodid, Yuri; Kliem, Soeren [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) e.V., Dresden (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    The reactor dynamics code DYN3D being developed at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is currently under extension for Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses. This paper provides an overview on the new version of DYN3D to be used for SFR core calculations. The current article shortly describes the newly implemented thermal mechanical models, which can account for thermal expansion effects of the reactor core. Furthermore, the methodology used in Sodium cooled Fast Reactor analyses to generate homogenized few-group cross sections is summarized. The conducted and planned verification and validation studies are briefly presented. Related publications containing more detailed descriptions are outlined for the completeness of this overview.

  17. Improved modelling of sodium-spray fires and sodium-combustion aerosol chemical evolution - 15488

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathe, E.; Kissane, M.; Petitprez, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the Generation IV Initiative, the consequences of a severe-accident in sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) must be studied. Being pyrophoric, sodium will burn upon contact with air in a containment creating toxic aerosols and we must take into account these fire aerosols when assessing the source term. We have developed a numerical simulation named NATRAC to calculate the mass of aerosols produced during a spray fire in a SFR severe accident. The results show that the mass of oxide aerosols can involve more than 60% of the ejected sodium. In a second part we have developed a numerical simulation named STARK based on the Cooper model that models the physico-chemical transformations of the aerosols. However, this model has never been validated and the literature does not permit to do so. In these conditions, we have designed and performed our own experiment ESSTIA to obtain the missing values of the parameters that govern Cooper model. The modified Cooper model we propose with the new parameters reproduces correctly the ESSTIA experimental data. The only parameter that has not yet been measured is the tortuosity of the sodium-fire aerosols surface layers. A dedicated experiment using real sodium-fire aerosols could eliminate any doubts about the uncertainty of the proposed Cooper model

  18. Iodine release from sodium pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagawa, N.; Fukushima, Y.; Yokota, N.; Akagane, K.; Mochizuki, K.

    1979-01-01

    Iodine release associated with sodium pool combustion was determined by heating 20 gr sodium containing sodium iodide, which was labelled with 131 I and dissolved in the sodium in concentration of 1∼1,000 ppm, to burn on a nickel crucible in conditioned atmosphere in a closed vessel of 0.4 m 3 . Oxygen concentration was changed in 5∼21% and humidity in 0∼89% by mixing nitrogen gas and air. Combustion products were trapped by a Maypack filter composed of particle filters, copper screens and activated charcoal beds and by a glass beads pack cooled by liquid argon. Iodine collected on these filter elements was determined by radio-gas chromatography. When the sodium sample burned in the atmosphere of air at room temperature, the release fractions observed were 6∼33% for sodium and 1∼20% for iodine added in the sodium. The release iodine was present in aerosol at a ratio of 98%, and the remainder in the gas form. The release fraction of iodine trended to decrease as oxygen concentration and humidity in the atmosphere increased. No organic iodide was detected in the combustion products. (author)

  19. Does Late-onset Anorexia Nervosa Exist? Findings From a Comparative Study in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shian Ming; Kwok, Kah Foo Victor; Zainal, Kelly A; Lee, Huei Yen

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of cases of older onset anorexia nervosa (AN) has increased in recent years. However, the literature on late-onset AN has been inconclusive. The goal of this study was to compare late-onset with early-onset cases of AN. Cases of AN presenting to an eating disorders treatment service were identified and the associated medical records were studied retrospectively. Of the 577 cases of AN that were studied, 7.1% were late-onset. Unlike the early-onset cases of AN, the late-onset cases reported less teasing and more relationship problems as a trigger for the illness. They were also less likely to join the eating disorders treatment program. Otherwise, the late-onset AN cases were largely similar to the early-onset cases. Although differences exist between early-onset and late-onset cases of AN, these are few. Until stronger evidence emerges over time, there currently seems to be minimal justification to accord late-onset AN a unique position in psychiatric nosology.

  20. Evaluation tissue dissolution property of 2.5 % Sodium Hypochlorite Prepared by Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Bicarbonate: An in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Razavian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Successful endodontic treatment requires chemical preparation in addition to mechanical preparation. The most common material for chemical preparations is sodium hypochlorite. One way to reduce the effects of pH adjustment is the use of sodium hypochlorite. The present paper was conducted to examine the effect of dilution with hydrochloric acid and sodium bicarbonate and reduce pH on ability of tissue solubility of sodium hypochlorite. The present study was conducted in vitro on bovine muscle tissue. Ability of tissue solubility was conducted in four groups respectively with active ingredient including 1 sodium hypochlorite diluted with distilled water 2 sodium hypochlorite diluted with sodium bicarbonate 3 sodium hypochlorite diluted with hydrochloric acid and finally 4 distilled water (control group. Each sample was firstly weighed and then placed in contact with 10 m/L solution for 60 minutes (five 12 -minute intervals. The sample was weighted every five minutes and solution was renewed. The results were analyzed using SPSS-21 Software based on variance analysis, Tukey and T-test (α=0.05. The findings showed that there was significant difference between first, second and third groups in terms of ability of tissue solubility. However, the tissue solubility in second and third groups was lower than first group and it was similar in second and third groups (P Value <0.001. Reduction of sodium bicarbonate PH using sodium hypochlorite and hydrochloric acid reduces ability of tissue solubility in sodium hypochlorite.

  1. Enhanced electrochemical stability of carbon-coated antimony nanoparticles with sodium alginate binder for sodium-ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The poor cycling stability of antimony during a repeated sodium ion insertion and desertion process is the key issue, which leads to an unsatisfactory application as an anode material in a sodium-ion battery. Addressed at this, we report a facile two-step method to coat antimony nanoparticles with an ultrathin carbon layer of few nanometers (denoted Sb@C NPs for sodium-ion battery anode application. This carbon layer could buffer the volume change of antimony in the charge-discharge process and improve the battery cycle performance. Meanwhile, this carbon coating could also enhance the interfacial stability by firmly connecting the sodium alginate binders through its oxygen-rich surface. Benefitted from these advantages, an improved initial discharge capacity (788.5 mA h g−1 and cycling stability capacity (553 mA h g−1 after 50 times cycle have been obtained in a battery using Sb@C NPs as anode materials at 50 mA g−1. Keywords: Sodium-ion battery, Antimony, Sodium alginate, Liquid-phase reduction, Carbon coating

  2. Restricting dietary sodium reduces plasma sodium response to exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenders, E E; Franken, C P G; Cotter, J D; Thornton, S N; Rehrer, N J

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-associated hyponatremia can be life-threatening. Excessive hypotonic fluid ingestion is the primary etiological factor but does not explain all variability. Possible effects of chronic sodium intake are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary sodium affects plasma sodium concentration [Na + ] during exercise in the heat, when water intake nearly matches mass loss. Endurance-trained men (n = 9) participated in this crossover experiment. Each followed a low-sodium (lowNa) or high-sodium (highNa) diet for 9 days with 24-h fluid intakes and urine outputs measured before experimental trials (day 10). The trials were ≥2 week apart. Trials comprised 3 h (or if not possible to complete, to exhaustion) cycling (55% VO 2max ; 34 °C, 65% RH) with water intake approximating mass loss. Plasma [Na + ], hematocrit, sweat and urine [Na + ], heart rate, core temperature, and subjective perceptions were monitored. Urine [Na + ] was lower on lowNa 24 h prior to (31 ± 24, 76 ± 30 mmol/L, P = 0.027) and during trials (10 ± 10, 52 ± 32 mmol/L, P = 0.004). Body mass was lower on lowNa (79.6 ± 8.5, 80.5 ± 8.9, P = 0.03). Plasma [Na + ] was lower on lowNa before (137 ± 2, 140 ± 3, P = 0.007) and throughout exercise (P = 0.001). Sweat [Na + ] was unaffected by diet (54.5 ± 40, 54.5 ± 23 mmol/L, P = 0.99). Heart rate and core temperature were higher on lowNa (P ≤ 0.001). Despite decreased urinary sodium losses, plasma sodium was lower on lowNa, with decreased mass indicating (extracellular) water may have been less, explaining greater heart rate and core temperature. General population health recommendations to lower salt intake may not be appropriate for endurance athletes, particularly those training in the heat. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Muzzle secretion electrolytes as a possible indicator of sodium status in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves: effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Singh, S P

    1981-01-01

    In two separate experiments, the effects of sodium depletion and aldosterone administration on sodium and potassium concentrations in muzzle secretion, saliva and urine were studied in buffalo calves. Sodium deficiency in the animals was experimentally produced by unilateral parotid saliva deprivation for 18 days. During sodium depletion, the sodium levels in saliva and muzzle secretion gradually fell while the potassium level gradually rose. The concentrations of both of these cations in urine gradually fell during the course of sodium depletion. Aldosterone administration in normal (sodium-replete) animals simulated the effects of sodium depletion as far as cationic changes in saliva were concerned. However, aldosterone did not affect sodium and potassium concentration in the urine and in muzzle secretion in a manner similar to that caused by sodium depletion. Though the hormone decreased urinary sodium without affecting urinary potassium, it did not affect the muzzle sodium or potassium. Results suggest that aldosterone affects the composition of saliva and urine in buffaloes as it does in sheep and other ruminants. Similar changes in composition of muzzle secretion and saliva during sodium depletion indicate that the concentration of sodium in muzzle secretion could possibly be used to evaluate the sodium status of animals.

  4. Cleaning of Sodium in the Cold Trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Ho; Jeong, Ji Young; Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung Hae; Nam, Ho Yun

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of a cleaning process is to remove the residual sodium adhering to the component walls once it has been properly drained. It is necessary to clean and decontaminate a component, especially the large components of the primary coolant system; such as the intermediate heat exchangers and the primary pump. Improper and inadequate cleaning has in a number of cases resulted in problems in the storage, handling, and reuse of components. Several types of failures due to improper cleaning procedures have been defined in the past. Inadequate and incomplete removal of sodium results in residues which may contain metallic sodium and alkaline compounds such as sodium hydroxide, sodium oxide, sodium carbonate, and various types of alcoholates. Reinsertion of components containing these compounds into a high-temperature sodium system can result in either the intergranular penetration characteristic of a high- oxygen sodium or an accelerated corrosion due to oxygen. The methods used for cleaning sodium equipment depend on the condition and types of equipment to be cleaned and whether the equipment is to be reused. Cleaning methods are needed that will avoid a deleterious local overheating, material surface degradation or deposits, chemical, physical, or mechanical damage, and external effects. This paper discusses a steam-nitrogen gas cleaning method for the routine applications that permits the reuse of the cold trap in sodium

  5. Visibility in sodium fume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.W.; Anderson, N.R.

    1971-01-01

    The appearance of sodium fume of unknown concentration and the effects of short term exposure on unprotected workers is described. The molecular extinction coefficient of sodium fume is calculated from which light transmission data, and a rapid method for the estimation of the fume concentration is proposed. (author)

  6. [A survey on the sodium content of customers' orderings at three restaurants in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nanxi; Liang, Baojing; He, Pingping; Li, Liming; Lyu, Jun

