WorldWideScience

Sample records for late seventeenth century

  1. Medicine, belief, witchcraft and demonic possession in late seventeenth-century Ulster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Ireland's only published witchcraft pamphlet, written by Daniel Higgs, The Wonderful and True Relation of the Bewitching of a Young Girle in Ireland, What Ways she was Tormented, and a Receipt of the Ointment that she was Cured with (1699), works within the confines of late seventeenth-century demonology, while upholding the patriarchy of the fledgling Protestant Ascendancy. More importantly, it provides rare insight into early modern Protestant witchcraft beliefs, highlights the limits of contemporary medical care and provision and details the pathways of self-medication people resorted to. Higgs' method of promoting self-medication as a cure to bewitchment and demonic possession was based on a remedy described in an obscure Renaissance magical text. To promote his 'cure' the pamphlet included a particularly vitriolic critique of the established Irish medical profession, as self-regarding and incompetent witchcraft deniers. This article uses Higgs' pamphlet to explore the limits to/of medical knowledge in early modern Ireland and Europe.

  2. Selenography in the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, E. A.

    Contents: 1. Pre-telescopic observations. 2. The first telescopic observations. 3. Galileo's lunar observations. 4. Two new selenographical programmes. 5. A flurry of activity. 6. Hevelius and his Selenographia. 7. Riccioli, Grimaldi, and nomenclature. 8. Robert Hooke and selenology. 9. Cassini and La Hire. 10. Other seventeenth-century selenography. 11. Conclusion.

  3. Science and Taste: Painting, Passions, and the New Philosophy in Seventeenth-Century Leiden

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamela H. Smith

    1999-01-01

    ... throughout Europe in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Sylvius's house design and large painting collection also exemplified the consumption and taste of the northern Netherlands in the seventeenth century...

  4. Seventeenth-century indivisibles revisited

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The tremendous success of indivisibles methods in geometry in the seventeenth century, responds to a vast project: installation of infinity in mathematics. The pathways by the authors are very diverse, as are the characterizations of indivisibles, but there are significant factors of unity between the various doctrines of indivisible; the permanence of the language used by all authors is the strongest sign. These efforts do not lead to the stabilization of a mathematical theory (with principles or axioms, theorems respecting these first statements, followed by applications to a set of geometric situations), one must nevertheless admire the magnitude of the results obtained by these methods and highlights the rich relationships between them and integral calculus. The present book aims to be exhaustive since it analyzes the works of all major inventors of methods of indivisibles during the seventeenth century, from Kepler to Leibniz. It takes into account the rich existing literature usually devoted to a singl...

  5. The Eclipse of the Sun: Sun-dials, Clocks and Natural Time in the Late Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The Sun, in the early seventeenth century was, as it always had been, the ultimate arbiter of time-measurement In the last quarter of the century however this role was called into question as the new precision of post-Huygenian clocks revealed that natural time and the artificial mean time of the clock were not the same. Initially the question was little understood by the general public. The paper examines some early attempts to explain why "Sun-time" in 1700 was no longer "true-time."

  6. Seventeenth century concepts of "apoplexy" as reflected in Bonet's "Sepulchretum".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutta, Henry S; Howe, Herbert M

    2006-09-01

    The term "apoplexy," which has been in use since antiquity, referred to a catastrophic illness with an abrupt loss of consciousness and a frequently fatal outcome. During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries scholastic approaches that relied on authorities were merging with an observational approach to medicine and Galen's speculation that apoplexy was due to an accumulation of phlegm or black bile in the cerebral ventricles began to be seriously challenged. The most extensive collection of case reports with autopsies published in the seventeenth century was Theophile Bonet's Sepulchretum sive Anatomia Practica. Section 2 of Book I of the Sepulchretum contains 70 case reports of patients that died with the diagnosis of apoplexy. The scholia in this section provide an idea for the modern reader of the notions physicians had of apoplexy in the seventeenth century. The Sepulchretum was an important book for physicians of the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It played an important role in the development of modern medicine and it was an important foundation for Morgagni's De Sedibus et Causis Morborum. This essay reviews the pathological findings reported in victims of apoplexy and examines the views concerning the symptomatology, pathogenesis, etiology, and treatment of this condition that were prevalent at that time.

  7. Astrology in seventeenth-century Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseder, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    This article discusses three aspects of the history of astrology in seventeenth-century Peru that are of larger interest for the history of science in Latin America: Creole concerns about indigenous idolatry, the impact of the Inquisition on natural philosophy, and communication between scholars within the Spanish colonies and the transatlantic world. Drawing mainly on the scholars Antonio de la Calancha, Juan de Figueroa, and Ruiz de Lozano, along with several Jesuits, the article analyzes how natural and medical astrology took shape in Peru and how they fostered astronomical investigations of the southern skies. While natural and medical astrology, showing New and Old World influences, oscillated between orthodoxy and heterodoxy, and between scholasticism and new science, judicial astrology remained undeveloped. Toward the end of the seventeenth century the discourse about astrology took an unexpected turn, reflecting a newly invigorated moral and Christian reading of the heavens that was in part a response to a deep-rooted dissatisfaction with the failure of the extirpation of idolatry campaigns. Inscribing divine and cardinal virtues, the Virgin Mary, Christian saints, and Greco-Roman allegories into the heavens was considered a way to finally solve the problem of idolatry and to convey Creole greatness.

  8. Atomism, Lynceus, and the fate of seventeenth-century microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüthy, C H

    1996-01-01

    Recent scholarship, focusing on the rapid decline of microscopy after the late 1680's, has shown that the limitations of microscopy and the ambivalent meaning of its findings led to a wide-spread sense of frustration with the new instrument. The present article tries to connect this fall from favor with the microscope's equally surprising but hitherto little noticed late rise to prominence. The crucial point is that when the microscope, more than a decade after the telescope, finally managed to arouse the interest of natural philosophers, it did so as a corpuscularian tool, and as such it came to share the difficult fate of seventeenth-century corpuscularianism. The essay ends with the claim that the fall of microscopy was not only due to the failure of microscopy to corroborate corpuscularianism, but also to the changing definition of natural philosophy in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries and to the separation of the domains of living matter (to which the microscope found itself confined) from a physica whose recent mathematical framework excluded the organic world.

  9. Gender, Science and Modernity in Seventeenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    The seventeenth century in England, bounded by the scientific stimulus of Francis Bacon at the beginning and Isaac Newton at the end, seemingly saw a huge leap from the Aristotelian dialectic of the past to a reconstruction of knowledge based on inductive methods, empirical investigation and cooperative research. In mid-century, Puritan reformers…

  10. Seventeenth Century Reflections in the Rhetoric of Science in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Joseph W.

    One of the results of the seventeenth-century revolution in learning was the rejection by scientists of classical rhetorical theories. The scientific societies established in colonial America reflected the European wish to replace the classic emphasis on "artificial" rhetorical style by making language usage more concrete, simple, and clear. In…

  11. Quality of Family Life and Mortality in Seventeenth Century Dublin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Inquiry into the quality of family life in seventeenth century Dublin is an attempt to understand conditions in the second largest city in the British Isles; further, the era was one of convulsions in the body politic, social, and religious. The Scottish James I and VI (1556 1625) determined that the Irish province closest to Scotland, Ulster,…

  12. A possible account of synaesthesia dating from the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, A J

    2006-09-01

    An account of a blind man able to detect colors by touch, dating from the mid-seventeenth century, is presented. The details come to us through the physician John Finch, the scientist Robert Boyle, and the author Jonathan Swift. The details in the account suggest the possibility that this may be an early report of colored-touch synaesthesia.

  13. Experiment and speculation in seventeenth-century Italy: The case of Geminiano Montanari.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    This paper reconstructs the natural philosophical method of Geminiano Montanari, one of the most prominent Italian natural philosophers of the late seventeenth century. Montanari's views are used as a case study to assess recent claims concerning early modern experimental philosophy. Having presented the distinctive tenets of seventeenth-century experimental philosophers, I argue that Montanari adheres to them explicitly, thoroughly, and consistently. The study of Montanari's views supports three claims. First, experimental philosophy was not an exclusively British phenomenon. Second, in spite of some portrayals of experimental philosophy as an 'atheoretical' or 'purely descriptive' enterprise, experimental philosophers could consistently endorse a variety of natural philosophical explanations and postulate theoretical entities. Third, experimental philosophy and mechanical philosophy were not, as such, antagonistic. They could be consistently combined in a single philosophical enterprise. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Nominalism and constructivism in seventeenth-century mathematical philosophy

    CERN Document Server

    Sepkoski, David

    2013-01-01

    What was the basis for the adoption of mathematics as the primary mode of discourse for describing natural events by a large segment of the philosophical community in the seventeenth century? In answering this question, this book demonstrates that a significant group of philosophers shared the belief that there is no necessary correspondence between external reality and objects of human understanding, which they held to include the objects of mathematical and linguistic discourse. The result is a scholarly reliable, but accessible, account of the role of mathematics in the works of (

  15. Manuscript Évora, Biblioteca Pública, Cód. CLI/1-3: Its Origin and Contents, and the Stemmata of Late-Sixteenth- and Early-Seventeenth- Century Portuguese Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    d’Alvarenga, João Pedro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manuscript Évora, Biblioteca Pública, Cód. CLI/1-3 is a small volume made up of two originally independent manuscripts datable respectively to c.1615 and c.1575, which were bound together sometime in the seventeenth century. The second part of the volume contains what is possibly the oldest, most persistent and widely-circulated of Holy Week series of responsories in extant late-sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Portuguese sources of polyphony. The first part is dominated by the works of Manuel Mendes, a composer whose considerable reputation rested especially on his abilities as a teacher, but whose works are among the most widespread pieces in Portuguese and American colonial manuscripts in the years around 1600. In this paper I will determine the origin of Évora Cód. CLI/1-3 by following the steps of Mendes’s career, and establish the relationship between this source and several other important manuscripts as to the transmission of two exemplary pieces through the study of variant readings and the rates of agreement of the sources in the points of variation, proposing a general stemmata for pieces in late-sixteenth and earlyseventeenth- century Portuguese sources of polyphony.

    El Cód. CLI/1-3 de la Biblioteca Pública de Évora es un pequeño volumen compuesto por dos manuscritos originalmente independientes fechados hacia 1615 y 1575, respectivamente, los cuales fueron encuadernados juntos en algún momento del siglo XVII. La segunda parte del volumen contiene una serie de responsorios de Semana Santa, posiblemente la más antigua, duradera y de mayor circulación de entre las fuentes portuguesas de polifonía de finales del siglo XVI y del siglo XVII conservadas. En la primera parte sobresalen las obras de Manuel Mendes, un compositor cuya considerable reputación se debe sobre todo a sus habilidades como maestro, pero cuyas obras se encuentran entre las piezas más difundidas en los manuscritos portugueses y

  16. Medical astrology in Spain during the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanuza Navarro, Tayra M C

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that astrological practice during the Early Modern period was closely related to medicine, and that it provided a tool for diagnosis and treatments. An interesting aspect of this relationship of medicine and astrology is the recognition of the prevailing ideas about medical astrology in the astrological works and astrological-medical treatises. This article discusses the ideas of Galenism and the astrological doctrines that established such a strong relationship between astrology and medicine. There is an overview of the Spanish authors who wrote about the subject, especially those linked with the universities. The paper then goes into detail about the examples of these ideas found in the Spanish printed texts of the seventeenth century. Finally, there is a section on some very interesting and little known treatises on medical astrology which were a reference for the practice of astrological medicine in the period.

  17. Science and taste. Painting, passions, and the new philosophy in seventeenth-century Leiden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P H

    1999-09-01

    This article argues that the art collection owned by Franciscus dele Boë, Sylvius, a professor of practical medicine at the University of Leiden from 1658 to 1672, gives insight into some aspects of the character and significance of the new philosophy in the midseventeenth century. Through his teaching, his advocacy, and his practice of the new experimental philosophy, Sylvius played a role in shaping and institutionalizing the practices of the new philosophy that spread throughout Europe in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Sylvius's house design and large painting collection also exemplified the consumption and taste of the northern Netherlands in the seventeenth century. An examination of both Sylvius's science and his taste can help us understand what was at stake for Sylvius and his contemporaries in their practice of the new philosophy. This article finds that Sylvius's taste and his science both involved practices of social distinction, demarcation, and control. Moreover, both were enmeshed in controversy about the epistemological status of knowledge gained through the senses and about the practices by which that knowledge was gathered.

  18. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeenth Century English Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    .... In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either...

  19. L’huile d’olive d’Ollioules à Versailles Ollioules olive oil at Versailles. Perception and promotion of the Provençaux at court in the late seventeenth century

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    Frédéric d’Agay

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Après un exposé de la façon dont sont considérés les Provençaux sous l’Ancien Régime par les gens de cour et leurs contemporains, sont présentées les familles provençales fixées à la Cour à la fin du xviie siècle, au moment de son installation à Versailles. À commencer par les familles de toute éternité à la Cour, les Villeneuve, Simiane, Vintimille, Castellane-Grignan, puis les grandes réussites du xviie siècle comme les Brancas ou les Luynes, et celles qui deviennent des références sous Louis XIV, tels les Forbin. Exemple de cette volonté de se hisser qu’ont les familles provençales, les Boyer-Bandol, riches marchands d’Ollioules au xvie siècle, agrégés à la noblesse au début du règne de Louis XIII, passés au parlement d’Aix, sont devenus en un peu plus d’un demi-siècle des « gens de qualité » par leur fortune et leurs emplois, ce qui confirme la prise de pouvoir de la noblesse parlementaire aixoise. Fille de Maurel de Pontevès, le Crésus de la Provence, la présidente de Bandol vient à Paris en 1687 pour y placer ses fils au collège Louis-le-Grand et les faire élever par un précepteur avec qui elle entretient une nombreuse correspondance. Le puîné, le chevalier de Bandol, est reçu page de la Dauphine, l’aîné reprend le mortier familial et les cadets sont d’épée. Cette correspondance énumère les phases et les moyens de l’ascension sociale, ainsi que les échanges qui y contribuent. On trouve en annexe les listes des produits et cadeaux envoyés à Paris et à Versailles, les achats parisiens et le rôle des hardes du jeune page et de sa bibliothèque.An exposé on the manner in which the Provencaux (people of Provence were regarded by the people of the court and their peers under the Ancien Régime, is followed by a presentation of the Provençal families at court in the late seventeenth century, when the latter moved to Versailles. Starting with the families who had

  20. A strange and surprising debate: mountains, original sin and 'science' in seventeenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wragge-Morley, Alexander

    2009-06-01

    It could come as a shock to learn that some seventeenth-century men of science and learning thought that mountains were bad. Even more alarmingly, some thought that God had imposed them on the earth to punish man for his sins. By the end of the seventeenth century, surprisingly many English natural philosophers and theologians were engaged in a debate about whether mountains were 'good' or 'bad', useful or useless. At stake in this debate were not just the careers of its participants, but arguments about the best ways of looking at and reckoning with 'nature' itself.

  1. The Saline Chymistry of Color in Seventeenth Century English Natural History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Anna Marie

    2015-01-01

    Before Newton's seminal work on the spectrum, seventeenth-century English natural philosophers such as Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Nehemliah Grew and Robert Plot attributed the phenomenon of color in the natural world to salts and saline chymistry. They rejected Aristotelian ideas that color was related to the object's hot and cold qualities, positing instead that saline principles governed color and color changes in flora, fauna and minerals. In our study, we also characterize to what extent chymistry was a basic analytical tool for seventeenth-century English natural historians.

  2. Public Finance and Economic Growth. The Case of Holland in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, O.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/19265473X; Jonker, J.P.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075034638

    2011-01-01

    The debate over the institutions that link economic growth to public finance tends to disregard the need for savings to finance growing public debt. In seventeenth-century Holland the structure, size, and issuing rates of the debt were determined by investors’ preferences, wealth accumulation, and

  3. Five Osmans: The Ottoman crisis of 1622 in early seventeenth-century literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ajdinović, I.

    2014-01-01

    In my dissertation I have explored the early seventeenth-century literary representations of the 1622 janissary uprising against Sultan Osman II (1618-1622). The young Ottoman sultan lost his life during this rebellion. The news of Osman’s death caused a sensation both in the Ottoman Empire and in t

  4. Lenses and Waves - Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematical Science of Optics in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of nature knowledge.

  5. Understandings of Colors: Varieties of Theories in the Color Worlds of the Early Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2015-01-01

    In the early seventeenth century, there existed a myriad of theories to account for color phenomena. The status, goal, and content of such accounts differed as well as the range of phenomena they explained. Starting with the journal of Isaac Beeckman (1588–1637), this essay inquires into the

  6. Was Plague an Exclusively Urban Phenomenon? Plague Mortality in the Seventeenth-Century Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtis, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Current scholarship reinforces the notion that by the early modern period, plague had become largely an urban concern in northwestern Europe. However, a data set comprised of burial information from the seventeenth-century Low Countries suggests that plague’s impact on the countryside was far more s

  7. Public Finance and Economic Growth. The Case of Holland in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, O.C.; Jonker, J.P.B.

    2011-01-01

    The debate over the institutions that link economic growth to public finance tends to disregard the need for savings to finance growing public debt. In seventeenth-century Holland the structure, size, and issuing rates of the debt were determined by investors’ preferences, wealth accumulation, and c

  8. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeenth Century English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  9. Mirzam C. Pérez, The Comedia of Virginity: Mary and the Politics of Seventeenth-Century Spanish Theater

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    Natalia Fernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Mirzam C. Pérez, The Comedia of Virginity: Mary and the Politics of Seventeenth-Century Spanish Theater, Waco (Texas, Baylor University Press, 2012, 173 pp. ISBN: 9781602586451.

  10. Ars scientia mores: science comes to English dentistry in the seventeenth century. 1. Medical publications and the Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M

    2013-02-01

    During the late seventeenth century scientific knowledge came dentistry, much of it through the activity of the new Royal Society, which was initiated by gatherings in London and Oxford from 1645 and formally established in 1660 after the restoration of the monarchy. The Society received its first charter from Charles II in 1662 and from 1665 onwards published its Philosophical Transactions. This paper outlines items published in that journal, and other relevant scientific publications of the century, applicable to dentistry. A companion paper employs Allen's dental treatise, The operator for the teeth, first published in York in 1685 to provide the evidence that he was aware of several of these scientific findings of his day.

  11. The Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca during the seventeenth century: constitutions and collegials

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    Rafael RAMIS BARCELÓ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to make known the Pontifical College of la Sapiencia of Majorca throughout their sources since its founding in 1633 until 1700. Some especial attention is deserved to the Constitutions of the Centre, compared with the Constitutions of Presentation College of Valencia. The article discusses particularly College life, Studies and Visits. The document is intended as a contribution to the academic and ecclesiastical history that provides a better understanding of Majorcan training institutions in the seventeenth century.

  12. Recurrent cerebral fever in the seventeenth and twenty first centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N; Sunderland, R

    2004-01-01

    The development of modern neuroscience away from the concepts of Hippocrates and Galen can be traced to the writings of some 17th century clinicians, especially Thomas Willis. His exceptional skills in observation and description allow a window into the experiences of our medical forebears. His approach to the management of infection-related coma in a child is amenable to modern interpretation and comparison with modern management because of the clarity of his clinical descriptions. Modern clinicians may benefit from this historical perspective into influences on the origins of neuroscience. The different outcome for a child presenting in the 17th and 21st century encourage grateful reflection on our current privileged position.

  13. A seventeenth century mandibular tumor in a North American Indian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelln, E.E.; McMichael, E.V.; Zimmermann, B.

    1967-01-01

    The oldest tumor so far recorded is believed to have been a hemangioma. It occurred in a bone of a dinosaur’s tail1 and thus considerably antedates the historical period. The oldest known human tumor is much younger, dating back only to the middle of the third century after Christ.1 It was found in the catacombs of Kom el Shougafa in Alexandria, Egypt. This bony tumor (believed to be an osteosarcoma) occurred in the ischium and lower part of the ilium of a pelvic bone. Mention also should be made of a sixteenth century Danish skeleton from Noestried, which had 134 osteomas, and the Bovidal skull, in which there was a sinus osteoma weighing over 12 pounds.2Tumorlike lesions were obviously a problem in Egypt and Assyria, as dissecting instruments and instructions for tumor removal have been found.3 Paleopathologic studies have not yet disclosed bony tumors which occurred in these periods when vigorous embalming techniques were in vogue, and it is possible that only soft-tissue tumors were of concern. Such soft-tissue tumors, of course, would not survive to the present day, and relative accounts of prehistoric neoplasms must be largely based on intraosseus or calcified tumors. Roentgenographic bone patterns, correlated with size, site, age, etc., have led archaeologists and paleopathologists to believe that most surviving ossified tumors are osteomas and osteosarcomas.4

  14. Antonio Porta and Seventeenth-Century Central European Architecture

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    Krummholz, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The text places the work of Antonio Porta (1631/32-1702 in the broader context of European architecture. It emphasises the close connections between Porta's architecture and the work of Francesco Caratti and Jean Baptiste Mathey, and the common starting-point for these artists, which was the Viennese architecture of Filiberto Lucchese and Giovanni Pietro Tencalla. The architecture of the Troja chateau of Count Sternberg can also be interpreted in this context; it draws on the analogous suburban summer residences in Vienna (Lusthäuser. There were also significant connections between mid-17th century Central European architecture and the Piedmont metropolis of Turin, which was being developed on a grand scale at that time. On the one hand there were many artists from the Lugano region active in Turin who later went on to work in Central Europe, and on the other numerous Central European aristocrats stayed for a while in Turin as part of their grand tour. It was via Turin that the influences of French architecture were reflected in the Bohemian and Central European milieus.

  15. Astrology and other occult sciences in seventeenth-century New Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship and mutual influence of astrology and other so-called occult sciences within the context of seventeenth-century New Spain. By presenting some case studies of inquisitorial trials against astrologers, it explores the interrelation between astrological and physiognomical ideas and practices in order to shed some light on the moral dimension of these natural philosophical fields of knowledge. During the early modern period, both astrology and physiognomy were regarded as tools for self-understanding and the understanding of others by means of interpretation of natural signs. Thus their history is key for understanding the shaping of the boundaries between the natural and the moral realms.

  16. Lenses and waves Christiaan Huygens and the mathematical science of optics in the seventeenth century

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko Jan

    2004-01-01

    In 1690, Christiaan Huygens (1629-1695) published Traité de la Lumière, containing his renowned wave theory of light. It is considered a landmark in seventeenth-century science, for the way Huygens mathematized the corpuscular nature of light and his probabilistic conception of natural knowledge. This book discusses the development of Huygens' wave theory, reconstructing the winding road that eventually led to Traité de la Lumière. For the first time, the full range of manuscript sources is taken into account. In addition, the development of Huygens' thinking on the nature of light is put in t

  17. “Crossing steels”. Sword trade networks between Spain and Italy in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

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    Rafael M. Girón Pascual

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses sword trade between Spain and Italy in sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through the study of two commercial routes used by European commercial networks from two unpublished sources: Archivio di Stato di Firenze and Archivo Historico de Protocolos de Granada. Firstly, we will examine sword importation through Leghorn, port of Florence and Tuscany, from the Spanish ports of Cadiz and Alicante, among others. Secondly, we will analyse Italian sword trade carried out by Genoese commercial companies placed in Granada. These merchants supplied swordsmiths from Granada —almost unknown by historiography— with Italian sword blades from Milan, Brescia, Serravalle and Genoa.

  18. From queen to mother: motherhood as discursive construction in the seventeenth century neogranadine painting

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    Juan Pablo Cruz Medina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines motherhood as a discursive construction, linking this construction with the neogranadine visual discourse of the seventeenth century. The image of “The Virgin with the Child”, within the post Tridentine context, stood as a place of origin of a discourse modeling the women behavior, giving specific roles in relation with their children. The tender, loving and protective mother with their children emerges in the visual discourse as a narrative truth that should be adopted by subjects in everyday behavior.

  19. 'Most rare workmen': optical practitioners in early seventeenth-century Delft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuidervaart, Huib J; Rijks, Marlise

    2015-03-01

    A special interest in optics among various seventeenth-century painters living in the Dutch city of Delft has intrigued historians, including art historians, for a long time. Equally, the impressive career of the Delft microscopist Antoni van Leeuwenhoek has been studied by many historians of science. However, it has never been investigated who, at that time, had access to the mathematical and optical knowledge necessary for the impressive achievements of these Delft practitioners. We have tried to gain insight into Delft as a 'node' of optical knowledge by following the careers of three minor local figures in early seventeenth-century Delft. We argue that through their work, products, discussions in the vernacular and exchange of skills, rather than via learned publications, these practitioners constituted a foundation on which the later scientific and artistic achievements of other Delft citizens were built. Our Delft case demonstrates that these practitioners were not simple and isolated craftsmen; rather they were crucial components in a network of scholars, savants, painters and rich virtuosi. Decades before Vermeer made his masterworks, or Van Leeuwenhoek started his famous microscopic investigations, the intellectual atmosphere and artisanal knowledge in this city centred on optical topics.

  20. A Blend of Traditions: The Lute’s Influence on Seventeenth-Century Harpsichord Repertoire

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    Audrey S. Rutt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The close relationship between the harpsichord and lute traditions is commonly claimed but rarely elaborated upon, and many experts disagree on the manner in and extent to which the two are related. Often, texts covering the early harpsichord literature will limit discussion of the lute’s influence to a brief mention of the style brisé, if the important connection between the two traditions is even mentioned all. The lute’s impact on the harpsichordists of the seventeenth century is not a facet that can be ignored; rather, an understanding of the lute tradition is essential to an understanding of the harpsichord tradition. Neither can the relationship be isolated to the style brisé, as the influence extends also to other textures, rhythms, harmonic devices, sonorous effects, and genres found within the solo literatures of both the lute and harpsichord. This connection is especially evident in the solo harpsichord works of Francois Couperin, D’Anglebert, Froberger, and Chambonnieres. Ornamentation and broken textures, elements that were evocative of the lute, were incorporated into the already existing keyboard tradition represented by the organ. However, although composers for the harpsichord imitated the style of lutenists such as Gaultier and Pinel, they also transformed it; they developed these lute-like elements in a manner that became distinctly idiomatic to the harpsichord. In this way, the harpsichord idiom that emerged in the seventeenth century was formed by a unique blend of the organ and lute styles.

  1. At birth: the modern state, modern medicine, and the royal midwife Louise Bourgeois in seventeenth-century France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, B

    1999-01-01

    In this article I explore the connections between state centralization, the professionalization of healing, and the end of the royal midwife Louise Bourgeois' (1563-1636) illustrious career in seventeenth-century France. Specifically, I analyze seventeenth-century narratives of two events which frame Louise Bourgeois' public career as a writer and royal midwife in order to demonstrate the way that the changing meanings of childbirth and the role of the midwife in the medical hierarchy were bound up in state formation and consolidation. The result for midwives was that, though they could still practice, they were ultimately considered marginal to the medical community.

  2. Ecclesiastical Architecture and the Castilian Crisis of the Seventeenth Century: Seville Cathedral and the Church of the Sagrario.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing d'Arcy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When it came time for the critics and historiographers of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries to write the grand narrative of Spanish architecture, the decadence of Habsburg monarchy, economy and society was paralleled to the decline of the noble art itself. The completion of the Escorial in 1584 loomed more like an enormous granite epitaph for Spanish architectural production than the promise of a New Jerusalem. For seventeenth-century architects and theoreticians, like Fray Lorenzo de San Nicolás, and nineteenth-century commentators, such as Agustín Ceán Bermúdez, the intromission of painters, joiners, silversmiths and other guilds into the realm of architectural design was seen as the principal corruptive force which manifested itself in the unpardonable horrors of the Baroque. These negative topoi have, in many cases, found their way into the contemporary historiography of Spanish architecture of the period, typically depicted as all surface and no space, relegating it to a place lesser importance.

  3. The representation of insects in the seventeenth century: a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Domenico Bertoloni

    2010-07-01

    The investigation and representation of insects in the seventeenth century posed huge problems: on the one hand, their size and texture required optical tools and fixation techniques to disentangle and identify their tiny parts; on the other, the esoteric nature of those parts required readers to make sense of images alien to their daily experiences. Naturalists and anatomists developed sophisticated techniques of investigation and representation, involving tacit and unusual conventions that even twentieth-century readers found at times baffling. This essay develops a comparative approach based on seven pairs of investigations involving Francesco Stelluti, Francesco Redi, Giovanni Battista Hodierna, Robert Hooke, Marcello Malpighi, and Jan Swammerdam. Seen together, they document an extraordinary time in the study of insects and reconstruct a number of iconographic dialogues shedding light on the conventions and styles adopted.

  4. 'Beauty and Simplicity' : The power of fine art in moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, J.J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising messages was

  5. [Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century] / Kaarel Vanamölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanamölder, Kaarel, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Ed. by Heiko Droste. Södertörn Studies in History, 9, Södertörn Academic Studies, 42 (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011)

  6. [Jarmo T. Kotilainen. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World ] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Jarmo T. Kotilainen, Jarmo T.. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World. XVIII. Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. Oma töös vaatleb autor ka Rootsi Läänemere-provintside linnade Riia, Tallinna, Narva ja Nyeni tähtsust Venemaa väliskaubanduses.

  7. "We Are Not to Grow Wild": Seventeenth-Century New England's Repudiation of Anglo-Indian Intermarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, David D.

    1987-01-01

    Examines religious, political, social, and economic barriers to marriage between seventeenth-century Puritan New Englanders and their Algonquian neighbors. Explains Puritan anti-Indian feelings in terms of religious fanaticism and cultural exclusiveness rather than conventional racism. Contains 82 references. (SV)

  8. Analysis of a seventeenth-century panel painting by reflection terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dandolo, Corinna Ludovica Koch; Filtenborg, Troels; Skou-Hansen, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain imaging (THz-TDI) has been applied for nondestructive visualization of a hidden painting and other subsurface composition layers of a seventeenth-century panel painting belonging to the National Gallery of Denmark. Plan-type and cross-sectional scans realized by THz have been...

  9. [Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century] / Kaarel Vanamölder

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vanamölder, Kaarel, 1981-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Connecting the Baltic area : the Swedish postal System in the seventeenth century. Ed. by Heiko Droste. Södertörn Studies in History, 9, Södertörn Academic Studies, 42 (Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2011)

  10. [Jarmo T. Kotilainen. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World ] / Enn Küng

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Küng, Enn

    2009-01-01

    Arvustus: Jarmo T. Kotilainen, Jarmo T.. Russia's foreign and economic expansion in the seventeenth century. Windows on the World. XVIII. Leiden : Brill Academic Publishers, 2005. Oma töös vaatleb autor ka Rootsi Läänemere-provintside linnade Riia, Tallinna, Narva ja Nyeni tähtsust Venemaa väliskaubanduses.

  11. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  12. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  13. Chinese Guilds from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Centuries: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll-Murata, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese merchant and craft associations that are most similar to European guilds originated in the late sixteenth century. They started to proliferate from the mid-eighteenth century onward and, after the intercession of the Taiping rebellion and the Opium Wars, their numbers soared from the mid

  14. The discovery of lymphatic system in the seventeenth century. Part I: the early history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suy, Raphael; Thomis, Sarah; Fourneau, Inge

    2016-08-01

    The early history of lymphatic anatomy from Hippocrates (ca. 460-377 B.C.) to Eustachius (1510-1574). The presence of lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes was reported by ancient anatomists without any accurate knowledge of their true functions. Lymph nodes were described as spongy structures, spread over the whole body for the support of vulnerable body parts. Digestion was explained as being the resorption of clear chyle from digested food by the open endings of chyle vessels. The first insights into the place of lymphatic components within nutrition emanated from the medical school of Alexandria (fourth century B.C.) where vivisection was a common practice. Herophilus and Erasistratus described mesenteric veins full of clear liquid, air or milk. For Galen of Pergamum, (104-210) mesenteric lymph nodes also had a nutritional function. He described three different types of mesenteric vessels, namely, the arterial vessels, for the transport of spirituous blood to the intestines; the venous side branches of the portal vein, for the transport of nutritive blood from the liver to the intestines; and small vessels, from the intestines to the mesenteric lymph nodes (serous lymph vessels?). According to Galen, chyle was transported via the above-mentioned mesenteric venous vessels from the intestines to the portal vein and liver, where it was transformed into nutritive blood. This doctrine would be obliterated in the seventeenth century by the discovery of systemic circulation and of the drainage of chyle through a thoracic duct to the subclavian veins.

  15. Seventeenth-century experimenta, magisterial formulae and the ‘animal alkahest’: new documents found in Royal Society archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present three newly rediscovered documents from the Royal Society archives that, together with the four described in our previous publications, constitute a set on a cognate theme. The documents were written by, or addressed to, members of the early Royal Society, and their subject is several magisterial formulae, including J. B. van Helmont's alkahest and Ludus. In addition to the interest in those formulae as medicines for various grave illnesses, our analysis showed that some seventeenth-century scholars sought to explain operations of the animal body by invoking similar but natural substances, while attempting to assimilate the latest anatomical discoveries into a novel framework. The complete set of documents sheds some new light on the interests of seventeenth-century networks of scholars concerned with experimenta. PMID:26665488

  16. An Evaluation of Spatial Organization of the Church Architecture of Kerala during the Sixteenth to Seventeenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjikaran, S.; Vedamuthu, R.

    2013-05-01

    The churches of Kerala of the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries exhibits an architectural character which is different from that of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala. Preliminary studies show that the spatial organization of these churches also varied from that of the indigenous churches of Kerala. Did these variations in spatial organization arise of any change in functional requirements of churches? How did the indigenous Architectural character adapt to these changes or did it give way to a new style? The objective of this study is to understand the spatial organization of the indigenous Church Architecture of Kerala and to evaluate the changes in spatial organization during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. This study is primarily based on field survey and documentation, evaluation is done by relying on the Rapoport's theory. It is concluded that the church architecture of this period is a fusion of the Western and Eastern ecclesiastical traditions in terms of spatial organization and planning.

  17. Qualitative novelty in seventeenth-century science: Hydrostatics from Stevin to Pascal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Alan F

    2015-06-01

    Two works on hydrostatics, by Simon Stevin in 1586 and by Blaise Pascal in 1654, are analysed and compared. The contrast between the two serves to highlight aspects of the qualitative novelty involved in changes within science in the first half of the seventeenth century. Stevin attempted to derive his theory from unproblematic postulates drawn from common sense but failed to achieve his goal insofar as he needed to incorporate assumptions involved in his engineering practice but not sanctioned by his postulates. Pascal's theory went beyond common sense by introducing a novel concept, pressure. Theoretical reflection on novel experiments was involved in the construction of the new concept and experiment also provided important evidence for the theory that deployed it. The new experimental reasoning was qualitatively different from the Euclidean style of reasoning adopted by Stevin. The fact that a conceptualization of a technical sense of pressure adequate for hydrostatics was far from obvious is evident from the work of those, such as Galileo and Descartes, who did not make significant moves in that direction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Witnesses of the body: medico-legal cases in seventeenth-century Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Renzi, Silvia

    2002-06-01

    Studying early modern medico-legal testimonies can enrich our understanding of witnessing, the focus of much research in the history of science. Expert testimonies were well established in the Roman Cannon law, but the sphere of competence of expert witnesses - one of the grounds on which seventeenth-century physicians claimed social and intellectual authority- troubled contemporary jurists. By reconstructing these debates in Counter Reformation Rome, and by placing in them the testimonies given by Poalo Zacchia, one of the founding fathers of legal medicine, this article discusses the epistemological and social issues surrounding the definition of expertise about the body in court. It shows how a high-ranking expert witness would define his competence versus the legal authority on the one hand, lower-status expert witnesses on the other. But it also explores the interactions between specific legal constraints, for example about eye witnessing, and the ways in which different kinds of witnesses would use the body as a source of evidence for testimony. While engaging with medico-legal issues including the ambiguous signs of childbirth and the (in)visibility of pain, the article examines their meanings within Counter Reformation social controversies, including control over sexuality, imposition of discipline and the social status of physicians. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Domestic servants of salamanca in seventeenth Century (1601-1650: social tensions and attitudes towards death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier LORENZO PINAR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Through the local archives documentation, the present article tries to approach us to the situations of conflict (rapes, illicit unions, disputes, etc. that the domestic servants of Salamanca (West Spain suffered during the first half of the Seventeenth Century; and also their attitudes to the death and their relationship with their masters and their labour fellows reflected in the testaments.

  20. On display: portraits of seventeenth-century French men-midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, L

    2001-12-01

    This article examines the portraits of seventeenth-century French accoucheurs [men-midwives] that regularly appeared as the first plate in their obstetrical treatises, representing the body from which the text had issued. It argues that these visual documents were forms of strategic display in keeping with the wider goals of the treatises--to present their authors as cultivated, skilled, and vastly experienced experts in childbirth. At a time when the visual evaluation of character was commonplace within medical and other contexts, author portraits presented the public image of accoucheurs. Before analysing the idealized images of men-midwives. however, the article explores the author portrait of Louise Bourgeois, royal midwife to Queen Marie de Médicis from 1601-9, and the first French woman to write obstetrical treatises. Bourgeois is portrayed not only as an exceptional practitioner granted royal favour, but also as a hybrid figure whose identity fluctuated between efficient female midwife and educated theoretical writer. Portraits of accoucheurs represent the unstable identity and rather flexible 'masculinity' of male practitioners who likewise blurred gendered categories. Some images identify male practitioners exclusively with theoretical knowledge, while others associate them more directly with the maternal qualities traditionally admired in female midwives.

  1. Paolo Sarpi’s vow of obedience: catholic political thought in early seventeenth-century Venice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainulainen, Jaska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the idea of obedience in early-modern Catholic political thought. I focus on early seventeenth-century Venice and on one of its leading political thinkers, Paolo Sarpi. I argue that for Sarpi and the Venetian nobility obedience was a religious, Catholic concept, which they nonetheless applied to a secular system of governance; notwithstanding their refusal to obey the papal ban during the interdict of Venice in 1606-1607, Venetians regarded obedience as an act of piety and an indispensable element of civic life.El objetivo de este artículo es estudiar la idea de obediencia en el pensamiento político católico de la edad moderna, en particular en Venecia en el siglo XVII y en Paolo Sarpi, uno de sus pensadores políticos más importantes. Este artículo argumenta que para Sarpi y la nobleza la obediencia era un concepto católico, que a pesar de ello, aplicaron a un sistema de gobierno secular. A pesar de su negativa a obedecer la prohibición papal durante el interdicto de Venecia en 1606-1607, los venecianos consideraban la obediencia como un acto de piedad y un elemento indispensable de la vida cívica.

  2. A multidisciplinary approach for the conservation of a building of the seventeenth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, E.; Grassini, S.; Corbellini, S.; Parvis, M.; Piantanida, M.

    2010-09-01

    A long-term multidisciplinary conservation study is actually in progress inside the Villa della Regina, a prestigious Savoy residence built in the seventeenth century and recently restored. The walls of some rooms of the Villa are decorated with precious tin-mercury mirrors, that are baked with a reflective coating constituted of a tin-mercury compound surrounded by liquid mercury. The reflective layer is very soft, thus any restoration is difficult to be performed and can lead to a complete destruction of the artifact. Amalgam corrosion is a very slow process and, although there is no way to prevent the oxidation of the reflective layer, the conservation state of the artifacts may be improved by keeping them in a controlled environment. For this reason, a monitoring system has been designed and installed that is based on a wireless network of extremely compact sensors, for temperature and relative humidity measurements. The sensors have been specifically designed to satisfy the requirements for use in cultural heritage field and the system allows one to automatically collect the data that can be analyzed with the final aim to establish a correlation between the environmental conditions and the conservation state of the artifacts. A restoration has been carried out by producing in situ an amalgam inlay on the corroded area to slow down the release of liquid mercury in order to avoid also possible unsafe conditions for staff and visitors. In addition, a sensor has been developed which is based on a prototypical plastic optical fiber for the detection of low concentration Hg vapors to ensure the safe conditions in the Villa rooms. The sensor is being tested in laboratory.

  3. POLÍTICA PÚBLICA Y PROTECCIONISMO CORPORATIVO: INSTITUCIONES REGIONALES Y GREMIOS TEXTILES EN ARAGÓN DURANTE EL SIGLO XVII 1/Public Policy and Corporate Protectionism: Regional Institutions and Textile Guilds in Seventeenth Century Aragon

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Antonio Mateos Royo

    2015-01-01

    .... Having contributed to economic growth in the sixteenth century, the Aragonese textile guilds fell prey to technological stagnation in the seventeenth, while restricting competition in urban product...

  4. A Colonial Cacicazgo: the Mendozas of Seventeenth-Century Tepexí de la Seda

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    Rik Hoekstra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The cacicazgo, or indigenous lordship, was a pivotal institution in colonial Mexican Indian pueblos. Caciques, or Indian nobles, played a role, both in the largely indigenous world of the pueblo and in the regional economy that was dominated by Spaniards. This subject of this essay is the analysis of the evolution and daily operation and of a cacicazgo from the Indian settlement of Tepexí de la Seda near the city of Puebla de los Ángeles and the life of its caciques in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. In the sixteenth century the cacicazgo was in upheaval because of discord between the cacicazgos and their dependent Indians. A number of long-running accounts from the 1620s record in detail the daily operations of the cacicazgo of Doña Ana de Santa Bárbara of the Mendoza family, thus illustrating how caciques negotiated their positions and coped with their lives and the changes in it.   Resumen: Un cacicazgo colonial: los Mendoza de Tepexí de la Seda en el siglo 17 El cacicazgo, o señorío indígena, fue una institución fundamental en los pueblos indios de México colonial. Los caciques, o nobles indígenas, desempeñaron un papel tanto en el mundo en gran parte indígena del pueblo y en la economía regional dominada entonces por los españoles. El tema de este ensayo es el análisis de la evolución y operación cotidianas de un cacicazgo del asentamiento indígena de Tepexí de la Seda cerca de la ciudad de Puebla de los Ángeles y la vida de sus caciques en los siglos 16 y 17. En el siglo 16, el cacicazgo vivió tiempos convulsos debido a los conflictos entre los caciques y sus dependientes indios. Varias extensas cuentas de los años veinte del siglo 17 registran en detalle las operaciones diarias del cacicazgo de doña Ana de Santa Bárbara, de la familia Mendoza, mostrando así cómo negociaban los caciques sus posiciones y se adaptaban a los cambios en sus vidas.

