WorldWideScience

Sample records for late seventeenth century

  1. Sexuality, Elites, and Court Life in the Late Seventeenth Century: The Diaries of Constantijn Huygens, Jr.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Dekker (Rudolf)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn the last quarter of the seventeenth century, the following joke circulated in the Dutch Republic: A very fat nobleman married a lady-in-waiting of the Princess of Orange. Because of his big belly, he was afraid that he would not be able to manage intercourse with her. However, she

  2. Sexuality, Elites, and Court Life in the Late Seventeenth Century: The Diaries of Constantijn Huygens, Jr.

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, Rudolf

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn the last quarter of the seventeenth century, the following joke circulated in the Dutch Republic: A very fat nobleman married a lady-in-waiting of the Princess of Orange. Because of his big belly, he was afraid that he would not be able to manage intercourse with her. However, she knew how to remedy this with some cushions and body movements. Surprised, he asked her where she had learned this. She answered, "Ho, ho, don't you know that you can learn anything at court." 1 This j...

  3. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  4. Friendship networks, rural community and venality in Lima with regard to the behaviour of military orders in the late seventeenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Andújar Castillo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a methodology based on cross-referencing multiple documentary sources and highlighting the value of relational capital in the political and social dynamics of the ancien régime, we study the friendship networks and rural community woven by the people of Lima in the late seventeenth century in a bid to obtain knighthood honours from military orders. We analyse existing links and how networks were created to acquire the orders’ crosses and buy the positions in government, the judicial system and the treasury which the monarchy in Madrid had put up for sale.

  5. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  6. Kabbalah, Education, and Prayer: Jewish Learning in the Seventeenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necker, Gerold

    2018-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, the Jewish mystical tradition which is known as Kabbalah was integrated into the curriculum of studying the Hebrew Bible and the Talmud. Kabbalah became popular in these times in the wake of the dissemination of Isaac Luria's teachings, in particular within the Jewish communities in Prague and Amsterdam, where members…

  7. A Case of Epilepsy and Psychosis in the Seventeenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ovsiew

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A seventeenth-century painter left an account of his seizures, trances and visions; in 1923 Freud commented on this “demonological neurosis” without discussing the seizures. Attention is drawn to the concurrence of epilepsy and psychosis in this early autobiographical source.

  8. Seventeenth century drawings of Brazilian animals in Leningrad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.; Holthuis, L.B.; Hoogmoed, M.S.; Smeenk, C.

    1990-01-01

    Manuscript pictures of NE. Brazilian animals, related to seventeenth century originals described by Marcgrave and Piso (1648, 1658), validated by Linnaeus (1758-59, 1766-68), are studied and identified, comments are supplied, partly based on much neglected old sources, with evaluations of current

  9. Christian Ideas in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Brad

    2014-10-01

    The revival of intellectual history in recent years, to which the series Ideas in Context has contributed, owes much to showing how ideas, beliefs, and aspirations inform all areas of human life. In the Reformation era, disagreements about Christian ideas disrupted society at large. Nearly all studies of Western Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries must address the consequences of these disagreements, including the books noted here by Todd, Van Gelderen, Tuck, Kusukawa, and Hoepfl.

  10. Flower Style on Seventeenth Century Agra Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Fuat BAYSAL

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available India is a uniquely rich country thanks to its historical characteristics and complex mixture of different races, cultures and religions. The diversity of the religious groups has particularly affected the decorative arts, which have generated another form of diversity and richness. Every religious group built their own houses of worship and decorated them in accordance with their beliefs because of the close relationship between religion and decoration. Many buildings containing Turkish overtones have been constructed in India, particularly in Agra, during the Mughal era. The style of Kara Memi, a sixteenth century Ottoman painter, draws attention with the decoration of the buildings constructed during the Shah Jahan era. Of them, the most popular is the Taj Mahal. It is well known that the Ottomans respected and appreciated the artistic characteristics, particularly the architecture, of the region instead of acting in a dominating manner. Thus, we can consider the relationship between the Ottomans and Mughal Empire is similar only in terms of style. Cooperation was present between them, and artistic transfers between these two empires were thus inevitable.

  11. Nominalism and constructivism in seventeenth-century mathematical philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Sepkoski, David

    2013-01-01

    What was the basis for the adoption of mathematics as the primary mode of discourse for describing natural events by a large segment of the philosophical community in the seventeenth century? In answering this question, this book demonstrates that a significant group of philosophers shared the belief that there is no necessary correspondence between external reality and objects of human understanding, which they held to include the objects of mathematical and linguistic discourse. The result is a scholarly reliable, but accessible, account of the role of mathematics in the works of (

  12. Manuscript Évora, Biblioteca Pública, Cód. CLI/1-3: Its Origin and Contents, and the Stemmata of Late-Sixteenth- and Early-Seventeenth- Century Portuguese Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d’Alvarenga, João Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manuscript Évora, Biblioteca Pública, Cód. CLI/1-3 is a small volume made up of two originally independent manuscripts datable respectively to c.1615 and c.1575, which were bound together sometime in the seventeenth century. The second part of the volume contains what is possibly the oldest, most persistent and widely-circulated of Holy Week series of responsories in extant late-sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Portuguese sources of polyphony. The first part is dominated by the works of Manuel Mendes, a composer whose considerable reputation rested especially on his abilities as a teacher, but whose works are among the most widespread pieces in Portuguese and American colonial manuscripts in the years around 1600. In this paper I will determine the origin of Évora Cód. CLI/1-3 by following the steps of Mendes’s career, and establish the relationship between this source and several other important manuscripts as to the transmission of two exemplary pieces through the study of variant readings and the rates of agreement of the sources in the points of variation, proposing a general stemmata for pieces in late-sixteenth and earlyseventeenth- century Portuguese sources of polyphony.

    El Cód. CLI/1-3 de la Biblioteca Pública de Évora es un pequeño volumen compuesto por dos manuscritos originalmente independientes fechados hacia 1615 y 1575, respectivamente, los cuales fueron encuadernados juntos en algún momento del siglo XVII. La segunda parte del volumen contiene una serie de responsorios de Semana Santa, posiblemente la más antigua, duradera y de mayor circulación de entre las fuentes portuguesas de polifonía de finales del siglo XVI y del siglo XVII conservadas. En la primera parte sobresalen las obras de Manuel Mendes, un compositor cuya considerable reputación se debe sobre todo a sus habilidades como maestro, pero cuyas obras se encuentran entre las piezas más difundidas en los manuscritos portugueses y

  13. Niels Hemmingsen and the Construction of a Seventeenth-Century Protestant Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Mattias Skat

    2017-01-01

    Danish reformer Niels Hemmingsen was a Lutheran, but owing to Pan-Protestant sentiments that became apparent in his later writings, he found an appreciative audience in non-Lutheran Western Europe during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. This article argues that the early modern...... European reception of Hemmingsen and his theology should be seen as an attempt to construct him as part of a Protestant memory. It also argues that in order to understand the dynamics behind the reception of Hemmingsen’s ideas, one has to consider the geopolitics of early modern Denmark. Due to her...

  14. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

    OpenAIRE

    d'Arcy, Sing

    2014-01-01

    When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray L...

  15. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra M C

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine. There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period.

  16. Doctors and Their Patients in the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschin, Marion; Dietrich-Daum, Elisabeth; Ritzmann, Iris

    2016-01-01

    social groups also, the consultation of learned physicians became more common: in towns from the first half of the nineteenth century and in the country from the middle of the century. In addition, the individual findings reveal that, prior to the introduction of statutory health insurance for salaried persons, patients of more secure social standing consulted a physician considerably more frequently in the course of the year than lower class patients. While the patient structure clearly changed around 1800, the relationship between physician and patient continued without major changes from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. The therapeutic encounter up until the end of the investigated period can be summarized as a negotiation process. Patients were discerning in their choice of healer and did not refrain from using rival services. They sought help for unpleasant symptoms such as indigestion, pain or fever, and only rarely in cases of emergency Therapy was decided on after an exchange between a critical and autonomous client and the medical specialist who was generally willing to compromise. While the patient structure clearly changed around 1800, the relationship between physician and patient continued without major changes from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. The therapeutic encounter up until the end of the investigated period can be summarized as a negotiation process. Patients were discerning in their choice of healer and did not refrain from using rival services. they sought help for unpleasant symptoms such as indigestion, pain or fever, and only rarely in cases of emergency. Therapy was decided on after an exchange between critical and autonomous client and the medical specialist who was generally willing to compromise.

  17. Clashes of discourses: Humanists and Calvinists in seventeenth-century academic Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kromhout, D.

    2016-01-01

    Using Michel Foucault's concept of discursive change and Stephen Greenblatt's ideas about social poetics and self-fashioning, 'Clashes of Discourses: Calvinists and Humanists in Seventeenth-Century Academic Leiden' explains developments in the literary works of leading Leiden humanists against the

  18. Was Plague an Exclusively Urban Phenomenon? Plague Mortality in the Seventeenth-Century Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship reinforces the notion that by the early modern period, plague had become largely an urban concern in northwestern Europe. However, a data set comprised of burial information from the seventeenth-century Low Countries suggests that plague’s impact on the countryside was far more

  19. Understandings of Colors: Varieties of Theories in the Color Worlds of the Early Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2015-01-01

    In the early seventeenth century, there existed a myriad of theories to account for color phenomena. The status, goal, and content of such accounts differed as well as the range of phenomena they explained. Starting with the journal of Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637), this essay inquires into the

  20. Public Finance and Economic Growth. The Case of Holland in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, O.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/19265473X; Jonker, J.P.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075034638

    2011-01-01

    The debate over the institutions that link economic growth to public finance tends to disregard the need for savings to finance growing public debt. In seventeenth-century Holland the structure, size, and issuing rates of the debt were determined by investors’ preferences, wealth accumulation, and

  1. Scholasticism revisited: methodological reflections on the study of seventeenth-century reformed thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, W.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Historical theologians have commonly held that a rather negative connection exists between the two major intellectual movements in the Protestant world of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries – the Reformation and Protestant scholasticism. These scholars have condemned the writings of the

  2. Education for Francisation: The Case of New France in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the seventeenth-century French missionary and bureaucratic attempt to "francisize" (to make French) Canadian Indian children, so they would eventually be assimilated into the French expatriate colony, an effort based on the idea that contact with Europeans and education would convert Amerindians to Catholicism and make them…

  3. 'Most Rare Workmen': Optical Practitioners in Early Seventeenth-Century Delft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidervaart, Huib J.; Rijks, Marlise

    2015-01-01

    A special interest in optics among various seventeenth-century painters living in the Dutch city of Delft has intrigued historians, including art historians, for a long time. Equally, the impressive career of the Delft microscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek has been studied by many historians of

  4. Lenses and Waves - Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematical Science of Optics in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of nature knowledge.

  5. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeenth Century English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  6. Mirzam C. Pérez, The Comedia of Virginity: Mary and the Politics of Seventeenth-Century Spanish Theater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Mirzam C. Pérez, The Comedia of Virginity: Mary and the Politics of Seventeenth-Century Spanish Theater, Waco (Texas, Baylor University Press, 2012, 173 pp. ISBN: 9781602586451.

  7. The Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca during the seventeenth century: constitutions and collegials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael RAMIS BARCELÓ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to make known the Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca throughout their sources since its founding in 1633 until 1700. Some especial attention is deserved to the Constitutions of the Centre, compared with the Constitutions of Presentation College of Valencia. The article discusses particularly College life, Studies and Visits. The document is intended as a contribution to the academic and ecclesiastical history that provides a better understanding of Majorcan training institutions in the seventeenth century.

  8. THE SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY CRISIS REVISITED. THE CASE OF THE SOUTHERN ITALIAN SILK INDUSTRY: REGGIO CALABRIA, 1547-1686

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Calabria

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the silk trade in Southern Italy through a quantitative study of exports from the dry-customs port of Reggio Calabria. It traces the experience of Reggio’s silk industry from its heyday in the sixteenth century to its collapse in the seventeenth, and it places that experience in the context of the economic decline of Southern Italy and of the literature on the crisis of the seventeenth century.

  9. An Astrological Diary of the Seventeenth Century - Samuel Jeake of Rye 1652-1699

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Michael; Gregory, Annabel

    1988-04-01

    A seventeenth-century merchant and nonconformist from Rye in Sussex, Samuel Jeake had a passionate interest in astrology. In his diary--recently recovered in Los Angeles and published here for the first time--Jeake not only recorded the events of his life; he subjected them to astrological scrutiny, interspersing his text with horoscopes. The result is one of the most interesting 17th-century diaries to be published in many years, throwing important light on the history of astrology, commerce, medicine, and religion. An illuminating introduction by the editors places the diary in the context of the preoccupations and priorities of Jeake's age.

  10. A Blend of Traditions: The Lute’s Influence on Seventeenth-Century Harpsichord Repertoire

    OpenAIRE

    Audrey S. Rutt

    2017-01-01

    The close relationship between the harpsichord and lute traditions is commonly claimed but rarely elaborated upon, and many experts disagree on the manner in and extent to which the two are related. Often, texts covering the early harpsichord literature will limit discussion of the lute’s influence to a brief mention of the style brisé, if the important connection between the two traditions is even mentioned all. The lute’s impact on the harpsichordists of the seventeenth century is not a fac...

  11. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  12. From queen to mother: motherhood as discursive construction in the seventeenth century neogranadine painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cruz Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines motherhood as a discursive construction, linking this construction with the neogranadine visual discourse of the seventeenth century. The image of “The Virgin with the Child”, within the post Tridentine context, stood as a place of origin of a discourse modeling the women behavior, giving specific roles in relation with their children. The tender, loving and protective mother with their children emerges in the visual discourse as a narrative truth that should be adopted by subjects in everyday behavior.

  13. Lenses and waves Christiaan Huygens and the mathematical science of optics in the seventeenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko Jan

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. This book discusses the development of Huygens' wave theory, reconstructing the winding road that eventually led to Traité de la Lumière. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in t

  14. A Blend of Traditions: The Lute’s Influence on Seventeenth-Century Harpsichord Repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey S. Rutt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The close relationship between the harpsichord and lute traditions is commonly claimed but rarely elaborated upon, and many experts disagree on the manner in and extent to which the two are related. Often, texts covering the early harpsichord literature will limit discussion of the lute’s influence to a brief mention of the style brisé, if the important connection between the two traditions is even mentioned all. The lute’s impact on the harpsichordists of the seventeenth century is not a facet that can be ignored; rather, an understanding of the lute tradition is essential to an understanding of the harpsichord tradition. Neither can the relationship be isolated to the style brisé, as the influence extends also to other textures, rhythms, harmonic devices, sonorous effects, and genres found within the solo literatures of both the lute and harpsichord. This connection is especially evident in the solo harpsichord works of Francois Couperin, D’Anglebert, Froberger, and Chambonnieres. Ornamentation and broken textures, elements that were evocative of the lute, were incorporated into the already existing keyboard tradition represented by the organ. However, although composers for the harpsichord imitated the style of lutenists such as Gaultier and Pinel, they also transformed it; they developed these lute-like elements in a manner that became distinctly idiomatic to the harpsichord. In this way, the harpsichord idiom that emerged in the seventeenth century was formed by a unique blend of the organ and lute styles.

  15. Jean-Baptiste Labat and the buccaneer barbecue in seventeenth-century Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toczyski, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    If, as the sociologist Pierre L. van den Berghe has suggested, cuisine is a significant expression of man's sociability, one might say that the seventeenth-century missionary Jean-Baptiste Labat was the single most social animal in the Caribbean islands in the 1690s. Although his primary responsibility on the island of Martinique was to serve the island's multiethnic population as a spiritual leader, le père Labat's memoirs chronicle the diverse culinary experiences of the missionary as he literally eats his way around the island, learning to prepare such delicacies as cocoa confit, roasted manatee, lizard en brochette, and parakeet en daube. Positing his unbridled interest in the culinary arts as a mark of his “obedience” to the duties assigned him as missionary, Labat's taxonomy of island delicacies and exotic tastes no doubt titillated the curiosity of his mainland readers while nevertheless grounding itself strongly in the values of order, authenticity, and industry so essential to Labat's apostolic mission. This article focuses on two “buccaneer barbecues” as examples of gastronomical experiences through which Labat was able to construct and negotiate new social, cultural, and symbolic meanings, exploring identity politics through the frame of the culinary arts in seventeenth-century Martinique.

  16. The deep metaphysics of quantum gravity: The seventeenth century legacy and an alternative ontology beyond substantivalism and relationism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowik, Edward

    2013-11-01

    This essay presents an alternative to contemporary substantivalist and relationist interpretations of quantum gravity hypotheses by means of an historical comparison with the ontology of space in the seventeenth century. Utilizing differences in the spatial geometry between the foundational theory and the theory derived from the foundational, in conjunction with nominalism and platonism, it will be argued that there are crucial similarities between seventeenth century and contemporary theories of space, and that these similarities reveal a host of underlying conceptual issues that the substantival/relational dichotomy fails to distinguish.

  17. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing d'Arcy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray Lorenzo de San Nicolás, and nineteenth-century commentators, such as Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, the intromission of painters, joiners, silversmiths and other guilds into the realm of architectural design was seen as the principal corruptive force which manifested itself in the unpardonable horrors of the Baroque. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.

  18. [Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century] / Kaarel Vanamölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanamölder, Kaarel, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Ed. by Heiko Droste. Södertörn Studies in History, 9, Södertörn Academic Studies, 42 (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011)

  19. [Jarmo T. Kotilainen. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World ] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Jarmo T. Kotilainen, Jarmo T.. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World. XVIII. Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. Oma töös vaatleb autor ka Rootsi Läänemere-provintside linnade Riia, Tallinna, Narva ja Nyeni tähtsust Venemaa väliskaubanduses.

  20. Memorializing the Wars of Religion in Early Seventeenth-Century French Picture Galleries : Protestants and Catholics Painting the Contested Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, David

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how Protestant and Catholic elites in early seventeenth-century France memorialized the Wars of Religion in purpose-built picture galleries. Postwar France remained a divided nation, and portrait galleries offered a sectarian memory of the conflict, glorifying party heroes.

  1. 'Beauty and Simplicity' : The power of fine art in moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.H.

    Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising messages was

  2. Public Policy and Corporate Protectionism: Regional Institutions and Textile Guilds in Seventeenth Century Aragon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio MATEOS ROYO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on a regional case study, this article will argue that the craft guilds could respond adaptively to changing economic and institutional factors. This flexibility would limit any independent and regular impact of these guilds on regional or state economies in early modern Europe. Having contributed to economic growth in the sixteenth century, the Aragonese textile guilds fell prey to technological stagnation in the seventeenth, while restricting competition in urban product and labour markets as the region’s economy contracted. Their actions thus undermined quality and raised the cost of domestic manufactures. The regional institutions nevertheless tolerated these strategies within certain limits, because they saw the guilds as necessary to organize urban markets and production.

  3. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  4. Brazilian Cannibals in Sixteenth-Century Europe and Seventeenth-Century Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leca, R.

    2014-01-01

    This article follows the transmission of a visual trope depicting Brazilian cannibals from accounts of travelers to Brazil in the 16th century to world maps and popular tales in 17th century Japan. The image of tribesmen roasting human limbs over a fire in woodcut illustrations (such as Theodore de

  5. Paolo Sarpi’s vow of obedience: catholic political thought in early seventeenth-century Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainulainen, Jaska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the idea of obedience in early-modern Catholic political thought. I focus on early seventeenth-century Venice and on one of its leading political thinkers, Paolo Sarpi. I argue that for Sarpi and the Venetian nobility obedience was a religious, Catholic concept, which they nonetheless applied to a secular system of governance; notwithstanding their refusal to obey the papal ban during the interdict of Venice in 1606-1607, Venetians regarded obedience as an act of piety and an indispensable element of civic life.El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la idea de obediencia en el pensamiento político católico de la edad moderna, en particular en Venecia en el siglo XVII y en Paolo Sarpi, uno de sus pensadores políticos más importantes. Este artículo argumenta que para Sarpi y la nobleza la obediencia era un concepto católico, que a pesar de ello, aplicaron a un sistema de gobierno secular. A pesar de su negativa a obedecer la prohibición papal durante el interdicto de Venecia en 1606-1607, los venecianos consideraban la obediencia como un acto de piedad y un elemento indispensable de la vida cívica.

  6. The haunting of Susan Lay: servants and mistresses in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, Laura

    2002-01-01

    At Easter 1650, Susan Lay, a servant in an Essex alehouse, saw the ghost of her mistress, who had been buried three days before. This article explores the history that lay behind her experience: of sexual relationships with both her master and his son, the births and deaths of two bastard children, and beneath it all, a relationship of antagonism, competition, and intimacy with her mistress. It uses this and other legal records to examine the relationship between women in early modern households, arguing that, while antagonisms between women are typically part of effective patriarchies, the domestic life and social structures of mid seventeenth-century England bound servants and mistresses peculiarly tightly together, giving servants licence to dream of replacing their mistresses and mistresses cause to feel threatened by their servants, and making the competitive relations between women functional to patriarchal order. It suggests, finally, that at this moment in time and in this context, seeing a ghost was the best, perhaps the only, way this servant had to tell a suppressed story and stake a claim to a household that had excluded her.

  7. “Wherefore She Made Suit”: African Women’s Religious and Spiritual Determinism in Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Lewis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical evidence of early modern English religious communities demonstrate that culturally negative perceptions of skin color and ethnicity contributed to theological notions of black inferiority which supported societal hierarchies based on racial and gender discrimination. This essay analyzes three accounts of a group typically ignored by religious scholars on early modern England: sixteenth and seventeenth century African women. Despite living in a period that arguably witnessed the ideological birth and development of the racial construct in tandem with British colonialist and imperialist expansionism, these women defiantly crafted their own brand of spiritual determinism to wield personal agency in the face of racist theological discourse, ecclesiastical institutions, and legal authorities.

  8. Fernando de Almeida (d. 1660: Tradition and Innovation in Mid-Seventeenth-Century Portuguese Sacred Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz, João

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Library of the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa preserves three large choirbooks of polyphonic repertoire intended for Holy Week, prepared between 1735 and 1736 by a copyist of the Patriarchal Church. These choirbooks contain all the known extant works by Fernando de Almeida (died in 1660. When comparing the music of Fernando de Almeida with that of his near contemporary João Lourenço Rebelo (1610-1661, the different trends in Portuguese early- to mid-seventeenth-century church music become clear, especially if viewed in the light of the acknowledged aesthetic and compositional premises explained in the 1649 Defensa de la mvsica moderna by King João IV. Rebelo’s concertato works incline towards the style of north-Italian composers. The ingenuity of Fernando de Almeida’s style, which is particularly noticeable in his eight-voice Holy Week responsories, lays in the integration of prominent Baroque features within the mould of Iberian Mannerist tradition.La Biblioteca del Palacio Ducal de Vila Viçosa posee tres grandes libros de coro con repertorio polifónico destinado a la Semana Santa, preparados entre 1735 y 1736 por un copista de la Iglesia Patriarcal. Estos libros de coro contienen todas las obras de Fernando de Almeida (m. 1660 que hayan sobrevivido hasta los días de hoy. La comparación de la música de Fernando de Almeida con la de su cási contemporáneo João Lourenço Rebelo (1610-1661 evidencia las distintas orientaciones en la música sacra portuguesa de principios a mediados del siglo XVII, especialmente cuando observadas bajo las premisas estéticas y composicionales explanadas en la Defensa de la mvsica moderna (1649 del Rey D. João IV. El estilo concertato de Rebelo se acerca de los compositores del Norte de Italia. La inventiva del estilo de Fernando de Almeida, particularmente notable en sus Responsorios a ocho voces para la Semana Santa, incorpora prominentes características barrocas en el molde de la tradici

  9. "How Could They Believe That?": Explaining to Students Why Accusation of Witchcraft Made Good Sense in Seventeenth-Century New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbeer, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. (CMK)

  10. Beauty and simplicity: the power of fine art and moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, J J H

    2009-04-01

    Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising paintings and drawings on education and domestic virtues, so contributing to the reconciliation of the existing tensions, or, in the words of Simon Schama, embarrassment between beauty and the promoted virtues of frugality and simplicity. A broad middle class created its own private surrounding in which morality and enjoying the beauty of moralising on the family and parenting went together, as is made clear by the analysis of a series of representative images. Dutch parents, moralists, and painters knew the power of beauty in moralising on the family.

  11. Elzevirian Republics, wise merchants, and new perspectives on Spain and Portugal in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Rauschenbach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1625 and 1649, the Leiden publishing house Elzevir issued a series of thirty-five descriptions of all European, a selection of non-European, and three ancient states, that became known as the ‘Elzevirian Republics’. This essay focuses on two of these ‘Republics’, Johannes de Laet’s descriptions of Spain and Portugal. I argue that these books convey an attitude towards geopolitics that is best understood in the light of Caspar Barlaeus’s ideal of the ‘wise merchant’ (mercator sapiens and the historical regent-merchant culture in seventeenth-century Amsterdam. The essay draws on recent scholarship in the history of knowledge, commerce, and the pre-history of objectivity.

  12. Atlantic consumption of French rum and brandy and economic growth in the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Bertie

    2011-01-01

    Why did the production of rum in the French West Indies not achieve the same success within the French Atlantic as it did in the British Atlantic world? Surveying the history of rum production in the French Caribbean in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, this article contends that the reason why no regional trade in rum developed in French North America resulted from fierce industrial and institutional competition from brandy producers in metropolitan France. Rum, nevertheless, remained significant within the culture and economy of Native Americans and African Americans. This article seeks to add nuance to the wider debate of the ability of the trans-border diffusion of new ideas to stimulate and institutionalize industrial and economic growth in the Atlantic world. French entrepreneurs were no less ‘entrepreneurial’ than their British counterparts, but real constraints on consumption on both sides of the Atlantic created insufficient demand.

  13. The absent body: representations of dying early modern women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, L

    2001-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the absence of the body in the depiction of dying women in a selection of seventeenth-century diaries. It considers the cultural forces that made this absence inevitable, and the means by which the physical body was replaced in death by a spiritual presence. The elevation of a dying woman from physical carer to spiritual nurturer in the days before death ensured that gender codes were not broken. The centrality of the body of the dying woman, within a female circle of care and support, was paradoxically juxtaposed with an effacement of the body in descriptions of a good death. In death, a woman might achieve the stillness, silence and compliance so essential to perfect early modern womanhood, and retrospective diary entries can achieve this ideal by replacing the body with images that deflect from the essential physicality of the woman.

  14. ‘out of their owne mouths’? Conversion Narratives and English Radical Religious Practice in the Seventeenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Pallotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a form of writing, the conversion narrative, which was familiar to mid-seventeenth-century godly readers. The purpose of the narrative, which was a prerequisite for admission to the Church of Visible Saints, was to give the congregation a spoken account of the experience of conversion and of the workings of Grace in the life of the regenerate individual. Some of these reports were transcribed, revised, and published by the ministers of the churches. By focusing on the complex relationships between the ‘original’ experience, its expression, and subsequent written transmission, the tension between individuality and conformity, and the various forms of editorial intervention adopted by the ministers, this study attempts to highlight the collaborative nature of the textual construction of the conversion narrative and to address some crucial issues concerning both the authenticity of the memory recorded and its ‘true’ author.

  15. The invention of physical science intersections of mathematics, theology and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century : essays in honor of Erwin N. Hiebert

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joan L; Stuewer, Roger H

    1992-01-01

    Modern physical science is constituted by specialized scientific fields rooted in experimental laboratory work and in rational and mathematical representations. Contemporary scientific explanation is rigorously differentiated from religious interpretation, although, to be sure, scientists sometimes do the philosophical work of interpreting the metaphysics of space, time, and matter. However, it is rare that either theologians or philosophers convincingly claim that they are doing the scientific work of physical scientists and mathematicians. The rigidity of these divisions and differentiations is relatively new. Modern physical science was invented slowly and gradually through interactions of the aims and contents of mathematics, theology, and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century. In essays ranging in focus from seventeenth-century interpretations of heavenly comets to twentieth-century explanations of tracks in bubble chambers, ten historians of science demonstrate metaphysical and theological th...

  16. Neutron activation analysis of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from the eastern Great Lakes area of North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.G.V.; Chafe, A.; Kenyon, I.

    1994-01-01

    Sixteenth- and seventeenth-century European blue glass trade beads from aboriginal sites in the eastern Great Lakes area of North America have been analysed non-destructively using low neutron dose instrumental neutron activation analysis, so that the beads could be returned to their keepers. Dark blue (cobalt-coloured) beads are readily separable from turquoise (copper-coloured) beads. Differences in the chemistries of the turquoise blue beads appear to be useful in separating glass beads from the two centuries. Low calcium, sixteenth-century turquoise beads tend to disintegrate by a leaching of the alkali metals. (Author)

  17. Knowledge and practice pictured in the artist’s studio. The ‘art lover’ in the seventeenth-century Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Yeager-Crasselt

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the long overlooked representation of the ‘art lover’, or liefhebber, in the artist’s studio in the seventeenth-century Netherlands and the ways in which the liefhebber’s image coalesced with a larger cultural discourse of connoisseurship, amateurship, and artistic practice. It situates these images in the iconographic tradition of the Flemish collector’s cabinet, and demonstrates how the values inherent to the konstkamer became part of the visual language and meaning of...

  18. Hybridizing scholastic psychology with Chinese medicine: a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic's conceptions of xin (mind and heart).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiong

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the dynamics of cultural interactions between early modern China and Europe initiated by the Jesuits and other Catholic missionaries through a case study of Wang Honghan, a seventeenth-century Chinese Catholic who systematically sought to integrate European learning introduced by the missionaries with pre-modern Chinese medicine. Focusing on the ways in which Wang combined his Western and Chinese sources to develop and articulate his views on xin (mind and heart), this paper argues that Wang arrived at a peculiar hybrid between scholastic psychology and Chinese medicine, not so much through a course of haphazard misunderstanding as through his conscious and patterned use and abuse of his Western sources, which was motivated most possibly by a wish to define a theoretical position that most suited his social roles as a Catholic convert and a Chinese medical doctor. Thus, rather than seeing Wang as an epitome of"transmission failure," this paper offers it as a showcase for the tremendous dynamism and creativity occurring at this East-West "contact zone as representatives of both cultures sought to appropriate and transform the symbolic and textual resources of the other side.

  19. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  20. The use of Latin and the European republic of letters: Change and continuity in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Pippin Aspaas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is the author’s trial lecture for the degree of Philosophiae Doctor, offers a brief history of the use of Latin among men of learning. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are known as the periods of Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, respectively. In the same timespan the Republic of Letters flourished, a word which connoted a kind of ‘imagined community’ (in Benedict Anderson’s words which bound together the supporters of the new science. In transgressing confessional, civil, and ideological boundaries Latin offered a peculiar kind of assistance. A text in Latin would signify not merely erudition, but also some sort of neutrality. However much the active use and the passive ability to understand various vernacular languages rose internationally, neither Italian, French, English, or German was received without mixed feelings. Escaping the famous definition of a language as ‘a dialect with an army and a navy’, Latinity proved capable of persisting by means of ‘soft power’ alone. The processes which led to the end of this state of affairs were not one and the same. Italian, which Galilei and the academicians of Florence used, achieved national or regional, rather than international, success. English, cultivated by the Royal Society of London, was undoubtedly comprehensible to many learned, but it was used rarely abroad nevertheless. French, having the Académie Royale des Sciences and the encyclopédistes among its supporters, especially towards the end of the eighteenth century seemed poised to take over the Republic of Letters. German, read by many men of learning in Nordic and Eastern parts of Europe, reeked of vulgarity or even barbarism. That Latin, the victim of nationalism, democratisation, and secularisation, in brief, of European modernity, also served as a vehicle and a midwife for that very same modernity is a lesson well worth bearing in mind.

  1. The Horn in seventeenth and eighteenth century France: iconography related to performances and musical works

    OpenAIRE

    Gétreau, Florence

    2006-01-01

    International audience; An analysis of French visual documents from different medium is presented here. Starting about 1650 it begins with horns as symbol of entertainment and hunting pleasure. After its settlement in Versailles, the French Royal Court offers one century long several important evidences of updated practices in the art of hunting. The Influence of the Marquis de Dampierre is then sensible in monumental decorations by official painters giving "reports" of the "Chasses royales"....

  2. Asientos and Military Contractors in the Seventeenth Century: The Example of the Bread and the Gunpowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This text approaches the importance of the Asientos inside the expense of the armies that fought in Spain during the 17th century. For it we analyze the management of the supply of bread whose quantity was the most outstanding expense of any army, which was always in private hands. We also analyze the production of gunpowder in Spain, and their transformation in a monopoly in private hands in the form of Asientos Generales.

  3. ‘Pretos’ and ‘Pardos’ between the Cross and the Sword: Racial Categories in Seventeenth Century Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Mattos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixing between Europeans and Africans in the  Portuguese empire produced hierarchical categories for racial gradations during the seventeenth  century. During this period the categories ‘mulato’ and ‘pardo’ were included in the regulations  for Purity of Blood (Estatutos de Pureza de Sangue, which determined who could have access to  the same honours and privileges that the old  Christian Portuguese received. From the seventeenth century onwards, those regulations stipulated that ‘no one of the race of Jew, Moor or  Mulato’ (Raça alguma de Judeu, Mouro ou Mulato were eligible to receive certain honours and  privileges from the crown. This paper discusses  the meanings of ‘race’ on the basis of two historical case studies. The twin processes of miscegenation, in the biological sense, and cultural intermixing have engendered intermediate strata that have  long stimulated the imagination of historians.  Instead of emphasizing the idea of new strata of  mixed blood, the two cases presented here suggest  a more central role for the early demographic  impact of access to manumission in colonial society to explain the emergence of these intermediate  categories in Portuguese America.  Resumen: ‘Pretos’ y ‘Pardos’ Entre la Cruz y la Espada: Categorías Raciales en el Brasil del Siglo DiecisieteDurante el siglo diecisiete, las mezclas entre europeos y africanos en el imperio portugués produjeron categorías jerárquicas de gradaciones raciales. Durante este período las categorías de ‘mulato’ y ‘pardo’ fueron incluidas en los estatutos para  la Pureza de la Sangre (Estatutos de Pureza de  Sangue, que determinaban quiénes tenían acceso  a los mismos honores y privilegios de que gozaban los viejos cristianos portugueses. Desde el  siglo diecisiete en adelante, esos estatutos estipulaban que “nadie de la raza judía, moro o mulato”  (Raça alguma de Judeu, Mouro ou Mulato podí- an recibir ciertos

  4. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  5. The Dovecote Has Opened Its Eyes: Popular Conspiracy in Seventeenth-Century Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ginzburg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The hero of this essay by Calro Ginzburg is XVII-th century clown and distiller Costantino Saccardino, who also was active in the field of medical art. Accused together with his companions of secretly defiling city saint painting with excrements, Saccardino preached that religion – particularly its approach towards hell – was pure fiction and that first people were not created by God but were born out of mud. Ginzburg draws attention to the affinity between Saccardino’s heretical views (marked by the awareness of crisis and the anticipation of political, religious and cultural revolution and the diagnoses made by Galileo, Bacon, Campanella, Rosicrusarians or even Descartes. At the same time Sccardino’s sensibility is that of a professional comedian – not a great intellectual – and this is what makes his case exceptional. The case of Saccardino, who – as is demontrated by Ginzburg – had a good knowledge of libertine literature while rejecting libertine elitism, shows that in this period the relations between the high culture and the culture of the subordinated classes could include an exchange that went through a detour, mediated in various, sometimes opposing codes.

  6. Bartolomé Arnolfo, a Native from Savoy in Madrid at the Middle of the Seventeenth Century, Financier, Merchant and Owner of Transhumant Livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo DIAGO HERNANDO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the seventeenth century a numerous community of foreign merchants took shape in Madrid. Individuals of very diverse origins conformed this community that was divided in «nations», in which the merchants of the same origin came together. One of these «nations» was conformed by the subjects of the duke Savoy, that were not very numerous in Madrid at this time. In this article the author pays attention to one of the most prominent members of this nation, the merchant and businessman Bartolomé Arnolfo. He informs about his activity as a merchant, and he pays particular attention to his activity as wool exporter, that he puts in connexion with other activities such as money-lending and transhumant sheep-breeding.

  7. The Sublime and French Seventeenth-Century Theories of the Spectacle : Toward an Aesthetic Approach to Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostveldt, B.; Bussels, S.

    Theatre scholars and historians assume too easily that theoretical reflection on the performative qualities of the theatre began only in the eighteenth century. In mid-eighteenth century France, writers and philosophers such as Denis Diderot, Jean le Rond D'Alembert, Jean-Jacques Rousseau,

  8. Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry Written and/or Published by Seventeenth-, Eighteenth-, and Nineteenth-Century Sephardim from Hamburg and Frankfurt (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown, Kenneth

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the second in a three-part series (the first appearing in Sefarad 59 [1999] pp. 3-42; the third being in press on the phenomenon of Neo- Latin and Romance-Language —Spanish and Portuguese— poetry of the Sephardim in Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main from the early seventeenth to the midnineteenth centuries. Our collection expands the original poetic corpus from twenty-eight to forty-five works. In an historical and critical Introduction to the poems, the authors distinguish the creative genius of a new type of literary discourse, one which meshes neo-classical strophic forms with inspiration from Sephardic orthodox Judaism as it was practiced in the Dutch Netherlands, biblical events and Jewish philosophical constructs. In addition to the evaluation and edition of the poems and, in the cases of Neo-Latin works, their translation to English, the Introduction includes an argument for substantiating book printing of Sephardic-authored books in Frankfurt am Main during the period 1614-1634 as well as sporadically throughout the remainder of the seventeenth century.