    2014-04-01

    To survey the mean sodium content of menu offering and customers' orderings on sodium when eating out. All weights of ingredients of menu offerings at three Chinese restaurants with Wenzhou, Shandong, and Yunnan cuisine, in Beijing, were collected and their sodium values were estimated based on data from the Chinese Food Composition. All records from customers' orders were collected in a certain period of time from year 2011 to 2013. The mean sodium content of ordering per person and the proportion of all orders exceeding the recommended daily sodium limit that applicable to most native Chinese, were estimated. Of all the menu offerings, hot dishes (1 728.6 mg; P25, P75: 1 198.7, 2 482.8) and soup dishes (2 101.5 mg; P25, P75: 1 467.8, 2 291.2) had the highest sodium contents, followed by cold dressed dishes (790.7 mg; P25, P75: 128.1, 1 472.9) staple foods (802.9 mg; P25, P75: 115.1, 1 563.2) while the beverages having the lowest sodium contents (17.0 mg; P25, P 75: 2.0, 19.5) (P < 0.05). Meat dishes (1 796.3 mg; P25, P75: 1 303.9, 2 670.3) contained more sodium than vegetable dishes (1 105.5 mg; P25, P75: 423.6, 1 628.6) (P < 0.001). The median sodium contents in per person orderings were 2 325.6 mg (P25, P75:1 700.7, 3 213.8) for lunch and 2 542.5 mg (P25, P75: 1 857.5, 3 498.1) for dinner. Current dietary guideline recommended for Chinese adults was: in general, the amount of consumption should not exceed 2 400 mg of sodium per day. Based on the recommended optimal daily calories intake ratio as 3:4:3 for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, we would suggest that the sodium intake should follow the amount as 960 mg for lunch and 720 mg for dinner. Our data indicated that 97.5% of the ordered meals appeared that they were over the recommended sodium limit and 76.5% of the tables showed two times more than the limit of recommendation. Soup and hot dishes provided at these three restaurants contained more sodium contents. People ordered dishes at restaurants would

  7. Sodium doping in copper-phthalocyanine/C60 heterojunction for organic photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hui-Ju; Wu, Hsuan-Ta; Hung, Kuang-Teng; Fu, Sheng-Wen; Shih, Chuan-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Sodium was incorporating at the copper-phthalocyanine (CuPc)/C 60 interface in CuPc/C 60 -based small-molecular solar cells to enhance their power conversion efficiency. C 60 was deposited on slightly sodium-doped CuPc. Post-annealing improved the cell properties. Post-annealing doubled the conversion efficiency of the least sodium-doped devices (75 °C, 40 min). The electron/hole mobility ratio gradually approached unity as the annealing time increased, indicating that a reduction in the space charge accumulation was the main cause of the increase of the short-circuit current. The mechanism of enhancement of carrier transport by annealing was investigated by making capacitance–voltage measurements and performing corresponding depth-profile analyses. - Highlights: • Incorporate Na at copper-phthalocyanine/C 60 interface • Annealing importantly improved the cell efficiency of Na-doped devices. • Change in the carrier mobility and concentration was investigated

  8. Androgen replacement therapy in late-onset hypogonadism: current concepts and controversies - a mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Juuso I; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2011-01-01

    Normal testicular function is essential for the maintenance of male physical strength and behaviour irrespective of age. A new term of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) has been coined for the condition of decreased testosterone (T) and hypogonadal symptoms in ageing men. The most important testicular hormone, T, is responsible for the gender-specific androgenic-anabolic effects in men. Testicular T production remains stable until around the age of 40 years after which it declines by 1-2% annually. Despite this age-related decline, serum T levels in most older men remain within the reference range of younger men. The decreasing androgen levels are paralleled by well-defined objective biological and nonspecific subjective signs and symptoms of ageing. Because these symptoms are similar to those observed in young men with documented hypogonadism, androgen replacement therapy (ART) has been considered a logical way to treat them. A thorough review of the existing literature was performed to evaluate the current concepts and controversies related to ageing men and ART. Although it is intuitively logical that the symptoms of LOH are due to the ageing-related deficiency of T, and that they can be reversed by ART, the evidence for this is still variable and often weak. In particular, evidence-based information about long-term benefits and risks of ART in ageing men is largely missing. Despite widespread use, evidence-based proof for the objective benefits and side effects of ART of elderly men is still scanty, and such treatments should be considered experimental. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroni, Paolo [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States). Global Technology Development; Tatli, Emre [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Czerniak, Luke [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA (United States); Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chien, Hual-Te [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yoichi, Momozaki [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bakhtiari, Sasan [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-06-29

    The project “Modeling and Validation of Sodium Plugging for Heat Exchangers in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor Systems” was conducted jointly by Westinghouse Electric Company (Westinghouse) and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), over the period October 1, 2013- March 31, 2016. The project’s motivation was the need to provide designers of Sodium Fast Reactors (SFRs) with a validated, state-of-the-art computational tool for the prediction of sodium oxide (Na2O) deposition in small-diameter sodium heat exchanger (HX) channels, such as those in the diffusion bonded HXs proposed for SFRs coupled with a supercritical CO2 (sCO2) Brayton cycle power conversion system. In SFRs, Na2O deposition can potentially occur following accidental air ingress in the intermediate heat transport system (IHTS) sodium and simultaneous failure of the IHTS sodium cold trap. In this scenario, oxygen can travel through the IHTS loop and reach the coldest regions, represented by the cold end of the sodium channels of the HXs, where Na2O precipitation may initiate and continue. In addition to deteriorating HX heat transfer and pressure drop performance, Na2O deposition can lead to channel plugging especially when the size of the sodium channels is small, which is the case for diffusion bonded HXs whose sodium channel hydraulic diameter is generally below 5 mm. Sodium oxide melts at a high temperature well above the sodium melting temperature such that removal of a solid plug such as through dissolution by pure sodium could take a lengthy time. The Sodium Plugging Phenomena Loop (SPPL) was developed at ANL, prior to this project, for investigating Na2O deposition phenomena within sodium channels that are prototypical of the diffusion bonded HX channels envisioned for SFR-sCO2 systems. In this project, a Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) model capable of simulating the thermal-hydraulics of the SPPL test

  10. Characteristic and composition of smokes in sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.C.; Torres, A.R.; Brito Aghina, L.O. de; Messere e Castro, P.

    1986-01-01

    The formation ratios of chemical principal compounds appear in smokes of fires up to 50 Kg of sodium in installations for fast reactor researches, were measured for a simulation in a scale of 1:1000. Relations of hydroxide concentrations, carbonate and bicarbonate appear in smokes retained in counter-current washing tower and in dry filters are presented. It is still presented the variation of the temperature profile and composition of burning wastes. (Author) [pt

  11. Innovating analytical spectroscopies for the improvement of liquid sodium cooled fast neutron reactors safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maury, C.

    2012-01-01

    In the context of the project of sodium fast reactor ASTRID, CEA is currently developing new analytical techniques to monitor the chemical purity of liquid sodium. Indeed, incidental situations occurring in the reactor, such as fuel clad failures, leakages in the steam generator or in the coolant pumps, and accelerated corrosion, might release several elements in the sodium. Analytical techniques based on laser ablation and emission spectroscopy are well suited for this application. They do not require any sample preparation, and can perform direct on-line analysis. Amongst them, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser-Ablation coupled to Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LA-LIF) have been selected for this study. The objective of this work was to characterize the sensitivity of those two techniques for the detection of impurities in liquid sodium. Their limits of detection were calculated for model analytes using calibration lines. Then results were theoretically extrapolated to other analytes of interest. This study shows the feasibility of the detection of steel corrosion products in liquid sodium. However, the LIBS technique is more robust and easier to implement, and would therefore be more suited to nuclear conditions. (author) [fr

  12. Numerical Analysis of Flow Distribution in a Sodium Chamber of a Finned-tube Sodium-to-Air Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Youngchul; Son, Seokkwon; Kim, Hyungmo; Eoh, Jaehyuk; Jeong, Jiyoung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    DHR systems consist of two diverse heat removal loops such as passive and active DHR systems, and the heat load imposed on the primary sodium pool is safely rejected into the environment through different kinds of sodium-to-air heat exchangers, e.g. M-shape and helical-coil type air-coolers. The former is called as an FHX(Forced-draft sodium-to-air Heat Exchanger) and the latter is simply called as an AHX(natural-draft sodium-to-Air Heat Exchanger). In a general sodium-to-air heat exchanger design, convection resistance in a shell-side air flow path becomes dominant factor affecting the mechanism of conjugate heat transfer from the sodium flow inside the tube to the air path across the sodium tube wall. Hence verification of the flow and heat transfer characteristics is one of the most important tasks to demonstrate decay heat removal performance. To confirm a kind of ultimate heat sink heat exchanger, a medium-scale Sodium thermal-hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air Heat exchanger (here after called the SELFA) has been designed and is recently being constructed at KAERI site. The introduction of the flow baffle inside the upper sodium chamber of the model FHX unit in the SELFA facility is briefly proposed and discussed as well. The present study aims at introducing a flow baffle design inside the upper sodium chamber to make more equalized flowrates flowing into each heat transfer tube of the model FHX unit. In the cases without the flow baffle geometry, it was observed lager discrepancies in flowrates at the heat transfer tubes. However it was also found that those kinds of discrepancies could be definitely decreased at around 1/10 by employing a flow baffle.

  13. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  14. Sodium hypochlorite-induced acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon W Peck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sodium hypochlorite (bleach is commonly used as an irrigant during dental proce-dures as well as a topical antiseptic agent. Although it is generally safe when applied topically, reports of accidental injection of sodium hypochlorite into tissue have been reported. Local necrosis, pain and nerve damage have been described as a result of exposure, but sodium hypo-chlorite has never been implicated as a cause of an acute kidney injury (AKI. In this report, we describe the first case of accidental sodium hypochlorite injection into the infraorbital tissue during a dental procedure that precipitated the AKI. We speculate that oxidative species induced by sodium hypochlorite caused AKI secondary to the renal tubular injury, causing mild acute tubular necrosis.

  15. Consumer attitudes and understanding of low-sodium claims on food: an analysis of healthy and hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Christina L; Arcand, JoAnne; Mendoza, Julio; Henson, Spencer J; Qi, Ying; Lou, Wendy; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-06-01

    Sodium-related claims on food labels should facilitate lower-sodium food choices; however, consumer attitudes and understanding of such claims are unknown. We evaluated consumer attitudes and understanding of different types of sodium claims and the effect of having hypertension on responses to such claims. Canadian consumers (n = 506), with and without hypertension, completed an online survey that contained a randomized mock-package experiment, which tested 4 packages that differed only by the claims they carried as follows: 3 sodium claims (disease risk reduction, function, and nutrient-content claims) and a tastes-great claim (control). Participants answered the same questions on attitudes and understanding of claims after seeing each package. Food packages with any sodium claim resulted in more positive attitudes toward the claim and the product healthfulness than did packages with the taste control claim, although all mock packages were identical nutritionally. Having hypertension increased ratings related to product healthfulness and purchase intentions, but there was no difference in reported understanding between hypertensives and normotensives. In general, participants attributed additional health benefits to low-sodium products beyond the well-established relation of sodium and hypertension. Sodium claims have the potential to facilitate lower-sodium food choices. However, we caution that consumers do not seem to differentiate between different types of claims, but the nutritional profiles of foods that carry different sodium claims can potentially differ greatly in the current labeling environment. Additional educational efforts are needed to ensure that consumers do not attribute inappropriate health benefits to foods with low-sodium claims. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01764724.

  16. SERUM ELECTROLYTES IN BUFFALOES DURING LATE PREGNANCY, PARTURITION AND POST PARTUM PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Hussain, Muhammad Amir Saeed and Isma Nazli Bashir

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was executed on 30 pregnant Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Serum was harvested for the estimation of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium and iron in the late pregnancy (at 8th and 9th month of gestation, at parturition and in the postpartum periods (at Ist and 2 month postpartum. The concentrations of Ca and P were significantly (P< 0.05 lower and Mg was significantly (P<0.05 higher at the time of parturition. The concentrations of Na and K did not show much variation. The values of Fe also decreased significantly (P<0.05 near parturition (at 9th month of gestation and at parturition. No puerperal disorder was observed in any of the experimental animals.