  5. Conceptual Metaphor in Discourses of Women and Marriage in Seventeenth-Century Comedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csenge Aradi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual metaphors reflect general conceptions of women and marriage in seventeenth-century comedy. Through the comparison of Molière’s The School for Husbands (1661 and The School for Wives (1662 with Wycherley’s The Country Wife (1675, the author of the present paper analyzes metaphors depicting women’s position and marriage in contemporary English and French society. The cognitive linguistic analysis (based on Johnson & Lakoff, 1980; Kövecses, 2005; 2010 was complemented with elements of Sociocriticism (Duchet, 1979, an approach that defines text as a social act. Sociocriticism claims that literary texts mirror the reality of their age, and they therefore need to be interpreted according to their own socio-cultural context. Women of the 1600s had an inferior status within the dominant male discourse, and this fact is unambiguously manifested in the metaphors extracted from the comedies. However, there are some considerable differences in the realization of these metaphors in the analyzed plays. First, metaphors in The Country Wife are visually more ingenuous than those applied in The School for Husbands and The School for Wives. Second, metaphors in Wycherley’s play are closely connected to the everyday life of the characters (i.e., members of the English gentry and aristocracy, as opposed to Molière’s comedies, in which metaphors are conventional both on the general and specific level, and thus provide little culture-specific information on the issue. A third difference is that metaphorical correspondences in The Country Wife are made explicit, and they run through the whole of the play, establishing coherence to the discourse. In contrast, the two French plays do not unbind any of the relevant metaphors. As a conclusion, it can be stated that whereas in The Country Wife the representation of women and marriage is based on extended conceptual metaphors reflecting contemporary socio-cultural context, in The School for Husbands

  6. Fernando de Almeida (d. 1660: Tradition and Innovation in Mid-Seventeenth-Century Portuguese Sacred Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz, João

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Library of the Ducal Palace at Vila Viçosa preserves three large choirbooks of polyphonic repertoire intended for Holy Week, prepared between 1735 and 1736 by a copyist of the Patriarchal Church. These choirbooks contain all the known extant works by Fernando de Almeida (died in 1660. When comparing the music of Fernando de Almeida with that of his near contemporary João Lourenço Rebelo (1610-1661, the different trends in Portuguese early- to mid-seventeenth-century church music become clear, especially if viewed in the light of the acknowledged aesthetic and compositional premises explained in the 1649 Defensa de la mvsica moderna by King João IV. Rebelo’s concertato works incline towards the style of north-Italian composers. The ingenuity of Fernando de Almeida’s style, which is particularly noticeable in his eight-voice Holy Week responsories, lays in the integration of prominent Baroque features within the mould of Iberian Mannerist tradition.La Biblioteca del Palacio Ducal de Vila Viçosa posee tres grandes libros de coro con repertorio polifónico destinado a la Semana Santa, preparados entre 1735 y 1736 por un copista de la Iglesia Patriarcal. Estos libros de coro contienen todas las obras de Fernando de Almeida (m. 1660 que hayan sobrevivido hasta los días de hoy. La comparación de la música de Fernando de Almeida con la de su cási contemporáneo João Lourenço Rebelo (1610-1661 evidencia las distintas orientaciones en la música sacra portuguesa de principios a mediados del siglo XVII, especialmente cuando observadas bajo las premisas estéticas y composicionales explanadas en la Defensa de la mvsica moderna (1649 del Rey D. João IV. El estilo concertato de Rebelo se acerca de los compositores del Norte de Italia. La inventiva del estilo de Fernando de Almeida, particularmente notable en sus Responsorios a ocho voces para la Semana Santa, incorpora prominentes características barrocas en el molde de la tradici

  7. Theorizing epigenesis in a time of preexistence: From the end of the seventeenth century to the 1720s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Angela

    2016-12-01

    According to a classic periodization in the history of science, biological thought as it emerged in France from the last decades of the seventeenth century to the 1740s was strongly committed to the doctrine of the preexistence of germs. Nicolas Malebranche's role in disseminating this paradigm, particularly in the milieu of the Académie Royale des Sciences during the years when Bernard Le Bouyer de Fontenelle was its secretary, has been studied in detail, especially by Jacques Roger. However, much less has been said about the authors who argued against this doctrine prior to the appearance of the relevant pieces by Pierre-Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, and Denis Diderot. I aim to examine a series of French medical treatises and clandestine manuscripts that outlined a mechanist theory of epigenesis, between the end of the seventeenth century and the 1720s, to bring to light the strategies-often quite original-that allowed them to achieve this result. One interesting case is the heterodox readers of Malebranche, which use some of his own arguments (notably on the physiology of brain traces and the laws of nature) both against preexistence and to support epigenesis. I inquire into the historical worth of the positions defended by these authors as well as into the connections existing between the history of epigenesis and that of materialism in the early modern era.

  8. The role of mental illness in the European witch hunts of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeneman, T J

    1977-10-01

    Historians of psychiatry have propagated the view that the witch hunts of sixteenth and seventeenth-century Europe were primarily a persecution of the mentally ill and that demonological concepts of possession and witchcraft impeded psychiatric progress for centuries. The author reviews the evidence marshaled by these historians and examines additional historical material bearing on the psychopathological view. He concludes that the role of mental disorder in the witch hunts has been overinflated by authors with an interest in promulgating the medical model of abnormal behavior. Furthermore, the psychopathological paradigm is based on an outmoded philosophy of science, which results in historical distortion and paradoxes, and on restriction and selectivity in the choice of evidence.

  9. Paracelsianism and the orthodox lutheran rejection of vital philosophy in early seventeenth-century Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Jole

    2003-01-01

    Paracelsian medicine and natural philosophy was formed during the Radical Reformation and incorporated metaphysical propositions that were incompatible with the Lutheran confession as codified in the Confessio Augustana and elaborated in the ultra-orthodox Formula of Concord. Although Paracelsian ideas and practices were endorsed by important philosophers and physicians in late-sixteenth century Denmark without raising serious alarm, the imposition of strict Lutheran orthodoxy in the Danish Church and a concomitant resurgence of Aristotelian philosophy drew attention to the religious heterodoxies inherent in Paracelsianism. Unacceptable theological and religious propositions, which reached Denmark in Rosicrucian texts and were implicit in certain medical and philosophical treatises, were in many cases inseparable from core Paracelsian concepts, with the result that Danish academic philosophers, physicians, and theologians rejected Paracelsian ideas except where they could be accommodated to acceptable Galenic and Aristotelian interpretations. When this was done, such ideas are arguably no longer Paracelsian in any meaningful way.

  10. "How Could They Believe That?": Explaining to Students Why Accusation of Witchcraft Made Good Sense in Seventeenth-Century New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbeer, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Explains that students must understand that, due to the beliefs of the time in New England, accusing people of witchcraft during the seventeenth century was plausible. Provides background information on societal beliefs centered upon witchcraft and the supernatural, as well as the process of accusing people of being witches. (CMK)

  11. Moral literacy : the pleasure of learning how to become decent adults and good parents in the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2008-01-01

    This article is about the most fundamental analogical literacy in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic, namely moral literacy, or the practice and knowledge of how to behave according to moral rules. The question asked is why the style of using pleasure and frivolity in learning educational and

  12. Expromissio or fideiussio? A seventeenth-century theological debate between Voetians and Coccejans about the nature of Christ's suretyship in salvation history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asselt, W.J. van

    2003-01-01

    Towards the end of the seventeenth century a controversy erupted over the interpretation of the relation between the historical death of Christ and the associated doctrine of the forgiveness of sins. This controversy had its origin in the dissemination of the ideas of the Leyden professor Johannes C

  13. The test of time. Art encyclopedia and the formation of the canon of seventeenth-century painters in the Low Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.R.R. Vermeylen (Filip); M.F. van Dijck (Maarten); V.J.U. de Laet (Veerle)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper deals with the process of canon formation for Flemish and Dutch painters from the seventeenth century onwards. We examine how the essential art-historical treatises and art encyclopedias since Houbraken’s Grote Schouburgh der Nederlandsche Konstschilders en S

  14. Elzevirian Republics, wise merchants, and new perspectives on Spain and Portugal in the seventeenth-century Dutch Republic

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    Sina Rauschenbach

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Between 1625 and 1649, the Leiden publishing house Elzevir issued a series of thirty-five descriptions of all European, a selection of non-European, and three ancient states, that became known as the ‘Elzevirian Republics’. This essay focuses on two of these ‘Republics’, Johannes de Laet’s descriptions of Spain and Portugal. I argue that these books convey an attitude towards geopolitics that is best understood in the light of Caspar Barlaeus’s ideal of the ‘wise merchant’ (mercator sapiens and the historical regent-merchant culture in seventeenth-century Amsterdam. The essay draws on recent scholarship in the history of knowledge, commerce, and the pre-history of objectivity.

  15. ‘out of their owne mouths’? Conversion Narratives and English Radical Religious Practice in the Seventeenth Century

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    Donatella Pallotti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on a form of writing, the conversion narrative, which was familiar to mid-seventeenth-century godly readers. The purpose of the narrative, which was a prerequisite for admission to the Church of Visible Saints, was to give the congregation a spoken account of the experience of conversion and of the workings of Grace in the life of the regenerate individual. Some of these reports were transcribed, revised, and published by the ministers of the churches. By focusing on the complex relationships between the ‘original’ experience, its expression, and subsequent written transmission, the tension between individuality and conformity, and the various forms of editorial intervention adopted by the ministers, this study attempts to highlight the collaborative nature of the textual construction of the conversion narrative and to address some crucial issues concerning both the authenticity of the memory recorded and its ‘true’ author.

  16. Grammatical change and non-change in historical narratives during the transition from the Seventeenth to the Eighteenth Century

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    José Luis GIRÓN ALCONCHEL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we attempt to establish the evolutionary status of syntactic changes that affect the argumentative, sentential and textual cohesion in the discursive tradition of historical narrative in three texts from 1684, 1725 and 1746, respectively. Direct object markings by the preposition a and indirect object by clitic doubling maintain their frequencies; leísmo and the pronominal enclisis progressively decrease. Locative ser and transitive haber disappear after 1684; the collation of elements between the auxiliary and the participle of compound tenses reaches 1725, and so do the indicative value of the –ra form and the future subjunctive. The consecutive sentences show situations of variation driven by discursive activity rather than by changes. There exists no border in syntactic evolution between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; just a turning point around 1725, at most.

  17. Beauty and simplicity: the power of fine art and moral teaching on education in seventeenth-century Holland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, J J H

    2009-04-01

    Seventeenth century Dutch genre painting played a major role in the promotion of the pursuit of family and educational virtues. Packing moralistic messages in fine paintings was considered as a very effective moralistic communication policy in a culture in which sending such moralising paintings and drawings on education and domestic virtues, so contributing to the reconciliation of the existing tensions, or, in the words of Simon Schama, embarrassment between beauty and the promoted virtues of frugality and simplicity. A broad middle class created its own private surrounding in which morality and enjoying the beauty of moralising on the family and parenting went together, as is made clear by the analysis of a series of representative images. Dutch parents, moralists, and painters knew the power of beauty in moralising on the family.

  18. The invention of physical science intersections of mathematics, theology and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century : essays in honor of Erwin N. Hiebert

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Joan L; Stuewer, Roger H

    1992-01-01

    Modern physical science is constituted by specialized scientific fields rooted in experimental laboratory work and in rational and mathematical representations. Contemporary scientific explanation is rigorously differentiated from religious interpretation, although, to be sure, scientists sometimes do the philosophical work of interpreting the metaphysics of space, time, and matter. However, it is rare that either theologians or philosophers convincingly claim that they are doing the scientific work of physical scientists and mathematicians. The rigidity of these divisions and differentiations is relatively new. Modern physical science was invented slowly and gradually through interactions of the aims and contents of mathematics, theology, and natural philosophy since the seventeenth century. In essays ranging in focus from seventeenth-century interpretations of heavenly comets to twentieth-century explanations of tracks in bubble chambers, ten historians of science demonstrate metaphysical and theological th...

  19. How much longer must medicine's science be bound by a seventeenth century world view?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, G L

    1992-01-01

    The exclusion of nonmaterial human phenomena mandated by medical science's continuing allegiance to a 17th century scientific world view has constituted a major obstacle to medicine's scientific maturation as a human discipline. But 20th century conceptual changes even in physics (not to mention the influence of the theory of evolution) now renders that exclusion untenable and in effect legitimizes efforts to devise scientific means appropriate for the human domain. Practical as well as theoretical issues involved in such an undertaking are discussed within the framework of a 20th century scientific world view as represented by the biopsychosocial model, a counterpart to the traditional biomedical model.

  20. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

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    Ryuto Shimada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together with the scattered data available on the first half of the nineteenth century. This paper suggests, first, that while it is known that Java’s economic relations with the outside world were heavily oriented toward trade with the Netherlands, this trend began in the late eighteenth century rather than with the introduction of the Cultivation System in 1830. Second, Java’s coastal trade also began to develop in the late eighteenth century. This trade was conducted by European traders and Asian indigenous traders, including overseas Chinese traders settled in Java. Third, trade with the Outer Islands declined in the late eighteenth century but resumed its expansion in the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Fourth, intra-Asian trade with the region outside insular Southeast Asia declined in the long run, along with the decline and bankruptcy of the VOC, which had successfully engaged in this branch of intra-Asian trade since the seventeenth century.

  1. [The introduction of the western psychiatry into Korea: from the mid seventeenth century to 1911, the time of Japanese forced annexation of Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N M; Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is to investigate the routes of the introduction of the western psychiatric knowledges and practices in Korea. The historical documents including newspapers and governmental bulletins as well as articles and books on the history of the Korean medicine were examined and the results are as follows: The western knowledge about the brain anatomy and physiology were introduced from China by the enlightened Confucian and Taoistic scholars of Korea in the mid seventeenth century through the Chinese translations of the western science and medicine. Due to the lack of support for the scholars and even persecution by the ruling power to those who had great interests in the western thoughts including sciences, the western medical knowledges could not be actualized in practice. Thus, the active practices of western medicine were started in the late 19th century in Korea through the two routes; one, via Japanese military physicians and the other one, via the western missionary physicians. The psychiatry was lectured by Japanese psychiatrist in 1910 at the medical school of Tai-Han Unwon, the Korean governmental clinic and 1913 at the Severance medical school of Tai-Han Uiwon, the Korean governmental clinic and in 1913 at the Severance medical school by the Australian psychiatrist, McLaren. As the independent department with the psychiatric ward, the first Dept. of Psychiatry was established in 1913 at the colonial governmental clinic, Chosun Chondokbu-Uiwon, the former Tai-Han Ui-won. Medicine as well as psychiatry was introduced into Korea under the political atmosphere of one sided admiration for the western science. The attempts to combine the western medicine with the traditional Korean medicine could not be tolerated by both missionary physicians and the colonial regime.

  2. A round robin exercise in archaeometry: analysis of a blind sample reproducing a seventeenth century pharmaceutical ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, M P; Modugno, F; Gamberini, M C; Rocchi, M; Baraldi, C; Deviese, T; Stacey, R J; Orlandi, M; Saliu, F; Riedo, C; Chiantore, O; Sciutto, G; Catelli, E; Brambilla, L; Toniolo, L; Miliani, C; Rocchi, P; Bleton, J; Baumer, U; Dietemann, P; Pojana, G; Marras, S

    2011-10-01

    Chemical analysis of ancient residues of pharmaceutical or cosmetic preparations such as balms or ointments is made problematic by the high complexity of these mixtures, composed of organic and inorganic materials. Consequently, a multi-analytical approach and special caution in the interpretation of the results are necessary. In order to contribute to the improvement of analytical strategies for the characterization of complex residues and to reconstruct ancient medical practices, a replica of a pharmaceutical formulation of the seventeenth century was prepared in the laboratory according to a historically documented recipe. In a round robin exercise, a portion of the preparation was analysed as a blind sample by 11 laboratories using various analytical techniques. These included spectroscopic, chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. None of the laboratories was able to completely reconstruct the complex formulation, but each of them gave partial positive results. The round robin exercise has demonstrated that the application of a multi-analytical approach can permit a complete and reliable reconstruction of the composition. Finally, on the basis of the results, an analytical protocol for the study of residues of ancient medical and pharmaceutical preparations has been outlined.

  3. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Danielle O; Mendes, Sérgio L

    2016-01-01

    Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605). We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590) to George Marcgrave (1610-1644). We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  4. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Keplers supernova (SN1604)

    CERN Document Server

    van Gent, Robert H

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Sule et al. (Astronomical Notes, vol. 332 (2011), 655) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  5. No evidence for an early seventeenth-century Indian sighting of Kepler's supernova (SN1604)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification is based on a misunderstanding of traditional Islamic astrological iconography and that the claim that the mural represents an early 17th-century Indian sighting of the supernova of 1604 has to be rejected.

  6. The use of Latin and the European republic of letters: Change and continuity in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

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    Per Pippin Aspaas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article, which is the author’s trial lecture for the degree of Philosophiae Doctor, offers a brief history of the use of Latin among men of learning. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are known as the periods of Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment, respectively. In the same timespan the Republic of Letters flourished, a word which connoted a kind of ‘imagined community’ (in Benedict Anderson’s words which bound together the supporters of the new science. In transgressing confessional, civil, and ideological boundaries Latin offered a peculiar kind of assistance. A text in Latin would signify not merely erudition, but also some sort of neutrality. However much the active use and the passive ability to understand various vernacular languages rose internationally, neither Italian, French, English, or German was received without mixed feelings. Escaping the famous definition of a language as ‘a dialect with an army and a navy’, Latinity proved capable of persisting by means of ‘soft power’ alone. The processes which led to the end of this state of affairs were not one and the same. Italian, which Galilei and the academicians of Florence used, achieved national or regional, rather than international, success. English, cultivated by the Royal Society of London, was undoubtedly comprehensible to many learned, but it was used rarely abroad nevertheless. French, having the Académie Royale des Sciences and the encyclopédistes among its supporters, especially towards the end of the eighteenth century seemed poised to take over the Republic of Letters. German, read by many men of learning in Nordic and Eastern parts of Europe, reeked of vulgarity or even barbarism. That Latin, the victim of nationalism, democratisation, and secularisation, in brief, of European modernity, also served as a vehicle and a midwife for that very same modernity is a lesson well worth bearing in mind.

  7. “The dangerous classes”: Hugo Grotius and seventeenth-century piracy as a primitive anti-systemic movement

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    Eric Wilson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the historical and textual representations of piracy in the writings of Hugo Grotius, primarily De Indis/De iure praedae(1603-1608 and the Commentarius in Theses XI (c. 1600. Contrary to popular belief, Grotius, in stark contrast to Jean Bodin, was not an advocate of the constitutionally homogenous Nation-State. Rather, his central concept of divisible sovereignty, the lynchpin of the constitutional theory of his early writings, unambiguously presents us with the object of the heterogeneousState. In Grotian theory, the State may be “read” as a composite construction, with a residual degree of inalienable sovereignty accruing at each unit-level. Even if only unconsciously, Grotius describes a concurrent para-political sub-division of the state between institutional Government (the “magistrates”and civil society, one that constitutes an operational system of governance within the Nation-State. Like his contemporary Johannes Althusius, Grotius’theory allows for the emergence of a wholly “private,” albeit lawful, mode of authority. This is most apparent in Grotius’ treatment of the mercantile trading Company and its Privateering operations. The corporatist theory of sovereignty permits the Company’s private agents of violence, the legally ambivalent Privateer/Pirate, to be invested with a requisite degree of sovereignty. The Grotian theory of divisible sovereignty, investing the seventeenth-century Pirate band with legal personality, serves as a vital historical precursor to the quasi-statist (trans- national criminal cartels of the twenty-first century. The Grotian Pirate/Privateer/Just Avenger, therefore, is a “nomad”: a liminal entity that simultaneously transverses both geographical and juro-political spaces, rendering him or herselfin-determinable.

  8. No Evidence for an Early Seventeenth-Century Indian Sighting of Kepler's Supernova (SN1604)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal, Sule et al. (2011) argued that an early 17th-century Indian mural of the constellation Sagittarius with a dragon-headed tail indicated that the bright supernova of 1604 was also sighted by Indian astronomers. In this paper it will be shown that this identification

  9. Asientos and Military Contractors in the Seventeenth Century: The Example of the Bread and the Gunpowder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This text approaches the importance of the Asientos inside the expense of the armies that fought in Spain during the 17th century. For it we analyze the management of the supply of bread whose quantity was the most outstanding expense of any army, which was always in private hands. We also analyze the production of gunpowder in Spain, and their transformation in a monopoly in private hands in the form of Asientos Generales.

  10. Sloths of the Atlantic Forest in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

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    DANIELLE O. MOREIRA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sloths were a curiosity item for Europeans in the 16th and 17th centuries, and several descriptions of them exist in bestiaries and texts of that time. Here, we assemble the descriptions and drawings of sloths from the travellers and naturalists of those centuries in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The sloth was a novelty to the European audience, and it was described in many strange and inaccurate ways: as a monster, a beast, or an odd child. It served as a source of admiration, amusement, and confusion among naturalists and travellers of the 16th and 17th centuries. We also raised the question about the identity of Carolus Clusius' sloth, a drawing published in Exoticorum libri decem (1605. We compared his drawing with earlier depictions and descriptions, from André Thevet (1516-1590 to George Marcgrave (1610-1644. We present evidence to validate the first drawing of the maned sloth, completed 206 years before the official taxonomic description.

  11. The Scientific Revolution--The Kidney and Nephrology in and about the Seventeenth Century (Part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2015-01-01

    In the history of the evolution of the medical sciences, it is in the 17th century that the conscious, deliberate, and systematic study of the workings of the human body began. It was a product of the radical changing attitudes of this insurgent century when mathematical reasoning and mechanistic philosophy replaced the teleological outlook of earlier times. It was then that meticulous observation, reproducible quantification, experimental validation, and mathematical exactitude in the quest for truths launched the Scientific Revolution. The effect on medicine was a transformative change from a descriptive to an explanatory body of knowledge during the course of which rigorous anatomical dissections were used for the mechanical explanation of organ function, when morbid changes observed at postmortem began to be related to clinical features of disease, and when the secretive analytical methods of alchemy began to be refined for the study of chemical changes in living matter. Essentially what began with meticulous observations of anatomical features begat physiology and laid the foundations of pathology and chemistry. As a result, studies of organ structure, function, and changes in disease in general, and of the kidney in particular, were clarified and progressed at a rate never achieved theretofore. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. ‘Pretos’ and ‘Pardos’ between the Cross and the Sword: Racial Categories in Seventeenth Century Brazil

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    Hebe Mattos

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixing between Europeans and Africans in the  Portuguese empire produced hierarchical categories for racial gradations during the seventeenth  century. During this period the categories ‘mulato’ and ‘pardo’ were included in the regulations  for Purity of Blood (Estatutos de Pureza de Sangue, which determined who could have access to  the same honours and privileges that the old  Christian Portuguese received. From the seventeenth century onwards, those regulations stipulated that ‘no one of the race of Jew, Moor or  Mulato’ (Raça alguma de Judeu, Mouro ou Mulato were eligible to receive certain honours and  privileges from the crown. This paper discusses  the meanings of ‘race’ on the basis of two historical case studies. The twin processes of miscegenation, in the biological sense, and cultural intermixing have engendered intermediate strata that have  long stimulated the imagination of historians.  Instead of emphasizing the idea of new strata of  mixed blood, the two cases presented here suggest  a more central role for the early demographic  impact of access to manumission in colonial society to explain the emergence of these intermediate  categories in Portuguese America.  Resumen: ‘Pretos’ y ‘Pardos’ Entre la Cruz y la Espada: Categorías Raciales en el Brasil del Siglo DiecisieteDurante el siglo diecisiete, las mezclas entre europeos y africanos en el imperio portugués produjeron categorías jerárquicas de gradaciones raciales. Durante este período las categorías de ‘mulato’ y ‘pardo’ fueron incluidas en los estatutos para  la Pureza de la Sangre (Estatutos de Pureza de  Sangue, que determinaban quiénes tenían acceso  a los mismos honores y privilegios de que gozaban los viejos cristianos portugueses. Desde el  siglo diecisiete en adelante, esos estatutos estipulaban que “nadie de la raza judía, moro o mulato”  (Raça alguma de Judeu, Mouro ou Mulato podí- an recibir ciertos

  13. Otoman encounters with European science: sixtienth and seventeenth-century translations into turkish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunegrun, Feza

    The article concerns the traslation of medical and geographical texts from Arabic, Persian and European languages during Middle Age. The following astonomical texts are mentioned: a)Si fasl der marifet-i takvim (The thirty Chapters of Calendar Making) b)Er- Risaletu'l-fethiyye fi'l- hey'e (Astronomical treatise glorifying the Triump) by Ali Qushji, translated bySeydi Ali Reis c)The European astronomical Tables by Nathalis Durret (1590-1650)translated by Tezkireci Kose Ibrahim (1635-1663) d)Secenel-al-aflak fi gayet al idrak (Mirror of the Heavens and the Summit of Perception)translated by Tezkireci Kose Ibrahim Effendi. It is noted, that Ottoman astrologers and timekeepers used the tables by Ulug Beg till the mid- eighteenth century. e) The astronomical tables by Alexis Clairot (1713-165) were translated by Helifezade Cinari Ismail Effendi.

  14. The fluid mechanics of nutrition: Herman Boerhaave's synthesis of seventeenth-century circulation physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orland, Barbara

    2012-06-01

    This paper investigates the theory of nutrition of Herman Boerhaave, the famous professor of medicine and chemistry at the university of Leyden. Boerhaave's work, which systematized and synthesized the knowledge of the time, represents a shift from a humoral to a hydraulic model of the body in medicine and culture around 1700. This epistemological reconfiguration of early modern physiological thinking is exemplified with respect to the changing meanings of milk. While over centuries the analogy between blood and milk played an essential role in understanding the hidden workings of the nutritional faculties, following the discovery of the blood circulation the blood-milk analogy was transformed into a chyle-milk analogy. Yet Boerhaave's interpretations show that the use of new knowledge tools did not simply displace the old ways of reasoning. Instead, analogies continued to serve as epistemic instruments. Old theories and new insights overlapped, and contemporary knowledge assimilated past ideas.

  15. SOME ASPECTS OF SEVENTEENTH CENTURY MALAY VIA THOMAS BOWREY'S BILINGUAL DICTIONARY, PUBLISHED IN 1701

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    MASHUDI KADER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a description and an analytical overview of Bowrey's bilingual dictionary, published in 1701. It examines the word entries (lemmas found in the dictionary, including the content of the supplements of the dictionary. This article discusses some aspects of the morphology of oral Malay as found in the dictionary data, as well as some of the basic syntactic patterns and the nature of the sociolinguistic dimensions that are reflected in the dictionary. Some morphological and syntactic patterns identified in the dictionary are diachronically compared with either the forms found earlier in written text or those found later in contemporary oral Malay in order to estimate the authenticity and correctness of the forms. Some of the findings include the possibilities that the prefixes ber-, ba-, and me- and their variants could be allomorphic in 17th century oral Malay. Between the ber- and ba- variants, ber- seemed to have a broader function. It also seemed that only ber- had survived to the present day; the original function of the prefix ba- was likely taken over by either ber- or me- and their allomorphic variants. The syntactic data revealed five basic syntactic patterns. In the interrogative structures, the wh- questions seemed to favour placing wh- words in the initial position in a sentence, without any interrogative marker (-kah. The yes-no questions seemed to favour the echo variety. Although ialah was present, its corresponding adalah did not appear. The presence of adakah seemed to suggest the existence of the corresponding adalah. Bowrey probably did not remember this when writing the dictionary. Regarding the sociolinguistic dimension, the dictionary revealed that the pronominal form kitta (present-day kita was used only as a first-person singular pronoun. While aku did exist at the time, there seemed to be no saya in 17th century oral Malay.

  16. The representation of Caesalpinia echinata (Brazilwood in Sixteenth-and-Seventeenth-Century Maps

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    Yuri T. Rocha

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilwood was the first product found in Terra de Santa Cruz, and the first explored by Portuguese colonization of Brazil. This study aims at the Occidental Cartography and the historical files represented by Portugal's interest on mapping the marketed product found in Brazil. There presentation of Brazilwood in maps was possible due to scientific advancements, new land discoveries, and technological improvement during the 15th century, which all have taken cartography to a whole new period, stressing Portuguese hegemony in Asia and in the New World. The goal of this research was to identify and analyze maps from 16th and 17th centuries that represented the geographical distribution of Brazilwood, and its trade. Brazilwood was represented in many maps by illumination and detailed by different cartographers. The maps and other evidence for this research were found in historical files held in both Brazil and Portugal.O pau-brasil foi o primeiro produto encontrado na Terra de Santa Cruz e o primeiro a ser explorado pela colonização portuguesa no Brasil. Este estudo enfocou a Cartografia Ocidental e os arquivos históricos que representassem o interesse de Portugal em mapear esse produto comercial encontrado no Brasil. A representação do pau-brasil nos mapas foi possível devido aos avanços científicos, aos descobrimentos de novas terras e aos avanços tecnológicos alcançados durante o século XV, os quais deram à cartografia um papel de destaque no novo período, enfatizando a hegemonia Portuguesa na Ásia e no Novo Mundo. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi identificar e analisar os mapas dos séculos XVI e XVII que representassem a distribuição geográfica do pau-brasil e seu comércio. O pau-brasil foi representado em muitos mapas por iluminuras e detalhes feitos por diferentes cartógrafos. Os mapas e outras fontes presentes nesta pesquisa foram encontrados nos arquivos históricos sediados em ambos os países, Brasil e Portugal.

  17. On Behalf of Children. The Struggle for Breastfeeding in Seventeenth-Century England

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    Antonella Cagnolati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 17th century England a discussion on breastfeeding began. All sources emphasized the sacredness of procreation, affirming that the duties of a mother were not limited only to give birth to the child, but to concentrate on its welfare, and on its physical and spiritual healthy growth. Consequently, among the imperatives that a good mother should respect were primarily breastfeeding, attention to cleanliness and hygiene of the baby, watchful concern for weaning and diseases. However, the habits were really different: rich families, without distinction of any kind or class, merchants, lawyers, doctors, aristocrats, always hired a wet nurse. Traditional habits demanded that the baby stayed at the wet nurse’s house, often several miles away from the child’s home. To allow the baby to pass through the first months of life in a healthier environment, well in advance of the expected date of delivery, the father hired a healthy and well fed woman. In fact, the physical conditions of the wet nurse and the environment in which she lived were often far from idyllic: the result was a very high infant mortality rate. Some began to oppose this system with valid reasons.

  18. Mapping the Cosmos on a Ceiling: Reflection Sundials from the Seventeenth Century to the Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Woodruff T., III

    2012-01-01

    Ceiling reflection sundials employ a small horizontal mirror, say on a south-facing window sill, to cast a spot of sunlight to the ceiling and/or walls of a room or gallery. In this way the linear scale of the daily and annual motions of the sun are greatly amplified, allowing a plethora of information to be displayed and read. Besides the time of day and the date, typical quantities included the altitude and azimuth of the sun, the declination of the sun, the number of hours since sunrise, the length of daylight, the sign of the zodiac, the sidereal time, etc. The principles for planning and calculating these sundials were first laid out in detail in 17th century Italy by the Jesuit scholars Athanasius Kircher and Emmanuel Maignan: two reflection dials of the latter still survive today in Rome, at Trinità dei Monti (1637) and Palazzo Spada (1644). A third extant example can be found at the Lycée Stendhal in Grenoble, built by a Jesuit priest named Bonfa in 1673. This talk will describe and illustrate these complex sundials, as well as a recently completed ceiling dial, inspired by their example, in the New World (Seattle).

  19. The struggle for the Bay : the life and times of Sandwip, an almost unknown Portuguese port in the Bay of Bengal in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

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    Rila Mukherjee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article places Sandwip, a lesser known salt trading island and port in the Bay of Bengal within the nexus of global trade and politics in the seventeenth century. Sandwip is now a part of Bangladesh but at the time under review it was successively part of the medieval kingdoms of Bengal, Tripura and Arakan. Sandwip was, briefly, held by the Portuguese and is referred to in Portuguese annals as a ‘minor’ settlement, part of their ‘informal empire’ in the Bay. The article argues that we should not read such settlements of the Portuguese in Southasia as ‘formal’ or ‘informal’, ‘minor’ or ‘major’, and make thereby artificial distinctions between categories. We need to, instead, refocus and study Portuguese expansion as a multi pronged enterprise in which local exigencies and imperial vision were braided all over the Bay of Bengal.

  20. Spanish, Portuguese, and Neo-Latin Poetry Written and/or Published by Seventeenth-, Eighteenth-, and Nineteenth-Century Sephardim from Hamburg and Frankfurt (2

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    Brown, Kenneth

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is the second in a three-part series (the first appearing in Sefarad 59 [1999] pp. 3-42; the third being in press on the phenomenon of Neo- Latin and Romance-Language —Spanish and Portuguese— poetry of the Sephardim in Hamburg and Frankfurt am Main from the early seventeenth to the midnineteenth centuries. Our collection expands the original poetic corpus from twenty-eight to forty-five works. In an historical and critical Introduction to the poems, the authors distinguish the creative genius of a new type of literary discourse, one which meshes neo-classical strophic forms with inspiration from Sephardic orthodox Judaism as it was practiced in the Dutch Netherlands, biblical events and Jewish philosophical constructs. In addition to the evaluation and edition of the poems and, in the cases of Neo-Latin works, their translation to English, the Introduction includes an argument for substantiating book printing of Sephardic-authored books in Frankfurt am Main during the period 1614-1634 as well as sporadically throughout the remainder of the seventeenth century.

    Nuestro estudio representa la segunda parte (la primera apareció en Sefarad 59 [1999] págs. 3-42; la tercera está en prensa de un trabajo sobre la poesía en latín y lenguas romances —español y portugués— de los sefardíes de Hamburgo y de Frankfurt am Main desde principios del siglo XVII hasta mediados del XVIII. Aquí el corpus poetarum se amplía de veintiocho a cuarenta y cinco obras; estas nuevas poesías evidencian un espíritu neoclasicista mezclado ingeniosamente con un discurso apegado a un judaísmo ortodoxo-sefardí tal como entonces se practicaba en los países protestantes del norte de Europa. En el apartado introductorio, que es tanto descriptivo como evaluativo de la obra poética, se defiende la tesis de que la ciudad protestante de Frankfurt am Main con su feria del libro anual servía como lugar de impresi

  1. «In the Shadow» of Absent Men: Unhappily Married Women in the Hispanic World of the Seventeenth Century

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    María José DE LA PASCUA SÁNCHEZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The households with feminine heads have been revealed in recent research as an important social reality in Early Modern Europe. These households, often under direction of a widow, and to a lesser extent, of a spinster or an unhappily married woman, are providing historians with the possibility to observe women’s lives from the margins of structures of patriarchal power. The economic, social and affective reality of unhappily married women needs a profound analysis, that goes beyond a quantitative magnitude, facing the challenge of imagining these women in conditions that, at first glance, didn’t go beyond exceptional and accidental, but in reality they could have formed an environment of autonomy and power for themselves. In this study, judicial records and testaments which come from Cadiz in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries are utilised to show the different paths of the lifes of women with absent husbands. These testimonials confirm that the experiences of women and their own perception of themselves differ not only as a function of their own circumstances but also according to the sources that we could choose. If from the allegations of abandonment from the «Warrants to Indies» it can be deduced that for this collective, overall they experienced poverty and difficult conditions, their wills offer a visión of full lives where work and affection are basic structures.

  2. Three Giants in the Cradle of Reproductive Medicine; Reproduction Theories of the Seventeenth Century as Discerned by Pregnancy Portraiture in the Oeuvre of Jan Vermeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Spitz, Irving M

    2016-04-19

    Portraits of pregnant women are rare in Catholic Renaissance art. In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art. Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era. Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of 43. Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations. In this paper we investigate the roots of this unusual icon in Vermeer's oeuvre, and suggest that the use of pregnancy in his paintings could have been inspired by his Delft-resident contemporaries Antony van Leeuwenhoek and Reinier de Graaf, fathers of well-known and opposing theories of reproduction. These eminent scientists and Vermeer's pregnant wife, who frequently served as his model, might have made pregnancy less mysterious and more realistic to the painter.

  3. Three Giants in the Cradle of Reproductive Medicine; Reproduction Theories of the Seventeenth Century as Discerned by Pregnancy Portraiture in the Oeuvre of Jan Vermeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronit Haimov-Kochman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Portraits of pregnant women are rare in Catholic Renaissance art. In seventeenth-century Holland, the Catholic rule of Spain had been thrown off and a Protestant Calvinistic republic emerged, freeing Dutch artists to choose an unorthodox subject matter for their paintings. The Golden Age of Holland was characterized by extreme wealth, originating from overseas trade, which fostered a marked interest in philosophy, science, medicine, as well as art. Despite this, portraiture of pregnancy remained uncommon. An exception to this rule was Jan Vermeer of Delft, who lived during the zenith of this era. Jan Vermeer painted fewer than 40 pictures, fathered 15 children, and died bankrupt and little appreciated at the age of 43. Vermeer confined himself almost entirely to images of women in various domestic situations, including three figures of pregnant women. In this framework, pregnancy could be viewed as an icon for fidelity and conformism to social expectations. In this paper we investigate the roots of this unusual icon in Vermeer’s oeuvre, and suggest that the use of pregnancy in his paintings could have been inspired by his Delft-resident contemporaries Antony van Leeuwenhoek and Reinier de Graaf, fathers of well-known and opposing theories of reproduction. These eminent scientists and Vermeer’s pregnant wife, who frequently served as his model, might have made pregnancy less mysterious and more realistic to the painter.

  4. In Referees We Trust? Controversies over Grant Peer Review in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Melinda

    While many accounts of external refereeing assume that it has been a consistent part of science since the seventeenth century, the practice developed far more slowly and haphazardly than many observers realize, and it was not until after the Second World War that ''peer review'' became considered an essential part of scientific publishing or grant-making. This talk will explore refereeing procedures at American grant-giving organizations in the twentieth century, focusing especially on the National Science Foundation and the National Institutes of Health. The creators of the NSF and the NIH put refereeing systems in place at their foundation. However, the form and function of these systems differed from modern ''peer review'' in several important ways. At the NSF the initial purpose of the referee process was to advise the NSF program directors, not to dictate funding decisions. At the NIH, small ''study sections'' devoted to particular subjects made recommendations to the NIH leadership, which rendered final judgments. However, beginning in the 1960s a series of controversies about NIH and NSF grants placed refereeing procedures at these organizations under more intense scrutiny. These debates culminated in six days of Special Oversight Hearings into the NSF's peer review process in the summer of 1975. Following the hearings, both the NSF and NIH reformed their review processes to place more emphasis on referees' opinions about grant proposals, making peer review increasingly responsible for decision-making. These controversies illustrate that refereeing continued to undergo significant changes in form and purpose throughout the twentieth century, and further suggest that both the scientific community and the public placed increased emphasis on the role of the referee during the late twentieth century.

  5. Ars scientia mores: science comes to English dentistry in the seventeenth century. 2. Charles Allen's Treatise of 1685/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, M

    2013-03-01

    The dental historian is fortunate to have Charles Allen and his Treatise of 1685/6. His value lies less in the practical content of the work but more in his knowledge of general and dental anatomy, and in the evidence of an enquiring mind. The author tackles developmental anatomy, physiology and pathology in his chosen subject. Without its unassailable provenance it would be difficult to believe that it was written in the 17th century.

  6. Impure epistemology and the search for the nervous agent: a case study in seventeenth- and eighteenth-century neurophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Métraux, A

    1996-01-01

    In this contribution, I argue for epistemological impurity as the key to the historical reconstruction of the proto-biological sciences of the eighteenth century. The traditional approaches to the more or less complex and more or less stratified past of science either focus on the ideal content of that which has in the meantime been recognized as standard biological knowledge (transmitted from generation to generation by textbooks) or otherwise try to uncover the implicit cognitive principles at work in order to reveal their shortcomings (as measured against today's accepted criteria = epistemological presentism). A closer look at the breakdown of the classical models of mechanistic explanation and the detailed analysis of the new empirico-experimental research in the neurophysiology of the eighteenth century shows, however, that eclectic procedures of various kinds have dominated the field. This eclecticism (the principle of epistemological impurity) supported, and was in turn supported by, what has recently become known as "thinking with one's hand." The paper illustrates this specific kind of thinking (and experimental acting) with reference to the case of Nicolas Le Cat's microphysics of nervous activity.

  7. Varenius e o conhecimento matemático do século XVII Varenius and the mathematical knowledge in the seventeenth century

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    Arlete de Jesus Brito

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutimos o contexto do desenvolvimento da Geografia que, no século XVII, liberou-se do seu papel nas diferentes fés cristãs, bem como a importância da cisão dos Protestantes, em Luteranos e Calvinistas, para o processo de secularização, e o conseguinte estabelecimento da Geografia como ciência moderna. Analisamos a contribuição fundamental do luterano Bernhard Varen, cuja obra Geografia Geral apresenta o paradigma dessa nova ciência. Naquela época, a Geografia era considerada um ramo da matemática, e esta obra nos dá indícios sobre notações e conceitos matemáticos utilizados naquele século. Analisamos, particularmente, o uso da notação decimal de números não inteiros e algumas aplicações de conceitos trigonométricos, comparando a edição original com as principais reedições desta obra.In this paper, we discuss the context for the development of geography from the seventeenth century when it became liberated from its function in the service of the different Christian faiths; we discuss the importance of the division of the Protestant confession into the Lutheran and the Reformed one for the process of secularization and for the establishment of geography as a modern science. We analyse the fundamental contribution by the Lutheran Bernhard Varen whose volume General Geography constitutes the paradigm for this new science. At that time, Geography was considered to be a branch of mathematics, and this book offers us insights into both, mathematical notations and mathematical procedures. We analyse, in particular, the use of the decimal number notation for nonintegral numbers and also some applications of trigonometry, comparing the original edition with the major re-editions of this seminal work.

  8. WORK AND ORGANIZATION IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE: NOTES ON THE TRADE GUILDS OF SIXTEENTH- AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURY BURSA

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    Dr. Ömer DÜZBAKAR

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of artisans’ and commercial guilds was toperform and maintain daily activities of economic life in harmony andsocial consolidation with minimal conflict. Thus, the state would get ridof the heavy burden of bureaucratic procedures on the one hand, and yetwould also have the guilds yield to a standard of production as well aseliminate unfair competition through their autonomous internal workingson the other. Through such an auto-control mechanism the guilds wouldsolve their own problems with minimum resort to administrative andjudicial institutions. This article sheds light on the origins of Ottomanguild system, workings of trade guilds of Bursa and the supervisoryfunctions of their managers as well as on the various roles and activitiesplayed by the guilds in imperial public life. It also examines the conflictsof interest, unruly acts and forms of resolution taking place within andacross the guilds, with or without having recourse to judicial and otherimperial authorities. The study is based on a set of original historical documents surveyed from the Shari’a Court records of Bursa in the 16thand 17th centuries.

  9. Unruly Plebeians and the Forzado System: Convict Transportation between New Spain and the Philippines during the Seventeenth Century

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    Mawson, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along the highways of New Spain.Este artículo examina el fenómeno del transporte de soldados forzados entre México y las Filipinas durante el siglo XVII. Utilizando fuentes del Archivo General de la Nación (México y del Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, sostengo que este tipo de transporte forzado ayudó a los españoles a ampliar su poder en el Pacífico. Así mismo, actuó como una medida de justicia penal en respuesta a la aparición de plebeyos rebeldes y desobedientes dentro las ciudades y en las carreteras de la Nueva España.