    Nuestro estudio representa la segunda parte (la primera apareció en Sefarad 59 [1999] págs. 3-42; la tercera está en prensa de un trabajo sobre la poesía en latín y lenguas romances —español y portugués— de los sefardíes de Hamburgo y de Frankfurt am Main desde principios del siglo XVII hasta mediados del XVIII. Aquí el corpus poetarum se amplía de veintiocho a cuarenta y cinco obras; estas nuevas poesías evidencian un espíritu neoclasicista mezclado ingeniosamente con un discurso apegado a un judaísmo ortodoxo-sefardí tal como entonces se practicaba en los países protestantes del norte de Europa. En el apartado introductorio, que es tanto descriptivo como evaluativo de la obra poética, se defiende la tesis de que la ciudad protestante de Frankfurt am Main con su feria del libro anual servía como lugar de impresi

  9. «In the Shadow» of Absent Men: Unhappily Married Women in the Hispanic World of the Seventeenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José DE LA PASCUA SÁNCHEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The households with feminine heads have been revealed in recent research as an important social reality in Early Modern Europe. These households, often under direction of a widow, and to a lesser extent, of a spinster or an unhappily married woman, are providing historians with the possibility to observe women’s lives from the margins of structures of patriarchal power. The economic, social and affective reality of unhappily married women needs a profound analysis, that goes beyond a quantitative magnitude, facing the challenge of imagining these women in conditions that, at first glance, didn’t go beyond exceptional and accidental, but in reality they could have formed an environment of autonomy and power for themselves. In this study, judicial records and testaments which come from Cadiz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries are utilised to show the different paths of the lifes of women with absent husbands. These testimonials confirm that the experiences of women and their own perception of themselves differ not only as a function of their own circumstances but also according to the sources that we could choose. If from the allegations of abandonment from the «Warrants to Indies» it can be deduced that for this collective, overall they experienced poverty and difficult conditions, their wills offer a visión of full lives where work and affection are basic structures.

  10. Three Giants in the Cradle of Reproductive Medicine; Reproduction Theories of the Seventeenth Century as Discerned by Pregnancy Portraiture in the Oeuvre of Jan Vermeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Haimov-Kochman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Portraits of pregnant women are rare in Catholic Renaissance art. In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art. Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era. Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of 43. Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations. In this paper we investigate the roots of this unusual icon in Vermeer’s oeuvre, and suggest that the use of pregnancy in his paintings could have been inspired by his Delft-resident contemporaries Antony van Leeuwenhoek and Reinier de Graaf, fathers of well-known and opposing theories of reproduction. These eminent scientists and Vermeer’s pregnant wife, who frequently served as his model, might have made pregnancy less mysterious and more realistic to the painter.

  11. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  12. Menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles Door and window casings in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Paris and Saint Denis. Colours observed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mouton

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Les couleurs anciennes des menuiseries des portes et des fenêtres de l’architecture des xviie et xviiie siècles se trouvent par sondages sur les témoins d’origine encore conservés. Des observations ont été effectuées systématiquement lors de travaux de restauration et ont livré des résultats très cohérents. Pour les menuiseries des fenêtres, le gris assez soutenu est la règle. L’évolution de l’intensité ne paraît pas, en revanche, suivre une tendance bien affirmée. Rares sont les cas de menuiseries laissées « au naturel ». Les recherches sur les portes cochères sont plus limitées mais confirment l’usage de couleurs très sombres.The original colours of doors and windows in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century buildings can be discovered by carrying out probes on original samples that have survived. Observations were systematically recorded during restoration work and have produced very coherent results. In window casings, a fairly deep grey is the rule. Changes in intensity do not appear to follow a clear trend, however. Few elements of window joinery have been left ‘au naturel’. Research on portes-cochères (carriage gates was more limited but confirms the use of very dark colours.

  13. Unruly Plebeians and the Forzado System: Convict Transportation between New Spain and the Philippines during the Seventeenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawson, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along the highways of New Spain.Este artículo examina el fenómeno del transporte de soldados forzados entre México y las Filipinas durante el siglo XVII. Utilizando fuentes del Archivo General de la Nación (México y del Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, sostengo que este tipo de transporte forzado ayudó a los españoles a ampliar su poder en el Pacífico. Así mismo, actuó como una medida de justicia penal en respuesta a la aparición de plebeyos rebeldes y desobedientes dentro las ciudades y en las carreteras de la Nueva España.

  14. WORK AND ORGANIZATION IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: NOTES ON THE TRADE GUILDS OF SIXTEENTH- AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURY BURSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ömer DÜZBAKAR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of artisans’ and commercial guilds was toperform and maintain daily activities of economic life in harmony andsocial consolidation with minimal conflict. Thus, the state would get ridof the heavy burden of bureaucratic procedures on the one hand, and yetwould also have the guilds yield to a standard of production as well aseliminate unfair competition through their autonomous internal workingson the other. Through such an auto-control mechanism the guilds wouldsolve their own problems with minimum resort to administrative andjudicial institutions. This article sheds light on the origins of Ottomanguild system, workings of trade guilds of Bursa and the supervisoryfunctions of their managers as well as on the various roles and activitiesplayed by the guilds in imperial public life. It also examines the conflictsof interest, unruly acts and forms of resolution taking place within andacross the guilds, with or without having recourse to judicial and otherimperial authorities. The study is based on a set of original historical documents surveyed from the Shari’a Court records of Bursa in the 16thand 17th centuries.

  15. Theatrical recreations of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in France (from the seventeenth to the twenty-first century: review and new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Marigno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the quixotic dramatic recreations in France. After a synthesis that goes from the seventeenth to 2000, we provide a set of information about rewrites of the years 2000-2011, in order to reveal the main aesthetic and ethical specificities of contemporary quixotic rewrites.

  16. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The "mega-pitch-set" (MPS) organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. "Non-octave hypermode" is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of "art-music" that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in "hemiolic modes." The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of

  17. ‘ “Dannsair air ùrlar-déile thu”: Gaelic evidence about dance from the mid-17th to late-18th century Highlands’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Steven Newton

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available From the 1950s to the 1970s, two sets of scholars – Tom and Joan Flett, and George Emmerson – gleaned many English-language sources to recover aspects of the history of dance in Scotland. They correctly pointed out the pervasive influence of French court culture and the French-trained dancing masters on Scottish forms of dance, including in the Highlands, but did not examine the majority of potential Gaelic sources in their work. This article examines Scottish Gaelic sources referring to dance practices in the Scottish Highlands from the late-seventeenth century to the end of the eighteenth century, placing them within the context of wider European developments in music and dance and confirming that they demonstrate a consciousness of the strong connections with France and corresponding effects on Gaelic dance traditions.

  18. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne.

  19. LOCALIZATION AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY SOCIAL LIFE IN SÂBIT’S DIVAN SÂBİT DİVANI’NDA MAHALLÎLEŞME VE 17. YÜZYIL SOSYAL HAYAT UNSURLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus KAPLAN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, artists created their art using the elements of their society such as customs, traditions, commodities, words and lifestyles. Like other artists, our divan poets were inspired by their society, and in their poetry they used plenty of the accepted materialistic and moral values of the society. Sabit, a poet who lived in the second-half of the seventeenth century, was no exception. He decorated his poems with various dreams, and his careful observations and analyses of daily life were masterfully reflected in his poetry.This study classifies the elements reflecting the social life of the seventeenth century in Sabit’s poems. The relevant examples from Sabit’s Divan are also given. Tarihin her devrinde sanatkârlar, sanat eserlerini oluştururken mensup oldukları toplumun sosyal hayat tarzına ait yaşayış şekli, âdet ve gelenekler, kullanılan eşyalar ve kelimeler gibi birçok unsuru kullanarak eserlerine şekil vermişlerdir. Divan şairlerimiz de diğer sanatkârlar gibi eserlerini kaleme alırken, içinde yaşadıkları toplumun sosyal hayatından ilham almışlar, günlük hayatta kabul gören maddî ve manevî kültürel değerleri şiirlerde bolca kullanmışlardır. 17. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında yetişen Sâbit de yaşadığı döneme dair, iyi bir gözlem ve tahlil yaparak günlük hayata kayıtsız kalmamış, bu gözlem ve tahlillerini değişik hayallerle süsleyerek şiirlerine ustaca yansıtmasını başarmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Sâbit’in şiirlerinde 17. yüzyıldaki sosyal hayatı yansıtan unsurlar, çeşitli başlıklar altında sınıflandırılarak bunlara Divan’ından örnekler verilecektir.

  20. "Teorías de la percepción visual y aristotelismo entre los siglos XV y XVII: una aproximación" [A preliminary approach on theories of visual perception and aristotelianism in the fifteenth to seventeenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Benéitez Prudencio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN:Entre los siglos XV y principios del XVII la explicación aristotélica todavía garantizaba una idea de percepción visual exacta y digna de confianza, en especial la que se refiere a aquellas facultades humanas pertenecientes a la conocida como ‘alma sensitiva’. Considerando los términos generales en que dicha teoría se planteaba, reputada por otro lado por la literatura médica, psicológica y moral del momento, lo que en este ensayo pretendo poner de relieve son las influencias de dicha teoría aristotélica en el panorama intelectual europeo antes de Descartes.ABSTRACT:Visual perception and cognition deemed to be accurate and reliable were secured between the fifteenth and the very beginning seventeenth centuries largely by the Aristotelian theory, especially those human faculties belonging to what was called the ‘sensible soul’. In terms of this theory, recounted throughout the medical, psychological and moral literature of early Modern Age, I wish to emphasize in this paper the Aristotelian theoretical influences in the intellectual culture of pre-Cartesian Europe.

  1. [Medicine and orientalism in the late nineteenth century Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2002-06-01

    The paper investigates medical missionaries that exerted a significant role in establishing Western medicine in the late nineteenth century Chosun, in relation to orientalism, an academically popularized concept introduced by Edward Said. Historical analysis is focused on several important medical missionaries such as Horace N. Allen, William B. Scranton, John W. Heron, C. C. Vinton, and Oliver R. Avison to explain how their activism as medical missionary contributed to the formation of medical orientalism in which Western medicine was 'taught, studied, administered, and judged' in that period. In addition, I explore into how medical orientalism was in service of Japanese imperialism by showing that medical missionaries had to be under imperial surveillance by Japanese colonizers. The article explores the medical system of the Koryo Dynasty period and its social characteristics. First, the structure of medical system and roles of medical institutions during the Koryo Dynasty period will be summarized. Then the characteristics of the medical system will be identified through exploring the principles of its formation in a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of public policy.

  2. Unruly Plebeians and the Forzado System: Convict Transportation between New Spain and the Philippines during the Seventeenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México) and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla), I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along ...

  3. The Construction of Epistolary Identity in a Gentry’s Communication Network of the Seventeenth Century: The Case of Jane Lady Cornwallis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has recently been increasing scholarly interest in early modern correspondence and specifically also in women’s letter writing and reading. Starting from the late Middle Ages familiar responsibilities and domestic obligations led many women to write to their absent husbands or other relatives to exchange health news and inform them about family affairs. It is however in the early modern period that corresponding with relatives and friends became a widespread social practice ranging from official to familiar and personal correspondence; in this period female literacy increased thus allowing growing numbers of women to write and read their own letters. A growing number of female voices can thus be heard depicting early modern social life. The article focuses on a neglected aspect of women’s correspondence: it investigates not the sender’s epistolary identity, but that of the recipient through the analysis of the personal correspondence of Lady Cornwallis Bacon. The main theme of the article is to show how the epistolary identity of an early modern gentlewoman was constructed by her correspondents. It is assumed that modes of communicating information and achieving a specific goal through letters varied not only according to the relationship connecting the correspondents but also the purpose and content of letters. 

  4. The Bolognese Societates Armatae of the Late 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassmann Jürg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Bologna archives preserve the bye-laws of 24 „armed societies”, dating from between 1230 and the early 1300s, written in good notary Latin. Though known to exist in other Italian city-states, only few non-Bolognese armed society bye-laws are preserved. These armed societies had disappeared everywhere by the Late Middle Ages.

  5. Chinese Avant-garde Art in the Late Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the present paper is the '85 Art Movement, which was the first significant nationwide Avant-garde art movement in China. This movement, which arose in the mid-80s, defined the aesthetic foundations and identity of contemporary Chinese art, and represented Chinese globalized society on the threshold of the 21st century. Whilst focusing on China’s specific cultural and political contexts, the present paper analyses the concepts of humanism (renwen 人文 and idea (guannian 觀念. The spirit of humanism, with a rationalist connotation, and the desire for a revolution of ideas were the two main factors underpinning the Chinese Avant-garde movement and its artistic expressions. The paper also shows that the '85 Art Movement did not stem solely from the socio-political challenges of the 1980s, but should be regarded in the wider context of the “modernization project of Chinese art”, in the early 20th century.

  6. `A novel, spicy delicacy': tamales, advertising, and late 19th-century imaginative geographies of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Monrreal , Sahar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This article explores how the tamale entered the national market as a mass-produced foodstuff at the end of 19th century. Closely reading advertising images, the article examines how the Armour Packing Company placed their chicken tamale in relation to imaginative geographies of Mexico from this era. Through tracing the symbolic transformations of the tamale from its existence in the street life of the late 19th century US to the nation-wide advertising campaign initiated ...

  7. Korean Astronomers' Journey to Beijing in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries%17-18世纪朝鲜天文学者的北京旅行*--以金尚范和许远的事例为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗台

    2013-01-01

    Taking the cases of two Korean court astronomers' journeys to Beijing in the seven-teenth and eighteenth centuries, this article examines how the political hierarchy between the Qing and Chosŏn dynasties conditioned Korean astronomers' effort to learn the Shixian li, the official calendrical system of the Qing. The difficulties the Korean astronomers met in their missions to Bei-jing, the measures of the Chosŏn court to support the astronomers' travel, and the actual process of the two astronomers' mission are to be examined. How then did the Korean astronomers view their mission and its difficulties? Curiously, they did not consider the travel to Beijing only as hardships to be avoided;rather, they took it as an opportunity to enhance their socio-professional interests. Sig-nificantly, they portrayed themselves as the astronomers of a“marginal state,” who could not expect to be competent in their specialty without paying pilgrimages to the imperial metropolis. This rhetoric of modesty reflected the puzzled position of the Korean official astronomers, who had to promote their socio-cultural interests only by negating their ability to be competent in their specialty on their own.%金尚范和许远分别是17世纪中叶和18世纪初期朝鲜宫廷天文学家的代表人物,在引进大清时宪历这件事上,做出了很大的贡献。文章试图从微观的角度出发,拟对金尚范和许远赴北京学习时宪历计算法的具体过程进行更加深入地探索。主要从天文学家们在北京旅行时遇到了怎样的困难,朝廷为他们的旅行提供过哪些制度方面的帮助,以及他们的实际学习是以怎样的方式进行的,这样几个方面来进行考察。同时,由此来揭示朝清之间的政治等级关系是怎样在社会与认识论的角度,制约天文学传播之具体过程的;朝鲜天文学者们对此又是怎样认识的,做出了哪些对应。通过对金尚范和许远事例的分析

  8. La couleur à Lille au xviie siècle, de Philippe IV à Louis XIV The colour of Lille in the seventeenth century, from Philippe IV to Louis XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Poncelet

    2007-06-01

    colour. The red brick and grey sandstone entrance façade of the Hospice Comtesse is set off by a yellow ochre colourwash. The Vieille Bourse (Old Stock Exchange flaunts its colourful facades resembling a piece of cabinetmaking, with incrustations of pearly stones and brick gleaming like tortoiseshell. The French-Lillois taste for colour was passed down through the city-centre reconstruction in the seventeenth century, as shown in the scale model of 1743. Restorations undertaken in the last ten years or so have revealed this bright urban decorative tradition in a number of other main squares in northern French cities.

  9. The European Metropolis in the late Twentieth Century: Winners and Losers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Clark (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper offers a commentary on some of the recent work on globalisation in the context of the European city in the late 20th century. It points out that the current European urban hierarchy has a strong historical dimension. It notes the considerable degree of convergence in the

  10. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  11. In pursuit of precision : The calibration of minds and machines in late nineteenth-century psychology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R; Draaisma, D

    A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences.

  12. The Gondi family : strategy and survival in late sixteenth-century France

    OpenAIRE

    Milstein, Joanna M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis details the rise to power of one of the great families of late sixteenth-century France, the Gondi. Antoine de Gondi, the last of fifteen children, left his native Florence to settle permanently in France in the first decade of the sixteenth century. Like many other Italian immigrants of his time, he established himself in Lyon as a merchant and banker. He later bought the Seigneurie du Perron, and married a woman of Piedmontese origin, Marie-Catherine de Pierrevive. Catherine de’...

  13. Differentiation of Siberian Miners’ Salaries in Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The work considers seasonal variations and differentiation of Siberian miners’ salaries in late XIX – early XX centuries, proves that seasonal variations of salaries depended on the excess demand on labor in summer and the contraction of demand in winter, detects that salary differentiated, depending on workers’ qualification, sex, age, nationality, industry, location of an enterprise. Such differences in Siberian miners’ salaries were typical for early industrial period of the development of the society.

  14. BACKGROUND OF EDUCATIONAL COMMUNITY INITIATION AS CENTERS OF CREATIVE INTELLIGENTSIA IN UKRAINE (late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Popeleshko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with socio-political and pedagogical background of educational communities in Ukraine as centers of forming creative intellectuals (late 19th century. Activities of educational societies of the late 19th century create a whole era in the development of education and culture history in Ukraine. Their work in the field of education has gained public appeal joining the General process of national revival. Progressive Ukrainian intelligentsia, working in societies, awakens the national consciousness, lay the foundations of mother tongue education. The emergence and activities of various public organizations in Ukraine in late 19th century are a kind of a phenomenon that has not only cultural and enlightening nature, but also an educational one. One of the main objectives is to change the content and quality of Ukrainian people’s education. Through an analysis of historical and pedagogical sources we have found that the end of the 19th century became for Ukrainians in Dnieper Ukraine the period of confrontation with the authorities for preserving the national culture. Changes in the Russian Empire began a strong push for the national awakening and intensification of national consciousness of the intelligentsia in the Ukrainian provinces. Seeing their duty in developing the national culture, Ukrainian intelegencia launched special enlightening trend. For the first time in the history of Ukrainian society pedagogical problems were widely discussed by the public, besides they became the subject of public initiatives, the country’s life was enriched with a new phenomenon – public-educational movement. The participants of the educational movement of the Ukrainian intelligentsia in cities led to the logical replacement of single individual cultural work to the activities of the whole associations, communities. In communities the future leaders of the enlightenment movement were formed. They were teachers, scientists, doctors, who

  15. Priestley's Shadow and Lavoisier's Influence: Electricity and Heat in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy

    In the late eighteenth century, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in early-nineteenth-century electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.

  16. Forms of Wages for Miners of Siberia in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the question of forms of wages paid to workers in the mining industry of Siberia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Of the two main forms of labor compensation – hourly rate and piecework pay, the latter was more corresponding to the spirit of capitalism, and it was most widespread in the mining enterprises of Siberia. The piecework pay was also the main instrument for intensifying labor productivity. This episode in the history of labor is studied on the basis of paperwork materials of mining companies and reporting documents of the mining inspectorate.

  17. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  18. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associ...

  19. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  20. Water availability change in central Belgium for the late 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Hossein; Taye, Meron Teferi; Willems, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the potential impact of climate change on water availability in central Belgium. Two water balance components being precipitation and potential evapotranspiration are initially projected for the late 21st century (2071-2100) based on 30 Coupled Models Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) models relative to a baseline period of 1961-1990, assuming forcing by four representative concentration pathway emission scenarios (RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0, RCP8.5). The future available water is then estimated as the difference between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration projections. The number of wet days and mean monthly precipitation for summer season is projected to decrease in most of the scenarios, while the projections show an increase in those variables for the winter months. Potential evapotranspiration is expected to increase during both winter and summer seasons. The results show a decrease in water availability for summer and an increase for winter, suggesting drier summers and wetter winters for the late 21st century in central Belgium.

  1. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  2. State policy and monetary circulation in the Seventeenth Century Crown of Aragon: The depreciation of silver currency Política estatal y circulación monetaria en la Corona de Aragón durante el siglo XVII: la depreciación de la moneda de plata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the state policy applied to silver in the Spanish territories of the Crown of Aragon in the seventeenth century, where increasing demand for silver coins with a lower intrinsic than market value opened up debate on the depreciation of the domestic silver coinage. The monarchy was weaker in the Crown of Aragon than in Castile, and it was therefore obliged to negotiate these measures with the elites and institutionsof each kingdom. The paper examines the fiscal and monetary reasons forreforms, as well as the extent of political support achieved in each kingdom.Este artículo estudia la política estatal aplicada a la plata en los territorios hispánicos de la Corona de Aragón en el siglo XVII. La creciente demanda de moneda con menor valor intrínseco por el mercado abrió un debate sobre la depreciación de las monedas domésticas en la Corona. Debido a su menor poder que en Castilla, la monarquía hispánica tuvo que negociar esta medida con elites e instituciones de cada reino. El artículo analiza las razones fiscales o monetarias de estas reformas, así como el grado de apoyo político alcanzado en cada territorio.

  3. Cookery, diet and district nursing in late nineteenth-century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yuriko

    2009-03-01

    While health education in late nineteenth-century Britain could be beneficial for every household, it was particularly so where district nurses understood family circumstances and adapted knowledge to individual needs. During this period sick room cookery training and lectures on hygiene and dietetics became standard for nurses--especially following the reforms of Matron Eva Lückes at the London Hospital. Because understanding about health was not widespread in society, due to the living conditions and poverty of so many patients, and because doctors had few opportunities to convey such knowledge, the active support of nurses in the community proved to be essential for translating professional knowledge into words commonly understood. By demonstrating cooking and other health-related skills in the homes of the poor, nurses played an important part in improving the nation's health.

  4. Community Organization of Siberian Coachmen in Late XVI – XVII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Semenov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the wide range of archival data, mostly introduced into scientific use for the first time, studies communal (secular and church organization of Siberian coachmen in late XVI – XVII centuries. The paper touches upon the issue, concerning the time of its establishment, thoroughly characterizes the structure, functions and officials. The features of interrelation between coachmen ‘world’ and state and other corporate communities of the region are showed. The conclusion that, despite the dependence on the authorities, the processes of bureaucratization and the growth of the villeinage trends, common for the country, coachmen played significant role in the social life of Siberia is made. They intensively protected their interests and forced the government to consider them.

  5. DE TESTIBUS TRACTATURI: A LATE TWELFTH-CENTURY ITALIAN CANONISTIC TREATISE ON LEGAL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Brasington

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available De testibus tractaturi, an unedited late twelfth-century, southern Italian treatise, draws on both Gratian’s Decretum and decretals of Pope Alexander III to consider question concerning witnesses. It may also be influenced to some degree by the Summa of Simon of Bisignano. There is no evidence of any reliance on civilian authors. In considering the exceptio contra personam testis, it raises the question of whether testimony given by a witness who later died before trial remained valid. This subject is rarely treated in the early canonistic ordines iudiciorum. The author’s application of a letter of Alexander III to Bishop Roger of Worchester (JL 13162 to this question appears to be unusual, perhaps unique, and sheds light on how the early ius commune evaluated evidence.

  6. George Beard and Lydia Pinkham: gender, class, and nerves in late 19th century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, D L

    1989-01-01

    A historical comparison of the careers of George Beard, medical doctor, and Lydia Pinkham, feminist and patent medicine maker, demonstrates the complex social nature of the experience of nerves among late 19th century women. Special attention is paid to the roles played by changing gender and class ideologies in Pinkham's and Beard's theories of nerves during the period from the 1870s to World War I. A comparison of contemporary anthropological and historical studies of gender and nerves leads to the conclusion that nerves, as a female complaint, takes hold of the popular and medical imagination during periods of dramatic social change which threaten women's traditional family roles and challenge their sense of self-identity.

  7. Development of society education among jews in Kherson and Katerynoslav provinces (late nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Yashyn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers some aspects of the spread of secular, general and vocational, secondary and higher education among the Jewish population of Kherson and Katerynoslav provinces in the late nineteenth century. The interest get a secular education was determined economically and reflected the effort of middle and upper strata of Jewish entrepreneurs to integrate into the dominant Christian and Russian­speaking community. Getting a secular high school and university education opens the way to free the Jews of individual civil emancipation. The favorable attitude of the central government contributed to spread the secular education among culturally modernized Jewry in the 1860­1870­th. The schools and universities resorted representatives of a small quantity of wealthy Jews because the economic, legal, cultural and historical factors are due. The Jews been cooperated closely with Christians by supporting of organizational and financial side of secular secondary education.  From 1870­1880’s we note that spreading of professional secular education been accelerated among the Jews of the region. The medicine, commercial and juridical education was the most popular. The outflow of Jewish students to the foreign universities began after the introduction of «interest rules». Spreading of secular education was historically significant cultural impact in twentieth century and generally contributed to the transformation of Jews to the modern nation.

  8. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  9. "A Fair Chance for the Girls": Discourse on Women's Health and Higher Education in Late Nineteenth Century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tiffany Lee

    2015-01-01

    Histories of education in America often discuss how concerns over women's health influenced public opinion on women's participation in higher education in the late nineteenth century. However, these histories almost exclusively focus on literature produced by the medical community--literature claiming that rigorous academic study was detrimental…

  10. Model Making and Anti-Competitive Practices in the Late Eighteenth-Century London Sculpture Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craske, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of anti-competitive practices, and the associated discontents, that rose to the fore in the London sculpture trade in the late eighteenth century (1770-1799. It charts the business strategies and technical procedures of the most economically successful practitioners, whose workshops had some of the characteristics of manufactories, and whose critics accused them of conducting a "monopoly" trade. Small-scale practitioners lost out in the competition for great public contracts on account of their design processes and their inability to represent any manifestation of "establishment". A combination of three factors increased the gap between a handful of powerful "manufacturers" and the rest of the trade: the foundation of the Royal Academy, shifts in the ways designs were evaluated, and a growing number of very lucrative contracts for public sculpture. I conclude that such were the discontents within the London trade that by the 1790s, there was a marked tendency for practitioners who were not manufacturers to be attracted to democratic political movements, to the Wilkite call for liberty and the rise of civic radicalism in the merchant population of London.

  11. Quantifying the quiet epidemic: Diagnosing dementia in late 20th-century Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Duncan

    2014-12-01

    During the late 20 th century numerical rating scales became central to the diagnosis of dementia and helped transform attitudes about its causes and prevalence. Concentrating largely on the development and use of the Blessed Dementia Scale, I argue that rating scales served professional ends during the 1960s and 1970s. They helped old age psychiatrists establish jurisdiction over conditions such as dementia and present their field as a vital component of the welfare state, where they argued that 'reliable modes of diagnosis' were vital to the allocation of resources. I show how these arguments appealed to politicians, funding bodies and patient groups, who agreed that dementia was a distinct disease and claimed research on its causes and prevention should be designated 'top priority'. But I also show that worries about the replacement of clinical acumen with technical and depersonalized methods, which could conceivably be applied by anyone, led psychiatrists to stress that rating scales had their limits and could be used only by trained experts.

  12. In pursuit of precision: the calibration of minds and machines in late nineteenth-century psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, R; Draaisma, D

    2000-01-01

    A prominent feature of late nineteenth-century psychology was its intense preoccupation with precision. Precision was at once an ideal and an argument: the quest for precision helped psychology to establish its status as a mature science, sharing a characteristic concern with the natural sciences. We will analyse how psychologists set out to produce precision in 'mental chronometry', the measurement of the duration of psychological processes. In his Leipzig laboratory, Wundt inaugurated an elaborate research programme on mental chronometry. We will look at the problem of calibration of experimental apparatus and will describe the intricate material, literary, and social technologies involved in the manufacture of precision. First, we shall discuss some of the technical problems involved in the measurement of ever shorter time-spans. Next, the Cattell-Berger experiments will help us to argue against the received view that all the precision went into the hardware, and practically none into the social organization of experimentation. Experimenters made deliberate efforts to bring themselves and their subjects under a regime of control and calibration similar to that which reigned over the experimental machinery. In Leipzig psychology, the particular blend of material and social technology resulted in a specific object of study: the generalized mind. We will then show that the distribution of precision in experimental psychology outside Leipzig demanded a concerted effort of instruments, texts, and people. It will appear that the forceful attempts to produce precision and uniformity had some rather paradoxical consequences.

  13. Navigating oceans and cultures: Polynesian and European navigation systems in the late eighteenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M.

    2012-05-01

    Significant differences in the rotation of the celestial dome between the tropical and temperate zones did not stop the peoples of either the tropical Pacific or temperate Europe from using geocentric astronomy to guide exploration of the oceans. Although the differences in the night sky contributed to differences between the Pacific Island and European systems for navigation at sea, the two navigation systems exhibit substantial similarities. Both systems define positions on the surface of the Earth using two coordinates that vary at right angles to each other and use stars, and to a lesser extent the sun, to determine directions. This essay explores similarities and differences in the use of geocentric astronomy for navigation at sea by the peoples of Polynesia and Europe in the late eighteenth century. Captain Cook's orders to discover the unknown southern continent after observing the transit of Venus combined with differences in language and culture to obscure the deeper similarities between the navigation systems used by Cook and the Polynesians. Although it was a further 200 years before anthropologists studied Pacific navigation, collaborations in voyaging with communities in Oceania demonstrated the effectiveness of Pacific navigation systems, revived interest in traditional voyaging in island communities around the Pacific, and potentially open the way for further collaborations in other areas.

  14. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-01-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes

  15. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  16. Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century: the intellectual field in Criminalogia Moderna magazine and its relation to the positivist project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo de Carvalho Quinta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the beginning of criminology in Argentina in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century, to understand how it was articulated during the nation-state building process. To achieve this purpose, a state project reflection unfolded in criminological perspective that is based on legal positivism of the period was made. The country was forefront in interest in criminology in that some intellectuals jurists published numerous articles on the crime studies in the first criminology journal of Argentina, Criminalogia Moderna magazine, founded in 1898 and directed by the teacher, lawyer and intellectual Italian, Pietro Gori. The influence of European sociological perspective in Argentina criminology can be seen from a literature review. The examination of some articles published in the journal indicates how criminology introduced in Europe grounds the buenosairean intellectuality. Some authors have linked criminology with social phenomena of a nation increasingly industrialized, proletarianized, politicized and urbanized.

  17. World nuclear fuel market. Seventeenth annual meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The papers presented at the seventeenth World Nuclear Fuels Market meeting are cataloged individually. This volume includes information on the following areas of interest: historical and current aspects of the uranium and plutonium market with respect to supply and demand, pricing, spot market purchasing, and other market phenomena; impact of reprocessing and recycling uranium, plutonium, and mixed oxide fuels; role of individual countries in the market: Hungary, Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, France, and the US; the impact of public opinion and radioactive waste management on the nuclear industry, and a debate regarding long term versus short term contracting by electric utilities for uranium and enrichment services

  18. The Eucharist and atoms in seventeenth-century art

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konečný, Lubomír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 5 (2015), s. 350-354 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Cornelis Galle * Juan Antonio Escalante * Five Senses Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. In Search of William Gascoigne Seventeenth Century Astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, David

    2012-01-01

    William Gascoigne (c.1612-44), the first inventor of the telescopic sight and micrometer—instruments crucial to the advance of astronomy—was killed in the English Civil War. His name is now known to historians of science around the world, but for some considerable time after his tragic death at the age of 32, it seemed as if his achievements would be consigned to oblivion. Most of his papers were lost in the maelstrom of war and the few that seemed to have survived later disappeared. This is the story of how his work was rescued. Woven into that story is an account of the state of astronomy and optics during Gascoigne’s lifetime, so that the reader can appreciate the significance of his discoveries.   A substantial appendix presents selected extracts from Gascoigne's correspondence. This includes much new material that has not been previously published and illustrates his efforts to explain the basis of his pioneering techniques to the satisfaction of his contemporaries.   

  20. Antonio Porta and Seventeenth-Century Central European Architecture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krummholz, Martin

    -, 0118 (2015), s. 1-24 ISSN 2190-3328 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : Antonio Porta * Francesco Caratti * J. B. Mathey * architecture * palace * chateau * Vienna * Turin * F. Luchese * G. P. Tencalla * Roudnice nad Labem Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture , Cultural Heritage http://www.riha-journal.org/articles/2015/2015-jan-mar/krummholz-antonio-porta

  1. The oratory in the seventeenth-century Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijhoff, W.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the particular context of the early modern low Countries, subject to political divisions and confessional dissensions, the Catholic Reform movement found its primary expression in missionary work for which the new institutes of secular priests proved to he an appropriate instrument. They fostered

  2. Sex Discrimination after Death: A Seventeenth-Century English Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebler, Bettie Anne; Warnicke, Retha M.

    1987-01-01

    Examined funeral sermons published in England from 1601 through 1630. Found pattern of male preference; fewer funeral sermons for women. In sermon text, laudatory and idealized comments about deceased reflected and helped to perpetuate sex differences in society. Number of times sermons were reprinted did not strongly reinforce pattern of…

  3. Palaeopathological Evidence of Infectious Disease in a Skeletal Population from Late Medieval Riga, Latvia (15Th-17Th Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards Guntis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in the Dome Church (Riga Cathedral Cemetery population, dating from the late medieval period (15th-17th centuries AD. A total of 274 individuals were macroscopically observed for evidence of infectious disease, and seven individuals with lesions possibly associated with a bacterial infection affecting the skeleton were selected for further analysis. Pathological changes on the outer table of the skull and in the long bones of legs characteristic of venereal syphilis were observed in four female and one male individual. Likewise, changes possibly related to late congenital syphilis were observed in a 14-15-year-old non-adult individual. All these individuals were buried in a small area adjacent to the northern wall of the Dome Church, which possibly belonged to a hospital or a shelter. The evidence for venereal syphilis from the cemetery complements historical data about the spread of the disease in Riga during the 16th-17th centuries AD. One adult male individual had destructive changes in the lower spine, which could be associated with tuberculosis (TB. So far, this is the first individual with possible TB from the archaeological populations of Riga. This research provides unique evidence about infectious disease in skeletal populations from the late medieval period in Latvia, and the results will be used as the basis for future research in the subject, including extraction of ancient pathogen DNA.

  4. [Effects of the periodical spread of rinderpest on famine, epidemic, and tiger disasters in the late 17th Century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Yoo, Han Sang; Lee, Hang

    2014-04-01

    This study clarifies the causes of the repetitive occurrences of such phenomena as rinderpest, epidemic, famine, and tiger disasters recorded in the Joseon Dynasty Chronicle and the Seungjeongwon Journals in the period of great catastrophe, the late 17th century in which the great Gyeongsin famine (1670~1671) and the great Eulbyeong famine (1695~1696) occurred, from the perspective that they were biological exchanges caused by the new arrival of rinderpest in the early 17th century. It is an objection to the achievements by existing studies which suggest that the great catastrophes occurring in the late 17th century are evidence of phenomena in a little ice age. First of all, rinderpest has had influence on East Asia as it had been spread from certain areas in Machuria in May 1636 through Joseon, where it raged throughout the nation, and then to the west part of Japan. The new arrival of rinderpest was indigenized in Joseon, where it was localized and spread periodically while it was adjusted to changes in the population of cattle with immunity in accordance with their life spans and reproduction rates. As the new rinderpest, which showed high pathogenicity in the early 17th century, was indigenized with its high mortality and continued until the late 17th century, it broke out periodically in general. Contrastively, epidemics like smallpox and measles that were indigenized as routine ones had occurred constantly from far past times. As a result, the rinderpest, which tried a new indigenization, and the human epidemics, which had been already indigenized long ago, were unexpectedly overlapped in their breakout, and hence great changes were noticed in the aspects of the human casualty due to epidemics. The outbreak of rinderpest resulted in famine due to lack of farming cattle, and the famine caused epidemics among people. The casualty of the human population due to the epidemics in turn led to negligence of farming cattle, which constituted factors that triggered

  5. State Reforms in the Field of Education in Russia (Late 18th-Early 19th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya M. Rumyantseva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the state policy of Russia in the field of education during the late 18th - early 19th centuries. This period is characterized by a great democratization of education and the definition of new goals, objectives and content of education: the professional training of a young person becomes inseparable from the education of a citizen - a patriot of a state and a broadly enlightened personality in different sciences. The paper analyzed historical documents (orders of Russian emperors concerning public education, school and university statutes, historical references. In the chronological order, state reforms in the field of education in Russia were constructed and characterized at the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries, the statistical data on the number of pupils, teachers and schools within the period under review were presented.

  6. TSAR`S AUTHORITY AND THE FIRST PLAYS OF RUSSIAN THEATRE IN THE LATE 17TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna KAPLUN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the causes of the first Russian court theater in the 1670s at the court of Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich Romanov The Quietest. The history of the first Russian theater is closely related to the formation of a new court culture in the late 17th century. The first plays of Russian theater "Ahasuerus action" and "Judith" was intended not only to a certain extent, "entertain" the Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich, but also reflect the court ceremonial and the strengthening of royal authority in a transitional time in Russian history. Rich pictorial series of the plays was the basis of ceremonial esthetics and its embodiment in the stage form.

  7. Confessional Ethical Base of Muslim Entrepreneurship in Russian Empire in Late 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гадиля Гизатуллаевна Корноухова

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the confessional and ethical base of the Muslim entrepreneurship in the Russian Empire in the late 19th - early 20th centuries. The author analyzes the differentiation of the value-institutional system of the broad public on the one hand, and that of entrepreneurs - on the other hand. Whereas the former adhered to the national and ethical values of the traditional culture, the latter - to religious and moral values based on Islam and developed by the Russian Empire reformers of that period.

  8. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  9. The writing of Mina Loy between the feminine figurations in the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Bento Pugliesi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This papper will deal with the ambivalence of Mina Loy's thought as presented on her poems and on the Feminist Manifesto, understanding it as a response to European psychology from the turn of the nineteenth century to the twentieth century, especially the conceptions of the feminine by Otto Weininger. In this way, it is intended to understand how a poetic form already carries in itself something of an invective against the masculine way (DERRIDA, 1993 to value the knowledge, which Loy intends to destroy in favor of positive affirmations of a feminine identity.