  17. Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Channels and Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Althaus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of pulmonary edema can be considered as a combination of alveolar flooding via increased fluid filtration, impaired alveolar-capillary barrier integrity, and disturbed resolution due to decreased alveolar fluid clearance. An important mechanism regulating alveolar fluid clearance is sodium transport across the alveolar epithelium. Transepithelial sodium transport is largely dependent on the activity of sodium channels in alveolar epithelial cells. This paper describes how sodium channels contribute to alveolar fluid clearance under physiological conditions and how deregulation of sodium channel activity might contribute to the pathogenesis of lung diseases associated with pulmonary edema. Furthermore, sodium channels as putative molecular targets for the treatment of pulmonary edema are discussed.

  18. A method for the manufacture of nuclear-purity sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, Paul; Graff, Willy.

    1973-01-01

    Description is given of a method for the manufacture of sodium from the amalgam provided by sodium chloride aqueous electrolysis cells, comprising the steps of treating the sodium amalgam by a sodium polysulfide or a mixture of sodium polysulfide in anhydrous alcohol solution, then causing the thus obtained sodium monosulfide to react with a polysulfide or a mixture of polysulfides so as to obtain a mixture of sodium polysulfides with a higher sodium content, and finally separating sodium through the electrolysis of the sodium-rich polysulfides, the electrolysis being carried out in an electrolytic cell with β-alumina solid electrolyte operating at a temperature between 250 and 300 deg C, in which the polysulfide forms the anode compartment and sodium the cathode compartment [fr

  19. An evaluation of the accuracy of labeling of percent sodium hypochlorite on various commercial and professional sources: is sodium hypochlorite from these sources equally suitable for endodontic irrigation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, S.V.; van Dusseldorp, N.E.; de Soet, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The shelf life of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is limited, and a previous article showed that there can be a discrepancy between the expected concentration of free available chlorine (FAC) and the actual FAC concentration in NaOCl solutions intended for endodontic irrigation. The current

  20. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. The Sodium Tail of the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, M.; Smith, S.; Baumgardner, J.; Wilson, J.; Martinis, C.; Mendillo, M.

    2009-01-01

    During the few days centered about new Moon, the lunar surface is optically hidden from Earth-based observers. However, the Moon still offers an observable: an extended sodium tail. The lunar sodium tail is the escaping "hot" component of a coma-like exosphere of sodium generated by photon-stimulated desorption, solar wind sputtering and meteoroid impact. Neutral sodium atoms escaping lunar gravity experience solar radiation pressure that drives them into the anti-solar direction forming a comet-like tail. During new Moon time, the geometry of the Sun, Moon and Earth is such that the anti-sunward sodium flux is perturbed by the terrestrial gravitational field resulting in its focusing into a dense core that extends beyond the Earth. An all-sky camera situated at the El Leoncito Observatory (CASLEO) in Argentina has been successfully imaging this tail through a sodium filter at each lunation since April 2006. This paper reports on the results of the brightness of the lunar sodium tail spanning 31 lunations between April 2006 and September 2008. Brightness variability trends are compared with both sporadic and shower meteor activity, solar wind proton energy flux and solar near ultra violet (NUV) patterns for possible correlations. Results suggest minimal variability in the brightness of the observed lunar sodium tail, generally uncorrelated with any single source, yet consistent with a multi-year period of minimal solar activity and non-intense meteoric fluxes.

  4. Sodium tetraphenylborate solubility and dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.; Swingle, R.F.; Reeves, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The rate of solid sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) dissolution in In-Tank Precipitation salt solutions has been experimentally determined. The data indicates that the dissolution rate of solid NaTPB is a minor contributor the lag time experienced in the 1983 Salt Decontamination Demonstration Test and should not be considered as the rate determining step. Current analytical models for predicting the time to reach the composite lower flammability limit assume that the lag time is not more than 6 hours, and the data supports this assumption (i.e., dissolution by itself requires much less than 6 hours). The data suggests that another step--such as mass transport, the reaction of a benzene precursor or the mixing behavior--is the rate determining factor for benzene release to the vapor space in Tank 48H. In addition, preliminary results from this program show that the degree of agitation employed is not a significant parameter in determining the rate of NaTPB dissolution. As a result of this study, an improved equation for predicting equilibrium tetraphenylborate solubility with respect to temperature and sodium ion concentration has been determined

  5. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg...

  6. Liquid sodium oxygenmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakes, D.; Fresl, M.; Svoboda, V.

    1979-02-01

    The results of test runs of two design varieties of liquid sodium oxygenmeter in sodium loops are described. The accuracy and sensitivity are discussed reached using this instrument within 1 and 10 p.p.m. of oxygen concentration. A change in the used reference system is proposed based on practical experiences and thermochemical calculations. Ceramic electrolyte corrosion is analysed and the possible interpretation of the corrosion effect on the galvanic cell electromotive force is suggested. (author)

  7. Process for the production of sodium carbonate anhydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Oosterhof, H.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.; Witkamp, G.J.; De Graauw, J.

    2000-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the production of sodium carbonate-anhydrate having a bulk density of at least 800 kg/m, said process comprising: providing a suspension of solid sodium carbonate and/or solid sodium bicarbonate and/or solid double salts at least comprising one of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, in a mixture containing water and an organic, water miscible or partly water miscible solvent, which solvent influences the transition temperature below which sodium...

  8. Determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium by ion chromatography and its application to PFBR sodium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayalakshmi, S.; Ushalakshmi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical method using ion chromatography was developed for the determination of chloride and sulphur in sodium. In this method, sodium was dissolved in water and various sulphur species present in the sample was oxidized to sulphate using hydrogen peroxide. Carbon dioxide gas was passed through the solution to convert sodium hydroxide to carbonate solution. The resulting sample solution was analysed using suppressed Ion chromatography employing carbonate eluent. This method was applied to the analysis of sodium samples procured for prototype fast breeder reactor. (author)

  9. Direct reading spectrochemical analysis of sodium uranate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, M.; Capdevila, C.

    1966-01-01

    We describe the application of the quantometer to the analysis of sodium uranate. To determine boron, cadmium, phosphorus and molybdenum contents, the samples are mixed with graphite powder (1:30) and excited in a 10 amperes direct current arc with 4x4,,5 mm cup graphite rods, using silver as internal standard. A not se deep cup and a dilution factor of 90 are more suitable for calcium, copper, iron, silicon and vanadium determination; cobalt and chromium are the internal standards. (Author) 6 refs

  10. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at 0.1...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1145 - Hyaluronate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hyaluronate sodium. 522.1145 Section 522.1145 Food... Hyaluronate sodium. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of sterile aqueous solution contains 10 milligrams of hyaluronate sodium. (2) Sponsor. See 000009 in § 510.600(c). (3) Conditions of use—(i) Amount...

  12. Characterization of Sodium Spray Aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, C. T.; Koontz, R. L.; Silberberg, M. [Atomics International, North American Rockwell Corporation, Canoga Park, CA (United States)

    1968-12-15

    The consequences of pool and spray fires require evaluation in the safety analysis of liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors. Sodium spray fires are characterized by high temperature and pressure, produced during the rapid combustion of sodium in air. Following the initial energy release, some fraction of the reaction products are available as aerosols which follow the normal laws of agglomeration, growth, settling, and plating. An experimental study is underway at Atomics International to study the characteristics of high concentration sprays of liquid sodium in reduced oxygen atmospheres and in air. The experiments are conducted in a 31.5 ft{sup 3} (2 ft diam. by 10 ft high) vessel, certified for a pressure of 100 lb/in{sup 2} (gauge). The spray injection apparatus consists of a heated sodium supply pot and a spray nozzle through which liquid sodium is driven by nitrogen pressure. Spray rate and droplet size can be varied by the injection velocity (nozzle size, nitrogen pressure, and sodium temperature). Aerosols produced in 0, 4, and 10 vol. % oxygen environments have been studied. The concentration and particle size distribution of the material remaining in the air after the spray injection and reaction period are measured. Fallout rates are found to be proportional to the concentration of aerosol which remains airborne following the spray period. (author)

  13. Analysis of Ion Currents Contribution to Repolarization in Human Heart Failure Using Computer Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, F.; Paci, M.A.; Severi, S.; Trenor, B.

    2016-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying repolarization of the ventricular action potential (AP) are subject of research for anti-arrhythmic drugs. In fact, the prolongation of the AP occurs in several conditions of heart disease, such as heart failure, a major problem precursor for serious arrhythmias. In this study, we investigated the phenomena of repolarization reserve, defined as the capacity of the cell to repolarize in case of a functional loss, and the all-or-none repolarization, which depends on the delicate balance of inward and outward currents in the different phases of the AP, under conditions of human heart failure (HF). To simulate HF conditions, the O'Hara et al. human AP model was modified and specific protocols for all-or-none repolarization were applied. Our results show that in the early repolarization the threshold for all-or-none repolarization is not altered in HF even if a decrease in potassium currents can be observed. To quantify the contribution of the individual ion currents to HF induced AP prolongation, we used a novel piecewise-linear approximation approach proposed by Paci et al. In particular, INaL and ICaL are the main responsible for APD prolongation due to HF (85 and 35 ms respectively). Our results highlight this novel algorithm as a powerful tool to have a more complete picture of the complex ionic mechanisms underlying this disease and confirm the important role of the late sodium current in HF repolarization. (Author)

  14. Towards highly stable storage of sodium ions: a porous Na(3)V(2)(PO(4))(3)/C cathode material for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Wang, Cong; Liu, Haimei; Yang, Wensheng

    2013-10-18

    A porous Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 cathode material coated uniformly with a layer of approximately 6 nm carbon has been synthesized by the sol-gel method combined with a freeze-drying process. The special porous morphology and structure significantly increases the specific surface area of the material, which greatly enlarges the contact area between the electrode and electrolyte, and consequently supplies more active sites for sodium ions. When employed as a cathode material of sodium-ion batteries, this porous Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C exhibits excellent rate performance and cycling stability; for instance, it shows quite a flat potential plateau at 3.4 V in the potential window of 2.7-4.0 V versus Na(+) /Na and delivers an initial capacity as high as 118.9 and 98.0 mA h g(-1) at current rates of 0.05 and 0.5 C, respectively, and after 50 cycles, a good capacity retention of 92.7 and 93.6 % are maintained. Moreover, even when the discharge current density is increased to 5 C (590 mA g(-1) ), an initial capacity of 97.6 mA h g(-1) can still be achieved, and an exciting capacity retention of 88.6 % is obtained after 100 cycles. The good cycle performance, excellent rate capability, and moreover, the low cost of Na3 V2 (PO4 )3 /C suggest that this material is a promising cathode for large-scale sodium-ion rechargeable batteries. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Sodium and potassium content and their ratio in meatballs in tomato sauce produced with lower amounts of sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilić, S.; Nikolić, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Velebit, B.; Lakićević, B.; Korićanac, V.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the possibility of partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride and ammonium chloride, with the target of achieving less sodium content in meatballs and tomato sauce as well as achieving a better Na:K ratio. The trial consisted of five groups. In the control group of meatballs and sauce, only sodium chloride was added. In group 1, half of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride related to control group while in group 2 one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. In group 3, one third of the sodium chloride was replaced with ammonium chloride, and in group 4, sodium chloride was reduced to half the amount in the control group, and 1 g (0.25%) of ammonium chloride was also added. All products were acceptable according to sensory analyses. The largest reductions of sodium content were 44.64%, achieved in meatballs from group 1 and 50.62% in tomato sauce from group 4 in relation to meatballs and tomato sauce from control group. The highest Na:K ratio was calculated in meatballs and tomato sauce from control group, 2.88 and 4.39, respectively. The best Na:K ratio was in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 1, 0.60 and 0.92, respectively, in which half of sodium chloride was replaced with potassium chloride. However, in meatballs and tomato sauce from group 4, with only half the amount of sodium chloride related to control group, the Na:K ratio was worse because in these products, potassium chloride was not added.

  16. Estimating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from casual urinary sodium concentrations in Western populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Ian J; Dyer, Alan R; Chan, Queenie

    2013-01-01

    High intakes of dietary sodium are associated with elevated blood pressure levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. National and international guidelines recommend reduced sodium intake in the general population, which necessitates population-wide surveillance. We assessed the util...