  10. Natural History in Hispanic Journalism in the Late Eighteenth Century

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    Arturo MORGADO GARCÍA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Hispanic world of the late Eighteenth Century there was a certain amount of divulgation of Natural History, aided by the utilitarian nature of the Spanish Enlightenment, and by the fact that Natural History did not contradict Catholic doctrine. This paper approaches the diffusion of news of Natural History through periodicals, focusing on zoological references.

  11. Theatrical recreations of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra in France (from the seventeenth to the twenty-first century: review and new data

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    Emmanuel Marigno

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the quixotic dramatic recreations in France. After a synthesis that goes from the seventeenth to 2000, we provide a set of information about rewrites of the years 2000-2011, in order to reveal the main aesthetic and ethical specificities of contemporary quixotic rewrites.

  12. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The "mega-pitch-set" (MPS) organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. "Non-octave hypermode" is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of "art-music" that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in "hemiolic modes." The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch reflects the culture of

  13. Evolution of Tonal Organization in Music Optimizes Neural Mechanisms in Symbolic Encoding of Perceptual Reality. Part-2: Ancient to Seventeenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolsky, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals the way in which musical pitch works as a peculiar form of cognition that reflects upon the organization of the surrounding world as perceived by majority of music users within a socio-cultural formation. Part-1 of this paper described the origin of tonal organization from verbal speech, its progress from indefinite to definite pitch, and the emergence of two main harmonic orders: heptatonic and pentatonic, each characterized by its own method of handling tension at both domains, of tonal and social organization. Part-2, here, completes the line of historic development from Antiquity to seventeenth century. Vast archeological data is used to identify the perception of music structures that tells apart the temple/palace music of urban civilizations and the folk music of village cultures. The “mega-pitch-set” (MPS) organization is found to constitute the principal contribution of a math-based music theory to a new diatonic order. All ramifications for psychology of music are discussed in detail. “Non-octave hypermode” is identified as a peculiar homogenous type of MPS, typical for plainchant. The origin of chromaticism is thoroughly examined as an earmark of “art-music” that opposes earlier forms of folk music. The role of aesthetic emotions in formation of chromatic alteration is defined. The development of chromatic system is traced throughout history, highlighting its modern implementation in “hemiolic modes.” The connection between tonal organization in music and spatial organization in pictorial art is established in the Baroque culture, and then tracked back to prehistoric times. Both are shown to present a form of abstraction of environmental topographic schemes, and music is proposed as the primary medium for its cultivation through the concept of pitch. The comparison of stages of tonal organization and typologies of musical texture is used to define the overall course of tonal evolution. Tonal organization of pitch

  14. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne.

  15. Metaphors of Collecting in Late Nineteenth Century Paris

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    Valerie Mendelson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available At the same time that Aby Warburg was assembling his library and organizing his 'Bildatlas Mnemosyne', art critics and writers theorized late nineteenth-century collecting in Paris in metaphoric terms. Over and again, art collections were described as a bouquet, a conversation, a book, or indeed as a painting in and of itself put together by an ‘amateur’. By creating an ensemble, the amateur proposed a metaphorical mode of knowledge similar to that celebrated by Aby Warburg. This article considers the ways in which the arrangement and spaces of the late nineteenth-century amateurs, as seen in newspaper articles, sales catalogue essays and other texts and photographs, positioned the collector of paintings, but also of drawings and prints and rare books, in contradistinction to the development of the museum and proposed alternative modes of viewing and of knowing. The interdisciplinarity of Warburg’s focus on image, word, orientation and action is paralleled in many private collections.

  16. LOCALIZATION AND THE ELEMENTS OF THE SEVENTEENTH-CENTURY SOCIAL LIFE IN SÂBIT’S DIVAN SÂBİT DİVANI’NDA MAHALLÎLEŞME VE 17. YÜZYIL SOSYAL HAYAT UNSURLARI

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    Yunus KAPLAN

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the history, artists created their art using the elements of their society such as customs, traditions, commodities, words and lifestyles. Like other artists, our divan poets were inspired by their society, and in their poetry they used plenty of the accepted materialistic and moral values of the society. Sabit, a poet who lived in the second-half of the seventeenth century, was no exception. He decorated his poems with various dreams, and his careful observations and analyses of daily life were masterfully reflected in his poetry.This study classifies the elements reflecting the social life of the seventeenth century in Sabit’s poems. The relevant examples from Sabit’s Divan are also given. Tarihin her devrinde sanatkârlar, sanat eserlerini oluştururken mensup oldukları toplumun sosyal hayat tarzına ait yaşayış şekli, âdet ve gelenekler, kullanılan eşyalar ve kelimeler gibi birçok unsuru kullanarak eserlerine şekil vermişlerdir. Divan şairlerimiz de diğer sanatkârlar gibi eserlerini kaleme alırken, içinde yaşadıkları toplumun sosyal hayatından ilham almışlar, günlük hayatta kabul gören maddî ve manevî kültürel değerleri şiirlerde bolca kullanmışlardır. 17. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında yetişen Sâbit de yaşadığı döneme dair, iyi bir gözlem ve tahlil yaparak günlük hayata kayıtsız kalmamış, bu gözlem ve tahlillerini değişik hayallerle süsleyerek şiirlerine ustaca yansıtmasını başarmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Sâbit’in şiirlerinde 17. yüzyıldaki sosyal hayatı yansıtan unsurlar, çeşitli başlıklar altında sınıflandırılarak bunlara Divan’ından örnekler verilecektir.

  17. Surgery and national identity in late nineteenth-century Vienna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buklijas, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    For historians of medicine, the professor Theodor Billroth of the University of Vienna was the leading European surgeon of late nineteenth century and the personification of intervention by organ or body part removal. For social and political historians, he was a German nationalist whose book on medical education heralded the rise of anti-Semitism in the Austrian public sphere. This article brings together and critically reassesses these two hitherto separate accounts to show how, in a period of dramatic social and political change, Viennese surgery split into two camps. One, headed by Billroth, was characterized by an alliance with the German educational model, German nationalism leading to racial anti-Semitism and an experimental approach to the construction of surgical procedure, which heavily relied on the methods of pathological physiology. The other, which followed a long Austrian tradition, stood for a clinically-oriented and strictly organized medical education that catered to an ethnically and socially diverse population and, simultaneously, for an anatomically oriented surgery, largely of the locomotor apparatus. This study shows how, in a major centre of medical education and capital of a multiethnic empire, surgical and national identities were forged together. PMID:18053931

  18. [Medicine and orientalism in the late nineteenth century Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2002-06-01

    The paper investigates medical missionaries that exerted a significant role in establishing Western medicine in the late nineteenth century Chosun, in relation to orientalism, an academically popularized concept introduced by Edward Said. Historical analysis is focused on several important medical missionaries such as Horace N. Allen, William B. Scranton, John W. Heron, C. C. Vinton, and Oliver R. Avison to explain how their activism as medical missionary contributed to the formation of medical orientalism in which Western medicine was 'taught, studied, administered, and judged' in that period. In addition, I explore into how medical orientalism was in service of Japanese imperialism by showing that medical missionaries had to be under imperial surveillance by Japanese colonizers. The article explores the medical system of the Koryo Dynasty period and its social characteristics. First, the structure of medical system and roles of medical institutions during the Koryo Dynasty period will be summarized. Then the characteristics of the medical system will be identified through exploring the principles of its formation in a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of social recognition of medical care and a view of public policy.

  19. The Balletto suites in the choreographic manuals of Fabritio Caroso and Cesare Negri: a study of danced suites in Italy during the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Monahin, Nona

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the danced suites described in the manuals of two prominent sixteenth-century Italian dancing masters, Fabritio Caroso and Cesare Negri. Caroso produced two manuals: Il Ballarino (Venice, 1581) and La Nobiltà di Dame (Venice, 1600, 1605). Negri wrote one, Le Gratie d’Amore (Milan, 1602; reissued as Nuove Inventioni di balli in 1604). Together, these three dance manuals contain choreographic instructions and music for a total of one hundred and seventy-two compositions, s...

  20. Bone transplantation and tissue engineering. Part II: bone graft and osteogenesis in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Duhamel, Haller, Ollier and MacEwen).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In the 18th century, the fate of allografts and their role in bone formation became of interest to many orthopaedic surgeons. A controversy over the science of osteogenesis, the formation of bone, had emerged following the opposing views of Duhamel and von Haller. Duhamel noted that the periosteum had a deep osteogenic layer, which he termed the "cambium layer". However, von Haller claimed the opposite: the periosteum was not osteogenic. In the 19th century, Ollier performed comprehensive studies on the periosteum. Ollier's experiments were published in two volumes entitled "Traite Experimental et clinique de la regeneration des os" in 1867. His conclusion was that transplanted periosteum and bone survived and could become osteogenic under proper conditions. The controversy was furthered by MacEwen who believed, contrary to Duhamel and Ollier, that the periosteum had no osteogenetic power and was purely a limiting membrane giving direction to bone growth but taking no active part in it. This manuscript describes this period of controversies about the osteogenesis of the transplanted bone, marrow and periosteum that would eventually die or not and be replaced by surrounding tissue or be active for osteogenesis. Whether bone grafts are a form of passive scaffolding or active in osteogenesis was the main question about auto and allografts in the 18th and 19th centuries. In response to this challenge, many papers were written to defend each side of the argument.

  1. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century.I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  2. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMADA, Ryuto

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together...

  3. The influence of the final cause doctrine on anatomists of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries concerning selected anatomical structures of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydiatt, Daniel D; Bucher, Gregory S

    2012-09-01

    The Doctrine of Final Cause, taken from Aristotle's "causes" and modified by Claudius (Aelius) Galen (of Pergamon) stated that for an anatomical part to exist it must have a "cause," not an end point, but a purpose or goal, natural or divine. This affected the renaissance anatomist's thinking. We explore this doctrine's relationship with human head and neck anatomy from antiquity's Aristotle and Galen, and the leading renaissance anatomists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Their relevant writings were influenced by religious and political beliefs and varied from humanistic to reactionary. Tracing anatomical controversies through these works reveal the humanism of Vesalius and others as paralleling the humanists of art and literature. These controversies illustrate how the body was used to demonstrate function, uses, and causes from higher sources. Humanists advanced the social, philosophical, intellectual, literary, and medical/anatomical thoughts of this period. They stood between the Christian church of the Middle Ages and modern science. Like religion, medicine and anatomy had its own revealed sources of knowledge and had sacred texts like Galen's. Vesalius' the Fabrica and the woodcuts established suddenly the beginning of modern observational science and art as the direct and faithful representation of natural phenomena. They displayed anatomy such that others could understand, including errors of Galen, bringing Vesalius into ecclesiastical conflict. Evolutionary scientists today see mutations as favorable or unfavorable depending on the environment. Mutations are random or directed by divine plan, according to perspectives of this ancient debate. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. The Construction of Epistolary Identity in a Gentry’s Communication Network of the Seventeenth Century: The Case of Jane Lady Cornwallis Bacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has recently been increasing scholarly interest in early modern correspondence and specifically also in women’s letter writing and reading. Starting from the late Middle Ages familiar responsibilities and domestic obligations led many women to write to their absent husbands or other relatives to exchange health news and inform them about family affairs. It is however in the early modern period that corresponding with relatives and friends became a widespread social practice ranging from official to familiar and personal correspondence; in this period female literacy increased thus allowing growing numbers of women to write and read their own letters. A growing number of female voices can thus be heard depicting early modern social life. The article focuses on a neglected aspect of women’s correspondence: it investigates not the sender’s epistolary identity, but that of the recipient through the analysis of the personal correspondence of Lady Cornwallis Bacon. The main theme of the article is to show how the epistolary identity of an early modern gentlewoman was constructed by her correspondents. It is assumed that modes of communicating information and achieving a specific goal through letters varied not only according to the relationship connecting the correspondents but also the purpose and content of letters. 

  5. Memoria documental en textos chilenos del período colonial (siglos XVI y XVII (Documental memory in Chilean texts of the colonial period (sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Contreras Seitz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se da cuenta de las nociones básicas para la conformación de un corpus documental diacrónico que abarque el período colonial chileno, centrándose con particular énfasis en los siglos XVI y XVII. Se discute, además, los aspectos metodológicos para la edición crítica preliminar de dichos documentos, tanto en lo concerniente a la transcripción paleográfica de los mismos, la adecuación a normas filológicas específicas, así como el aparato crítico que es necesario implementar de acuerdo a los destinatarios, sin dejar de lado la rigurosidad histórica y documental. Especial mención se hará de los requisitos léxico-semánticos para la edición de estos documentos, el problema de las grafías y las abreviaturas, así como de los pasos previos que es necesario implementar para la creación de un programa de reconocimiento óptico de caracteres para textos manuscritos del período. (This article explains the basic notions for the conformation of a diachronic textual corpus that embraces the colonial Chilean period, focusing with particular emphasis on the XVI and XVII centuries. Some methodological aspects for the preliminary critical edition of these documents are also discussed, so much with what is concerned with aspects to the paleographical transcription of the same ones, the adaptation to philological specific norms, as well as the critical apparatus that is necessary to implement according to the addressees, without leaving aside the historical and documental rigor. Special mention will be made to the lexicon-semantic requirements for the edition of these documents, the problem of the graphs and the abbreviations, as well as of the previous steps that are necessary to implement for the creation of an optical character recognition program for handwritten texts of the period.

  6. El 'demonio' en el monasterio: Apuntes sobre el proceso inquisitorial a Teresa del Valle de la Cerda, siglo XVII The 'Devil' in the Monastery: Notes on the inquisitional trial of Teresa del Valle de la Cerda in the Seventeenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Carzolio

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resulta poco frecuente en la actualidad, en cuanto a la investigación de las ideas e itinerarios intelectuales, la de la circulación de las ideas religiosas en conexión con los medios sociales y las relaciones de poder en la Modernidad Temprana. En este caso se intentará analizar a la luz de los nuevos estudios acerca de la identidad de la monarquía católica de los Habsburgo, de los procesos inquisitoriales, del nacimiento de un nuevo individualismo, de los contrastes entre una cultura teológica refinada, siempre atenta a la aparición de indicios de desviación de la ortodoxia y de las creencias religiosas arcaicas, de rivalidades interiores y exteriores a la congregación conventual, los conflictos que darán origen a la intervención del Santo Oficio en el monasterio de San Plácido, en la primera mitad del siglo XVII. Se utilizará para ello la correspondencia formal (cartas entre los inculpados y de los mismos con altos personajes, testimonios y memoriales.In the current history of ideas and intellectual itineraries, it is very rare to find studies on the circulation of religious ideas associated to social environments and power relations in early modernity. This paper analyzes the conflicts that prompted the intervention of the Holy Office of the Inquisition in the monastery of St. Placid in the early seventeenth century. The authors locate this analysis at the intersection of the new studies on the Catholic identity of the Habsburg monarchy, the inquisitional trials, the birth of a novel individualism, the contrasts between a refined theological culture --always on the lookout for any signs of deviation from orthodoxy-- and ancient religious beliefs, and lastly, the internal and external rivalries of the conventual community. The research is based on the official correspondence (letters between the accused, and between them and high-ranking figures, testimonies, and memorials.

  7. Azaria's antecedents: stereotyping infanticide in late nineteenth-century Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kociumbas, J

    2001-01-01

    Recent historical studies have reconsidered the plight of white women accused of infanticide in Australia, casting new light especially on the motives of single women and mothers of large families. Still unredeemed and largely unanalysed, however, is the baby-farmer. This article explores stereotypes of this bête noire of the nineteenth-century city, addressing concurrent medicalisation of the maternal body, child-birth, infant feeding and foster care. In so doing it also analyses representations of the midwife and the wet-nurse, along with their essentialised opposite, the good mother, who abided by the newly defined "rights of the child".

  8. Chinese Avant-garde Art in the Late Twentieth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Vampelj Suhadolnik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main topic of the present paper is the '85 Art Movement, which was the first significant nationwide Avant-garde art movement in China. This movement, which arose in the mid-80s, defined the aesthetic foundations and identity of contemporary Chinese art, and represented Chinese globalized society on the threshold of the 21st century. Whilst focusing on China’s specific cultural and political contexts, the present paper analyses the concepts of humanism (renwen 人文 and idea (guannian 觀念. The spirit of humanism, with a rationalist connotation, and the desire for a revolution of ideas were the two main factors underpinning the Chinese Avant-garde movement and its artistic expressions. The paper also shows that the '85 Art Movement did not stem solely from the socio-political challenges of the 1980s, but should be regarded in the wider context of the “modernization project of Chinese art”, in the early 20th century.

  9. Critical views about sports in the late Nineteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Angelotti Pasteur

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the criticisms made by intellectuals of the nineteenth century towards sports. From different fields of knowledge (evolutionary philosophy, anthropology and economics Herbert Spencer (1860/1904, Edward Tylor (1881/1973 and Thorstein Veblen (1899/2005 agreed to question the primacy of sports over traditional practices, rituals and folk. These authors, without reaching the ends of the luddites respect of industrial machines, extolled the unfavorable aspects of physical exercises, planting a seed of doubt that continues to this day. The importance of knowing these arguments lies in the way they faced the sporting phenomenon when it began to be institutionalized in a new set of corporal, transformative exercises and apparently a generator of fitness and health

  10. Xenophobia in seventeenth-century India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijtzer, Gijs

    2009-01-01

    It is tempting to think of precolonial India as a harmonious society, but was it? This study brings evidence from new and unexpected sources to take position in the sensitive debate over that question. From the investigation of six conflicts in the Deccan region it draws conclusions about group beha

  11. Xenophobia in seventeenth-century India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijtzer, Gijs

    2009-01-01

    It is tempting to think of precolonial India as a harmonious society, but was it? This study brings evidence from new and unexpected sources to take position in the sensitive debate over that question. From the investigation of six conflicts in the Deccan region it draws conclusions about group beha

  12. Xenophobia in seventeenth-century India

    OpenAIRE

    Kruijtzer, Gijs

    2009-01-01

    It is tempting to think of precolonial India as a harmonious society, but was it? This study brings evidence from new and unexpected sources to take position in the sensitive debate over that question. From the investigation of six conflicts in the Deccan region it draws conclusions about group behaviour that put modern clashes in context. Some of the conflicts under investigation appear odd today but were very real to the involved, as the antagonism between Left and Right Hand castes was for...

  13. Doctors, Dandies and New Men: Ella Hepworth Dixon and Late-Century Masculinities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDonald, T.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines Ella Hepworth Dixon's engagement with late-century models of masculinity, namely the doctor, dandy and the New Man, in The Story of a Modern Woman (1894). Specifically, it argues that Dixon isolates the doctor and the dandy as particularly threatening to the New Woman. Though

  14. Sexism in Advertising Industry Through the Study of Auto Magazine Advertisements in Late 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯冉

    2015-01-01

    Gender discrimination against female in advertising industry appears to be ubiquitous especially in late 20th century. I intend to demonstrate that auto ads are under the influence of common gender stereotype which discriminates women as an inferior role in the society.

  15. Climate Change: Sources of Warming in the Late 20th Century

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, Gerald E

    2009-01-01

    The role of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, volcanic and other aerosols, as well as the extraordinary solar activity of the late 20th century are discussed in the context of the warming since the mid-1970s. Much of that warming is found to be due to natural causes.

  16. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While…

  17. "The Business of Life": Educating Catholic Deaf Children in Late Nineteenth-Century England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangion, Carmen M.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the debates in late nineteenth-century Britain regarding the education of deaf children revolved around communication. For many Victorians, sign language was unacceptable; many proponents of oralism attempted to "normalise" the hearing impaired by replacing deaf methods of communication with spoken language and lipreading. While debates on…

  18. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  19. Dragons in English: The Great Change of the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Dominic

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for the incredible variety found in the modern literary dragon is commonly seen to stem from the creative genius of either E. Nesbit or Kenneth Grahame. However, examination of dragon stories in the late nineteenth century shows that several different authors, on both sides of the Atlantic, were producing similar stories at about the…

  20. Korean Astronomers' Journey to Beijing in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries%17-18世纪朝鲜天文学者的北京旅行*--以金尚范和许远的事例为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宗台

    2013-01-01

    Taking the cases of two Korean court astronomers' journeys to Beijing in the seven-teenth and eighteenth centuries, this article examines how the political hierarchy between the Qing and Chosŏn dynasties conditioned Korean astronomers' effort to learn the Shixian li, the official calendrical system of the Qing. The difficulties the Korean astronomers met in their missions to Bei-jing, the measures of the Chosŏn court to support the astronomers' travel, and the actual process of the two astronomers' mission are to be examined. How then did the Korean astronomers view their mission and its difficulties? Curiously, they did not consider the travel to Beijing only as hardships to be avoided;rather, they took it as an opportunity to enhance their socio-professional interests. Sig-nificantly, they portrayed themselves as the astronomers of a“marginal state,” who could not expect to be competent in their specialty without paying pilgrimages to the imperial metropolis. This rhetoric of modesty reflected the puzzled position of the Korean official astronomers, who had to promote their socio-cultural interests only by negating their ability to be competent in their specialty on their own.%金尚范和许远分别是17世纪中叶和18世纪初期朝鲜宫廷天文学家的代表人物,在引进大清时宪历这件事上,做出了很大的贡献。文章试图从微观的角度出发,拟对金尚范和许远赴北京学习时宪历计算法的具体过程进行更加深入地探索。主要从天文学家们在北京旅行时遇到了怎样的困难,朝廷为他们的旅行提供过哪些制度方面的帮助,以及他们的实际学习是以怎样的方式进行的,这样几个方面来进行考察。同时,由此来揭示朝清之间的政治等级关系是怎样在社会与认识论的角度,制约天文学传播之具体过程的;朝鲜天文学者们对此又是怎样认识的,做出了哪些对应。通过对金尚范和许远事例的分析

  1. La couleur à Lille au xviie siècle, de Philippe IV à Louis XIV The colour of Lille in the seventeenth century, from Philippe IV to Louis XIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Poncelet

    2007-06-01

    colour. The red brick and grey sandstone entrance façade of the Hospice Comtesse is set off by a yellow ochre colourwash. The Vieille Bourse (Old Stock Exchange flaunts its colourful facades resembling a piece of cabinetmaking, with incrustations of pearly stones and brick gleaming like tortoiseshell. The French-Lillois taste for colour was passed down through the city-centre reconstruction in the seventeenth century, as shown in the scale model of 1743. Restorations undertaken in the last ten years or so have revealed this bright urban decorative tradition in a number of other main squares in northern French cities.

  2. “Caminando sobre la tierra, de nuevo desconocida, toda cambiada” “Caminando sobre la tierra, de nuevo desconocida, toda cambiada”. The invention of landscape painting in New Spain's cartography, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Russo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La producción de mapas por parte de los cartógrafos indígenas, mestizos y españoles en los siglos XVI y XVII, es un laboratorio de increíble riqueza para estudiar los efectos pictóricos que la transformación territorial-administrativa empezada por la conquista tuvo al pasar por la esfera de la creación. En las imágenes, hoy en el Archivo General de la Nación, los pintores locales tuvieron que inventar una nueva forma de visualizar las tierras, los espacios y los paisajes. De esta mina inagotable que es la cartografía colonial de la Nueva España, voy a reflexionar sobre el «paisaje». Los cartógrafos novohispanos renovaron la mirada hacia el territorio inventando soluciones pictóricas totalmente novedosas respecto a las tradiciones artísticas mesoamericanas y europeas. A través del análisis del horizonte histórico y estético propio de estas pinturas —que llamé «el realismo circular»— este trabajo se concentrará en analizar algunos mapas donde la tensión con la realidad cambiante del territorio tuvo los efectos pictóricos más pertinentes para enunciar que uno de los orígenes de la «pintura de paisaje» puede reconocerse adentro de este conjunto tan heterogéneo de imágenes. Al final, creo que debemos deshacernos de los campos y los límites disciplinarios tradicionales para producir un enfoque innovador para el estudio de este tipo de imágenes.The production of maps by native, mestizo and Spanish cartographers during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries represents an extremely rich laboratory for studying the pictorial effects that the territorial-administrative transformation that started with the conquest underwent in the creative arena. In these images, today filed in the General Archive of the Nation, local painters had to invent a new way of visualizing the land, spaces and landscapes. From this eternal mine represented by the New Spain’s colonial cartography, I will focus on the “landscape”. New

  3. Glacier changes on South Georgia since the late-19th century documented in historical photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John; Haynes, Valerie

    2014-05-01

    South Georgia is one of the few landmasses in the Southern Ocean. It provides a crucial geographical datapoint for glacier responses to climate change over different timescales. As part of an ongoing glacier inventory of the island, we are compiling a database of historical glacier photographs. Since the late 19th century, the island has been visited by numerous scientific and survey expeditions, as well as being the land-base for a major whaling industry. Historical photographs of the island are available from the late-19th century, beginning with the 1882-83 German International Polar Year Expedition. Many more exist from the 20th century, notably from the South Georgia Surveys in the 1950s. An assessment of the value of the photographs indicates that spatial coverage is variable, many lack reference features to pinpoint glacier positions and, in the case of smaller glaciers, the presence of snowcover makes it difficult to define the ice edge. Nevertheless, the photographs provide useful corroboration of more advanced glacier positions during the late-19th century and recession of smaller mountain and valley glaciers during the mid-20th century, while larger tidewater and sea-calving glaciers generally remained in relatively advanced positions until the 1980s. Since then, nearly all the glaciers have retreated; some of these retreats have been dramatic and a number of small mountain glaciers have fragmented or disappeared. The response of the glaciers can be related to synoptic-scale warming, particularly since the 1950s, moderated by individual glacier geometry and topography.

  4. Regulatory support of physical education of youth students in the late of nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Васильович Черпак

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the various instructions and regulations of the late of nineteenth century, which devoted to organizational forms, means and methods of physical education of the younger generation. Prerequisites specified in their development associated with poor health status of youth students, awareness of the importance of physical development and spread of ideas in many countries about the need for physical education

  5. SYSTEM OF CONTINUOUS AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN PRECARPATHIA (LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ukrainian public communities have important achievements in development of the system of continuous agricultural education in Precarpathia - Ukrainian Pedagogical Society “Ridna Shkola”, “Prosvita”, “Silskyi Hospodar”, the Union of Ukrainians and others. In the late XIX - early XX centuries, they held important educational work among adults, organized various forms of training - courses, professional-complementary schools, agricultural schools, high schools, colleges, courses, public universi...

  6. Labor's Response to Industrialization in the Late-nineteenth-century America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ruizhi; Guo Yanzhi

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is an attempt to reveal labor's response to industrialization in the late nineteenth century from the perspective of labor's economic conditions. The fast growth of industrialization and the backward economic conditions of American laborers formed a sharp contrast. Labor responded violently by means of labor movement including major labor organizations and influential strikes. Through the study a vivid picture of labor's struggle for their basic economic rights was unfolded.

  7. Natural interdecadal weak-ening of East Asian summer monsoon in the late 20th century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Dabang; WANG Huijun

    2005-01-01

    Based on the reanalysis data throughout 1948―2002 as derived from the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction and National Center for Atmospheric Research, it is revealed that East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensity weakens on an interdecadal timescale since the mid-1960s, and twice interdecadal jumps are recorded in the EASM intensity index series in the late 20th century, respectively occurring in the mid-1960s and mid- to late 1970s. Six globally coupled atmosphere-ocean models' outputs under the SRES A2 greenhouse gas and aerosol emission scenario, provided by the IPCC Data Distribution Center and the Hadley Center for Climate Prediction and Research, are then systematically examined. It follows that the above EASM weakening is not closely related to synchronizing anthropogenic global warming, and, therefore, it should be qualitatively natural change process. Over the 21st century, the EASM intensity is likely increased slightly by continually intensified greenhouse effect relative to the late 20th century.

  8. Yale University Is Preserving Its Great Late-19th-Century Architecture by Remodeling the Old Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Architectural Record, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Renovation of four late-19th-century Yale dormitories makes the most of their unique architectural character. Available from: Publications Office, 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, New York 10020; $5.00 single copy. (Author/MLF)

  9. Priestley's Shadow and Lavoisier's Influence: Electricity and Heat in the Late Eighteenth and Early Nineteenth Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amy

    In the late eighteenth century, Joseph Priestley argued that any complete theory of heat also had to explain electrical phenomena, which manifested many similar effects to heat. For example, sparking or heating a sample of trapped air caused a reduction in the volume of air and made the gas toxic to living organisms. Because of the complexity of electrical and thermal phenomena, Antoine Lavoisier did not address electrical action in his published works. Rather, he focused on those effects produced by heating alone. With the success of Lavoisier's caloric theory of heat, natural philosophers and chemists continued to debate the relationship between heat and electricity. In this presentation, I compare and contrast the fate of caloric in early-nineteenth-century electrical studies via the work of two scientists: Humphry Davy in Britain and Robert Hare in America.

  10. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  11. From Reinos to Monarquía - Political Association in late 16th Century Spain

    OpenAIRE

    I.A.A.Thompson

    2016-01-01

    This essay argues that the term, the monarquía de España, commonly used by historians as a designation for the complex of territories ruled by the kings of Spain throughout the early-modern period, was, in fact, an innovation of the late-16th Century. It then goes on to examine some of the reasons, implications and consequences of the terminological shift from the particularism of "Reinos y estados" to the unitary concept of Monarquía, a term which gave concrete expression to the ...

  12. Forms of Wages for Miners of Siberia in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinovyev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the question of forms of wages paid to workers in the mining industry of Siberia in the late XIX – early XX centuries. Of the two main forms of labor compensation – hourly rate and piecework pay, the latter was more corresponding to the spirit of capitalism, and it was most widespread in the mining enterprises of Siberia. The piecework pay was also the main instrument for intensifying labor productivity. This episode in the history of labor is studied on the basis of paperwork materials of mining companies and reporting documents of the mining inspectorate.

  13. SYSTEM OF CONTINUOUS AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN PRECARPATHIA (LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna Bilavych

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ukrainian public communities have important achievements in development of the system of continuous agricultural education in Precarpathia - Ukrainian Pedagogical Society “Ridna Shkola”, “Prosvita”, “Silskyi Hospodar”, the Union of Ukrainians and others. In the late XIX - early XX centuries, they held important educational work among adults, organized various forms of training - courses, professional-complementary schools, agricultural schools, high schools, colleges, courses, public universities etc. All this contributed to increasing of economic culture of the Ukrainian land. Formation of economic culture of children and adults in Precarpathia had its own characteristics, mainly associated with the economic, social, historical, climatic, cultural and educational conditions of life and activities. The system of continuous agricultural education included some educational institutions such as courses, vocational schools, which performed various levels of training. Agricultural schools became an important area of lifelong education. Let us consider, for example, the activities of two schools - one of the first established societies “Enlightenment” in the Precarpathia - schools in Mylovanya (Tlumachchyna and Starokosivska, which was founded in 1942 during the German occupation. Thus, on condition of the absence of state Ukrainian professional schools in the late XIX - early XX centuries civil societies created a system of continuous agricultural education which was aimed at improving the economic culture of young people and adults.

  14. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  15. William Keith Brooks and the naturalist's defense of Darwinism in the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Richard

    2015-06-01

    William Keith Brooks was an American zoologist at Johns Hopkins University from 1876 until his death in 1908. Over the course of his career, Brooks staunchly defended Darwinism, arguing for the centrality of natural selection in evolutionary theory at a time when alternative theories, such as neo-Lamarckism, grew prominent in American biology. In his book The Law of Heredity (1883), Brooks addressed problems raised by Darwin's theory of pangenesis. In modifying and developing Darwin's pangenesis, Brooks proposed a new theory of heredity that sought to avoid the pitfalls of Darwin's hypothesis. In so doing he strengthened Darwin's theory of natural selection by undermining arguments for the inheritance of acquired characteristics. In later attacks on neo-Lamarckism, Brooks consistently defended Darwin's theory of natural selection on logical grounds, continued to challenge the idea of the inheritance of acquired characteristics, and argued that natural selection best explained a wide range of adaptations. Finally, he critiqued Galton's statistical view of heredity and argued that Galton had resurrected an outmoded typological concept of species, one which Darwin and other naturalists had shown to be incorrect. Brooks's ideas resemble the "biological species concept" of the twentieth century, as developed by evolutionary biologist Ernst Mayr and others. The late-nineteenth century was not a period of total "eclipse" of Darwinism, as biologists and historians have hitherto seen it. Although the "Modern Synthesis" refers to the reconciliation of post-Mendelian genetics with evolution by natural selection, we might adjust our understanding of how the synthesis developed by seeing it as the culmination of a longer discussion that extends back to the late-nineteenth century.

  16. Advances in Structural Geology and Tectonics in the Late 20th Century: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on analyses of the share of documents of structural geology and tectonics in the GeoRef system over 100 years in the last century, and the historical change of international (31 years) and domestic (16 years) document counts of various topics in structural geology and tectonics, the position of structural geology and tectonics in the geosciences is evaluated and the major advaces in fields of plate tectonics, continental dynamics and global dynamics are reviewed. Our attention mainly focuses on the advances in studies of structural analysis, deformation mechanisms and rheology of rocks,contractional tectonics and late- and post-orogenic extensional collapse in orogens, large-scale strikeslip faults and indentation-extrusion tectonics, active tectonics and natural hazards. The relationships of structural geology and tectonics with petrology and geochronology are also discussed in terms of intersection of scientific disciplines. Finally, some suggestions are proposed for the further development of structural geology and tectonics in China.

  17. Auroras Observed in Portugal in Late 18th Century Obtained from Printed and Manuscript Meteorological Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, José M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2005-09-01

    We present a new catalogue of observations of the aurora borealis at Lisbon, i.e., at low-latitudes, in the late 18th century by Jacob Præ torius and Henrique Schulze, two German artillery officers. Dates of 18 auroras compiled by Præ torius and Schulze are compared with those published in other catalogues for that period. The number of annual auroras observed by the two Germans is then compared with two indices of solar activity showing a very good level of consistency between all time series. Finally, we have assessed the number of auroras observed taking into consideration the phase of the lunar cycle and the geomagnetic latitude of Lisbon.

  18. Medical confidentiality in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries: an Anglo-German comparison1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Summary Professional secrecy of doctors became an issue of considerable medico-legal and political debate in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in both Germany and England, although the legal preconditions for this debate were quite different in the two countries. While in Germany medical confidentiality was a legal obligation and granted in court, no such statutory recognition of doctors’ professional secrecy existed in England. This paper is a comparative analysis of medical secrecy in three key areas - divorce trials, venereal disease and abortion - in both countries. Based on sources from the period between c.1870 and 1939, our paper shows how doctors tried to define the scope of professional secrecy as an integral part of their professional honour in relation to important matters of public health. PMID:21077462

  19. From Reinos to Monarquía - Political Association in late 16th Century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A.A.Thompson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that the term, the monarquía de España, commonly used by historians as a designation for the complex of territories ruled by the kings of Spain throughout the early-modern period, was, in fact, an innovation of the late-16th Century. It then goes on to examine some of the reasons, implications and consequences of the terminological shift from the particularism of "Reinos y estados" to the unitary concept of Monarquía, a term which gave concrete expression to the felt need, in the words of Baltasar Alamos de Barrientos, for "some other form of State which would unify the kingdoms"

  20. [School museums, collections, and elementary teaching of the natural sciences in late XIX century Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Susana V

    2007-01-01

    In this study we analyze the organization of natural science teaching within the Argentinian school context starting with teaching practices and material support in the late XIX century. By that time, school staff and teachers fostered modernization and nationalization of teaching by using collections with national issues and the foundation of museums within the schools. In particular, we examine the official debates over the mineralogical collections offered for sale by the naturalist Enrique de Carlés, and the "school museums" by professors Pedro Scalabrini and Guillermo Navarro. These account for the tension between searching for modern didactic materials associated with foreign models, and the importance of counting on elements that represented the country nature and industry.

  1. Simulation of Sea Ice in FGOALS-g2: Climatology and Late 20th Century Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shiming; SONG Mirong; LIU Jiping; WANG Bin; LI Lijuan; HUANG Wenyu; LIU Li

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is an important component in the Earth's climate system.Coupled climate system models are indispensable tools for the study of sea ice,its internal processes,interaction with other components,and projection of future changes.This paper evaluates the simulation of sea ice by the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System model Grid-point Version 2 (FGOALS-g2),in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5),with a focus on historical experiments and late 20th century simulation.Through analysis,we find that FGOALS-g2 produces reasonable Arctic and Antarctic sea ice climatology and variability.Sea ice spatial distribution and seasonal change characteristics are well captured.The decrease of Arctic sea ice extent in the late 20th century is reproduced in simulations,although the decrease trend is lower compared with observations.Simulated Antarctic sea ice shows a reasonable distribution and seasonal cycle with high accordance to the amplitude of winter summer changes.Large improvement is achieved as compared with FGOALS-g1.0 in CMIP3.Diagnosis of atmospheric and oceanic forcing on sea ice reveals several shortcomings and major aspects to improve upon in the future:(1) ocean model improvements to remove the artificial island at the North Pole;(2) higher resolution of the atmosphere model for better simulation of important features such as,among others,the Icelandic Low and westerly wind over the Southern Ocean; and (3) ocean model improvements to accurately receive freshwater input from land,and higher resolution for resolving major water channels in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

  2. [THE SOCIAL HYGIENE AS A PHENOMENON OF SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION IN MEDICINE OF LATE XIX--FIRST HALF XX CENTURIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepin, V O; Zatravkin, S N

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results of analysis of works of late XIX--first quarter of XY centuries devoted to problems of social hygiene. It is established that origin of social hygiene was directly related to crucial revision of conceptions of causes and essence of diseases that created necessary conditions for transfer into medicine ideas and methods of political economy, sociology and eugenics. It is proved that origin of social hygiene was appropriate consequence of those crucial alterations in mass physician's consciousness that characterize scientific revolution in medicine of late XIX--first half XX centuries.

  3. The Science Behind Moravian Meteorological Observations for Late-18th Century Labrador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Dianne; Lüdecke, Cornelia; Matiu, Michael; Menzel, Annette

    2017-04-01

    From the time they established their first shelter among the Inuit population of the northern coast of Labrador in 1771, the brethren of the Moravian Church began producing series of daily instrumental and qualitative meteorological observations of significance to science networks of the day (Macpherson, 1987, Demarée & Ogilvie, 2008). Contrary to what is understood, missionaries did not make these observations for their own purposes. Rather, they responded to requests from scientists who commissioned the data. Scientists also equipped these undertakings. The enlightened observers provided handwritten copies that were publicized in England and continental Europe by individuals and their philosophical and scientific institutions. This pattern of producing reliable records specifically for scientists was true for the 15-year span of Moravian meteorological observations for all 3 Labrador stations in the late 18th century; the 40-year span of records for 10 Moravian stations in Labrador and Greenland in the mid-19th century; and the observations from 5 Labrador stations commissioned for the 1st international Polar Year, 1882, and continuing for several decades afterward, and longer in the case of Nain. When Nain data is combined with that from the Canadian meteorological service, we have a relatively straight run from 1882 to 2015. In this paper, we examine the late-18th century Moravian meteorological observations for qualitative information of interest to modern scientific research. The daily entries comprise not only measurements of temperature and air pressure, but also other weather observations, such as wind direction, estimated wind speed, cloudiness, information which has already allowed us to begin tracking polar lows travelling from Labrador to Greenland across the Labrador Sea. The annual missionary reports of Moravians provide critical supplementary data identifying recurring local phenological events in nature, which offer an integrated signal of weather

  4. History, Nation and School Inspections: The Introduction of Citizenship Education in Elementary Schools in Late Nineteenth-Century Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evertsson, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    It was in the late nineteenth century that teaching in Sweden's elementary schools began its transformation from a religious education to a broader, national citizenship education that included history and geography. International research has pointed to a connection between the introduction of school inspections and the reform of public education…

  5. Freedom of Speech as Protected by the States: A Review of Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century State Court Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    While some analysts have asserted that the First Amendment was intended to prohibit laws against seditious libel (speech overtly critical of the government), the judicial record reveals a willingness to tolerate some onerous infringements on free expression. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, 25 states passed "sedition" or…

  6. THE SYSTEM OF NAVAL EDUCATION IN KAISER GERMANY IN LATE 19th - EARLY 20th CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Nikolaevich Sinegubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of the system of naval education in Imperial Germany, which was formed in the late 19th century, highlights its advantages enhancing the high level of training specialists for the new fleet which was constructed in the country. The emphasis is on the process of staffing the non-commissioned officers’ corps on the basis of the sea cadets’ school. There was a great need for this educational institution to develop the Navy of the II Reich. The authorities encouraged a big annual enrollment of sea cadets introducing a wide range of social benefits, such as: free-of-charge education, full governmental support during the period of studies, good professional training that would guarantee not only job on a warship, but also career growth in future. Another important attractive aspect was that students were constantly under the control of officers who raised their wards in traditional moral values. All this attracted to naval schools young people, particularly from socially vulnerable strata of German society. The article considers special features of training and educating future officers at the Naval College and the Naval Academy in Kiel, which already had the elite character.

  7. Model Making and Anti-Competitive Practices in the Late Eighteenth-Century London Sculpture Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craske, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article concerns the generation of anti-competitive practices, and the associated discontents, that rose to the fore in the London sculpture trade in the late eighteenth century (1770-1799. It charts the business strategies and technical procedures of the most economically successful practitioners, whose workshops had some of the characteristics of manufactories, and whose critics accused them of conducting a "monopoly" trade. Small-scale practitioners lost out in the competition for great public contracts on account of their design processes and their inability to represent any manifestation of "establishment". A combination of three factors increased the gap between a handful of powerful "manufacturers" and the rest of the trade: the foundation of the Royal Academy, shifts in the ways designs were evaluated, and a growing number of very lucrative contracts for public sculpture. I conclude that such were the discontents within the London trade that by the 1790s, there was a marked tendency for practitioners who were not manufacturers to be attracted to democratic political movements, to the Wilkite call for liberty and the rise of civic radicalism in the merchant population of London.

  8. The fire ant wars. Nature and science in the pesticide controversies of the late twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhs, Joshua Blu

    2002-09-01

    This essay uses an approach borrowed from environmental history to investigate the interaction of science and nature in a late twentieth-century controversy. This debate, over the proper response to fire ants that had been imported into the American South accidentally and then spread across the region, pitted Rachel Carson and loosely federated groups of conservationists, scientists, and citizens against the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The analysis falls into three sections: an examination of the natural history of the ants; an examination of the views of the competing factions; and an examination of how those views, transformed into action, affected the natural world. Both sides saw the ants in terms of a constellation of beliefs about the relationship between nature, science, and democracy. As various ideas were put into play, they interacted with the natural history of the insects in unexpected ways--and with consequences for the cultural authority of the antagonists. Combining insights from the history of science and environmental history helps explain how scientists gain and lose cultural authority and, more fundamentally, allows for an examination of how nature can be integrated into the history of science.