  10. Dutch securities for American land speculation in the late-eighteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frehen, R.G.P.; Goetzmann, W.; Rouwenhorst, K.G.; White, E.N.; Snowden, K.; Fishback, P.

    The end of the 18th century was one of the most innovative periods in the history of securitization. Public markets for mortgage-backed securities are among the most interesting developments of the period. In The Netherlands, a network of merchant investment bankers used sophisticated methods for

  11. A brief history of ciliate studies (late XVII the first third of the XX century)

    OpenAIRE

    Fokin, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    The most prominent protistologists who worked with ciliates from the Leeuwenhoek time up to the beginning of the XX century are mentioned. Their achievements in ciliatology and especially in taxonomy of ciliates are briefly discussed on the basis of the original literature and reviews, published during the last 150 years.

  12. Barter Trade in North Western Siberia in the Late of 19th - Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Tsys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of barter trade in the North Western Siberia by the local peoples who used different fishing and hunting products such as fish and animal fur by way of cash equivalent up to the end of 19th century. Particularly, squirrel fur was a most popular hunting product used as money equivalent in trade in the 19th century. The author notes that due to the spread of the Russian population and development of railways in the second half of the 19th century the situation gradually changed. As a result, by the beginning of the 20th century natural barter was completely replaced by monetized trade with the use of bills and coins. The article describes a system of notes used by the local indigenous population to record the sums of money in trade, such as solar signs (hundreds, squares (tens, x-shaped crosses (units, vertical lines (hundredth parts of the main value. The article also indicates that during the Civil War and the transition to the NEP (New Economic Policy an abrupt rise in prices for fishing products occurred, with the following revival of barter, when squirrel fur and fish regained their roles as cost units and universal money equivalents.

  13. «Nomen est omen»: pseudonyms in actor society of Dnieper Ukraine late XIX – early XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Yeremeyeva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article on the memoirs and archival material basis of Central State Historical Archives of Ukraine, Kyiv and State Archives of Kharkiv Region the etymology of some actor’s pseudonyms on the Dnieper Ukraine territory in late XIX – early XX century was analysed. The pseudonyms’ place and role in desired professional actor image formation were determined. In particular the fact that pseudonyms borrowed or transformed from the famous literary character names used to transfer the character’s moral qualities and exterior to the artist was defined. The stage name creation specificity depending on the affiliation of the actor to the Russian or Ukrainian repertoire was shown. Also the basic motives for fictional anthroponym using in actors’ society were depicted. The main reason for the actor’s name-change among ones originated from the nobility and clergy was shown. Besides the recognition of pseudonym as the important part of professional success not only among the actors, but also among entrepreneurs of Dnieper Ukraine in late XIX – early XX century was explored.

  14. Tree rings reveal a major episode of forest mortality in the late 18th century on the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ouya; Alfaro, René I.; Zhang, Qi-Bin

    2018-04-01

    There is a growing research interest on studying forest mortality in relation to ongoing climate warming, but little is known about such events in past history. The study of past forest mortality provides valuable information for determining baselines that establish the normal parameters of functioning in forest ecosystems. Here we report a major episode of previously undocumented forest mortality in the late 18th century on the northern Tibetan Plateau, China. The event was not spatially uniform, in which a more severe mortality happened in dryer sites. We used dendrochronology to compare radial growth trajectories of individual trees from 11 sites in the region, and found that many trees showed positive growth trend, or growth release, during 1796-1800 CE. Growth releases are a proxy indicator of stand thinning caused by tree mortality. The growth release was preceded by an almost two-decade long growth reduction. Long-term drought related to weakened North Atlantic Oscillation and frequent El Niño events are the likely factors causing the tree mortality in a large area of the plateau. Our findings suggest that, besides the effect of drought in the late 18th century, large-scale forest mortality may be an additional factor that further deteriorated the environment and increased the intensity of dust storms.

  15. The State and Industrial Development in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Douglas

    Spanish American political and economic development has historically diverged from the other Western geographic areas. The economic systems of these nations have been characterized as dependent, and their political systems have reflected instability, authoritarian rule, and fraudulent democracy. In Peru, industrial progress began in the late 19th…

  16. The chessgame: image, power and the church (late tenth-early twelfth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Cordez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The original in the East, the chessgame was adapted to the Western social and military realities since the tenth century. The codes for the exercise of feudal power were symbolized through the manipulation of its pieces. The analysis of four outside the realm of the chessgame, in the churches of Münster, Aachen, Saint-Denis and Reims, underlines the contribution of chess for the definition of the German Empire and of the French Kingdom.

  17. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  18. Towards the Romanization of the Mexican Church in the Late-Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia A. Bautista García

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available During  the second half of the nineteenth century,  the papacy designed a specific reform for catholicism in Latin America, consisting  in a gradual centralization of pontifical  authority in detriment of the power  exerted by local hierarchies. This process was known as Romanization and, in the  case of Mexico, was translated  into  a series of actions including the  arrival of special delegates from Rome with the purpose of intervening  in the ecclesiastical reorganization of local churches  and in the reshapement of Church-State relations.

  19. LA BANDE DES QUATRE: Nineteenth-century Artistic and Literary Sources in Late Nouvelle Vague Filmmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Tavassoli Zea, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the different ways the cinemas of Éric Rohmer, Jacques Rivette, François Truffaut and Jean-Luc Godard adapted literary and artistic motifs characteristic of the nineteenth-century romantic and realist traditions, from the 1960s to the 1980s. The selection of these four directors is based on their early and formative commitment to the politique des auteurs, a film criticism trend that was significantly indebted to central aesthetic precepts of the realist and naturalist no...

  20. Publishing procedures and cost of books at Ferrara in late sixteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sonzini

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to some unpublished archival documents – now published in the appendix – it is possible to analyze the issues of Consiliorum by Giovanni Battista Laderchi and of De principibus Atestinis by Giovanni Battista Pigna, both published in Ferrara by Vittorio Baldini. The aim of the writing is to define the cost of the book in Ferrara at the end of the sixteenth century, and to highlight some publishing procedures both in the package of the books, and in the relationship between author and printer.

  1. On the Wave of Spiritual Tension (Late 60s of the 20th Century -the Beginning of the 21th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. FILIPPOV

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Here the author continues to consider the cyclic-wave character of religious (spiritual life. During the last third of the twentieth and the beginning of the twenty-first century, a global phenomenon emerged which can be described (by sociologists, researchers of religions and political scientists as «de-secularization», «religious revival» or «spiritual awakening». The author made an attempt to structure this phenomenon, to show stages of its development (the rise, the highest point and the recession as well as its main features and characteristics. As the beginning of the wave the author considers the mass exodus of hippies into sects in the late 60’s — early 70’s and the formation of the Catholic «base communities» in Latin America. The first signs of change in the attitudes of the young toward religion were perceived by Soviet sociologists in 1969. At an individual level, a new religious wave in the European countries (including the USSR began when people started to study and practice Eastern spiritual practices and ardently search for ways of spiritual perfection. This new religious revival was largely «interdenominational and non-institutional». This is evidenced by the rapid growth of new religious movements (NRM, especially the charismatic movement. The new religion was not connected with any religious education or with elementary theological literacy. This wave chronologically coincided with the emergence of the new worldwide information and communication medium — the Internet, which has become «the most organic medium channel for religious organizations». By the beginning of the second decade of the XXI century the religious tension has exhausted itself.

  2. Rabi Rashidi (Rashidi Quarters): a late thirteen to early fourteenth century Middle Eastern Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Alakbarli, Farid; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane

    2012-11-01

    Following the Mongolian invasion of the Middle East in the thirteenth century, a regional power called the Ilkhanid emerged and was ruled by the heirs of Temujin from Mongolia. Embracing present-day Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, areas of Russia, Turkey, and Pakistan, and nearby Middle Eastern territories, the Ilkhanid state patronized medicine and various other professions. Centered in Tabriz (Tauris), a city in the northwest of present-day Iran, was a non-profit-making educational and medical complex founded by Grand Minister Rashid al-Din Fazlollah Hamadani. This paper reviews the literature regarding the rise and fall of the thirteenth century university and the Rabi Rashidi, emphasizing the structure of its medical school. The background training of Rashid al-Din and his keen interest in science turned this complex, Rabi Rashidi (literally meaning the Rashidi Quarters), into a cosmopolitan university that freely trained medical scholars nationally and internationally. The possibility that Rashid al-Din was inspired by university developments in Europe is discussed.

  3. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature.

  4. Late-Eighteenth-Century Precipitation Reconstructions from James Madison's Montpelier Plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druckenbrod, Daniel L.; Mann, Michael E.; Stahle, David W.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Therrell, Matthew D.; Shugart, Herman H.

    2003-01-01

    This study presents two independent reconstructions of precipitation from James Madison's Montpelier plantation at the end of the eighteenth century. The first is transcribed directly from meteorological diaries recorded by the Madison family for 17 years and reflects the scientific interests of James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. In his most active period as a scientist, Madison assisted Jefferson by observing the climate and fauna in Virginia to counter the contemporary scientific view that the humid, cold climate of the New World decreased the size and number of its species. The second reconstruction is generated using tree rings from a forest in the Montpelier plantation and connects Madison's era to the modern instrumental precipitation record. These trees provide a significant reconstruction of both early summer and prior fall precipitation. Comparison of the dendroclimatic and diary reconstructions suggests a delay in the seasonality of precipitation from Madison's era to the mid-twentieth century. Furthermore, the dendroclimatic reconstructions of early summer and prior fall precipitation appear to track this shift in seasonality.

  5. Registers of Artefacts of Creation—From the Late Medieval Period to the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a new perspective on the “development” of the intellectual property regimes in the United Kingdom. The system put in place under the 1875 Trade Marks Act may be seen as the last of a sequence of earlier “technologies” that sought to administer the creative endeavours of (sections of the English population. Prior to the trade mark registration (that included examination there was the registration of designs that did not require examination but was necessary for the protection of the right. In the eighteenth century, patent specifications were lodged with the Crown via a process that was much more involved than that was instituted for designs in the nineteenth century. Before that, books had to be enrolled with the Stationers’ Company before they could be printed. And, in what may be seen as an earlier attempt at the centralised regulation of artefacts of expression, the Rolls of Arms (maintained by the King of Arms was repository of coats of arms for English nobility. An exploration of these different technologies of regulation, in their socio-political context, will offer new insight into the antecedents, and limits, of the registration systems that are now common across the intellectual property world.

  6. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  8. Decadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on trends in surface solar radiation (SSR involves uncertainties due to the scarcity of long-term time series of SSR, especially with records before the second half of the 20th century. Here we study the trends of all-sky SSR from 1885 to 2010 in Switzerland, which have been estimated using a homogenous dataset of sunshine duration series. This variable is shown to be a useful proxy data of all-sky SSR, which can help to solve some of the current open issues in the dimming/brightening phenomenon. All-sky SSR has been fairly stable with little variations in the first half of the 20th century, unlike the second half of the 20th century that is characterized also in Switzerland by a dimming from the 1950s to the 1980s and a subsequent brightening. Cloud cover changes seem to explain the major part of the decadal variability observed in all-sky SSR, at least from 1885 to the 1970s; at this point, a discrepancy in the sign of the trend is visible in the all-sky SSR and cloud cover series from the 1970s to the present. Finally, an attempt to estimate SSR series for clear-sky conditions, based also on sunshine duration records since the 1930s, has been made for the first time. The mean clear-sky SSR series shows no relevant changes between the 1930s to the 1950s, then a decrease, smaller than the observed in the all-sky SSR, from the 1960s to 1970s, and ends with a strong increase from the 1980s up to the present. During the three decades from 1981 to 2010 the estimated clear-sky SSR trends reported in this study are in line with previous findings over Switzerland based on direct radiative flux measurements. Moreover, the signal of the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruption visible in the estimated clear-sky SSR records further demonstrates the potential to infer aerosol-induced radiation changes from sunshine duration observations.

  9. Statistical modeling of CMIP5 projected changes in extreme wet spells over China in the late 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Yun; Jiang, Zhihong

    2017-08-01

    The observed intensity, frequency, and duration (IFD) of summer wet spells, defined here as extreme events with one or more consecutive days in which daily precipitation exceeds a given threshold (the 95th percentile), and their future changes in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in the late 21st century over China, are investigated by using the wet spell model (WSM) and by extending the point process approach to extreme value analysis. Wet spell intensity is modeled by a conditional generalized Pareto distribution, frequency by a Poisson distribution, and duration by a geometric distribution, respectively. The WSM is able to realistically model summer extreme rainfall spells during 1961-2005, as verified with observations at 553 stations throughout China. To minimize the impact of systematic biases over China in the global climate models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), five best GCMs are selected based on their performance to reproduce observed wet spell IFD and average precipitation during the historical period. Furthermore, a quantile-quantile scaling correction procedure is proposed and applied to produce ensemble projections of wet spell IFD and corresponding probability distributions. The results show that in the late 21st century, most of China will experience more extreme rainfall and less low-intensity rainfall. The intensity and frequency of wet spells are projected to increase considerably, while the duration of wet spells will increase but to a much less extent. The IFD changes in RCP8.5 are in general much larger than those in RCP4.5.

  10. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  11. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, Nathan W.; McCants, Sarah A.; Custodio, Joseph M.; Ketterer, Michael E.; Getty, Stephen R.; Hoffman, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  12. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  13. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  14. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Tulebaev Turganzhan; Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2015-01-01

    The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of th...

  15. Three Centuries of American Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindert, Peter H.; Williamson, Jeffrey G.

    Income inequality in the United States displays considerable variance since the seventeenth century. There is no eternal constancy to the degree of inequality in total income, in labor earnings, or in income from conventional nonhuman wealth either before or after the effects of government taxes and spending. When all the necessary adjustments to…

  16. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.

  17. (History – telling the nation: the narrative construction of Romanianism in the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Stelian Rusu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a study in historical socio-anthropology, focusing on the political process of Romanian nation building and its corresponding anthropological program of creating the national self. Starting from the assumption that human being is a “storytelling animal” nested in a (history-telling community pillared upon “narrative traditions,” this paper examines the stock of stories told through history schoolbooks about the Romanian past as a means of narrative construction of Romanian national identity. Consequently, the paper looks at the nationalizing process launched by Romanian state authorities in the wake of the political union of 1859, arguing that the political building of Romanian nation implied the narrative articulation, followed by the recursive institutional reciting within the public educational system, of a “Romanian master story” as a means of breeding national Romanians out of Orthodox peasants. After detailing the pedagogy of the nation emerged in the second half of the 19th century as establishing the norms of (history-telling the national past, the study concludes by highlighting the main themes, or “schematic narrative templates,” into which the Romanian master story has been poured out.

  18. The impact of childhood sickness on adult socioeconomic outcomes: Evidence from late 19th century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Knies, Laurie; Haas, Steven; Hernandez, Elaine M.

    2013-01-01

    We use family fixed-effects models to estimate the impact of childhood health on adult literacy, labor force outcomes, and marital status among pairs of white brothers observed as children in the 1880 U.S. Census and then as adults in the 1900–1930 Censuses. Given our focus on the 19th century, we observed a wider array of infectious, chronic, and traumatic health problems than is observed using data that are more recent; our results thus provide some insights into circumstances in modern developing countries where similar health problems are more frequently observed. Compared to their healthy siblings, sick brothers were less likely to be located (and thus more likely to be dead) 20–50 years after their 1880 enumeration. Sick brothers were also less likely to be literate, to have ever been married, and to have reported an occupation. However, among those with occupations, sick and healthy brothers tended to do similar kinds of work. We discuss the implications of our results for research on the impact of childhood health on socioeconomic outcomes in developed and developing countries. PMID:22809795

  19. Gender as Pathology: Disease, Degeneration, and Medical Discourse in Late Nineteenth-century Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Jalil Paier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Colombian doctors and public health officials during the lastdecades of the nineteenth century produced a body of knowledge about the health of thenation’s citizens, using the language and authority of science to speak about a society inneed of redemption and medical intervention. In these cases, gender became an essentialcomponent of elite and medical discourses. Medical doctors and hygienists described femaleidentities either as potentially threatening and therefore degenerative to the nation’s moraland economic fabric or as a “civilizing force” through the mobilization of motherhood andthe reification of the Colombian family as a regenerative site. The doctors and governmentofficials here examined expected women to preserve the family as a unit and inculcate thevalues of order, hygiene and efficiency in the private sphere. If elite constructions of “ideal”female identities mobilized women in their primary function as mothers, preoccupations withthe control of “public women” that upset public order or threatened the family unit rhetoricallyemphasized their deviance. In direct contrast to the feminine ideal, the constructionof the feminine other emphasized moral transgression and sexual promiscuity.

  20. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Drought, ecological crisis and famine in late nineteenth century south-eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Kathleen; Nash, David J.; Klein, Jørgen; Endfield, Georgina H.

    2017-04-01

    In the second half of the 1890s a drought-driven ecological crisis took hold in the region of modern-day Botswana, Zimbabwe and northern, central and eastern South Africa. A number of years of very late rainy seasons had severe repercussions for the rain-fed agriculture. Sowing was delayed and the young crops suffered from below average summer rainfall levels. Drawing on a wide variety of documentary sources - administrative records, writings by members of missionary societies and local newspapers - this paper outlines how the drought drove the ecological crisis and aggravated a locust infestation and the cattle plague (rinderpest). Whereas the locusts found better breeding conditions in areas that were normally too humid for them, the drought also facilitated the spread of rinderpest by reducing the number of watering holes and by forcing the cattle into an immunodepressed state due to malnutrition. The locusts contributed to the loss of grain crops, and the rinderpest decimated cattle herds by more than 90 per cent in areas where the disease coincided with the drought. As agriculture as well as the pastoral sector were hit hard, famine conditions developed in the interior of the region.

  2. Instruments of Science and Citizenship: Science Education for Dutch Orphans During the Late Eighteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lissa L.

    2012-01-01

    One of the two most extensive instrument collections in the Netherlands during the second half of the eighteenth century—rivaling the much better known collection at the University of Leiden—belonged to an orphanage in The Hague that was specially established to mold hand-picked orphans into productive citizens. (The other was housed at the Mennonite Seminary in Amsterdam, for use in the education of its students.) The educational program at this orphanage, one of three established by the Fundatie van Renswoude, grew out of a marriage between the socially-oriented generosity of the wealthy Baroness van Renswoude and the pedagogical vision of the institute's director and head teacher—a vision that fit with the larger movement of oeconomic patriotism. Oeconomic patriotism, similar to `improvement' and oeconomic movements in other European countries and their colonies, sought to tie the investigation of nature to an improvement of society's material and moral well-being. Indeed, it was argued that these two facets of society should be viewed as inseparable from each other, distinguishing the movement from more modern conceptions of economics. While a number of the key figures in this Dutch movement also became prominent Patriots during the revolutionary period at the end of the century, fighting against the House of Orange, they did not have a monopoly on oeconomic ideas of societal improvement. This is demonstrated by the fact that an explicitly pro-Orangist society, Mathesis Scientiarum Genitrix, was organized in 1785 to teach science and mathematics to poor boys and orphans for very similar reasons: to turn them into productive and useful citizens. As was the case with the Fundatie van Renswoude, a collection of instruments was assembled to help make this possible. This story is of interest because it discusses a hitherto under-examined use to which science education was put during this period, by revealing the link between such programs and the highly

  3. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  4. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  5. Lack of cool, not warm, extremes distinguishes late 20th Century climate in 979-year Tasmanian summer temperature reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, K. J.; Cook, E. R.; Evans, R.; Francey, R.; Buckley, B. M.; Palmer, J. G.; Peterson, M. J.; Baker, P. J.

    2018-03-01

    Very few annually resolved millennial-length temperature reconstructions exist for the Southern Hemisphere. Here we present four 979-year reconstructions for southeastern Australia for the austral summer months of December-February. Two of the reconstructions are based on the Australian Water Availability Project dataset and two on the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature dataset. For each climate data set, one reconstruction is based solely on Lagarostrobos franklinii (restricted reconstructions) while the other is based on multiple Tasmanian conifer species (unrestricted reconstructions). Each reconstruction calibrates ~50-60% of the variance in the temperature datasets depending on the number of tree-ring records available for the reconstruction. We found little difference in the temporal variability of the reconstructions, although extremes are amplified in the restricted reconstructions relative to the unrestricted reconstructions. The reconstructions highlight the occurrence of numerous individual years, especially in the 15th-17th Centuries, for which temperatures were comparable with those of the late 20th Century. The 1950-1999 period, however, stands out as the warmest 50-year period on average for the past 979 years, with a sustained shift away from relatively low mean temperatures, the length of which is unique in the 979-year record. The reconstructions are strongly and positively related to temperatures across the southeast of the Australian continent, negatively related to temperatures in the north and northeast of the continent, and uncorrelated with temperatures in the west. The lack of a strong relationship with temperatures across the continent highlights the necessity of a sub-regional focus for Australasian temperature reconstructions.

  6. Financial services in England in the late XVII century and first equity market boom (1691–1693

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the formation of the British financial services industry in the 1690's and the reasons of the first joint-stock companies’ boom of 1691–1693's. The author describes the course of events of this boom, and data on the volume of transactions in shares. The reasons of the joint-stock boom end are associated with very low capitalization of most of the new companies. The consequence of rapid economic growth in England in the late XVII century was the appearance and rapid development of financial services. Financial intermediaries appeared first and their services, in particular the services of insurance companies, were in demand. The rapid increase in the number of insurance companies has become prerequisite for becoming financial capitalism that led to the emergence of other intermediaries which provided financial services. Among them there were the so-called "notaries" that offered a full range of services related to land transactions and "bankers, jewelers," that woke the first private bankers. Thus, in the early 1690's London had a favorable environment for the rapid growth of the financial market, which was the main precondition for expanding market shares and led to the joint-stock boom.

  7. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twenttieth-century Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.

    Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.

  8. EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF THE RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE LATE 19TH AND EARLY 20TH CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Valitov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the educational activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Western Siberia from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. The analysis of archival material reflects the foundation, development and evolution of parish schools in Western Siberia; the activity of the eparchy inspectors and parish school boards being outlined. The main emphasis is on the Tomsk eparchy – the regional leader in successful primary school development in Western Siberia. For many Russian citizens then, the parish schools were the only available educational institutions. In Western Siberia, the ascetic enlightening activity of the clergymen had a great impact on raising the literacy level; the process being complicated by the vast territories, remoteness of the settlements, and lack of local schools. The research demonstrates the parallel evolution of the parish and civil education, however, the former one was always ahead in many aspects. The competition between the two systems stimulated new effective educational methods and teacher training processes, and contributed a lot to the Russian primary education development. The paper might be of interest to the experts in education and church history, and local historians

  9. The Silwood Circle a history of ecology and the making of scientific careers in late twentieth-century Britain

    CERN Document Server

    Gay, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This is an original and wide-ranging account of the careers of a close-knit group of highly influential ecologists working in Britain from the late 1960s onwards. The book can also be read as a history of some recent developments in ecology. One of the group, Robert May, is a past president of the Royal Society, and the author of what many see as the most important treatise in theoretical ecology of the later twentieth century. That the group flourished was due not only to May's intellectual leadership, but also to the guiding hand of T. R. E. Southwood. Southwood ended his career as Linacre Professor of Zoology at the University of Oxford, where he also served a term as Vice-Chancellor. Earlier, as a professor and director of the Silwood Park campus of Imperial College London, he brought the group together. Since it began to coalesce at Silwood it has been named here the Silwood Circle. Southwood promoted the interests of its members with the larger aim of raising the profile of ecological and environmental ...

  10. On the mechanisms of late 20th century sea-surface temperature trends over the Antarctic Circumpolar Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Kamenkovich, Igor; Hogg, Andrew M.; Peters, John M.

    2011-11-01

    The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), with its associated three-dimensional circulation, plays an important role in global climate. This study concentrates on surface signatures of recent climate change in the ACC region and on mechanisms that control this change. Examination of climate model simulations shows that they match the observed late 20th century sea-surface temperature (SST) trends averaged over this region quite well, despite underestimating the observed surface-wind increases. Such wind increases, however, are expected to lead to significant cooling of the region, contradicting the observed SST trends. Motivated by recent theories of the ACC response to variable wind and radiative forcing, the authors used two idealized models to assess contributions of various dynamical processes to the SST evolution in the region. In particular, a high-resolution channel model of the ACC responds to increasing winds by net surface ACC warming due to enhanced mesoscale turbulence and associated heat transports in the mixed layer. These fluxes, modeled, in a highly idealized fashion, via increased lateral surface mixing in a coarse-resolution hybrid climate model, substantially offset zonally non-uniform surface cooling due to air-sea flux and Ekman-transport anomalies. These results suggest that the combination of these opposing effects must be accounted for when estimating climate response to any external forcing in the ACC region.

  11. The "Make Love, Not War" Ape: Bonobos and Late Twentieth-Century Explanations for War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare. In contrast, primatologist Frans de Waal's popular and scientific publications on primate reconciliation emphasized the naturalness of conflict resolution and peacemaking, thereby providing a counterpoint to the pessimism of aggression research while simultaneously shoring up the logic of simian analogy. De Waal's popular books heralded the "make love, not war" bonobo as humans' evolutionary next-of-kin and contributed to raising public interest in bonobos during the late twentieth century, although the apes' popular reputation subsequently exceeded the scientific discourse about them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modern Medicine Environment and Adaptation of Korean Trader for Medicinal Herbs From the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a

  13. A preliminary report on settlement layout and gold melting at Thula Mela, a Late Iron Age site in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kusel

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at a Late Iron Age stone-walled hill site, Thula Mela, near the Luvuvhu River in the Pafuri area of the Kruger National Park, have produced evidence of gold melting. The recovery of two fragments of pottery crucibles with the remains of slag and gold globules and three gold beads from a test trench in a midden at Thula Mela represents the first direct evidence of indigenous gold melting in South Africa. From radiocarbon dates it was established that this site was occupied between the fifteenth and early seventeenth century AD.

  14. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The seventeenth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, presented in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The conference includes papers on general topics of interest on the nuclear community, waste management and the environment, instrumentation and design of Candu reactors, safety analysis, thermal hydraulics, fuel channels, plant operations and in-core instrumentation

  15. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual Canadian Nuclear Society conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The seventeenth annual conference of the Canadian Nuclear Society, presented in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The conference includes papers on general topics of interest on the nuclear community, waste management and the environment, instrumentation and design of Candu reactors, safety analysis, thermal hydraulics, fuel channels, plant operations and in-core instrumentation.

  16. Influence of zemstvo self-government on process of national constitutionalism development in late XIX – early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолій Іванович Козаченко

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Problem Setting. The article describes the activities of the zemstvo self-government which had a significant impact on the process of national constitutionalism development in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The actuality of the topic. Zemstvo self-government got significant practical experience of legal oppositional activity, which is an important element of constitutionalism. Within the territory of ethnicUkraine, zemstvo constitutionalism combined two components: All-Russian and national. The purpose of the article. All-Russian zemstvo constitutionalism had features of legal, semi-legal and illegal activities, which were represented by liberal and radical wing of zemstvo liberal-democratic movement respectively. In the All-Russian context, zemstvo radicals advocated the idea of establishing constitutional order in the Russian Empire, which involved constitutional recognition of democratic rights and freedoms, equality, parliamentary system and establishment of a constitutional monarchy, decentralization of power, political pluralism. The national component of zemstvo constitutionalism, which was formed at the beginning of the bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1905–1907, had illegal character and its essence can be described by the fact that some zemstvo liberals insisted on the need to restore the Ukrainian state in the form of autonomy within democratic Russia. Representatives of both components of zemstvo constitutionalism aimed to implement their constitutional ideas through reforms. Zemstvo constitutionalism reached its highest peak at the beginning of the bourgeois-democratic revolution of 1905–1907. In early XX century zemstvo liberals took active part in activities of bourgeois-democratic political parties. Development of Russian and Ukrainian political parties led to a split in the radical wing of zemstvo liberal-democratic movement on the national basis. Some zemstvo leaders joined the All-Russian Party of Octobrists and

  17. Attitude of ukrainian left Galicia institutions to church and religion (late nineteenth century – the first third of the twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Begej

    2015-05-01

    Nevertheless, sometimes, frankly erroneous judgment, theoretical and practical heritage activities Ukrainian Galicia from the left end of the XIX i in the first third of the twentieth century church religious sphere remain valid and instructive.

  18. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  19. The Main Lines in Social and Civil Education in the Russian Pedagogics and School of the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Belentsov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of main works by domestic and foreign researchers, the article makes an attempt for all-round and objective consideration of main historiographic development on the problem of civil education of the youth in Russia of the late XIX – early XX centuries. It characterizes achievements and problems of modern historiography in this field, formulates the author’s evaluative judgment and generalized conclusions on the problem under discussion, and suggests directions for further research of various aspects of civil education. The beginning of research on this problem was marked by our work “The problem of civilian education in the Russian pedagogics and school in the late XIX 0 early XX centuries”, and continued in the work “Influence of pedagogical factors on civil activities of schoolchildren in Russia of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries.”

  20. Study on the Argument of "Menstruation" in Late Nineteenth-Century America : Focusing on M. P. Jacobi's The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 美和

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the argument concerning “menstruation” in late nineteenth-century America. With regard to an expansion of women's higher education, Sex in Education (1873) by Dr. Edward Clarke generated a controversy by stating that young women needed rest during menstruation; therefore the rigor of higher education would fail their health. Dr. Mary Putnam Jacobi refuted this argument in The Question of Rest for Women during Menstruation (1877). She attempted to combat the male research...

  1. Public health and social supervision issues within public administration of ukrainian territories in the late 8th- early 9th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrynzovskyi, Anatolii M; Holovanova, Irina A; Omelchuk, Sergei T; Kuzminska, Olena V; Hrynzovska, Anastasia A; Karlova, Olena O; Kondratiuk, Vitalii Ye

    Introduction: The public health system modernization history is based upon the progress in state country administration and administration of healthcare within the sectorwide approach. The WHO European Bureau pays much attention to the National Health Service systems development while implementing their basic policies. The Ukrainian state health service management was founded basing on the regulatory field of the Russian Empire, using the European healthcare promotion experience. Aim: of the article is the analysis of the regulatory field of police and amenity authorities of the Russian Empire and Ukraine within the medical and social service in the 18th-19th centuries. Materials and methods: The structure of the article corresponds to the problem city and chronology principles, using the following methods and techniques of scientific learning: the systemic, historic, regulatory comparative, logical and structural-functional analysis of the studied medical-legal phenomena. The study sources are the scientific publications, collections of laws and executive orders of the Russian Empire and Ukraine in the 18th-19th centuries. Review: As a result of the performed work it can be determined were the main directions of the police competence in late 18th- early 19th centuries. Conclusion: Preserving health, treatment of the ill and injured, management of medical and social service of those in need, holding various preventive activities and supporting safe environment and regulating the safety of food were the main directions of the police competence in late 18th- early 19th centuries.

  2. Agricultural advertising in periodicals of the late 19th - early 20th centuries from the collection of NMHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Serjant

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Depending on the stage of development, advertising as a historical phenomenon was expanding its sphere of influence penetrating more and more in various spheres of human activity. Agriculture, which is an important branch of the national economy closely related to the trade, always needs advertising. The absence of serfdom and the agrarian reforms have contributed to the integration of Bessarabian agriculture into the system of market relations. Local farmers needed promotion and marketing of agricultural products. For this they applied to various means of advertising. Agricultural advertisings can be found in the pages of the Bessarabian press from the late 19th - early 20th centuries. Most often, they were printed in publications of agricultural profile. An example is the magazine "Bessarabskoe sel'skoe khozyaistvo" ("Bessarabian Agriculture", the publication of Agronomic Section of the Bessarabian Naturalists' Society and the Chişinău Department of the Imperial Russian Society for Horticulture. The magazine was published from 1908 to 1917. In the collection of MNHM there are 28 issues of this magazine (in all there were 240 issues. The years of publication: 1909, 1910, 1912 and 1916. They are the main source of research on the topic. The aim of this work is to determine the themes of agricultural advertisements and their contribution to the im- provement of agricultural management in Tsarist Bessarabia. All issues of the journal had the ads section. Regular customers of the journal were both local and foreign manufac- turers. Among the local: Fruit an Grape Nurseries "EKO" (Soroca; Bucovăţ Fruit and Grape Nurseries; Baron A. Stuart's Fruit Nursery (Chişinău; Cocorozeni Agricultural School; E.P. Melega-Kuzminskaia's estate of Temeleuţi and F.F. Köppen's estate of Voinovo-Ikel; Horticulture, Viticulture and Winemaking Bureau and Storage of Agricultural Machinery of N.G. Kavsan (Chişinău, etc. The ads offered planting material tested

  3. The hydroclimatology of UK droughts: evidence from newly recovered and reconstructed datasets from the late 19th century to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. A.; Hannaford, J.; Bloomfield, J.; McCarthy, M.; Parry, S.; Barker, L. J.; Svensson, C.; Tanguy, M.; Marchant, B.; McKenzie, A.; Legg, T.; Prudhomme, C.

    2017-12-01

    While the UK is regarded as a wet country, it has periodically suffered from major droughts which have caused serious environmental and societal impacts. Parts of the UK are water stressed and, in a warming world, changes to supply/demand balances could have major implications. There is a pressing need for improved tools for drought risk assessment, which is contingent on a proper understanding of past occurrence of droughts. However, our understanding of hydrological drought occurrence is grounded in the post-1960 period when most UK river flow and groundwater records commenced. As such, water resources planners would benefit from a more thorough assessment of historical drought characteristics and their variability. The multi-disciplinary `Historic Droughts' project thus aims to rigorously characterise droughts in the UK back to the 1890s to inform improved drought management. The foundation of this is a comprehensive characterisation of the hydroclimatology of UK droughts. Here, we present the results of this initiative, based on a hydrological reconstruction campaign of unparalleled scope and detail. Driven by rainfall and potential evapotranspiration data, extended in time using newly recovered observational records, hydro(geo)logical models are used to reconstruct, back to 1890, river flows for >300 catchments across the UK, and groundwater levels from >50 boreholes. The reconstructions are derived within a state-of-the-art modelling framework which allows a comprehensive assessment of uncertainty. A suite of indicators are then applied to these datasets to identify and characterise drought events, integrating precipitation, evapotranspiration, streamflow and groundwater. The work provides new insights into the spatial and temporal dynamics of hitherto poorly quantified late 19th and early 20th century droughts. Similarly, the assessment of temporal variability of drought characteristics benefits from the long timescale of the reconstructions, in turn

  4. Proceedings of the seventeenth LAMPF Users Group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    The seventeenth annual LAMPF Users Group meeting was held November 7-8, 1983, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF. A panel discussion on the LAMPF II concept provided an exchange of views among an advisory group, Users, and LAMPF staff. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for each of the secondary beam lines

  5. Archeographical and historical artifact of the Jesuits of Saint Jan collegium in Jaroslav in the late XVII century in the fonds of the Manuscript Institute of VNLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatova S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication treats a manuscript inventory of the late XVII century, unknown for historians, which contains the descriptions of landed estates of the Jesuit collegium of Saint Jan in Jaroslav. The paper covers the archeographical aspect of research of the manuscript artifact of Subcarpathian land, which is currently deposited in the fonds of the Manuscript Institute of V. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine. The author-originator of the manuscript states explicit historical-archival data on Jesuit and szlachta landed estates in Subcarpathian region in XVI-XVII centuries, in particular the possessions of Jaroslav landed holdings. In the publication we consider the historical information on the original sources of various antiquariums and archives of Rich Pospolyta, primarily the archive of the Jesuit collegium in Jaroslav, which are stated in the manuscript inventory. The archeographical analysis of the manuscript, performed in the article, contributes to the historical reconstruction of the Jesuit collegium of Saint Jan in Jaroslav.

  6. Popular culture and sporting life in the rural margins of late eighteenth-century England: the world of Robert Anderson, "The Cumberland Bard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to extend and challenge existing historiography on late eighteenth century British popular culture, customary sports, class and cultural identity, focusing upon the rural geo-political borderland of England. It suggests that prevailing class-based and more London-biased studies need to be balanced with more regionalist-based work, and shows the importance of northern regional leisure variants. The textual and historical analysis draws largely on the published works of a neglected working-class dialect poet, Robert Anderson, living and working in Cumberland, arguing that he represented a strain of ''bardic regionalism,'' a variant of Katie Trumpener’s ''bardic nationalism.''

  7. Contribution of outstanding teachers from Western Ukraine of late XIX – early XX century to development of theory and methods of teaching history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviia Nahachevska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article provides analysis of theses from works of prominent representatives of educational thought in Western Ukraine of late XIX – early XX century, which are related to solving problems of teaching history in elementary and secondary schools in the region. The emphasis is placed on the actualization of content and methods of teaching by V. VilshanetskaZhukovetska, A. Kopystianskyi, M. Korduba, and K. Malytska.Key words: elementary and secondary schools (gymnasia, curricula, content, principles and methods of teaching history, school textbooks, anthropologization and humanization of history, study of local lore.