  17. Sodium aerosol formation in an argon flow over hot sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.; Dolias, M.J.; UKAEA Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell. Thermal Hydraulics Div.)

    1987-01-01

    Vapour evaporation, which partly forms aerosol, occurs when a cold gas flows over a hot liquid. A previous well-mixed model is extended to predict the final vapour plus aerosol content of such a flow in terms of its initial and final temperatures. The predictions are compared to results of the Copacabana II experiment in which argon passed over a sodium pool. Agreement is obtained for the final sodium density at moderate flow rates, and physical reasons are given as to why deviations occur at low and high flow rates. (author)

  18. Study of proton polarization in charge exchange process on optically oriented sodium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenskij, A.N.; Kokhanovskij, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Using high-power adjustable dye lasers for electron spin orientation in a charge-exchange target enables to significantly increase the proton polarization efficiency. A device is described that permits to avoid growth of the polarized proton beam emittance in a charge-exchange process in a strong magnetic field. The devise main feature is the use of an intensive source of neutral hydrogen atoms and the presence of a helium additional charge-exchange target which actualy is a proton ''source''. The helium charge-exchange cell is placed in the same magnetic field of a solenoid where a cell with oriented sodium is placed, a polarized electron being captured by a proton in the latter cell. In this case the beam at the solenoid inlet and outlet is in a neutral state; emittance growth related to the effect of end magnetic fields is not observed. The device after all prouduces polarized protons, their polarization degree is measured and the effect of various factors on polarization degree is studied. The description of the laser source and laser system is given. Measurement results have shown the beam intensity of neutral 7 keV atoms which passed through a polarizer to be 2 mA. The proton current doesn't depend. On the beeld fin the region of chrge exchange for the 8 kGs magnetic field. The degree of sodium polarization was 80% and polarized proton current approximately 70 μA at a temperature of the polarized sodium cell corresponding to the density of sodium vapar approximately 3x10 13 at/cm 2

  19. A high-capacity, low-cost layered sodium manganese oxide material as cathode for sodium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaohua; Yu, Haijun; Jian, Zelang; Liu, Pan; Zhu, Yanbei; Guo, Xianwei; Chen, Mingwei; Ishida, Masayoshi; Zhou, Haoshen

    2014-08-01

    A layered sodium manganese oxide material (NaMn3 O5 ) is introduced as a novel cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries. Structural characterizations reveal a typical Birnessite structure with lamellar stacking of the synthetic nanosheets. Electrochemical tests reveal a particularly large discharge capacity of 219 mAh g(-1) in the voltage rang of 1.5-4.7 V vs. Na/Na(+) . With an average potential of 2.75 V versus sodium metal, layered NaMn3 O5 exhibits a high energy density of 602 Wh kg(-1) , and also presents good rate capability. Furthermore, the diffusion coefficient of sodium ions in the layered NaMn3 O5 electrode is investigated by using the galvanostatic intermittent titration technique. The results greatly contribute to the development of room-temperature sodium-ion batteries based on earth-abundant elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Physical properties of liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi Primicia, J.; Martinez Piquer, T.A.

    1977-01-01

    The molten sodium has been the more accepted coolant for the first generation of FBR, by this reason the knowledge of its technology is needed for the development of the next LMFBR. A series of necessary data for designing sodium liquid systems are given. Tables and graphics about the most important physical sodium properties between 1200-1400 degC are gathered. The results have been obtained from equations that relate the properties with temperature using a Fortran IV program. (author) [es

  1. A Global Model of Meteoric Sodium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Daniel R.; Janches, Diego; Feng, Wuhu; Plane, John M. C.

    2013-01-01

    A global model of sodium in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere has been developed within the framework of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM). The standard fully interactive WACCM chemistry module has been augmented with a chemistry scheme that includes nine neutral and ionized sodium species. Meteoric ablation provides the source of sodium in the model and is represented as a combination of a meteoroid input function (MIF) and a parameterized ablation model. The MIF provides the seasonally and latitudinally varying meteoric flux which is modeled taking into consideration the astronomical origins of sporadic meteors and considers variations in particle entry angle, velocity, mass, and the differential ablation of the chemical constituents. WACCM simulations show large variations in the sodium constituents over time scales from days to months. Seasonality of sodium constituents is strongly affected by variations in the MIF and transport via the mean meridional wind. In particular, the summer to winter hemisphere flow leads to the highest sodium species concentrations and loss rates occurring over the winter pole. In the Northern Hemisphere, this winter maximum can be dramatically affected by stratospheric sudden warmings. Simulations of the January 2009 major warming event show that it caused a short-term decrease in the sodium column over the polar cap that was followed by a factor of 3 increase in the following weeks. Overall, the modeled distribution of atomic sodium in WACCM agrees well with both ground-based and satellite observations. Given the strong sensitivity of the sodium layer to dynamical motions, reproducing its variability provides a stringent test of global models and should help to constrain key atmospheric variables in this poorly sampled region of the atmosphere.

  2. austenitic steel corrosion by oxygen-containing liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivollier, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    France is planning to construct the 4. generation of nuclear reactors. They will use liquid sodium as heat transfer fluid and will be made of 316L(N) austenitic steel as structural materials. To guarantee optimal operation on the long term, the behavior of this steel must be verified. This is why corrosion phenomena of 316L(N) steel by liquid sodium have to be well-understood. Literature points out that several corrosion phenomena are possible. Dissolved oxygen in sodium definitely influences each of the corrosion phenomenon. Therefore, the austenitic steel corrosion in oxygen-containing sodium is proposed in this study. Thermodynamics data point out that sodium chromite formation on 316L(N) steel is possible in sodium containing roughly 10 μg.g -1 of oxygen for temperature lower than 650 C (reactor operating conditions).The experimental study shows that sodium chromite is formed at 650 C in the sodium containing 200 μg.g -1 of oxygen. At the same concentration and at 550 C, sodium chromite is clearly observed only for long immersion time (≥ 5000 h). Results at 450 C are more difficult to interpret. Furthermore, the steel is depleted in chromium in all cases.The results suggest the sodium chromite is dissolved in the sodium at the same time it is formed. Modelling of sodium chromite formation - approached by chromium diffusion in steel (in grain and grain boundaries -, and dissolution - assessed by transport in liquid metal - show that simultaneous formation and dissolution of sodium chromite is a possible mechanism able to explain our results. (author) [fr

  3. PG BN 1600 sodium fire protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar, J.; Urbancik, L.

    1978-12-01

    A design was developed of a fire protection system for steam generator of a 1600 MW sodium cooled fast reactor (BN-1600). Chemical reactions are described of liquid sodium with atmospheric components and solid materials coming into contact with sodium in its release from the steam generator, and in safeguarding protection against sodium fires. The requirements for the purity of nitrogen as an atmosphere inert to liquid sodium are given. Characteristics and basic parameters are shown of level and spray fires, elementary terms are explained concerning the properties of aerosols formed during fires, the methods and means of release signalling and fire alarm are described as are fire precautions using fire-fighting equipment, modifying the support tank and the cell bottom and building sewage pits. The design of the system comprises an alarm system for liquid sodium using point and line electric contact sensors and flame photometer based aerosol sensors as well as a fire-fighting system based on the system of channelling liquid sodium into emergency discharge tanks filled with an inert gas, a set of fire extinguishers and other fire fighting material, and measures for the elimination of sodium fire consequences. (J.B.)

  4. Identification of impurities in sodium and its purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbotin, B.I.; Voltchkov, L.G.; Kozlov, F.A.; Zagorulko, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, E.K.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents some investigation results on sodium technology. In particular, a description is given of a calculation method for evaluation of sodium-cover gas-impurities equilibrium compositions as well as experimental results on development of methods for sodium sampling, equipment for non-metallic impurities (oxygen, hydrogen, carbon) constant control in sodium. The investigation results on sodium purification with cold traps are presented

  5. Numerical prediction of fire extinguishment characteristics of sodium leak collection tray in a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diwakar, S.V.; Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Kasinathan, N.; Das, Sarit K.; Sundararajan, T.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sodium fire extinguishment in a leak collection tray is modeled by lumped approach. ► Hydrodynamics of liquid sodium on tray is emulated through a draining/sloshing model. ► Pool burning rates in the tray and holdup vessel are numerically estimated. ► The model directly yields the mass of sodium recovered after extinction of fire. ► Model predictions are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. - Abstract: Sodium leak collection tray (LCT) is an efficient passive device used for the extinguishment of liquid sodium fire in case of an accidental leakage from the secondary circuit of a fast breeder reactor. The LCT essentially isolates the leaking sodium into closed containers where the resulting fire is extinguished due to limited availability of oxygen. The current work aims to highlight the combustion extinguishment characteristics of LCT through a lumped formulation by conserving the mass and energy of liquid sodium and constituent gases in various parts of the LCT. Here, the complex hydrodynamics of liquid sodium is emulated through a semi-analytical draining/sloshing model and its burning rates are predicted through a three-dimensional open pool combustion model for the tray region and a closed pool combustion model for the holdup vessel. These simulations evaluate the burning rates at discrete levels of liquid sodium which are subsequently interpolated to establish correlations involving instantaneous liquid levels and oxygen concentration. Using the correlations obtained from the draining and combustion models, the overall lumped formulation directly predicts the un-burnt sodium recoverable after the extinguishment of fire in the LCT. The predicted results of this model compare well with the available experimental data.

  6. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, M; Kanbe, M; Yagisawa, H; Sasaki, S; Kataoka, H; Fukada, T; Ishii, Y; Saito, R; Mimoto, Y [O-arai Engineering Centre, PNC, Ibaraki-ken, Tokio (Japan)

    1978-08-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  7. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.; Fukada, T.; Ishii, Y.; Saito, R.; Mimoto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been Investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of 'JOYO' and Dummy fuel assembly of 'JOYO', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of 'JOYO', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of 'JOYO' and a proto-type isolation valve of 'JOYO' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental sub-assemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of 'MONJU' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a 'JOYO' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  8. Experience on sodium removal from various components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, M.; Kanbe, M.; Yagisawa, H.; Sasaki, S.; Kataoka, H.