  9. Giambattista Vico Philosopher and Educator: Lessons for the Late Twentieth Century from an Eighteenth-Century Eccentric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleford, Michael S.

    1983-01-01

    Modern disillusionment with rationalistic and mechanistic creeds increases the relevance of the thought of Giambattista Vico, an eighteenth century thinker. Vico's "New Science" dealt with the origins of human consciousness and society, and with the development of human nature, knowledge, and institutions in ways that anticipate modern…

  10. Precipitations and floods in the central Iberian Peninsula in the late 16th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullón, T.

    2010-09-01

    Documental sources provided information to historically reconstruct the relationship among precipitation, drought and floods during the last 50 years of the 16th century in the Jarama-Tajo river system. The study area is located in the central Iberian Peninsula in the autonomous region of Madrid and is associated with a continental Mediterranean climate Periodic flooding of the fluvial shore and channel bed displacement in the Jarama-Tajo system conditioned land use during the historical period chosen for this study. Centuries ago, land use was well adapted to this river system and produced water intensive crops and pastureland despite the area’s relatively arid continental climate. Today, the river dynamics that once characterized the area, and are referred to in historical documents, have been replaced by permanent channels with stable courses on the flood plain due to the construction of regulating reservoirs and widespread gravel extraction. The data culled from the historical documents consulted for this study made it possible to detect and characterize the floods, and to relate them to yearly or seasonal variations in precipitation and temperature in the late 16th century. As a result, it was possible to define the interaction and time span between precipitation, droughts and floods; to provide a more accurate characterization of the climate at the end of the 16th century in accordance with earlier publications on the topic; and to define the fluvial dynamics of the rivers that form this system. These dynamics, although typical of Mediterranean regions, are often difficult to characterize since alterations in the area make it impossible to obtain direct data. The administrative records of royal estates located south of Madrid contained the most solid data, and was enhanced by accounts of incidents occurring in property located in groves or flood plains in the study area that was managed by religious orders or townships. The archives consulted included the

  11. Norm of Exploitation of Miners in Siberia in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy P. Zinov'ev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the question of the distribution of added value in the mining industry in Siberia in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Relying on the analysis of financial reports from Siberian goldmines and coalmines, the author reveals the correlation between the means spent on workforce and the means spent on income and the companies’ non-production expenses. The calculated norm of added value – the most precise reflection of the measure of wage labour exploitation – turned out to be higher for Siberian mine workers in the late 19th – early 20th centuries than for workers in the European Russia and demonstrated the tendency to further growth. The author believes it to be a consequence of the modernization of production and the exploitation of the richest and most easily accessible Siberian deposits.

  12. SUMMARY REPORT OF THE DOE DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROCESS DEVELOPMENT CAMPAIGN OF THE LATE TWENTIETH CENTURY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F.P. Burke; S.D. Brandes; D.C. McCoy; R.A. Winschel; D. Gray; G. Tomlinson

    2001-07-01

    Following the petroleum price and supply disruptions of 1973, the U.S. government began a substantial program to fund the development of alternative fuels. Direct coal liquefaction was one of the potential routes to alternative fuels. The direct coal liquefaction program was funded at substantial levels through 1982, and at much lower levels thereafter. Those processes that were of most interest during this period were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels. By 1999, U.S. government funding for the development of direct coal liquefaction ended. Now that the end of this campaign has arrived, it is appropriate to summarize the process learnings derived from it. This report is a summary of the process learnings derived from the DOE direct coal liquefaction process development campaign of the late twentieth century. The report concentrates on those process development programs that were designed to produce primarily distillate fuels and were largely funded by DOE and its predecessors in response to the petroleum supply and price disruptions of the 1970s. The report is structured as chapters written by different authors on most of the major individual DOE-funded process development programs. The focus of the report is process learnings, as opposed to, say, fundamental coal liquefaction science or equipment design. As detailed in the overview (Chapter 2), DOE's direct coal liquefaction campaign made substantial progress in improving the process yields and the quality of the distillate product. Much of the progress was made after termination by 1983 of the major demonstration programs of the ''first generation'' (SRC-II, H-Coal, EDS) processes.

  13. Homoeroticism in neoclassical poetics: French translations of the ideal male nude in late-eighteenth-century word and image

    OpenAIRE

    Padiyar, S.

    1999-01-01

    The thesis consists of four chapters, an Introduction and a Conclusion. The Introduction considers the theoretical frameworks within which recent readings of the late-eighteenth-century French homoerotic ideal male nude have been developed; and how these readings have in turn emerged from a wider extra-art-historical discourse on the sexual politics of representation and the representation of sexual politics. A clear picture of the ideal male nude as a contested field emerges; ...

  14. [Mental signs of individual predisposition to madness in French psychiatry of the late XIX-early XX centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyatnitskiy, N Yu

    2016-01-01

    The author analyze conceptions of mental signs of predisposition (diathesis, vulnerability) to non-psychotic and delusional mental disorders of functional origin described in the works of leading French psychiatrists of the late 19th/early 20th centuries (E. Regis, P. Serieux, J. Capgras, E. Dupre, J. Levy-Valensi etc). The descriptions of characteristics of some constitutional types and the differences in the structure of constitutional types and the structure of delusional disorders developed on their basis are compared.

  15. Pictures, preparations, and living processes: the production of immediate visual perception (anschauung) in the late-19th-century physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidgen, Henning

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the visual culture of the late-19th-century experimental physiology. Taking this case of Johann Nopomuk Czermak (1828-1873) as a key example, it argues that images played a crucial role in acquiring experimental physiological skills. Czermak, Emil Du Bois-Reymond (1818-1896) and other late-19th-century physiologists sought to present the achievements and perspective of their discipline by way of "immediate visual perception (unmittelbare Anschauung)." However, the images they produced and presented for this purpose were strongly mediated. By means of specifically designed instruments, such as the "cardioscope," the "contraction telegraph," and the "frog pistol," and specifically constructed rooms, so-called "spectatoriums," physiologists trained and controlled experiments on their own. Studying the material culture of physiological image production reveals that technological resources such as telegraphy, photography, and even railways contributed to making physiological facts anschaulich. At the same time, it shows that the more traditional image techniques of anatomy played an important role in physiological lecture halls, especially when it came to displaying the details of vivisection experiments to the public. Thus, the images of late 19th century physiology stood half-way between machines and organisms, between books and instruments.

  16. Anthropometric comparison of portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Hwang, Se Ho

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study is to elaborate comparative portraits of Korean and Japanese beauty in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Six portraits of beauty in the Korean Joseon Dynasty (early 19th century) and 5 in Japanese Edo Dynasty (late 18th century) were analyzed. Twenty anthropometric items were applied to the measure of the features on each portrait and 18 proportional indices of the face were calculated. Among the 18 indices, Korean and Japanese beauty did not show any significant differences in 13, but in 5: 1) the ratio of eye fissure to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 2) eye inclination was greater in Japanese beauty; 3) the ratio of nasal width to intercanthal distance was greater in Japanese beauty; 4) the ratio of nasal and facial width was greater in Korean beauty; and 5) the ratio of vermilion size to mouth width was greater in Japanese beauty. It is assumed that Korean had narrower eye fissure, lower eye inclination, wider nasal ala, and thinner lip than what Japanese craved during that era.

  17. Palaeopathological Evidence of Infectious Disease in a Skeletal Population from Late Medieval Riga, Latvia (15Th-17Th Centuries AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhards Guntis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of infectious disease in the Dome Church (Riga Cathedral Cemetery population, dating from the late medieval period (15th-17th centuries AD. A total of 274 individuals were macroscopically observed for evidence of infectious disease, and seven individuals with lesions possibly associated with a bacterial infection affecting the skeleton were selected for further analysis. Pathological changes on the outer table of the skull and in the long bones of legs characteristic of venereal syphilis were observed in four female and one male individual. Likewise, changes possibly related to late congenital syphilis were observed in a 14-15-year-old non-adult individual. All these individuals were buried in a small area adjacent to the northern wall of the Dome Church, which possibly belonged to a hospital or a shelter. The evidence for venereal syphilis from the cemetery complements historical data about the spread of the disease in Riga during the 16th-17th centuries AD. One adult male individual had destructive changes in the lower spine, which could be associated with tuberculosis (TB. So far, this is the first individual with possible TB from the archaeological populations of Riga. This research provides unique evidence about infectious disease in skeletal populations from the late medieval period in Latvia, and the results will be used as the basis for future research in the subject, including extraction of ancient pathogen DNA.

  18. El cambio y el no cambio gramatical en el relato histórico en la transición del siglo XVII al XVIII Grammatical change and non-change in historical narratives during the transition from the Seventeenth to the Eighteenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis GIRÓN ALCONCHEL

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo intentamos establecer el estado evolutivo de algunos cambios sintácticos que afectan a la cohesión argumental, oracional y textual en la tradición discursiva de la narración histórica en tres textos de 1684, 1725 y 1746, respectivamente. Las marcaciones del OD con la preposición a y del OI con el doblado de clítico mantienen sus frecuencias; el leísmo y la enclisis pronominal disminuyen progresivamente. Los usos de ser locativo y haber transitivo desaparecen después de 1684; la intercalación de elementos entre el auxiliar y el participio de los tiempos compuestos llega a 1725, lo mismo que el valor indicativo de la forma en –ra y el futuro de subjuntivo. Las oraciones consecutivas muestran situaciones de variación gobernadas por la actividad discursiva, más que cambios. No hay una frontera en la evolución sintáctica entre el siglo XVII y el XVIII; todo lo más, un punto de inflexión hacia 1725.In this paper we attempt to establish the evolutionary status of syntactic changes that affect the argumentative, sentential and textual cohesion in the discursive tradition of historical narrative in three texts from 1684, 1725 and 1746, respectively. Direct object markings by the preposition a and indirect object by clitic doubling maintain their frequencies; leísmo and the pronominal enclisis progressively decrease. Locative ser and transitive haber disappear after 1684; the collation of elements between the auxiliary and the participle of compound tenses reaches 1725, and so do the indicative value of the –ra form and the future subjunctive. The consecutive sentences show situations of variation driven by discursive activity rather than by changes. There exists no border in syntactic evolution between the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; just a turning point around 1725, at most.

  19. Entre teoria e prática Entre la teoría y la práctica: la cartografía de los ingenieros militares en Portugal y en Brasil, siglos XVI-XVII Between theory and practice: the military engineers’ cartography in Portugal and Brazil, Sixteenth – Seventeenth Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Piccolotto Siqueira Bueno

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la producción cartográfica de los ingenieros militares en Portugal y en Brasil en los siglos XVI al XVII. Explora las primeras cartas terrestres realizadas en las “Relaciones Topográficas de Castilla y Geográficas de Indias” por los ingenieros militares italianos al servicio de las Coronas Ibéricas. Con base en la lectura de los tratados portugueses y castellanos del periodo, se analizan aspectos técnicos de producción cartográfica, del levantamiento de campo al diseño de gabinete, así como también aspectos referentes a la enseñanza de la Geometría Práctica, Trigonometría y dibujo de mapas topográficos y geográficos en las “Academias Militares” de Portugal, España y Brasil. Confronta la teoría y práctica, con base en el estudio de la preciosa serie documental, comprendiendo sobretodo, diseños o dibujos de Leonardo Turriano, Alexandre Massay e Diogo de Campos MorenoThis paper analyzes the cartographic production of military engineers in Portugal and Brazul during the sixteenth to seventeenth centuries. It explores the first terrestrial charts elaborated in the “Relaciones Topográficas de Castilla y Geográficas de Indias” [“Topographic Relations of Castilla” and “Geographical Relations of Indias”] by Italian Military engineers under the command of the Spanish crown. Based on the review of Portuguese and Spanish treaties of the time, technical aspects of the cartographic production are analyzed, from field surveys to desk design, as well as aspects regarding the teaching of Practical Geometry, Trigonometry and drawing of topographic and geographic maps in the “Academias Militares” [“Military Academies”] of Portugal, Spain and Brazil. Here the theory and practice are confronted based on the study of the invaluable documentary series, which comprises mostly designs and drawings by Leonardo Turriano, Alexandre Massay and Diogo de Campos Moreno.

  20. The Influence of Delsarte’s Work in the United States: Late 19th Century and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Lee Chalfa Ruyter

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the influence of François Delsarte on bodily motion, theater, and elocution in the United States from the late nineteenth century. It presents his main ideas and how they were developed and transformed in the country since 1870, becoming, in their last phase, which began in the 1880s, a theory that was applied to all aspects of life, independent from its European form. The contributions of Steele Mackaye, Genevieve Stebbins, Henrietta Hovey and others are mentioned.

  1. Twixt Pragmatism and Idealism: British Approaches to the Balkan Policy Revisited (the late 19th/early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O I Aganson

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to define how home debates on international issues influence a state's foreign policy. This task was undertaken on the pattern of Britain's policy in the Balkans in the late 19th/early 20th century. The author examines the role played by the radicals (left-wing liberals in formulating Britain's approaches to the Eastern question. It is stated that the interaction between the Foreign Office and the radicals rendered British policy in the Balkans more flexible.

  2. TSAR`S AUTHORITY AND THE FIRST PLAYS OF RUSSIAN THEATRE IN THE LATE 17TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna KAPLUN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the causes of the first Russian court theater in the 1670s at the court of Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich Romanov The Quietest. The history of the first Russian theater is closely related to the formation of a new court culture in the late 17th century. The first plays of Russian theater "Ahasuerus action" and "Judith" was intended not only to a certain extent, "entertain" the Tsar Aleksey Mikhailovich, but also reflect the court ceremonial and the strengthening of royal authority in a transitional time in Russian history. Rich pictorial series of the plays was the basis of ceremonial esthetics and its embodiment in the stage form.

  3. In Search of William Gascoigne Seventeenth Century Astronomer

    CERN Document Server

    Sellers, David

    2012-01-01

    William Gascoigne (c.1612-44), the first inventor of the telescopic sight and micrometer—instruments crucial to the advance of astronomy—was killed in the English Civil War. His name is now known to historians of science around the world, but for some considerable time after his tragic death at the age of 32, it seemed as if his achievements would be consigned to oblivion. Most of his papers were lost in the maelstrom of war and the few that seemed to have survived later disappeared. This is the story of how his work was rescued. Woven into that story is an account of the state of astronomy and optics during Gascoigne’s lifetime, so that the reader can appreciate the significance of his discoveries.   A substantial appendix presents selected extracts from Gascoigne's correspondence. This includes much new material that has not been previously published and illustrates his efforts to explain the basis of his pioneering techniques to the satisfaction of his contemporaries.   

  4. The Coriolis Effect Further Described in the Seventeenth Century

    CERN Document Server

    Graney, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Claude Francis Milliet Dechales described the Coriolis effect in his 1674 Cursus seu Mundus Mathematicus. Dechales discussed and illustrated the deflection of both falling bodies and of projectiles launched toward the poles that should occur on a rotating Earth. Interestingly, this was done as an argument against the Earth's rotation, the deflections not having been observed at the time. Dechales's work follows on that of Giovanni Battista Riccioli, who had also described the effect in his Almagestum Novum of 1651.

  5. A BRIEF HISTORY OF CILIATE STUDIES (LATE XVII THE FIRST THIRD OF THE XX CENTURY)

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The most prominent protistologists who worked with ciliates from the Leeuwenhoek time up to the beginning of the XX century are mentioned. Their achievements in ciliatology and especially in taxonomy of ciliates are briefly discussed on the basis of the original literature and reviews, published during the last 150 years.

  6. The Dutch Enlightenment and Patriotism: Mennonites and Politics in Late Eighteenth-Century Friesland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Yme; Jantzen, Mark; Sprunger, Mary S.; Thiesen, John D.

    2016-01-01

    'Enlightenment' is a contested concept among contemporary historians. How did the so-called Dutch Enlightenment contribute to the transformation of the political culture in the Dutch Republic during the last quarter of the eighteenth century? This case-study on the province of Friesland shows the im

  7. The Intellectual Climate of the Late Nineteenth Century and the Fate of American Normal Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diener, David

    2008-01-01

    In 1839 the first normal school in the United States opened in Lexington, Massachusetts. Heralded as "an instrument of great good" (Everett 1863, 769) and a spring in which was coiled "a vigor whose uncoiling may wheel the spheres" (Ogren 2005, 16), normal schools continued to grow in numbers throughout the nineteenth century and produced…

  8. Trends and risk factors of maternal mortality in late-nineteenth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ory, B.E.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using family reconstitution data from the Dutch provinces of Groningen, Drenthe, and Zeeland, trends and risk factors of maternal death from 1846 to 1902 are studied. Findings confirm other studies of maternal mortality trends for the Netherlands in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and

  9. Trends and risk factors of maternal mortality in late-nineteenth-century Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ory, B.E.; van Poppel, F.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Using family reconstitution data from the Dutch provinces of Groningen, Drenthe, and Zeeland, trends and risk factors of maternal death from 1846 to 1902 are studied. Findings confirm other studies of maternal mortality trends for the Netherlands in the last quarter of the nineteenth century and sho

  10. Climate and history in the late 18th and early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Theodore S.

    As in many areas of human knowledge, the notion of climate acquired a deeper historical content around the turn of the 19th century. Natural philosophers, geographers, and others became increasingly aware of climate's own history and its relation to human, plant and animal, and Earth history. This article examines several aspects of this “historicization” of climate.The lively 18th century discussion of the influence of climate on society is well known. Montesquieu is its most famous representative, but Voltaire, Hume, Kant, and others also participated. Their debate was literary more than scientific, their goal the understanding of man, not climate. Partly for this reason and partly because of the lack of good information on climates, they made no attempt to gather substantial climatic data. In fact, the importance of systematically collecting reliable data was scarcely understood in any area of natural philosophy before the last decades of the century [Cf. Frängsmyr et al., 1990; Feldman, 1990]. Instead, participants in the debate repeated commonplaces dating from Aristotle and Hippocrates and based their conclusions on unreliable reports from travelers. As Glacken wrote of Montesquieu, “his dishes are from old and well-tested recipes” [Glacken, 1967, chapter 12]. This is not to say that the debate over climatic influence was not significant—only that its significance lay more in the history of man than in the atmospheric sciences.

  11. INTERCITY RAIL COMMUNICATION IN KUBAN REGION IN THE LATE XIX – BEGINNING OF XX CENTURY: DESIGN AND EXECUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Sidyakina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with construction projects of intercity rail communications inKubanregion in the late XIX early XX century and assesses the extent of their implementation. Appeal to the subject allows you to analyze the conditions of the beginning of the public transport system in the region, and to identify its place and role in the emerging urban infrastructure of the North-West Caucasus. We analyze the degree of efficiency in Ekaterinodar tram and suburban lines to the village Pashkovskaya. The article also highlights the unrealized projects of equestrian railways and tram in the towns and villages of theKubanregion in the early twentieth century. It noted the interest of the residents of certain localities in the appearance of the public means of transport, which was intended to resolve the problem of intra-urban mobility and accelerate the improvement of urban infrastructure. The author draws the attention to the changes of urban infrastructure and planning structure of the capital ofKubanregion caused by the laying of rail communications for electric tram with a companion set of technical installations for its operation and maintenance. The construction and expansion of the tram lines contributed to engineering transform city environment. The conditions of the Treaty of the municipal authorities and the Belgian anonymous society "traction Company and electricity of building in Ekaterinodar, electric railway, the terms and conditions of its operation. Describes how to extend the network of tramway messages indicating the major and minor routes in the early twentieth century. Evaluates the degree of accessibility and facilities for Ekaterinodar citizens and guests of the city a new mode of transport. Cities and towns are indicated in theKubanregion, which in the early twentieth century, projects and applied a concession contract for the construction of inner city and suburban tram routes, but because of socio-economic and political

  12. An estimate of the effects of climate change on the rainfall of Mediterranean Spain by the late twenty first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumner, G.N. [Centre for Geography, University of Wales, Lampeter, Ceredigion, Wales (United Kingdom); Romero, R.; Homar, V.; Ramis, C.; Alonso, S. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zorita, E. [Institut fuer Gewaesserphysik GKSS, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2003-05-01

    Heading Abstract. The study uses a GCM (ECHAM-OPYC3) and the association between the atmospheric circulation at 925 and 500 hPa and the distribution of daily precipitation for Mediterranean Spain (from earlier analyses) to give estimates of the probable annual precipitation for the late twenty first century. A down-scaling technique is used which involves the matching of daily circulation output from the model for a sequence of years in the late twentieth century (1971-90) and for a corresponding period in the late twenty first century (2080-99) to derive probable regional atmospheric pattern (AP) frequencies for this latter period, and thence to estimate likely changes in annual precipitation. Model days are classified by searching for the closest analogue amongst 19 previously identified APs from an earlier study. Future annual precipitation distribution is derived using previously established relationships between circulation type and daily precipitation distribution. Predicted AP frequencies and precipitation amounts and distribution are compensated by comparing model output with ECMWF data for a decade (1984-93) within the 1971-90 sequence, so that the analysis also provides a verification of the performance of the model. In general the agreement between model output and actual AP frequencies is very good for the present day, though for this southerly region the model appears slightly to under-estimate the frequency of easterly type circulations, many of which yield some of the most significant autumn severe storm rainfalls along the Mediterranean coast. The model tends to over-estimate the frequency of westerly type situations. The study utilises a 'moving window' technique in an attempt to derive measures of inter-decadal variability within the two 20 year periods. This avoids use of data from outside the periods, which would incorporate changing AP frequencies during a period of sustained climate change. Quite pronounced changes in frequency are

  13. South African English as a late 19th-century etraterritorial variety

    OpenAIRE

    20209371 - Bekker, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that the external history of South African English (SAfE) points towards the merits of conceptualizing SAfE as the product of a three-stage koinéization process, the last stage of which takes place contemporaneously with the establishment of Johannesburg. This is at odds with the standard position, which views SAfE as an early-to-mid 19th-century variety with its characteristic features having been fixed during the earlier colonization of the Cape and Natal. This reconcept...

  14. [Treatment and remedies against smallpox outbreaks in Ferrara in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicentini, Chiara Beatrice; Manfredini, Stefano; Altieri, Lorenzo; Lupi, Silvia; Guidi, Enrica; Contini, Carlo

    2013-09-01

    Health interventions against smallpox during the two epidemics in the second half of the 19th century are outlined. The 1871 hospital health report and the medical report on smallpox patients treated at the hospital and poorhouse of Ferrara between January 1891 and January 1892, drawn up by Alessandro Bennati, provide both interesting data and insights into the treatments and remedies of the time. The treatment of this illness was - and indeed could be - nothing other than symptomatic, there being no real means to halt the spread of the disease. Rather, other remedies were found by alleviating pain and regaining energy during the various stages of the disease. A close relationship between vaccination and the incidence and gravity of the illness is underlined. When the practice of vaccination started to be widely employed at the end of the century, there were almost no cases of death due to smallpox. The pharmacopoeias of the time, Antonio Campana's Farmacopea ferrarese in particular, proved an essential guide in the analysis of each document.

  15. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc's psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc's plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky's abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature.

  16. Registers of Artefacts of Creation—From the Late Medieval Period to the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Dent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a new perspective on the “development” of the intellectual property regimes in the United Kingdom. The system put in place under the 1875 Trade Marks Act may be seen as the last of a sequence of earlier “technologies” that sought to administer the creative endeavours of (sections of the English population. Prior to the trade mark registration (that included examination there was the registration of designs that did not require examination but was necessary for the protection of the right. In the eighteenth century, patent specifications were lodged with the Crown via a process that was much more involved than that was instituted for designs in the nineteenth century. Before that, books had to be enrolled with the Stationers’ Company before they could be printed. And, in what may be seen as an earlier attempt at the centralised regulation of artefacts of expression, the Rolls of Arms (maintained by the King of Arms was repository of coats of arms for English nobility. An exploration of these different technologies of regulation, in their socio-political context, will offer new insight into the antecedents, and limits, of the registration systems that are now common across the intellectual property world.

  17. Periodontal disease in a Portuguese identified skeletal sample from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasterlain, Sofia N; Cunha, Eugénia; Hillson, Simon

    2011-05-01

    Periodontal status was investigated in 600 adult dentitions belonging to the identified osteological collections curated at the University of Coimbra, Portugal. These collections date to a point temporally intermediate between the large epidemiological studies of the 20th century and archaeological collections that antedate the 19th century. The aim of this study is to compare periodontal data derived from contemporary samples with statistics compiled from epidemiological studies to determine if factors such as age-at-death, sex, and tooth type are essential or not to account for in future archaeological studies of periodontitis. Periodontal disease status was assessed based on the textural and architectural variations of the interdental septum and the extent of bone loss. Overall, the frequency of periodontitis within the Coimbra collections is 73.8%. Men were more susceptible to periodontal disease than women. Gingivitis was widespread in the younger age groups. Destructive periodontitis was observed early in adulthood, rising steadily with age. The most susceptible sites to periodontal breakdown were located in the posterior region of the upper jaw. Some variation in reported frequencies of periodontitis was found in epidemiological reports, which might result from variation in methods for identifying the pathology, differences in the age composition of the samples examined, variation in oral hygiene and/or diet, or some other factors. Regarding the pattern of distribution of periodontal disease, Coimbra results were similar to comparable modern epidemiological surveys, making clear the importance of considering sex, age, and oral distribution of periodontitis in future archaeological studies.

  18. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago.

  19. PSYCHOLOGY IN FRENCH ACADEMIC PUBLISHING IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: ALFRED BINET, EDITORIAL DIRECTOR AT THE SCHLEICHER PUBLISHING HOUSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Serge

    2015-01-01

    To date, historians of psychology have largely ignored the role of academic publishing and the editorial policies of the late nineteenth century. This paper analyzes the role played by academic publishing in the history of psychology in the specific case of France, a country that provides a very interesting and unique model. Up until the middle of the 1890s, there was no collection specifically dedicated to psychology. Alfred Binet was the first to found, in 1897, a collection of works specifically dedicated to scientific psychology. He chose to work with Reinwald-Schleicher. However, Binet was soon confronted with (1) competition from other French publishing houses, and (2) Schleicher's management and editorial problems that were to sound the death knell for Binet's emerging editorial ambitions. The intention of this paper is to encourage the efforts of the pioneers of modern psychology to have their work published and disseminated.

  20. Science, suffrage, and experimentation: Mary Putnam Jacobi and the controversy over vivisection in late nineteenth-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittel, Carla Jean

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the medical activism of the New York physician Mary Putnam Jacobi (1842-1906), to illustrate the problems of gender and science at the center of the vivisection debate in late nineteenth-century America. In the post-Civil War era, individuals both inside and outside the medical community considered vivisection to be a controversial practice. Physicians divided over the value of live animal experimentation, while reformers and activists campaigned against it. Jacobi stepped into the center of the controversy and tried to use her public defense of experimentation to the advantage of women in the medical profession. Her advocacy of vivisection was part of her broader effort to reform medical education, especially at women's institutions. It was also a political strategy aimed at associating women with scientific practices to advance a women's rights agenda. Her work demonstrates how debates over women in medicine and science in medicine, suffrage, and experimentation overlapped at a critical moment of historical transition.

  1. Late Holocene history of Chaitén Volcano: new evidence for a 17th century eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Luis E.; Moreno, Rodrigo; Amigo, Álvaro; Hoblitt, Richard P.; Pierson, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Prior to May 2008, it was thought that the last eruption of Chaitén Volcano occurred more than 5,000 years ago, a rather long quiescent period for a volcano in such an active arc segment. However, increasingly more Holocene eruptions are being identified. This article presents both geological and historical evidence for late Holocene eruptive activity in the 17th century (AD 1625-1658), which included an explosive rhyolitic eruption that produced pumice ash fallout east of the volcano and caused channel aggradation in the Chaitén River. The extents of tephra fall and channel aggradation were similar to those of May 2008. Fine ash, pumice and obsidian fragments in the pre-2008 deposits are unequivocally derived from Chaitén Volcano. This finding has important implications for hazards assessment in the area and suggests the eruptive frequency and magnitude should be more thoroughly studied.

  2. Decadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on trends in surface solar radiation (SSR involves uncertainties due to the scarcity of long-term time series of SSR, especially with records before the second half of the 20th century. Here we study the trends of all-sky SSR from 1885 to 2010 in Switzerland, which have been estimated using a homogenous dataset of sunshine duration series. This variable is shown to be a useful proxy data of all-sky SSR, which can help to solve some of the current open issues in the dimming/brightening phenomenon. All-sky SSR has been fairly stable with little variations in the first half of the 20th century, unlike the second half of the 20th century that is characterized also in Switzerland by a dimming from the 1950s to the 1980s and a subsequent brightening. Cloud cover changes seem to explain the major part of the decadal variability observed in all-sky SSR, at least from 1885 to the 1970s; at this point, a discrepancy in the sign of the trend is visible in the all-sky SSR and cloud cover series from the 1970s to the present. Finally, an attempt to estimate SSR series for clear-sky conditions, based also on sunshine duration records since the 1930s, has been made for the first time. The mean clear-sky SSR series shows no relevant changes between the 1930s to the 1950s, then a decrease, smaller than the observed in the all-sky SSR, from the 1960s to 1970s, and ends with a strong increase from the 1980s up to the present. During the three decades from 1981 to 2010 the estimated clear-sky SSR trends reported in this study are in line with previous findings over Switzerland based on direct radiative flux measurements. Moreover, the signal of the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruption visible in the estimated clear-sky SSR records further demonstrates the potential to infer aerosol-induced radiation changes from sunshine duration observations.

  3. Statistical modeling of CMIP5 projected changes in extreme wet spells over China in the late 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Yun; Jiang, Zhihong

    2017-08-01

    The observed intensity, frequency, and duration (IFD) of summer wet spells, defined here as extreme events with one or more consecutive days in which daily precipitation exceeds a given threshold (the 95th percentile), and their future changes in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 in the late 21st century over China, are investigated by using the wet spell model (WSM) and by extending the point process approach to extreme value analysis. Wet spell intensity is modeled by a conditional generalized Pareto distribution, frequency by a Poisson distribution, and duration by a geometric distribution, respectively. The WSM is able to realistically model summer extreme rainfall spells during 1961-2005, as verified with observations at 553 stations throughout China. To minimize the impact of systematic biases over China in the global climate models (GCMs) of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), five best GCMs are selected based on their performance to reproduce observed wet spell IFD and average precipitation during the historical period. Furthermore, a quantile-quantile scaling correction procedure is proposed and applied to produce ensemble projections of wet spell IFD and corresponding probability distributions. The results show that in the late 21st century, most of China will experience more extreme rainfall and less low-intensity rainfall. The intensity and frequency of wet spells are projected to increase considerably, while the duration of wet spells will increase but to a much less extent. The IFD changes in RCP8.5 are in general much larger than those in RCP4.5.

  4. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  5. Mortality differentials in France during the late 18th and early 19th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, A; Houdaille, J; Lamouche, M

    1990-01-01

    "The very high quality of a set of marriage records for Paris during the 1860s made it possible to apply indirect methods to estimate adult mortality differentials by certain geographical and social criteria of the 19th century. The largest differences between groups were observed to be social, geographical origin apparently having little impact.... It is interesting that social differences in adult mortality are similar in magnitude to those observed today. Perhaps the principal factor of differentiation is then the level of child mortality.... It is by no means necessary to have a set of data as complete as ours. The indirect methods we have used proved largely adequate for estimating mortality differentials."

  6. Atomic Pioneers Book 3 From the Late 19th to the Mid-20th Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiebert, Ray [University of Maryland; Hiebert, Roselyn

    1973-01-01

    This book tells the story of the atom by presenting a brief account of the lives and work of 24 atomic scientists who brought the world into the complex Age of the Atom by mid-20th century. The 24 are: Albert Einstein, James Franck, Max Born, Peter J.W. Debye, Niels Bohr, George von Hevesy, Henry G.J. Moseley, Gustav Hertz, Erwin Schrodinger, Otto Stern, James Chadwick, Arthur H. Compton, Louis Victor de Broglie, Harold C. Urey, John D. Cockcroft, Patrick M.S. Blackett, Isidor I. Rabi, Leo Szilard, Jean Frederic Joliot-Curie, Irene Joliot-Curie, Wolfgang Pauli, Ernest O. Lawrence, Enrico Fermi, and Robert J. Van de Graaff.

  7. Psychicones: Visual Traces of the Soul in Late Nineteenth-Century Fluidic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethes, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses attempts to visualise the soul on photographic plates at the end of the nineteenth century, as conducted by the French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in Paris. Although Baraduc refers to earlier experiments on fluidic photography in his book on The Human Soul (1896) and is usually mentioned as a precursor to parapsychological thought photography of the twentieth century, his work is presented as a genuine attempt at photographic soul-catching. Rather than producing mimetic representations of thoughts and imaginations, Baraduc claims to present the vital radiation of the psyche itself and therefore calls the images he produces psychicones. The article first discusses the difference between this method of soul photography and other kinds of occult media technologies of the time, emphasising the significance of its non-mimetic, abstract character: since the soul itself was considered an abstract entity, abstract traces seemed all the more convincing to the contemporary audience. Secondly, the article shows how the technological agency of photography allowed Baraduc’s psychicones to be tied into related discourses in medicine and psychology. Insofar as the photographic plates displayed actual visual traces, Baraduc and his followers no longer considered hallucinations illusionary and pathological but emphasised the physical reality and normality of imagination. Yet, the greatest influence of soul photography was not on science but on art. As the third part of the paper argues, the abstract shapes on Baraduc’s plates provided inspiration for contemporary avant-garde aesthetics, for example, Kandinsky’s abstract paintings and the random streams of consciousness in surrealistic literature. PMID:27292323

  8. Views of Europe among Serbian political and cultural elite in late 20th and early 21st century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Božidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of his own previous research the author examines views of Europe held by the Serbian political and cultural elite in the late 20th and early 21st century. Unable to meet the challenges of the historical moment, this elite has brought Serbia into open conflict with its closest neighbors and exposed its citizens to international sanctions. War-mongering propaganda of the major state-controlled media was developing feelings of xenophobia and frustration among citizens. The collusion between authoritarian government and war profiteers was systematically destroying the lives of Serbian citizens, bringing them to the brink of material impoverishment and spiritual misery. The process of dissolution of the common Yugoslav state is coming to its end in the first decade of this century. Just as it lacked wisdom political will or strength to prevent armed conflicts and crimes, the Serbian elite today is unable to condemn war crimes, to face disastrous consequences of its own policies, and to help Serbian citizens find their way to prosperity.

  9. Unprecedented low twentieth century winter sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas since A.D. 1200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macias Fauria, M. [University of Calgary, Biogeoscience Institute, Calgary, AB (Canada); University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); University of Barcelona, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Barcelona (Spain); Grinsted, A. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Lapland, Arctic Centre, Rovaniemi (Finland); Helama, S.; Eronen, M. [University of Helsinki, Department of Geology, Helsinki (Finland); Moore, J. [University of Copenhagen, Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); University of Oulu, Thule Institute, Oulu (Finland); Beijing Normal University, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing (China); Timonen, M. [Finnish Forest Institute, Rovaniemi Research Station, Rovaniemi (Finland); Martma, T. [Tallinn University of Technology, Institute of Geology, Tallinn (Estonia); Isaksson, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, Tromsoe (Norway)

    2010-05-15

    We reconstructed decadal to centennial variability of maximum sea ice extent in the Western Nordic Seas for A.D. 1200-1997 using a combination of a regional tree-ring chronology from the timberline area in Fennoscandia and {delta}{sup 18}O from the Lomonosovfonna ice core in Svalbard. The reconstruction successfully explained 59% of the variance in sea ice extent based on the calibration period 1864-1997. The significance of the reconstruction statistics (reduction of error, coefficient of efficiency) is computed for the first time against a realistic noise background. The twentieth century sustained the lowest sea ice extent values since A.D. 1200: low sea ice extent also occurred before (mid-seventeenth and mid-eighteenth centuries, early fifteenth and late thirteenth centuries), but these periods were in no case as persistent as in the twentieth century. Largest sea ice extent values occurred from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries, during the Little Ice Age (LIA), with relatively smaller sea ice-covered area during the sixteenth century. Moderate sea ice extent occurred during thirteenth-fifteenth centuries. Reconstructed sea ice extent variability is dominated by decadal oscillations, frequently associated with decadal components of the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO), and multi-decadal lower frequency oscillations operating at {proportional_to}50-120 year. Sea ice extent and NAO showed a non-stationary relationship during the observational period. The present low sea ice extent is unique over the last 800 years, and results from a decline started in late-nineteenth century after the LIA. (orig.)

  10. [Experimental testing of Pflüger's reflex hypothesis of menstruation in late 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmer, H H

    1980-07-01

    Pflüger's hypothesis of a nerve reflex as the cause of menstruation published in 1865 and accepted by many, nonetheless did not lead to experimental investigations for 25 years. According to this hypothesis the nerve reflex starts in the ovary by an increase of the intraovarian pressure by the growing follicles. In 1884 Adolph Kehrer proposed a program to test the nerve reflex, but only in 1890, Cohnstein artificially increased the intraovarian pressure in women by bimanual compression from the outside and the vagina. His results were not convincing. Six years later, Strassmann injected fluids into ovaries of animals and obtained changes in the uterus resembling those of oestrus. His results seemed to verify a prognosis derived from Pflüger's hypothesis. Thus, after a long interval, that hypothesis had become a paradigma. Though reasons can be given for the delay, it is little understood, why experimental testing started so late.

  11. On fault evidence for a large earthquake in the late fifteenth century, Eastern Kunlun fault, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junlong, Zhang

    2017-06-01

    The EW-trending Kunlun Fault System (KFS) is one of the major left-lateral strike-slip faults on the Tibetan Plateau. It forms the northern boundary of the Bayan Har block. Heretofore, no evidence has been provided for the most recent event (MRE) of the 70-km-long eastern section of the KFS. The studied area is located in the north of the Zoige Basin (northwest Sichuan province) and was recognized by field mapping. Several trenches were excavated and revealed evidence of repeated events in late Holocene. The fault zone is characterized by a distinct 30-60-cm-thick clay fault gouge layer juxtaposing the hanging wall bedrock over unconsolidated late Holocene footwall colluvium and alluvium. The fault zone, hanging wall, and footwall were conformably overlain by undeformed post-MRE deposits. Samples of charred organic material were obtained from the top of the faulted sediments and the base of the unfaulted sediments. Modeling of the age of samples, earthquake yielded a calibrated 2σ radiocarbon age of A.D. 1489 ± 82. Combined with the historical earthquake record, the MRE is dated at A.D. 1488. Based on the over 50 km-long surface rupture, the magnitude of this event is nearly M w 7.0. Our data suggests that a 200-km-long seismic gap could be further divided into the Luocha and Maqu sections. For the last 1000 years, the Maqu section has been inactive, and hence, it is likely that the end of its seismic cycle is approaching, and that there is a potentially significant seismic hazard in eastern Tibet.

  12. Two positive tuberculosis cases in the late Nigrovits family, 18th century, Vác, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikossy, Ildikó; Pálfi, György; Molnár, Erika; Karlinger, Kinga; Kovács, Balázs K; Korom, Csaba; Schultz, Michael; Schmidt-Schultz, Tyede H; Spigelman, Mark; Donoghue, Helen D; Kustár, Ágnes; Pap, Ildikó

    2015-06-01

    Two mummies of the Hungarian mummy collection from Vác were the subjects of anthropological, paleopathological, radiological, paleomicrobiological, paleohistological and paleoproteomic studies. Both individuals belonged to the same family. The father, József Nigrovits (No 29), died at the age of 55 on the 11th of November 1793; his son, Antal Nigrovits (No 54), died on the 16th of July 1803, at the age of 22. They lived in the 18th century in Vác, a small town in northern Hungary. The macroscopic examination of the son showed a severely deformed neck and back region; the father has no visible mark of any illnesses. As earlier researches showed that tuberculosis was widespread in the community, the etiology of these deformities was examined. The paleomicrobiological results found that both individuals were infected with tuberculosis. Although they suffered from TB, the CT scan data of the bodies and their 3D reconstructions showed no skeletal evidence of tuberculosis. The deformity of the son turned to be a developmental abnormality of unknown origin, but no Pott's gibbus was present.

  13. Gender as Pathology: Disease, Degeneration, and Medical Discourse in Late Nineteenth-century Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanni Jalil Paier

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how Colombian doctors and public health officials during the lastdecades of the nineteenth century produced a body of knowledge about the health of thenation’s citizens, using the language and authority of science to speak about a society inneed of redemption and medical intervention. In these cases, gender became an essentialcomponent of elite and medical discourses. Medical doctors and hygienists described femaleidentities either as potentially threatening and therefore degenerative to the nation’s moraland economic fabric or as a “civilizing force” through the mobilization of motherhood andthe reification of the Colombian family as a regenerative site. The doctors and governmentofficials here examined expected women to preserve the family as a unit and inculcate thevalues of order, hygiene and efficiency in the private sphere. If elite constructions of “ideal”female identities mobilized women in their primary function as mothers, preoccupations withthe control of “public women” that upset public order or threatened the family unit rhetoricallyemphasized their deviance. In direct contrast to the feminine ideal, the constructionof the feminine other emphasized moral transgression and sexual promiscuity.

  14. Suitable and remunerative employment: the feminization of hospital dispensing in late nineteenth-century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Ellen

    2002-12-01

    This article looks at the contingent developments that led to the feminization of hospital dispensing at the end of the nineteenth century in England. In the 1870s, as a result of the campaign of the Women's Movement to open medicine to women, the Society for Promoting the Employment of Women found it possible to place some of its protégées in the dispensaries of hospitals founded by members of the Movement. Coincidentally, a radical member of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society smoothed the way for them to take the Society's examinations, thus setting up an expectation that these women should be qualified. By the 1880s, the practice of employing female dispensers had spread to Birmingham, and the women here adopted a less difficult and expensive qualification, the Apothcaries' Assistant's Certificate, as the qualification of choice. The 1890s also saw increasing pressure on mainstream hospital dispensaries to replace the untrained assistants in their dispensaries, customarily employed on the Babbage Principle to save money, with qualified ones. In consequence, hospital managements sought a new means of containing costs and, turning to the kind of women already shown to be competent in Women's Movement hospitals, found the solution in a vertical gender-segregation, where the lesser qualification of women dispensers made them 'unpromotable' to head dispenser, thus preserving the career ladder for more highly-qualified male dispensers.