  8. Contribution à l’étude des couleurs anciennes extérieures et intérieures de croisées de menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles, à Paris et Versailles ville Contribution to the survey of old exterior and interior colours in muntin bars dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in Paris and the town of Versailles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Vouvé

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette démarche a été initiée par Claude Landes, expert en croisées anciennes, et par le LERM, spécialisé dans la caractérisation et le diagnostic des métaux anciens. Grâce aux recherches conjointes entreprises et au protocole d’échantillonnage mis au point par M. Landes, nous sommes en mesure, sur une croisée de menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles, d’identifier les matériaux constitutifs de la première mise en peinture réalisée sur celle-ci. À partir d’un examen détaillé de la stratigraphie de plusieurs échantillons, nous avons caractérisé les pigments, charges et liants mis en œuvre dans les strates les plus anciennes. Ces analyses ont été complétées par des mesures de colorimétrie. Ces recherches peuvent être entreprises d’un point de vue qualitatif et semi-quantitatif. Dans ce second cas, il est ainsi possible de remonter à une formulation proche de l’originelle, ce qui permet d’envisager une reconstitution à l’identique des couleurs extérieures de ces croisées. L’exposé sera illustré par les résultats obtenus après une étude des polychromies extérieures de l’hôtel d’Hallwyl (Paris, IIIe arrondissement, du 17, rue Champollion (Paris, Ve arrondissement, de l’ancien hôtel de Mayenne (Paris, IVe arrondissement, enfin du 10, avenue de Sceaux à Versailles ville.This project was set up by Claude Landes, an expert on old muntins, and the LERM, specialized in the characterization and diagnostic of old metals. Thanks to common research undertaken and to the sampling protocol set up by M. Landes, it is possible to identify the materials constituting the original paintwork on muntins from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. From detailed examination of the stratigraphy of several samples, we have characterized the pigments, fillers and binders used in the oldest layers. These analyses have been completed with colourimetric measurements. This research may be carried out from a

  9. Amusement places in Chişinău. Cafe Man’kov (Late 19th century - the 30ies of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Griţco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Collections of postcards are a chronicle in images that captivate us with variety of topics, the study of which can extract from the darkness of oblivion different scenes of everyday life in certain historical periods. In this sense, interesting is a postcard from the museum collection, which depicts Cafe Man'kov - a place where more than a century ago the Chişinău cream of society loved spending time. The history of this coffee house is associated with the name of A.I. Man'kov, a prosperous businessman of the second half of 19th - early 20th centuries. Initially, in the 1880s, it was located in the building of the Diocesan House (the Alexandrovskaia Street, where A. Man'kov rented premises, and since 1901 it has moved into the Schwartzman's House (the Pushkinskaia Street, a rented space as well. In 1905, the cafe was opened in a specially built building in Fountain Lane (between the Sinadinovskaia and Pushkinskaia Streets known as Cafe Man'kov, with an interesting architecture, "European" interior, and tastefully furnished terraces. Cafe Man'kov was one of the first buildings in Chişinău which was electrified (1907. It soon became a favorite place of leisure for Chişinău dwellers, where one could drink tea or coffee with Swiss chocolate, enjoy a delicious cake, as well as have lunch or dinner. The cafe existed until 1934, when A. Man'kov died at the age of 92 years. In Soviet times, the building was demolished, and now in its place there is the Press House (the area between the streets of Pushkin and Vlaicu Pârcălab.

  10. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  11. Pedagogical Foundations of Effective Reading Instruction Older Students in Russia in the Late XIX-Early XX Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belentsov, Sergei I.; Malykhina, Olga N.; Ilyina, Irina V.; Mandruk, Irina V.

    2018-01-01

    Topical issues of development of reader's activity of school students are considered on the basis of the comparative analysis of the situation characterizing a technique of formation of communicative competence of the system of gymnasia formation of the Kursk province of the end XIX--the beginning of the XX centuries. The comparative-historical…

  12. MODEL RECONSTRUCTION OF THE VEGETATION COVER OF THE SOUTH OF THE WEST SIBERIAN PLAIN FROM THE LATE PALEOLITHIC PERIOD UNTIL THE LATE XIX CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. А. Kharitonenkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Model reconstruction of vegetation cover of the south of the West Siberian Plain from the late Pleistocene to the modern era has been carried out on the basis of the associated chronological analysis of paleontological, archaeological and paleoclimate data. We have determined the starting point of active vegetation transformation in the south of the West Siberian Plain as a result of tradition-bound exploitation of natural resources. Periods of maximum anthropogenic load – peak and relative recession – on vegetation cover, acting as a further determinant factor, have been determined in this study for the first time. Comprehensive analysis and new understanding of palynological, paleozoological, archaeological and paleoclimate data in terms of theoretical synecology confirmed the notions on the determinant role of the anthropogenic factor in the transformation of the Pleistocene forest-meadow-steppe vegetation into contemporary communities of the southern taiga, the subtaiga and the forest-steppe of the West Siberian Plain.

  13. ‘Looking as Little Like Patients as Persons Well Could’: Hypnotism, Medicine and the Problem of the Suggestible Subject in Late Nineteenth-Century Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettiar, Teri

    2012-01-01

    During the late nineteenth century, many British physicians rigorously experimented with hypnosis as a therapeutic practice. Despite mounting evidence attesting to its wide-ranging therapeutic uses publicised in the 1880s and 1890s, medical hypnosis remained highly controversial. After a decade and a half of extensive medical discussion and debate surrounding the adoption of hypnosis by mainstream medical professionals – including a thorough inquiry organised by the British Medical Association – it was decisively excluded from serious medical consideration by 1900. This essay examines the complex question of why hypnosis was excluded from professional medical practice by the end of the nineteenth century. Objections to its medical adoption rarely took issue with its supposed effectiveness in producing genuine therapeutic and anaesthetic results. Instead, critics’ objections were centred upon a host of social and moral concerns regarding the patient’s state of suggestibility and weakened ‘will-power’ while under the physician’s hypnotic ‘spell’. The problematic question of precisely how far hypnotic ‘rapport’ and suggestibility might depart from the Victorian liberal ideal of rational individual autonomy lay at the heart of these concerns. As this essay demonstrates, the hypnotism debate was characterised by a tension between physicians’ attempts to balance their commitment to restore patients to health and pervasive middle-class concerns about the rapid and ongoing changes transforming British society at the turn of the century. PMID:23002303

  14. The Vega of Granada in the late Middle Ages (XIV-XVI Centuries: almunias versus alquerías

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Trillo San José

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peri-urban areas of cities in Al-Andalus was a very diverse rural habitat. Aristocratic property was present in these environments and has received little attention. Indeed, we know very little about the elites of Al-Andalus in comparison to those of other western medieval countries. In this study we have examined the hinterland of the city of Granada during the Naṣrid era (XIV-XV centuries, paying special attention to two features of the distribution of its population: alquerías (villages, settlements of the rural community par excellence, and almunias or aristocatic estates.

  15. “To Sing with the Spirit:” Psalms, Hymns and the Spirituality of Late Eighteen Century American Presbyterians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Harrison Taylor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the contemporary discussion among theologians regarding the relationship between theology and spirituality can offer new insight into the eighteenth century religious world. This theological discussion has wrestled with, among other things, the questions of whether theology and spirituality are mutually exclusive and what exactly their relationship looks like. Resoundingly, theologians such as Alister McGrath, J. I. Packer, and Sandra Schneiders have concluded that any separation of the two represents a false dichotomy within Christianity. Accordingly, Christians are called to “the quest for a fulfilled and authentic Christian existence, involving the bringing together of the fundamental ideas of Christianity and the whole experience of living on the basis of, and within, the scope of the Christian faith.” Sound theology, then, necessitates living by the Spirit and vice versa. The benefit of this theological position for religious history lies in its reevaluation of the common categorization of Christians as either theologically or spiritually focused. By heeding the call of contemporary theologians and blurring these lines of distinction, historians can afford eighteen century American Christians the chance to better define themselves. Considered in this light, the actions of the Presbyterians, for instance, are freed from the manipulative “social control” framework as one of the “establishmentarian” churches. Instead, the Presbyterians reveal characteristics generally reserved for the democratically charged “sectarians,” such as a robust spiritual life compelled by music.

  16. The Development of Local Self-Government in Russia in the Late XVII – First Quarter of XVIII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bykov Aleksandr V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of analysis of normative-legal acts, with the involvement of Russian scientists of XIX – beginning of XX centuries and results of modern studies of the development of local self-government in the Russian Empire of the XVII – first quarter of XVIII century the article is focused on issues of regulatory-legal regulation, the ratio of state and local interests in the activities of local administration bodies, relations of the crown (appointed by the Central government, the Czar and elected bodies of local governance. The Author reveals the motivation of the central government (the Czar to the formation of a new local government system, its features, functions. The legal bases and the principles of election of officers of local authorities are also discussed. It is concluded that the attempt to introduce in Russia the local municipal city self-government on foreign models was unsuccessful. The Author expresses an opinion on the limited nature of elected bodies of local governance, the primacy of the interests of the central government in their activities.

  17. Violations of Law in the Bureaucrats Community and Their Perception by the Ukrainian and Russian People in the Late XVIII – First Half of XIX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Degtyarev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies the problem of service violations and abuses, which were extremely common in the bureaucratic environment of the Russian Empire in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The author attempts to answer the question of how these negative phenomena were perceived various population groups in different regions of the empire? It was concluded, that range of offenses, which were committed officials, was extremely broad. In doing so they affected the interests of society regardless of ethnic, social or professional affiliation of its members. This contributed to occurrence of a negative image of officials at all levels of society and in all regions of the empire. Inability and unwillingness of the government fight the offense in the environment of bureaucracy during many decades has led to the creation a negative image of the official. It was display in numerous literary works and poetry of Ukrainian and Russian authors, the memoirs of contemporaries, official documents.

  18. Propaganda, Public Information, and Prospecting: Explaining the Irrational Exuberance of Central Place Foragers During a Late Nineteenth Century Colorado Silver Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, models of resource extraction assume individuals act as if they form strategies based on complete information. In reality, gathering information about environmental parameters may be costly. An efficient information gathering strategy is to observe the foraging behavior of others, termed public information. However, media can exploit this strategy by appearing to supply accurate information while actually shaping information to manipulate people to behave in ways that benefit the media or their clients. Here, I use Central Place Foraging (CPF) models to investigate how newspaper propaganda shaped ore foraging strategies of late nineteenth-century Colorado silver prospectors. Data show that optimistic values of silver ore published in local newspapers led prospectors to place mines at a much greater distance than was profitable. Models assuming perfect information neglect the possibility of misinformation among investors, and may underestimate the extent and degree of human impacts on areas of resource extraction.

  19. Not a polar island: yellow fever, Spanish medical research, and the struggle for scientific and political hegemony in late nineteenth century Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Martínez

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper explores questions related to yellow fever and the political destiny of Cuba in the late nineteenth century. A forgotten therapeutic device to treat the disease invented in that period, the “polar chamber” (cámara polar, provides a useful standpoint for reconstructing the tradition of Spanish yellow fever research in Cuba, a topic largely neglected by the medical historiography. The failed history of this device can also illuminate the complex struggle for scientific hegemony between Spanish, Cuban, and US institutions and researchers. Finally, we focus on the politics of the polar chamber by analyzing how this invention intended to provide a particular solution for the complex, threefold struggle for Cuba’s political future.

  20. A Portuguese manor in rural Brazil; or The saga of the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano and the garden of the former episcopal palace in the late eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Moacir Rodrigo de Castro

    2009-01-01

    This is a reconstruction of the career of the Most Reverend Dom Frei Cipriano de São José and the historical garden he built for his palace in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The grounds, which, like most of their counterparts in Minas Gerais, contained an orchard and kitchen garden, underwent a major reform to fit the mold of the classical European garden. Orderly and showing aesthetic concern, they were an admirable space at the end of the colonial period, representing as they did the enlightened metropolitan elite's growing interest in natural history and botany. A variety of documental sources were used to reconstruct the history of the grounds and the career of the person behind their design, the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano de São José.

  1. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  2. Sea surface temperature and sea ice variability in the subpolar North Atlantic from explosive volcanism of the late thirteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicre, M. -A.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use IP25 and alkenone biomarker proxies to document the subdecadal variations of sea ice and sea surface temperature in the subpolar North Atlantic induced by the decadally paced explosive tropical volcanic eruptions of the second half of the thirteenth century. The short-and long......-term evolutions of both variables were investigated by cross analysis with a simulation of the IPSL-CM5A LR model. Our results show short-term ocean cooling and sea ice expansion in response to each volcanic eruption. They also highlight that the long response time of the ocean leads to cumulative surface cooling...... and subsurface heat buildup due to sea ice capping. As volcanic forcing relaxes, the surface ocean rapidly warms, likely amplified by subsurface heat, and remains almost ice free for several decades....

  3. The Life of a Renaissance Gunmaker: Bonaccorso Ghiberti and the Development of Florentine Artillery in the Late Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansani, Fabrizio

    This article examines the technological development of artillery production in Florence during the last two decades of the fifteenth century, before and after the assimilation of the most efficient French ordnance into Italian warfare. The study starts from the notes, drawings, accounts, and guns produced by Bonaccorso di Vettorio Ghiberti (1451-1516), the heir of the foundry of his illustrious ancestor Lorenzo di Cione (1378-1455). Data have been collected from the historical archives of the Istituto degli Innocenti, from the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale of Florence, and from the Florentine State Archive. This article demonstrates the existence of a lively and reactive war-related industry in Renaissance Italy, which was aware of new ideas and new techniques. The article highlights, moreover, the leading role of public demand in fostering military innovations.

  4. The great discoveries in physics of the late nineteenth century; Los grandes descubrimientos en Fisica a fines del siglo XIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galles, Carlos D., E-mail: galles@fceia.unr.edu.ar [UNR Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Santa Fe (Argentina); UTN Universidad Tecnologica Nacional (Argentina)

    2009-07-01

    An overview is given of the principal lines of research into Physics during the end of the nineteenth century. At that time, a long series of successful theories which appeared to be final and conclusive had strengthened a conservative epistemological dogma which held that in the future research would consist merely of ever-more precise measurements, in the absence of any revolutionary innovations. However, it turned out that Nature was to reveal some of her mysterious and unexpected secrets to certain bright minds working in laboratories. (author) [Spanish] Se presentan las principales lineas de investigacion en Fisica en las ultimas decadas del siglo XIX. Una larga serie de exitosas teorias aparentemente finales y conclusivas habian fortalecido por entonces un dogma epistemologico conservador que presagiaba solo se continuaria acumulando mediciones mas y mas precisas sin innovaciones revolucionarias. La naturaleza reservaba sin embargo revelar en los laboratorios, a las mentes agiles, algunos de sus misteriosos e insospechados secretos. (autor)

  5. Beristain, Godoy, and the Virgin of Guadalupe. A Confrontation for Public Space in Mexico City in the Late Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Torres Puga

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available During the festivities of the virgin of Guadalupe in 1795, a group of criollos garnished a balcony in Mexico City in order to discredit the cathedral's canon, Mariano  Beristain.  The reason for this quarrel was the recent homage paid by Beristain to Spain's ministers' chief, Manuel  Godoy, who had been  accused of insulting religion and devotion to the virgin. The complaints filed with the Inquisition against  Beristain  afford the  possibility of observing some of informal channels of expression at a time when there was a tightening of the control over the press. Moreover, these complaints illustrate the fierce dispute over control of public opinion in Mexico City at the end of the eighteenth century.

  6. TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM/BOLFA:Historical perspectives of lactation biology in the late 20th and early 21st centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E

    2017-12-01

    The latter half of the 20th century and the early portion of the 21st century will be recognized as the "Golden Age" of lactation biology. This period corresponded with the rise of systemic, metabolomic, molecular, and genomic biology. It includes the discovery of the structure of DNA and ends with the sequencing of the complete genomes of humans and all major domestic animal species including the dairy cow. This included the ability to identify polymorphisms in the nucleic acid sequence, which can be tied to specific differences in cellular, tissue, and animal performance. Before this period, classical work using endocrine ablation and replacement studies identified the mammary gland as an endocrine-dependent organ. In the early 1960s, the development of RIA and radioreceptor assays permitted the study of the relationship between endocrine patterns and mammary function. The ability to measure nucleic acid content of tissues opened the door to study of the factors regulating mammary growth. The development of high-speed centrifugation in the 1960s allowed separation of specific cell organelles and their membranes. The development of transmission and scanning electron microscopy permitted the study of the relationship between structure and function in the mammary secretory cell. The availability of radiolabeled metabolites provided the opportunity to investigate the metabolic pathways and their regulation. The development of concepts regarding the coordination of metabolism to support lactation integrated our understanding of nutrient partitioning and homeostasis. The ability to produce recombinant molecules and organisms permitted enhancement of lactation in farm animal species and the production of milk containing proteins of value to human medicine. These discoveries and others contributed to vastly increased dairy farm productivity in the United States and worldwide. This review will include the discussion of the centers of excellence and scientists who labored

  7. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  8. On specifics of pedagogical work and professional competence of teachers in theBritish scientists’ works of the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya V. Zharova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of establishing national education in Great Britain in the late 19th century demanded acceptance of cardinal measures on revising the system of primary education in general, changing the approaches to training and education of children and teacher training. A wide network of teacher training colleges required manuals on pedagogical psychology for elementary school teachers. Alexander Bain and James Sully were the first to develop the issues of pedagogical psychology in Great Britain. Psychology and pedagogical views of Alexander Bain can be found in the works “Education as a Science“, “Psychology“. Psychological ideas of James Sully are reflected in the works “The Teacher’s Handbook of Psychology“, “Studies of Childhood“, “Pedagogical Psychology“. In the works of the British scientists, a wide range of pedagogical psychology issues are presented: from lesson organization issues to problems of professional and basic qualities of teachers. Ideas on the value of a reflection and empathy as factors of efficacy of pedagogical activity were innovative ideas, for psychology and pedagogical science of the 19th century; readiness and ability of the teacher for self-control as basis of efficiency of training and education processes; on the value of communicative, organizing and pedagogical abilities of the teacher, etc. First mentioned in Alexander Bain and James Sully’s works, many ideas find reflection in works of modern scholars.

  9. [Health care in Western Europe in the late 18th century, as reported in Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty's travel journal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, Irén

    2015-07-19

    Medical doctors working in Hungary and Transylvania were all trained abroad before the medical faculty of the University of Nagyszombat was founded in 1769. Most Roman Catholic medical students were trained in Vienna and Italy, whereas Protestants in Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland. In the 18th century a total of 500 Hungarian medical students studied at universities in Western Europe. Medical students' peregrination did not involve academic training only: whenever they had the possibility, students visited renowned hospitals, university clinics and famous doctors in order to gain experience and medical practice to complete their education. Sámuel Cseh-Szombaty studied in Pest and Göttingen, obtained his medical doctor's diploma in Vienna in 1790, and then spent a year and a half at various medical institutions in Germany, The Netherlands, and England. Cseh-Szombaty's so far unpublished travel journal and alba amicorum provide a wealth of information about the practical knowledge that could be learned during peregrination, characteristics of medical training, patients' treatment, quality of German hospitals of the late 18th century, where the most famous doctors worked. It is an exciting description, how a doctor from Hungary spent his time studying in Western Europe.

  10. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today

  11. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  12. Wall paintings from the late 15th century in the Monastery church of St. Paraskeve - Brajčino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovska-Korobar Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of St. Paraskevy is located above the village Brajčino, on the east shore of Lake Prespa in the Republic of Macedonia. In accordance with the incomplete donor’s inscription this one aisle church with a pitched roof was built and decorated at the same time. Reparations came around 1800, when rebuilding was done on the longitudinal walls and the narthex (without fresco decoration. The fresco paintings from the 15th century are preserved on the west facade, and on the east and west wall of the naos. The decorative program in the interior was common for the small type monastery churches without narthex. From the old edifice, on the corner of the outside southwest wall visible are remains of figures, a monk and a man in laymen’s attire facing eastward. The iconographic program of the west facade is interesting for the scenes which encompass the patrons niche: a reduced Last Judgment (Royal Deesis, Hell and Paradise, where the monk Pahomios above the gate is depicted in prayer and the equestrian figures of St. George and St. Mena. A parallel for the rare iconography of St. Mena with the tamed beasts is found in an unpublished icon, which most probably was painted in the last quarter of the 15th century, and is kept presently on the iconostasis of the church of Panagia tou Apostolaki in Kastoria. In accordance with all the considered characteristics by means of comparative analysis, we assume that the anonymous master could be an individual who belonged to the painting workshops which are credited for painting the church of St. Nicholas of the nun Eupraxia in Kastoria. We suppose the painter worked in Brajčino soon after the year 1486 and before 1493, when the decoration of the church in Kremikovci was completed, in which he most likely took part as a member of another large workshop. Regarding the question about the origins of the style of the 'master from the 1480’s', the paper articulates an opinion that they should be traced

  13. Four centuries of translocal development in cities and regions in Northwest Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlouw, K.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses how the fates of different peripheral localities (Emsland, Gütersloh, and Lippe in Germany) were linked to the outside world in the course of the seventeenth to twentieth centuries. In the first centuries, these localities' translocal relations with the world economy were

  14. Canada's Fraser River Basin transitioning from a nival to a hybrid system in the late 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D. H.; Gao, H.; Shi, X.; Dery, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Fraser River Basin (FRB) is the largest river draining to the Pacific Ocean in British Columbia (BC), Canada, and it provides the world's most abundant salmon populations. With recent climate change, the shifting hydrologic regime of the FRB is evaluated using hydrological modeling results over the period 1949 to 2006. To quantify the contribution of snowmelt to runoff generation, the ratio RSR, defined as the division of the sum of the snowmelt across the watershed by the integrated runoff over the water year, is employed. Modeled results for RSR at Hope, BC — the furthest downstream hydrometric station of the FRB — show a significant decrease (from 0.80 to 0.65) in the latter part of the 20th century. RSR is found to be mainly suppressed by a decrease of the snowmelt across the FRB with a decline with 107 mm by 26 % along the simulation period. There is also a prominent shift in the timing of streamflow, with the spring freshet at Hope, BC advancing 30 days followed by reduced summer flows for over two months. The timing of the peak spring freshet becomes even earlier when moving upstream of the FRB owing to short periods of time after melting from the snow source to the rivers.

  15. THE DISTANT STRATUM OF UNREASON: EXPRESSIONS OF MADNESS IN THE PORT AND CITY OF MAZATLÁN LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griselda Santiago-Pérez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with aspects of life port, with respect to the inconveniences and constant challenges on the different epidemics and diseases that the inhabitants faced, as well as the role played by the hospital institutions. Aspects taken into account to envision the other side of reality, in opposition to the modernity and progress alluded to by the ruling elite during the Porfirian years, who tried to disguise precariousness in the face of the insolvency of health care. In addition to this, he pays attention mainly to the madness manifestations of demented men and women inside the city and port of Mazatlán in the last years of the XIX century, specifically between 1877 and 1900. The presence of these marked an important guideline between the city for the sake of progress and the ephemeral reality that they faced in relation to the health and order that was intended to have. And in addition it allows to observe the perspective that was had of them, as well as the construction and the association of the causes on the madness. With the participation of these maladjusted individuals, transgressors of order, social deviance and poverty, who tried to be evaded, limiting them to the integration of social coexistence. Under the establishment of disciplinary forms, governed by rules, customs and routines that guided his conduct. The segregation by the mode of behavior, determined the construction of stereotypes by society, the family, doctors and public authorities.

  16. ECONOMIC PRAGMATISM: THE IOWA AMISH AND THE VISION OF COMMUNAL COHERENCE IN LATE 2O CENTURY AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how members of one Amish settlement in southern Iowa have attempted to broaden their economic activities in an effort to maintain their religiously based community; The Amish dress in a plain 19th century style and rely on horses for their work and transportation needs, and, on the surface at least, eschew the modern ways of the world. Though it is readily apparent that the long held perception of a cloistered life is a myth. The Amish have managed to push their communal strictures to the limit. At the same time it is apparent that it has been a daunting task at best for the Amish to attempt to maintain their cultural homogeneity in an economy dominated by sweeping technological and social changes. The Amish frequent many of the same retail stores as their “other world neighbors,” have availed themselves of modern means of transportation to travel great distances to visit relatives or to attend funerals and weddings, and in the winter some, especially the elderly, spend the harsher months in Florida as do their “English” counterparts. Within Amish communities there have been signs of conflicts that have had less to do with theological questions but more with efforts to cling to old customs. As the paper points out, the Amish have been wedded to an impossible exegesis given the modernizing influences of the surrounding world.

  17. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  18. The Siberian Students in Research, Cultural and Social Life of the Region in the Late XIX – Early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana V. Ustinova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the role and place of students in the Siberian scientific-research and cultural-educational life of the region. It is shown that high moral ideals and a desire to help people in need be useful to its edge and to society in general – describe the ideas, common in the student's environment at the turn of XIX – XX centuries. Based on the analysis of archival materials and scientific literature, it was found that the students showed during this period, an increased desire to participate in social and cultural life of Siberia and the whole country. However, this participation in different ways manifested in the minds and actions of young people. Some students, actively engage in the cultural life of the region, entered in the companies involved in charity work, academic research, literary and theatrical art, medicine, advanced study of philosophy, technical processes, etc. At universities created various thematic interest groups, on a territorial basis – numerous fraternities, a nobility of purpose in the form of moral and material support of their members. However, some Siberian students in their own way understood his own mission in social processes, including under the form of participation in legal societies, clubs or fraternities in the activities of political and campaign focus, in the meetings discussing ideas about the possibilities of revolution, as expected, from their point of view, progress and prosperity in case of their implementation. Also in this period, there are illegal organizations that engage some students of Siberian universities. The activities of such organizations is highly political in nature.

  19. Seventeenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-01-29

    The document represents the seventeenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1954.

  20. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  1. The Orthodox parish in the Russian Empire as an object of fi scal policy of the secular and ecclesiastical authorities in the late XIX — early XX centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. BEGLOV

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the system of taxation of Orthodox parishes of the Russian Empire in the late XIX — early XX centuries is reconstructed on the new archival materials and the numerous contributions that the parishes carried out from its own funds in favor of the diocesan institutions and charitable organizations are described. Attempt are made to estimate the number of different charges, which existed in this period (the author now includes over 80 items and their size and severity for the parish budget. In this regard, it is concluded that such deductions in some cases accounted for more than half of the income of the parish churches. The author describes the reasons for turning the formally voluntary fees in favor of charitable institutions in virtually compulsory. It investigates the failed attempts of the Supreme Church leadership to reform the system of parish charges in the early XXth century, in particular, the work of the two synodal committees (active in 1905 under the chairmanship of Archbishop Nikon (Sofi yskiy and in 1909, under the chairmanship of Archbishop Anthony (Khrapovitsky. The author comes to the conclusion that these charges were not the only cause of poverty of many parishes (especially rural parishes in Central Russia, but they weakened the parish as a religious community, for the charges were a pretext for permanent discontent among the parishioners about the parish clergy and diocesan authorities. Not the last role here was played by the fact that the diocesan institutions, which were funded by the parish funds were of an estate character.

  2. The Making and Development of Economic Forms of the Industry of Turkestan Krai in the late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulebaev Turganzhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The period of the late 20th and the early 21st centuries is characterized for many post-socialist countries by profound social/economic transformations. They are going through a tough transition from the implementation of market reform to the formation of a market economy oriented towards innovation development. The historical past of these countries attests that, in a sense, they have already been going through a similar process – back in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. The history of the industry of Turkestan Krai during that period is a vivid example of the process of the making and development of capitalist relations. This proves once again the relevance and timeliness of the study of the characteristics of the evolution of the region’s industry and determination of its prevalent forms. The author examines the initial forms of the region’s industry. Only the penetration of commodity production on the capitalist basis and the resettlement of peasants, the settling down of Kazakhs on the land, the development of old and emergence of new towns and villages, and the construction of railroads would lay the foundation for social division of labor. This spurred the development of old and emergence of new sectors in the industry of Turkestan Krai. During the period under examination, the prevalent form of industry was petty commodity capitalist production. But the transition from craft production and its workshop form to capitalist petty commodity production in Turkestan Krai was a long and not always straightforward process. The author investigates the issue of the making of the factory/plant form of industry. The emergence of particular factories and plants was a consequence of the wide development of Russian capitalism, a result of adopting Central Russia’s accumulated experience in the way of applying production techniques and technology in Turkestan Krai. Based on the author’s study of facts relating to industrial production in

  3. Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Carlos; Larry Neal

    2011-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means ...

  4. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verliin, Aare; Ojaveer, Henn; Kaju, Katre; Tammiksaar, Erki

    2013-01-01

    Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden) being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  5. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Verliin

    Full Text Available Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  6. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  7. Tree ring-based seven-century drought records for the Western Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ram R.

    2013-05-01

    The paucity of available instrumental climate records in cold and arid regions of the western Himalaya, India, hampers our understanding of the long-term variability of regional droughts, which seriously affect the agrarian economy of the region. Using ring width chronologies of Cedrus deodara and Pinus gerardiana together from a network of moisture-stressed sites, Palmer Drought Severity Index values for October-May back to 1310 A.D. were developed. The twentieth century features dominant decadal-scale pluvial phases (1981-1995, 1952-1968, and 1918-1934) as compared to the severe droughts in the early seventeenth century (1617-1640) as well as late fifteenth to early sixteenth (1491-1526) centuries. The drought anomalies are positively (negatively) associated with central Pacific (Indo-Pacific Warm Pool) sea surface temperature anomalies. However, non-stationarity in such relationships appears to be the major riddle in the predictability of long-term droughts much needed for the sustainable development of the ecologically sensitive region of the Himalayas.

  8. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  9. Proceedings of the Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, is being held June 6--10, 1993, at Cragun`s Lodge and Conference Center, Brainerd, Minnesota The meeting is hosted this year by the Ames Laboratory of Iowa State University. The purpose of the meeting is to foster cooperation, collaboration, and exchange of current research ideas among grantees and contractors of the DOE Division of Chemical Sciences engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. This conference provides a special opportunity for interaction among investigators from diverse traditional chemistry disciplines who share the common good of providing the knowledge and concepts needed for production of low cost fuels and chemicals or electricity by photochemical conversion of solar energy. Our special guest plenary lecturer is Professor Graham Fleming, of the University of Chicago, who will speak on ultrafast spectroscopic studies of molecular dynamics in the condensed phase. The remaining presentations on Monday will feature further investigations of ultrafast phenomena in solvation, electron transfer, and charge separation at interfaces. These will lead into the topical sessions which follow on photosynthesis, molecular models, photoinduced charge transfer in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions, inorganic photochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry. As an added feature, the photoelectrochemistry session will include six short introductory lectures for the benefit of nonspecialists on outstanding issues and problems in that field. In this volume may be found a copy of the program, the abstracts of 28 formal presentations and 59 posters, as well as an address listing of the 114 participants.

  10. "Experimental Philosophy": Invention and Rebirth of a Seventeenth-Century Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    This essay offers a more dynamic, and historically grounded, context to explain how and why various individuals and groups in England adopted the term "experimental philosophy." Before the foundation of the Royal Society, I contend, the term had been utilized promiscuously, its modern signification conspicuously absent. Building on this insight, I examine the seemingly deliberate decision by future members of the Royal Society to avoid using the term--and the subsequent shift in their attitude c. 1660. My aim is to demonstrate that while only in England did the fixed conceptual and polemical term "experimental philosophy" become popularized and its (supposed) practice institutionalized, English natural philosophers did not view themselves as engaged in a practice that was fundamentally different than that pursued by their counterparts on the Continent.

  11. Scholasticism Protestant and Catholic: Medieval Sources and Methods in Seventeenth Century Reformed Thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, W.J. van

    2004-01-01

    It is a curious phenomenon that the post-Reformation period of Reformed theology is one of the least known in the history of Christian thought and, at the same time a period in the interpretation of which there are many hidden agendas. The former is primarily due to the fact that Post-Reformation

  12. Unique Information on a Seventeenth-Century Printing House in Arnhem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    op t Hof, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Having first briefly informed the reader on the life of the Puritan Arthur Hildersham (1563-1632), author of Fonteyne des levens, and of its Dutch translator, the Reformed Pietist Arnhem minister Daniel van Laren (b. 1585), and its Arnhem publisher Jacob van Biesen (d. 1677), this article deals in

  13. Geoffrey Parker. Global Crisis: War, climate and catastrophe in the seventeenth century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hace más de medio siglo el historiador francés Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie empezó a llamar la atención de los historiadores agrarios hacia los fenómenos meteorológicos.[1] Su propio giro hacia la historia del clima fue motivado por la aparición recurrente en las fuentes de alusiones a buenas y malas cosechas, hambrunas, veranos lluviosos e inviernos fríos. Su interés, y el de muchos otros historiadores que han compartido su inquietud,[2] se explica por la relación estrecha que las sociedades preindustriales tenían con el clima y la imposibilidad para sortear sus fluctuaciones con el transporte de alimentos a grandes distancias, los sistemas de refrigeración y calefacción, la construcción de grandes embalses, o la manipulación genética de alimentos; herramientas que hoy en día hacen que los habitantes urbanos subestimemos lo crítico que resulta producir alimentos cuando las precipitaciones o las temperaturas se alejan de las expectativas.

  14. Jeu de Paume & Jeux de la Raison in Seventeenth-Century Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2013-01-01

    In La Dioptrique (1637) René Descartes elucidated his derivation of the sine law of refraction by means of a comparison of light rays with the motion of tennis balls. In terms of a mathematical-physical model this comparison was quite problematic, as his critics then and now did not hesitate to

  15. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century commentators on the chemical composition of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkes, T L

    1995-01-01

    The period between 1600 and 1800 was one of great change in the history of science, generally, and in the history of chemistry, specifically. It opened with Francis Bacon's visionary recognition of the benefits to mankind that would accrue from the expansion of scientia and closed with the overthrow of the phlogiston hypothesis. New chemical knowledge resulted from the efforts of the alchemists, especially in Paracelsians, and of the phlogistic philosophers, some of it recorded by writers of magic books (Thorndike, 1958; Camporesi, 1989). The authors of these works reflected 'the general mentality ... imbued with magic, occult beliefs, unreal suggestions, 'voices', and 'rumours', ... 'errors' and 'prejudices'. In respect to brain chemistry there appeared, beside the fantastic, elements of fact that characterise this period as embracing the 'pre-history' of neurochemistry.

  16. John Punch, Scotist Holy War, and the Irish Catholic Revolutionary Tradition in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ian W

    2016-07-01

    During the 1640s, the Irish Franciscan theologian John Punch taught his theology students in Rome that war against Protestants was made just by their religion alone. Jesuits like Luis de Molina identified the holy war tradition in which Punch stood as a Scotist one, and insisted that the Scotists had confused the natural and supernatural spheres. Among Irishmen, Punch was unusual. The main Irish Catholic revolutionary tradition employed Jesuit and Thomist theory. They argued that the Stuarts had lost the right to rule Ireland for natural reasons, not supernatural ones; because the Stuarts were tyrants, not because they were Protestants.

  17. Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M

    2014-09-20

    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill.

  18. Pricing the Future in the Seventeenth Century: Calculating Technologies in Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deringer, William

    Time is money. But how much? What is money in the future worth to you today? This question of "present value" arises in myriad economic activities, from valuing financial securities to real estate transactions to governmental cost-benefit analysis-even the economics of climate change. In modern capitalist practice, one calculation offers the only "rational" way to answer: compound-interest discounting. In the early modern period, though, economic actors used at least two alternative calculating technologies for thinking about present value, including a vernacular technique called years purchase and discounting by simple interest. All of these calculations had different strengths and affordances, and none was unquestionably better or more "rational" than the others at the time. The history of technology offers distinct resources for understanding such technological competitions, and thus for understanding the emergence of modern economic temporality.

  19. Food in seventeenth-century Tidewater Virginia : a method for studying historical cuisines

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Maryellen

    1982-01-01

    PREFACE Knowing how people eat-their foods, preparation styles, and dining customs-helps us understand style of food preparation, a cuisine profile of a culture, the physical how they live. Not merely a is the culinary and gastronomic and behavioral expression of a culture's social and aesthetic values. A cuisine has a dynamic relationship with its time, and historical cuisines also relate to our own time: an understanding of food in history better enables us to ...

  20. The representative bodies in Russia in the first half of the seventeenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksándrovna LÁPTEVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the history of representative institutions in Russia, the Zemsky Sobor (the Assembly of the Land, the National assembly in the 1620s-50s. On the basis of the documents preserved in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents and analyzed in the works of major Russian historians, the article discusses the background to the activities of the Sobors and their relationship with the social and economic situation in the country; the elections to the Sobors and their composition; viewpoints and demands of the important social groups and strata participating in these Sobors and their submitted ‘opinions’; the main issues discussed at the Sobors, results of their activities and decrees refl the decisions of the Zemsky Sobors. It also examines collective petitions submitted to the Sobors which reflect the points of view of the representatives of two main estates – the nobility (nobles and deti boyarskie and the merchants and townspeople. The author comes to a conclusion about significant role of the Zemsky Sobors in shaping of the Russian state and overcoming the consequences of the Time of Troubles, as well as in finding solutions to acute and vital problems facing the state, namely, to regulate the financial policy, to repulse an external threat, and to develop the basic principles of the foreign policy. At the Sobor a compilation of a uniform Code of Laws was made, i.e. Sob ornoe Ulozhenie of 1649. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of the representative institutions in Russia since the 1650s, where, although being a contributory factor, they found no support of the upper stratum of society and bureaucracy.

  1. Venice and the redemption of Northern European slaves (seventeenth and eighteenth centuries)

    OpenAIRE

    Ressel, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Entre 1600 et 1750, et plus particulièrement entre 1610 et 1640, des navires de l’Europe du Nord furent capturés par les corsaires barbaresques. C’était la conséquence logique de l’arrivée massive à partir de la fin du xvie siècle de navires et marchands de l’Europe du Nord en Méditerranée et de l’expansion simultanée de la course nord-africaine en Atlantique. Les Nord-Européens commencèrent à racheter leurs frères réduits en esclavage et, pour ce faire, ils eurent recours à des moyens assez ...

  2. El Abasto de Pan en el Madrid del Siglo XVII Bread provision in seventeenth century Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado del pan era el más importante de los mercados de abastos, pero también el que contaba con el más complejo sistema de intervención. Los objetivos de la política de abastos eran asegurar un suministro continuo a precios estables y moderados.Los instrumentos incluían la regulación de los precios del grano y el pan, la provisión directa a través del pósito municipal y, en el caso de la corte, el pan de registro. En este trabajo examinamos la política de tasas, las disposiciones del gobierno y el comportamiento de los precios del pan en Madrid y del trigo en los mercados de origen.Bread market was the most important provision markets, so the complexity of intervention system. The aim of provision policy was to guarantee the continuous supply of bread at moderate and stable prices. The means included the regulation the price, the direct provision by the public granary and, in the case of the court, the named registered bread. This paper examines the tax policy, the government requirements and the movement of bread prices in Madrid and wheat prices in the markets of origin.