    1978-02-01

    Since 1970, OEC (O-arai Engineering Center) has been investigating the following methods for removal of sodium from the components of sodium plants: steam cleaning for the 50 MW Steam Generator, secondary proto-type pump of ''JOYO'' and Dummy fuel assembly of ''JOYO'', alcohol cleaning for Sector Model of Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) of ''JOYO'', a sector model of Sodium-to-Air cooler of ''JOYO'' and a proto-type Isolation valve of ''JOYO'' and cleaning by vacuumization at high temperature for Regenerative Heat Exchanger. This report describes the outline of the Sodium Disposal Facility and experience of sodium removal processing on the 50 MW Steam Generator, the crevices of the experimental subassemblies, the Fuel Handling Machine of ''MONJU'' and the Regenerative Heat Exchanger of the Sodium Flow Test Facility. Through these experiences it was noted that, (1) Removal of Sodium from crevices such as in bolted joints are very difficult. (2) Consideration is needed in the removal process where material damage might occur from the generation of hydro-oxides. (3) Some detection device to tell the completion of sodium removal as well as the end of reaction is required. (4) Requalification rules should be clarified. Efforts in this direction have been made in the case of a ''JOYO'' prototype pump by reinstalling it after sodium removal five times. (author)

  9. Sodium Carbonate is Saltier Than Sodium Chloride to Sodium-Depleted Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St John, Steven J; McBrayer, Anya M; Krauskopf, Erin E

    2017-10-01

    In a series of behavioral experiments in the 1960s, G.R. Morrison identified several unique features of the taste of Na2CO3 to rats; namely, it is 1) considerably more intense than NaCl at isomolar concentrations, 2) avoided at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl to thirsty rats, 3) preferred at 10 times lower concentrations than NaCl in sodium-depleted rats. He also demonstrated its qualitatively similarity to NaCl. In Experiment 1, we confirmed and extended many of Morrison's observations. Rats were injected with furosemide on 3 occasions to stimulate a sodium appetite. After each depletion, rats were given a brief-access taste test in a lickometer presenting, in random order, water and 7 concentrations of salt. One test used NaCl (0.028-0.89 M, quarter log steps), another used Na2CO3, and the third used Na2CO3, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (0.0028-0.089 M). Rats licked NaCl in an inverted-U shaped concentration-response function peaking at 0.158-0.281 M. As Morrison's results predicted, rats licked Na2CO3 in nearly identical fashion, but at a tenfold lower concentration range (peak at 0.0158-0.028 M). In a second experiment, furosemide-treated rats were repeatedly tested with the lower Na2CO3 range but mixed in the epithelial sodium channel blocker amiloride at various concentrations (3-300 μM, half log steps). Amiloride reduced licking for Na2CO3 and shifted the peak response rightward up to about half a log unit. Thus, this "super-saltiness" of Na2CO3 to rats is at least partly amiloride-dependent. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. 21 CFR 558.60 - Arsanilate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arsanilate sodium. 558.60 Section 558.60 Food and... in Animal Feeds § 558.60 Arsanilate sodium. (a) Appprovals. Type A medicated articles: 20, 50, or 100...) Arsanilate sodium may be used in accordance with the provisions of this section in the combinations provided...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium carbonate. 184.1742 Section 184.1742 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, CAS Reg. No... ore calcined to impure soda ash and then purified; or (3) synthesized from limestone by the Solvay...

  12. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal

  13. The Sodium Process Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P. McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1998-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the US Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The sodium will be processed in three separate and distinct campaigns: the 290,000 liters of Fermi-1 primary sodium, the 50,000 liters of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) secondary sodium, and the 330,000 liters of the EBR-II primary sodium. The Fermi-1 and the EBR-II secondary sodium contain only low-level of radiation, while the EBR-II primary sodium has radiation levels up to 0.5 mSv (50 mrem) per hour at 1 meter. The EBR-II primary sodium will be processed last, allowing the operating experience to be gained with the less radioactive sodium prior to reacting the most radioactive sodium. The sodium carbonate will be disposed of in 270 liter barrels, four to a pallet. These barrels are square in cross-section, allowing for maximum utilization of the space on a pallet, minimizing the required landfill space required for disposal.

  14. Red Phosphorus Nanodots on Reduced Graphene Oxide as a Flexible and Ultra-Fast Anode for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yihang; Zhang, Anyi; Shen, Chenfei; Liu, Qingzhou; Cao, Xuan; Ma, Yuqiang; Chen, Liang; Lau, Christian; Chen, Tian-Chi; Wei, Fei; Zhou, Chongwu

    2017-06-27

    Sodium-ion batteries offer an attractive option for potential low cost and large scale energy storage due to the earth abundance of sodium. Red phosphorus is considered as a high capacity anode for sodium-ion batteries with a theoretical capacity of 2596 mAh/g. However, similar to silicon in lithium-ion batteries, several limitations, such as large volume expansion upon sodiation/desodiation and low electronic conductance, have severely limited the performance of red phosphorus anodes. In order to address the above challenges, we have developed a method to deposit red phosphorus nanodots densely and uniformly onto reduced graphene oxide sheets (P@RGO) to minimize the sodium ion diffusion length and the sodiation/desodiation stresses, and the RGO network also serves as electron pathway and creates free space to accommodate the volume variation of phosphorus particles. The resulted P@RGO flexible anode achieved 1165.4, 510.6, and 135.3 mAh/g specific charge capacity at 159.4, 31878.9, and 47818.3 mA/g charge/discharge current density in rate capability test, and a 914 mAh/g capacity after 300 deep cycles in cycling stability test at 1593.9 mA/g current density, which marks a significant performance improvement for red phosphorus anodes for sodium-ion chemistry and flexible power sources for wearable electronics.

  15. Modeling of under-expanded reactive CO2-into-sodium jets, in the frame of sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivaldi, D.

    2013-01-01

    This PhD work was motivated by the investigations in the frame of supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles as possible energy conversion cycles for the Sodium-cooled Fast nuclear Reactors (SFRs). This technology represents an alternative to conventional steam Rankine cycles, with the main advantage represented by the elimination of the accidental sodium-water reaction scenario. Nevertheless, CO 2 chemically reacts with sodium, through an exothermic reaction leading to solid reaction products, mainly sodium carbonate. Following an accidental leakage inside the sodium-CO 2 heat exchanger of a SFR, the CO 2 , having an operating pressure of about 200 bars, would be injected into the low-operating pressure liquid sodium, creating an under-expanded reactive CO 2 -into-sodium jet. The under-expanded jet features a sonic gas injection velocity and an under-expansion in the first region downstream the leakage, where the CO 2 is accelerated to supersonic velocities. The exothermic reaction between the CO 2 and the sodium causes an increasing of the temperature inside the heat exchanger. An experimental facility was built at CEA Cadarache, for the realization of CO 2 -into-sodium jets: this facility has provided preliminary results in terms of temperature variations inside the jet due to the exothermic reaction. However, this type of experimental tests are complicated to realize and to analyse, due to the technical difficulties of realizing the contact between CO 2 and sodium, and to the incertitude of temperature measurement inside a two-phase high velocity jet. It follows that a numerical model of this kind of jets is required, in order to understand the CO 2 -sodium kinetics of reaction inside the jet and being able to transpose the phenomenon to relevant SFR sodium-CO 2 heat exchangers. This would allow to understand the consequences of a leakage inside a sodium-CO 2 heat exchanger, in terms of, for instance, temperature profiles inside the heat exchanger and on tube surfaces

  16. Distributed temperature sensor testing in liquid sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Bremer, Nathan; Lisowski, Darius; Lomperski, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    Rayleigh-backscatter-based distributed fiber optic sensors were immersed in sodium to obtain high-resolution liquid-sodium temperature measurements. Distributed temperature sensors (DTSs) functioned well up to 400°C in a liquid sodium environment. The DTSs measured sodium column temperature and the temperature of a complex geometrical pattern that leveraged the flexibility of fiber optics. A single Ø 360 lm OD sensor registered dozens of temperatures along a length of over one meter at 100 Hz. We also demonstrated the capability to use a single DTS to simultaneously detect thermal interfaces (e.g. sodium level) and measure temperature.

  17. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Melis; Canda, Ebru; Kagnici, Mehtap; Uçar, Sema Kalkan; Çoker, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB) in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment's efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  18. Hydration status regulates sodium flux and inflammatory pathways through epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Hong, Seok Jong; Zeitchek, Michael; Cooper, Garry; Jia, Shengxian; Xie, Ping; Qureshi, Hannan A; Zhong, Aimei; Porterfield, Marshall D; Galiano, Robert D; Surmeier, D James; Mustoe, Thomas A

    2015-03-01

    Although it is known that the inflammatory response that results from disruption of epithelial barrier function after injury results in excessive scarring, the upstream signals remain unknown. It has also been observed that epithelial disruption results in reduced hydration status and that the use of occlusive dressings that prevent water loss from wounds decreases scar formation. We hypothesized that hydration status changes sodium homeostasis and induces sodium flux in keratinocytes, which result in activation of pathways responsible for keratinocyte-fibroblast signaling and ultimately lead to activation of fibroblasts. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations in epithelial barrier function lead to increased sodium flux in keratinocytes. We identified that sodium flux in keratinocytes is mediated by epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and causes increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, which activate fibroblast via the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) pathway. Similar changes in signal transduction and sodium flux occur by increased sodium concentration, which simulates reduced hydration, in the media in epithelial cultures or human ex vivo skin cultures. Blockade of ENaC, prostaglandin synthesis, or PGE2 receptors all reduce markers of fibroblast activation and collagen synthesis. In addition, employing a validated in vivo excessive scar model in the rabbit ear, we demonstrate that utilization of either an ENaC blocker or a COX-2 inhibitor results in a marked reduction in scarring. Other experiments demonstrate that the activation of COX-2 in response to increased sodium flux is mediated through the PIK3/Akt pathway. Our results indicate that ENaC responds to small changes in sodium concentration with inflammatory mediators and suggest that the ENaC pathway is a potential target for a strategy to prevent fibrosis.

  19. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E.; Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L.; Lacroix, M.; Carra, O.; Dechelette, F.; Prele, G.; Rodriguez, G.

    2012-01-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO 2 interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  20. Innovative technologies on fuel assemblies cleaning for sodium fast reactors: First considerations on cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N.; Lorcet, H.; Beauchamp, F.; Guigues, E. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lovera, P.; Fleche, J. L. [CEA, DEN, DPC Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Lacroix, M. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Carra, O. [AREVA / NP, 10 Rue Juliette Recamier, 69003 Lyon (France); Dechelette, F. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Prele, G. [EDF/SEPTEN, 12-14 avenue Dutrievoz, 69628 Villeurbane Cedex (France); Rodriguez, G. [CEA, DEN, DTN Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2012-07-01

    Within the framework of Sodium Fast Reactor development, innovative fuel assembly cleaning operations are investigated to meet the GEN IV goals of safety and of process development. One of the challenges is to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction currently used in these processes. The potential applications of aqueous solutions of mineral salts (including the possibility of using redox chemical reactions) to mitigate the Sodium Water Reaction are considered in a first part and a new experimental bench, dedicated to this study, is described. Anhydrous alternative options based on Na/CO{sub 2} interaction are also presented. Then, in a second part, a functional study conducted on the cleaning pit is proposed. Based on experimental feedback, some calculations are carried out to estimate the sodium inventory on the fuel elements, and physical methods like hot inert gas sweeping to reduce this inventory are also presented. Finally, the implementation of these innovative solutions in cleaning pits is studied in regard to the expected performances. (authors)

  1. Water simulation of sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, S.S.; Gluekler, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic simulation of a large sodium reactor by a scaled water model is examined. The Richardson Number, friction coefficient and the Peclet Number can be closely matched with the water system at full power and the similarity is retained for buoyancy driven flows. The simulation of thermal-hydraulic conditions in a reactor vessel provided by a scaled water experiment is better than that by a scaled sodium test. Results from a correctly scaled water test can be tentatively extrapolated to a full size sodium system

  2. Clinical impact of predictive assays for acute and late radiation morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budach, W.; Classen, J.; Belka, C.; Bamberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    Background: Clinically reliable predictive assays for normal tissue radiation sensitivity would help to avoid severe radiation induced morbidity and result in individualized dose prescriptions. Profound differences of individual fibroblast and lymphocyte radiation sensitivity in vitro have been documented in patients with certain genetic syndromes but also in patients without known genetic disorders. The following review evaluates whether fibroblast or lymphocyte radiation sensitivity measured in vitro correlates with the degree of acute and late radiation induced morbidity. Results: Acute radiation side effects and lymphocyte sensitivity has been investigated in 2 studies. One of them reported an insecure correlation, the other no correlation at all. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity and the extent of acute radiation induced side effects on skin and mucosal sites has been compared in a total of 5 studies. None of these studies found a consistent significant correlation. Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity and late effects have been studied by 2 institutions. Late radiation induced skin and mucosal changes did not correlate with lymphocyte sensitivity in head and neck cancer patients, whereas in breast cancer patients a weak (R 2 =0.06) correlation between the degree of late skin reactions and lymphocyte sensitivity was observed. Late skin or mucosal radiation reactions and fibroblast sensitivity were examined by 5 research groups. Data analysis revealed significant correlations or at least a trend towards a significant correlation in all studies. The quality of the reported correlations expressed as R 2 ranged from 0.13 to 0.60, indicating a low predictive value. Conclusions: Lymphocyte radiation sensitivity as measured by currently available assays does not or only poorly correlate with acute and late effects of radiation in patients, precluding predictive tests based on lymphocyte sensitivity. Fibroblast radiation sensitivity does not correlate with acute but

  3. Individual variation and hormonal modulation of a sodium channel beta subunit in the electric organ correlate with variation in a social signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He; Wu, Ming-Ming; Zakon, Harold H

    2007-09-01

    The sodium channel beta1 subunit affects sodium channel gating and surface density, but little is known about the factors that regulate beta1 expression or its participation in the fine control of cellular excitability. In this study we examined whether graded expression of the beta1 subunit contributes to the gradient in sodium current inactivation, which is tightly controlled and directly related to a social behavior, the electric organ discharge (EOD), in a weakly electric fish Sternopygus macrurus. We found the mRNA and protein levels of beta1 in the electric organ both correlate with EOD frequency. We identified a novel mRNA splice form of this gene and found the splicing preference for this novel splice form also correlates with EOD frequency. Androgen implants lowered EOD frequency and decreased the beta1 mRNA level but did not affect splicing. Coexpression of each splice form in Xenopus oocytes with either the human muscle sodium channel gene, hNav1.4, or a Sternopygus ortholog, smNav1.4b, sped the rate of inactivation of the sodium current and shifted the steady-state inactivation toward less negative membrane potentials. The translational product of the novel mRNA splice form lacks a previously identified important tyrosine residue but still functions normally. The properties of the fish alpha and coexpressed beta1 subunits in the oocyte replicate those of the electric organ's endogenous sodium current. These data highlight the role of ion channel beta subunits in regulating cellular excitability.