  15. Trends in coastal upwelling intensity during the late 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Narayan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001 employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, California and Peru. The trends in meridional wind stress showed a steady increase of intensity from 1960–2001, which was also reflected in the SST index calculated for the same time period. The steady cooling observed in the instrumental records of SST off California substantiated this observation further. It was also noted that the trends in meridional wind stress obtained from different datasets differ substantially from each other. Correlation analysis showed that basin-scale oscillations like the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO could not be directly linked to the observed increase of upwelling intensity off NW Africa and California respectively. The relationship of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO with coastal upwelling off NW Africa turned out to be ambiguous due to a negative correlation between the NAO index and the meridional wind stress and a lack of correlation with the SST index. Our results give additional support to the hypothesis that the coastal upwelling intensity increases globally because of raising greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and an associated increase of the land-sea pressure gradient and meridional wind stress.

  16. The late medieval kidney--nephrology in and about the fourteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2012-01-01

    The Late Medieval Period was a decisive period in the history of medicine. It was then that medical education was integrated into the universities that were coming into existence and when medicine made its transition from a menial trade to a regulated profession with a statutory basis of learning and graduation. It was also then that the necessities of understanding the fabric of the body was realized; for the first time in history, the study of anatomy and of human dissection were incorporated into the medical curriculum. This was a defining change whose subsequent expansion and evolution would bring about the study of function (physiology) and changes in disease (pathology). Few advances were made in the study of the kidney, which was considered part of the venous circulation, whose function was subservient to that of nutrition in eliminating excess fluid. Uroscopy flourished and reached unrealistic levels of dominance in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognostication of any and all diseases, especially in the hands of quacks and charlatans. Alchemy, a mysterious pseudo-science, blossomed into a discipline that nurtured experimentation and laid the rudimentary foundations of scientific study, chemistry, and pharmacology. It was also then that surgery took form as a specialty that actually provided much of the medical care of the period including that of the principal diseases of the kidney, obstruction and calculi, and thereby laid the foundations of what in time would become urology.

  17. Sensitivity of discharge and flood frequency to twenty-first century and late Holocene changes in climate and land use (River Meuse, northwest Europe)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ward, P.J.; Renssen, H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Verburg, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    We used a calibrated coupled climate–hydrological model to simulate Meuse discharge over the late Holocene (4000–3000 BP and 1000–2000 AD). We then used this model to simulate discharge in the twenty-first century under SRES emission scenarios A2 and B1, with and without future land use change. Mean

  18. The Long-term Pattern of Maritime Trade in Java from the Late Eighteenth Century to the Mid-Nineteenth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuto Shimada

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the trade pattern of Java from the late eighteenth century to the mid-nineteenth century from a long-term perspective. There is no comprehensive data on Javanese trade during the period in question, with information on local and regional trade being particularly scarce. To fill in the missing pieces and identify a broad trend, this paper attempts to examine data on both the late eighteenth century and the second quarter of the nineteenth century and put them together...

  19. TO THE QUESTION ABOUT THE REASONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROTESTANTISM IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA (LATE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belikova N. Y.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reasons for the development of Protestantism in the South of Russia in the late XIX - early XX centuries are discussed in this article. Standpattism is spreading among the population of southern Russia. The ranks of the Protestants were replenished with the social strata associated with the development of capitalist relations in town and village. The emergence and development of Protestantism is an important feature of capitalization and Europeanization of Russia. By the beginning of XX century the Baptists are widely distributed throughout the South of Russia. In the late XIX - early XX century the process of converting from Orthodoxy to Protestantism of Cossacks was observed in the South of Russia. The article also researches Russian Protestantism – the old belief. In 1883 it became possible the old believers' worship. Russian Protestantism gained almost full rights

  20. CULTURAL LANDSCAPES AND LOCAL IDENTITIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF EASTERN SIBERIAN CITIES (FROM LATE 18TH TO EARLY 19TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mihailovna Plotnikova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the interaction of geographical and cultural landscape in identity formation of the East-Siberian cities of Irkutsk, Krasnoyarsk, and Kirensk in the late 18th century and early 19th century. The comparative analysis of the European city of Valga with the East-Siberian city of Kirensk revealed that, while most of the citizens of the European city were artisans, the military personnel played a significant role in the outskirts of the Russian Empire. At the end of 18th century and during the early 19th century, the Eastern Siberian cities collected taxes as revenue for the city, using the advantage of their geographical position. The author concludes that the study into the essence of the "genius loci" of a city gives insight into the origins of the local identity formation.

  1. Financial services in England in the late XVII century and first equity market boom (1691–1693

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the formation of the British financial services industry in the 1690's and the reasons of the first joint-stock companies’ boom of 1691–1693's. The author describes the course of events of this boom, and data on the volume of transactions in shares. The reasons of the joint-stock boom end are associated with very low capitalization of most of the new companies. The consequence of rapid economic growth in England in the late XVII century was the appearance and rapid development of financial services. Financial intermediaries appeared first and their services, in particular the services of insurance companies, were in demand. The rapid increase in the number of insurance companies has become prerequisite for becoming financial capitalism that led to the emergence of other intermediaries which provided financial services. Among them there were the so-called "notaries" that offered a full range of services related to land transactions and "bankers, jewelers," that woke the first private bankers. Thus, in the early 1690's London had a favorable environment for the rapid growth of the financial market, which was the main precondition for expanding market shares and led to the joint-stock boom.

  2. Tea, Coffee, Curare, and Tropical Climate in the Experiments of the Brazilian Experimental Physiology in late Nineteenth-Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Vimieiro Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this work deals with the development of the Brazilian experimental physiology in late nineteenth-century. Content: it analyzes some experiments on toxic plants, the nutritional effects of coffee, herb mate, dried meat and the food consumption in hot and cold environments, held at the Laboratory of Experimental Physiology in the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro, created in 1880. This laboratory was financed by the Imperial Government, Ministry of Agriculture, and personally supported by the emperor Pedro II. It was created and headed by the Brazilian Physician João Baptista Lacerda and the French physiologist Louis Couty. Conclusions: While its organization was based on the European physiology, its researches privileged national themes. The physiologists were interested not only on the classical issues of physiology, but on the plants and natural products that played a role on the Brazilian economy. They even created their own experimental apparatuses, such as a cold chamber for climatic studies. In order to legitimate the Brazilian physiology, in Brazil and abroad, the researchers associated scientific and practical in­terests in their studies. The chance of social-economical use of their studies could explain the interests of the Brazilian elite and the support of the Ministry of Agriculture.

  3. Marie Rozette and her world: class, ethnicity, gender, and race in late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Richard B

    2011-01-01

    In 1790, Marie Rozette, a freedwoman of Indian origin on Mauritius, executed a series of notarial acts which revealed that she possessed a small fortune in cash assets as well as slaves and substantial landed property in one of the island’s rural districts. The life of this former slave between 1776, when she first appears in the archival record, and her death in 1804 provides a vantage point from which to gain a subaltern perspective on aspects of Mascarene social and economic history, as well as developments in the wider Indian Ocean world during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Marie Rozette’s life history challenges the notion that free persons of color in Mauritius were little more than an “unappropriated” people, and invites us to consider how supposedly marginalized individuals were able to cross various socio-economic and cultural boundaries. More specifically, her life affords an opportunity to consider the ways in which class, ethnicity, and gender, as well as race, interacted to create a distinctive Creole society in Mauritius, the nature and dynamics of which bear directly on our knowledge and understanding of the free colored experience elsewhere in the European colonial slave plantation world.

  4. The "Make Love, Not War" Ape: Bonobos and Late Twentieth-Century Explanations for War and Peace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Deborah

    2016-12-01

    Why do people fight wars? Following the devastation of the Second World War, this question became particularly pressing. Postwar scholars in the human sciences, from political science to anthropology, investigated the role of human nature in the causes of war even as they debated the very meaning of human nature itself. Among the wide-ranging efforts of postwar social and behavioral scientists to explain the causes of war, research on primate aggression became a compelling approach to studying the evolution of human warfare. In contrast, primatologist Frans de Waal's popular and scientific publications on primate reconciliation emphasized the naturalness of conflict resolution and peacemaking, thereby providing a counterpoint to the pessimism of aggression research while simultaneously shoring up the logic of simian analogy. De Waal's popular books heralded the "make love, not war" bonobo as humans' evolutionary next-of-kin and contributed to raising public interest in bonobos during the late twentieth century, although the apes' popular reputation subsequently exceeded the scientific discourse about them. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Moral transgression, disease and holistic health in the Livingstonia Mission in late nineteenth and early twenttieth-century Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokkanen, Markku

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines ideas of morality and health, and connections between moral transgression and disease in both Scottish missionary and Central African thought in the context of the Livingstonia Mission of the Presbyterian Free Church of Scotland in Malawi during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.2 By concentrating on debates, conflicts and co-operation between missionaries and Africans over the key issues of beer drinking and sexual morality, this article explores the emergence of a new ‘moral hygiene’ among African Christian communities in Northern Malawi.

    Este artículo analiza las ideas sobre moralidad y salud, así como las relaciones entre transgresión moral y enfermedad, tanto en el pensamiento misionero escocés como en el pensamiento del África central, en el contexto de la Misión de Livingstonia de la Iglesia Libre Presbiteriana de Escocia en Malawi entre finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX. Centrándose en las conversaciones, los conflictos y la colaboración entre los misioneros y los africanos sobre cuestiones clave como el consumo de cerveza y la moralidad sexual, este artículo estudia la aparición de una nueva «higiene moral» entre las comunidades cristianas africanas en Malawi del norte.

  6. POLICY ON MOSLEM EDUCATION & UPBRINGING RUSSIA IMPLEMENTED IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS IN THE LATE XIX AND EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. KHACHIDOGOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented some archive records and documented materials not published earlier. The survey examined the Russian policy in the domain of Moslem education of the late XIX and early XX centuries in the Northern Caucasus, and proved that a specific setup of Moslem education has been established in that period in the region representing two types of school, namely mektebe (maktaba and medrese, with the training standards in both having essential faults; however, since another type of training institutions did not appear there, the mentioned schools stood high among the Moslems. The established setup of education and upbringing gave rise to fair criticism among the Russian and highlander thinkers, who dreamed about a new pro-democratic school that did not maintain class segregation. The study made an inference that the Government by means of an inspection system under the Ministry of Public Education, that for years to come slowed down advancement of the framework of Moslem training institutions not only for the Northern Caucasian region, but also for the entire Russian Empire.

  7. [Modern medicine environment and adaptation of Korean trader for medicinal herbs from the late 19th century to the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jeongpil

    2006-12-01

    Since the late 18th century, the Korean traditional medicine trade witnessed a steady growth. There were lots of stores which sold Korean medicinal herbs in Seoul and every major towns had at least one or more stores in Korea, which led to a subsequent growth of people involved in the trade. However, Korean medicine merchants encountered a new environment with the influx of western medicines after the Opening of Ports and the execution of modern medicine policies. Such change of atmosphere led the merchants to seek new breakthroughs. Some of the merchants found the answer in producing and selling patent medicine. The people in the industry had little knowledge of western medicine, so that they had little choice but to combine their experience of Korean medicine with whatever information they had about western counterpart. Such resolution generated a new kind of medicine known as patent medicine. Patent medicine businessmen observed the new medicine policies of the Korean Empire. Some visionary ones even sought to eagerly utilize the trademark system to secure the selling route. The Japanese colonial government strengthened the medicine policies. It revised the legislature and mobilized administrative powers to manage and control the industry. However, such colonial policies in the 1910s implicated certain limits due to its lack of understanding of Korean medicine industry. Also, the colonial government showed poor efforts in introducing modern medicine facilities and systems, so that the ground was set for the patent medicine business to flourish. Patent medicine enjoyed a high turnover. So, the entrepreneurs endeavored to promote the sales in whatever means necessary. The most basic form of advertisement was through the newspaper. Indirect promotion through newspaper articles, issuing medicine flyers, free gift draw, reputation of an influential expert were widely used for its sales. Consequently, patent medicine industry in the 1910s saw a healthy prosperity. One

  8. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeen Century English Literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-01-01

    .... In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either...

  9. Seventeenth workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Miller, F.G.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Cook, J.W. (Stanford Geothermal Program)

    1992-01-31

    PREFACE The Seventeenth Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at Stanford University on January 29-31, 1992. There were one hundred sixteen registered participants which equaled the attendance last year. Participants were from seven foreign countries: Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, France, Belgium, Mexico and New Zealand. Performance of many geothermal fields outside the United States was described in the papers. The Workshop Banquet Speaker was Dr. Raffaele Cataldi. Dr. Cataldi gave a talk on the highlights of his geothermal career. The Stanford Geothermal Program Reservoir Engineering Award for Excellence in Development of Geothermal Energy was awarded to Dr. Cataldi. Dr. Frank Miller presented the award at the banquet. Thirty-eight papers were presented at the Workshop with two papers submitted for publication only. Dr. Roland Horne opened the meeting and the key note speaker was J.E. ''Ted'' Mock who discussed the DOE Geothermal R. & D. Program. The talk focused on aiding long-term, cost effective private resource development. Technical papers were organized in twelve sessions concerning: geochemistry, hot dry rock, injection, geysers, modeling, and reservoir mechanics. Session chairmen were major contributors to the program and we thank: Sabodh Garg., Jim Lovekin, Jim Combs, Ben Barker, Marcel Lippmann, Glenn Horton, Steve Enedy, and John Counsil. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank Pat Ota, Ted Sumida, and Terri A. Ramey who also produces the Proceedings Volumes for publication. We owe a great deal of thanks to our students who operate audiovisual equipment and to Francois Groff who coordinated the meeting arrangements for the Workshop. Henry J. Ramey, Jr. Roland N. Horne Frank G. Miller Paul Kruger William E. Brigham Jean W. Cook -vii

  10. A preliminary report on settlement layout and gold melting at Thula Mela, a Late Iron Age site in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kusel

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at a Late Iron Age stone-walled hill site, Thula Mela, near the Luvuvhu River in the Pafuri area of the Kruger National Park, have produced evidence of gold melting. The recovery of two fragments of pottery crucibles with the remains of slag and gold globules and three gold beads from a test trench in a midden at Thula Mela represents the first direct evidence of indigenous gold melting in South Africa. From radiocarbon dates it was established that this site was occupied between the fifteenth and early seventeenth century AD.

  11. The ichneumon fly and the equilibration of British natural economies in the eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Sheila

    2015-12-01

    The parasitic ichneumon fly, discovered by European natural philosophers in the seventeenth century, remained largely unstudied until it captured the attention of Enlightenment-era natural historians. Although this sudden surge of interest has been explained as an effort to understand the natural 'evil' of parasitism, the heyday of ichneumon studies was actually inspired by the political and agricultural context of late eighteenth-century Britain. British naturalists were captivated by this insect for reasons both philosophical and practical. In the providentially self-equilibrating qualities of 'natural' ichneumon economies, they saw solutions to political problems of famine, dearth, national wealth, governance and excess population, in addition to finding reassurance that Enlightened confidence in nature's inherent stability and fruitfulness was not unfounded.

  12. The Main Lines in Social and Civil Education in the Russian Pedagogics and School of the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey I. Belentsov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the analysis of main works by domestic and foreign researchers, the article makes an attempt for all-round and objective consideration of main historiographic development on the problem of civil education of the youth in Russia of the late XIX – early XX centuries. It characterizes achievements and problems of modern historiography in this field, formulates the author’s evaluative judgment and generalized conclusions on the problem under discussion, and suggests directions for further research of various aspects of civil education. The beginning of research on this problem was marked by our work “The problem of civilian education in the Russian pedagogics and school in the late XIX 0 early XX centuries”, and continued in the work “Influence of pedagogical factors on civil activities of schoolchildren in Russia of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries.”

  13. A scenario of European climate change for the late twenty-first century: seasonal means and interannual variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowell, David P. [Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Exeter (United Kingdom)

    2005-12-01

    A scenario of European climate change for the late twenty-first century is described, using a high-resolution state-of-the-art model. A time-slice approach is used, whereby the atmospheric general circulation model, HadAM3P, was integrated for two periods, 1960-1990 and 2070-2100, using the SRES A2 scenario. For the first time an ensemble of such experiments was produced, along with appropriate statistical tests for assessing significance. The focus is on changes to the statistics of seasonal means, and includes analysis of both multi-year means and interannual variance. All four seasons are assessed, and anomalies are mapped for surface air temperature, precipitation and snow mass. Mechanisms are proposed where these are dominated by straightforward local processes. In winter, the largest warming occurs over eastern Europe, up to 7 C, mean snow mass is reduced by at least 80% except over Scandinavia, and precipitation increases over all but the southernmost parts of Europe. In summer, temperatures rise by 6-9 C south of about 50 N, and mean rainfall is substantially reduced over the same area. In spring and autumn, anomalies tend to be weaker, but often display patterns similar to the preceding season, reflecting the inertia of the land surface component of the climate system. Changes in interannual variance are substantial in the solsticial seasons for many regions (note that for precipitation, variance estimates are scaled by the square of the mean). In winter, interannual variability of near-surface air temperature is considerably reduced over much of Europe, and the relative variability of precipitation is reduced north of about 50 N. In summer, the (relative) interannual variance of both variables increases over much of the continent. (orig.)

  14. Floods of the Lower Tisza from the late 17th century onwards: frequency, magnitude, seasonality and great flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The present paper is based on a recently developed database including contemporary original, administrative, legal and private source materials (published and archival) as well as media reports related to the floods occurred on the lower sections of the Tisza river in Hungary, with special emphasis on the area of Szeged town. The study area is well-represented by contemporary source evidence from the late 17th century onwards, when the town and its broader area was reoccupied from the Ottoman Turkish Empire. Concerning the applied source materials, the main bases of investigation are the administrative (archival) sources such as town council protocols of Szeged and county meeting protocols of Csanád and Csongrád Counties. In these (legal-)administrative documents damaging events (natural/environmental hazards) were systematically recorded. Moreover, other source types such as taxation-related damage accounts as well as private and official reports, letters and correspondence (published, unpublished) were also included. Concerning published evidence, a most important source is flood reports in contemporary newspapers as well as town chronicles and other contemporary narratives. In the presentation the main focus is on the analysis of flood-rich flood-poor periods of the last ca. 330 years; moreover, the seasonality distribution as well as the magnitude of Tisza flood events are also discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to provide a short overview, in the form of case studies, on the greatest flood events (e.g. duration, magnitude, damages, multi-annual consequences), and their further impacts on the urban and countryside development as well as on (changes in) flood defence strategies. In this respect, especially two flood events, the great (1815-)1816 and the catastrophic 1879 flood (shortly with causes and consequences) - that practically erased Szeged town from the ground - are presented in more detail.

  15. Actitudes homofóbicas entre los indígenas del Nuevo Mundo: los casos azteca, inca y mapuche en fuentes de los siglos XVI y XVII/Homophobic Attitudes Among Indigenous People in the New World: Aztecs, Incas and Mapuches Through 16th and 17th Century Sources

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mauricio González Arenas; César Gamboa

    2015-01-01

    ... toward homosexual behavior. It argues, analyzing Aztec, Inca and Mapuche attitudes from sixteenth-century and seventeenth-century sources, that America was not at all the gay paradise that many have wanted to see and publicize...

  16. Popular culture and sporting life in the rural margins of late eighteenth-century England: the world of Robert Anderson, "The Cumberland Bard".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study sets out to extend and challenge existing historiography on late eighteenth century British popular culture, customary sports, class and cultural identity, focusing upon the rural geo-political borderland of England. It suggests that prevailing class-based and more London-biased studies need to be balanced with more regionalist-based work, and shows the importance of northern regional leisure variants. The textual and historical analysis draws largely on the published works of a neglected working-class dialect poet, Robert Anderson, living and working in Cumberland, arguing that he represented a strain of ''bardic regionalism,'' a variant of Katie Trumpener’s ''bardic nationalism.''

  17. ‘There is not one single thing that resembles this one.’ Writing human monsters in late eighteenth-century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Camilla Ruud

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses how a malformed set of twins turned into a museum object at the late eighteenth-century el Real Gabinete de Historia Natural in Madrid. Foregrounding the practices through which the twins transformed, it is made clear how museum objects result from de-centered processes. Two different enactments are discussed. The first encompasses the process by which the malformed set of twins transformed into a specimen of interest to the learned. The second enactment addresses how the twins were transported to Madrid through practices of charity. These two versions differed radically, yet they were intimately intertwined, and dependent upon one another.

  18. Proceedings of the seventeenth LAMPF Users Group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, J.N. (comp.)

    1984-04-01

    The seventeenth annual LAMPF Users Group meeting was held November 7-8, 1983, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF. A panel discussion on the LAMPF II concept provided an exchange of views among an advisory group, Users, and LAMPF staff. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for each of the secondary beam lines.

  19. In a Class of Their Own? Swedish Women School Teachers and the Fertility Transition in the Late Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, Alison

    2003-01-01

    When Egil Johansson began his work in the parishes of northern Sweden, women's history, in common with the history of literacy, was in its infancy. Demographers did not ask questions of their sources specifically about gender relations. In the succeeding quarter century women's historians have begun to ask key questions about processes such as…

  20. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  1. Badness, madness and the brain - the late 19th-century controversy on immoral persons and their malfunctioning brains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2013-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th-century, a group of psychiatric experts discussed the relation between brain malfunction and moral misconduct. In the ensuing debates, scientific discourses on immorality merged with those on insanity and the brain. This yielded a specific definition of what it means t

  2. Contribution à l’étude des couleurs anciennes extérieures et intérieures de croisées de menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles, à Paris et Versailles ville Contribution to the survey of old exterior and interior colours in muntin bars dating from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, in Paris and the town of Versailles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédérique Vouvé

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cette démarche a été initiée par Claude Landes, expert en croisées anciennes, et par le LERM, spécialisé dans la caractérisation et le diagnostic des métaux anciens. Grâce aux recherches conjointes entreprises et au protocole d’échantillonnage mis au point par M. Landes, nous sommes en mesure, sur une croisée de menuiseries des xviie et xviiie siècles, d’identifier les matériaux constitutifs de la première mise en peinture réalisée sur celle-ci. À partir d’un examen détaillé de la stratigraphie de plusieurs échantillons, nous avons caractérisé les pigments, charges et liants mis en œuvre dans les strates les plus anciennes. Ces analyses ont été complétées par des mesures de colorimétrie. Ces recherches peuvent être entreprises d’un point de vue qualitatif et semi-quantitatif. Dans ce second cas, il est ainsi possible de remonter à une formulation proche de l’originelle, ce qui permet d’envisager une reconstitution à l’identique des couleurs extérieures de ces croisées. L’exposé sera illustré par les résultats obtenus après une étude des polychromies extérieures de l’hôtel d’Hallwyl (Paris, IIIe arrondissement, du 17, rue Champollion (Paris, Ve arrondissement, de l’ancien hôtel de Mayenne (Paris, IVe arrondissement, enfin du 10, avenue de Sceaux à Versailles ville.This project was set up by Claude Landes, an expert on old muntins, and the LERM, specialized in the characterization and diagnostic of old metals. Thanks to common research undertaken and to the sampling protocol set up by M. Landes, it is possible to identify the materials constituting the original paintwork on muntins from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. From detailed examination of the stratigraphy of several samples, we have characterized the pigments, fillers and binders used in the oldest layers. These analyses have been completed with colourimetric measurements. This research may be carried out from a

  3. ECONOMIC PRAGMATISM: THE IOWA AMISH AND THE VISION OF COMMUNAL COHERENCE IN LATE 2O CENTURY AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how members of one Amish settlement in southern Iowa have attempted to broaden their economic activities in an effort to maintain their religiously based community; The Amish dress in a plain 19th century style and rely on horses for their work and transportation needs, and, on the surface at least, eschew the modern ways of the world. Though it is readily apparent that the long held perception of a cloistered life is a myth. The Amish have managed to push their communal s...

  4. “To Sing with the Spirit:” Psalms, Hymns and the Spirituality of Late Eighteen Century American Presbyterians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Harrison Taylor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the contemporary discussion among theologians regarding the relationship between theology and spirituality can offer new insight into the eighteenth century religious world. This theological discussion has wrestled with, among other things, the questions of whether theology and spirituality are mutually exclusive and what exactly their relationship looks like. Resoundingly, theologians such as Alister McGrath, J. I. Packer, and Sandra Schneiders have concluded that any separation of the two represents a false dichotomy within Christianity. Accordingly, Christians are called to “the quest for a fulfilled and authentic Christian existence, involving the bringing together of the fundamental ideas of Christianity and the whole experience of living on the basis of, and within, the scope of the Christian faith.” Sound theology, then, necessitates living by the Spirit and vice versa. The benefit of this theological position for religious history lies in its reevaluation of the common categorization of Christians as either theologically or spiritually focused. By heeding the call of contemporary theologians and blurring these lines of distinction, historians can afford eighteen century American Christians the chance to better define themselves. Considered in this light, the actions of the Presbyterians, for instance, are freed from the manipulative “social control” framework as one of the “establishmentarian” churches. Instead, the Presbyterians reveal characteristics generally reserved for the democratically charged “sectarians,” such as a robust spiritual life compelled by music.

  5. BULGARIANS IN THE TERRITORY OF THE KUBAN COSSACKS IN THE LATE OF XVIII - THE EARLY OF XX CENTURIES

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    Zhabchik S. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Russian-Slavic cultural, political and economic links is quite actual nowadays. At the turn of 18 – 20 centuries Russia was the only independent Slavic state that was a reason of special attention of foreign countries. The most intensive contacts in Slavic world can be found on a regional level. Both pre-revolutional and modern scientists actively explore such aspects as resettlement of Bulgarians to the Kuban, places of their compact location, main activities and further destiny of its members. There is a detailed specification of colonization of Bulagarian landowners from 18 until the beginning of 20 century in the article, based on the archive documents. Also described moments of first appearing of Bulgarians on the Russian territory and particularly in the Kuban. The article is focused on the main stages of economic familiarization and adaptation of settlers to the natural and social features of new locations. The conditions and forms of vital activities in labor, lifestyle, sociopolitical and cultural life that are typical for their social relations are marked in the article. There is also noted that main occupation of Bulgarian settlers was horticulture, where they achieved greatest successes thanks to mastery of artificial irrigation using a special mechanism for that (a big wheel with attached vessels; Hothouse economy, that allowed them to produce thermophilic crops; organization of teams, that assumed collective labor, labor relations and mutual support. To sum up, Bulgarian settlers harmoniously fitted into socio-cultural area of the Kuban region

  6. MODEL OF STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF VISUALS IN RUSSIAN ABC BOOKS AND PRIMERS OF LATE XIX - EARLY XX CENTURIES

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    Ivan I. Teterin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today the prevalence of visual information coding determines the changes in the text and extra-textual components of the textbook, the problem affects the placement and number of illustrative material, defines the relationship and interaction of text and image information, focuses on new forms of organization of the learning process. The movement of humanity from the dominant culture of text oriented logos or the spread and adoption of visual forms of information broadcast began at the turn of the XIX and XX centuries. It was during this period in the academic literature visual components acquired independent didactic value. I began to develop a holistic visual range of a school textbook.The visual tutorial series has been the subject of special study for many scientific disciplines. The overall goal of our research is to answer the question. What didactic features were inherent in visual range of textbooks for initial literacy in Russia in the second half of XIX - early XX century, why, how, and how they changed. In this article, we will focus on the issue of allocation of structural components of the visual range of the spectrum and the functions they perform.Offering a model of this analysis, we relied on the development problems of the textbook functions V. Krajewski, V. Beilinson, I. Lerner, V. Bespal'ko and characteristics of the major structural components of the textbook, the proposed D. Zuev, A. Sochor, J. Mickey and others. 

  7. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-03-20

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  8. Propaganda, Public Information, and Prospecting: Explaining the Irrational Exuberance of Central Place Foragers During a Late Nineteenth Century Colorado Silver Rush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Susan M

    2009-10-01

    Traditionally, models of resource extraction assume individuals act as if they form strategies based on complete information. In reality, gathering information about environmental parameters may be costly. An efficient information gathering strategy is to observe the foraging behavior of others, termed public information. However, media can exploit this strategy by appearing to supply accurate information while actually shaping information to manipulate people to behave in ways that benefit the media or their clients. Here, I use Central Place Foraging (CPF) models to investigate how newspaper propaganda shaped ore foraging strategies of late nineteenth-century Colorado silver prospectors. Data show that optimistic values of silver ore published in local newspapers led prospectors to place mines at a much greater distance than was profitable. Models assuming perfect information neglect the possibility of misinformation among investors, and may underestimate the extent and degree of human impacts on areas of resource extraction.

  9. Violations of Law in the Bureaucrats Community and Their Perception by the Ukrainian and Russian People in the Late XVIII – First Half of XIX Centuries

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    Sergey I. Degtyarev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies the problem of service violations and abuses, which were extremely common in the bureaucratic environment of the Russian Empire in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries. The author attempts to answer the question of how these negative phenomena were perceived various population groups in different regions of the empire? It was concluded, that range of offenses, which were committed officials, was extremely broad. In doing so they affected the interests of society regardless of ethnic, social or professional affiliation of its members. This contributed to occurrence of a negative image of officials at all levels of society and in all regions of the empire. Inability and unwillingness of the government fight the offense in the environment of bureaucracy during many decades has led to the creation a negative image of the official. It was display in numerous literary works and poetry of Ukrainian and Russian authors, the memoirs of contemporaries, official documents.

  10. Preconditions and Reasons of Religions Educational and Missionary Activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the Late 19th – Early 20th Centuries

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    Yelena D. Mikhailova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the reasons and preconditions for religions, educational and missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in the late 19th – early 20th centuries. Basing on the archive records, the author shows that most important preconditions for enhancing religions – educational activities were the following: the destruction of traditional patriarchal life of the masses, which was based on religions values, the need to overcome “religions ignorance” of a significant part of Orthodox population, the rapid religions dissent in the Russian Empire. Analysis of reasons for their wide spread shows that it wasn’t the cause of foreign influence or any kind of social protest. Studying contemporary opinions as well as specific facts of provincial parish life led to the conclusion that there existed a wide complex of preconditions that influenced the growth of “protest” forms of religion.

  11. Fairy tales, children’s books and schools in Sweden and Italy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Historical comparisons and pedagogical remarks

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    William Grandi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some historical parallels in the field of children’s literature and education between Sweden and Italy in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Sweden and Italy are at the opposite ends of Europe, but they exhibited some interesting similarities in children’s book and pedagogy during those decades. Suffice it to say that two of the most important European education experts of the time – the Swede Ellen Key and the Italian Maria Montessori – were in relationship, appreciated each other’s work and exchanged ideas and remarks on educational and social issues. Parallels cannot obscure the large differences between the two nations, but there were also convergences that must be examined: researches on folktales, mass education and education of the élite were important issues in both countries. Moreover the convergences will intensify further in the coming decades, because Sweden and Italy belong to the same European context.

  12. [Santa Casa de Misericórdia and hygienist policies in Belém do Pará in the late nineteenth century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Cybelle Salvador; Beltrão, Jane Felipe; Henrique, Márcio Couto; Bessa, Brena Tavares

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the relationship between hygienist policies in effect in Belém in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of activities of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará. Considered one of the first hospital institutions in the former Grão-Pará Province, in addition to its own hospital, the Brotherhood administered several other health facilities in the capital, and the study of its physical displacement made it possible to "map" three health centers in Belém: Pioneer, Expansion and the Santa Casa, which reinforce the growth vectors of the city. The expansion of its activities is configured as the expansion of the Santa Casa de Misericórdia to serve the underprivileged and sick, preceding the establishment of a public health system in Pará.

  13. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today Vietn

  14. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today

  15. Lion and dragon: four centuries of Dutch-Vietnamese relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinen, J.; van der Zwan, B.; Moors, H.; van Zeeland, T.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch-Vietnamese relations go back as far as the beginning of the seventeenth century. For a long time, relations between the Dutch lion and the Vietnamese dragon have been fragile and even violent. Although the relations were not continuously bad, they remained distant rather than warm. Today Vietn

  16. [Effects of physics on development of optometry in the United States from the late 19th to the mid 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dal-Young

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, it was studied how physics affected development of optometry in the United States, from aspects of formation and academization of optometry. It was also revealed that history of optometry was analogous to history of engineering. Optics in the 19th century was divided into electromagnetic study of light and visual optics. Development of the visual optics promoted professionalization of ophthalmology that had already started in the 18th century. The visual optics also stimulated formation of optometry and optometrists body in the late 19th century of the United States. The American optometrists body were originated from opticians who had studied visual optics. Publication of several English academic textbooks on visual optics induced appearance of educated opticians (and jewelers). They acquired a right to do the eye examination in the early 20th century after C. F. Prentice's trial in 1897, evolving into optometrists. The opticians could be considered as craftsmen, and they were divided into (dispensing) opticians and optometrists. Such history of American optometrists body is analogous to that of engineers body in the viewpoints of craftsmen origin and separation from craftsmen. Engineers were also originated from educated craftsmen, but were separated from craftsmen when engineering was built up. Education system and academization of optometry was strongly influenced by physics, too. When college education of optometry started at American universities, it was not belonged to medical school but to physics department. Physics and optics were of great importance in curriculum, and early faculty members were mostly physicists. Optometry was academized in the 1920s by the college education, standardization of curriculum, and formation of the American Academy of Optometry. This is also analogous to history of engineering, which was academized by natural sciences, especially by mathematics and physics. The reason why optometry was academized not by

  17. Who was Jesus of Nazareth: Reconstructions of the Historical Jesus from the Late 20th to the Beginning of the 21st Century

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    Andreev Aleksei, priest

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with diff erent reconstructions of the personality, life and teaching of the historical Jesus. These reconstructions were made by the most prominent members of the ‛Search for the historical Jesus’ movement from the late 20th to the beginning of the 21st century. The article explores the specifi cs of the current stage of the ‛Search for the historical Jesus’ movement in its distinction from the earlier era (the middle of the 18th – the beginning of the 20th century. For the purpose of the article works of Edward Parish Sanders, John Mayer, John Dominic Crossan, Marcus Borg, Nicholas Thomas Wright are thoroughly examined. The article provides the summary of major works of these scholars. In the end of the article it is shown in which aspects reconstructions of these authors diff er from each other. Reconstructions are compared on the following parameters: how the historical Jesus of the specifi c reconstruction fi ts the Judaism of His epoch, and how the specifi c reconstruction deals with the question of eschatology. Some suggestions are made concerning the question of why there is a decline in current stage of the ‘Quest for the historical Jesus’ and how this movement could be revitalized.

  18. Russia’s Regional Governance at the Change of Epochs: Administrative Reform Drafts in the Late 19th-Early 20th Centuries

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    Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the long and complex process of Russia’s government working out draft reforms aimed at transforming the country’s regional governance system in the late 19th-early 20th centuries. Aware of the unsatisfactory state of affairs in the area of the organization and operation of the governorate administration, the supreme state authorities initiated the development of relevant reform, looking to not only engage representatives of the local bureaucratic elite in the process but take account of public opinion in respect of the principles of the set-up and activity of the regional administration. This article demonstrates that drafts developed during the late imperial period, which persistently sought to promote the idea of strengthening the governor’s authority and uniting the major governorate collegia into a single institution, fell short of being realized. This circumstance had a negative effect on the operation of the governor’s authority, which was clearly manifested in the extremely hard conditions of the February Revolution of 1917. The weakness of governorate rulers in combination with widespread “anti-governor” sentiment locally, expressed in the form of mass arrests of functionaries by the uprisen people, forced the Provisional Government to fully renounce the existing regional governance system by revoking the governor posts and handing authority over to the chairmen of the county councils.

  19. Wall paintings from the late 15th century in the Monastery church of St. Paraskeve - Brajčino

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    Popovska-Korobar Viktorija

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Monastery of St. Paraskevy is located above the village Brajčino, on the east shore of Lake Prespa in the Republic of Macedonia. In accordance with the incomplete donor’s inscription this one aisle church with a pitched roof was built and decorated at the same time. Reparations came around 1800, when rebuilding was done on the longitudinal walls and the narthex (without fresco decoration. The fresco paintings from the 15th century are preserved on the west facade, and on the east and west wall of the naos. The decorative program in the interior was common for the small type monastery churches without narthex. From the old edifice, on the corner of the outside southwest wall visible are remains of figures, a monk and a man in laymen’s attire facing eastward. The iconographic program of the west facade is interesting for the scenes which encompass the patrons niche: a reduced Last Judgment (Royal Deesis, Hell and Paradise, where the monk Pahomios above the gate is depicted in prayer and the equestrian figures of St. George and St. Mena. A parallel for the rare iconography of St. Mena with the tamed beasts is found in an unpublished icon, which most probably was painted in the last quarter of the 15th century, and is kept presently on the iconostasis of the church of Panagia tou Apostolaki in Kastoria. In accordance with all the considered characteristics by means of comparative analysis, we assume that the anonymous master could be an individual who belonged to the painting workshops which are credited for painting the church of St. Nicholas of the nun Eupraxia in Kastoria. We suppose the painter worked in Brajčino soon after the year 1486 and before 1493, when the decoration of the church in Kremikovci was completed, in which he most likely took part as a member of another large workshop. Regarding the question about the origins of the style of the 'master from the 1480’s', the paper articulates an opinion that they should be traced

  20. [Psychophysical parallelism. On a discursive figure in the field of scientific changes in the late 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Mai

    2009-01-01

    The article traces the rise and fall of "psychophysical parallelism" - which was the most advanced scientific formulation of the mind / body relationship in the second half of the 19th century - through an interdisciplinary and broad geographical spectrum. It sheds light on the extremely different positions that rallied round this discursive figure, ranging from Fechner, Hering, Mach, Wundt, Bain, Hughlings Jackson, and Taine to Freud and Saussure. The article develops the thesis that the psychophysical parallelism functioned as a 'hot zone' within and a symptom of the changes in the order of sciences at that time. Against that background, the criticism of the psychophysical parallelism which became prominent around 1900 (Stumpf, Busse, Bergson, Mauthner et. al.) indicates the cooling of this 'hot zone' and the establishment of a new order within the scientific disciplines. The article pays particular attention to the position of this figure in contemporaneous language theories. Its basic assumption is that the relationship between the body and the psyche is itself constituted by language.

  1. 'No "Sane" Person Would Have Any Idea': Patients' Involvement in Late Nineteenth-century British Asylum Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In his 1895 textbook, Mental Physiology, Bethlem Royal Hospital physician Theo Hyslop acknowledged the assistance of three fellow hospital residents. One was a junior colleague. The other two were both patients: Walter Abraham Haigh and Henry Francis Harding. Haigh was also thanked in former superintendent George Savage's book Insanity and Allied Neuroses (1884). In neither instance were the patients identified as such. This begs the question: what role did Haigh and Harding play in asylum theory and practice? And how did these two men interpret their experiences, both within and outside the asylum? By focusing on Haigh and Harding's unusual status, this paper argues that the notion of nineteenth-century 'asylum patient' needs to be investigated by paying close attention to specific national and institutional circumstances. Exploring Haigh and Harding's active engagement with their physicians provides insight into this lesser-known aspect of psychiatry's history. Their experience suggests that, in some instances, representations of madness at that period were the product of a two-way process of negotiation between alienist and patient. Patients, in other words, were not always mere victims of 'psychiatric power'; they participated in the construction and circulation of medical notions by serving as active intermediaries between medical and lay perceptions of madness.

  2. The "Abyssal Society". François-Alphonse Forel and the Case of Deep Fauna in Late 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Ichthyological investigations and technological advancements, such as the laying of submarine telegraph cables, promoted new dredging methods in the second half of the 19th century. In contrast to the idea of a lifeless deep ocean (Edward Forbes' azoic hypothesis), the discovery of deep water fauna and the challenge of defining its systematics opened up new theoretical perspectives. In this frame, which was already marked by the impact of Darwin's theory, naturalistic surveys in freshwater environments in western Switzerland intertwined with those of oceanographic expeditions. The study of the fauna in the depths of subalpine lakes by the Swiss savant François-Alphonse Forel was one of the most striking examples of this turning point, because the relatively recently evolution of its freshwater fauna allowed him to investigate: (a) the role of isolation, (b) the progressive differentiation of species from a common ancestor, and (c) the constitution of a species-specific category in form transition, from a genealogical viewpoint to an ecological one.

  3. Contesting Law and Order: Legal and Judicial Reform in Southern Thailand in the Late Nineteenth to Early Twentieth Century

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    Piyada Chonlaworn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines legal and judicial reform in Thailand (then Siam imposed in the southern Malay provinces, once a sultanate kingdom of Pattani, in the 1890s and 1910s. Legal and judicial reform was one of the three main reforms Siam imposed countrywide at the end of the nineteenth century as an attempt to modernize the country and defend it against Western colonial powers. However, Siam’s rule and reform in the Malay region, especially during the reign of King Chulalongkorn, is viewed by recent studies as colonial modernity in itself. These measures included the appointment of a Siamese commissioner in the Malay region, the enforcement of Thai law, and Siam’s endeavor to preserve local practices such as Islamic family law and courts, which resembled those of the British and Dutch East Indies. While the notion of Siam’s inner colonialism is not entirely wrong, this paper argues that there is also another side of the coin that should be considered especially when looking from legal and judicial perspective. Right after a new regulation was imposed in 1901, it was clear that local people were ready to make use of the new judicial system. This is partly because the new system, regardless of its shortcomings, gave local people, including Malay ruling elites, opportunities to file cases against their enemies or demand justice.

  4. ECONOMIC PRAGMATISM: THE IOWA AMISH AND THE VISION OF COMMUNAL COHERENCE IN LATE 2O CENTURY AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano A. Wueschner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how members of one Amish settlement in southern Iowa have attempted to broaden their economic activities in an effort to maintain their religiously based community; The Amish dress in a plain 19th century style and rely on horses for their work and transportation needs, and, on the surface at least, eschew the modern ways of the world. Though it is readily apparent that the long held perception of a cloistered life is a myth. The Amish have managed to push their communal strictures to the limit. At the same time it is apparent that it has been a daunting task at best for the Amish to attempt to maintain their cultural homogeneity in an economy dominated by sweeping technological and social changes. The Amish frequent many of the same retail stores as their “other world neighbors,” have availed themselves of modern means of transportation to travel great distances to visit relatives or to attend funerals and weddings, and in the winter some, especially the elderly, spend the harsher months in Florida as do their “English” counterparts. Within Amish communities there have been signs of conflicts that have had less to do with theological questions but more with efforts to cling to old customs. As the paper points out, the Amish have been wedded to an impossible exegesis given the modernizing influences of the surrounding world.

  5. Mechanism, vitalism and organicism in late nineteenth and twentieth-century biology: the importance of historical context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Garland E

    2005-06-01

    The term 'mechanism' has been used in two quite different ways in the history of biology. Operative, or explanatory mechanism refers to the step-by-step description or explanation of how components in a system interact to yield a particular outcome (as in the 'mechanism of enzyme action' or the 'mechanism of synaptic transmission'). Philosophical Mechanism, on the other hand, refers to a broad view of organisms as material entities, functioning in ways similar to machines--that is, carrying out a variety of activities based on known chemical and physical processes. In the early twentieth century philosophical Mechanism became the foundation of a 'new biology' that sought to establish the life sciences on the same solid and rigorous foundation as the physical sciences, including a strong emphasis on experimentation. In the context of the times this campaign was particularly aimed at combating the reintroduction of more holistic, non-mechanical approaches into the life sciences (organicism, vitalism). In so doing, Mechanists failed to see some of the strong points of non-vitalistic holistic thinking. The two approaches are illustrated in the work of Jacques Loeb and Hans Spemann.