  3. LIVING IN ASIA: THE DUTCH SETTLEMENT IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY OF MALACCA AND AYUTTHAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prima Nurahmi Mulyasari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai akibat dari ekspansi besar VOC (Persekutuan Dagang Hindia Timur di Asia administrasi perusahaan multinasional pertama di dunia itu berkembang luar biasa. Oleh karena itu perlu usaha untuk mengakomodasi pemukiman bagi orang-orang Belanda yang terlibat dalam kegiatan perdagangan yang dilakukan VOC. Pada saat itu, dengan perjalanan panjang dari Belanda ke Asia yang membutuhkan waktu lebih dari setengah tahun mereka harus berjuang menghadapi iklim ekstrim yang berbeda dari iklim di negerinya serta tantangan lainnya selama tinggal di Asia yang kebanyakan wilayahnya beriklim tropis. Dengan demikian, strategi bertahan diperlukan untuk mengatasi situasi ini. Tujuan penulisan artikel adalah untuk membandingkan pemukiman pegawai VOC di dua kota pelabuhan penting di Asia Tenggara pada masa itu, yakni Malaka dan Ayutthaya berdasarkan bentuk fisik dan pengaturan administrasinya. Abad ke-17 menjadi kerangka waktu karena periode tersebut adalah masa-masa gemilang VOC selama ekspansinya melintasi samudera dan benua. Dengan menggunakan sumber-sumber sekunder artikel ini tidak akan mencoba untuk menemukan sesuatu yang baru, tetapi hanya untuk mendapatkan wawasan lebih mengenai pemukiman VOC di kota-kota pelabuhan di Asia Tenggara. Keywords: VOC, Malacca, Ayutthaya, settlement

  4. Apollo’s Gifts. Dutch Songbooks for the Urban Youth of the Eighteenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijp, L.P.; Beghein, S.; Blondé, B.; Schreurs, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to our knowledge of informal urban singing culture in the Netherlands, especially within the context of youth subcultures. Hundreds of songbooks from the period of the Dutch Republic (the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) evidence such a singing culture. In this

  5. There is no doubt. Muslim scholarship and society in 17th-century Central Sudanic Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalen, Dorrit van

    2015-01-01

    In central sudanic Africa, the seventeenth century was a period of upheaval and major social change. Relations of power shifted, as did trade-routes and the meaning of Islam for ruling elites. Islam spread from royal courts to rural communities, leading to new identities, new boundaries and new

  6. Seventeenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  7. Tinder and Fire. Determinants of Sexual Behaviour for Domestic Servants in XVIII Century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santiago Baldellou Monclús

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the position of domestic workers between the late seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries in order to determine what their situation facing the dilemma of preserving their honor in an, usually, hostile enviroment and the social imperative of courting and got married placed on them. The Spanish domestic service in the Old Regime Spain, specially the maids, was exposed to plenty of risks. Sexual harassement was by far one of the most common. This happening could appear in several forms, since an originally consented relationship until crimes such as raping. Through this paper, we annalyze the most common servant ´s sexual conducts based on the court documentation for the XVII and XVIII centuries by analyzing the conflicts reflected in these sources. Maids precariousness, their legal resources and the society perspective over their position are the issues adressed in the paper searching for a overview of the servant´s sexual dangers and its consequences as well as the maid's strategies in openly hostile ambient.

  8. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeen Century English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  9. [Problems arising from the professionalization of nursing in the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century compared to the USA. A contribution to the current discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hähner-Rombach, Sylvelyn

    2012-01-01

    The process of professionalization in Germany was hindered by several factors: the tradition of denominational nursing, the increasing segregation in the field of nursing, the resistance against nurses' professionalization, the late and sporadic institutionalization of nursing schools, and the classification of nursing as "ärztlicher Heilhilfsberuf". On the basis of these five influencing factors this paper will discuss the development in Germany in comparison to the USA at the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The aim is to explain the differences in the process of professionalization in the German Reich and the USA which are rooted in that period.

  10. A Cartel that Lasts for Centuries: The Case of the Eastern Orthodox Church Indulgences

    OpenAIRE

    Axarloglou, Kostas; Cabolis, Christos; Chrissidis, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present a non-conventional case of collusive behavior and tactics that last for centuries. In particular, we focus on the process through which the Patriarchates of the Eastern Orthodox Church (specifically, those of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria) distributed indulgences to believers in their jurisdictions during the period between the sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries. By employing a wide variety of primary sources such as correspondence among the...

  11. French engineers and social thought, 18–20th centuries: An archeology of technocratic ideals.

    OpenAIRE

    Picon, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    During the second half of the twentieth century, at the time of the foundation of the Fifth Republic, French engineers endorsed enthusiastically technocratic ideals. Their attitude was not only the product of a specific context. It was rooted in a long tradition of connection between French engineering and social preoccupations. This connection emerged at the time of the creation of the first corps of State engineers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Indeed, State engineers were fr...

  12. Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types during summer over South Korea in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) projected by the RegCM4.0 based on four RCP scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types over South Korea during summer in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) were projected under four RCP scenarios using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.0) with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km. Two boundary conditions, ERA-Interim and HadGEM2-AO, were used to drive the RegCM4.0 (jointly named RG4_ERA and RG4_HG2, respectively). In general, the RegCM4.0 reproduces the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over Northeast Asia for the current climate (1989-2008) reasonably well. The RG4_HG2 shows larger dry biases over South Korea, when compared with observations, than does the RG4_ERA. These strong dry biases result from the underestimation of convective precipitation (CPR) and are particularly noticeable in late afternoons during July and August. It is related to the performance of HadGEM2-AO which simulated southwesterly winds weakly in that time. However, interestingly, the RG4_HG2 simulates similar increases in the contribution of CPR to total precipitation after mid-July, resulting in comparable performance in the reproduction of heavy precipitation. In the late twenty-first century, a significant increase (decrease) in CPR (NCPR) is generally projected over South Korea, and particularly under the RCP8.5. During June, the total precipitation is affected primarily by changes in NCPR under RCP2.6 and RCP6.0. After mid-July, increasing total precipitation is primarily caused by the distinct increases in CPR in the late afternoons; this pattern is particularly noticeable under RCP8.5, which is associated with more destabilized atmospheric conditions during July and August. Light and heavy precipitation are projected to decrease and increase, respectively, under RCP8.5.

  13. Molecular characterisation of four double-flowered mutants of Silene dioica representing four centuries of variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Elizabeth K. S.; Gilmartin, Philip M.

    2015-01-01

    Records of double-flowered Silene dioica date from the late sixteenth century and four named varieties are grown today, as previously, for their horticultural interest. Although double-flowered mutants have been characterized in several plants, their study in dioecious species is of particular interest due to influences of the homeotic mutation on the different floral whorl configurations in males and females. We have analysed four double-flowered varieties of Silene dioica: Flore Pleno and Rosea Plena date back to the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries, Thelma Kay and Firefly were recognized in the latter part of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. We have analysed the floral structure of the four varieties, which have distinct floral architectures. Based on Y chromosome-specific PCR analysis we show that Firefly is male and that the other three varieties are female: Random Amplification of Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses suggested a common origin for the three female varieties. The double-flowered phenotype in all four varieties is caused by mutation of the C-function MADS-box transcription factor gene SDM1. We show that Firefly carries a unique 44bp insertion into SDM1, revealing an independent origin for this variety. Comparative analysis of SDM1 cDNA and genomic sequences in Flore Pleno, Rosea Plena and Thelma Kay shows that all three are caused by the same 7bp insertion within SDM1 and therefore share a common origin. The three alleles also differ by several single nucleotide polymorphisms, which represent somatic mutations accumulated over four centuries of asexual propagation. PMID:25878355

  14. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen

    2015-01-01

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate...

  15. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16th – early 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vladímirovich LISÉYTSEV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes. It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the organs of estate representation. Meanwhile, the analysis of historical sources does not allow to assume that during this period the Zemsky Sobors played a greater role than they did previously. Even the most studied Zemsky Sobors – the elective Sobors of 1598 and 1613 – were held with serious violations of election procedures, and the provinces were not represented to the extent it was described in the official documents. The question of the place of the Zemsky Sobors in the political system of Muscovite state at the beginning of the 17th century requires further analysis.

  16. Dress as Civic Celebration in Late Sixteenth-Century Venice: The Woodcuts of Cesare Vecellio’s Habiti antichi et moderni and the Paintings of Paolo Veronese

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Ann; Rosenthal, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, we discuss words and images in sixteenth-century Venice in two forms: the prose commentary and woodcuts in Cesare Vecellio's Degli habiti antichi et moderni di diverse parti del mondo (Venice, 1590), and the paintings of Paulo Veronese from 1550 to 1578. Our theoretical framework is the analysis of ideology as it is materialized in the making, wearing and representation of clothing. We study three kinds of dress in Venice: the red silks worn by wealthy merchants, the black wool...

  17. The late-medieval Royal chancery of the Kingdom of Sicily and the inquisitio of Giovan Luca Barberi (14th-16th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the sixteenth century, Giovan Luca Barberi, Magister notarius of the Sicilian Royal chancery, led an intense and long-lasting inquisitio on the royal patrimony of the island and on the possessions of local lords on behalf of King Ferdinand II of Aragon. This well-known inquiry arouse the interest of a number of scholars, who have especially stressed the aspects connected to its importance in the history of law, as well as its political consequences. However, by analysing Barberi’s work (a system of books known as capibrevi through an administrative perspective, it can now be understood as the result of an “archival enterprise” and, at the same time, strictly connected to the role of Magister notarius that Barberi had in the Sicilian chancery. On the one hand, this study describes the fourteenth- and fifteenth-century dynamics that influenced the functioning of the Regia cancelleria and the tasks of its personnel, as well as to define the methods for producing, recording and preserving documentation. On the other hand, this study promotes a new explanation of Barberi’s inquisitio, illustrating in detail how the Magister notarius worked in royal archives and how carried out his inquiry, in other words, how he retrieved, used and organised information for compiling the capibrevi.

  18. The Impact of Religious Factors on Legitimation of Power in the Golden Horde and Late Medieval Turkic-Mongol States of the 15th–18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Yu. Pochekaev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a new factor of legitimating power in the late medieval Chinggisid states established after the decline and fall of the ‘steppe empires’ of the Yuan Dynasty, Ilkhanate in Iran, Chagatai Ulus, and Golden Horde. The decrease of Chinggisid power resulted in the appearance of other claimants for the throne (non-Chinggisid dynasties who used another factors for legitimazation, in particular – the religious one. To save their power, the Chinggisids as well had to appeal to religion – Islam in the Turkic states and Buddhism in Mongol ones.

  19. Activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century (according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malyga, N. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article considered the activities of voluntary public squads in Dnipropetrovsk region in the field of crime prevention during in the late 50’s – mid 60’s of XX century according the sources connected with Dnipropetrovsk radio factory. This enterprise clearly shows peculiarities of social activity of citizens under the leadership of the Communist Party, which considered labor collective as a main link of communist self government. In Ukrainian and foreign historiography this problem is almost unconsidered. Source base is represented by the fund of State archive of Dnipropetrovsk region, acts of the CC KPSU (Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, and puplications of local press. In the article made an attempt to show the process of functioning of voluntary public squads on the example of Dnipropetrovsk radio factory and show the results in field of crime prevention.

  20. The “People from Cherkasy”: The “Horde’s Cossacks” and “Serving Tatars” of the Forest-Steppe Borderlands (late 14th–15th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Vorotyntsev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Research objectives: To consider the problem of localization and the time of the appearance of the military community called the “people from Cherkasy” and other ethnic consortiums of the “Horde’s Cossacks” and “serving Tatars” in Lithuania and the Grand Duchy of Moscow’s border areas. Research materials: Medieval Russian chronicles – Nikonovskaya, Sofiyskaya Second, Ermolinskaya, Simeonovskaya, Ustyuzhskaya, the abbreviated svod of the late 15th century, as well as the list of noble families of 1475–1605, the Rodoslovets of Glinsky princes from the Rumyantsev collection, and the Story of the Kazan Tsardom (or the Kazan Chronicle. The author also used the archaeological research results of Ukrainian archaeo­logists О.B. Suprunenko, V.V. Priymak and K.M. Mironenko in the territories of the forest-steppe zone on the Dnieper’s left bank. Results and novelty of the research: The author offers the conclusion that the “people from Cherkasy” were a Cossack military community, the so-called “Horde’s Cossacks”, that emerged in the 1430s on the lands of the middle Dnieper, with their center in Cherkasy and Kanev. Already by the late 14th – early 15th century, these lands were the official fiefs of Horde rulers (Toqtamish, Ulug-Muhammad who were forced to withdraw from the steppe to the neighboring territory of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania for military-political reasons. In the final part of the work, the author characterizes the feudal possessions of the “serving Tatars” and Cossack communities as polyethnic formations emerged in the zone of intensive ethno-cultural contacts in the forest-steppe borderlands of Russia and the Horde.

  1. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Louis XIV’s Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17 and the Early 18 Century France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Min LEE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state’s policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people’s health. The Thévenot company’s activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV’s dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king’s physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris

  3. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  4. Becoming a Woman in the Dutch Republic : Advice Literature for Young Adult Women of the 17th and 18th Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, Marja; Reeves, Margaret; Cohen, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    In the Dutch republic seventeenth-century authors of marriage manuals and conduct books for women did not distinguish the young, nubile ones from married adults. Marriage was the core teaching, and all were admonished not merely to obey their husbands but also to identify with them. In stressing the

  5. THE MURMAN COAST AND THE NORTHERN-DVINA DELTA AS ENGLISH AND DUTCH COMMERCIAL DESTINATIONS IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELUWENKAMP, JW

    In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Murman coast trade and the Northern Dvina trade were two clearly distinct branches of Western European commerce. The Murman coast trade involved the commerce with the regional economy of the Kola Peninsula, and the Northern Dvina trade coincided with

  6. The rise of the country house in the Dutch Republic : Beyond Johan Huizinga's narrative of Dutch civilisation in the 17th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Yme; Stobart, Jon; Hann, Andrew

    Was the rise of the country house in the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic above all a 'bourgeois' phenomenon, as Johan Huizinga argued in his famous long essay on Dutch civilisation in the seventeenth century. The article shows that not only the merchants and regents of the city of Amsterdam but

  7. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  8. Russian Subjects on the Territory of the Grand Duchy of Finland (according to the Russian and Finnish Population Statistics of the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey G. Kashchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical demographic research plays an important role in multi-disciplinary projects in historical, social and political sciences at the moment. It is of great importance for migration and social policy studies and also concerns economics, material and intellectual culture and inter-ethnic and inter-faith relations. The border regions with high population mobility are of particular interest. The search in the Russian State Historical Archive uncovered a complex of primary census material concerning the Russian population in the Grand Duchy of Finland. Thus it became possible to introduce previously unstudied documents, containing data on the Russian subjects, mainly military men, stationed at Helsinki, Sveaborg, Tavastgus, Torneo and a number of other garrisons into scientific use. Russian military men in those towns comprised quite a noticeable element in the composition of the population. It is no doubt that Russian officers and their family members were part of the town elite according to their social status, life experience, and level of education. Consequently the primary documents of the 1897 census give us a unique opportunity to see the demographic situation of the Russian garrisons accommodated in the Vyborg Governorate in the end of the 19th century from the inside, and add living colors related to biographies of certain people to the dry statistical picture which describes the population of the town.

  9. Moscow University professor M. S. Korelin and student movement at the Moscow University in the late 19 th century (according to the diary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ILYASHENKO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the attitude of the Moscow University Professor M. S. Korelin to the student movement. Analysis of the views of Korelin is made on the basis of nonpublished diary of Professor, which preserved in the Central State archive of Moscow. Actually Korelin considers the student activity during the period (1889—1896 of the particularly interesting from the point of view of the formation of the student movement in Russia. The author comes to the conclusion that Korelin held an active position in relations with youth, sought to get closer acquainted with the students, to find a contact with them, and common interests, to understand their environment. Using the trust part of the students he could learn more about the life and the essence of illegal student corporations. sympathizing with noble motives students fight against immorality — Korelin rejected terroristic methods of struggle. However, he believed that the unifying factor for professors and students can only be established in the scientific activity. Korelin points out that the cause of the student movement was the University Law of 1884 which made the administration of the University powerless against the student movements. The analysis of the views of Korelin allows to expand the idea of relationship between professors and students of that time, provides new information on the history of the student movement in Russia and about the history of the faculty-student relationships in the end of XIX century.

  10. The Ottoman Empire and the policy of alliances: Franco-Ottoman relations in the transition from the XVIth to XVIIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Türkçelik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Western historiography considered the Ottoman Empire as a marginal and antagonist factor, the Ottomans were an integral component of the history of Early Modern age. The conscientious policy of balance of power towards the Christian powers made Ottomans a crucial element in the struggle for hegemony. The Franco-Turkish alliance that was established in the reigns of Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent mainly depended on mutual enmity against Spanish hegemony in Europe. In the late sixteenth century, after the death of Henry III the French Wars of Religion gave rise to a chaotic situation in which the Catholic King sought the opportunity to place France under its control. This could have caused an irreversible change in the balance of power in the Mediterranean, an unacceptable situation for the geostrategic interests of the Ottoman sultans. The Ottoman Empire played a major role in the French foreign policy against Spanish claims during the different phases of the reign of Henry IV. Even Clement VIII implicitly instrumentalized Ottoman- French friendship to strengthen both its own position as well as that of France with respect to the Spanish Monarchy. This article aims to demonstrate the limits and efficiencies of politics of alliance in the transition from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century considering the role of England and the Republic of Venice.

  11. Historiographical reflections on local and transit trade relations on the Prut-Dniester area and the Lower Danube (late 13th - 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Barcari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographical position of the Prut-Dniester and the Lower Danube regions, there were lying the important trade routes and the important transit trade was carried out that in some ways contributed to their economic development. Through Transylvania and Wallachia there passed trade route linking the Western and Central Europe with the Black Sea region and the Balkan Peninsula and reaching the cities of the Adriatic coast; through the area of future Moldova there passed a road connecting the Baltic and the Black Seas. In transit trade there were involved Italian merchants from the Levant, Armenian merchants of Poland, and Transylvanian Saxons, who traded here "overseas goods": from the East - pepper, spices, from Western and Central Europe - cloth, linen, weapons, agricultural tools. In return, foreign merchants were buying in these areas cattle, horses, hides, wax, grain, etc. Need in money, especially the fractional coins often needed in small business transactions, has led to cutting coins into equal parts and stamping local imitations of foreign coins. In the 14th century in the mouth of the Danube there is attested the existence of "banks" and "bankers" engaged in exchange of money. Trading activity was stimulated by the transit of goods on major trade routes of Europe, as well as the opening of the local market for high-quality goods of the European market. The expansion of trade exchange contributed to the economic prosperity of the independent Romanian states and increasing of their military power that brought them to the international political arena.

  12. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  14. Image of the Golden Horde Tatar-Mongols and Ilkhans in the Writings of Crusade Propagandists (late 13th – early 14th centuries »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandar Nikolov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 13th century, when the Tatar-Mongols were already well-known in Latin Europe, several experts in the Near East affairs tried to specify the real place of the Tatars of the Golden Horde and the Ilkhan Horde in the complicated geopolitical complex, related to the struggle for the liberation of the Holy Land and the Holy Sepulchre from the “yoke of the Saracens”. The experts had to explain to the Western European elites how they should perceive the two Western uluses of the formerly united Mongol Empire of the Chinggisids. The relations with the Golden Horde and the Ilkhans of Iran appeared to be of crucial importance for the liberation and preservation of the Holy Land. Thus, two images of the Tatars took shape gradually: that of potential enemies in the case of the Golden Horde, and the possible allies in the case of the Ilkhans. This text is dedicated to several treatises of these propagandists, unified under the title and the slogan De Recuperatione Terrae Sanctae. The main focus is on the treatises of Hayton of Corycus (“Flower of the Histories of the Orient” and of Marino Sanudo Torsello (“The Secrets of the Faithful to the Cross”, where we could find extremely interesting information on the Western European image of the Tatars. Several other excerpts are included in the text, namely passages from the treatises of William Adam (“How to exterminate the Saracens”, Pseudo-Brocardus (“A Guideline of Organization of a Crusade” and the founder of this genre – Fidenzio di Padova (“A Book for the Recovery of the Holy Land”, where the political and military tendencies are defined very clear. The evolution of the image of the Tatar-Mongols developed from “children of the Tartar” to “bonnes sauvages” and “global rulers”, that are able to handle even the holy cause of the liberation of the Promised Land of the Christian people.

  15. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  16. The Trouble with Opium. Taste, Reason and Experience in Late Galenic Pharmacology with Special Regard to the University of Leiden (1575-1625).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerk, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, the discrepancy between the taste of some drugs and their effects on the body was used to criticize Galenic medicine. In this paper, I argue that such contradictions were brought to light by the sixteenth-century study of drug properties within the Galenic tradition itself. Investigating how the taste of a drug corresponded to the effects it had on the body became a core problem for maintaining a medical practice that was both rational and effective. I discuss four physicians, connected to the University of Leiden, who attempted to understand drug properties, including taste, within a Galenic framework. The sixteenth-century discussions about the relationship between the senses, reason and experience, will help us understand the seventeenth-century criticism of Galenic medicine and the importance of discussions about materia medica for ideas regarding the properties of matter proposed in this period.

  17. [Bernardino Ramazzini's influence in medical science in the XVIII century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, S

    2010-01-01

    Neo-hippocratism consists in a rational and mechanic method to explain pathological phenomena and discover the causes of diseases. Bernardino Ramazzini uses Hippocratic empirical observation to investigate the relations between the alterations of the air--due to mephitic vapours, of organic and inorganic origin--and the development of pathological processes. His notion of corruption of the atmosphere as the origin of epidemics and specific diseases, and that of prevention as the main strategy of modern medicine, is developed in medical literature and in the Public Medicine projects of the end of the Seventeenth century.

  18. Birds of paradise for the sultan. Early seventeenth-century Dutch-Turkish encounters and the uses of wonder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Swan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes the first diplomatic gift presented by the States General of the Netherlands to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmet I in 1612/1613. The extensive and very costly assortment of items was presented to the Sultan in gratitude for capitulations, permitting the Dutch access to Ottoman ports and therefore direct access to trade in the Levant and Mediterranean. This paper describes the diplomatic gift, a long-neglected episode in Dutch material cultural history, and looks in particular at the role that wonder and wonders played in structuring this remarkable encounter between the fledgling Dutch Republic and the Ottoman court.

  19. Friar José Teixeira advocate of Venice False: Sebastianism and political culture in the seventeenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Athaide, Filipe Duret

    2017-01-01

    Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar a participação do dominicano português José Teixeira na trama do Falso d. Sebastião de Veneza. Condenado à morte em 1603, o falso rei veneziano foi um dos mais significativos casos de falsos reis portugueses ocorridos durante a União Ibérica (1580-1640). Por sua vez, o envolvimento de Frei Teixeira no caso, e a consequente publicação das “Adventures admirables” em Paris no ano de 1601, contribuíram para o estabelecimento e fixação do sebastianismo letrad...

  20. Lucas and Cornelis de Wael: Flemish artists and dealers in Antwerp, Genoa and Rome in the seventeenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoesser-Johnston, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Until now the lives and activities of Lucas and Cornelis de Wael have been largely discussed in relation to their friendship with Anthony Van Dyck, who stayed with them in Genoa periodically from 1621 to 1627. This dissertation seeks to rectify this one-sided approach by providing up-to-date

  1. Historical and Political Thought in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic: The Case of Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn (1612-1653)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Nieuwstraten (Jaap)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation constitutes the first comprehensive study of the historical and political thought of the Dutch scholar Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn (1612-1653). Boxhorn was one of the most prolific scholars of his age. His Latin works were translated into Dutch, French, and English, and

  2. Circles of Confidence in Correspondences. : Confidentiality in seventeenth-century knowledge exchange in networks of letters and drawings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, C.M.J.M.; Weingart, Scott B; Spelt, Nils; Nellen, H.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Science in the Early Modern World depended on the one hand on openness in scholarly communication, but on the other hand the competition in commerce and trade and the political and religious conflicts required secrecy and confidentiality. This papers analyzes these concepts of confidentiality and

  3. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Hailstorms are among the hydrometeorological extremes recognised in the historical past of the Czech Lands as grounds for tax relief if agricultural crops or material structures were damaged by them. The administrative process involved three levels (community, regional office, land office). The damage reports and taxation records for South Moravia (the southeastern parts of today's Czech Republic) were mainly stored in the Moravian Land Archives at Brno in estate accounts and collections of family archives. Data related to the date of a given hailstorm, its accompanying convective phenomena, the communities affected and the type of damage, as interpreted from taxation records, has created a database spanning the years 1650 to 1941 AD. A total of 766 records contain descriptions that cover 433 days upon which hailstorms did damage in South Moravia, as well as incidentally provide some additional information for the remainder of the Czech Lands and other parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The hailstorms detected concentrate to a large extent around the 1821-1850 period, which accounts for 44.4 % of all events. Although reported most frequently without other convective phenomena, they were often accompanied by torrential rain. The current contribution analyses the four most outstanding hailstorms in detail, those characterised by the highest number of estates and communities affected: 26 May 1830, 18 July 1832, 25 June 1844 and 20 June 1848. Uncertainties in hailstorm data, particularly with regard to their spatial and temporal heterogeneity, are discussed. Finally, the 1811-1850 period, with the highest number of hailstorm days, is compared with hailstorm patterns that derive from systematic meteorological observations in the 1961-2000 reference period. Damaging hailstorms disclosed by taxation data will be used to compile long-term hailstorm series for South Moravia (together with those derived from other documentary evidence and systematic meteorological observations).

  4. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, H.; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 123, č. 1 (2016), s. 185-198 ISSN 0177-798X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : hailstorm * tax ation data * spatiotemporal variability * outstanding hailstorm * damage * South Moravia Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 2.640, year: 2016

  5. Salt-marsh erosion associated with hurricane landfall in southern New England in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche, Orson van de; Erkens, Gilles; Vliet, Frank van; Brandsma, J.; Borg, K. van der; Jong, A.F.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Lithostratigraphic and radiocarbon data from the inland section of Pattagansett River Marsh, Connecticut, show that this sheltered part of the salt marsh underwent significant erosion twice during the past 600 yr, each time followed by rapid and complete infilling of the eroded space with tidal mud

  6. « This, I told myself, was really Africa ».Des territoires et des femmes. Récits féminins de voyage en Afrique Australe à la fin du XIXe siècle “This, I told myself, was really Africa”. Of Territories and Women.Women’s Travel Narratives in Late 19th Century Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ommundsen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Victorian Britain, travel writing was informed by an unprecedented colonial expansion — in particular, the “scramble for Africa”— and the rise of the women’s movement in the late 19th century. Fuelled by the notions of motherhood and domesticity that characterized late imperial society, the presence of women in colonies served the purpose of domesticating the South. Yet, as geographical conquest merges with sexual conquest, the narratives of some female travellers in Southern Africa unveil unexpected territories that manifest specific territorialities. Although conjuring up feminist utopias, weren’t these female writers trying to construct a conspicuous literary ghetto?

  7. The role of church history and Byzantine studies in the history of historical sciences, religious and secular education in Ukraine in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Y. Medovkina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The historical retrospective of formation of the non­religious phenomenon «new Christianity» in the conteThe article examines the impact of the educational and scientific activities of famous church historians on the expansion of knowledge in the history of church, development of historical studies, religious and secular education in Ukrainian territories in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The analysis of the biographies, activities and scientific papers of such well­known scientists as Aleksey Dmitriyevskiy, Ivan Sokolov, Kostiantyn Kharlampovych, Vasyl Bidnov and Oleksandr Lototskyi shows that the scholars made a great contribution to the expansion of historical knowledge in the history of church and Byzantine studies. They achieved it by finding and publishing new sources, studying new topics that had not been covered earlier, applying the historical comparative method and analysing the local history within the context of general history of humankind. Furthermore, just by reviewing the list of offices held by the above scholars, subjects they taught, and scientific journals where they worked as authors and editors and understanding what role they played in preserving church antiques during the period when objects of historical importance were expropriated and used for other purposes, you can appreciate not only their contribution to fostering a great number of well­educated broad­minded and scientifically oriented researchers and clergy members, but also the importance of the position they took on social issues. Because of the social principles they defended the scholars were often persecuted by the Bolsheviks, which caused their premature death or forced emigration.

  8. Museos escolares, colecciones y la enseñanza elemental de las ciencias naturales en la Argentina de fines del siglo XIX School museums, collections, and elementary teaching of the natural sciences in late XIX century Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana V. García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la organización de la enseñanza de las ciencias naturales en el contexto escolar argentino a partir de las prácticas de enseñanza y los soportes materiales que se promovieron a fines del siglo XIX. En esa época, funcionarios escolares y profesores fomentaron la modernización y nacionalización de la enseñanza a partir del uso de colecciones con ejemplares del territorio nacional y la formación de museos en las escuelas. En particular, se examinan los debates oficiales sobre las colecciones mineralógicas ofrecidas en venta por el naturalista Enrique de Carlés y los "museos escolares" de los profesores Pedro Scalabrini y Guillermo Navarro que dan cuenta de las tensiones entre procurar materiales didácticos modernos, asociados a los modelos extranjeros, y la importancia de contar con elementos representativos de la naturaleza e industria nacional.In this study we analyze the organization of natural science teaching within the Argentinian school context starting with teaching practices and material support in the late XIX century. By that time, school staff and teachers fostered modernization and nationalization of teaching by using collections with national issues and the foundation of museums within the schools. In particular, we examine the official debates over the mineralogical collections offered for sale by the naturalist Enrique de Carlés, and the "school museums" by professors Pedro Scalabrini and Guillermo Navarro. These account for the tension between searching for modern didactic materials associated with foreign models, and the importance of counting on elements that represented the country nature and industry.

  9. Proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications: abstracts and souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Gaurang; Kishore, Sangeeta; Patel, Purvi

    2011-10-01

    The proceedings of the seventeenth national symposium on solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications (SSNTD-17) contains a number of research papers on different areas of solid state nuclear track detectors. It provides a common scientific platform to the scientists for sharing their knowledge and reviews the present state-of-art and advancements in the field of solid state nuclear track detectors and their applications and also some aspects of nuclear energy. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  10. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  11. The history of optic chiasm from antiquity to the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costea, Claudia Florida; Turliuc, Şerban; Buzdugă, Cătălin; Cucu, Andrei Ionuţ; Dumitrescu, Gabriela Florenţa; Sava, Anca; Turliuc, Mihaela Dana

    2017-11-01

    The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through centuries, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the twentieth century. We reviewed the literature and studied all the historical sources on optic chiasm and eyes in the works of ancient, medieval, Renaissance authors, and the seventeenth to nineteenth century works. The optic chiasm is a structure that fascinated ancient anatomists and made them develop various theories on its function. In terms of function, the optic chiasm had a history based more on speculation, the seventeenth century bringing its first understanding and reaching the peak in the nineteenth century with the understanding of the anatomical structure of the chiasm and its role in the visual process. The history of the optic chiasm is a fascinating time travel displaying the conceptual transformations that have been made in anatomy and medicine by our forerunners.

  12. From Amsterdam to Auburn: an explanation for the rise of the prison in seventeenth-century Holland and nineteenth-century America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Spierenburg (Pieter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe article attempts to make the difference in timing between Europe and the United States with respect to the rise of imprisonment understandable. It starts with Europe, taking Amsterdam as its main example. As a punitive institution, the prison became well-established in various

  13. Atilius Regulus: A Tragic Hero in the Culture of the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferrari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atilius Regulus is one of the many tragic heroes that the classical tradition has handed down to Western culture. His fortune in the eighteenth century, however, is marked by an almost unique peculiarity that specifically measures the transition from ancient to modern age. Unlike other figures, that of the Roman consul is submitted between the second half of the seventeenth century and the end of the eighteenth century to a careful philological examination that has the result not only to reject as historically groundless the famous episode of torture suffered in Carthage, but also that of the embassy held in front of the Rome senate to deal with peace between the two rival cities. Despite the authenticity of this last episode of the life of the Roman consul has been questioned, it has also met in the course of the eighteenth century a huge favor by poets, philosophers, art writers and painters.

  14. 3. Similarities Across the Centuries: A Comparison Between Two Vocal Works by Barbara Strozzi and Peter Maxwell Davies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisi Rossella

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Musical creativity may be expressed by composers in diverse ways: sometimes they compose fully original works, which are characterized by specific features making them unique. Other times, musicians may feel a particular affinity with colleagues who lived centuries before, or identify peculiar resemblances between the time they live in, and a previous epoch, such as similar cultural climate and approach to life: in these cases, composers may author pieces which show surprising similarities with those of some predecessors. The present study compares a work of the seventeenth century, composed by Barbara Strozzi, and one composed in the 1960s by Peter Maxwell Davies, highlighting their similarities.

  15. Physics of the Twentieth Century, and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Frederick J.

    2009-01-01

    This talk is intended for a general audience. A brief history of the two primary physical theories of the twentieth century is presented, and the similarity between the late nineteenth and the early twenty-first centuries is highlighted. In particular, the past and possible future of exact solutions in general relativity are briefly described, and reasons why time is growing short are cited.

  16. The family and its problems in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century [Rodzina i jej problemy w czasopismach andragogicznych przełomu lat pięćdziesiątych i sześćdziesiątych XX wieku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna JANIK-KOMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available https://doaj.org/publishThe text deals with the family problems and its support for their solutions based on articles published in andragogical magazines of the late fifties and early sixties of the twentieth century. These issues are extremely interesting, since they relate to the family life culture, marriage preparation and family life education. Preparing for marriage is of great importance for the future of its operation. Its absence has an effect on family problems and marital conflicts later in life. Parenting universities provided support for families in solving their problems, primarily in dealing with behavioral problems, but also provided knowledge from other areas of life.er/metadata

  17. From Subordination to Hegemony On the Epistemological Legitimation of Mathematics in Natural Philosophy of XVII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ochoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the epistemological legitimation of mathematics in natural philosophy in the seventeenth century. In the Renaissance it was claimed that mathematics does not meet the Aristotelian criteria of scientificity, and that it did not explain the efficient and final causes. So, its critics, inspired by the Aristotelian tradition, rejected the first attempts to mathematize natural philosophy. The epistemological conditions involved in the debate are examined on the scientific nature of mathematics and its relevance to natural philosophy. A historiographical tour of the mathematization of nature is made to provide new weighing elements with respect to a historically and philosophically more conceptual characterization of the emergence of modern science.

  18. Temporary and lasting effects of childhood deprivation on male stature. Late adolescent stature and catch-up growth in Woerden (The Netherlands) in the first half of the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekink, E.; Kok, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the statures of men during late adolescence, measured at age 19, with the stature in adulthood, measured at age 25, specially focusing on the influences of household situation and family stress. On average, the men studied became five centimeters taller in the interval, but there

  19. "The necessity for better bodies to perpetuate our institutions, insure a higher development of the individual, and advance the conditions of the race." Physical culture and the formation of the self in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martschukat, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the significance of sports and physical exercise in the turn-of-the-century culture and society of the U.S. It depicts how physical fitness became a decisive feature of collective and individual self-perception and was understood as being at the core of a successful shaping of both the self and of the American body politic. I concentrate in particular on paradigms and strategies of human resources management to exemplify the overarching significance of physical fitness as it established itself at the heart of the USA's enterprise culture that began to emerge in the later nineteenth century. American peculiarities will be considered, alongside ties and allusions to European, and particularly British, developments.

  20. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  1. Late Raphael

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Tom F. K.; Joannides, Paul; González Mozo, Ana; Martín, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Exhibition catalogue (co-authored with P. Joannides) in English, Spanish and French by the Museo del Prado and the Musée du Louvre, 2012. English edition, publisher: Museo Nacional del Prado (ISBN 978-84-8480-237-2). 382 pages, of which 300 were co-authored with P. Joannides. This publication was the catalogue of the major exhibtion of Raphael's late work which was at the Prado and the Louvre in 2012-13. The exhibition was seen by more than 650,000 visitors, and was widely reviewed in the int...

  2. Byzantine Glazed Ceramics in the Cities of the Northern Black Sea Region in the Golden Horde Period (Second Half of the 13th to the Late 14th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocharov Sergei G.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glazed ceramics of Byzantine origin, which came has been found on town sites of the Northern Black Sea region referring to the Golden Horde period (second half of the 13th – late 14th cc., is characterized in the article. Materials from the urban centers of the Crimea (Solkhat, Sudak, Kaffa, Chersonese, Cembalo, the Azov Sea region (Azaq, and the lower reaches of the Don and Kuban rivers are discussed. The applied principles of ceramics classification have been formulated. On their basis, six major groups of Byzantine ceramic imports have been identified. For each group, a description of morphological and technological features, ornamentation methods and motifs has been provided; chronological framework of their arrival in the region has been specified. Conclusions have been offered as to the extent of distribution and the role played by diverse groups of Byzantine glazed ceramics in the cities of the Northern Black Sea region.

  3. The Charity Activities of the Russian Business Owners During the Late 19th and Early 20th Centurie%19世纪末20世纪初俄国企业主的慈善活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海坤

    2015-01-01

    19世纪末20世纪初,以企业主阶层为代表的社会慈善活动,占据了俄国慈善事业的主导地位,俄国企业主在传统济贫、社会助养、教育、医疗、宗教等广泛的社会领域,进行了规模巨大、形式多样的慈善活动。其动机既有传统宗教伦理的道德导向因素,也有新兴资产阶级追求个人名誉、渴望社会认同和获取经济回报的现实利益诉求。企业主阶层的慈善活动一定程度上起到了调节社会再分配的作用,但不能从根本上调和尖锐的阶级矛盾、改变俄国社会普遍的反资本主义情结,其自身最终也随着俄国无产阶级革命的胜利而消亡。%Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, the social charity activities mainly from business class occupied the dominance of philanthropy in Russia .Russian entrepreneurs carried out the huge and diverse forms of charity activities in a wide range of the society as traditional poor -support, social adoption, medical service, education, religion and so on.Their motivation included the ethics moral orientation factors of traditional religion , also emerging bourgeois’ pursuit of person-al reputation, social identity and the economic returns of realistic interests.To some extent Entrepreneurs charity activities played a role in regulating the social redistribution , but could not reconcile the sharp class warfare fundamentally , or change social universal anti –capitalism.And itself disappeared with the victory of the proletarian revolution in Russia finally .