  4. Sodium content and sodium efflux of mononuclear leucocytes from young subjects at increased risk of developing essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K E; Nielsen, J R; Klitgaard, N A

    1990-01-01

    Mononuclear leucocytes were used as a cellular model for the in vitro measurements of volume, sodium and potassium content, sodium efflux rate constants and absolute sodium efflux in order to assess any cellular changes in young men at increased risk of developing essential hypertension...

  5. Effects of oral sodium supplementation on indices of thermoregulation in trained, endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earhart, Elizabeth L; Weiss, Edward P; Rahman, Rabia; Kelly, Patrick V

    2015-03-01

    , such as hypertension, it is our recommendation that athletes interpret professional recommendations for sodium needs during exercise with caution. Key pointsBased on current professional recommendations to replace sodium losses in sweat during exercise, some endurance athletes consume salt or other electrolyte supplements containing sodium during training and competition, however the effects of sodium on thermoregulation are less clear.High-dose sodium supplementation does not appear to impact thermoregulation, cardiovascular drift, or physical performance in trained, endurance athletes.The possibility remains that high sodium intakes might have other adverse effects. It is our recommendation that athletes interpret professional recommendations for sodium needs during exercise with caution.

  6. Capillary-discharge sodium plasma for pulsed-power X-ray laser experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, F.C.; Commisso, R.J.; Cooperstein, G.

    1986-01-01

    A capillary discharge plasma is being studied as a source of sodium plasma for Na/Ne x-ray laser experiments. The objective is to develop an intense x-ray pump of He-α emission from Na for matched-line photopumping of Ne. A uniform Na-bearing plasma (≅2-cm dia and ≅4-cm long) is to be injected into the anode-cathode gap of the Gamble II pulsed-power generator and imploded by MA-level currents to produce the intense sodium K-line radiation. Implosions of neon gas puffs have produced up to 50 GW of 0.92-keV He-α line emission, and similar x-ray power is expected from sodium implosions. Plasma from the capillary is produced by discharging current through an evacuated small hole in a plastic dielectric (≤ 3-mm dia and 1 to 2.5-cm long). A Na-bearing plasma is generated by forming the hole in NaF. Discharges of 30-kA (60-kA) peak current and 2-μs (2.6-μs) period are provided by a 0.6-μF (1.8-μF) capacitor bank charged to 25 kV. Diagnostics to evaluate plasma characteristics include witness plates, Faraday cups, photodiodes, open-shutter photographs, framing images, and visible light and near UV spectrographs. This plasma source emits visible light for 5-10 μs over a region extending - 1.5 cm from the capillary. Emission is more intense for capillary dia ≤ 0.8 mm. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that both positive ions and neutrals are present, including neutral Na from NaF capillaries. Velocities of≅2 cm/μs are deduced from Faraday cup measurements. For a 0.3-mm dia plastic capillary and 30-kA discharge current, ≅100 μg of capillary material is removed, which corresponds to≅10 μg/cm in the plasma

  7. Monte Carlo transport correction of sodium reactivity worth spatial distribution in perspective Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskach, K.F.; Blyskavka, V; Kislitsyna, T.S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we apply Monte Carlo for calculating spatial distribution of sodium reactivity worth in the perspective Russian sodium-cooled fast reactor BN-1200. A special Monte Carlo technique applicable for calculating perturbations and derivatives of the effective multiplication factor is used. The numerical results obtained show that Monte Carlo has a good perspective to deal with such problems and to be used as a reference solution for engineering codes based on the diffusion approximation. They also allow to conclude that in the sodium blanket and in the neighboring region of the core the diffusion code used likely overestimates sodium reactivity worth. This conclusion has to be verified in future work. (author)

  8. Too Much Sodium

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-07

    This podcast is based on the February 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. Ninety percent of Americans age two and older eat too much sodium which can increase your risk for high blood pressure and often leads to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the US. Learn several small steps you can take to reduce the amount of sodium in your diet.  Created: 2/7/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/7/2012.

  9. Toxins That Affect Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yonghua

    2017-10-26

    Voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) are critical in generation and conduction of electrical signals in multiple excitable tissues. Natural toxins, produced by animal, plant, and microorganisms, target VGSCs through diverse strategies developed over millions of years of evolutions. Studying of the diverse interaction between VGSC and VGSC-targeting toxins has been contributing to the increasing understanding of molecular structure and function, pharmacology, and drug development potential of VGSCs. This chapter aims to summarize some of the current views on the VGSC-toxin interaction based on the established receptor sites of VGSC for natural toxins.

  10. Late Pliocene Depositional History and Paleoclimate Reconstructions of the Southwest Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royce, B.; Patterson, M. O.; Pietras, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drift deposits off the eastern margin of New Zealand are important archives for the paleoclimate and paleoceanographic history of the southwest Pacific. Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1123 is located on the North Chatham rise drift just North of the westerly wind driven Subtropical Front (STF) and provides a record of near continuous sediment deposition since the Miocene along the southwest Pacific deep western boundary current (DWBC). While the Miocene and Late Pleistocene portion of this record have been well studied, the Late Pliocene record is less well developed. Southern Ocean geological records demonstrate that Late Pliocene cooling is the transient time bracketing the warmer than present Early Pliocene and bipolar glaciation at 2.7 Ma. A newly developed, robust, and astronomically tuned long-term record of benthic δ13C from ODP Site 1123 spanning the Early to Late Pliocene implies a reduction in Southern Ocean ventilation and lowering of preformed values from waters sourced along the Antarctic margin during the Late Pliocene. Thus, Late Pliocene Southern Hemisphere cooling and sea ice expansion may have drastically reduced outgassing and increased the burial of heat into the deep ocean. South Atlantic records off the west coast of Africa demonstrate an increase in the flux of iron to the open ocean during this time potentially enhancing surface ocean productivity and providing an additional cooling mechanism. Currently, atmospheric transport of dust to the Southern Ocean is dominated by persistent mid-latitude circumpolar westerly winds; this is particularly relevant for dust sourced from New Zealand. The Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene uplift of the North Island axial ranges and South Island southern alps potentially provided a greater amount of not only sediment to the deep ocean, but also wind blow dust to the Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. We will present a detailed high-resolution sedimentological study on the development of the Chatham

  11. Japanese studies on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutsuka, N.; Yoshida, N.

    1983-01-01

    Considerations of sodium fires are very important for the design and licensing of LMFBRs. Continuing effort has been made in the study of sodium fires and their consequences since the beginning of the Japanese fast breeder reactor development program. Recent effort is mainly focussed on studies related to Monju, especially on the design and testing of primary cell liners against large sodium spills. Experimental and analytical studies on sodium fires, water release from concrete and sodium concrete reactions are conducted as a part of this study. Some extinguishing agents are also tested against sodium fires. In addition, considerable effort is being made in the development of detection systems for the small sodium leaks before a pipe rupture. This paper briefly summarizes the Japanese status of these sodium fire related activities conducted by Fast Breeder Reactor Development Project of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC)

  12. The Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate and Sodium Citrate on Blood pH, HCO3-, Lactate Metabolism and Time to Exhaustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soetanto Hartono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate in increasing lactate concentration, blood pH, HCO3-, and time to exhaustion. Increased time to exhaustion is an advantage since the athletes can do more anaerobic work. Exhaustion could be delayed by increasing HCO3- to catch H+ produced by lactate metabolism to form H2O and CO2. The design of this research was randomized pretest posttest control group design. Thirty badminton student players were randomly selected and randomly assigned to three groups. The first group (the control group was given placebo, NaCl .9 g/dl, the second group was given sodium bicarbonate 300 mg/kg in 500 ml aqua, and the third group was given sodium citrate 300 mg/kg in 500 ml aqua. Blood pH and bicarbonate ion (HCO3- were measured through Opti Medical Blood gas Analyzer. Lactate was measured by Cobas Roche lactate Analyzer. Data was analyzed using Manova with .05 significant level. Blood pH of the groups taking sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate were higher significantly against control group (p.05. Sodium bicarbonate is better than sodium citrate, although both were better than control (p<.05. Sodium bicarbonate is better than sodium citrate in increasing blood pH and time to exhaustion. The disadvantage of using sodium bicarbonate is that it can cause gastrointestinal problem and headache, so it is not advisable to be used by athletes who have the symptoms.

  13. Sodium diffusion in boroaluminosilicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Zheng, Qiuju; Mauro, John C.

    2011-01-01

    of isothermal sodium diffusion in BAS glasses by ion exchange, inward diffusion, and tracer diffusion experiments. By varying the [SiO2]/[Al2O3] ratio of the glasses, different structural regimes of sodium behavior are accessed. We show that the mobility of the sodium ions decreases with increasing [SiO2]/[Al2O......Understanding the fundamentals of alkali diffusion in boroaluminosilicate (BAS) glasses is of critical importance for advanced glass applications, e.g., the production of chemically strengthened glass covers for personal electronic devices. Here, we investigate the composition dependence...

  14. FY 2017-Progress Report on the Design and Construction of the Sodium Loop SMT-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Momozaki, Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This report provides an update on the design of a forced-convection sodium loop to be used for the evaluation of sodium compatibility of advanced Alloy 709 with emphasis on long term exposures of tensile, creep, fatigue, creep fatigue, and fracture toughness ASTM-size specimens in support of ASME Code qualification and NRC licensing. The report is a deliverable (Level 4) in FY17 (M4AT-17AN1602094), under the Work Package AT-17AN160209, “Sodium Compatibility” performed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), as part of the Advanced Materials Program for the Advanced Reactor Technology. This work package enables the development of advanced structural materials by providing corrosion, microstructure, and mechanical property data from the standpoint of sodium compatibility of advanced structural alloys. The first sodium loop (SMT-1) with a single tank was constructed in 2011 at ANL and has been in operation for exposure of subsize sheet specimens of advanced alloys at a single temperature. The second sodium loop with dual tanks (SMT-2) was constructed in 2013 and has been in operation for the exposure of subsize sheet specimens of advanced alloys at two different temperatures. The current loop (SMT-3) has been designed to incorporate sufficient chamber capacity to expose a large number of ASTM-size specimens to evaluate the sodium effects on tensile, creep, fatigue, creep-fatigue, and fracture toughness properties, in support of ASME Code Qualification and USNRC Licensing. The design of individual components for the third sodium loop SMT-3 is almost complete. The design also has been sent to an outside vendor for piping analysis to be in compliance with ASME Code. A purchase order has been placed with an outside vendor for the fabrication of major components such as the specimen exposure tanks. However, we have contracted with another vendor to establish the piping design in compliance with ASME design codes. The piping design was completed in FY2017 and the

  15. Sodium-concrete reactions experiments and code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.; Malet, J.C.; Dufresne, J.; Bolvin, M.