  6. The role of vertical land movements on late 19th century sea level rise at Cuxhaven, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehüser, Sebastian; Jensen, Jürgen; Wahl, Thomas; Dangendorf, Sönke; Hofstede, Jacobus

    2015-04-01

    Tide gauges, located along the world's coastlines, represent one of the most important data sources with information about sea level change back into the 17th century, bridging the gap between paleo proxies and modern remote sensing data sources. While the worldwide coverage of tide gauges has increased considerably since the mid-20th century, there are only a few gauges available providing information about regional sea level changes before 1900. Furthermore, these tide gauge measurements are often contaminated by local vertical land movements (VLM) resulting from tectonic processes or local anthropogenic interventions. Such non-climatic effects need to be removed from the raw data to uncover climate signals, which are important, for instance, for answering the question whether and when sea level started to accelerate from the nearly constant rates over the past 2000 years. Here we focus on one of these long tide gauge records: Cuxhaven, which is located in the German Bight and provides uninterrupted digital time series of tidal high and low water levels since 1843. The record has been extensively studied during the past decades with respect to regional and global sea level rise. However, a question that still remains is the role of local subsidence before 1900 at the lighthouse of Cuxhaven, located close to the tide gauge. In 1855 Lentz installed a granite height mark at the lighthouse, which was later used as a proxy for VLMs of the tide gauge itself. The height of the control mark was derived by a levelling between Hamburg and Cuxhaven. These levellings were repeated five times between 1855 and 1900 and later evaluated by Siefert and Lassen (1985) with respect to the role of local subsidence. Based on a linear regression of individual levellings Siefert and Lassen (1985) concluded that the lighthouse subsided by an average rate of 2.8 mm/yr (1855-1875: 4.2 mm/yr; 1876-1890: 2 mm/yr; 1890-1900: 1.2 mm/yr). However, due to the massive uncertainties of these early

  7. Natural history museum collections provide information on phenological change in British butterflies since the late-nineteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Stephen J; Self, Angela; Toloni, Flavia; Sparks, Tim

    2014-10-01

    Museum collections have the potential to provide valuable information on the phenological response of organisms to climate change. This is particularly useful for those species for which few data otherwise exist, but also to extend time series to the period before other observational data are available. To test this potential, we analysed data from 2,630 specimens of four species of British butterflies (Anthocharis cardamines, Hamearis lucina, Polyommatus bellargus and Pyrgus malvae), collected from 1876 to 1999 and stored in the Natural History Museum, London, UK (NHM). In A. cardamines, first-generation P. bellargus and P. malvae, we found that there was a strong significant negative relationship between spring temperature and 10th percentile collection dates, which approximates mean first appearance date, and median collection date, which approximates mean flight date. In all four species, there was a significant negative relationship between the 10th percentile collection date and the length of the collection period, which approximates flight period. In second-generation P. bellargus, these phenological measurements were correlated with summer temperature. We found that the rates of phenological response to temperature, based on NHM data, were similar to, or somewhat greater than, those reported for other organisms based on observational data covering the last 40 years. The lower rate of phenological response, and the significant influence of February rather than March or April temperatures, in recent decades compared with data from earlier in the twentieth century may indicate that early emerging British butterfly species are currently approaching the limits of phenological advancement in response to recent climate warming.

  8. Ballistic blocks around Kīlauea Caldera: Their vent locations and number of eruptions in the late 18th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Donald A.; Zolkos, Scott P.; Haravitch, Ben

    2012-01-01

    Thousands of ballistic blocks occur around Kīlauea Caldera and record part of the latest major period of explosive activity on the volcano, in late 1790 or within a few years thereafter. The sizes of the blocks – the largest of which is more than 2 m in nominal diameter – and differences in rock types allow the definition of at least 6 dispersal lobes of mostly undetermined relative age. The orientations of the lobes help approximate the locations of vents or explosion sources on the floor of the caldera, now deeply buried by younger lava flows. The vents may have been distributed northward for about 2 km from near the site of the modern Halema'uma'u Crater and were apparently confined to the western half of the caldera. The blocks are entirely lithic except for those in one dispersal lobe, which contains cored bombs and blocks as well as juvenile lapilli. Eruption parameters calculated from EJECT! suggest that the phreatic and phreatomagmatic explosions could have been generated at the water table, about 600 m below the high point on the caldera rim.

  9. 17. Yüzyıl Azerbaycan Sahasında Yazılan Hikayat Adlı Eserdeki Ünlü Uyumları Üzerine Bir İnceleme A Study On Vowel Harmony In Written Work Named Hikáyát In Azerbaijani Field In Seventeenth Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem GÜL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available When the sources examined explaining the development processof vowel harmony in Turkish, 17 century is seen as a dark period. Dueto the alphabet in Arabic script has a lack of conveying Turkishlanguage sounds generally researches were carried out on texttranscriptions which were written by foreign researchers. Althoughsome of the problems in themselves contain the texts of thesetranscription is very valuable for the history of Turkish sources. In thisstudy, 17 century vowel harmonies examined on Hikāyā t as a sampleand the features of period compared.Firstly; it has been found that which affixes impair vowel harmonyin the text. In order to represent the measurement in contradictions ofharmony, it has been analysed under different titles such as lexical itemroot, contradictions in phrase and contradictions in appendix.Apart form that; it has been observed precisely whether there isbackness harmony or not, In addition, The most important events of thesevententh century the sound was shown how the text of the lipharmony in Hikāyāt text. It has been established what is measurementin contradictions of harmony. It has been revealed if there is a usage ofregular or not in terms of flattening.The sevententh century of middle Ottoman period is evaluated asa transition period. It has been established whether there are featuresof transition perion precisely or not about wovel harmony in text andalso established how appendix is used generally.In addition, with this work written in Azerbaijani field the effectsof vowel harmony on Azerbaijani reflecting the additional usesdetermined and the different language characteristics betweenAzerbaijani Turkic and Turkey Turkish put forward. This article willcontribute to clarify 17th century Turkish on which there is very limitedresearch. Türkçenin ünlü uyumu ile ilgili gelişim sürecini anlatan kaynaklara bakıldığında 17. yüzyıl karanlık bir dönem olarak görülmektedir. Arap harfli alfabenin T

  10. [Changes of medico-pharmaceutical profession and private practice from the late 19th century to the early 20th century: ebb and flow of western pharmacies and clinics attached to pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Ki

    2010-12-31

    This article examined i) how traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom from the late 19th century influenced such changes, ii) how medical laws of Daehan Empire and early colonial period influenced the differentiation of medico-pharmaceutical profession, and iii) what the responses of medico-pharmaceutical professionals were like, and arrived at following conclusions. First, in late Chosun, there was a nationwide spread of pharmacies (medicine room, medicine store) as general medical institutions in charge of prescription and medication as well as diagnosis. Therefore, Koreans' perception of Western medicine was not very different from that of traditional pharmacy. Second, Western pharmacies were established by various entities including oriental doctors, Western doctors and drug manufacturers.Their business ranged from medical consultation, prescription, medication and drug manufacture. This was in a way the extension of traditional medico-pharmaceutical custom, which did not draw a sharp line between medical and pharmaceutical practices. Also, regulations on medical and pharmaceutical business of Daehan Empire did not distinguish oriental and Western medicine. Third, clinics attached to pharmacy began to emerge after 1908, as some Western pharmacies that had grown their business based on selling medicine began to hire doctors trained in Western medicine. This trend resulted from Government General's control over medico-pharmaceutical business that began in 1908, following a large-scale dismissal of army surgeons trained in medical schools in 1907. Fourth, as specialization increased within medico-pharmaceutical business following the colonial medical law in early 1910s, such comprehensive business practices as Western pharmacy disappeared and existing businesses were differentiated into dealers of medical ingredients, drug manufacturer, patent medicine businessmen and herbalists. And private practice gradually became the general trend by establishment of medical

  11. European climate in the late twenty-first century: regional simulations with two driving global models and two forcing scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeisaenen, J. [Division of Atmospheric Sciences, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2, PO Box 64, 00014, Helsinki (Finland); Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 60176, Norrkoeping (Sweden); Hansson, U.; Ullerstig, A.; Doescher, R.; Graham, L.P.; Jones, C.; Meier, H.E.M.; Samuelsson, P.; Willen, U. [Rossby Centre, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, 60176, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-01-01

    A basic analysis is presented for a series of regional climate change simulations that were conducted by the Swedish Rossby Centre and contribute to the PRUDENCE (Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects) project. For each of the two driving global models HadAM3H and ECHAM4/OPYC3, a 30-year control run and two 30-year scenario runs (based on the SRES A2 and B2 emission scenarios) were made with the regional model. In this way, four realizations of climate change from 1961-1990 to 2071-2100 were obtained. The simulated changes are larger for the A2 than the B2 scenario (although with few qualitative differences) and in most cases in the ECHAM4/OPYC3-driven (RE) than in the HadAM3H-driven (RH) regional simulations. In all the scenario runs, the warming in northern Europe is largest in winter or late autumn. In central and southern Europe, the warming peaks in summer when it locally reaches 10 C in the RE-A2 simulation and 6-7 C in the RH-A2 and RE-B2 simulations. The four simulations agree on a general increase in precipitation in northern Europe especially in winter and on a general decrease in precipitation in southern and central Europe in summer, but the magnitude and the geographical patterns of the change differ markedly between RH and RE. This reflects very different changes in the atmospheric circulation during the winter half-year, which also lead to quite different simulated changes in windiness. All four simulations show a large increase in the lowest minimum temperatures in northern, central and eastern Europe, most likely due to reduced snow cover. Extreme daily precipitation increases even in most of those areas where the mean annual precipitation decreases. (orig.)

  12. A solution to Lov\\'asz's Seventeenth problem

    CERN Document Server

    Hatami, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    Many fundamental theorems in extremal graph theory can be expressed as linear inequalities between homomorphism densities. In the language of quantum graphs the validity of a linear inequality between homomorphism densities is equivalent to the positivity of a corresponding quantum graph. Lov\\'asz composed a collection of open problems in this area, and in Problem 17 he asks whether every positive quantum graph can be represented as a sum of squares of labeled quantum graphs. A related question by Razborov asks whether every true linear inequality between homomorphism densities can be proven using certain applications of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. We answer both questions in the negative by introducing explicit valid inequalities that do not satisfy the required conditions. Razborov's question and Lov\\'asz's seventeenth problem are both precise instances of a general question of Razborov whether every true linear inequality between homomorphism densities can be proven using a finite amount of manipulation...

  13. The 21st Century as Whose Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Macro-analysis and East-West encounter are shown through consideration of objective yet subjective constructed concepts for the international system and international economy in the 21st century. Three paradigms are considered, namely the 21st century as the ‘Pacific Century’, as ‘China’s Century’ and as the ‘Asian Century’. Overlaps are shown between these three paradigms, as also developments in time, and gradually shift in geographical location. The ‘Pacific Century’, and its associated Rimspeak, was the paradigm emerging in the late 1970s, knitting together America’s West Coast and the Japanese economy. By the late 1980s this was already shifting to talk of the 21st century likely to be an ‘Asian Century’ model, mark-1, based on the Pacific Asia dynamism shown by the ‘Asian Tigers’ and Japan. However, the Asian financial crash of 1997-8, and the economic downturn in Japan, meant that such an ‘Asian Century’ seemed premature as the 21st century arrived. Instead, it was China’s economic growth that seemed most evident, and with it the concept of the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’. However, in turn that has already been modified during the first decade of the century by India’s arrival as a rapidly growing economy. Consequently the 21st century as ‘China’s Century’ and as ‘India’s Century’ has been combined into talk of an ‘Asian Century’, mark-2.

  14. Seventeenth Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.

    1955-01-29

    The document represents the seventeenth semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1954.

  15. 78 FR 51809 - Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 217-Aeronautical Databases Joint With EUROCAE WG-44...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Seventeenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 217--Aeronautical Databases Joint With EUROCAE WG-44--Aeronautical Databases AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 217--Aeronautical Databases...

  16. Quantification of the early small-scale fishery in the north-eastern Baltic Sea in the late 17th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare Verliin

    Full Text Available Historical perspectives on fisheries and related human behaviour provide valuable information on fishery resources and their exploitation, helping to more appropriately set management targets and determine relevant reference levels. In this study we analyse historical fisheries and fish trade at the north-eastern Baltic Sea coast in the late 17th century. Local consumption and export together amounted to the annual removal of about 200 tonnes of fish from the nearby sea and freshwater bodies. The fishery was very diverse and exploited altogether one cyclostome and 17 fish species with over 90% of the catch being consumed locally. The exported fish consisted almost entirely of high-valued species with Stockholm (Sweden being the most important export destination. Due to rich political history and natural features of the region, we suggest that the documented evidence of this small-scale fishery should be considered as the first quantitative summary of exploitation of aquatic living resources in the region and can provide a background for future analyses.

  17. Veterinary entomology, colonial science and the challenge of tick-borne diseases in South Africa during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2008-12-01

    This article provides an historical overview of developments in veterinary entomology during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. During that period state employed entomologists and veterinary scientists discovered that ticks were responsible for transmitting a number of livestock diseases in South Africa. Diseases such as heartwater, redwater and gallsickness were endemic to the country. They had a detrimental effect on pastoral output, which was a mainstay of the national economy. Then in 1902 the decimating cattle disease East Coast fever arrived making the search for cures or preventatives all the more urgent. Vaccine technologies against tick-borne diseases remained elusive overall and on the basis of scientific knowledge, the South African state recommended regularly dipping animals in chemical solutions to destroy the ticks. Dipping along with quarantines and culls resulted in the eradication of East Coast fever from South Africa in the early 1950s. However, from the 1930s some ticks evolved a resistance to the chemical dips meaning that diseases like redwater were unlikely to be eliminated by that means. Scientists toiled to improve upon existing dipping technologies and also carried out ecological surveys to enhance their ability to predict outbreaks. Over the longer term dipping was not a panacea and ticks continue to present a major challenge to pastoral farming.

  18. Anasazi (Pre-Columbian Native-American) Migrations During The Middle-12Th and Late-13th Centuries. Were they Drought Induced?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO, 80303 (United States); Petersen, K. [University of Utah, 1495 E 100 S, Room 126, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112 (United States); Stein, J. [Navajo Nation Historical Preservation, P.O. Box 4950, Window Rock, AZ, 86515 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Severe droughts in the middle-12th and late-13th centuries appear to have affected Anasazi (pre-Columbian Native American) populations. During the first drought most of the great houses in the central San Juan Basin were vacated; the second drought resulted in the abandonment of the Four Corners region. During the first drought, villages may not have been completely abandoned. The multi-year drought periods probably were characterized by reductions in both winter and summer precipitation. Maize is dependent on winter precipitation for its germination and initial growth and on summer (monsoonal) precipitation for its continued growth. Reductions in precipitation are hypothesized to have resulted in low yields of maize, the dietary staple of the Anasazi. A comparison of historic climate data and tree-ring-based reconstructions of precipitation in the Four Corners region with tree-ring-based reconstructions of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) indicate that severe and persistent drought in the Four Corners region occurs when the PDO is negative and the AMO is positive. Historic climate data from the greater San Juan Basin indicate that a negative PDO is characterized by reductions in both water-year and summer precipitation, reinforcing the concept that at least some multi-year droughts involved weakening of the summer monsoon with attendant decreases in the yields of maize.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRIES AND HAY HARVESTING IN ECONOMIC LIFE OF TRANSBAIKAL REGION INDIGENOUS POPULATION IN LATE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury B. Sandanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the issues of farm business transformation of Transbaikal farmers in late XIX – early XX century under the influence of capitalism growth. The agrarian history in Transbaikal region is of vital importance due to the overwhelming majority of rural population for the period under review. The author points out the key transformations of Russian and Buryat farmers of Transbaikal region resulted from transition to capitalist production relations. The facts and data of market and goods/money relationships of Buryat farmers are firstly introduced for scientific use. The role of Buryat settlements (uluses in developing market channels for agricultural products and hired agricultural labor forces are analyzed. The author conclusively proves the increase in capacity of agricultural industries and handicrafts among rural inhabitants based on the preceding scientists’ papers, making use of existing historical literature on the subject matter and appealing to a wide variety of published and unpublished papers. Some data about development of forest industries, cropping, hunting and fishing among indigenous population are of great interest as being the only thing for their livelihood. Moreover, it becomes possible to evaluate the degree of capitalist relations among Evenks farmers based on the survey of archival materials, the greater part of which are firstly introduced for scientific use. 

  20. [The Protomedicato Tribunal and minorities in Castile at the end of the 17th century: the case of surgeon Roldán Solimán].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizabalaga, J

    1996-01-01

    This note aims to provide a small set of documents which report the vicissitudes of a North-African Muslim surgeon who tried to settle professionally during the late seventeenth century in the Kingdom of Castile. The four letters exchanged between the Royal Palace and the Castilian tribunal of the Protomedicato reveal that the Spanish king Charles II (1661-1700) resoluted supported the surgeon's aspirations, and the Protomedicato's concerted resistence to the royal will. These eloquent documents shed light on the history of the Castilian Protomedicato during the final years of the reign of the last Habsburg king in Spain by providing evidence about the role of this institution in the process of segregation/exclusion of ethnic minorities from the practice of health professions.

  1. The Importance of British Teaching Experience (Late 20th – Early 21st Century for Modern Training of Ukrainian Primary School Teachers in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berladyn Olha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with peculiarities of primary schools teachers’ professional training in the UK (late 20th – early 21st century in terms of European integration, analyses development priorities, substantiates the possibilities to use the ideas of the British experience in the training of local primary schools teachers in rural areas. The ideas which have been determined as leading are: development of unified system of standards and teachers training in the context of general integrated requirements for its competence; teachers’ skills to manage their teaching and training activities; modernizing the content of professional training; ensuring continuity of professional training for primary school teachers and their close cooperation with universities, schools and local education system, etc. The results of theoretical research confirm that the development of primary schools in Great Britain has always being and remains a leading factor in the modernization of teacher training. Teacher Education in UK has considerable experience in combining traditional and modern innovation in the time of reforms in that sector, updating the organizational and semantic principles taking into account the European dimension of education. The experience of Great Britain as an active member of formation processes in common European education space, with a rich history, cultural traditions and innovative achievements in terms of professional training of primary school teachers will provide an opportunity to identify and use positive ideas to upgrade the pedagogical education in Ukraine and present its achievements in the European education space. The UK has implemented its own national approach to the modernization of primary school teachers’ professional training on the basis of common European integration processes and changes.

  2. The Socio-cultural Characteristics of Zemstvo District Heads in Ufa Province at the Late of XIX – the Beginning of XX Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezida I. Kantimirova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article studied the activity of zemsky district heads in Ufa province in the late XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries, in the context of the analysis of their social composition, economic status, confession and other characteristics. Although the different aspects of local government institutions activity throughout the Russian Empire are widely studied in the Russian historiography, the research studies on the review of regional experience in such activities in the territory of the Russian province are scarce. Special works devoted to the study of the activities of the zemstvo district heads in the territory of Ufa province, aren’t represented. The authors, basing on attracting a wide range of unpublished sources, among which employees formulary lists have particular importance, attempted to present the basic socio-cultural characteristics of this category of officials in the local government system on materials Ufa province. The authors concluded that the average shape of the province zemstvo district heads had the following characteristics. The composition of the zemstvo heads in Ufa province, was completed mostly from the local nobility, which was 78 % of the total. The property status of zemstvo district heads in Ufa province was characterized by the fact that 44 % of zemstvo heads had land ownership, 10% had houses in different cities of Ufa province and 46 % did not have the real estate. By confession the vast majority of zemstvo district heads were Orthodox, and only 7 % of the number of professed Islam, Catholicism and Lutheranism. A feature of the educational level of district heads in Ufa province was the fact that half of their number was represented by persons with military education.

  3. John Abernethy: Calvinist natural histories of the soul in the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel C

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the relation of natural history, in its guise as an observational genre and one which tended to offer competing explanations of its phenomena, to the discourse of practical divinity. Natural history is here intended as a genre in which the practice of observation is accorded a significant place and a genre which lends itself to the accumulation of competing explanatory accounts of the phenomena ('polycausal'). In particular, it examines the relation of the cognitive and the practical with respect to a rather unusual instance of that discourse. It attempts to site the work of practical divinity vertically (to its own tradition), horizontally (to the local contexts of John Abernethy) and orthogonally (to the Baconian project of descriptive enquiry as a basis for philosophical enquiry).

  4. The Commerce of Letters: Networks and "Invisible Colleges" in Seventeenth- and Eighteenth-Century Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronick, David A.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses letters of early modern science and their use as a means of sharing and assessing ideas before they were put into print as well as a medium of publication. Considers the concepts of networks and invisible colleges and applies them to modern scientific communication. (Contains 60 references.) (LRW)

  5. Seventeenth- and eighteenth-century commentators on the chemical composition of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourkes, T L

    1995-01-01

    The period between 1600 and 1800 was one of great change in the history of science, generally, and in the history of chemistry, specifically. It opened with Francis Bacon's visionary recognition of the benefits to mankind that would accrue from the expansion of scientia and closed with the overthrow of the phlogiston hypothesis. New chemical knowledge resulted from the efforts of the alchemists, especially in Paracelsians, and of the phlogistic philosophers, some of it recorded by writers of magic books (Thorndike, 1958; Camporesi, 1989). The authors of these works reflected 'the general mentality ... imbued with magic, occult beliefs, unreal suggestions, 'voices', and 'rumours', ... 'errors' and 'prejudices'. In respect to brain chemistry there appeared, beside the fantastic, elements of fact that characterise this period as embracing the 'pre-history' of neurochemistry.

  6. El Abasto de Pan en el Madrid del Siglo XVII Bread provision in seventeenth century Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio ANDRÉS UCENDO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El mercado del pan era el más importante de los mercados de abastos, pero también el que contaba con el más complejo sistema de intervención. Los objetivos de la política de abastos eran asegurar un suministro continuo a precios estables y moderados.Los instrumentos incluían la regulación de los precios del grano y el pan, la provisión directa a través del pósito municipal y, en el caso de la corte, el pan de registro. En este trabajo examinamos la política de tasas, las disposiciones del gobierno y el comportamiento de los precios del pan en Madrid y del trigo en los mercados de origen.Bread market was the most important provision markets, so the complexity of intervention system. The aim of provision policy was to guarantee the continuous supply of bread at moderate and stable prices. The means included the regulation the price, the direct provision by the public granary and, in the case of the court, the named registered bread. This paper examines the tax policy, the government requirements and the movement of bread prices in Madrid and wheat prices in the markets of origin.

  7. Niels Hemmingsen and the Construction of a Seventeenth-Century Protestant Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Mattias Skat

    2017-01-01

    European reception of Hemmingsen and his theology should be seen as an attempt to construct him as part of a Protestant memory. It also argues that in order to understand the dynamics behind the reception of Hemmingsen’s ideas, one has to consider the geopolitics of early modern Denmark. Due to her...

  8. Il marmo spirante : sculpture and experience in seventeenth-century Rome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, Jan Joris

    2011-01-01

    While the sculpted object is so obviously carved from hard and lifeless marble, at the same time it has the capacity to conjure up a seemingly living presence of soft, undulating flesh, dramatic movements, and fluttering draperies. As its apparent life is persistently obscured by its materiality and

  9. The representative bodies in Russia in the first half of the seventeenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aleksándrovna LÁPTEVA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the history of representative institutions in Russia, the Zemsky Sobor (the Assembly of the Land, the National assembly in the 1620s-50s. On the basis of the documents preserved in the Russian State Archive of Ancient Documents and analyzed in the works of major Russian historians, the article discusses the background to the activities of the Sobors and their relationship with the social and economic situation in the country; the elections to the Sobors and their composition; viewpoints and demands of the important social groups and strata participating in these Sobors and their submitted ‘opinions’; the main issues discussed at the Sobors, results of their activities and decrees refl the decisions of the Zemsky Sobors. It also examines collective petitions submitted to the Sobors which reflect the points of view of the representatives of two main estates – the nobility (nobles and deti boyarskie and the merchants and townspeople. The author comes to a conclusion about significant role of the Zemsky Sobors in shaping of the Russian state and overcoming the consequences of the Time of Troubles, as well as in finding solutions to acute and vital problems facing the state, namely, to regulate the financial policy, to repulse an external threat, and to develop the basic principles of the foreign policy. At the Sobor a compilation of a uniform Code of Laws was made, i.e. Sob ornoe Ulozhenie of 1649. The article also discusses the reasons for the decline of the representative institutions in Russia since the 1650s, where, although being a contributory factor, they found no support of the upper stratum of society and bureaucracy.

  10. Jeu de Paume & Jeux de la Raison in Seventeenth-Century Optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, Fokko J.

    2013-01-01

    In La Dioptrique (1637) René Descartes elucidated his derivation of the sine law of refraction by means of a comparison of light rays with the motion of tennis balls. In terms of a mathematical-physical model this comparison was quite problematic, as his critics then and now did not hesitate to

  11. "Experimental Philosophy": Invention and Rebirth of a Seventeenth-Century Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Mordechai

    2016-01-01

    This essay offers a more dynamic, and historically grounded, context to explain how and why various individuals and groups in England adopted the term "experimental philosophy." Before the foundation of the Royal Society, I contend, the term had been utilized promiscuously, its modern signification conspicuously absent. Building on this insight, I examine the seemingly deliberate decision by future members of the Royal Society to avoid using the term--and the subsequent shift in their attitude c. 1660. My aim is to demonstrate that while only in England did the fixed conceptual and polemical term "experimental philosophy" become popularized and its (supposed) practice institutionalized, English natural philosophers did not view themselves as engaged in a practice that was fundamentally different than that pursued by their counterparts on the Continent.

  12. Geoffrey Parker. Global Crisis: War, climate and catastrophe in the seventeenth century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hace más de medio siglo el historiador francés Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie empezó a llamar la atención de los historiadores agrarios hacia los fenómenos meteorológicos.[1] Su propio giro hacia la historia del clima fue motivado por la aparición recurrente en las fuentes de alusiones a buenas y malas cosechas, hambrunas, veranos lluviosos e inviernos fríos. Su interés, y el de muchos otros historiadores que han compartido su inquietud,[2] se explica por la relación estrecha que las sociedades preindustriales tenían con el clima y la imposibilidad para sortear sus fluctuaciones con el transporte de alimentos a grandes distancias, los sistemas de refrigeración y calefacción, la construcción de grandes embalses, o la manipulación genética de alimentos; herramientas que hoy en día hacen que los habitantes urbanos subestimemos lo crítico que resulta producir alimentos cuando las precipitaciones o las temperaturas se alejan de las expectativas.

  13. The genealogical gaze: family identities and family archives in the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, E.

    2009-01-01

    In Renaissance Florence, early modern England, and the Netherlands during the Golden Age the "genealogical gaze" transfigured family archives into a cultural patrimony to be preserved, expanded, and transferred to future generations. Descendants, by appropriating the object of that genealogical gaze

  14. Geoffrey Parker. Global Crisis: War, climate and catastrophe in the seventeenth century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherinne Giselle Mora Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hace más de medio siglo el historiador francés Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie empezó a llamar la atención de los historiadores agrarios hacia los fenómenos meteorológicos.[1] Su propio giro hacia la historia del clima fue motivado por la aparición recurrente en las fuentes de alusiones a buenas y malas cosechas, hambrunas, veranos lluviosos e inviernos fríos. Su interés, y el de muchos otros historiadores que han compartido su inquietud,[2] se explica por la relación estrecha que las sociedades preindustriales tenían con el clima y la imposibilidad para sortear sus fluctuaciones con el transporte de alimentos a grandes distancias, los sistemas de refrigeración y calefacción, la construcción de grandes embalses, o la manipulación genética de alimentos; herramientas que hoy en día hacen que los habitantes urbanos subestimemos lo crítico que resulta producir alimentos cuando las precipitaciones o las temperaturas se alejan de las expectativas.

  15. Apollo’s Gifts. Dutch Songbooks for the Urban Youth of the Eighteenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijp, L.P.; Beghein, S.; Blondé, B.; Schreurs, E.

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to our knowledge of informal urban singing culture in the Netherlands, especially within the context of youth subcultures. Hundreds of songbooks from the period of the Dutch Republic (the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries) evidence such a singing culture. In this

  16. Proceedings of the Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The Seventeenth DOE Solar Photochemistry Research Conference sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, is being held June 6--10, 1993, at Cragun`s Lodge and Conference Center, Brainerd, Minnesota The meeting is hosted this year by the Ames Laboratory of Iowa State University. The purpose of the meeting is to foster cooperation, collaboration, and exchange of current research ideas among grantees and contractors of the DOE Division of Chemical Sciences engaged in fundamental research on solar photochemical energy conversion. This conference provides a special opportunity for interaction among investigators from diverse traditional chemistry disciplines who share the common good of providing the knowledge and concepts needed for production of low cost fuels and chemicals or electricity by photochemical conversion of solar energy. Our special guest plenary lecturer is Professor Graham Fleming, of the University of Chicago, who will speak on ultrafast spectroscopic studies of molecular dynamics in the condensed phase. The remaining presentations on Monday will feature further investigations of ultrafast phenomena in solvation, electron transfer, and charge separation at interfaces. These will lead into the topical sessions which follow on photosynthesis, molecular models, photoinduced charge transfer in homogeneous and heterogeneous solutions, inorganic photochemistry, and photoelectrochemistry. As an added feature, the photoelectrochemistry session will include six short introductory lectures for the benefit of nonspecialists on outstanding issues and problems in that field. In this volume may be found a copy of the program, the abstracts of 28 formal presentations and 59 posters, as well as an address listing of the 114 participants.

  17. Arakan and Bengal : the rise and decline of the Mrauk U kingdom (Burma) from the fifteenth to the seventeeth century AD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galen, Stephan Egbert Arie van

    2008-01-01

    The Arakanese kingdom (Rakhine state in modern Myanmar) grew from the fifteenth century AD from a small agrarian state with its nucleus in the hart of the Kaladan valley to a significant local power by the early seventeenth century. Arakan asserted its influence across the northern shores of the Bay

  18. 'Poisoned History': A Comparative Study of Nationalism, Propaganda and the Treatment of War and Peace in the Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, William E.

    2000-01-01

    Explores the evidence of nationalism, propaganda, and the treatment of war and peace in the school curriculum and textbooks within four countries during the end of the nineteenth century and beginning of the twentieth century: (1) Britain; (2) France; (3) Germany; and (4) the United States. (CMK)

  19. Modeling the potential contribution of land cover changes to the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model: impact of lateral boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiling; Yu, Miao; Xue, Yongkang

    2016-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential impact of "idealized-but-realistic" land cover degradation on the late twentieth century Sahel drought using a regional climate model (RCM) driven with lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) from three different sources, including one re-analysis data and two global climate models (GCMs). The impact of land cover degradation is quantified based on a large number of control-and-experiment pairs of simulations, where the experiment features a degraded land cover relative to the control. Two different approaches of experimental design are tested: in the 1st approach, the RCM land cover degradation experiment shares the same LBCs as the corresponding RCM control, which can be derived from either reanalysis data or a GCM; with the 2nd approach, the LBCs for the RCM control are derived from a GCM control, and the LBCs for the RCM land cover degradation experiment are derived from a corresponding GCM land cover degradation experiment. When the 1st approach is used, results from the RCM driven with the three different sources of LBCs are generally consistent with each other, indicating robustness of the model response against LBCs; when the 2nd approach is used, the RCM results show strong sensitivity to the source of LBCs and the response in the RCM is dominated by the response of the driving GCMs. The spatiotemporal pattern of the precipitation response to land cover degradation as simulated by RCM using the 1st approach closely resembles that of the observed historical changes, while results from the GCMs and the RCM using the 2nd approach bear less similarity to observations. Compared with the 1st approach, the 2nd approach has the advantage of capturing the impact on large scale circulation, but has the disadvantage of being influenced by the GCMs' internal variability and any potential erroneous response of the driving GCMs to land degradation. The 2nd approach therefore requires a large ensemble to reduce the uncertainties derived

  20. Tinder and Fire. Determinants of Sexual Behaviour for Domestic Servants in XVIII Century Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Santiago Baldellou Monclús

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the position of domestic workers between the late seventeenth and early nineteenth centuries in order to determine what their situation facing the dilemma of preserving their honor in an, usually, hostile enviroment and the social imperative of courting and got married placed on them. The Spanish domestic service in the Old Regime Spain, specially the maids, was exposed to plenty of risks. Sexual harassement was by far one of the most common. This happening could appear in several forms, since an originally consented relationship until crimes such as raping. Through this paper, we annalyze the most common servant ´s sexual conducts based on the court documentation for the XVII and XVIII centuries by analyzing the conflicts reflected in these sources. Maids precariousness, their legal resources and the society perspective over their position are the issues adressed in the paper searching for a overview of the servant´s sexual dangers and its consequences as well as the maid's strategies in openly hostile ambient.

  1. The Archival Sources for the Histoty of the Liquorstrade in the North-East of Russia in the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries (Funds of the National Archives of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana P. Kolomiets

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the complex documents of the end XIX - the first quarter of the twentieth centuries is researched which are stored in the collections of the National Archives of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia (NARS (Ya and concerned the sale of alcoholic beverages to indigenous people of the North-East of Russia. Documents have different safety and value of source, some of them shed light on the problem of the liquor trade in the late XIX - early XX centuries. Yakut and Kolyma merchants, American entrepreneurs were active in trade with the aboriginal population of the North-East of Russia including the Chukchi, Yukagirs, Eskimos. Legislation of the Russian Empire prohibited alcohol trade in resettlement sites of the indigenous population but the facts of illegal trade were repeatedly documented and analyzed by the administrative authorities. Using of the described above historical documents and taking into account available materials allow more deeply reveal the questions on the role of Russian merchants in the liquor trade, on the administrative regulation of wine and liquor market, on the specific actions of the authorities to solve the problem of indigenous alcohol takers including the Chukchi population. With the introduction of the new documentary sources in the research process it will be possible to explore the problem of liquor trade in the North-East of Russia in the late XIX - early XX centuries.

  2. Romance in Peril: A Survey of the Genre in Seventeen Century English Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The seventeenth century in England can be seen as the age which marked the beginning of modernity as well as the beginning of empirical thought. Rationalization of viewpoints combined with the political turmoil of the century, causing immense setbacks within the English literary traditions. One of these setbacks took place within the romance tradition which had been a major mode of writing during the earlier centuries. In this sense, this article analyses reasons of the decline of the romance tradition throughout seventeenth century English literature as well as examining how the genre managed to survive either implicitly or explicitly in several works like Oroonoko by Aphra Behn, pastoral poems by Andrew Marvel and Milton, and in some parts of Milton’s Paradise Lost.

  3. The Social-Economic Stratification of the Jewish Population of Ukrainian Governorates within the Russian Empire in the Late 19th-Early 20th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor O. Dotsenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study looks into the history of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire in the 19th century. The article examines the social-economic state of the Jewish community in Ukrainian governorates in the 19th century and analyzes preconditions for the creation of national Jewish public organizations in the Russian Empire in the early 20th century. At the turn of the century, there formed a specific social structure of the Jewish population in Ukrainian governorates within the Russian Empire. Even a superficial analysis and comparison of the social structure of the Jewish and other ethnoses lets us draw a conclusion about the prevalence of representatives of the merchant, craftsman, and usurer social groups among the Jews of the region. The prevalence of Jews within the non-productive sphere led to interethnic conflicts with representatives of the Ukrainian and Polish ethnoses.

  4. Purifying Sufism: Observations on the Marginalization and Exclusion of Undesirable and Rejected Elements in the Earlier Middle Period (late fourth/tenth to mid-seventh/thirteenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephrat, Daphna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers observations on the process of differentiation and purification within premodern Sufism during a seminal period in the institutionalization of the Sufi ṭarīqa as a Path to God and as a community of followers. Drawing on manuals and narratives by prominent articulators and representatives of the emerging mainstream Sufi tradition, the article highlights the discursive and actual mechanisms they employed to delineate the borderlines of affiliation with the communities of the genuine Sufis, disentangle the solid-core from lay affiliates, and exclude undesirable elements wrongly associated with Sufism. The construction of higher barriers between mainstream Sufism and its margins is closely tied to the spread of popular forms of Sufism and a new kind of antinomianism that gained popularity in the public sphere, beginning in the late sixth/twelfth century. The final part of the article considers the involvement of the political rulers of the time in the inner dynamics of Sufism. My main conclusion is that by patronizing mainstream Sufis and supporting arbiters of true religion in the public sphere, the ruling elite of military lords in the Arab Near East played a significant role in marginalizing the undesirable and rejected elements and in strengthening the mainstream Sunni camp against its rivals.Este artículo ofrece una serie de observaciones sobre el proceso de diferenciación y purificación dentro del sufismo pre-moderno durante un periodo crucial para la institucionalización de las ṭarīqa-s sufíes como una Vía hacia Dios y como una comunidad de seguidores. Basándose en manuales y en narraciones de autores prominentes y representantes de la tradición sufí mainstream emergente, este artículo pone de relieve los mecanismos discursivos que emplearon para marcar los bordes de la afiliación con comunidades de sufíes genuinos, separar el núcleo central de los afiliados externos, y excluir a los elementos

  5. Seventeenth symposium on biotechnology for fuels and chemicals. Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This volume contains the abstracts of oral and poster presentations made at the Seventeenth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals. Session titles include Thermal, Chemical, and Biological Processing; Applied Biological Research; Bioprocessing Research; Special Topics Discussion Groups; Process Economics and Commercialization; and Environmental Biotechnology.

  6. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16th – early 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

     In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes). It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the org...

  7. Teaching Huygens in the Rue Huygens: Introducing the History of 17th-Century Mathematics in a Junior Secondary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallez, Maryvonne

    1992-01-01

    Recounts teaching mathematics to junior high school students in France in the context of seventeenth-century mathematics history. Examines extracts of original works by Leibniz on the origin of calculus and of Huygens on continued fractions. Investigates historical puzzles and a variety of mathematical problems arising out of the texts. (MDH)

  8. Sea surface temperature and sea ice variability in the sub-polar North Atlantic from explosive volcanism of the late thirteenth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicre, M.-A.; Khodri, M.; Mignot, J.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use IP25 and alkenone biomarker proxies to document the subdecadal variations of sea ice and sea surface temperature in the subpolar North Atlantic induced by the decadally paced explosive tropical volcanic eruptions of the second half of the thirteenth century. The short-and lo...

  9. The idea of tashabbuh in sufi communities and literature of the late 6th/12th and early 7th/13th century in Baghdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salamah-Qudsi, Arin Shawkat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to focus attention on the role of the mutashabbih within the active life of ribāṭ in sixth/twelfth and early seventh/thirteenth century Sufism of late Abbasid Baghdad with its basic source being Abū Ḥafṣ al-Suhrawardī´s ʻAwārif al-maʼārif. Other concepts and groups are also analyzed such as qalandariyya, majḏhūbs, takalluf, which is the semblance of ecstasy during samāʻ, and the ambiguous status of khādim. The broad category khādim, according to al-Suhrawardī seems to have included types of affiliation and function in Sufi collective life that went beyond the specific position of the khādim as a senior disciple of a particular Sheikḥ. The infinitive form khidma would probably have implied categories ranging from a transitory affiliation motivated by some expenditure on the Sufis, through a more robust one in which the same title might designate those who occasionally visited resident Sufis and participated in one or more of their rituals, and on to actual residence of such “servants” in the ribāṭ. Al-Suhrawardī tashabbuhtheory is based on the essential purpose of creating a popular Sufi system open to one and all, with an inherent dynamic that leads ultimately to the rank of Sheik-hood (mashyakha.

    Este artículo pretende analizar el papel del mutašabbih en la vida activa del ribāṭ en el sufismo del período tardío de los ʻAbbasíes de Bagdad (finales del siglo VI/XII y principios del siglo VII/XIII. Su fuente principal es el ʻAwārif al-maʼārif de Abū Ḥafṣ al-Suhrawardī. También se analizan otros conceptos y grupos, como la qalandariyya, los maŷḏūbs, el takalluf (la apariencia de éxtasis durante el samāʻ, además del estatus ambiguo del jādim. La amplia categoria de jādim según al

  10. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen;

    2015-01-01

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content...... and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate...

  11. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130 year old beers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen

    2015-01-01

    and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s......The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content......, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate...

  12. Genesis of Cossack Khutor (Farm Yard and Generating of Peasant Proprietors in the Kuban Region from late XVIII Century till the end of 1920s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr P. Skorik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the process of Cossack khutor establishment and development in the Kuban Region as the adapted social and economic world order of the migrated agricultural population. The change of the generations, which laid the basis of Cossack khutor prosperity by the early XX century is shown. The cause and effect relationship of decay of khutor household in the Kuban Region by the end of 1920s is indicated.

  13. «Zemsky Sobors» of the late 16th – early 17th century in Russia: historiographical stereotypes in the reflection of historical sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Vladímirovich LISÉYTSEV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  In the works on the history of the Russian Zemsky Sobors, there is a tradition to draw a parallel between the Sobors and representative bodies of European countries in the 16th –17th centuries (the English Parliament, the French States General, the Spanish Cortes. It is believed that the end of the 16th – early 17th century, especially the Time of Troubles, was the heyday of Zemsky Sobors (when a weak Central government, in the conditions of the civil war, had to look for support in the organs of estate representation. Meanwhile, the analysis of historical sources does not allow to assume that during this period the Zemsky Sobors played a greater role than they did previously. Even the most studied Zemsky Sobors – the elective Sobors of 1598 and 1613 – were held with serious violations of election procedures, and the provinces were not represented to the extent it was described in the official documents. The question of the place of the Zemsky Sobors in the political system of Muscovite state at the beginning of the 17th century requires further analysis.

  14. Fsiles de novela: paleontologa y literatura en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX y principios del siglo Fossils as fictional characters: Argentine paleontology and literature in the late 19th century and the beginnings of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Ottone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available La literatura argentina de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX y comienzos del siglo XX refiri la presencia de mamferos fsiles cenozoicos en las pampas. Gliptodontes y megaterios devinieron en personajes de los textos de Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal y Manuel Mujica Lainez. Estos autores contextualizaron a los vertebrados fsiles en escenas humorsticas o realistas, como iconos de la grandeza de la Pampa y la nacin o parodia de estereotipos culturales locales.Argentine literature from the second half of the 19th century and the early 20th century referred to the presence of Cenozoic fossil mammals in the pampas. Glyptodons and megatheriums became characters in the texts of Eduardo Ladislao Holmberg, William Henry Hudson, Eduarda y Lucio Victorio Mansilla, Leopoldo Lugones, Geoffroy Franois Daireux, Horacio Quiroga, Hugo Wast, Ezequiel Martnez Estrada, Leopoldo Marechal and Manuel Mujica Lainez. These authors contextualize the fossil vertebrates in humoristic or realistic scenes, as icons of the greatness of the nation and the Pampa, or as a parody of local cultural stereotypes.