  4. ‘The Purgatory of Servants’: (InSubordination, Wages, Gender and Marital Status of Servants in England and Italy in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Sarti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last fifty years, historians have been trying to understand differences between the characteristics of servants and their working conditions in different regions of pre-industrial and industrial Europe, differences which seem to be crucial to explaining discrepancies among those regions with respect to important aspects of life, such as the presence of the so-called European marriage pattern, the strength of family ties, the role of the family in providing assistance to its members in need of care. However, modern scholars are not the first to be interested in such diversity of domestic service: so were people who lived in early modern times. So far, their opinions have been neglected, yet they offer precious evidence of how our ancestors imagined European diversity, a crucial theme not only for cultural and social historians but also for contemporaries trying to understand continuities and discontinuities in representations of Europe. I will give examples of the ideas circulating in early modern Europe about servants and servant-keeping in Britain and Italy, making reference to other countries, too, especially France. The sources used are mainly printed texts, particularly travel books, a literary genre that often expresses prejudices and stereotypes. I will evaluate the perspectives of the authors used, drawing on my previous studies on the social history of domestic service, especially as regards the key issues of marriage and family formation.

  5. How to Plant a Colony in the New World. Rules and Practices in New Sweden and the Seventeenth-Century Delaware Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naum, Magdalena Ewa

    2018-01-01

    The colony of New Sweden (1638–55), like other colonial settlements in America, was structured by a set of laws and regulations. The comprehensive instructions given to the subsequent governors ordered the particulars of everyday life. They dictated settlers’ means of sustenance and rights to trade......, detailed rules of engagement with other European colonists and Native Americans, established a system of criminal justice and regulated religious life. Most of these regulations were unquestioned and followed because they constituted a cohesive set of rules that helped to reconstruct settlers’ lives...... in the colony and instilled a sense of continuity. Others, particularly those laws pertaining to moral and orderly conduct and trade with Native Americans, were frequently transgressed by the colonists, despite the risk of severe punishments. Using historical and archaeological records, this chapter examines...

  6. From Religious to Social Conversion: How Muslim Scholars Conceived of the "Rites de Passage" from Hinduism to Islam in Seventeenth-Century South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfaoui, Mouez

    2011-01-01

    The common understanding of Islam tends to consider religious conversion as a matter of individual and rational belief and consisting, first and foremost, of attesting to the oneness of God ("shahada"). In this paper I argue that divergences exist among schools of Islamic Law concerning the modes and types of conversion. Contrary to…

  7. Merchant-Kings and Lords of the World: Diplomatic Gift-Exchange between the Dutch East India Company and the Safavid and Mughal Empires in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenholz, Frank; Sowerby, Tracey A.; Hennings, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In 1652 the VOC ambassador Joan Cunaeus presented the Safavid Shah Abbas II with a set of diplomatic gifts including goods of Asian and European origin during an audience ceremony in the Ali Qapu palace in Isfahan. A decade later, VOC director Dircq van Adrichem offered the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb

  8. The distant capital : some aspects of role of Copenhagen as capital of Iseland in the seventeenth and eihteenth centuries / Jón Th. Thór

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thór, Jón Th.

    2013-01-01

    Umbes 470 aasta jooksul (1450-1918) oli Kopengaagen Islandi pealinnaks. Vahemaa Taani ja Islandi vahel on umbes 2000 kilomeetrit ja enamiku islandlaste jaoks jäi pealinn kaugeks paigaks, millest teati vähe. Islandi valitsemise struktuurist. Kopengaageni kui kaubanduskeskuse ja kultuurikeskuse rollist. 18. sajandist Taani ja Islandi ajaloos.

  9. The collaboration between anatomists and mathematicians in the mid-seventeenth century with a study of images as experiments and Galileo's role in Steno's Myology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Domenico Bertoloni

    2008-01-01

    Moving from Paris, Pisa, and Oxford to London, Amsterdam, and Cambridge, this essay documents extensive collaborations between anatomists and mathematicians. At a time when no standard way to acknowledge collaboration existed, it is remarkable that in all the cases I discuss anatomists expressed in print their debt to mathematicians. The cases I analyze document an extraordinarily fertile period in the history of anatomy and science and call into question historiographic divisions among historians of science and medicine. I focus on Steno's Myology, showing how his collaboration with mathematician Viviani led to a geometrical treatment of muscular contraction and to an epistemology inspired by Galileo. The collaboration between Steno and Viviani enables us to interpret a major text in the history of anatomy, one whose implications had so far eluded historians.

  10. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both do...

  11. First steps of vulagarization of science in the late ninetheen century: The Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec, Mexico during the period of Mr. Angel Anguiano (1878-1889)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueck, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Since the founding of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec in 1878 during the presidential term of General Porfirio Diaz, begins the publication of the Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec (from now on OAN) in a period when the positivist paradigm based on will boost science as a means of national progress. Here we describe the actions taken by the observatory's director and editor of the publication, the engineer Angel Anguiano, to initiate and successfully carry out the exchange of scientific publications and / or dissemination through the exchange of the Yearbook of the OAN, both nationally and internationally. The importance of conferences to which he attended started the sharing printed information relating to subjects such as astronomy, meteorology, cartography and geography. The Yearbook was intended to publish two or three months before the beginning of each year and according to the editor would serve to popularize science, making its contents available to anyone with basic knowledge of geometry or for amateur astronomers. I find that the yearbook was the publication that was released to the observatory in the country and abroad, but was sent to distant places where no one speaks or reads Spanish. I think that the content of articles published in, did not respond and objective and informative to the public as mentioned by, because at the late 1800s, 90% of the inhabitants of the Mexican Republic were illiterate and lived in rural areas. The access to the Bulletin was the Mexican intellectual elite grouped into societies, astronomical or meteorological observatories and another wealthy person individually. The same happened abroad. The collection of data from reports to the Secretaria de Fomento, that was the government agency that funds money destined to different scientific institutions founded during this period were published in the Yearbook, the oficios that sent the OAN over a hundred sites in the world

  12. El cuerpo como materia educativa en la prosa castellana de los siglos 13 y 14 - The body as educational content in late medieval spanish prose: 13th and 14th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente Pedraz, España

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O CORPO COMO CONTEÚDO DA EDUCAÇÃO EM PROSA ESPANHOLA DOS SÉCULOS 13 E 14 ResumoO artigo propõe a seguinte hipótese: a gênese medieval da educação física remete, sobretudo, à emergência da sensibilidade cortesã, manifestada na aparência distinguida e no autodomínio gestual. A partir dessa perspectiva, as destrezas corporais próprias da atividade bélica ou da prática lúdica cavalheiresca constituem um aspecto de menor relevância; somente uma expressão dessa sensibilidade, uma vez que o fundamental é que manifesta o relativo declínio da idéia de estirpe e dos atributos do sangue como dispositivso determinantes da excelência, processo que abriria espaço a um crescente interesse educativo pela instrução do corpo para além do exercício ou do mero endurecimento físico. A partir da perspectiva de Norbert Elias, exposta em O processo civilizatório, se mostram alguns exemplos literários da pujança dessa nova sensibilidade na literatura castelhana da baixa Idade Média.Palvras-chave: educação do príncipe, corpo, cortesía, literatura medieval castelhana.  THE BODY AS EDUCATIONAL CONTENT IN LATE MEDIEVAL SPANISH PROSE: 13TH AND 14TH CENTURIES AbstractThis paper advances the following hypothesis: physical education in the Middle Ages originates mainly in the emergence of a new sensibility, exhibited in control of gestures, posture and speech. Thus, the physical strength and bodily skills required of a knight in order to face combat represent an expression, among many others, of this new chivalrous sensibility, which would eventually lead to the decline of the concepts of lineage and blood as supreme marks of nobility and excellence, as well as to a growing educational interest in the instruction of the body, beyond mere physical exercise and training. Following the theory proposed by Norbert Elias in his Process of civilization, this paper aims to offer a selection of literary examples of this new sensibility

  13. The Black Burnished Type 18 Bowl and the Fifth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gerrard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses a late Roman Black Burnished form known as the Type 18 bowl. The lateness of this form was first discussed in 2004 but new discoveries have continued to reinforce the probably late fourth to early fifth century date assigned to this vessel. Imitations in other fabrics are also beginning to be identified with one such vessel found in association with early Anglo-Saxon pottery.

  14. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.

  15. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  16. For the Amusement of the Merry Little Subjects: How British Children Met Don Quixote in the Long Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Borham Puyal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a masterpiece, Don Quixote has become an easily recognizable myth, sometimes reduced to well-known episodes such as the tilting at windmills or the blanket-tossing of Sancho. These elements are emphasised in editions of this classic for children, highlighting the importance these versions have for the understanding of the widespread popularity of Cervantes’ novel, in general, and of certain scenes, in particular. The present article explores the relationship of the child reader to Don Quixote and provides an overview of how English children might have encountered it in the long eighteenth century (1660-1832. It connects chapbooks, abridgments and children’s books to suggest that children might have been among its earliest readers and to emphasise the intertextual continuum and the richness in the reception of Don Quixote in England, from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century.

  17. Winning Hearts and Minds: Multimedia Events, Religious Communication and the Urban Context in the Long Sixteenth Century (1450-1650)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robbe, Joost Roger

    practices, were not only responsible for the wide and varied dissemination of opinions and ideas, but also had an impact on how these opinions and ideas were interpreted by various media consumers and thus shaped new communities of interpretation in the “long sixteenth century” – that is, from the invention...... of printing to the mid seventeenth century crisis. During the long sixteenth century, a media revolution took place that offered unprecedented possibilities to adopt, express and exchange ideas and opinions, often of a religious nature. Many studies have revealed the importance of media such as script, print......This volume will proceed from and expand on the WG2 meeting held in Ghent, June 1-2, 2017. The meeting succeeded remarkably in its aim, which was to bring medievalist and modernist specialists together in order to demonstrate that the combination and interaction of various media, i.e. multimedia...

  18. The Ballet-Pantomime Technique of Passions: Constructing Knowledge of Dance during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio VALLEJOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the fundamentals of the pantomime-ballet dance technique, which was characteristic of the eighteenth century. In particular, it explores how knowledge developed with regard to the representation of passions and expressive gestures. Our hypothesis proposes the existence of a correlation between the regulation of the theatrical practice of dance in the seventeenth century, during the reign of Louis XIV, and the discourses on the dancing-body that accompanied the zenith of the pantomime-ballet project between 1760 and 1776. In this way, we show that the passage from baroque ballet to pantomimeballet represents a breakthrough in body encoding as well as a development of the aesthetic framework for the theatrical expression of the dancer.

  19. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  20. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  1. Fighting in the Fightschools late XVth, early XVIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquet Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role played by Fightmaster (master-at-arms, Schirm- or Fechtmeister in the Fightschools (Fechtschulen taking place in the swiss cities at the end of the middle ages. The strong link between these lessstudied events and the practice of martial arts according to the technical literature (Fechtbücher will be examined, as well as the figure of the Fightmaster.

  2. Parodies of Sonnet in Late XXth-century Italian Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Loreto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo affronta la parodia formale e metrica del sonetto praticata dai maggiori autori italiani del secondo Novecento, che tuttavia solo in pochi casi può davvero dirsi tale, alla luce del moderno allentamento delle prescrizioni formali, cui la stessa parodia partecipa con la propria capacità di promuovere uno «sviluppo dialettico delle forme» (Tynjanov. Modificato l’orizzonte delle attese estetiche, la «coscienza metrica media» (Fortini si è ammorbidita rendendo via via accettabili e perfino normali numerose deroghe formali, tanto da suggerire di derubricare molti testi dalla voce “parodie”, e in fin dei conti di riconoscere un rovesciamento tale per cui, viceversa, i sonetti formalmente impeccabili scritti negli ultimi decenni producono «un effetto […] di parodia, di artificio, di falsetto» (Giovannetti, per quanto essi siano privi di carica evolutiva e rappresentino dunque parodie incomplete. A lato del rovesciamento, una simile carica sembra permanere in sperimentazioni radicali quali quella di Nanni Balestrini (Ipocalisse. 49 sonetti. Provenza, 1980-1983, 1986, 1986 e Marco Giovenale (Piccoli suoni, in Quasi tutti, 2010, il cui gioco parodico evoca forme come la frottola e il sonetto alla burchia. Questo dato, tuttavia, unito alle circostanze storico-politiche della stesura di Ipocalisse (l’esilio del suo autore, a seguito dell’“operazione 7 aprile”, che spingono a leggere il tutto nell’ottica del rapporto con l’autorità, fa della forma maggiormente codificata della tradizione poetica l’allegoria di un potere capace di espellere dal proprio dominio, se possibile per abbassamento, le forme che minacciano sovversione, e insomma di conservarsi perfettamente.

  3. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  4. Uma quinta portuguesa no interior do Brasil ou A saga do ilustrado dom frei Cipriano e o jardim do antigo palácio episcopal no final do século XVIII A Portuguese manor in rural Brazil or The saga of the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano and the garden of the former episcopal palace in the late eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Rodrigo de Castro Maia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstrói a trajetória do bispo dom frei Cipriano de São José e do jardim histórico que construiu em seu palácio, na cidade de Mariana (MG, no final do século XVIII e início do seguinte. A área, com pomar e outros tipos vegetais, como a maioria dos quintais das casas mineiras do período, sofreu significativa transformação e tornou-se um clássico jardim europeu. Ordenado com preocupação estética, no final do período colonial era um espaço admirável, representante do processo de encantamento da ilustrada elite metropolitana pela história natural e pelos conhecimentos de botânica. Variada documentação foi utilizada para reconstruir a trajetória dessa área verde bem como a de seu idealizador, o ilustrado dom frei Cipriano de São José.This is a reconstruction of the career of bishop Cipriano de São José and the historical garden he built for his palace in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The grounds, which, like most of their counterparts in Minas Gerais, contained an orchard and kitchen garden, underwent a major reform to fit the mold of the classical European garden. Orderly and showing aesthetic concern, they were an admirable space at the end of the colonial period, representing as they did the enlightened metropolitan elite's growing interest in natural history and botany. A variety of documental sources were used to reconstruct the history of the grounds and the career of the person behind their design, the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano de São José.

  5. La feminización de las masas: construcción de identidades sociales en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX The feminization of the crowds: construction of social identities in the argentina of the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Chayo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una lectura de Las multitudes argentinas de José María Ramos Mejía desde una perspectiva histórica, política y de género. Se realiza un análisis de las analogías presentes en la obra ya que contribuye a la comprensión histórica de la producción discursiva del autor. Se destacan aquéllas efectuadas entre las masas y las mujeres y, apelando a estudios históricos y de género, se contemplan aspectos del imaginario social acerca de éstas. La tesis sostenida en este trabajo, basada en la teoría de Ernesto Laclau, plantea que, en la obra Las multitudes argentinas, las analogías entre las masas y las mujeres constituyen un recurso retórico relevante que da lugar a un juego de equivalencias y diferencias que contribuye a la conformación de las identidades sociales de la Argentina finisecular.The goal of the present paper is to make an interpretation of José María Ramos Mejia's Las Multitudes Argentinas from a historical, political and gender point of view. An analysis is performed on the analogies present in his work, for it contributes to a historical understanding of the author's discursive production. Those made between women and the crowds are highlighted and, based on historical and gender studies, aspects of the social imaginary about these analogies are evaluated. The thesis sustained in this paper, based on Ernesto Laclau's theory, argues that, in Las Multitudes Argentinas, the analogies between women and the crowds constitute a relevant rhetorical device that allows for a game of differences and equivalencies that contributes to the conformation of the social identities of the late 19th century Argentina.

  6. Lucha antivenérea en Antioquia entre finales del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX: una cuestión moral Anti-venereal fight in Antioquia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a moral question.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martínez Londoño

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca responder en qué sentido la lucha antivenérea en Antioquia a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, parte del dispositivo higienista, fue una lucha contra la inmoralidad. Para su construcción se realizó revisión bibliográfica de fuentes secundarias. El proyecto regional en su dimensión ética-cultural incluyó una apuesta modernizadora, a cargo de los médicos, ajustada a la moral puritana promovida por la Iglesia, para ello emprendieron una lucha antivenérea que consistió en ilustrar a las masas populares: se debía reservar la sexualidad a la familia y reprochar moralmente a la población donde aparecían dichas enfermedades. Así, el discurso médico-científico juzgó las prácticas de los sectores populares mientras los hombres de ciencia ingresaban al escenario social con poder por tener jerarquía moral. This article aims to define in what ways the anti-venereal fight in Antioquia, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which was part of the hygienic device, was really a fight against the immorality. In order to write it, secondary bibliographic sources were revised. In its ethical and cultural dimension, the regional project included a modernizing project. Doctors were in charge of this project which was adjusted to fit the puritan moral the Church promoted. They began a fight against sexual transmission diseases tah was bases upon illustration of communities: sexuality was to be reserved to family environments and populations where diseases appeared should be morally rejected. An so, medical scientific speech be judged low class populations` actions while men of science entered the social scenario with power from having moral hierarchy.

  7. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    OpenAIRE

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo; Leandro de Paula Santos

    2017-01-01

    By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this...

  8. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  9. Energiemarkten en energiehandel in Holland in de late middeleeuwen

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelisse, Charles Louis Eduard

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the economical and commercial development of Holland in the late Middle Ages, focusing on the fuel market and fuel trade. Energy was of vital importance to this society in which industry, trade and export were expanding rapidly. The brisk commercial and industrial development of Holland between the 13th and 16th centuries coincided with demographic growth and increasing urbanisation. Fuel markets in Holland developed in the 15th and 16th century from local to regional and ...

  10. From Bureaucracy to Professionalism: An Essay on the Democratization of School Supervision in the Early Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Jeffrey

    In the early twentieth century, supervisors began to move toward increasing professionalism in their positions. In the late nineteenth century, supervision was characterized by bureaucratic methods in a centralized school management system. Research reveals that after the turn of the century, there was a concerted effort by supervisors to…

  11. [The century of noise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivato, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    When did, actually, "noise pollution" begin to coexist along with our daily life and activities and change our environmental natural sounds, which hadn't changed for centuries? Industrial revolution, first, and the introduction of new technologies later, introduced "noise" as one of the most relevant features that marked the development of progress. Later on, it became the distinctive characteristic of the XX century. The incessant rumble of industrial machinery, of weapons and cannons from the wars, the roar of cars in the streets and aeroplanes from the sky, the deafening sound of XX century music, as well as the shouting out of new political ideas suddenly invaded the new century. They became part of our daily life so much as almost to become a new lay religion of modernity. As the century proceeded towards economic boom, a "new noisy Man" complied with this change, becoming the anthropologic prototype who was able to adapt to the new style of life and even contribute to its expansion. All this finally allows, to day, a definition of the XX century as the "century of noise".

  12. Thomas Birch's 'Weekly Letter' (1741-66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-09-20

    Thomas Birch (1705-66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720-90), wrote a 'Weekly Letter' from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396-400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the 'Hardwicke circle' gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the 'Weekly Letter' constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science.

  13. Grand Manner Aesthetics in Landscape: From Canvas to Celluloid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    The methods by which environmental issues are aestheticized in late-twentieth-century film is directly and historically related to those established for grand manner painters by Nicholas Poussin (1594-1665) and taught at the French academy from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. That these fundamentals were part of the training of…

  14. El Calepino Ilocano (c.1797) del P. Vivar: Innovaciones lexicográficas y política traductora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Rodríguez, R.; Zwartjes, O.; Arzápalo Marín, R.; Smith-Stark, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    There is a general lack of knowledge in the Spanish-Philippine linguistic sources. My aim in this paper then is to present the works written on Ilocano by the Augustinian friars from the sixteenth until the nineteenth century, with particular focus on the late seventeenth-century manuscript work by

  15. The Sensible and Insensible Body: A Visual Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bourke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating pain into tangible images brings it into the public consciousness, raising the spectre of bodily suffering as virtually intrinsic to the human condition. Beginning with Descartes, who famously advanced mind-body theories in the late seventeenth century, this essay explores the effects of his influence together with shifting attitudes towards pain and its role over the long nineteenth century.

  16. Organizing the Electronic Century

    OpenAIRE

    Richard N. Langlois

    2007-01-01

    This paper's title is an echo of Alfred Chandler's (2001) chronicle of the electronics industry, Inventing the Electronic Century. The paper attempts (A) a general reinterpretation of the pattern of technological advance in (American) electronics over the twentieth century and (B) a somewhat revisionist account of the role of organization and institution in that advance. The paper stresses the complex effects of product architecture and intellectual property regime on industrial organization ...

  17. The Armory Chamber and Armed Forces of Russia in the Second Half of 17th - Early 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlenko Sergey P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the activities of the Armory chamber in the second half of 17th - beginning of 18th centuries – supplying the needs of the Russian armed forces. Political and military realities of the first half of the seventeenth century revealed the need for the modernization and transformation of the armed forces of Russia. Military reform required a massive amount of combat weapons and equipment made by Western European standard. The middle of the 17th century was the times of a search for an optimal algorithm which would provide the armed forces with weapons and equipment. The integration in this process of the court gunsmith and Armory was an effective solution. The content of the Inventory of the Armory Chamber in 1647 can be divided into two parts: 1 parade and ceremonial weapons and armor, designed for the sovereign and court 2 a huge number of combat weapons deposed in a different storages. The research is based on the complex of archival documents showing the role of the Armory chamber officials in organizing the purchase of combat weapons, its testing, preserving, repairing and transfer to the troops. The author also observed the changes in the activities of the institution in the last quarter of the century – when craftspeople of the court Armory workshop participated in the manufacturing of some special types of combat arms and service as a military gunsmith directly in troops and provincial armories.

  18. SONGS ABOUT THE REALITY OF ‘GLOBALIZATION’ AS POLITICAL DISCOURSE: IRONY AND CRITIQUE OF ‘GLOBALIZATION’ AND THE CONCEPT OF ‘WORLD’ IN THE LYRICAL TRADITION OF THE ENGLISH WESTERN POPULAR MUSIC OF THE LATE 20TH AND EARLY 21ST CENTURIES / CÂNTECE DESPRE REALITATEA GLOBALIZĂRII CA DISCURS POLITIC: IRONIA, CRITICA GLOBALIZĂRII ŞI CONCEPTUL DE “LUME” ÎN TRADIŢIA MUZICII POPULARE DIN VESTUL ANGLIEI LA SFÂRŞITUL SECOLULUI XX ŞI ÎNCEPUTUL SECOLULUI XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fee-Alexandra Haase

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has developed into one of the most interdisciplinary topics in the fields of culture, politics, and economics since the late 20th century. This article is interested in its terminology and reflections in the arts in the case of the lyrics of contemporary U.S. American and British English popular music. Even though the term ‘globalization’ was coined in the late 20th century and is associated with the idea of a universal economic, social, and cultural process in the world, conceptual elements of ‘globalization’ can be found in human history before the term was coined. The arts conceptualized the ‘world’ as an idea long before the emergence of the concept of ‘globalization’. The elements of ‘globalization’ and its history of associated ideas are found ironized and critically revised in the contemporary arts. At this point, social and cultural criticism arises and describes the contrast between ethical values and reality. Even an individualized form of poetry like the lyric poems of 20th and 21st century U.S. American popular music reflects critically as a contribution to contemporary political discourse on the concept of ‘globalization’.

  19. Twentieth Century evolution of machining in the United States – An ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 1700's, virtually no ... expected that, by the middle of the 19th Century, as machine tools began to be manufactured .... Twentieth Century evolution of machining in the United States. 873. DESIGN ... Merchant M E 1961 The manufacturing system concept in production ...

  20. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  1. Late arrival in hospital during labour: any correlation with materno ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Late arrival in labour is a common occurrence in my centre, It has been said to be associated with poor maternal and foetal outcome because of the lack of intrapartum materno-foetal monitoring. It gave me a great concern why booked patients should deliver in vehicles in 21st century. Objectives: Is to ...

  2. The ecological century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worthington, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    This essay attempts to reconstruct the evolution of Ecology as the scientific basis for environmental conservation and human progress, as seen through the eyes of a biologist who has exercised that science during a number of tasks in various parts of the world over most of the twentieth century. From its beginnings in evolutionary thinking during the nineteenth century, ecology emerged from natural history at the beginning of the twentieth. At first the running was made by botanists; but this was soon followed by zoologists, who dealt with more mobile communities. The first quarter-century was mainly exploratory; the second was mainly descriptive (although biological exploration was still dominant in the tropics). The third quarter saw ecology developing into an experimental science, and, as the environmental revolution got into its stride, ecology became organized both nationally and internationally. Although the term is now often misused and sometimes misunderstood by laymen, the last quarter-century is seeing the wide application of ecology in environmental and human affairs, and this gives some assurance that the twenty-first century will not become one of chaos.

  3. Transformaciones y formas de legitimación en la autoridad de los caciques coloniales de Jujuy: Siglo XVII Transformations and forms of legitimacy within colonial caciques authority: Province of Jujuy, 17th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Sica

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo intenta analizar las transformaciones de la autoridad en los jefes étnicos en la jurisdicción de la ciudad de San Salvador de Jujuy (Gobernación del Tucumán durante el siglo XVII. Parte de estas transformaciones estaban condicionadas por la concesión de encomiendas y la creación de los pueblos de indios y nuevas instituciones, como los cabildos indígenas. Estas circunstancias limitaron el poder de las antiguas autoridades, sin embargo a lo largo del siglo XVII surgieron nuevos cargos como el de cacique gobernador y nuevas formas de legitimación que intentaban contrarrestar estos cambios.This paper attempts to analyze some changes within the ethnic leaders' authority in the jurisdiction of San Salvador de Jujuy city ( Gobernación del Tucumán during the seventeenth century. Some of these changes were influenced by the granting of encomiendas and the creation of Indians towns and new institutions such as Indian cabildos. These circumstances limited the power of ancient authorities, however during the seventeenth century new offices, such as the cacique de Gobernador, and new forms of legitimacy emerged in order to counterbalance the above-mentioned changes.

  4. Late Iron Age archaeology in Romania and the politics of the past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper approaches the topic of nationalism in relation to the Late Iron Age archaeology of Romania. It is argued that nationalist agendas have played a significant role in the development of Late Iron Age scholarly work since the beginnings of the discipline in the 19th century and particularly

  5. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  6. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  7. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  8. Statisticians of the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  9. Immigration and crime in early 20th century America

    OpenAIRE

    Moehling, Carolyn; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    Research on crime in the late 20th century has consistently shown that immigrants have lower rates of involvement in criminal activity than natives. We find that a century ago immigrants may have been slightly more likely than natives to be involved in crime. In 1904 prison commitment rates for more serious crimes were quite similar by nativity for all ages except ages 18 and 19 when the commitment rate for immigrants was higher than for the native born. By 1930, immigrants were less likely t...

  10. Identifying 21st Century Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    What are the capabilities necessary to meet 21st century challenges? Much of the literature on 21st century skills focuses on skills necessary to meet those challenges associated with future work in a globalised world. The result is a limited characterisation of those capabilities necessary to address 21st century social, health and particularly…

  11. Late onset endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz AlHadlaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report an extremely rare presentation of late-onset endophthalmitis in a young adult patient with an unexposed Ahmed tube implant. The implant was inserted 11 years prior to presentation. There was no history of trauma or any obvious exposure on clinical examination and the tube plate was filled with purulent material. After aqueous and vitreous tap, the patient underwent intracameral, intravitreal subconjunctival antibiotic injections and was started on systemic antibiotics with good response. Endophthalmitis associated with tube drainage device can present as late as 11 years and even without an unexposed tube.

  12. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  13. Crítica social e idéias médicas nos excessos do desejo: uma análise dos "romances para homens" de finais do século XIX e início do XX Social criticism and medical ideas on desires' excesses: a study of "novels for men" from late nineteenth to early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra El Far

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar a produção literária pornográfica desde a segunda metade do século XIX até o início do XX no Brasil. Também conhecidos como "leitura para homens" ou "romances para homens", esses enredos alcançaram uma repercussão singular naquele período. Se, em um primeiro momento, essas narrativas, repletas de fantasias e desejos, tratavam de questões sociais e políticas, com a chegada do novo século, de modo evidente, elas passaram a estabelecer um estreito diálogo com as teorias médicas e científicas da época.This article analyses the pornographic literature from the second half of the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century in Brazil. Also known as "reading for men" or "novels for men", these plots reached a singular repercussion at the time. If at first these stories, full of fantasies and desires, talked about both social and political issues, with the coming of the new century they clearly started to establish a close dialogue with current medical and scientific theories.

  14. Late effecten van kankerbehandeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, Nelia E.

    2004-01-01

    In dit artikel wordt ingegaan op de lange termijn effecten van kanker op de kinderleeftijd. Vervolgens wordt een kort overzicht gegeven van de belangrijkste late gevolgen die kunnen optreden na een oncologische behandeling met radio- en/of chemotherapie toegepast in de kinderleeftijd. Er wordt kort

  15. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers...

  16. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  17. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a

  18. The quantum century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kragh, Helge

    2000-01-01

    Physicists often complain that the phrase q uantum leap'' is used erroneously, if harmlessly, by people to describe a large jump or change. Yet this month the physics community is celebrating the 100th anniversary of what must count as the beginning of the biggest quantum leap in the history of science, whichever way you define the phrase. On 14 December 1900 Max Planck presented a paper on the radiation emitted by a black body at a meeting of the German Physical Society in Berlin. This event is generally taken to mark the start of the quantum century, though few people realized it at the time - not even Planck himself. (U.K.)

  19. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  20. The Issue of Textual Genres in the Medical Literature Produced in Late Imperial China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretelle-Establet, Florence

    A great abundance of Chinese medical texts have come down to us since the mid seventeenth century. This is the combined result of the large number of texts written in this period and the fact that the texts were better preserved than earlier. As a matter of fact, the large number of medical texts, coming from various social settings, set historians the quite daunting challenge of understanding what the texts really were and how they should be classified. The idea underlying this article was to go beyond the various modern generic classifications used thus far ("learned", "popular", and the like) and to highlight, instead, how medical texts themselves differ from each other. In this aim, I chose to compare a number of excerpts of medical texts written from the eighteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century in different geographical and social settings. And to compare them, I decided to use some tools created by linguists who have been particularly interested in the issues of genre, notably those used by speech act theoreticians. In this article thus, I analyze these excerpts by paying close attention to the five levels of any discourse act, summarized in the well known formula "Who (says) What (to) Whom (in) What Channel (with) What Effect", following Harold D. Lasswell's classic communication paradigm. In other words, I try to shed light on how each of these texts differs from the others from the semantic, syntactic and emotional angles and whether these differences can be linked to the authors' social, geographical, chronological or intentional settings, and, finally, if we can speak of genres in Chinese medical literature.

  1. A century of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  2. The management century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  3. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  4. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Dana L. Roth

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  5. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  6. Late Palaeozoic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhuo

    2017-09-11

    Land plants are one of the major constituents of terrestrial ecosystems on Earth, and play an irreplaceable role in human activities today. If we are to understand the extant plants, it is imperative that we have some understanding of the fossil plants from the deep geological past, particularly those that occurred during their early evolutionary history, in the late Palaeozoic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lições de coisas e ensino das ciências na França no fim do século 19: contribuição a uma história da cultura - Object lessons and science education in France in the late nineteenth century: contribution to a history of the school culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Kahn, France

    2014-05-01

    aluno, escola primária, educação intelectual, educação prática, ensino concreto, ensino das ciências, lição de coisas, método indutivo, método intuitivo, observação, pedagogia. OBJECT LESSONS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION IN FRANCE IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: CONTRIBUTION TO A HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL CULTUREAbstractApart from the major reforms carried out in the institutional organization of primary school (gratuity, obligation, secularism, the French Republicans in the late nineteenth century were willing to make a profound transformation of educational content and teaching standards. Experimental sciences have benefited greatly in 1882 and become a regular discipline of primary school, its programs and its time distribution. The lesson, teaching method which reformers were raving since the 1860s, will be closely and naturally associated with this teaching. It is indeed a first observation lesson or where students find they best opportunities to observe that in natural history lessons or basic physics? And related to each other, and science education and object lesson has two sides, one prosaic, another enchanted. Versant prosaic science education, for students who, for the most part, do not know of another school that the primary must be practical and conventional . If the lesson is particularly suitable for this teaching is that it focuses on concrete and familiar realities. Versant enchanted science education is a powerful instrument intellectual education (even moral and political education. It embodies the hope of a primary liberal education as complete, valid and worthy of its kind that classical humanities school. The lesson, matching the pedagogical approach to the same method of science (inductive method becomes by allowing this intellectual education. This tension is not unique to science education. Analysis allows rather highlighting the double discourse that Republicans held on a school they simultaneously turned into reality and dream

  8. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1989-01-01

    Late effects are by definition effects that occur at least one year, and in most cases decades, after the time of exposure. The late effects considered in this chapter are limited to latent cancer incidence and mortality, and benign thyroid disease. A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from the radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. It is assumed that exposure to high-LET radiation would be negligible in such an accident, and thus only risks from low-LET exposure are evaluated. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, bone cancer, lung cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, thyroid cancer, skin cancer, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. Because the time of death is also important in assessing the impact of an accident, and because the quality of life after the occurrence of cancer will often be reduced, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated

  9. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  10. A new light upon Hendrik van Deventer (1651-1724): identification and recovery of a portrait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. van der Weiden (Robin); W.J. Hoogsteder

    1997-01-01

    textabstractEarly in 1996, both the artist and the patron of a beautifully painted portrait by an anonymous painter of the late seventeenth century were identified. The painting (Figure 1) was compared with works by other portraitists, and a thorough stylistic analysis by the Netherlands Institute

  11. The Embodiment of Teaching the Regulation of Emotions in Early Modern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.; Wichgers, Inge J. M.

    2018-01-01

    Teaching the regulation of emotions to support parents in educating their children to come of age properly was part of a missionary movement in late sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. This movement was inspired by the belief in the power of education from the northern European Renaissance and by the emphasis on catechism by the…

  12. The Embodiment of Teaching the Regulation of Emotions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jeroen J.H.; Wichgers, Inge

    Teaching the regulation of emotions to support parents in educating their children to come of age properly was part of a missionary movement in late sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Europe. This movement was inspired by the belief in the power of education from the northern European Renaissance

  13. The power of necessity : Reason of state in the Spanish monarchy, ca. 1590-1650

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kattenberg, L.F.

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation studies late-sixteenth- and early-seventeenth-century reason of state in the Spanish monarchy, that is a pragmatic way of thinking and writing about preserving a ruler’s personal power and his ability to protect his dominion from internal and external threats. The core dilemma that

  14. Silk, porcelain and lacquer : China and Japan and their trade with Western Europe and the New World, 1500-1644. A survey of documentary and material evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Llorens Planella, Maria Teresa (Teresa Canepa)

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation focused on the prolific early European trade and consumption of three Asian manufactured goods: Chinese silk and porcelain, and Japanese lacquer in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, and has shown how the material cultures of late Ming China and Momoyama/early Edo Japan

  15. Self-mockery of the Korean Wave (hallyu) in the Korean drama My Love from the Star and the role of the seventeenth century novel The Dream of the Nine Clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wall, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The fields of Korean classical literature and Korean TV drama do not often intermingle. Viewers of K-dramas can sometimes watch their protagonists thumb through certain books onstage, but these books are usually of foreign origin and do not belong to the so-called ‘canon’ of traditional Korean li...

  16. The fifteenth-seventeenth century transformation of abbacus algebra: Perhaps – though not thought of by Edgar Zilsel and Joseph Needham – the best illustration of the `Zilsel-Needham thesis'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    in which all were indispensable for the outcome. He only included mathematics via its relation to the “quantitative spirit”. The present study tries to apply Zilsel’s perspective to the emergence of the Modern algebra of Viète and Descartes (etc.), by tracing the reception of algebra within the Latin...

  17. Late induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W

    1990-09-01

    In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.

  18. Late Washing efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, M.F.

    1992-01-01

    Interim Waste Technology has demonstrated the Late Washing concept on the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. In two tests, washing reduced the [NO 2 - ] from 0.08 M to approximately 0.01 M on slurries with 2 year equivalent radiation exposures and 9.5 wt. % solids. For both washes, the [NO 2 - ] decreased at rates near theoretical for a constant volume stirred vessel, indicating approximately l00% washing efficiency. Permeate flux was greater than 0.05 gpm/ft 2 for both washes at a transmembrane pressure of 50 psi and flow velocity of 9 ft/sec

  19. Late-onset hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dudek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, the number of men over the age of 50 years exceeds 6 million. It is estimated that about 2-6% of this population develops symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. In men, testosterone deficiency increases slightly with age. LOH is a clinically and biochemically defined disease of older men with serum testosterone level below the reference parameters of younger healthy men and with symptoms of testosterone deficiency, manifested by pronounced disturbances of quality of life and harmful effects on multiple organ systems. Testosterone replacement therapy may give several benefits regarding body composition, metabolic control, and psychological and sexual parameters.

  20. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... economic and social gradient for first-time teenage mothers. Teenagers who had experienced family separation or who were formerly in out-of-home care in particular had an increased risk of early childbearing. Results showed that teenage mothers were in every respect in a more disadvantaged position than...