    1988-01-01

    Hypothesis of hot sodium leak in a fast breeder reactor implies, for the safety organism to consider spillage of sodium on concrete. This safety analysis involves the understanding of sodium-concrete reactions, the knowledge of their consequences and to test the choiced preventive solutions. In association with EDF, the nuclear safety department had carried out an extensive experimental program, the different parts of which are connected with each aspect of this problem: - firstly, interaction between sodium and bare surface of usual concrete; - secondly, the case of a sodium spillage on a concrete surface covered with a defected liner; - thirdly, special concrete tests for a comparison with usual concrete behavior, in direct contact with hot sodium; - at last, a test which concerns a new design with a layer of the selected concrete protected with a defected liner. On the same time, theoretical work leads to elaborate a physical model to describe temporal evolution of thermal and chemical decomposition of a concrete slab under hot sodium action. SORBET-REBUS system will use quoted above test results to its validation

  16. Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graudal, Niels A; Hubeck-Graudal, Thorbjørn; Jürgens, Gesche

    2016-01-01

    Reduced dietary sodium intake (sodium reduction) increases heart rate in some studies of animals and humans. As heart rate is independently associated with the development of heart failure and increased risk of premature death a potential increase in heart rate could be a harmful side......-effect of sodium reduction. The purpose of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of sodium reduction on heart rate. Relevant studies were retrieved from an updated pool of 176 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in the period 1973-2014. Sixty-three of the RCTs including 72 study...... populations reported data on heart rate. In a meta-analysis of these data sodium reduction increased heart rate with 1.65 beats per minute [95% CI: 1.19, 2.11], p heart rate. This effect was independent of baseline blood pressure. In conclusion sodium reduction...

  17. Preliminary Design of Compressor Impeller for innovative Sodium Cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jekyoung; Cho, Seongkuk; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    For nuclear power plant application, applying S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle to Sodium cooled Fast Reactors and Small Modular Reactors are currently considered and active research is being performed by various research institutions and universities. As a part of research activities on the SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycle development for a nuclear power system, KAIST joint research team is currently working on an innovative Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (iSFR) development which utilizes S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle as its power conversion system. Various research subjects including reactor physics, thermo-hydraulics, material, cycle analysis and system integration are being considered as research issues currently. However, technical issues rising from dramatic change of thermodynamic property of CO{sub 2} near the critical point still remain as problems to be solved. As a result, 3D impeller model generation based on 1D mean stream line analysis results was successfully performed for non-airfoil blades. Since 3D model generation module works successfully, KAIST{sub T}MD can support 3D CFD analysis for internal flow structure in the designed impeller. Compressor loss mechanisms are complex phenomena and these are difficulties to be modeled while considering each loss mechanism separately.

  18. The sodium process facility at Argonne National Laboratory - West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelbacher, J.A.; Henslee, S.P.; McDermott, M.D.; Price, J.R.; Rosenberg, K.E.; Wells, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory - West (ANL-W) has approximately 680,000 liters (180,000 gallons) of raw sodium stored in facilities on site. As mandated by the State of Idaho and the United States Department of Energy (DOE), this sodium must be transformed into a stable condition for land disposal. To comply with this mandate, ANL-W designed and built the Sodium Process Facility (SPF) for the processing of this sodium into a dry, sodium carbonate powder. The major portion of the sodium stored at ANL-W is radioactively contaminated. The SPF was designed to react elemental sodium to sodium carbonate through two-stages involving caustic process and carbonate process steps. The sodium is first reacted to sodium hydroxide in the caustic process step. The caustic process step involves the injection of sodium into a nickel reaction vessel filled with a 50 wt% solution of sodium hydroxide. Water is also injected, controlling the boiling point of the solution. In the carbonate process, the sodium hydroxide is reacted with carbon dioxide to form sodium carbonate. This dry powder, similar in consistency to baking soda, is a waste form acceptable for burial in the State of Idaho as a non-hazardous, radioactive waste. The caustic process was originally designed and built in the 1980s for reacting the 290,000 liters (77,000 gallons) of primary sodium from the Fermi-1 Reactor to sodium hydroxide. The hydroxide was slated to be used to neutralize acid products from the PUREX process at the Hanford site. However, changes in the DOE mission precluded the need for hydroxide and the caustic process was never operated. With the shutdown of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), the necessity for a facility to react sodium was identified. In order to comply with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements, the sodium had to be converted into a waste form acceptable for disposal in a Sub-Title D low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Sodium hydroxide is a RCRA

  19. The corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, R.

    1996-01-01

    Considerable research has been performed by AEA Technology on the corrosion of steels by hot sodium melts containing sodium hydroxide and sodium oxide. This research has principally been in support of understanding the effects of sodium-water reactions on the internals of fast reactor steam generators. The results however have relevance to sodium fires. It has been determined that the rate of corrosion of steels by melts of pure NaOH can be significantly increased by the addition of Na 2 O. In the case of a sodium-water reaction jet created by a leak of steam into sodium, the composition of the jet varies from 100% sodium through to 100% steam, with a full range of concentrations of NaOH and Na 2 O, depending on axial and radial position. The temperature in the jet also varies with position, ranging from bulk sodium temperature on one boundary to expanded steam temperature on the other boundary, with internal temperatures ranging up to 1300 deg. C, depending on the local pre-reaction mole ratio of steam to sodium. In the case of sodium-water reaction jets, it has been possible to develop a model which predicts the composition of the reaction jet and then, using the data generated on the corrosivity of sodium melts, predict the rate of corrosion of a steel target in the path of the jet. In the case of a spray sodium fire, the sodium will initially contain a concentration of NaOH and the combustion process will generate Na 2 O. If there is sufficient humidity, conversion of some of the Na 2 O to NaOH will also occur. There is therefore the potential for aggressive mixtures of NaOH and Na 2 O to exist on the surface of the sodium droplets. It is therefore possible that the rate of corrosion of steels in the path of the spray may be higher than expected on the basis of assuming that only Na and Na 2 O were present. In the case of a pool sodium fire, potentially corrosive mixtures of NaOH and Na 2 O may be formed at some locations on the surface. This could lead to

  20. Sodium selectivity of Reissner's membrane epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyunghee X

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by Reissner's membrane is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of cochlear endolymph. It was previously shown that the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride and benzamil. The most commonly-observed target of these drugs is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, which is composed of the three subunits α-,β- and γ-ENaC. However, other less-selective cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive to benzamil and amiloride. The aim of this study was to determine whether Reissner's membrane epithelial cells could support parasensory K+ absorption via amiloride- and benzamil-sensitive electrogenic pathways. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6196, RT-PCR, and whole-cell patch clamp. Transcript expression analysis of Reissner's membrane detected no amiloride-sensitive acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC1a, ASIC2a, ASIC2b nor amiloride-sensitive cyclic-nucleotide gated channels (CNGA1, CNGA2, CNGA4, CNGB3. By contrast, α-,β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present in Reissner's membrane. The selectivity of the benzamil-sensitive cation currents was observed in whole-cell patch clamp recordings under Cl--free conditions where cations were the only permeant species. The currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, and the permeability of Li+ was greater than that of Na+ in Reissner's membrane. Complete replacement of bath Na+ with the inpermeable cation NMDG+ led to the same inward current as with benzamil in a Na+ bath. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride/benzamil-sensitive absorptive flux of Reissner's membrane mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel that has several key characteristics in common with αβγ-ENaC. The amiloride-sensitive pathway therefore absorbs only Na+ in this epithelium and does not provide a parasensory K+ efflux route from scala

  1. Late-onset hypogonadism: Current concepts and controversies of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilpo Huhtaniemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although suppressed serum testosterone (T is common in ageing men, only a small proportion of them develop the genuine syndrome of low T associated with diffuse sexual (e.g., erectile dysfunction, physical (e.g. loss of vigor and frailty and psychological (e.g., depression symptoms. This syndrome carries many names, including male menopause or climacterium, andropause and partial androgen deficiency of the ageing male (PADAM. Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH describes it best and is therefore generally preferred. The decrease of T in LOH is often marginal, and hypogonadism can be either due to primary testicular failure (low T, high luteinizing hormone (LH or secondary to a hypothalamic-pituitary failure (low T, low or inappropriately normal LH. The latter form is more common and it is usually associated with overweight/obesity or chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frailty. A problem with the diagnosis of LOH is that often the symptoms (in 20%-40% of unselected men and low circulating T (in 20% of men >70 years of age do not coincide in the same individual. The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS has recently defined the strict diagnostic criteria for LOH to include the simultaneous presence of reproducibly low serum T (total T <11 nmol l−1 and free T <220 pmol l−1 and three sexual symptoms (erectile dysfunction, and reduced frequency of sexual thoughts and morning erections. By these criteria, only 2% of 40- to 80-year-old men have LOH. In particular obesity, but also impaired general health, are more common causes of low T than chronological age per se. Evidence-based information whether, and how, LOH should be treated is sparse. The most logical approach is lifestyle modification, weight reduction and good treatment of comorbid diseases. T replacement is widely used for the treatment, but evidence-based information about its real benefi ts and

  2. Late-onset hypogonadism: Current concepts and controversies of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo

    2014-01-01

    Although suppressed serum testosterone (T) is common in ageing men, only a small proportion of them develop the genuine syndrome of low T associated with diffuse sexual (e.g., erectile dysfunction), physical (e.g. loss of vigor and frailty) and psychological (e.g., depression) symptoms. This syndrome carries many names, including male menopause or climacterium, andropause and partial androgen deficiency of the ageing male (PADAM). Late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) describes it best and is therefore generally preferred. The decrease of T in LOH is often marginal, and hypogonadism can be either due to primary testicular failure (low T, high luteinizing hormone (LH)) or secondary to a hypothalamic-pituitary failure (low T, low or inappropriately normal LH). The latter form is more common and it is usually associated with overweight/obesity or chronic diseases (e.g., type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and frailty). A problem with the diagnosis of LOH is that often the symptoms (in 20%–40% of unselected men) and low circulating T (in 20% of men >70 years of age) do not coincide in the same individual. The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) has recently defined the strict diagnostic criteria for LOH to include the simultaneous presence of reproducibly low serum T (total T <11 nmol l−1 and free T <220 pmol l−1) and three sexual symptoms (erectile dysfunction, and reduced frequency of sexual thoughts and morning erections). By these criteria, only 2% of 40- to 80-year-old men have LOH. In particular obesity, but also impaired general health, are more common causes of low T than chronological age per se. Evidence-based information whether, and how, LOH should be treated is sparse. The most logical approach is lifestyle modification, weight reduction and good treatment of comorbid diseases. T replacement is widely used for the treatment, but evidence-based information about its real benefits and short

  3. The emerging chemistry of sodium ion batteries for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Dipan; Talaie, Elahe; Duffort, Victor; Nazar, Linda F

    2015-03-09

    Energy storage technology has received significant attention for portable electronic devices, electric vehicle propulsion, bulk electricity storage at power stations, and load leveling of renewable sources, such as solar energy and wind power. Lithium ion batteries have dominated most of the first two applications. For the last two cases, however, moving beyond lithium batteries to the element that lies below-sodium-is a sensible step that offers sustainability and cost-effectiveness. This requires an evaluation of the science underpinning these devices, including the discovery of new materials, their electrochemistry, and an increased understanding of ion mobility based on computational methods. The Review considers some of the current scientific issues underpinning sodium ion batteries. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Thermal hydraulics of sodium-cooled fast reactors - key issues and highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, H.; Kamide, H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper key issues and highlighted topics in thermal hydraulics are discussed in connection to the current Japan's sodium-cooled fast reactor development efforts. In particular, design study and related researches of the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) are focused. Several innovative technologies, e.g., compact reactor vessel, two-loop system, fully natural circulation decay heat removal, and recriticality free core, have been investigated in order to reduce construction cost and to achieve higher level of reactor safety. Preliminary evaluations of innovative technologies to be applied to JSFR are on-going. Here, progress of design study is introduced. Then, research and development activities on the thermal hydraulics related to the innovative technologies are briefly reviewed. (author)

  5. The detection of leaks on sodium pipes in a 'leak before break' approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonakas, D.