  15. THE BEGINNING OF ECCLESIASTICAL ARCHITECTURE IN THE LANDS OF THE BLACK SEA COSSACK ARMY IN THE LATE XVIII AND EARLY XIX CENTURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. GOROZHANINA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of one of hot topics studying of spiritual culture of the Cossacks is. In work one of the low-studied of the questions connected with the organization of church management in Chernomoriya is considered. Long time researchers bypassed this problem, focusing attention to the post-reform period, as a result the church history of Kuban during the pre-reform period has generated few matters of argument. In work an attempt to light a row from them is made. For the first time on the basis of the source study analysis the reasons of disagreements among researchers in determination of number of temples at the Black Sea Cossacks in are considered to XVIII centuries In article the major factors which have exerted impact on rates of church construction are allocated, local specifics of the organization of church management are designated. The special place is allocated to reconstruction of milestone events in church history of Kuban of the end XVIII centuries – the beginnings of the XIX centuries, the list of the first Cossack huts in which in 1799 is provided. Church service was conducted. In this article the important role of the famous figures of the Black Sea Cossack army in church construction is shown. Works of the wax judge A.A. Golovaty in a church field are lit, the contribution of army archpriests R. Porokhni and K.V. Rossinsky in forming of local clergy is shown, and the attention to its specifics is also specificity.

  16. Marc Jacobs and Peter Scholliers (ed., Eating out in Europe: picnics, gourmet dining and snacks since the late eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannike W. Hegnes

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Is there a connection between coarse bread eaten during harvesting in 1840, a cordial meal at a Berner Inn in 1870, the robust food of a factory’s canteen in 1900, a sophisticated dinner at a three-star restaurant in 1950, and a hamburger consumed outside a school gate in 1990 (p. 1? They are all examples of meals eaten outside the home, in Europe, during the last to centuries. In the book Eating Out in Europe the editors Marc Jacobs and Peter Scholliers want to give an overview and to demon...

  17. Development of brewing science in (and since) the late 19th century: molecular profiles of 110-130year old beers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Andrea; Ravasio, Davide; Qin, Fen; Wendland, Jürgen; Meier, Sebastian

    2015-09-15

    The 19th century witnessed many advances in scientific enzymology and microbiology that laid the foundations for modern biotechnological industries. In the current study, we analyze the content of original lager beer samples from the 1880s, 1890s and 1900s with emphasis on the carbohydrate content and composition. The historic samples include the oldest samples brewed with pure Saccharomyces carlsbergensis yeast strains. While no detailed record of beer pasteurization at the time is available, historic samples indicate a gradual improvement of bottled beer handling from the 1880s to the 1900s, with decreasing contamination by enzymatic and microbial activities over this time span. Samples are sufficiently well preserved to allow comparisons to present-day references, thus yielding molecular signatures of the effects of 20th century science on beer production. Opposite to rather stable carbohydrate profiles, some aldehydes reach up to 40-fold higher levels in the historic samples as compared to present-day references. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Can't a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Lisa; Rutherford, Alexandra

    2012-05-01

    Popular depictions of 20th-century American motherhood have typically emphasized the joy and fulfillment that a new mother can expect to experience on her child's arrival. But starting in the 1950s, discussions of the "baby blues" began to appear in the popular press. How did articles about the baby blues, and then postpartum depression, challenge these rosy depictions? In this article, we examine portrayals of postpartum distress in popular magazines and advice books during the second half of the 20th century to examine how the unsettling pairing of distress and motherhood was culturally negotiated in these decades. We show that these portrayals revealed a persistent reluctance to situate motherhood itself as the cause of serious emotional distress and a consistent focus on changing mothers to adapt to their role rather than changing the parameters of the role itself. Regardless of whether these messages actually helped or hindered new mothers themselves, we suggest that they reflected the rarely challenged assumption that motherhood and distress should not mix.

  19. The identification of the pigments used to paint statues of Feixiange Cliff in China in late 19th century by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pu-jun; Huang, Wei; Jianhua-Wang; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Xiao-ling

    2010-11-01

    The application of micro-Raman spectroscopy (μ-RS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) to the research of pigments collected from Statues of Feixiange Cliff No. 67 and No. 69 niche of Tang Dynasty in China is reported. Five kinds of pigments were found in the experimental data, including black (carbon), white (gypsum + quartz), blue (lapis lazuli) and green (Paris green + Barium sulphate). After synthesized in 1814, Paris green was reported for a large import as a light and bright green pigment to paint architectures in China from the late 19th century. The analyzed blue pigment demonstrated the similar Raman spectra to the Lâjvardina blue glazed ceramics, which indicated lapis lazuli was an artificial product. This confirmed the painting of Feixiange Cliff in the early Republic of China as the historical record, and also reveals that some pigments were imported from abroad.

  20. Becoming a Woman in the Dutch Republic : Advice Literature for Young Adult Women of the 17th and 18th Centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, Marja; Reeves, Margaret; Cohen, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    In the Dutch republic seventeenth-century authors of marriage manuals and conduct books for women did not distinguish the young, nubile ones from married adults. Marriage was the core teaching, and all were admonished not merely to obey their husbands but also to identify with them. In stressing the

  1. THE MURMAN COAST AND THE NORTHERN-DVINA DELTA AS ENGLISH AND DUTCH COMMERCIAL DESTINATIONS IN THE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELUWENKAMP, JW

    1995-01-01

    In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Murman coast trade and the Northern Dvina trade were two clearly distinct branches of Western European commerce. The Murman coast trade involved the commerce with the regional economy of the Kola Peninsula, and the Northern Dvina trade coincided with t

  2. The rise of the country house in the Dutch Republic : Beyond Johan Huizinga's narrative of Dutch civilisation in the 17th century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, Yme; Stobart, Jon; Hann, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Was the rise of the country house in the Golden Age of the Dutch Republic above all a 'bourgeois' phenomenon, as Johan Huizinga argued in his famous long essay on Dutch civilisation in the seventeenth century. The article shows that not only the merchants and regents of the city of Amsterdam but als

  3. [Louis XIV's Ginseng: Shaping of Knowledge on an Herbal Medicine in the Late 17th and the Early 18th Century France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Min

    2016-04-01

    This article aims to investigate the shaping of knowledge and discourse on ginseng, especially among physicians and botanists, since its introduction to France from the 17th century until the early 18th century. In France, knowledge on herbal medicine, including that of ginseng, was shaped under the influence of the modern state's policy and institution: mercantilism and the Académie royale des sciences. The knowledge of herbal medicine developed as an important part of the mercantilist policy supported systematically by the Académie. The East Asian ginseng, renowned as a panacea, was first introduced into France in the 17th century, initially in a roundabout way through transportation and English and Dutch publications of travel tales from various foreign countries. The publication activity was mainly conducted by Thévenot company with the intention to meet the needs of French mercantilism promoted by Colbert. It also implied interests on medicine in order to bolster the people's health. The Thévenot company's activity thus offered vital information on plants and herbs abroad, one of which was ginseng. Furthermore, with Louis XIV's dispatching of the Jesuit missionaries to East Asia, the Frenchmen were able to directly gather information on ginseng. These information became a basis for research of the Académie. In the Académie, founded in 1666 by Colbert, the king's physicians and botanists systematically and collectively studied on exotic plants and medical herbs including ginseng. They were also key figures of the Jardin du Roi. These institutions bore a striking contrast to the faculty of medicine at the University of Paris which has been a center of the traditional Galenic medicine. The research of the Académie on ginseng was greatly advanced, owing much to the reports and samples sent from China and Canada by Jartoux, Sarrazin, and Lapitau. From the early 18th century, the conservative attitude of the University of Paris, which was a stronghold of

  4. Ecclesiastical justice and social control in Burgos during de fifteenth century: the punishment of offenses and crimes among the clergy in late medieval Castile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Guijarro González

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the relationship between the extensive regulation regarding behavior and acts, adopted by the Bishops and the Cathedral Chapter of Burgos, and its reflection on the justice system of penance during the Fifteenth century. To this end, 282 cases of offenses and crimes, obtained from the Cathedral Chapter Acts of Burgos, are analysed. Firstly, a typology of the registered offenses and crimes is established, along with the terminology which is used in the sources to define them. Secondly, the punishments applied to the different wrong doigs are classified according to their frequency and variability, and also to their relationship with the cathedral statutes and the rules of the synods. Finally, the degree of involvement that clergy and laity had in the prosecuted crimes is examined. All of this aims at determining whether or not there is a discrepancy between the norm and its implementation.

  5. Léon Marillier and the veridical hallucination in late-nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century French psychology and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Maléfan, Pascal; Sommer, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Recent research on the professionalization of psychology at the end of the nineteenth century shows how objects of knowledge which appear illegitimate to us today shaped the institutionalization of disciplines. The veridical or telepathic hallucination was one of these objects, constituting a field both of division and exchange between nascent psychology and disciplines known as 'psychic sciences' in France, and 'psychical research' in the Anglo-American context. In France, Leon Marillier (1862-1901) was the main protagonist in discussions concerning the concept of the veridical hallucination, which gave rise to criticisms by mental specialists and psychopathologists. After all, not only were these hallucinations supposed to occur in healthy subjects, but they also failed to correspond to the Esquirolian definition of hallucinations through being corroborated by their representation of external, objective events.

  6. Baltic Sea climate in the late twenty-first century: a dynamical downscaling approach using two global models and two emission scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, H.E.M. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Rossby Centre, Norrkoeping (Sweden)

    2006-07-15

    A regional ocean circulation model was used to project Baltic Sea climate at the end of the twenty-first century. A set of four scenario simulations was performed utilizing two global models and two forcing scenarios. To reduce model biases and to spin up future salinity the so-called {delta}-change approach was applied. Using a regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model 30-year climatological monthly mean changes of atmospheric surface data and river discharge into the Baltic Sea were calculated from previously conducted time slice experiments. These changes were added to reconstructed atmospheric surface fields and runoff for the period 1903-1998. The total freshwater supply (runoff and net precipitation) is projected to increase between 0 and 21%. Due to increased westerlies in winter the annual mean wind speed will be between 2 and 13% larger compared to present climate. Both changes will cause a reduction of the average salinity of the Baltic Sea between 8 and 50%. Although salinity in the entire Baltic might be significantly lower at the end of the twenty-first century, deep water ventilation will very likely only slightly change. The largest change is projected for the secondary maximum of sea water age within the halocline. Further, the average temperature will increase between 1.9 and 3.2 C. The temperature response to atmospheric changes lags several months. Future annual maximum sea ice extent will decrease between 46 and 77% in accordance to earlier studies. However, in contrast to earlier results in the warmest scenario simulation one ice-free winter out of 96 seasons was found. Although wind speed changes are uniform, extreme sea levels may increase more than the mean sea level. In two out of four projections significant changes of 100-year surge heights were found. (orig.)

  7. Impacts of past climate and sea level change on Everglades wetlands: placing a century of anthropogenic change into a late-Holocene context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, D.A.; Bernhardt, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    We synthesize existing evidence on the ecological history of the Florida Everglades since its inception ~7 ka (calibrated kiloannum) and evaluate the relative impacts of sea level rise, climate variability, and human alteration of Everglades hydrology on wetland plant communities. Initial freshwater peat accumulation began between 6 and 7 ka on the platform underlying modern Florida Bay when sea level was ~6.2 m below its current position. By 5 ka, sawgrass and waterlily peats covered the area bounded by Lake Okeechobee to the north and the Florida Keys to the south. Slower rates of relative sea level rise ~3 ka stabilized the south Florida coastline and initiated transitions from freshwater to mangrove peats near the coast. Hydrologic changes in freshwater marshes also are indicated ~3 ka. During the last ~2 ka, the Everglades wetland was affected by a series of hydrologic fluctuations related to regional to global-scale fluctuations in climate and sea level. Pollen evidence indicates that regional-scale droughts lasting two to four centuries occurred ~1 ka and ~0.4 ka, altering wetland community composition and triggering development of characteristic Everglades habitats such as sawgrass ridges and tree islands. Intercalation of mangrove peats with estuarine muds ~1 ka indicates a temporary slowing or stillstand of sea level. Although sustained droughts and Holocene sea level rise played large roles in structuring the greater Everglades ecosystem, twentieth century reductions in freshwater flow, compartmentalization of the wetland, and accelerated rates of sea level rise had unprecedented impacts on oxidation and subsidence of organic soils, changes/loss of key Everglades habitats, and altered distribution of coastal vegetation.

  8. THE CRIMINAL-LAW ASPECTS OF THE PROTECTION OF MONEY IN THE LATE ROMAN EMPIRE (4TH CENTURY. OUTLINE OF THE PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Świętoń

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents the late Roman legal regulations concerning the counterfeiting of money. This kind of crime was prosecuted in the Roman republic on the ground of lex Cornelia de falsis, but under Roman emperors new qualification was added - the counterfeiting of the money stamped in the imperial mints, which was prosecuted under lex Iulia de peculatus. Interestingly, the editors of the imperial codes of laws (Theodosian and Justinian Code did not put the late imperial constitutions on counterfeiting of money in the titles which were devoted to these two leges. Instead, they created separate title - De falsa moneta (respectively CTh 9.21 and C 9.24. The article discusses the question of terminology used in relation to the techniques of the counterfeiting of money and to the offenders, and, furthermore, the question of criminal liability for forgery, the problem of aiding or abetting, and the circumstances in which the crime was committed. In addition, the author raises the issue of ban of the export of gold outside the Roman state, the prohibition of extraction of the precious metals from the bimetallic money and prohibition of damaging of the gold solidus by the cutting off its edges.

  9. Pilk ingliskeelse kirjanduse tõlgetele 18. sajandi lõpust 20. sajandi algusveerandini / A Look at Estonian Translations of English Literature from the late 18th Century to the Early 20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Mits

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an overview of translations of English literature into Estonian between 1779 and 1917. There is an attempt to analyse the texts by describing them on the basis of, or in their departure from, a text or texts that chronologically and logically precede them. The discussion includes the nature of the transfer and the changes that have been made to the text, either because they existed in the source or mediating text or because of the expectations or requirements in the receptor, i.e. Estonian culture. The translated texts are seen in their historical-cultural context. For the analysis, a corpus of translated texts – religious, fiction, drama and non-fiction (published in a book form was compiled. The general orientation of Estonia until the 1880s was to the German cultural sphere. So the first translations of English literature were made via a mediating language, which was German. English Puritan writers were introduced by the Pietist missionaries with the aim of spreading their teachings in the second half of the 18th century. At about the same time the narrative element was introduced into stories with religious content. Some internationally popular stories, e.g. the Inkle and Yarico story, later robinsonades, stories of slavery and plant at ion life, as well as Amer ican Indian st or ies wer e also t r anslat ed fr om Ger man. However, until  1875  ver  y  few  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian were  published.  The  last quarter of the 19th century saw an explosion in literary production: there was a substantial increase  both  in  the  number  of  translations  of  English  literature  into  E stonian  as  well  as diversification of genres. This continued into the first decade of the 20th  centur y,  when  the sociopolitical situation in Estonia changed. In addition, books came to be translated directly from  English,  although  many  translations

  10. The early vs the late 20th century Arctic warming: The role of energy and aerosol fluxes in reanalysis driven datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Martin; Broennimann, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    During the last two decades, the Arctic was put into the scientific focus as one of the most impacted regions worldwide concerning anthropogenic global warming. However, the warming between 1920 and 1940 proofs the importance of internal variability on yearly and decadal scale. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the role of external and internal forcings on the Arctic climate attribute process and causes leading to changes in the Arctic climate regime (Serreze & Barry 2009). Although much research effort was spent to understand the links and influences of and on the Arctic climate, there is still a need for further insights concerning this topic. Especially the results and discussion about anthropogenic global warming and Arctic amplification put the Arctic into the public and academic focus (Serreze & Barry 2011). However, the early 20th century Arctic warming, although discovered immediately, was scientifically forgotten until recently (Delworth & Knutson 2000, Bengtsson et al 2004, Grant et al 2009, Bekryaev et al 2010). The comparison of this earlier Arctic warming and the recent warming period grants a chance to deepen knowledge about the drivers of Arctic climate and can be used to evaluate the anthropogenic impact. The authors use the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) dataset and a nudged, reanalysis-driven Aerosol Global Circulation Model (A-GCM) to investigate the impact of atmospheric energy and aerosol fluxes into the Arctic during the 20th century. The 20CR dataset covers the period of 1871 - 2010 with a temporal resolution of 6hr and a spatial resolution of 2° x 2°. For the first time, this dataset (and ist 56 ensemble member) is used to compute the atmospheric energy flux, consisting of sensble heat, latent heat, potential energy and kinetic energy. The values are integrated around 70° N and between 1000 - 100 hPa. Aerosol fluxes for the same domain but for the years 1957 - 2000 are calculated based on the A-GCM nudged to the ECMWF

  11. The Ottoman Empire and the policy of alliances: Franco-Ottoman relations in the transition from the XVIth to XVIIth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Türkçelik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Western historiography considered the Ottoman Empire as a marginal and antagonist factor, the Ottomans were an integral component of the history of Early Modern age. The conscientious policy of balance of power towards the Christian powers made Ottomans a crucial element in the struggle for hegemony. The Franco-Turkish alliance that was established in the reigns of Francis I and Suleiman the Magnificent mainly depended on mutual enmity against Spanish hegemony in Europe. In the late sixteenth century, after the death of Henry III the French Wars of Religion gave rise to a chaotic situation in which the Catholic King sought the opportunity to place France under its control. This could have caused an irreversible change in the balance of power in the Mediterranean, an unacceptable situation for the geostrategic interests of the Ottoman sultans. The Ottoman Empire played a major role in the French foreign policy against Spanish claims during the different phases of the reign of Henry IV. Even Clement VIII implicitly instrumentalized Ottoman- French friendship to strengthen both its own position as well as that of France with respect to the Spanish Monarchy. This article aims to demonstrate the limits and efficiencies of politics of alliance in the transition from the sixteenth to the seventeenth century considering the role of England and the Republic of Venice.

  12. Stolen authenticity: Reception of the Primitive Art and Culture on The Representative International Fairs in late XIX and early XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Sekulić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The colonial expansion has marked the beginning of the collecting of the art objects from the conquered countries and regions. Spanish conquistadors transported various cultural artifacts of Aztecs and Incas in Europe, where they became curiosities at the chambers of the royalty. With further geographical discoveries, through trade routes and wars, the number of these items considerably increased and in the 18th century the first museums were established where they were exposed for public exhibitions. At a time when there was no photographs nor film, for people who were not able to travel, museums and public exhibitions became the main source of information about primitive cultures, but also the main source for the construction of stereotypes about them. The most important among them were the great world exhibition fairs of technology and art. They represented the foundation of the global (imperialist integration and vision of the world. The primitive cultures and various conflicting aspects of imperialist conquest were deleted by creating the image of their timelessness and backwardness, as well as of their exotic beauty and authenticity. Primitive culture and imperialism were framed in the common picture of their mutual harmonious complementarity. The authenticity of the cultural artifacts of primitive cultures together with the entire nations and their resources have been colonized and exploited giving way to the ideology of modernism and the development of capitalism.

  13. Source parameters of the major historical earthquakes in the Tien-Shan region from the late 19th to the early 20th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Galina; Krüger, Frank

    2016-04-01

    The Tien-Shan is one of the largest mountain belts in the world. Its deformation is dominated by intermontane basins bounded by active thrust and reverse faulting. The Tien-Shan mountain belt is characterized by a very high rate of seismicity along its margins as well as within the Tien-Shan interior. The study area of the here presented work, the western part of the Tien-Shan region, is currently seismically active with small and moderate sized earthquakes. However, at the end of 19th beginning of 20th century, this region was struck by a remarkable series of large magnitude (M>7) earthquakes, two of them reached magnitude 8. These large earthquakes occurred before the global digital seismic network was installed and therefore were recorded only by analog seismic instruments. The processing of the analog is complicated especially due to the digitization of the records - a very time-consuming and delicate part. Therefore a special set of techniques is developed and modern methods are adapted for the digitized instrumental data analysis. Here presented study evaluates the impact of large magnitude M>7.0 earthquakes, in the Tien-Shan region, on the overall regional tectonics. It also investigates the accuracy of previously estimated source parameters for those earthquakes, which were mainly based on macroseismic observations, and re-estimate them based on the instrumental data. Ten strongest and most interesting historical earthquakes in Tien-Shan region are analyzed with in presented work. With the developed techniques, the source parameters of these major earthquakes are determined and their impact on the regional tectonics was investigated. The large magnitudes of the earthquakes are confirmed by instrumental data. The focal mechanisms of these earthquakes were determined providing evidence for responsible faults or fault systems.

  14. Bone fractures as indicators of intentional violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique to the late medieval period (2nd-16th century AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaus, Mario; Novak, Mario; Bedić, Zeljka; Strinović, Davor

    2012-09-01

    To test the historically documented hypothesis of a general increase in deliberate violence in the eastern Adriatic from the antique (AN; 2nd-6th c.) through the early medieval (EM; 7th-11th c.) to the late-medieval period (LM; 12th-16th c.), an analysis of the frequency and patterning of bone trauma was conducted in three skeletal series from these time periods. A total of 1,125 adult skeletons-346 from the AN, 313 from the EM, and 466 from the LM series-were analyzed. To differentiate between intentional violence and accidental injuries, data for trauma frequencies were collected for the complete skeleton, individual long bones, and the craniofacial region as well as by type of injury (perimortem vs. antemortem). The results of our analyses show a significant temporal increase in total fracture frequencies when calculated by skeleton as well as of individuals exhibiting one skeletal indicator of deliberate violence (sharp force lesions, craniofacial injuries, "parry" fractures, or perimortem trauma). No significant temporal increases were, however, noted in the frequencies of craniofacial trauma, "parry" fractures, perimortem injuries, or of individuals exhibiting multiple skeletal indicators of intentional violence. Cumulatively, these data suggest that the temporal increase in total fracture frequencies recorded in the eastern Adriatic was caused by a combination of factors that included not only an increase of intentional violence but also a significant change in lifestyle that accompanied the transition from a relatively affluent AN urban lifestyle to a more primitive rural medieval way of life.

  15. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C. [Centro de Ciencia do Sistema Terrestre, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CCST/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ambrizzi, Tercio; Rocha, Rosmeri P. da [University of Sao Paulo, IAG-DCA/USP, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Alves, Lincoln M. [Centro de Previsao de Tempo e Estudos Climaticos, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, CPTEC/INPE, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Cuadra, Santiago V. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Vicosa, MG (Brazil); Ferraz, Simone E.T. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5 N-15 S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8 C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4 C and in winter between 3 and 5 C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  16. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  17. 19世纪末至20世纪初华商在俄国远东地区的形成和发展%The Emergence and Development of Chinese Merchants in Russia’s Far East between the late 19th Century and the early 20th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗海; 张临北

    2015-01-01

    Between the late 19th Century and the early 20th Century, Chinese merchants emerged and developed in Russia’s Far East. A growing number of Russian migrants and the expansion of Russia’s local business, the local authorities of Tsarist Russia started to discuss and formulate restrictive measures on Chinese merchants. Prior to the First World War, Chinese merchants’ business activities in Russia’s Far East were monitored by the local authorities, making it difficult for the merchants to sustain their business, let alone achieving great success.%19世纪末至20世纪初,华商在俄国远东地区形成并发展起来。伴随着俄罗斯移民的不断增长和俄罗斯本地商业的发展、壮大,俄国远东地方当局开始讨论、制定对华商的限制措施。到第一次世界大战前,华商在俄国远东地区的经营活动已经处在地方当局的监控之下,在俄华商立足困难,并鲜有大成就者。

  18. Conformando uma Argentina leitora: educação pública, bibliotecas e mercado editorial entre fins do século XIX e meados do século XX Building a reading Argentina: state schools, libraries and the publishing market in late -19th century and in the first half of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Pellegrino Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo pretende lançar luz sobre políticas públicas de promoção da leitura que tiveram lugar na Argentina de fins do século XIX e primeira metade do XX, e sobre a forma como essas interagiram com o mercado editorial em desenvolvimento no país. A preocupação em cultivar e orientar desde cedo nos cidadãos a prática da leitura fez das crianças alvo privilegiado de iniciativas educacionais e editoriais, às quais dedicarei particular atenção.This article aims at shedding light on public policies of reading practices’ promotion, that took place in Argentina in late 19th century and in the first half of 20th century, and on the way they affected the country’s developing publishing market. The purpose of motivating reading practices since the citizens’ early years turned children into an important goal of educational and publishing initiatives, which shall here receive special focus.

  19. [Bernardino Ramazzini's influence in medical science in the XVIII century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinozzi, S

    2010-01-01

    Neo-hippocratism consists in a rational and mechanic method to explain pathological phenomena and discover the causes of diseases. Bernardino Ramazzini uses Hippocratic empirical observation to investigate the relations between the alterations of the air--due to mephitic vapours, of organic and inorganic origin--and the development of pathological processes. His notion of corruption of the atmosphere as the origin of epidemics and specific diseases, and that of prevention as the main strategy of modern medicine, is developed in medical literature and in the Public Medicine projects of the end of the Seventeenth century.

  20. Natural Vegetation Pattern over Northeast China in Late 17th Century%中国东北地区17世纪后期的自然植被格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张学珍; 王维强; 方修琦; 叶瑜; 李蓓蓓

    2011-01-01

    We collected multiple historical documents including gazettes, government archives, traveling notes and so on, from which the primary natural vegetation information is complied. Using the information, the primary natural vegetation pattern prior to significant agriculture (i. e. late 17th century) was reconstructed. The results show that woodland and grassland were dominant vegetation over the Northeast China in the late 17th century.Woodland occupied the mountain areas, of which the northem of the Da Higgan Mountains was occupied by boreal forest, southern of the Changbai Mountains were covered by temperate broadleaf deciduous forest and the other mountains were occupied by mixed forest. Grassland covered Northeast China Plain and Inner Mongolia Plateau.The boundaries between woodland and grassland were nearly consistent with topography contour lines. Besides,swamp had small area and nearly covered the whole Sanjiang Plain. The macro pattern of historical nature vegetation was similar with the potential natural vegetation; however, the boundaries of woodland and grassland from the two datasets were evidently different and there was no swamp in potential natural vegetation dataset.%通过整理、分析历史文献中的自然植被记录,复原了中国东北地区近代大规模农垦前(17世纪后期)的自然植被格局.结果表明,当时的主导植被类型是森林和草地,森林主要分布于山区,其中大兴安岭北端主要是寒温带落叶针叶林,长白山南端主要是温带落叶阔叶林,其余山区是针阔混交林,草地主要分布于东北平原和内蒙古高原,林-草的分界线与地表等高线有很好的对应关系;在三江平原分布有大面积的沼泽.潜在植被格局与历史自然植被格局基本一致,但是林-草分界线有明显差异,且潜在植被图中没有沼泽.

  1. [Development of modern medical doctors in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, OckJoo; Takuya, Miyagawa

    2011-12-31

    Western medicine began to be introduced to Japan since late 16th century. Japanese encounter with Western medicine centered on Dejima in Nagasaki in the seventeenth and eighteenth century and the initial process of introduction was gradual and slow. In the mid-nineteenth century, facing threats from Western countries, Tokugawa bakufu asked Dutch naval surgeon, J. L. C. Pompe van Meerdervoort to teach western medicine at the Kaigun Denshujo naval academy in Nagasaki. The government also supported the western medical school in Edo. This paper deals with how modern western medical doctors were developed in Japan from late Edo to early Meiji. The publication of the New Text on Anatomy in 1774 translated by Sugita Genpaku and his colleagues stimulated Japanese doctors and scholars to study western medicine, called Rangaku. During the Edo period, western medicine spread into major cities and countryside in Japan through Rangaku doctors. In 1838, for example, Dr. Ogata Koan established the Rangaku school named Tekijuku and educated many people with western medicine. When smallpox vaccination was introduced in Japan in 1849, Rangaku doctors played an important role in practiving the vaccination in cities and in countryside. After the Edo bakufu and the feudal lords of han(han) actively pursued to introduce western medicine to their hans by sending their Samurai to Edo or Nagasaki or abroad and by establishing medical schools and hospitals until their abolition in 1871. In late Edo and early Meiii military doctors were the main focus of training to meet the urgent need of military doctors in the battle fields of civil wars. The new Meiji government initiated a series of top-down reformations concerning army recruitment, national school system, public health and medical system. In 1874, the government introduced a law on medicine to adopt western medicine only and to launch a national licence system for medical doctors. Issuing supplementary regulations in the following

  2. Never Too Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A historical issue is being raised on Capitol Hill.In late May,members of the U.S.Congress introduced bipartisan resolutions in both chambers,calling on the federal legislature to acknowledge formally and express regret for discriminatory legislation and how the country accordingly treated Chinese immigrants more than a century ago.

  3. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Alan Henry

    2015-08-01

    The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.

  4. On the origin of the two cultures in 19th-century Europe (Cultural impact of a new view of the relation between man and nature resulting from the "Darwinian revolution")

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Berkel, K

    2000-01-01

    The separation between nature, as the domain of scientific laws, and culture, as the domain of human values, is potentially already present in the seventeenth century. The idea of a benevolent purpose in nature, the so-called physico-theology, for a long time helped to accommodate the findings of sc

  5. WHEELING THROUGH THE CENTURIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO; JIANYING

    2002-01-01

    IN an excavated pit at the side of an expressway in Shandong’s Linzi are visible 2,000-year-old remains of horses and wooden carriages. The horse skeletons are on their side, in an attitude of motion. The pit was discovered in the late 20th century, when the expressway was being built. These early ancestors of modern transport, no longer "road-worthy," are now protected historic artifacts.

  6. Recent historiographical trends of the British Studies (17th-18th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caricchio and Giovanni Tarantino (editors

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual Seminar index :1. Radicalism and the English revolution Mario CaricchioGlenn BurgessAriel HessayonNicholas McDowell2. Britain 1660-1714: competing historiographiesGiovanni Tarantino Mark Knights3. The Church of England in the eighteenth centuryGuglielmo SannaWilliam GibsonRobert G. IngramRobert D. Cornwall 4. Non-British readings of the English revolutionStefano VillaniGabi MahlbergPietro Messina5. Rediscovering radicalism in the British Isles and Ireland in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth centuries(Selected papers from the Goldsmiths Conference, ed. by Ariel Hessayon

  7. Proposal for a method of segmentation for the analysis of the lighter forms between the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mangani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a poetic text and its musical setting can be examined from many points of view. One can investigate, for example, the rhetorical-musical procedures intended to illustrate the images within the text, as has often been done in analysing the madrigal. Or one might examine the relation between the respective metric and rhythmic structures, in order to see how far the music follows the scansion of the text, or, conversely, the degree of its ‘barbaric’ approach.

  8. Seventeenth-century ‘treasure’ found in Royal Society archives: The Ludus helmontii and the stone disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M.

    2014-01-01

    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the ‘Ludus’ prepared as a remedy for the ‘stone disease’ then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the ‘alkahest’ for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill. PMID:25254277

  9. Historical and Political Thought in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic: The Case of Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn (1612-1653)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.T. Nieuwstraten (Jaap)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation constitutes the first comprehensive study of the historical and political thought of the Dutch scholar Marcus Zuerius Boxhorn (1612-1653). Boxhorn was one of the most prolific scholars of his age. His Latin works were translated into Dutch, French, and English, and publ

  10. Lucas and Cornelis de Wael: Flemish artists and dealers in Antwerp, Genoa and Rome in the seventeenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoesser-Johnston, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Until now the lives and activities of Lucas and Cornelis de Wael have been largely discussed in relation to their friendship with Anthony Van Dyck, who stayed with them in Genoa periodically from 1621 to 1627. This dissertation seeks to rectify this one-sided approach by providing up-to-date

  11. Eternal hate and conscience: on the filiation between Freudian psychoanalysis and sixteenth and early seventeenth century Protestant thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerink, Herman

    2011-01-01

    In his seminar on ethics Jacques Lacan suggests there exists a "filiation or cultural paternity" between Freudian psychoanalysis and a "new direction of thought" that starts with Luther's conceptualization of God's eternal hate of man, and is then futher continued in Calvinism. In this article this thesis is explored. The author argues that there is not only a familiarity between the Protestant doctrines of predestination and Freud's reconstruction of prehistoric events and primal scenes, but also that Lacan's views on conscience formation and his elaborations of the complexity of moral decisions resembles Calvinist thought on civil and spiritual conscience, and the longing for restoration of a lost image of God.

  12. Ars Moriendi Tradition and Visualization of Death in Roman Baroque Sculpture: Death Education in the Seventeenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westin, Robert H.

    1980-01-01

    The tradition of the Ars Moriendi influenced art by creating a new reality in which the dead could appear eternally alive. A good death was seen as an act of faith. The literature of Ars Moriendi influenced baroque sculpture which today is viewed as almost bizarre. (JAC)

  13. Lucas and Cornelis de Wael: Flemish artists and dealers in Antwerp, Genoa and Rome in the seventeenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoesser-Johnston, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Until now the lives and activities of Lucas and Cornelis de Wael have been largely discussed in relation to their friendship with Anthony Van Dyck, who stayed with them in Genoa periodically from 1621 to 1627. This dissertation seeks to rectify this one-sided approach by providing up-to-date biograp

  14. Salt-marsh erosion associated with hurricane landfall in southern New England in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche, Orson van de; Erkens, Gilles; Vliet, Frank van; Brandsma, J.; Borg, K. van der; Jong, A.F.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Lithostratigraphic and radiocarbon data from the inland section of Pattagansett River Marsh, Connecticut, show that this sheltered part of the salt marsh underwent significant erosion twice during the past 600 yr, each time followed by rapid and complete infilling of the eroded space with tidal mud

  15. Birds of paradise for the sultan. Early seventeenth-century Dutch-Turkish encounters and the uses of wonder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Swan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes the first diplomatic gift presented by the States General of the Netherlands to the Ottoman Sultan Ahmet I in 1612/1613. The extensive and very costly assortment of items was presented to the Sultan in gratitude for capitulations, permitting the Dutch access to Ottoman ports and therefore direct access to trade in the Levant and Mediterranean. This paper describes the diplomatic gift, a long-neglected episode in Dutch material cultural history, and looks in particular at the role that wonder and wonders played in structuring this remarkable encounter between the fledgling Dutch Republic and the Ottoman court.

  16. Salt-marsh erosion associated with hurricane landfall in southern New England in the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plassche, Orson van de; Erkens, Gilles; Vliet, Frank van; Brandsma, J.; Borg, K. van der; Jong, A.F.M. de

    2006-01-01

    Lithostratigraphic and radiocarbon data from the inland section of Pattagansett River Marsh, Connecticut, show that this sheltered part of the salt marsh underwent significant erosion twice during the past 600 yr, each time followed by rapid and complete infilling of the eroded space with tidal mud

  17. Damaging hailstorms in South Moravia, Czech Republic, in the seventeenth to twentieth centuries as derived from taxation records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Chromá, Kateřina; Valášek, Hubert; Dolák, Lukáš; Řezníčková, Ladislava

    2016-01-01

    Hailstorms are among the hydrometeorological extremes recognised in the historical past of the Czech Lands as grounds for tax relief if agricultural crops or material structures were damaged by them. The administrative process involved three levels (community, regional office, land office). The damage reports and taxation records for South Moravia (the southeastern parts of today's Czech Republic) were mainly stored in the Moravian Land Archives at Brno in estate accounts and collections of family archives. Data related to the date of a given hailstorm, its accompanying convective phenomena, the communities affected and the type of damage, as interpreted from taxation records, has created a database spanning the years 1650 to 1941 AD. A total of 766 records contain descriptions that cover 433 days upon which hailstorms did damage in South Moravia, as well as incidentally provide some additional information for the remainder of the Czech Lands and other parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire. The hailstorms detected concentrate to a large extent around the 1821-1850 period, which accounts for 44.4 % of all events. Although reported most frequently without other convective phenomena, they were often accompanied by torrential rain. The current contribution analyses the four most outstanding hailstorms in detail, those characterised by the highest number of estates and communities affected: 26 May 1830, 18 July 1832, 25 June 1844 and 20 June 1848. Uncertainties in hailstorm data, particularly with regard to their spatial and temporal heterogeneity, are discussed. Finally, the 1811-1850 period, with the highest number of hailstorm days, is compared with hailstorm patterns that derive from systematic meteorological observations in the 1961-2000 reference period. Damaging hailstorms disclosed by taxation data will be used to compile long-term hailstorm series for South Moravia (together with those derived from other documentary evidence and systematic meteorological observations).

  18. Contribution of Chinese students studying physics in Japan to from the late 19th to early 20th century modern physics in China%清末民初留日物理学生及其科学贡献

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    咏梅; 冯立昇

    2011-01-01

    Aim Introduce the general situation of Chinese students who studied physics in Japan in the late 19th and early 20th century to provide new clue for the study of the history of physics. Methods Literature research and statistical analysis. Results Analyze statistically their school distribution in Japan, and introduce briefly 109 students'materials such as their native places, their major subjects, their schools in Japan, as well as their work;and study their work and activities in the physics fields when they came back to China. We describe their contribution to the spread and education of physics science, to the determination of technical terms, as well as to the academic study in the field of physics. Conclusion The Chinese students studying physics in Japan had played an important role to the development of Physics in China in the early 20th century after returning to China.%目的 清理清末民初留日物理学生的总体脉络,为研究中国近代物理学史提供新线索.方法 文献调研和统计分析.结果 统计分析中国留日学生就读学校的分布情况;收集109名晚清留日物理学生的资料,介绍其籍贯、在日就读学校、专业及事迹,考查清末民初留日学生归国后的有关物理学方面的活动.阐述了这批留学生对于民国时期的物理学普及、物理学教育、物理术语创制、物理研究等方面的贡献.结论 认为清末的留日物理学生为中国物理学的体制化发挥了重要作用.

  19. « This, I told myself, was really Africa ».Des territoires et des femmes. Récits féminins de voyage en Afrique Australe à la fin du XIXe siècle “This, I told myself, was really Africa”. Of Territories and Women.Women’s Travel Narratives in Late 19th Century Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ommundsen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Victorian Britain, travel writing was informed by an unprecedented colonial expansion — in particular, the “scramble for Africa”— and the rise of the women’s movement in the late 19th century. Fuelled by the notions of motherhood and domesticity that characterized late imperial society, the presence of women in colonies served the purpose of domesticating the South. Yet, as geographical conquest merges with sexual conquest, the narratives of some female travellers in Southern Africa unveil unexpected territories that manifest specific territorialities. Although conjuring up feminist utopias, weren’t these female writers trying to construct a conspicuous literary ghetto?

  20. MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project. Seventeenth quarterly technical progress report, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    This seventeenth quarterly technical progress report of the MHD Integrated Topping Cycle Project presents the accomplishments during the period August 1, 1991 to October 31, 1991. Manufacturing of the prototypical combustor pressure shell has been completed including leak, proof, and assembly fit checking. Manufacturing of forty-five cooling panels was also completed including leak, proof, and flow testing. All precombustor internal components (combustion can baffle and swirl box) were received and checked, and integration of the components was initiated. A decision was made regarding the primary and backup designs for the 1A4 channel. The assembly of the channel related prototypical hardware continued. The cathode wall electrical wiring is now complete. The mechanical design of the diffuser has been completed.

  1. Museos escolares, colecciones y la enseñanza elemental de las ciencias naturales en la Argentina de fines del siglo XIX School museums, collections, and elementary teaching of the natural sciences in late XIX century Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana V. García

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analiza la organización de la enseñanza de las ciencias naturales en el contexto escolar argentino a partir de las prácticas de enseñanza y los soportes materiales que se promovieron a fines del siglo XIX. En esa época, funcionarios escolares y profesores fomentaron la modernización y nacionalización de la enseñanza a partir del uso de colecciones con ejemplares del territorio nacional y la formación de museos en las escuelas. En particular, se examinan los debates oficiales sobre las colecciones mineralógicas ofrecidas en venta por el naturalista Enrique de Carlés y los "museos escolares" de los profesores Pedro Scalabrini y Guillermo Navarro que dan cuenta de las tensiones entre procurar materiales didácticos modernos, asociados a los modelos extranjeros, y la importancia de contar con elementos representativos de la naturaleza e industria nacional.In this study we analyze the organization of natural science teaching within the Argentinian school context starting with teaching practices and material support in the late XIX century. By that time, school staff and teachers fostered modernization and nationalization of teaching by using collections with national issues and the foundation of museums within the schools. In particular, we examine the official debates over the mineralogical collections offered for sale by the naturalist Enrique de Carlés, and the "school museums" by professors Pedro Scalabrini and Guillermo Navarro. These account for the tension between searching for modern didactic materials associated with foreign models, and the importance of counting on elements that represented the country nature and industry.

  2. Magic and the physical world in thirteenth-century scholasticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Steven P

    2009-01-01

    The turn to modern science in the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century is typically characterized as dependent on the novel adoption of a mechanical hypothesis for operations in nature. In fact, the Middle Ages saw a partial anticipation of this phenomenon in the scholastic physics of the thirteenth century. More precisely, it was just the two factors, denial of action at a distance and an emphasis on the primary materiality of causation, that constituted this early mechanism--or "protomechanism." The latter's emergence can be seen most clearly where scholastic thinkers-here, William of Auvergne, Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome--confronted the theoretical limits of natural cause and effect in their efforts to determine the reality of magic and locate its place in the natural world.

  3. Dimming of the Mid-20th Century Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Foukal, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Advances in understanding of the white light faculae measured at the Royal Greenwich Observatory from 1874 to 1976 suggest that they offer a more direct measure of solar brightening by small diameter photospheric magnetic flux tubes than do chromospheric proxies. Proxies such as the area of Ca K plages, the Mg index or the microwave flux include many dark photospheric structures as well as pores and sunspots. Our reconstruction of variation in total solar irradiance,TSI,based on the faculae indicates that the sun dimmed by almost 0.1 percent in the mid- twentieth century rather than brightening as represented in previous reconstructions. This dimmimg at the sun's highest activity level since the seventeenth century is consistent with the photometric behavior observed in somewhat younger sun like stars. The prolonged TSI decrease may have contributed more to the cooling of climate between about 1940 and 1970 than present models indicate.