  1. Dendrochronology and late Holocene history of Bering piedmont glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G.C.; Post, A.; Muller, E.H.; Molnia, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Fluctuations of the piedmont lobe of Bering Glacier and its sublobe Steller Glacier over the past two millennia are reconstructed using 34 radiocarbon dates and tree-ring data from 16 sites across the glaciers' forelands. The general sequence of glacial activity is consistent with well-dated fluctuations of tidewater and land-terminating glaciers elsewhere along the Gulf of Alaska. Extensive forested areas along 25 km of the Bering ice margin were inundated by glacio-lacustrine and glacio-fluvial sediments during a probable ice advance shortly before 500 cal yr A.D. Regrowth of forests followed the retreating ice as early as the 7th century A.D., with frequent interruptions of tree growth due to outwash aggradation. Forests overrun by ice and buried in outwash indicate readvance about 1080 cal yr A.D. Retreat followed, with ice-free conditions maintained along the distal portions of the forefield until the early 17th century after which the ice advanced to within a few kilometers of its outer Neoglacial moraine. Ice reached this position after the mid-17th century and prior to 200 yr ago. Since the early 20th century, glacial retreat has been punctuated by periodic surges. The record from forests overrun by the nonsurging Steller Lobe shows that this western ice margin was advancing by 1250 A.D., reaching near its outer moraine after 1420 cal yr A.D. Since the late 19th century, the lobe has dominantly retreated.

  2. Time and Time Again; Determination of longitude at sea in the 17th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grijs, Richard

    2017-11-01

    Determination of one's longitude at sea has perplexed sailors for many centuries. The significant uptake of world trade in the 17th and 18th Centuries rendered the increasingly urgent need to solve the 'longitude problem', an issue of strategic national importance. Historical accounts of these efforts often focus almost exclusively on John Harrison's role in 18th-Century Britain. This book starts instead from Galileo Galilei's late-16th-Century development of an accurate pendulum clock, which was first achieved in practice in the mid-17th-Century by Christiaan Huygens in the Dutch Republic. It is primarily based on collections of letters that have not been combined into a single volume before. Extensive introductory chapters on the history of map making, the establishment of the world's reference meridian at Greenwich Observatory, and the rise of the scientific enterprise provide the appropriate context for non-expert readers to fully engage with the book's main subject matter.

  3. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  4. Late somatic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.

    1985-01-01

    A model is provided for estimating risks of late effects resulting from low-LET radiation exposure likely to be received in the event of a nuclear power plant accident. Separate estimates are provided for risks of leukemia, cancers of the bones, lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thyroid, skin, and the residual group of all other cancers; estimates of leukemia and other cancers due to in utero exposure are also provided. Risks are expressed in absolute terms as the number of cancer deaths (or cases) per million persons exposed to a particular dose. In addition, the number of years of life lost and the number of years of life lived after the occurrence of cancer are also estimated. The model used in the earlier Reactor Safety Study has been modified to reflect additional epidemiological data and these changes are described in detail. 37 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  5. Renewable energy education for 21st century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charters, W.W.S.

    2000-01-01

    The major technological developments in equipment, designed to harness new and renewable sources of energy, have only taken place in the last four decades of the twentieth century, although the principles involved have been previously known for many centuries and were clearly formulated in many of the ancient civilizations. The term renewable energy (RE) itself is of relatively recent origin and only came into widespread use worldwide in the eighties, after the United Nations Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy, held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1981, Ref 1. Currently, the term renewable s is extensively used to describe the full range of direct and indirect uses of solar radiation incident on the earth's surface, and is often extended to include energy resources, such as tidal power or geothermal energy, neither of which is strictly renewable in the true sense of the word. Energy extracted from biomass is also generally included under this heading, although biomass is truly renewable only if continuous plantation development and replanting is carried out as the biomass is harvested. On a global scale, relatively extensive teaching about renewable energy started in the late seventies and early eighties, after the first impact of the OPEC oil price shock. Up till this time, there were only a few centres around the world where individual dedicated researchers and university teachers were involved in such activity. The next impetus to course and teaching material development came with national movements for energy independence and finally, in the latter years of this century, considerable stimulation has been given due to the increasing realisation of global environmental factors such as global warming, ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere, acid rain formation, and many other environmental degradation effects due to the increasing use of fossil fuel reserves. Considerable attention has been focused in the last twenty years through the many national and

  6. 拆迁普店街:二十世纪末中国都市小说中摧毁和复兴主题的含混 (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  7. Sixteenth Century Astronomical Telescopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    2001-12-01

    Ophelia in Shakespeare's Hamlet is named for the ``moist star" which in mythology is the partner of Hamlet's royal Sun. Together the couple seem destined to rule on earth just as their celestial counterparts rule the heavens, but the tragedy is that they are afflicted, just as the Sun and Moon are blemished. In 1.3 Laertes lectures Ophelia on love and chastity, describing first Cytherean phases (crescent to gibbous) and then Lunar craters. Spots mar the Sun (1.1, 3.1). Also reported are Jupiter's Red Spot (3.4) and the resolution of the Milky Way into stars (2.2). These interpretations are well-founded and support the cosmic allegory. Observations must have been made with optical aid, probably the perspective glass of Leonard Digges, father of Thomas Digges. Notably absent from Hamlet is mention of the Galilean moons, owing perhaps to the narrow field-of-view of the telescope. That discovery is later celebrated in Cymbeline, published soon after Galileo's Siderius Nuncius in 1610. In 5.4 of Cymbeline the four ghosts dance ``in imitation of planetary motions" and at Jupiter's behest place a book on the chest of Posthumus Leonatus. His name identifies the Digges father and son as the source of data in Hamlet since Jupiter's moons were discovered after the deaths of Leonard (``leon+hart") and Thomas (the ``lion's whelp"). Lines in 5.4 urge us not to read more into the book than is contained between its covers; this is understandable because Hamlet had already reported the other data in support of heliocentricism and the cosmic model discussed and depicted by Thomas Digges in 1576. I conclude therefore that astronomical telescopy began in England before the last quarter of the sixteenth century.

  8. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg...

  9. William Graham Brooke (1835-1907): Advocate of Girls' Superior Schooling in Nineteenth-Century Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of William Graham Brooke as advocate of women's higher education and access to university. His work as advocate is considered against the religious, political, social and economic backdrop of late nineteenth century Ireland. A barrister, as Clerk in the Lord Chancellor's office, he was centrally involved in the…

  10. Historic lime-binders : An example of the 19th century Dutch military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, H.A.; Copuroglu, O.; Nijland, T.G.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  11. Historic lime-binders: An example of 19th Century Dutch Military plain concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Copuroglu, O.; Heinemann, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    Before the general acceptance of Portland cement as the main binder for concrete in the late 19th century, other, locally available binders were occasionally used. In the case of the Netherlands, which did not produce Portland cement, traditional lime-based binders were not uncommon. With a strong

  12. Between Formula and Freestyle. Nicolai Abildgaard and Eighteenth-Century Painting Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filtenborg, Troels; Vila Espuna, Anna

    As the most important Danish history painter, Nicolai Abildgaard (1743-1809) worked in a century that saw marked shifts in the styles of painting, from the late Baroque via Rococo to Neoclassicism, as well as the emergence of art academies throughout Europe as the prevalent factor in the training...

  13. Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs as Accountability Systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobe, Noah W.; Boven, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Late-19th century World's Fairs constitute an important chapter in the history of educational accountability. International expositions allowed for educational systems and practices to be "audited" by lay and expert audiences. In this article we examine how World's Fair exhibitors sought to make visible educational practices and…

  14. Rethinking Business Models for 21st Century Higher Education: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichy, Jessica; Enström, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    The late 20th century was an era of social, economic, technological, and political change, resulting in significant shifts in the perception of enlightenment, knowledge, and education. The impact of these changes have become quite apparent in higher education where there is now mounting pressure for faculty to deliver high quality education to an…

  15. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  16. [Studying at École de pharmacie de Lille with Alfred Giard in the XIXth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriaud, Mathieu

    2015-06-01

    This article describes a pharmacy student's notebook in Lille in the 1870s. The Medical Natural History course is taught by Alfred Mathieu Giard. Following a brief biography of the latter, excerpts of the manuscript are presented, they reveal the extent of scientific knowledge of the late nineteenth century, especially in the field of Parasitology.

  17. If All the World Were Chicago: American Education in the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazerson, Marvin

    1984-01-01

    Four sets of issues as they relate to the city of Chicago during the late 19th and early 20th centuries are examined: race and the liberal agenda, the role of academics in public policy, the organization of teachers, and the ambiguities of progressive policy. (RM)

  18. L’effet de présence : entre image fixe et image animée, les représentations de la Passion (fin XIXe-début XXe siècle In search of presence: Representations of the Passion between the fixed and moving image (late 19th, early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Saint-Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les représentations de la Passion et de la Vie de Jésus ont figuré parmi les premiers titres des débuts du cinéma. A posteriori, la critique des films religieux, notamment dans les années soixante, a été sévère pour ces tentatives jugées plus commerciales que très inspirées. L’intérêt pour le cinéma des premiers temps s’est approfondi dans les dernières décennies et favorise une autre approche de ces productions des années 1895-1920. Restituer l’univers visuel dans lequel ces films ont pris naissance permet de préciser les modalités de représentation des sujets biblique, en lien avec l’historicisme et l’orientalisme. Outre les liens étroits avec la peinture et la photographie, ces premiers films retrouvent certains effets narratifs des jeux de la Passion ou des projections d’images fixes encore abondantes au tournant du XXe siècle. S’attacher à la conception de la figuration contribue à cerner le « désir de voir » et l’effet de présence christique qui se manifestent dans ces premières Passion filmées.Representations of the Passion and the Life of Jesus Christ were a popular topic in early cinema. Retrospective criticism, especially in the 1960’s, was judgmental towards the first religious films, insofar as they were regarded more as commercially driven reenactments than inspired works. Interest in early cinema deepened in recent decades, and has led to a different reading of productions from the period 1895-1920. By restoring the universe of visual references in which these films arose, we are able to relate representations of biblical subjects to movements in historicism and Orientalism. Beyond their close relationship with painting and photography, these early films also reproduced the narrative effects of Passion plays or projections of fixed images that were still widespread at the turn of the 20th century. A focus on figurative conception will help us reconnect with the "need to see" and

  19. UN ENCUENTRO DE ARQUEOLOGÍAS: RESCATES Y ESTUDIO DE COLECCIONES DEL INICIO DEL PERÍODO TARDÍO (CA. SIGLOS XI-XIII (CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / An encounter of archaeologies: rescues and study of collections of the Late Period beginning (ca. XI-XIII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Palamarczuk

    2015-12-01

    the sample. The three AMS radiocarbon dates allow locate funeral events between the eleventh and twelfth centuries and contribute to the discussion on the chronology of the whole.

  20. The late administration of surfactant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HMD and 4 as having congenital pneumonia. Overall there was a significant and sustained improvement ... 3 infants weighing> 2 400 g with congenital pneumonia responded to a single delayed dose of SRT. Late SRT is ..... pneumonia and meconium aspiration syndrome.' It does not appear that late SRT compromised the ...

  1. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this time period, thus creating a record of the technological evolution in the phonographic industry in the 20th century. It is a fact that many of the resources currently used were already available in the second half of the last century, however to a small extent and with a high cost of production. This article targets the present-day reconfiguration of the means of production and distribution of music, as well as its means of consumption and some of its effects on the industry, the artists and users.

  2. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World War,…

  3. R gene stacking by trans- and cisgenesis to achieve durable late blight resistance in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many diseases of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), which is the third food crop in the world after wheat and rice, late blight caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is one of the most serious diseases. In the last century, major resistance (R)

  4. Reimagining Society in 18th Century French Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    of interpersonal interaction flourished in the rich generic landscape of late eighteenth century French literature. These works of literature, the forgotten as well as the canonized ones, continuously intervened in that burgeoning social imaginary within which the struggle to define the happiness of all took place.......The French revolutionary shift from monarchical to popular sovereignty came clothed in a new political language, a significant part of which was a strange coupling of happiness and rights. In Old Regime ideology, Frenchmen were considered subjects who had no need of understanding why what...

  5. Whooping Cough: A Brief History to the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the history of whooping cough (pertussis) from its first recorded mention in 1190 to the time when its microbial cause was identified. The historical records of the disease are complicated by the variation in the nomenclature employed and through using the same name for disorders with different symptoms. During the early-modern period it was considered to be a disease new to Europe-contagious, dangerous, and potentially epidemic. Believed to be confined to children, its significance was limited until the 18th century when its incidence increased markedly. This essay argues pertussis may have occurred in the late medieval period in individual, though not epidemical, cases.

  6. Thomas Birch's ‘Weekly Letter’ (1741–66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Birch (1705–66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720–90), wrote a ‘Weekly Letter’ from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396–400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the ‘Hardwicke circle’ gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the ‘Weekly Letter’ constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science. PMID:25254279

  7. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  8. Late Print Culture’s Social Media Revolution: Authorship, Collaboration and Copy Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Eichhorn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of copy machines on late twentieth-century print cultures. Specifically, this article makes a case for “dry copying,” the method of print reproduction perfected by Xerox in the late 1950s, as a unique medium rather than a weak imitation of other printing methods. Following the claim that the widespread availability of copy machines in the late twentieth century represented the arrival of a new medium, this article further examines how understandings of authorship, established with print culture, came undone in the era of the copy machine. Finally, this paper makes a case for understanding copy machines as a form of “social media” that opened up opportunities for writers, readers and publishers to create, share, exchange and comment on texts and images in communities and networks of their own making in the decades preceding the development of the web.

  9. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.112 Late payments. Pursuant to § 920.41(a), interest will be charged at a 1.5 percent monthly simple interest rate. Assessments for kiwifruit shall be deemed late if not received... late charge will be assessed when payment becomes 30 days late. Interest and late payment charges shall...

  10. CANDU in the next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meneley, D.A.; Torgerson, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    AECL's main product line is available today in two designs, designated as CANDU 6 and CANDU 9. Each of these is based on successfully operating pressurized-heavy-water nuclear plants. Several new CANDU stations are under construction or planned around the world. The author presents plant concepts which may evolve from today's products during the 21st century, indicating the particular development directions which might be followed by AECL product development depending on the future competitive environment, economics, and market circumstances. This study shows that the CANDU energy supply system is sufficiently flexible to be adapted into widely varying circumstances over the next century and beyond

  11. Methodological disputes about interpretation of neum notation in the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peno Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Until the end of the twentieth century in Byzantine musicological science there were two diametrically opposite approaches to the interpretation of the Byzantine neum notation systems and post-Byzantine music heritage after the Fall of Constantinople. Western European scholars, ignoring the post-Byzantine Chant tradition and the last semeography reform from the early nineteenth century, looked at the problems of the musical past only from the perspective of the Middle Ages. Greek researchers have shared the belief that the condition of an adequate understanding of the mid-Byzantine notation, or the so-called old method, is the knowledge of analytical neum system and theory, the basics of which were set up by musicians from the end of the seventeenth and during the eighteenth century, and were finally shaped by Chrisantos, Gregory and Chourmouzios and officially accepted in the Greek church in 1814. The path to overcoming the issues relating to the development of neum notation, and finding an adequate manner of decoding it, led through the understanding of the phenomenon of "interpretation" and other tendencies that marked the post-Byzantine music practice. Two scientists -the Danish Jørgen Raasted, a follower of the Western European musicological methods established by founders of Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae, and Greek theologist and musicologist Gregory Stathes - are specifically responsible for the reconciliation of the different methodological approaches. After numerous and often heated debates, the Danish scientist eventually largely accepted the views of his Greek counterpart. Moreover, he himself insisted, at the musicological conferences organized during the 1980s, on reviewing the controversial issues: the existence of chromatic intervals in the psalmody of the Middle-Ages, the problem of syllabic and melismatic interpretations of stenographic neum records, and so on. Concerning the above mentioned issues, the contemporary trends in

  12. Auto industry late followers knowledge creation through internationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Dušan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radical changes of business environment have been caused by growing globalization at the beginning of the 21st century. Consequently, a strong network of trade and investment relationships between national economies has been established. Although it entails many risks, global business environment opens up great opportunities, as well. In order to seize these opportunities, many companies from emerging markets internationalize their business operations, and thus challenge once untouchable leaders from developed countries. Traditional theories on multinational companies cannot fully explain their motives for going abroad. Recently, the automotive industry has become a new field where the late followers from emerging markets try to challenge the leaders. This paper includes the following three case studies: Hyundai - Kia, Geely - Volvo, and Tata Motors - Jaguar Land Rover. These case studies show that although the late followers in the automotive industry use different internationalization strategies, they all perceive internationalization as a means of obtaining the lacking competencies and building up a positive reputation.

  13. Sarmatian Attributes in Archaeological Complexes of Catacombs Burials in Arys Culture of Southern Kazakhstan (1st Century B.C. - 3rd Century A.D.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podushkin Aleksandr Nikolaevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication is devoted to archaeological research of monuments of the catacomb of Arys culture of Southern Kazakhstan (1st Century B.C. - 3rd Century A.D.. Now scientists have a complete understanding of the range and typology, periodization and chronology of monuments of this culture. There are three stages: Karaultobe (4th century B.C. - 1st century A.D.; Karatobe (1st Century B.C. - 4th century A.D.; Altintobe (4th-6th centuries A.D.. These stages are characterized by specific clusters of signs in the form of artifacts. The author also carried out the ethnic attribution of the Arys culture in association with the ancient state Kangiuj. As a result of this work, the ethnicity of the state Kangiuj was revealed: in particular, late Saka’s, Sarmatian, Huns and Kangiuj ethnic components which are relevant to archaeological complexes, were identified. In the Arys monuments of culture the author discovered complexes of findings which associated with the Sarmatian world of Eurasia by their ethno-cultural parameters. They include typical for the Sarmatians list of ritual action and the funerary equipment, including weapons, bronze mirrors, ritual and religious objects, signs-tamgas, jewelry (including Egyptian faience, articles in “animal”, gold-turquoise and polychrome style. The characteristics of the burial complexes of catacombs of the Arys culture discussed in the publication and corresponding to chronological calculations and ethno-cultural interpretations, allow to speak about presence in the territory of South Kazakhstan of the Asian Sarmatians or any local branch of the Union of the Sarmatian tribes in the 1st century B.C. - 3rd century A.D.

  14. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing ... JavaScript. One out of 10 women will have vaginal bleeding during their 3rd trimester. At times, it ...

  15. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  16. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  17. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks; Cain, Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examine federal intervention in natural resource use by analyzing roll-call votes over the past century. These votes involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long term...

  18. A century of oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The paper speech of the events and decisions that marked the history of the petroleum in Colombia and of Ecopetrol, from the adventure undertaken by some visionary at the beginning of the century X X, until the changes introduced in 1999

  19. From sermons in stone to studies in science: The transformation of 19th-century juvenile natural history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Jon-Paul Charles

    This dissertation seeks to explain the social, cultural, and economic factors that transformed the ways nineteenth-century American children learned about, encountered, and understood the natural world. It highlights the interests, tastes, and fears of the middle-class as key factors in the transformation of children's relationship to nature. Developments such as the quest for gentility and refinement, the evolution of religious practices and beliefs, the print revolution, the popularity of Romanticism, the marginalization of women, the rise of professionalization, the impact of industrialization, and the growth of cities all helped shape nineteenth-century children's relationship to nature. For much of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries adults had taught children to see nature as a world of wonders in which God acted out his Providential design. During the early republic, however, Americans, especially women, increasingly valued more refined and genteel interpretations of nature that invoked discrete segments of nature for their ability to cultivate morals, evidence the existence of God, and mold children's behavior. The print revolution that swept America during this period abetted this process. During the second quarter of the nineteenth century, increasing numbers of adults began to use religious publications, schoolbooks, literature, and domestic amusements to involve children with the natural world in ways that were variously religious or Romantic. As a result nature became an accepted and valued segment of middle-class life. Ironically, however, these efforts also helped separate religious from secular interpretations of nature, and changes in fashions, literary techniques, and parenting techniques allowed children more autonomy to interpret nature as they wished. In the last half of the nineteenth century, adults continued to rely on nature as a means of training up children in the ways they should go. Writers, teachers, and reformers increasingly

  20. النشاطات الثقافية للمكون المسيحي في العراق من أواخر القرن التاسع عشر حتى عام 1939 Cultural activities of the Christian component in Iraq from the late nineteenth century until 1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitham Mohi Talib Al-Jubouri م.م. هيثم محي طالب الجبوري

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture is considered one of the important element in shaping the historical events as it is considered a mirror that reflects the historical facts leading to many changes in the life communities. In spite of its importance , it did not receive much attention from researchers. This study comes within the context of what we started in our MA thesis-entitled (The Christians Of Iraq And Their Role In The Modern History Of Iraq From 1921 To 1958, which involves studying the historical relics of the Christians in the political, economic and social fields.Due to the amplitude of the topics of the thesis and time constraints, we didn,t have the chance to study the cultural activity of the Iraqi Christians; hence, we find it appropriate to complete the study of their role sfforts in this area and to reflect another bright picture of Iraqs history. The time frame of the study begins with the late nineteenth century AD-because Iraq had witnessed in this period the early modern civilization of presses, newspapers magazines, theaters, schools and other cultural elements in which the Iraqi Christians played a prominent role- and sums up in 1939, where was the beginning of World War 11 and what accompanied phase of events in the history of Iraq at various levels.

  1. 20th century climate warming and tree-limit rise in the southern Scandes of Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullman, L

    2001-03-01

    Climate warming by ca. 0.8 degree C between the late-19th and late-20th century, although with some fluctuations, has forced multispecies elevational tree-limit advance by > 100 m for the principal tree species in the Swedish part of the Scandinavian mountain range. Predominantly, these processes imply growth in height of old-established individuals and less frequently upslope migration of new individuals. After a slight retardation during some cooler decades after 1940, a new active phase of tree-limit advance has occurred with a series of exceptionally mild winters and some warm summers during the 1990s. The magnitude of total 20th century tree-limit rise varies with topoclimate and is mainly confined to wind-sheltered and snow-rich segments of the landscape. Thickening of birch tree stands in the "advance belt" has profoundly altered the general character of the subalpine/low alpine landscape and provides a positive feedback loop for further progressive change and resilience to short-term cooling episodes. All upslope tree-limit shifts and associated landscape transformations during the 20th century have occurred without appreciable time lags, which constitutes knowledge fundamental to the generation of realistic models concerning vegetation responses to potential future warming. The new and elevated pine tree-limit may be the highest during the past 4000 14C years. Thus, it is tentatively inferred that the 20th century climate is unusually warm in a late-Holocene perspective.

  2. Music, neurology, and psychology in the nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Amy B; Johnson, Julene K

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines connections between research in music, neurology, and psychology during the late-nineteenth century. Researchers in all three disciplines investigated how music is processed by the brain. Psychologists and comparative musicologists, such as Carl Stumpf, thought in terms of multiple levels of sensory processing and mental representation. Early thinking about music processing can be linked to the start of Gestalt psychology. Neurologists such as August Knoblauch also discussed multiple levels of music processing, basing speculation on ideas about language processing. Knoblauch and others attempted to localize music function in the brain. Other neurologists, such as John Hughlings Jackson, discussed a dissociation between music as an emotional system and language as an intellectual system. Richard Wallaschek seems to have been the only one from the late-nineteenth century to synthesize ideas from musicology, psychology, and neurology. He used ideas from psychology to explain music processing and audience reactions and also used case studies from neurology to support arguments about the nature of music. Understanding the history of this research sheds light on the development of all three disciplines-musicology, neurology, and psychology. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The individual’s triumph: the eighteenth-century consolidation of authorship and art historiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pullins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The eighteenth-century consolidation of authorial identity – apparent in Salon livrets, art criticism, sales catalogs, inventories, the theoretical development of maniera, signing and hanging practices – was crucial to subsequent, nineteenth-century Romantic notions of what constituted individual authorship and to the kinds of eighteenth-century painting that were eventually written into or out of art history. Situating eighteenth-century paintings and drawings executed by multiple hands in a longue durée between workshop and court artisan practices on one hand and nineteenth-century singularity on the other, this article recovers an alternate thread of authorial identity. Having failed to find a place in art historiography as it developed in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, these examples in fact find sympathetic counterparts in late twentieth-century theories of the author function. Reconsidering both these multi-authored works and writing about them helps to clarify the historical specificity with which we conceive of the relationship between object and maker.

  4. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  5. Late stage infection in sleeping sickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartwig Wolburg

    Full Text Available At the turn of the 19(th century, trypanosomes were identified as the causative agent of sleeping sickness and their presence within the cerebrospinal fluid of late stage sleeping sickness patients was described. However, no definitive proof of how the parasites reach the brain has been presented so far. Analyzing electron micrographs prepared from rodent brains more than 20 days after infection, we present here conclusive evidence that the parasites first enter the brain via the choroid plexus from where they penetrate the epithelial cell layer to reach the ventricular system. Adversely, no trypanosomes were observed within the parenchyma outside blood vessels. We also show that brain infection depends on the formation of long slender trypanosomes and that the cerebrospinal fluid as well as the stroma of the choroid plexus is a hostile environment for the survival of trypanosomes, which enter the pial space including the Virchow-Robin space via the subarachnoid space to escape degradation. Our data suggest that trypanosomes do not intend to colonize the brain but reside near or within the glia limitans, from where they can re-populate blood vessels and disrupt the sleep wake cycles.

  6. Inmissores tempestatum in Hispania in Late antiquity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jiménez Sánchez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we study the belief in the existence of tempestarii or inmissores tempestatum in Hispania in Late Antiquity. Despite the scarcity of sources on this subject, those that do exist suggest that, in the Iberian Peninsula, people believed individuals to be capable of causing storms with their own will. The sources in question include two Chindaswinth laws, which express the authorities’ concerns over “storm-makers” capable of ruining the crops of others. In addition, two epigraphic testimonies, reproducing magic formulae engraved on slate (with an imprecise date between the 8th and 10th centuries suggest the presence in Hispania of the defensores mentioned by Agobard of Lyon in the Frankish Kingdom, magicians who claimed to know how to move storms away from the fields. These scarce sources can be complemented by information from Frankish Gaul sources, and particularly the aforementioned Agobard. Finally, we consider how the Church sought to combat these beliefs, appropriating and adapting them to its own thought, and replacing the evil spirits that caused storms with Satan and his demons, and the divinities that protected the fields with Christian saints and angels.

  7. ПРОСОПОГРАФІЯ КИЇВСЬКОЇ СТАРОЇ ГРОМАДИ (ДРУГА ПОЛОВИНА ХІХ СТОЛІТТЯ PROSOPOGRAPHY OF THE OLD KYIV HROMADA (THE LATE ХІХ CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга КАЗАКЕВИЧ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Казакевич Ольга. Просопография Киевской Старой Громады (вторая половина ХІХ века. В статье представлена попытка построения коллективной биографии ведущих представителей Киевской Старой Громады, которые входили в так называемый “Комитет 12”. С помощью метода просопографии выявлены общие черты повседневной жизни, этапов карьеры и профессиональной деятельности, которые объединяли украинских политических и культурных деятелей второй половины ХIХ века. Проанализировано происхождение, имущественное положение, общественные взгляды, мировозрение и культурно-просветительская деятельность членов Киевской Громады. Ключевые слова: просопография, Киевская Старая Громада, “Комитет 12”, украинское национальное движение, национальное строительство. Kazakevich Olga. Prosopography of the Old Kyiv Hromada (the late 19 c.. The article demonstrates an attempt to make the collective biography of leading members of the Kyiv Old Hromada. By applying the prosopography method, some common features of the everyday life, curriculum vitae and professional activity, which brought together the Ukrainian political and cultural figures of the late 19 c., were revealed. As it is known, the Kyiv Old Hromada was an unofficial association of intellectuals who popularized and promoted the Ukrainian language, history and culture both in Russian empire

  8. Three comments on late antiquity history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Milena L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The author suggests corrections in reading the inscription CIL III 4002 lines 3-7 (see pp. 1-2. The formula q(ui vixit ann(os, lines 3-4, was common in Late Antiquity, unlike the previous reading...ann(orum, which was typical for the Early Empire. L.5 memoria frequently appeared in funerary monuments in Late Antiquity. L. 6 Instead of unlikely collegae, the complement colloc(avit or –erunt has been suggested, according to analogies sedem conlocasse (Siscia, CIL 3996 sepulcrum (! collocavit, with the Christogram ( Siscia,CIL 3996a. The inscription can be more precisely dated with regard to the Christogram. In nearby Sirmium, this symbol repeatedly appears in epitaphs, whether unaccompanied, or between the letters a and w. According to a dated inscription with a Christogram from Constantius times the entire group of inscriptions bearing this symbol may be supposed to have originated from mid-, or, at the latest, second half of 4th century (notes 2-4. Durostoranus (Amm. Marc. XXXI 15, 6 In the paragraph referred to above: Verum introire non ausus, qui missus est, per Christianum quendam portatis scriptis et recitatis, utque decebat, contemptatis parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta (ed. W.Seyfarth, Leipzig 1978, the author instead of the reading to date, christianum, suggests the restitution of the Codex lection Vat. lat. 1873 diristanum, which would be the adjective derived from the toponym D(iristra, a variant of Durostorus, cf. Zonara (XVI 12 e/n Dorosto$lw...toy#to d h% Dri$stra e/sti. Further on, (...scriptis et recitatis, utque dicebat, contemptatis, parandis operibus dies et nox omnis absumpta, two differently noted or emendated points are present. The one is ut dicebat, in a later manuscript, and in Seyfarth's critical edition changed into ut decebat. This emendation is not necessary: the emissary said that he had taken the letter and given the message that was ignored by the inhabitants, and not "given the message as was

  9. Reflexões sobre as críticas aos jesuítas no século XVIII = Historical reflections about the criticism on jesuits in the eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Inalva Galter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O tema, neste artigo, é o teor das interpretações da ação dos jesuítas no século XVIII. O principal objetivo é mostrar que elas são produtos da própria história, tal como foi o projeto educacional da Companhia de Jesus nos séculos XVI e XVII. Dessa perspectiva, o teor condenatório contido nas análises dos mais distintos autores dessa época revela o caráter histórico daquela instituição: em face das novas demandas educacionais e sociais da sociedade burguesa, a Companhia de Jesus deixara de ter a mesma importância dos séculos anteriores. Cabe observar também que o teor das interpretações, mais do que revelar a importância daqueles educadores na história, mostra-nos o comprometimento dos autores setecentistas com os novos interesses que passavam a nortear a vida dos homens. Por último, ressaltamos que essa reflexão sobre as diferentes formas de se condenar a Companhia, tanto espacial quanto temporalmente, ajuda-nos também a refletir sobre as razões de algumas críticas feitas a eles serem superadas pela história e outras persistirem, apesar das mudanças sociais inerentes às práticas humanas.The content of the interpretations of the Jesuits’ action in the eighteenth century is the subject of this article. The main goal is to show that they are the product of the history itself, as it was the educational project of the ‘Companhia de Jesus’ in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. From this perspective, the condemning content in the analysis of the most distinguished authors of this time reveals the historical character of that institution: given the new educational and social demands of the bourgeois society, the ‘Companhia de Jesus’ no longer had the same importance from the previous centuries. It should also be noted that the content of the interpretations, more than revealing the importance of those educators in the history, show the seventeenth-century authors’ commitment with the new interests

  10. Peasant Self-Government in the Ukrainian Danube Region (End of XIX - Early XX Century.: Social and Cultural Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Verkhovtseva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The complex historical destiny of Ukrainian Danube region in the nineteenth century led to the fact that by the end of this century, in the counties of the region peasant self-government was organized in different ways: in Akkerman - according to the reform in 1868, carried out by the Russian authorities in Bessarabia, and in Ismail - in accordance with the reforms of 1864-1874 years conducted by the Romanian government. The author compares and analyzes the peasant self-government in the counties of the province in the context of its sociocultural development in the unfolding process of modernization of the late XIX - early XX centuries.

  11. Diabetes insipidus: celebrating a century of vasopressin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Sana; Galiveeti, Sneha; Bichet, Daniel G; Roth, Jesse

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus, widely known to the ancients for polyuria and glycosuria, budded off diabetes insipidus (DI) about 200 years ago, based on the glucose-free polyuria that characterized a subset of patients. In the late 19th century, clinicians identified the posterior pituitary as the site of pathology, and pharmacologists found multiple bioactivities there. Early in the 20th century, the amelioration of the polyuria with extracts of the posterior pituitary inaugurated a new era in therapy and advanced the hypothesis that DI was due to a hormone deficiency. Decades later, a subset of patients with polyuria unresponsive to therapy were recognized, leading to the distinction between central DI and nephrogenic DI, an early example of a hormone-resistant condition. Recognition that the posterior pituitary had 2 hormones was followed by du Vigneaud's Nobel Prize winning isolation, sequencing, and chemical synthesis of oxytocin and vasopressin. The pure hormones accelerated the development of bioassays and immunoassays that confirmed the hormone deficiency in vasopressin-sensitive DI and abundant levels of hormone in patients with the nephrogenic disorder. With both forms of the disease, acquired and inborn defects were recognized. Emerging concepts of receptors and of genetic analysis led to the recognition of patients with mutations in the genes for 1) arginine vasopressin (AVP), 2) the AVP receptor 2 (AVPR2), and 3) the aquaporin 2 water channel (AQP2). We recount here the multiple skeins of clinical and laboratory research that intersected frequently over the centuries since the first recognition of DI.

  12. Manumission in Nineteenth Century Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Bodenhorn

    2010-01-01

    A long-standing debate concerns the rationality of slave owners and this paper addresses that debate within the context of manumission. Using a new sample of 19th-century Virginia manumissions, I show that manumission was associated with the productive characteristics of slaves. More productive slaves were manumitted at younger ages than less productive slaves. Although more productive slaves were more valuable to slave owners, which might be expected to delay manumission, more productive sla...

  13. 21st Century Security Manager

    OpenAIRE

    Stelian ARION

    2010-01-01

    We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers ...

  14. Responding to the colourful use of chemicals in nineteenth-century food

    OpenAIRE

    Cobbold, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    The paper explores how chemists tried to deal with one of the first examples of mass-produced industrial chemicals to enter daily life, through investigating the use of coal-tar derived dyes to colour food in the late nineteenth century. From the mid 1850s European chemists manufactured a range of new chemicals included drugs, dyes, scents and flavourings from the derivatives of coal-tar waste. Initially greeted by the nineteenth-century press and public as ‘wonder dyes’, the vibrant new colo...

  15. Hungarian Population Discourses in the Twentieth Century: The Problem of Declining Birth Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Ildikó Szántó

    2016-01-01

    Falling birth rates had already been recorded as early as the late-eighteenth century in south-western Hungary in the Ormánság. Population loss from low birth rate remained one of the main topics writers and sociologists focused on in the twentieth century. The issue of Hungarian population decline was highlighted among the social ills in the interwar period, which was one of several subjects that divided intellectuals into ‘populists’ and ‘urbanites’. Following the impact of the low birth ra...

  16. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e.g., wi.......g., withdrawal or de-internationalization of universities due to incompatibility between university autonomy and the context in the target country or universities unwillingness to compromise on their freedom and autonomy....

  17. [The anatomical revolution and the transition of anatomical conception in late imperial china].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihn, Kyu Hwan

    2012-04-30

    This paper aimed to examine the anatomical revolution from Yilingaicuo (Correcting the Errors of Medicine) and Quantixinlun(Outline of Anatomy and Physiology) in late imperial China. As the cephalocentrism which the brain superintend human operation of the mind was diffused in China since 16th century, the cephalocentrism and the cardiocentrism had competed for the hegemony of anatomical conception. Because of the advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun, the cephalocentrism became the main stream in the anatomical conception. The supporters of the Wang Yangming's Xinxue(the Learning of Heart and Mind) argued that the heart was the central organ of perception, sensitivity, and morality of the human body in medicine since 16th century. Even reformist and revolutionary intellectuals like Tan sitong and Mao zedong who had supported the Wang Yangming's Xinxue embraced the cephalocentrism in the late 19th century and the early 20th century. May Fourth intellectuals had not obsessed metaphysical interpretation of human body any more in the New Culture Movement in 1910s. They regarded human body as the object of research and writing. The anatomy was transformed into the instrumental knowledge for mutilation of the body. Yilingaicuo challenged the traditional conception of body, and Chinese intellectuals drew interest in the anatomy knowledge based on real mutilation. Quantixinlun based on Western medicine fueled a controversy about anatomy. Though new knowledge of anatomy was criticized by traditional Chinese medical doctors from the usefulness and morality of anatomy, nobody disavowed new knowledge of anatomy from the institutionalization of Western medicine in medical school. The internal development of cephalocentrism and positivism had influence on anatomy in China since 16th century. The advent of Yilingaicuo and Quantixinlun provided the milestone of new anatomy, though both sides represented traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine respectively. They

  18. [The cultural, economic and social context of Ramazzini's Diatriba in the second half of the 17th century--in memory of Pericle Di Pietro on occasion of the third centenary of the publication of the final edition of the Diatriba (Padua, 1713)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, G

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at analyzing the development of Ramazzini's train of thought in Diatriba within the cultural, economic and social context of the Duchy of Modena in the second half of the seventeenth century. The period was characterized by a deep recession affecting every aspect of life in the territory: culture was mostly at the service of the court's image, the economy, mainly based on agriculture, was in crisis and many crafts depended on the demands of the nobility. The culture of the Este court had, however, little influence on Ramazzini's ideas, whereas social and economic aspects were the stimulus to his experimentalism via observation. In this context, Ramazzini was an illuminated nonconformist, who analysed the vulnerability of the population with an anthropological approach that embraced individuals, environment, social and economic status.

  19. Eating Serial: Beatrice Lindsay, Vegetarianism, and the Tactics of Everyday Life in the Late Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper derives from research I conducted in the archives of the Vegetarian Society, in Manchester, in October 2011 on the figure of Beatrice Lindsay, a graduate from Girton College, Cambridge, who, in 1885, became the first female editor of the Society’s journal, the Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger. In addition to her position as editor, Lindsay contributed a monthly column on “New Foods” in which she displayed her fluency with scientific terminology not simply to advocate the vegetarian diet, but to make the diet practicable for readers. I argue that her column uses the serial form of the periodical, which presents novel content within a regular structure, to shape inchoate vegetarianism: she gradually constituted the emerging diets, habits, and bodies of vegetarians by, each month, introducing readers to novel content (“new foods” within a recurrent form.