    1989-01-01

    The operation of circuits containing liquid sodium requires, given the chemical affinity of this fluid for air and water, a reliable detection of possible leaks. This system of detection should alert the operators to the occurrence of a leak in sufficient time to limit the potential consequences of a discharge of sodium in the building, leading to a severe sodium fire or at least to an extended corrosion of the pipe system. From a design point of view, the most likely event leading to this situation can be the consequence. of an initial undetected defect which develops under the effect of thermo-mechanical loadings, produces a sodium. leak below the dejection threshold remains undetectable white progressing and finally leads to a guillotine-type rupture when an incidental loading is superimposed to the normal one. The 'leak before break' approach which is now currently introduced in design considerations consists of insuring the detection of incipient leaks corresponding to through-the-wall cracks well below instability of the pipe. Under this short statement, lies a considerable and still necessary effort of research broadly presented in the present paper

  6. FFTF sodium and cover gas characterization and purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Bloom, G.R.; Meadows, G.E.; Mettler, G.W.

    1980-02-01

    The FFTF Primary and Secondary Heat Transport System (HTS) sodium is purified with cold traps which have packed crystallizers and external economizers. The Primary HTS cold trap is NaK cooled and the Secondary HTS cold traps are air cooled. The FFTF cold traps have maintained high purity in the sodium since sodium fill. Plant operational procedures during fill and initial sodium heatup to 800 0 F were controlled to assure low release rates of impurities to the sodium. The FFTF sodium systems are monitored by plugging temperature indicators and by several sampling methods. During reactor fill and non-fueled operations at 400 to 800 0 F, impurity changes in the sodium were followed by continuous plugging indicator coverage, by exposing wires and foils to measure carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, and by bulk sample analysis of all other trace constituents. The sampling and analysis methods and data are presented, impurity excursions in the cover gas and sodium are described, and impurity trends are discussed

  7. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lievens, F; Casteels, F [SCK/CEN, Mol (Belgium)

    1980-05-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  8. Chemistry of carbon in dynamic sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lievens, F.; Casteels, F.

    1980-01-01

    The chemistry of carbon in sodium is described by its chemical activity measurements using alloy monitor foils, by its behaviour in the heat exchanger of the Na 2 sodium loop after 60,000 hours of operation, and by measurements with on-line meters. Efforts toward the identification of the carbon chemical states present in dynamic sodium, and responsible for the carbon chemical activity, are described. (author)

  9. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  10. High Dietary Sodium Intake Assessed by Estimated 24-h Urinary Sodium Excretion Is Associated with NAFLD and Hepatic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ji Hye; Lee, Kyong Joo; Lim, Jung Soo; Lee, Mi Young; Park, Hong Jun; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jae Woo; Chung, Choon Hee; Shin, Jang Yel; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kwon, Sang Ok; Baik, Soon Koo

    2015-01-01

    Although high sodium intake is associated with obesity and hypertension, few studies have investigated the relationship between sodium intake and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between sodium intake assessed by estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD in healthy Koreans. We analyzed data from 27,433 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2008-2010). The total amount of sodium excretion in 24-h urine was estimated using Tanaka's equations from spot urine specimens. Subjects were defined as having NAFLD when they had high scores in previously validated NAFLD prediction models such as the hepatic steatosis index (HSI) and fatty liver index (FLI). BARD scores and FIB-4 were used to define advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. The participants were classified into three groups according to estimated 24-h urinary excretion tertiles. The prevalence of NAFLD as assessed by both FLI and HSI was significantly higher in the highest estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion tertile group. Even after adjustment for confounding factors including body fat and hypertension, the association between higher estimated 24-h urinary sodium excretion and NAFLD remained significant (Odds ratios (OR) 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.55, in HSI; OR 1.75, CI 1.39-2.20, in FLI, both P sodium values. High sodium intake was independently associated with an increased risk of NAFLD and advanced liver fibrosis.

  11. Instrumentation and Control Systems for Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Byeong Yeon; Kim, Hyung Mo; Cho, Youn Gil; Kim, Jong Man; Ko, Yung Joo; Kang, Byeong Su; Jung, Min Hwan; Jeong, Ji Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    A forced-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX) is a part of decay heat removal system (DHRS) in Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled fast reactor (PGSFR), which is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA) is a test facility for verification and validation of the design code for a forced-draft sodium-to-air heat exchanger (FHX). In this paper, we have provided design and fabrication features for the instrumentation and control systems of SELFA. In general, the instrumentation systems and control systems are coupled for measurement and control of process variables. Instrumentation systems have been designed for investigating thermal-hydraulic characteristics of FHX and control systems have been designed to control the main components (e.g. electromagnetic pumps, heaters, valves etc.) required for test in SELFA. In this paper, we have provided configurations of instrumentation and control systems for Sodium thermal hydraulic Experiment Loop for Finned-tube sodium-to-Air heat exchanger (SELFA). The instrumentation and control systems of SELFA have been implemented based on the expected operation ranges and lesson learned from operational experience of 'Sodium integral effect test loop for safety simulation and assessment-1' (STELLA-1)

  12. Effect of intravenous sodium salicylate administration prior to castration on plasma cortisol and electroencephalography parameters in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, L; Coetzee, J F; Gehring, R; Murray, L; Song, T; Mosher, R A

    2011-12-01

    Nociception is an unavoidable consequence of many routine management procedures such as castration in cattle. This study investigated electroencephalography (EEG) parameters and cortisol levels in calves receiving intravenous sodium salicylate in response to a castration model. Twelve Holstein calves were randomly assigned to the following groups: (i) castrated, untreated controls, (ii) 50 mg/kg sodium salicylate IV precastration, were blood sampled at 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 360, and 480 min postcastration. The EEG recording included baseline, castration, immediate recovery (0-5 min after castration), middle recovery (5-10 min after castration), and late recovery (10-20 min after castration). Samples were analyzed by competitive chemiluminescent immunoassay and fluorescence polarization immunoassay for cortisol and salicylate, respectively. EEG visual inspection and spectral analysis were performed. Statistical analyses included anova repeated measures and correlations between response variable. No treatment effect was noted between the two groups for cortisol and EEG measurements, namely an attenuation of acute cortisol response and EEG desynchronization in sodium salicylate group. Time effects were noted for EEG measurements, cortisol and salicylates levels. Significant correlations between cortisol and EEG parameters were noted. These findings have implications for designing effective analgesic regimens, and they suggest that EEG can be useful to monitor pain attributable to castration. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A Patient with MSUD: Acute Management with Sodium Phenylacetate/Sodium Benzoate and Sodium Phenylbutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Köse

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In treatment of metabolic imbalances caused by maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, peritoneal dialysis, and hemofiltration, pharmacological treatments for elimination of toxic metabolites can be used in addition to basic dietary modifications. Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate (NaPB in urea-cycle disorder cases has been associated with a reduction in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA concentrations when the patients are on adequate dietary protein intake. Moreover, NaPB in treatment of MSUD patients is also associated with reduction of BCAA levels in a limited number of cases. However, there are not enough studies in the literature about application and efficacy of this treatment. Our case report sets an example of an alternative treatment’s efficacy when extracorporeal procedures are not available due to technical difficulties during attack period of the disease.

  14. Electrolytic coloration of air-grown sodium fluoride crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Hongen; Han Li; Song Cuiying; Guo Meili; Wang Na

    2007-01-01

    Air-grown sodium fluoride crystals were colored electrolytically by using a pointed cathode at various temperatures and electric field strengths, which should mainly benefit appropriate coloration temperatures and electric field strengths. O 2 - , F, M, N 1 , N 2 color centers and O 2- -F + complexes were produced in the colored crystals. Current-time curves for the electrolytic colorations were given, and activation energy for the V color center migration was determined. The formation of the color centers was explained

  15. Mixed Solvent Reactive Recrystallization of Sodium Carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaertner, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    Investigation of the reactive recrystallization of trona (sodium sesquicarbonate) and sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate (soda) in a mixed solvent led to the design of several alternative, less energy consumptive, economically very attractive process routes for the production of soda from all

  16. Computer simulation for sodium-concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bin; Zhu Jizhou

    2006-01-01

    In the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), direct contacts between sodium and concrete is unavoidable. Due to sodium's high chemical reactivity, sodium would react with concrete violently. Lots of hydrogen gas and heat would be released then. This would harm the ignorantly of the containment. This paper developed a program to simualte sodium-conrete reactions across-the-board. It could give the reaction zone temperature, pool temperature, penetration depth, penetration rate, hydrogen flux and reaction heat and so on. Concrete was considered to be composed of silica and water only in this paper. The variable, the quitient of sodium hydroxide, was introduced in the continuity equation to simulate the chemical reactions more realistically. The product of the net gas flux and boundary depth was ably transformed to that of penetration rate and boundary depth. The complex chemical kinetics equations was simplified under some hypothesises. All the technique applied above simplified the computer simulation consumedly. In other words, they made the computer simulation feasible. Theoretics models that applied in the program and the calculation procedure were expatiated in detail. Good agreements of an overall transient behavior were obtained in the series of sodium-concrete reaction experiment analysis. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results showed the program presented in this paper was creditable and reasonable for simulating the sodium-concrete reactions. This program could be used for nuclear safety judgement. (authors)

  17. Layered SnS sodium ion battery anodes synthesized near room temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Fan; Liang, Hanfeng; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    excellent performance as sodium ion battery anodes. Specifically, the SnS/C anodes delivered a reversible capacity as high as 792 mAh·g−1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 100 mA·g−1. They also had superior rate capability (431 mAh·g−1 at 3,000 mA·g−1

  18. Combustion of sodium in the open atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morewith, H A; Johnson, R P; Nelson, C T; Otter, J M [Energy System Group, Rockwell International, Rockwell (United States)

    1979-03-01

    A series of sodium fire tests has been conducted in ambient air at a meteorological test site. This test series was designed to simulate hypothetical accidents which might occur in the heat transport system of an LMFBR. Measurements of concentration, agglomeration, fallout, and chemical species of the sodium combustion products were made as a function of downwind distance. In each of the first two tests, {approx}23 kg of 540 deg. C sodium was sprayed as a fan of 250-{mu}m sodium drops across the wind, from heights of 5 or 6 m. Each release took a few minutes. A dense sodium combustion product aerosol was formed, and quickly agglomerated to large (100 to 660 {mu}m) diameter particles. More than 50% of the aerosol mass fell out within several hundred meters of the release point. Two additional tests were performed by releasing sodium through 9.5-mm diameter jets at a height of 30 m. In each test, the sodium jet was aimed horizontally across the wind, and followed a downward parabolic trajectory, releasing burning sodium drops along its track. Again, close-in fallout due to large agglomerates was observed. A substantial amount of unburned sodium fell 30 m to the ground, where it burned. In a third type of test, sodium was burned for 60 min as pool in a 1.5m{sup 2} burn pan at 9 m/s wind velocity. Approximately 30% of the combustion products became airborne. Large agglo