  20. On Canadian’s Multiculturalism in the Late 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆育红

    2014-01-01

    In 1971 the government of Canada adopted the policy of multiculturalism. Since then Canada has become the first western country to announce and implement an official policy of multiculturalism. While it is not easy to achieve this policy. The policies seem just to strengthen the racial consciousness in some extent, and the immigrant groups have to tackle the problem of how to fuse into the Canadian culture. Multiculturalism will have a bright future only if it would experience constant adjustment and improvement.

  1. A culture of technical knowledge: Professionalizing science and engineering education in late-nineteenth century America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienkamp, Paul

    This manuscript examines the intellectual, cultural, and practical approaches to science and engineering education as a part of the land-grant college movement in the Midwest between the 1850s and early 1900s. These land-grant institutions began and grew within unique frontier societies that both cherished self-reliance and diligently worked to make themselves part of the larger national experience. College administrators and professors encountered rapidly changing public expectations, regional needs, and employment requirements. They recognized a dire need for technically skilled men and women who could quickly adapt to changes in equipment and processes, and implement advances in scientific knowledge in American homes, fields, and factories. Charged with educating the "industrial classes in the several pursuits and professions in life," land-grant college supporters and professors sought out the most modern and innovative instructional methods. Combining the humanities, sciences, and practical skills that they believed uniquely suited student needs, these pioneering educators formulated new curricula and training programs that advanced both the knowledge and the social standing of America's agricultural and mechanical working classes.

  2. Labeling the good: alternative visions and organic branding in Sweden in the late twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Oskar

    2010-01-01

    The past decade's rapid expansion of a global market for organic food has set powerful economic and political forces in motion. The most important dividing line is whether organic food production should be an alternative to or a niche within a capitalist mode of production. To explore this conflict the article analyzes the formation of a market for eco-labeled milk in Sweden. The analysis draws on three aspects: the strategy of agri-business, the role of eco-labeling, and the importance of inter-organizational dynamics. Based on archival studies, daily press, and interviews, three processes are emphasized: the formative years of the alternative movement in the 1970s, the founding of an independent eco-label (KRAV) in the 1980s, and a discursive shift from alternative visions to organic branding in the early 1990s following the entry of agri-business.

  3. The modernization of the traditional jewish education in Kherson and Katerynoslav provinces (late nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Yashyn

    2014-03-01

    Since the beginning of 1880 processes of secularization and Russification were slowing, and the circle of adherents, ideologues, heads of educational change becomes an expression of national ­ oriented coloring. In general, it’s concluded that the changes have been economically and are determined to meet the needs of a certain stage of development of Jewish communities in the region.

  4. Aerial photographs reveal late-20th-century dynamic ice loss in northwestern greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Korsgaard, Niels J

    2012-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to have a profound impact on the Greenland Ice Sheet and its contribution to global sea-level rise. Recent mass loss in the northwest of Greenland has been substantial. Using aerial photographs, we produced digital elevation models and extended the time record of recent...

  5. [The art of going hungry. Anorexia in medical texts in the late 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezemann, N

    2000-01-01

    The essay analyzes representations of anorexia in French, English and German medical literature from 1870 to 1900, paying specific attention to rhetorical patterns. Unlike other nervous diseases, anorexia was considered a somatic illness. Rather than subjects, patients were regarded simply as skeletal bodies. Most medical case histories enact the transformation of an emaciated body into a nubile woman-slender, perhaps, but ready for marriage. The patients are described as studious girls who 'devour' literature instead of food. This metaphor is taken from etiology to therapy, when the so-called "Mastkur" in the sanatorium replaces 'enormous' amounts of literature with 'enormous' amounts of food to be eaten.

  6. RUSSIA’S RESETTLEMENT POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA IN LATE XIX TH CENTURY IN DOMESTIC JOURNALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алексей Львович Климашин

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available В сообщении рассматривается отношение русских публицистов к переселенческому движению в Средней Азии в конце XIX в. Выявляются взгляды на ход колонизации представителей различных течений общественного движения России, их отношение к деятельности местной администрации по устройству переселенцев и решению земельного вопроса.

  7. Inter-ethnic marriage patterns in late sixteenth-century Shetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knooihuizen, Remco

    2008-01-01

    Remco Knooihuizen is a postgraduate student in Linguistics and English Language at the University of Edinburgh, focusing on the sociolinguistics of minority languages in Early Modern Europe. As such he has a keen interest in the (population) history of this period, which can be extremely relevant to linguistic developments.

  8. Wealth, health and equity: convergence to divergence in late 20th century globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Debate over relationships between economic growth, wealth, health and health inequity is long-standing and ongoing. The main message of this paper is that economic growth, while necessary, is not a sufficient condition in itself for achieving equitable health. This review surveys and draws on research into principal factors commonly linked with improving health-income, health care, individual behavior-suggesting, using work from the Commission on Social Determinants of Health, that these are better understood in a broader social determinants of health framework. The paper acknowledges that post-war globalization has seen significant growth, poverty reduction and greater economic resources at individual and household levels all of which can contribute to better health. But it also highlights renewing inequity in global health during the period. It argues that over-reliance on market-driven growth, which fails to address deep-rooted social inequalities in economic resources key to accessing social determinants of health, and in the key determinants of health themselves have contributed to increasing inequity in health outcomes. Commitment to market-driven growth remains evident in national policy-making worldwide. With increasing health inequity, and calamitous global economic events in 2008-09, the centrality of this commitment needs urgently to be reviewed.

  9. Physical attractiveness and reproductive success in humans: Evidence from the late 20 century United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Physical attractiveness has been associated with mating behavior, but its role in reproductive success of contemporary humans has received surprisingly little attention. In the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (1244 women, 997 men born between 1937 and 1940) we examined whether attractiveness assessed from photographs taken at age ~18 predicted the number of biological children at age 53-56. In women, attractiveness predicted higher reproductive success in a nonlinear fashion, so that attractive (second highest quartile) women had 16% and very attractive (highest quartile) women 6% more children than their less attractive counterparts. In men, there was a threshold effect so that men in the lowest attractiveness quartile had 13% fewer children than others who did not differ from each other in the average number of children. These associations were partly but not completely accounted for by attractive participants' increased marriage probability. A linear regression analysis indicated relatively weak directional selection gradient for attractiveness (β=0.06 in women, β=0.07 in men). These findings indicate that physical attractiveness may be associated with reproductive success in humans living in industrialized settings.

  10. Re-envisioning the sites and sights of the late twentieth century study of religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind I. J. Hackett

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author shares some of the findings, observations, and stimulating insights from colleagues and students gathered during visits to various parts of the world.The academic study of religion must now encompass more than it has done until now the effects of modern media and communications technologies, global consumption patterns, cultural mobility, and changing geo-political configurations. Scholars of religion are are being outpaced by these developments, whether because of the limitations of vision, or the shortsightedness of theoretical lenses.' The argument is that sites such as art, the media, Internet, outer space, diasporas, global culture, nature, and the public space deserve critical attention - not just for reasons of content, but because these new or neglected sites offer a potential challenge to our categories and concepts. Focus has to be shifted increasingly from bounded local cultures to transnational cultural flows and the significance of place has to be reexamined. This paper has suggests a number of pathways that are deserving of more exploration by scholars of religion. What we choose to include or exclude from our gaze affects the nature of our discourse(s through and through. The whole business of "seeing" is integral to both the academic enterprise as well as the political economy of the academic study of religion. This paper highlights some of the exciting new areas that face us as students of religious ideas and phenomena, and point to their methodological implications.

  11. ‘La Querelle des Femmes’ in the Late Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan W. Scott

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the feminist debates on the parity movement in France in the 1990s. It shows how French and North-American feminists deploy stereotypes in articulating theoretical and political arguments for and against parity. Drawing comparisons between historical debates women’s political representation in France during the foundation of republicanism with more contemporary discussions, the author focuses on the arguments offered by contemporary defenders and opponents of the parity movement, including those advanced by feminists intellectuals situated on both the left and the liberal sides of the political spectrum. The author analizes how these arguments rely on binary oppositions such as equality and difference, and communitarism and universalism, claiming that the parity movement has opened a new conversation about the future of French politics and the universalist premises upon which its republicanism has been based.

  12. Australian wheat production expected to decrease by the late 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Liu, De L; O'Leary, Garry J; Asseng, Senthold; Macadam, Ian; Lines-Kelly, Rebecca; Yang, Xihua; Clark, Anthony; Crean, Jason; Sides, Timothy; Xing, Hongtao; Mi, Chunrong; Yu, Qiang

    2017-12-28

    Climate change threatens global wheat production and food security, including the wheat industry in Australia. Many studies have examined the impacts of changes in local climate on wheat yield per hectare, but there has been no assessment of changes in land area available for production due to changing climate. It is also unclear how total wheat production would change under future climate when autonomous adaptation options are adopted. We applied species distribution models to investigate future changes in areas climatically suitable for growing wheat in Australia. A crop model was used to assess wheat yield per hectare in these areas. Our results show that there is an overall tendency for a decrease in the areas suitable for growing wheat and a decline in the yield of the northeast Australian wheat belt. This results in reduced national wheat production although future climate change may benefit South Australia and Victoria. These projected outcomes infer that similar wheat-growing regions of the globe might also experience decreases in wheat production. Some cropping adaptation measures increase wheat yield per hectare and provide significant mitigation of the negative effects of climate change on national wheat production by 2041-2060. However, any positive effects will be insufficient to prevent a likely decline in production under a high CO 2 emission scenario by 2081-2100 due to increasing losses in suitable wheat-growing areas. Therefore, additional adaptation strategies along with investment in wheat production are needed to maintain Australian agricultural production and enhance global food security. This scenario analysis provides a foundation towards understanding changes in Australia's wheat cropping systems, which will assist in developing adaptation strategies to mitigate climate change impacts on global wheat production. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The American in Europe as Portrayed in American Literature of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-22

    understood. In the end, James uses all of these characters to draw a distinction between stereotypical Americans and Europeans. One critic, James Tuttleton...lover in the ruins by moonlight , she would probably never have caught malaria. She falls critically ill because of the malaria and ultimately dies...America’s political dominance was established, ,.ry few people could question its cultural dominance. Today, Hollywood films are shown in every

  14. THE ENGINE AND THE REAPER: INDUSTRIALIZATION AND MORTALITY IN LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, John P

    2017-12-01

    Economic development improves long-run health outcomes through access to medical treatment, sanitation, and higher income. Short run impacts, however, may be ambiguous given disease exposure from market integration. Using a panel dataset of Japanese vital statistics and multiple estimation methods, I find that railroad network expansion is associated with a six percent increase in gross mortality rates among newly integrated regions. Communicable diseases accounted for most of the rail-associated mortality, which indicate railways behaved as transmission vectors. At the same time, market integration facilitated by railways corresponded with an eighteen percent increase in total capital investment nationwide over ten years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Health and demography in late 19th century Kimberley : a palaeopathological assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merwe, Alie Emily van der

    2010-01-01

    One-hundred-and-forty-five unmarked graves were accidentally uncovered outside the Gladstone cemetery in Kimberley, South Africa, in 2003. This study aimed to describe the archaeological findings, demographic composition and health of the unknown human remains excavated from the site. Fifteen graves

  16. CLASSIFICATION OF SOURCES ON HISTORY OF ARMED CONFLICT IN CHECHEN REPUBLIC IN LATE 20 TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Николай Николаевич Малишевский

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of historiography of the armed conflict in the Chechen Republic. The analysis enabled to classify available sources on this subject by the functional-specific criterion -a source and a data carrier, that is the way of its fixing, comprising three principal types of sources: written (text, cartographical and audiovisual. The information potential of available sources on the armed conflict history in Chechen Republic is not limited to certain subjects and promotes disclosing of such aspects of the conflict as: - stages (the first campaign, the second campaign, the counterterrorism operation; - opposition methods (active and passive; - opposition forms (collective and individual; - system of military-political management of territory; - scale and intensity of clashes; - a complex of actions of the state peace-making policy and feature of its realization; - specificity of participation of separate groups of the population; - regional aspect of events (on the scale of separate settlement, area etc. - conflict history in persons; - problems of the thematic literature.

  17. Why was Ethiopia not colonized during the late-nineteenth century 'Scramble for Africa'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    't Hart, M.; Baten, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Explanation why Ethiopia was not conquered by European states in a time when they easily invaded almost all other remaining independent countries in Africa. The reason is found in an age-long sound agricultural structure, enabled by favorable environmental conditions, and a concomitant age-long

  18. The Empress Frederick and Female Education in the Late Nineteenth Century: Germany, England and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albisetti, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The long-time Prussian/German Crown Princess Victoria (1840-1901), known after her husband's death as the Empress Frederick, played an important role as patroness of and advocate for many forms of academic and vocational education for girls and women. This article examines her work for various institutions in Berlin as well as her homeland. It…

  19. [The development of idea of psychiatric care decentralization in late XIX - early XX centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The article demonstrates that over a period of many years the development of national psychiatric care in Russia followed the course of centralization. During the Zemstvo self government period the principle of decentralization was proposed on purpose to make the psychiatric care more accessible for population.

  20. The Costs of Public and Private Gas Enterprises in Late 19th Century Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Millward, Robert; Ward, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Data for a sample of thirty-five U.K. gas undertakings for 1898 was used to estimate a translog cost function. Labor accou nted for less than 15 percent of total costs. Changes in outlays on c oal have significant effects on total costs. Economies of scale exist but tend to disappear at production volumes which are near to averag e for the provincial gas undertakings. After controlling for factor p rices, population density, and output levels, municipal enterprises a re shown to have lower co...

  1. Late Hallstatt pottery from north-eastern Serbia (6th to 4th century BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapuran Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By looking at prehistoric collections and unpublished material from the museums in north-eastern Serbia, as well as by surveying and excavating, new information was gained which fulfills the image of material and spiritual culture of prehistoric communities from the end of the Early Iron Age. Usually, for a closer chronological determination, metal jewellery and weapons were considered. Pottery finds were published only occasionally, usually due to contexts which were not clear enough, or due to chronological insensitivity (unless they were grave goods, but also due to stylistic and typological differences not clearly distinguished between the 'Basarabi' culture and the culture of 'channelled pottery'. This paper aims to define features of pottery production from different sites, more precisely, those found in the territory between the Iron Gates, Ključ and the Timok valley.

  2. Tao stoics : late twentieth century lessons in wisdom or subjects for discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, L.

    1990-01-01

    The book discusses many pieces of wisdom and human dignity,ethics and happiness as there are in the books of all ages, but now relative to the lethal problems of today. The set-up of the master-disciple relation, which is used in the television Kung Fu series, is applied and of the other Chinese

  3. Following its inception in the late 19th century, the commercial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    2002-11-01

    Nov 1, 2002 ... were several changes that were made to the fishing gear as a means of .... placement from suitable habitat, both of which could reduce the amount of .... It is therefore essential that the management plan for this resource ...

  4. Local responses to French medical imperialism in late nineteenth-century Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, William

    2007-08-01

    This article offers the first account of the lives of Algerian-born doctors working in the French colonial medical service between 1870 and 1900. Their stories reveal the manner in which the idea of medical imperialism had collapsed in Algeria, as a result of maladministration, racial policies, competition between civil and military authorities, budgetary constraints and the rise of the colons. The article also indicates the way in which medicine became a locus of opposition to French rule. It shows how the first decades of the Third Republic were critical in terms of a shift from the earlier idea of medicine serving as an emblem of the mission civilisatrice to the ideological potential of medicine being seen in much more nuanced terms by both French settlers and Algerian locals. It is argued that the notion of cultural resistance to imperialism through medicine emerges in the 1870s and 1880s, thereby prefiguring the work of Fanon and the Front de Liberation Nationale's later analysis of the 'sickness' of colonial Algerian society.

  5. The (sexual) politics of evolution: popular controversy in the late 20th-century United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Angela

    2007-05-01

    This article outlines the major threads of controversy around the emerging subject of evolutionary psychology in the U.K. mass media during the 1990s. Much of this controversy centered on the role of evolution in shaping human gender roles and sexualities, contributing to the subject's mass appeal. This case is used to illustrate the argument that in theorizing about evolution and humans, "human nature" and "human origins" both provide a flexible resource for making arguments about how people do and should relate to one another and that such theorizing is therefore reflective of how power is held (and contested) in society. In the case of popular evolutionary psychology, shifts in the U.K. political landscape during the 1990s combined with changes in gender and sexual politics to create a situation where evolutionary theorizing about humans became more acceptable than it had been in the past. This was particularly true in left-liberal media, where a newfound compatibility between certain aspects of Darwinism and feminism created a very different space for debating gender, sexuality, and the role of human nature in today's society.

  6. Lesbian Investigations: Encoded Detective Films in the Late Twentieth-Century USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aintzane Legarreta Mentxaka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The last twenty years have seen an unexpected eruption of interest in lesbian narratives or stories with lesbian protagonists, with films such as Mulholland Drive (2001, Blue is the Warmest Colour (2013, or Carol (2015, making an impact on general audiences and pointing to a certain mainstreaming in transcending the lesbian-interest label. In an archaeology of lesbian representation in film, it is, however, useful to consider other relevant films aimed at the general public that bridge the encoded pre-Stonewall narratives and the current, unconcealed lesbian characters and stories. The present essay looks at two closely-related mainstream dramas from the 1980s and 1990s which, despite having received little critical attention, bridge that gap because they are poised on the historical line between encoded and uncoded films amenable to lesbian readings: Black Widow directed by Bob Rafelson (1987 and Hit and Run directed by Dan Lerner (1999.

  7. Hydrocephalus-history of surgical treatment over the centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Aleksandar J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To trace the history of the treatment of hydrocephalus is to document the parallel development of medicine as a whole; when one reviews the treatment of hydrocephalus, the integral relationship between basic science and therapy is reaffirmed. The treatment of hydrocephalus, over the centuries, underwent three stages of evolution. Prior to the late 19 th century, treatment for 'water on the brain' involved more observation than intervention. During antiquity, middle ages and renaissance, hydrocephalus was not understood. Medical treatment was useless; surgery was hopeless. The second stage extends from the 19th century to the end of the first half of the 20 th century. Cerebrospinal fluid circulation was now understood; surgery however, remained inefficient, but some patients survived with arrested hydrocephalus. The third stage begins in the nineteen fifties with the development of silicone shunts with a valve. Surgery transforms the prognosis of hydrocephalus, but the number of post-operative complications creates new problems. The different attempts that have been made during these past two decades to solve these problems are reviewed. They have resulted in a reduction of the mechanical and infectious complications. CSF over drainage has been minimized. Percutaneous ventriculo-cisternostomies have in some cases replaced shunts. In the future, to improve outcome in these hydrocephalics, surgery, when indicated, should be performed as early as possible. Knowledge and prevention of the causes of hydrocephalus should be developed. As we progress further in this new millennium, it is appropriate to reflect on the past understanding and treatment of this disorder, review strategies to curb this disease process, and consider therapies and possibly cures that will be available in the future.

  8. Cervantes and Literary Preceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Garrido Gallardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The historiography of literary culture often links the Quixote and, by extension, the work of Cervantes with the Preceptive, a theme that perseveringly appears in the curricular studies from the late seventeenth century to the early twentieth century. Not being literary Preceptive more than a normative version of the Poetics and Rhetoric, this paper examines the possible relationship of Cervantes’ work with the normative aspect of both disciplines, such as they flourished in the sixteenth century and early seventeenth century. The symptomatic example of Juan de la Cueva’s El Ejemplar poético (1606 is explored and the itinerary of three possible relationships is followed: the acceptance or rejection of the current preceptive by the author, the presumed adoption of the preceptive as a set of generative rules of its own creation and the use of Cervantes’ production as an example and lesson for the future preceptive.

  9. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-01-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  10. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-11-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  11. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  12. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in

  13. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, M. A.; Brown, P.; Morris, H. R.; Lees, A.

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor tics were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The tics developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex tics may occur in

  14. Peruvian Education at a Crossroads: Challenges and Opportunities for the 21st Century. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kin Bing

    Peruvian education achieved notable successes in the late 20th century, with primary education reaching almost all children and secondary institutions enrolling about 80 percent of 12- to 16-year-olds. Public expenditure on education increased steadily in the 1990s but was still significantly less than the Latin American average. This report…

  15. Fish abundance, fisheries, fish trade and consumption in sixteenth-century Netherlands as described by Adriaen Coenen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bennema, F.P.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Concern about fisheries impact on marine ecosystems has raised the interest in the reconstruction of the state of marine ecosystems and the nature of the human activities in the past. We present late 16th century information on the occurrence and relative abundance of biota in Dutch coastal and

  16. Early 20th Century Education in the United States: The Role of the Brothers of Holy Cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Philip C.

    2007-01-01

    The French Revolution bears an ironic responsibility for generating works of charity. To counteract the devastating social effects of that late 18th century uprising, numerous religious communities were founded in France, among them the Congregation of Holy Cross. The Congregation of Holy Cross, the founding religious community behind the…

  17. Childish Pleasures and Adult Fears: Reflections on becoming Literate in the Twentieth and Twenty-First Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Cath

    2010-01-01

    With the Skills for Life strategy came new professional qualifications for teachers of literacy to adults. Having learned to be literate themselves in the mid-to-late twentieth century, how ready are these teachers to take on the challenges of preparing their learners for the literacies of the new millennium? This paper comes out of doctoral…

  18. From a Formalist to a Practical Aesthetic in Undergraduate Theatre Studies: Becoming Relevant in the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkeley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    As a new century unfolds, the "downsizing" and continuing marginalization of the humanities, including theatre, in American higher education correspond to three trends in the academy. First, in response to the fiscal crises that began in the late 1970s, universities have increasingly turned to the private sector for financial support as federal…

  19. Black and white body mass index values in developing nineteenth century Nebraska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about late 19th and early 20th century BMIs on the US Central Plains. Using data from the Nebraska state prison, this study demonstrates that the BMIs of dark complexioned blacks were greater than for fairer complexioned mulattos and whites. Although modern BMIs have increased, late 19th and early 20th century BMIs in Nebraska were in normal ranges; neither underweight nor obese individuals were common. Farmer BMIs were consistently greater than those of non-farmers, and farm labourer BMIs were greater than those of common labourers. The BMIs of individuals born in Plains states were greater than for other nativities, indicating that rural lifestyles were associated with better net current biological living conditions.

  20. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaniewski

    Full Text Available The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  1. Landscape and climate change in the central Canadian Rockies during the 20. century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckman, B. H. [Western Ontario Univ., Dept. of Geography, London, ON (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Selected evidence of environmental changes in the central Canadian Rocky Mountains region during the 20. century are reviewed. Climatic records show an annual mean temperature rise of 1.4 degrees C over the last 100 years. Greatest increases have been in winter temperatures (3.2 degrees C/century). Precipitation changes also varied considerably with generally highest flows in the mid-20. century. A tree-ring based temperature reconstruction indicates summer and spring temperatures in the last half of the 20. century higher than any equivalent period over the last 900 years. Glaciers are estimated to have lost 25 per cent of their area in the last 100 years. It is believed that they are smaller now than at any time in the last 3000 years. These two lines of evidence indicate that the climate of the late 20. century is exceptional when viewed in the context of the last one to three millenia. Changes in vegetation also have been observed at the upper treeline ecotone in response to climate changes over the last century, but the most significant change in the last 100 years is the transformation of the character of the montane forest due to reduction in forest fire frequency, resulting from an active policy of fire suppression. 81 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. A Century of Environmental Legislation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cain, Louis P.; Kaiser, Brooks

    2016-01-01

    in natural resource use by analyzing roll call votes over the past century with a Random Utility Model (Manski, 1977) and conclude that economics mattered. So did ideology, but not uniformly. After World War II, the pro-environment vote which had been conservative shifted to being liberal. All these votes...... involved decisions regarding public land that reallocated the returns to users by changing the asset’s physical character or its usage rights. We suggest that long-term consequences affecting current resource allocations arose from disparities between broadly dispersed benefits and locally concentrated...

  3. Nineteenth-century aether theories

    CERN Document Server

    Schaffner, Kenneth F

    2013-01-01

    Nineteenth-Century Aether Theories focuses on aether theories. The selection first offers information on the development of aether theories by taking into consideration the positions of Christiaan Huygens, Thomas Young, and Augustin Fresnel. The text then examines the elastic solid aether. Concerns include Green's aether theory, MacCullagh's aether theory, and Kelvin's aether theory. The text also reviews Lorentz' aether and electron theory. The development of Lorentz' ideas of the stagnant aether and electrons; Lorentz' theorem of corresponding states and its development; and Lorentz' respons

  4. Frontiers twentieth-century physics

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The revolution in twentieth century physics has changed the way we think about space, time and matter and our own place in the universe. It has offered answers to many of the big questions of existence, such as the ultimate nature of things and the how the universe came into being. It has undermined our belief in a Newtonian mechanistic universe and a deterministic future, posing questions about parallel universes, time-travel and the origin and end of everything. At the same time we have witnessed amazing attempts at unification so that physicists are able to contemplate the discovery of a si

  5. Gender Disturbance: Women and War in 20th Century United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Claire; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Cacqueray, Elizabeth de; Esteves, Olivier; Magot, Céline; Meschia, Karen; Molinari, Véronique; Noakes, Lucy; Pham Dinh, Rose-May; Stirling, Martine; Vervaecke, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In most societies gender stereotyped roles attribute to men combative functions related to defence and attack, whilst women are engaged in the functions of motherhood and caring for the community. This was nowhere more the case than in the UK, in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century: strict division of gender roles, in the middle and upper classes, allotting men to the public domain and women to the home, suited the demands of developing industrial production. However, between 1939...

  6. Discovery and characterization of the major late blight resistance complex in potato: genomic structure, functional diversity, and implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, S.

    2005-01-01

    Potato is the most important non-cereal crop in the world. Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is the most devastating disease of potato. In the mid-191h century, P. infestans attacked the European potato fields and this resulted in a widespread famine in Ireland.

  7. Chemistry as the defining science: discipline and training in nineteenth-century chemical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Catherine M

    2011-06-01

    The institutional revolution has become a major landmark of late-nineteenth century science, marking the rapid construction of large, institutional laboratories which transformed scientific training and practice. Although it has served historians of physics well, the institutional revolution has proved much more contentious in the case of chemistry. I use published sources, mainly written by chemists and largely focused on laboratories built in German-speaking lands between about 1865 and 1900, to show that chemical laboratory design was inextricably linked to productive practice, large-scale pedagogy and disciplinary management. I argue that effective management of the novel risks inherent in teaching and doing organic synthesis was significant in driving and shaping the construction of late-nineteenth century institutional chemical laboratories, and that these laboratories were essential to the disciplinary development of chemistry. Seen in this way, the laboratory necessarily becomes part of the material culture of late-nineteenth century chemistry, and I show how this view leads not only to a revision of what is usually known as the laboratory revolution in chemistry but also to a new interpretation of the institutional revolution in physics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Late baryogenesis faces primordial nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbourgo-Salvador, P.; Audouze, J.; Salati, P.

    1991-11-01

    Since the sphalleron mechanism present in the standard theory of electro-weak interactions violates B+L, models have been suggested where baryogenesis takes place at late epochs and is concomitant with primordial nucleosynthesis. The possibility for the baryon asymmetry to be generated was numerically investigated at the same time as the light elements are cooked. The primordial yields of D, 3 He, 4 He and 7 Li were shown to exceed the upper limits inferred from observation, unless baryogenesis is anterior to the freeze-out of the weak interactions. This implies strong constraints on scenarios where the baryon asymmetry originates from the late decay of massive gravitinos. (author) 18 refs., 6 figs

  9. Engines for experiment: laboratory revolution and industrial labor in the nineteenth-century city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierig, Sven

    2003-01-01

    This article brings together what until now have been separate fields of nineteenth-century history: the development of experimental physiology, the growth of mechanized industry, and the city, where their threads intertwined. The main argument is that the laboratory in the city employed the same technological and organizational approaches to modernize that the city used to industrialize. To bring the adoption of technology into focus, the article discusses laboratory research as it developed after the introduction of small-scale power engines. With its machines, the industrialized city provided not only the key metaphor of the nineteenth-century life sciences but also a key technology that shifted experimental practices in animal research from a kind of preindustrial craft to a more mechanized production of knowledge. With its "factory-laboratories," the late-nineteenth-century city became the birthplace for the first living, data-producing hybird---part animal and part machine.

  10. Late radiation pathology of mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, S N

    1982-01-01

    The comprehensive monograph on delayed radiation effects in mammals including man comprises 3 main chapters dealing with non-neoplastic as well as neoplastic manifestations of late radiation pathology, with the prophylaxis of delayed radiation effects, and with the therapy of radiation injuries. Alterations induced by whole-body irradiation and delayed radiation effects caused by partial body irradiation are described in detail. The developmental mechanisms and pathogenesis of non-neoplastic pathological changes and of radiation-induced neoplasms are elaborated.

  11. LATE NEUROSYPHILIS: TRENDS AND CHALLENGES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimitrov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Syphilis is not only a disease of historical importance. It has been recognized that nowadays, in the era of AIDS, it still remains a serious challenge. For the last two decades there has been a resumption of neurosyphilis cases. This has revived the interest in the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges that the disease presents to clinical practice and to healthcare systems. Material/Methods: We present the overall picture of newly registered cases of syphilis in Varna municipality between 2009 and 2013, and report a case of neurosyphilis diagnosed at the first clinic of neurological diseases of St. Marina University Hospital during this period. Results: For the 5-year period, newly registered cases of syphilis in Varna have shown a tendency towards a decrease. Patients were typically in the early stages of the disease, primary and secondary. Late manifestations dropped from 29 in 2009 to 0 in 2010, but increased again to 15 in 2013. Only 1 case of neurosyphilis was registered during the 5-year period, in 2013. Conclusions: Neurological syndromes observed in cases of late neurosyphilis, presenting in different clinical forms, require a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses. Attention in everyday clinical practice should be focused on these cases which, though rare, are of high medical and social importance. Clinical cases of late neurosyphilis are often atypical and the early consideration of serologic tests or even biopsy may be of critical importance.

  12. The late-M dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Far-red spectra and VRIJHK photometry have been obtained for a sample of late-M dwarfs selected on the basis of large reduced red magnitudes from the LHS Catalog. Half of the stars in the three faintest 1 mag bins are late-M stars, the other red stars are metallic-hydride subdwarfs. Relations between various colors for the late-M dwarfs are investigated. Of all the colors I - K most reliably correlates with spectral type. FeH bands near 9900 A are clearly seen in the spectra of all dwarf stars later than M5. Two stars cooler than VB10, and similar in temperature to LHS2924 have been identified; both have H-alpha in emission and appear variable in magnitude and R - I color; one is a flare star. The other stars are of earlier spectral type and resemble W359 and VB8. The observed MI, I - K main sequence is in good agreement with the IG theoretical main sequence of Stringfellow, and the faintest stars could be about 0.09 solar mass red dwarfs or lower mass brown dwarfs. 65 refs

  13. Keeping Secrets: Leslie E. Keeley, the Gold Cure and the Nineteenth-Century Neuroscience of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Timothy A

    2018-03-25

    Dr Leslie E. Keeley was perhaps the world's most famous addiction cure doctor at the turn of the twentieth century, but mainstream medicine dismissed him as a quack because he dispensed a secret cure. The article aims to describe Keeley's now largely forgotten story and to draw attention to the role of contextual issues in the acceptance or rejection of any theory of addiction, particularly the neuroscientific theories of the early twenty first century. This study is a qualitative assessment and contextualisation of historical documents. Its main sources are archival and are for the most part unknown to historians. The article also offers intellectual and historical context that is drawn from leading historical and sociological analyses. Keeley's addiction cure was dismissed as quackery because it failed to meet the changing standards of late-nineteenth century professional medicine. This begs us to consider contextual issues in any assertion of the viability of addiction therapeutics, in the present as well the past. Keeley's near erasure from the historical record was a consequence of a broader, late-nineteenth century medical power struggle that took precedence over the testimony of tens of thousands of satisfied patients who claimed that Keeley's cure worked. Context matters in the assessment of the viability of theories of addiction from the past but also from the present. Historians and social scientists are well placed to make those assessments. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. A new diverse turtle fauna in the late Kimmeridgian of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Anquetin, Jérémy

    2014-01-01

    Talk given at the 12th Swiss Geoscience Meeting in Fribourg, Switzerland, November 22nd, 2014.   Abstract: During the Kimmeridgian and the Tithonian (Late Jurassic), Europe was the theater of the diversification of numerous coastal eucryptodiran turtles (Plesiochelyidae, Thalassemydidae, and Eurysternidae). Most turtle assemblages were discovered during the 19th century. The best localities and horizons include the Kimmeridge Clay of England, the Turtle Limestone of Solothurn, Switze...

  15. A century of Dutch neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, P J; Bruyn, G W; Moffie, D

    1998-12-01

    The Netherlands Society of Neurology evolved from the Society of Psychiatry founded in 1871. The name was changed into Netherlands Society of Psychiatry and Neurology (NSPN) in 1897. In the same year, the word neurology was also added to the name of the journal. The Society steadily blossomed, but in 1909 the first signs of dissatisfaction occurred: the Amsterdam Neurologists Society was founded. A few split-offs would follow. The number of members of the NSPN increased from 205 in 1920 to 585 in 1960. In the early 1960s, the Society was reorganised and would consist of two sections, one for psychiatry and one for neurology. However, this would not last, as a full separation was established in 1974. For several reasons, the name of the journal was changed four times until it assumed its present name in 1974. The 100th volume of CNN was not published, as expected. in 1996, but in 1998, because of two skipped publication years, one during WWII and another in the 1970s. During the last decades of the nineteenth century, teaching of neurology was mostly given within the frame of psychiatry, following the German tradition of 'brainpsychiatry' (organic or biologic psychiatry). The first official chair of psychiatry was founded at Utrecht, 1893 (Winkler). In Amsterdam, private teachers such as Delprat taught 'electro-therapy and nervous diseases' since the 1880s. The first extraordinary chair of neurology and electrotherapy was founded for his successor, Wertheim Salomonson in 1899. The first university clinic for psychiatry and neurology started at the Amsterdam Municipal University, when Winkler became professor of psychiatry and neurology in Amsterdam in 1896. Around the turn of the century, chairs of psychiatry and neurology were also founded in Groningen and Leiden. Separate chairs for neurology and psychiatry appeared in Amsterdam in 1923 and in Utrecht in 1936. Following an initiative of Brouwer, the first neurological university clinic opened its doors in

  16. Late Effects of Polio: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polio Wellness Retreats For Health Professionals The Late Effects of Polio: An Overview FRENCH | GERMAN | PORTUGUESE POLIOMYELITIS ( ... largest and most inclusive category is called Late Effects of Polio or Polio Sequelae and is defined ...

  17. The century of nuclear materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Lou; Was, Gary S.; Zinkle, Steve; Petti, David; Ukai, Shigeharu

    2018-03-01

    In the spring of 1959 the well-read metallurgist would have noticed the first issue of an infant Journal, one dedicated to a unique and fast growing field of materials issues associated with nuclear energy systems. The periodical, Journal of Nuclear Materials (JNM), is now the leading publication in the field from which it takes its name, thriving beyond the rosiest expectations of its founders. The discipline is well into the second half-century. During that time much has been achieved in nuclear materials; the Journal provides the authoritative record of virtually all those accomplishments. These pages introduce the 500th volume, a significant measure in the world of publishing. The Editors reflect on the progress in the field and the role of this journal.

  18. 21st Century Security Manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian ARION

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We live in world of uncertainty that generates major paradigms changing that affect security risk management. Modern organization’s security risks management can’t be done without a profound knowlegde and daily practice for security governance, security risk management and resilience. 21st Century security manager need to deal with several areas of konwledge in order to succesfully manage security risks. The document presents the advantages, disadvantages and challenges for security managers thah have government backgroud, or IT security backgroud, or are promoted from organization’s inside leaders. There are six different areas of knowledge that successful security programs of the future must incorporate, either in the knowledge base of their leaders or in the collective knowledge of the leading staff. They are government elements, security organization, emerging issue awareness, IT security, business elements and executive leadership.

  19. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado, Júnior

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Resumo: Objetivo: revisar a literatura sobre prematuridade tardia (nascimentos de 34 semanas a 36 semanas e seis dias em seus vários aspectos. Fonte dos dados: buscas nas bases MEDLINE, LILACS e Biblioteca Cochrane, sem limite de tempo, e nas referências bibliográficas dos artigos encontrados. Síntese dos dados: muitos estudos mostram aumento na taxa de prematuridade tardia nos últimos anos. Em todas as séries, os prematuros tardios correspondem à maioria dos nascimentos prematuros. Estudos envolvendo análises de milhões de

  20. Worldwide surface temperature trends since the mid-19th century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) for the period 1856 to the present have been corrected to compensate for the use of uninsulated buckets prior to the early 1940s. Trends in the corrected SST are consistent with trends in independently corrected nighttime marine air temperatures (NMAT). Global-scale patterns of variation of annual anomalies of SST and NMAT, as revealed by the first three covariance eigenvectors, are also in close agreement. The corrected SST anomalies are also compared with those of nearby coastal and island land air temperatures. Global-scale agreement is good except in the early 20th century when the land data were relatively warm by up to 0.2 C. Proposed causes are the siting of thermometers in open-sided thatched sheds in tropical regions at that time, along with a marked tendency to warm westerly atmospheric circulation over Europe in winter. Combined fields of SST and land air temperature are presented. The relative overall coldness of the late 19th century land air temperatures appears to have arisen from inner-continental and high-latitude regions, especially in winter. Combined fields do not yield full global coverage even in the 1980s, so satellite-based SST data need to be blended carefully with the ship-based observations if monitoring of global climate is to be complete