  4. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  5. Two Centuries of Soil Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Douglas

    1991-01-01

    Narrates U.S. soil conservation history since the late eighteenth century. Discusses early practices such as contour plowing. Profiles individuals who promoted soil conservation and were largely responsible for the creation of the Soil Conservation Service. Explains the causes of erosion and how soil conservation districts help farmers prevent…

  6. From Amsterdam to Auburn: an explanation for the rise of the prison in seventeenth-century Holland and nineteenth-century America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Spierenburg (Pieter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe article attempts to make the difference in timing between Europe and the United States with respect to the rise of imprisonment understandable. It starts with Europe, taking Amsterdam as its main example. As a punitive institution, the prison became well-established in various Europe

  7. From Amsterdam to Auburn: an explanation for the rise of the prison in seventeenth-century Holland and nineteenth-century America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Spierenburg (Pieter)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractThe article attempts to make the difference in timing between Europe and the United States with respect to the rise of imprisonment understandable. It starts with Europe, taking Amsterdam as its main example. As a punitive institution, the prison became well-established in various

  8. Einstein's Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeremy Laurance; 贾庆文

    2005-01-01

    Albert Einstein began working at the patent office in Bern, Switzerland, a little more than a century ago. He had flunked the entrance exam for the Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology and took the job evaluating inventions because it paid a regular salary.

  9. A Study on the Monopolies within Russian Petroleum Industry during Late 19th to Early 20th Century%论19世纪末20世纪初俄国的石油工业垄断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张广翔; 白胜洁

    2014-01-01

    During late 19th to early 20th century, the monopolies within Russian petroleum industry form and achieve a rapid development. The factors such as establishment and popularization of joint-stock company, intense free contention among enterprises, penetration of foreign capital, and integra-tion of bank capital with industrial capital have jointly promoted an unprecedented centralization of production and capital within Russian petroleum industry, therefore provide necessary conditions for the formation of monopolies. During this period, petroleum monopoly of three types including Cartel, Syndicate and Trust is set up one after another and carries out activities of a wide range. They grab high monopoly profits by establishing monopoly price of petroleum and its products, strongly oppose state regulation of petroleum price, and actively participate in the competition of world petroleum mar-ket. These activities bring a dual effect that is both positive and negative to the development of Rus-sian petroleum industry; therefore, the two trends of outgrowth and stagnation coexist or alternate with each other within the production of petroleum industry.%19世纪末20世纪初,俄国石油工业垄断形成并获得快速发展。这主要是股份制公司的建立和推广、各企业之间激烈的自由竞争、外国资本的渗入及银行资本与工业资本的融合等因素,共同促进了俄国石油工业中生产和资本的空前集中,为垄断的形成提供了必要条件。在这一时期,卡特尔、辛迪加和托拉斯三种类型石油垄断组织先后建立并开展了广泛的活动,即通过建立石油及其产品的垄断价格攫取高额垄断利润;极力反对国家调控石油价格;积极参与争夺世界石油市场。这些活动给俄国石油工业的发展带来了双重影响,既有正面的促进作用,也有负面的抑制作用,从而使石油工业生产呈现出发展与停滞两种趋势同时并存、相互交替的局面。

  10. From Subordination to Hegemony On the Epistemological Legitimation of Mathematics in Natural Philosophy of XVII Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Ochoa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the epistemological legitimation of mathematics in natural philosophy in the seventeenth century. In the Renaissance it was claimed that mathematics does not meet the Aristotelian criteria of scientificity, and that it did not explain the efficient and final causes. So, its critics, inspired by the Aristotelian tradition, rejected the first attempts to mathematize natural philosophy. The epistemological conditions involved in the debate are examined on the scientific nature of mathematics and its relevance to natural philosophy. A historiographical tour of the mathematization of nature is made to provide new weighing elements with respect to a historically and philosophically more conceptual characterization of the emergence of modern science.

  11. [Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek: Delft Art and Science together during the golden Dutch century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda C, Marcelo

    2009-04-01

    Johannes Vermeer and Anthon van Leeuwenhoek are among the greatest geniuses in Art and Science respectively. During the seventeenth century, they achieved innovative advances. Vermeer, in painting, created a new intimate view of people specially women, developing the treatment of light and details. Leeuwenhoek, friend of Vermeer, influenced him in the use of the obscure camera in his works. In spite of having no formal academic education, he made extremely relevant discoveries with the use of microscope. He showed for first time human spermatozoids, red blood cells, brain, nerve and muscle structures and described many living animals. These two brilliant contemporary Dutch men made a great contribution to our civilization.

  12. [Chemistry of life: ferments and fermentation in 17th-century iatrochemistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clericuzio, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    The concepts of ferment and fermentation played an important, though heretofore neglected, role in 17th-century physiology. Though these notions can be found in ancient philosophy and medicine, as well as in medieval medicine, they became integral part of the chemical medicine that was advocated by Paracelsus and his school. Paracelsians made fermentation a central concept in their successful effort to give chemical foundation to medicine. Jean Baptiste van Helmont and Sylvius used the concepts of ferment and fermentation to explain a variety of physiological processes in human body. Corpuscular philosophers like Robert Boyle and Thomas Willis reinterpreted these notions in corpuscular terms and separated the concept of ferment from that of fermentation. In the second half of the seventeenth century, physiologist tried to explain fermentation by means of chemical reactions, as for instance acid -alkali, and ruled out the notion of ferment as superfluous to their investigations. At the end of hte seventeenth century fermentation attracted the interest of physicists like Johannes Bernoulli and Isaac Newton, who tried to explain fermentative processes in terms of matter and motion (Bernoulli) and short-range forces (Newton). George Ernst Stahl devoted a work to fermentation: the Zymotechnia. He explained fermentation as the outcome of the reactions of molecules formed of saline, oily and earthy corpuscles with particles of water. He saw fermentation as a mechanical process, i.e. as collision of different kinds of corpuscles.

  13. Formação de professores para o ensino de primeiras letras na zona rural. Brasil, final do século XIX - Teacher education in elementary writing in the rural area of Brazil: late XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir de Quadros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Gênese da formação de professores de primeiras letras, problematizando a predominância de um perfil para a zona urbana frente ao requerido para zonas rurais, identificando uma dimensão não pronunciada na política educacional de estímulo a escolas urbanistas e esquecimento das voltadas para a ruralização das populações. Inicia discutindo, estratégias de formação, de orientação empirista e pragmática, que conduziram à instauração de adjuntos que se profissionalizavam ajudando docentes com experiência em escolas de primeiras letras urbanas tornando-se portanto capazes para atuar nestas escolas, mesmo que assumissem posteriormente escolas de entrâncias mais afastadas. Analisa a composição curricular do curso de formação de professores de diferentes províncias destacando que, apenas em alguns casos, eram incluídos temas relacionados ao trabalho do homem do campo, os quais eram transformados em conhecimento escolar numa restrita função metodológica, mas com nítida prevalência de estudos propedêuticos, no quadro geral de um currículo de matérias científicas e de cunho acadêmico. Levanta a hipótese de que agricultura e agrimensura, figuravam como conhecimentos anexados, subordinados, a título de exemplos concretos, especialmente de disciplinas como Ciências Naturais, Mineralogia, Geometria Plana, Geologia, pelo incipiente processo de disciplinarização dos currículos e pelo empirismo que privilegiava práticas dos mundos letrado e urbano e não as do mundo rural. Conclui que a cultura urbana e erudita, homogeneizava e dominava como universal o currículo de escolas primárias no período. São utilizadas fontes documentais primárias e secundárias. Palavras-chave: Políticas educacionais das zonas rurais; currículo específico e formação profissional para docentes de escolas rurais.   TEACHER EDUCATION IN ELEMENTARY WRITING IN THE RURAL AREA OF BRAZIL: LATE XIX CENTURY Abstract The genesis of

  14. ‘Magic coins’ and ‘magic squares’: the discovery of astrological sigils in the Oldenburg Letters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anna Marie Roos

    2008-01-01

    .... I shall also demonstrate their change in status in the late seventeenth century from potent magical healing amulets tied to the mysteries of the heavens to objects kept in a cabinet for curiosos...

  15. Early Japanese Christian Thought Reexamined: Confucian Ethics, Catholic Authority, and the Issue of Faith in the Scholastic Theories of Habian, Gomez, and Ricci

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiri Paramore

    2008-01-01

    Many late sixteenth/early seventeenth century Japanese Christian texts worked directly within arguments that could be found concurrently in Confucian, syncretist, and other traditions in Japan at this time...

  16. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  17. Practical improvement of sundial in the late Joseon dynasty - Focusing on the Hoeng-pyo-ip-pyo-il-gu (elevation dial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuk; Ahn, Young Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee; Ham, Seon Young; Lee, Yong Sam

    2015-08-01

    Various kinds of sundials were manufactured during the Joseon dynasty Era. In early fifteenth century, Korean astronomers developed several types of sundials such as equatorial type, hemispherical one and so forth. After seventeenth century, horizontal sundials which was influenced by sinicized Western science. Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui is the altitude type sundial which has three plates and two of them were engraved with the time line. Hoeng-pyo-ip-pyo-il-gu is another type of sundial and it has only two time-line plates. We carried out the comparative study between Yang-gyeong-gyu-il-ui and Hoeng-pyo-ip-pyo-il-gu

  18. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  19. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  20. The Lords of Tetzcoco: Sixteenth-Century Transformation of Indigenous Leadership in the Aztec Empire's Second City

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    When Spaniards arrived in central Mexico in 1519, Tetzcoco was one of the two most important ethnic states in the region. It was a cultural center--home to famed "poet-kings"--and was second in power only to the Aztec capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Yet by the beginning of the seventeenth century, Tetzcoco had been reduced to a mere shadow of its former grandeur. This dissertation focuses specifically on Tetzcoco's native nobility in this period of waning influence. Using a combination of Spa...

  1. A town famous for its abundance of raisins and wines. Anglo–Spanish commerce in the XVII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Martínez Ruiz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the key role played by English merchants in the integration process of Malaga’s economy into seventeenth century international trade. Among other topics, it analyses —from primary sources— the size of the English colony in Malaga at different times during the period, the amount and composition of commodities exchanged, and the institutional factors that allowed Malaga to become an “English port” in Spain. It also stresses the importance that Malaga raisins had in Anglo-Spanish trade.

  2. Hierarchies and fractals: ecclesiastical revenues as indicator for the distribution of relative demographic and economic potential within the cities and regions of the Late Byzantine Empire in the early 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes PREISER-KAPELLER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Until now the source material has made it impossible to reconstruct the distribution of economic power and population within the Late Byzantine Empire on a large scale. Our new analysis of a list of financial contributions from 1324, which includes those from 33 bishoprics and the Patriarchate of Constantinople, connects this data with the economic performance of the respective town and its hinterland; we demonstrate that the distribution of contributions shows characteristics which are typical for settlement hierarchies and therefore can be used to create the first models for the relative distribution of demographic and economic potential in the Byzantine Empire at this time.

  3. On an edition of ecclesiastical books catalogues between XVIth and XVIIth centuries. Reflections and research purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manfredi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Some extant inventories and book-lists, produced between the end of the sixteenth century and the very beginning of the seventeenth century by Religious Orders, in order to comply with the regulations issued by the Sacra Congregatio de Indice ‒ aimed at dressing up a comprehensive catalogue of prohibited books ‒ are the main focus of at least three volumes recently released by the Vatican Library. Thus, a plenty of materials are now available, which enable us to scrutinize both purposes and goals of such an editorial enterprise. Text-critical criteria and philological methods, applied by the Authors throughout the aforementioned volumes, are here examined, with special regard to quantitative relevance of listed items.

  4. [On the ancient and magical lesions in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, W; Hach-Wunderle, V

    2014-11-01

    At the beginning of the Renaissance magical, witchcraft and demonological medicine still played a large role in the poor healing ability of chronic leg ulcers. This included the general administration of magical potions and topical application. An example of the manipulation of the whole body by the devil was the Abracadabra text from Johann Christoph Bitterkraut in the year 1677. The use of bewitched ointments was particularly propagated by Paracelsus in 1622; however, even as early as the beginning of the seventeenth century, the invocation of supernatural powers was slowly diminishing until at the beginning of the nineteenth century the medical schools on chronic leg ulcers could be cultivated at the universities and by specialized wound healers.

  5. Transplantation and Variation:Research on Eastern-Western Art Exchange from Late 19 th Century to Early 20 th Century via Beardsley%移植与变异--由比亚兹莱看19世纪末至20世纪初的东西方艺术交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玛丽; 张睿峰

    2016-01-01

    It is an important period of world art reform from the end of 19th century to the beginning of 20th century, when the transient Art Nouveau plays an important role in the development of modern art. When looking into the eastern-western art exchange, Beardsley is a figure that cannot be ignored, because eastern-western cultural transplantation and variation is fully embodied in him. His works draw the oriental elements, integrate with the western characteristics, and then feed back into the oriental art. He is a well-deserved“ambassador” for the eastern-western art exchange.%19世纪末至20世纪初是世界艺术变革的重大时期,短暂的“新艺术”运动对于近现代艺术的发展起着重要作用。探索其间东西方艺术交流,比亚兹莱是一个不可忽视的人物,东西方文化的移植与变异在他身上得到了充分的体现。他的创作汲取了东方元素,融合了西方特色,而后又反哺了东方艺术,他是当之无愧的东西方艺术交流的使者。

  6. Balancing acts: Picturing perspiration in the long eighteenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacome, Lucia

    2012-06-01

    This essay examines the historical fortunes of an image that throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries became a landmark of the medical doctrine and practice of static medicine advanced by the physician Santorio Santorio (1561-1636). The image depicted a man sitting on a large Roman steelyard, which allowed the weighing of bodily discharges and gave guidance on the intake of food. Well into the eighteenth century, the image of the weight-watching man accompanied Santorio's work on the art of static medicine and, most likely, contributed to its success. It appeared in a variety of medical works and navigated across competing medical theories and different medical genres, while remaining largely unscathed. This essay explores the success and the historical agency of this image. Focusing on the history of its copies and variants, it investigates how the image came to symbolize the attempt to transform dietetics into an experimental practice, and accordingly preserve its pivotal significance in the medical world. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Flash flood occurrences since the 17th century in steep drainage basins in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Olga; Pasqua, A Aurora; Polemio, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The historical floods that have occurred since the seventeenth century were collected for a study area in southern Italy. Damages caused by floods, rainfall and the main anthropogenic modifications are discussed all together. The aim was to assess whether the frequency of floods is changing and, if so, whether these changes can be attributed to either rainfall and/or anthropogenic modifications. In 4 % of cases, mainly occurred in past centuries, floods damaged people. Hydraulic works, roads and private buildings were the more frequently damaged elements (25, 18 and 14 % of the cases, respectively). The annual variability of rainfall was discussed using an annual index. Short duration-high intensity rainfalls were characterized considering time series of annual maxima of 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h and daily rainfall. The rainfall shows a decreasing trend, in terms of both the annual maximum of short duration and the annual amount. The population has been progressively increasing since the sixteenth century, except during the years following the catastrophic 1908 earthquake. The rate of population growth has been very high since the second half of the twentieth century; the urbanized areas greatly increased, especially following the second half of the twentieth century. At the same time, the trend of damaging floods has been increasing, especially since the seventies. The analysis indicates that, despite a rainfall trend favourable towards a reduction in flood occurrence, floods damage has not decreased. This seems to be mainly the effect of mismanagement of land use modifications.

  8. Massacre,Politics and Gender:A Concise Review of Critics of Macbeth in the Middle and Late 20th Century%大屠杀·政治·性别--西方20世纪中后期《麦克白》批评研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷振文

    2014-01-01

    莎士比亚戏剧经典批评俨然是20世纪众多理论流派的“展示舞台”。作为莎士比亚的悲剧经典《麦克白》也不断被再诠释和重新理解,并激发出新的哲学意义和思想论争。20世纪中后期的《麦克白》批评研究围绕“大屠杀”、“政治”和“性别”三大主题,简要呈现经典意义重构和再诠释的多重路径,并阐明当代的哲学批评、政治批评、性别批评对当代世界和人类命运的人文关切和现实批判。%In the 20th century, Shakespeare's works still remain the stage for different schools of literary theory and criticism. Shakespeare's Macbeth was so repeatedly re-interpreted by the critics that new philosophical meaning and academic discussions have been generated. A concise review on Macbeth in the middle and late 20th century focuses on three key subjects:massacre, politics, and gender. This review will present multiple methods of literature canons' construction and interpretation. Meanwhile, it will show the humanistic care and realistic criticism of contemporary philosophical, political and gender criticism.

  9. First steps of vulagarization of science in the late ninetheen century: The Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec, Mexico during the period of Mr. Angel Anguiano (1878-1889)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueck, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    Since the founding of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec in 1878 during the presidential term of General Porfirio Diaz, begins the publication of the Yearbook of the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional de Chapultepec (from now on OAN) in a period when the positivist paradigm based on will boost science as a means of national progress. Here we describe the actions taken by the observatory's director and editor of the publication, the engineer Angel Anguiano, to initiate and successfully carry out the exchange of scientific publications and / or dissemination through the exchange of the Yearbook of the OAN, both nationally and internationally. The importance of conferences to which he attended started the sharing printed information relating to subjects such as astronomy, meteorology, cartography and geography. The Yearbook was intended to publish two or three months before the beginning of each year and according to the editor would serve to popularize science, making its contents available to anyone with basic knowledge of geometry or for amateur astronomers. I find that the yearbook was the publication that was released to the observatory in the country and abroad, but was sent to distant places where no one speaks or reads Spanish. I think that the content of articles published in, did not respond and objective and informative to the public as mentioned by, because at the late 1800s, 90% of the inhabitants of the Mexican Republic were illiterate and lived in rural areas. The access to the Bulletin was the Mexican intellectual elite grouped into societies, astronomical or meteorological observatories and another wealthy person individually. The same happened abroad. The collection of data from reports to the Secretaria de Fomento, that was the government agency that funds money destined to different scientific institutions founded during this period were published in the Yearbook, the oficios that sent the OAN over a hundred sites in the world

  10. El cuerpo como materia educativa en la prosa castellana de los siglos 13 y 14 - The body as educational content in late medieval spanish prose: 13th and 14th centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Vicente Pedraz, España

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available O CORPO COMO CONTEÚDO DA EDUCAÇÃO EM PROSA ESPANHOLA DOS SÉCULOS 13 E 14 ResumoO artigo propõe a seguinte hipótese: a gênese medieval da educação física remete, sobretudo, à emergência da sensibilidade cortesã, manifestada na aparência distinguida e no autodomínio gestual. A partir dessa perspectiva, as destrezas corporais próprias da atividade bélica ou da prática lúdica cavalheiresca constituem um aspecto de menor relevância; somente uma expressão dessa sensibilidade, uma vez que o fundamental é que manifesta o relativo declínio da idéia de estirpe e dos atributos do sangue como dispositivso determinantes da excelência, processo que abriria espaço a um crescente interesse educativo pela instrução do corpo para além do exercício ou do mero endurecimento físico. A partir da perspectiva de Norbert Elias, exposta em O processo civilizatório, se mostram alguns exemplos literários da pujança dessa nova sensibilidade na literatura castelhana da baixa Idade Média.Palvras-chave: educação do príncipe, corpo, cortesía, literatura medieval castelhana.  THE BODY AS EDUCATIONAL CONTENT IN LATE MEDIEVAL SPANISH PROSE: 13TH AND 14TH CENTURIES AbstractThis paper advances the following hypothesis: physical education in the Middle Ages originates mainly in the emergence of a new sensibility, exhibited in control of gestures, posture and speech. Thus, the physical strength and bodily skills required of a knight in order to face combat represent an expression, among many others, of this new chivalrous sensibility, which would eventually lead to the decline of the concepts of lineage and blood as supreme marks of nobility and excellence, as well as to a growing educational interest in the instruction of the body, beyond mere physical exercise and training. Following the theory proposed by Norbert Elias in his Process of civilization, this paper aims to offer a selection of literary examples of this new sensibility

  11. From Religious to Social Conversion: How Muslim Scholars Conceived of the "Rites de Passage" from Hinduism to Islam in Seventeenth-Century South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfaoui, Mouez

    2011-01-01

    The common understanding of Islam tends to consider religious conversion as a matter of individual and rational belief and consisting, first and foremost, of attesting to the oneness of God ("shahada"). In this paper I argue that divergences exist among schools of Islamic Law concerning the modes and types of conversion. Contrary to Muslim jurists…

  12. The collaboration between anatomists and mathematicians in the mid-seventeenth century with a study of images as experiments and Galileo's role in Steno's Myology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Domenico Bertoloni

    2008-01-01

    Moving from Paris, Pisa, and Oxford to London, Amsterdam, and Cambridge, this essay documents extensive collaborations between anatomists and mathematicians. At a time when no standard way to acknowledge collaboration existed, it is remarkable that in all the cases I discuss anatomists expressed in print their debt to mathematicians. The cases I analyze document an extraordinarily fertile period in the history of anatomy and science and call into question historiographic divisions among historians of science and medicine. I focus on Steno's Myology, showing how his collaboration with mathematician Viviani led to a geometrical treatment of muscular contraction and to an epistemology inspired by Galileo. The collaboration between Steno and Viviani enables us to interpret a major text in the history of anatomy, one whose implications had so far eluded historians.

  13. The distant capital : some aspects of role of Copenhagen as capital of Iseland in the seventeenth and eihteenth centuries / Jón Th. Thór

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thór, Jón Th.

    2013-01-01

    Umbes 470 aasta jooksul (1450-1918) oli Kopengaagen Islandi pealinnaks. Vahemaa Taani ja Islandi vahel on umbes 2000 kilomeetrit ja enamiku islandlaste jaoks jäi pealinn kaugeks paigaks, millest teati vähe. Islandi valitsemise struktuurist. Kopengaageni kui kaubanduskeskuse ja kultuurikeskuse rollist. 18. sajandist Taani ja Islandi ajaloos.

  14. From Religious to Social Conversion: How Muslim Scholars Conceived of the "Rites de Passage" from Hinduism to Islam in Seventeenth-Century South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfaoui, Mouez

    2011-01-01

    The common understanding of Islam tends to consider religious conversion as a matter of individual and rational belief and consisting, first and foremost, of attesting to the oneness of God ("shahada"). In this paper I argue that divergences exist among schools of Islamic Law concerning the modes and types of conversion. Contrary to…

  15. In the shadow of a pepper-centric historiography: Understanding the global diffusion of capsicums in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halikowski Smith, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Historians of the Eurasian spice trade focus on the fortunes of black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.), largely because the trading companies of the Dutch and English which they study also did. Capsicum peppers are, however, the world׳s most consumed spice, and their story needs to be told in parallel. The five species of capsicum peppers spread across the world in less than two hundred years following their discovery by Europeans in South and Central America and proved both hardier than Piper nigrum and able to reproduce spontaneously. While the taste was similar but more pungent than black pepper, capsicums provided an important vitamin C and bioflavanoid supplement to poorer people in southern and eastern Europe far from the precepts of good taste as dictated from Paris, and rapidly became a mainstay of tropical cuisine across the world. This contribution seeks both to trace and to understand that diffusion and its principal vectors from historical research amongst a plethora of primary source materials in European and Asian languages. Medical and dietetic reaction is presented from a wide range of contemporary texts. The work proceeds according to deductive reasoning and in comparison to the diffusion of black pepper consumption. It reveals the very different strategies of import substitution and commercial embargo undertaken by Portuguese and Spanish authorities, a somewhat later date of arrival in China than previously thought, and three different, competing lines of entry into an important area of later cultivation, namely Central Europe.

  16. The distant capital : some aspects of role of Copenhagen as capital of Iseland in the seventeenth and eihteenth centuries / Jón Th. Thór

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Thór, Jón Th.

    2013-01-01

    Umbes 470 aasta jooksul (1450-1918) oli Kopengaagen Islandi pealinnaks. Vahemaa Taani ja Islandi vahel on umbes 2000 kilomeetrit ja enamiku islandlaste jaoks jäi pealinn kaugeks paigaks, millest teati vähe. Islandi valitsemise struktuurist. Kopengaageni kui kaubanduskeskuse ja kultuurikeskuse rollist. 18. sajandist Taani ja Islandi ajaloos.

  17. "The Purple Island" of Phineas Fletcher: allusions to the anatomy of the human body in English poetry up to the end of the seventeenth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Riddington

    2005-06-01

    The Bible declared that God created man in His own image. The concept that this divine pattern occurred not only in Man (the Microcosm), but was eternally repeated throughout Creation in the Macrocosm (Universe) and the Geocosm (Earth), was the basis of the important Doctrine of Correspondences, in which similarities were sought between man and nature, (e.g. the comparable morphology of a human brain and a walnut). This article outlines the relevance of this concept in early herbal medicine. Contemporary poems describing correspondences to the anatomy of the human body are the examined, in particular The Purple Island, by Phineas Fletcher. The Reverend Phineas Fletcher (1582 - 1650) was an English metaphysical poet and The Purple Island (1633), his most famous work, was an epic poem describing the anatomy of the human body in allegorical terms. It is compared to an island, with veins and arteries as purple rivers flowing through the chief cities of Liver, Heart and Braine. This has been acknowledged as one of the best and also one of the last great examples of the tradition of poetic correspondence in English literature.

  18. Merchant-Kings and Lords of the World: Diplomatic Gift-Exchange between the Dutch East India Company and the Safavid and Mughal Empires in the Seventeenth Century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkenholz, Frank; Sowerby, Tracey A.; Hennings, Jan

    2017-01-01

    In 1652 the VOC ambassador Joan Cunaeus presented the Safavid Shah Abbas II with a set of diplomatic gifts including goods of Asian and European origin during an audience ceremony in the Ali Qapu palace in Isfahan. A decade later, VOC director Dircq van Adrichem offered the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb

  19. A New View of Delft: Delft geodesists and industrial designers show 3D perspective based on seventeenth century drawings and prints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boo, M.

    2001-01-01

    In order to gain a comprehensive view of the consequences of large infrastructure operations, good imaging techniques are essential to present projects in a clear manner. At the Delft Department of Geodetic Engineering, Virtual Reality techniques have been linked for the first time to geographical i

  20. From Religious to Social Conversion: How Muslim Scholars Conceived of the "Rites de Passage" from Hinduism to Islam in Seventeenth-Century South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalfaoui, Mouez

    2011-01-01

    The common understanding of Islam tends to consider religious conversion as a matter of individual and rational belief and consisting, first and foremost, of attesting to the oneness of God ("shahada"). In this paper I argue that divergences exist among schools of Islamic Law concerning the modes and types of conversion. Contrary to…

  1. Did we finally slay the evil dragon of cigarette smoking in the late 20th century?: unfortunately, the answer is no - the dragon is still alive and well in the 21st century and living in the third world. Shame on us!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Murphy, Joseph G; Dunn, William F

    2014-12-01

    If cigarettes were introduced as a new consumer product today, it is unlikely they would receive government regulatory approval. Cigarettes have proven biologic toxicities (carcinogenesis, atherogenesis, teratogenesis) and well-established causal links to human disease. Things were very different in 1913 when the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company introduced the first modern cigarette, the iconic Camel. By the early 1950s, definitive scientific reports linked cigarettes and human disease, but it was more than a half century later (2006) that cigarette manufacturers were found guilty by a federal court of deceptive product marketing regarding the health hazards of tobacco use. In the United States, cigarette smoking remains a major but slowly declining problem. But in developing countries, cigarette use is expanding tremendously. In global terms, the epidemic of smoking-caused disease is projected to increase rapidly in coming decades, not decline. Society may have begun to slowly win the smoking battle in the developed world, but we are resoundingly losing the global war on smoking. All is not lost! There is some good news! The 2003 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, supported strongly by the American College of Chest Physicians, is the first global public health treaty of the new millennium. Many developed societies have begun planning to rid their countries of cigarettes in what is called the Endgame Strategy, and now is the time for the international medical community to help change tobacco policy to a worldwide endgame approach to rid all humanity of smoking-related diseases.

  2. Molecular medicine; the road to the better integration of the medical sciences in the twenty-first century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, D J

    2010-09-20

    The history of the evolution of medical research is characterized by a long period of division between the basic biological sciences and the health sciences, reflecting the seventeenth-century trends towards the experimental and the empirical. It was not until the middle of the twentieth century that, by their ability to straddle both worlds, the work of small groups of basic scientists in the U.S.A. and Europe led to closer integration between the medical sciences. This change in direction is well exemplified by the work of the Cambridge scientists Max Perutz, Vernon Ingram and Herman Lehmann, from 1950 onwards. Their research, and its later development by others, was to lay the basis for what became known as 'molecular medicine', and at the same time set the scene for a more integrated approach to medical research that continued into the new millennium.

  3. The Ballet-Pantomime Technique of Passions: Constructing Knowledge of Dance during the 17th and 18th Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ignacio VALLEJOS

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the fundamentals of the pantomime-ballet dance technique, which was characteristic of the eighteenth century. In particular, it explores how knowledge developed with regard to the representation of passions and expressive gestures. Our hypothesis proposes the existence of a correlation between the regulation of the theatrical practice of dance in the seventeenth century, during the reign of Louis XIV, and the discourses on the dancing-body that accompanied the zenith of the pantomime-ballet project between 1760 and 1776. In this way, we show that the passage from baroque ballet to pantomimeballet represents a breakthrough in body encoding as well as a development of the aesthetic framework for the theatrical expression of the dancer.

  4. 论20世纪欧洲哲学思维模式的转化--从主体性到主体间性%The Transformation of Philosophical Thinking Mode of Europe from the Late 19th Century to the Early 20th Century---From Subjectivity to Intersubjectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    简圣宇

    2014-01-01

    Since Husserl started the exploration of intersubjectivity study,Heidegger,Habermas and other scholars began to try to enrich and develop the inter subjectivity thought from different angle.Scholars realize clearly the significant limi-tations of subjective thinking model.They tend to construct a solipsistic center deliberately and know the subject con-sciousness cannot form alone in isolation without reference.After all,the formation of subjective consciousness cannot do without interaction between self-subject and other-subjects.That means the formation of subject relies on intersubjectivity instead of subjectivity .In order to understand this historical transformation of European philosophy thinking mode during the twentieth century,we should pursue our studies from Husserl to subsequent philosophers for the intersubjectivity thought.%自胡塞尔开启主体间性思想探索之门以来,海德格尔、哈贝马斯等人对主体间性思想从各个角度进行了丰富和发展,因为学者们越来越清晰地意识到主体性思维模式的局限性:其总是倾向于人为地构造出一个唯我独尊的中心,并意识到主体意识无法在没有参照系的孤立状态中独自形成,必须在自我主体与他人主体的互联互动过程中动态形成,即,主体的形成所仰赖的,恰恰不是主体性而是主体间性。为了深入理解20世纪欧洲哲学思维模式的这一历史性转化,必须充分重视胡塞尔及其后的哲学家对主体间性的研究。

  5. Venusians: the Planet Venus in the 18th-Century Extraterrestrial Life Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duner, David

    2013-05-01

    In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries it became possible to believe in the existence of life on other planets on scientific grounds. Once the Earth was no longer the center of the universe according to Copernicus, once Galileo had aimed his telescope at the Moon and found it a rough globe with mountains and seas, the assumption of life on other planets became much less far-fetched. In general there were no actual differences between Earth and Venus, since both planets orbited the Sun, were of similar size, and possessed mountains and an atmosphere. If there is life on Earth, one may ponder why it could not also exist on Venus. In the extraterrestrial life debate of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the Moon, our closest celestial body, was the prime candidate for life on other worlds, although a number of scientists and scholars also speculated about life on Venus and on other planets, both within our solar system and beyond its frontiers. This chapter discusses the arguments for life on Venus and those scientific findings that were used to support them, which were based in particular on assumptions and claims that both mountains and an atmosphere had been found on Venus. The transits of Venus in the 1760s became especially important for the notion that life could thrive on Venus. Here, I detect two significant cognitive processes that were at work in the search for life on Venus, i.e., analogical reasoning and epistemic perception, while analogies and interpretations of sensory impressions based on prior knowledge played an important role in astrobiological theories.

  6. The Central Plains Epidemics from the Second Century to the Third Century and the Theme of“Mourning for the Dying Young”in the Literature of the late Han Dynasty%二至三世纪中原疾疫与汉末文学的“悼夭”主题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子今

    2015-01-01

    汉代社会普遍的“常宜子孙兮日番昌”理想,使得未成年人的生存状况受到重视。宗法责任也要求对“生子”健康更加关注。传世史籍和出土文献均可见“小儿医”进步的迹象,但多种原因导致的未成年人夭亡依然相当严重。以公元二至三世纪中原疾疫为背景,汉赋可见“伤夭”“悼夭”主题,曹植的“稚子”“哀辞”亦表现出深切的艺术感染力,汉碑亦有“夭没”儿童的石刻纪念。“年甫五岁”的早夭童子许阿瞿的墓志与游乐画面的结合,被看作研究汉代未成年人生活的重要资料。对幼小生命的尊重,是文明进步的表现。爱护未成年人的社会情感表达,与讲究亲和、推崇仁爱的文化理念也表现出一致性。%The popular ideal of“Good for Descendants and Breeding More Children in the Future”in the Han Dynasty made the living condition of the minors receive attention. The patriarchal responsibility also required paying more attention to the health of“Giving Birth to A Child”. The historical records and unearthed documents have visible signs of the progress of“pediatric medicine”, but the premature death of the minors due to a variety of reasons is still serious. Regarding the Central Plains epidemics from the Second century to the Third one as background, the theme of“Grieving for the Dying Young”and“Mourning for the Dying Young”could be seen in Han Fu. The poems“Young Child”and“Mourning Words”of Cao Zhi exhibited profound artistic influence, and the Han stone tablets also had the stone memorial of“Dying Young”children. Combining the epitaph of Xu Aqu who died young“in just five years old”with the play picture is seen as the important material to study the Han minors' livings. Respect for the young lives is a civilized progress. The social emotional expression of caring for minors and the cultural ideas of cherishing affinity and respecting

  7. [The Seongho () School's Study of the Ancient Learning () and Its Influence on the Debate about Materia Medica in the Late Joseon Dynasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung-San

    2015-08-01

    This study will determine the ways in which the ancient learning (gu xue, ) scholarship of the Seongho School, and its interest in the materia medica (ben cao xue, ) were related during the late Joseon period. The Seongho School centered its studies mainly on classical Chinese texts of the Han (206 BC-AD 220) and pre-Han (?-221 BC) (xian-qin lianghan, ) periods rather than those of the Tang and Song dynasties (618-1279). gu xue scholarship emerged during the Ming dynasty era (1368 -1644) as an alternative to the scholarly trends of the Song dynasty, which were dependent on Zhu Xi's (, 1130-1200) Neo-Confucianism and its interpretation of Han and pre-Han classical Chinese texts. This scholarly trend influenced Korean and Japanese literature, philosophy, and even medicine from the seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. Focusing on Korean scholarship, we find a great deal of research regarding the influence of gu xue on Korean classical Chinese literature and Confucian philosophy in the late Joseon period; however, no study has examined how this style of scholarship influenced the field of medicine during the same period. This study will investigate how the intellectuals of the Seongho School, who did the most to develop gu xue among Joseon intellectuals, were influenced by this style of scholarship in their study of the materia medica. Jeong Yak-yong (1762-1836), the representative intellectual of the Seongho School, did not focus on complicated metaphysical medical theories, such as the Yin-Yang and Five Elements theory (yin yang wu xing shui, ) or the Five Movements and Six Atmospheres theory (wu yun liu qi shui, ). Instead, his interests lay in the exact diagnoses of diseases and meticulous herbal prescriptions which formed an essential part of the Treatise on Exogenous Febrile Disease (Shang han lun, ) written by Zhang Zhungjing (, 150-219) in the Han dynasty. The Treatise was compatible with the scholarly purpose of gu xue in that they both

  8. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to motivate a program of research on late globalization, a program that could eventually lead to one or more significant theories of late globalization. The paper explores the phenomenon of late globalization as well as the idea of “late” by drawing on sparse...... literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...... the range of constructs around the core idea of late globalization, generating questions for future work in a late globalization research program....

  9. Twentieth Century Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Stout, Rowland

    2008-01-01

    Despite being somewhat long in the tooth at the time, Aristotle, Hume and Kant were still dominating twentieth century moral philosophy. Much of the progress made in that century came from a detailed working through of each of their approaches by the expanding and increasingly professionalized corps of academic philosophers. And this progress can be measured not just by the quality and sophistication of moral philosophy at the end of that century, but also by the narrowing of s...

  10. [Marriage and Migratory Characteristic of Circassians (Late 20th Century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El'chinova, G I; Makaov, A Kh; Revazova, Yu A; Gavrilina, S G; Rusakova, A V; Zinchenko, R A; Ginter, E K

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes 2052 marriage records for 1990-2000 in the Khabezsky district of Karachay-Cherkessia. The main marriage and migration characteristics of Circassians are studied: index of endogamy, ethnic mar- riage assortativity, intensity of metisation, and Malecot's parameters of isolation by distance.

  11. Fighting in the Fightschools late XVth, early XVIth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaquet Daniel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role played by Fightmaster (master-at-arms, Schirm- or Fechtmeister in the Fightschools (Fechtschulen taking place in the swiss cities at the end of the middle ages. The strong link between these lessstudied events and the practice of martial arts according to the technical literature (Fechtbücher will be examined, as well as the figure of the Fightmaster.

  12. 论19世纪末20世纪初英国的通俗史学与科学史学之争--以麦考莱为中心的讨论%On the Debate Between Popular History and Scientific History in England During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Focus on Macaulay’s History of England

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志来

    2016-01-01

    During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century,the supporter of the scientific history and popular history deba-ted upon the historical writing of the popular historian Macaulay. The scientific historian stressed the scientificity of history. They thought that the history book should be written for experts and peers,and offer historical knowledge and lessons to the public. The popular historian pursued artistry of history. In their options,the history book should be written for general readers,and it should furnish the social enlightenment and also the entertainment. Macaulay’s success told us that the historian should on one hand establish his study on the scientific basis,and pay attention to the historical narrative and literal express to enlarge the so-cial compact of Academic research on the other hand.%19世纪末20世纪初,围绕英国著名史家麦考莱的历史写作,科学史学与通俗史学的支持者进行了多方面的争论。科学史家强调历史学的科学性,认为历史著作是为同行专家所写,应该为公众提供历史知识和经验教训。通俗史家则追求历史学的艺术性,认为历史著作应为读者而作,史学应兼有教益与娱乐的功能。麦考莱的成功经验表明,在保证历史科学性的基础上应该注重历史叙述和文字表达,让学术成果具有更广泛的社会影响。

  13. Uma quinta portuguesa no interior do Brasil ou A saga do ilustrado dom frei Cipriano e o jardim do antigo palácio episcopal no final do século XVIII A Portuguese manor in rural Brazil or The saga of the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano and the garden of the former episcopal palace in the late eighteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Rodrigo de Castro Maia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Reconstrói a trajetória do bispo dom frei Cipriano de São José e do jardim histórico que construiu em seu palácio, na cidade de Mariana (MG, no final do século XVIII e início do seguinte. A área, com pomar e outros tipos vegetais, como a maioria dos quintais das casas mineiras do período, sofreu significativa transformação e tornou-se um clássico jardim europeu. Ordenado com preocupação estética, no final do período colonial era um espaço admirável, representante do processo de encantamento da ilustrada elite metropolitana pela história natural e pelos conhecimentos de botânica. Variada documentação foi utilizada para reconstruir a trajetória dessa área verde bem como a de seu idealizador, o ilustrado dom frei Cipriano de São José.This is a reconstruction of the career of bishop Cipriano de São José and the historical garden he built for his palace in Mariana, Minas Gerais, in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The grounds, which, like most of their counterparts in Minas Gerais, contained an orchard and kitchen garden, underwent a major reform to fit the mold of the classical European garden. Orderly and showing aesthetic concern, they were an admirable space at the end of the colonial period, representing as they did the enlightened metropolitan elite's growing interest in natural history and botany. A variety of documental sources were used to reconstruct the history of the grounds and the career of the person behind their design, the enlightened Dom Frei Cipriano de São José.

  14. Lucha antivenérea en Antioquia entre finales del siglo XIX e inicios del siglo XX: una cuestión moral Anti-venereal fight in Antioquia during the late 19th and early 20th centuries: a moral question.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martínez Londoño

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo busca responder en qué sentido la lucha antivenérea en Antioquia a finales del siglo XIX y principios del XX, parte del dispositivo higienista, fue una lucha contra la inmoralidad. Para su construcción se realizó revisión bibliográfica de fuentes secundarias. El proyecto regional en su dimensión ética-cultural incluyó una apuesta modernizadora, a cargo de los médicos, ajustada a la moral puritana promovida por la Iglesia, para ello emprendieron una lucha antivenérea que consistió en ilustrar a las masas populares: se debía reservar la sexualidad a la familia y reprochar moralmente a la población donde aparecían dichas enfermedades. Así, el discurso médico-científico juzgó las prácticas de los sectores populares mientras los hombres de ciencia ingresaban al escenario social con poder por tener jerarquía moral. This article aims to define in what ways the anti-venereal fight in Antioquia, during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which was part of the hygienic device, was really a fight against the immorality. In order to write it, secondary bibliographic sources were revised. In its ethical and cultural dimension, the regional project included a modernizing project. Doctors were in charge of this project which was adjusted to fit the puritan moral the Church promoted. They began a fight against sexual transmission diseases tah was bases upon illustration of communities: sexuality was to be reserved to family environments and populations where diseases appeared should be morally rejected. An so, medical scientific speech be judged low class populations` actions while men of science entered the social scenario with power from having moral hierarchy.

  15. La feminización de las masas: construcción de identidades sociales en la argentina de fines del siglo XIX The feminization of the crowds: construction of social identities in the argentina of the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazmin Chayo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar una lectura de Las multitudes argentinas de José María Ramos Mejía desde una perspectiva histórica, política y de género. Se realiza un análisis de las analogías presentes en la obra ya que contribuye a la comprensión histórica de la producción discursiva del autor. Se destacan aquéllas efectuadas entre las masas y las mujeres y, apelando a estudios históricos y de género, se contemplan aspectos del imaginario social acerca de éstas. La tesis sostenida en este trabajo, basada en la teoría de Ernesto Laclau, plantea que, en la obra Las multitudes argentinas, las analogías entre las masas y las mujeres constituyen un recurso retórico relevante que da lugar a un juego de equivalencias y diferencias que contribuye a la conformación de las identidades sociales de la Argentina finisecular.The goal of the present paper is to make an interpretation of José María Ramos Mejia's Las Multitudes Argentinas from a historical, political and gender point of view. An analysis is performed on the analogies present in his work, for it contributes to a historical understanding of the author's discursive production. Those made between women and the crowds are highlighted and, based on historical and gender studies, aspects of the social imaginary about these analogies are evaluated. The thesis sustained in this paper, based on Ernesto Laclau's theory, argues that, in Las Multitudes Argentinas, the analogies between women and the crowds constitute a relevant rhetorical device that allows for a game of differences and equivalencies that contributes to the conformation of the social identities of the late 19th century Argentina.

  16. Nineteenth-Century English

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg......The article reviews the book "Nineteenth-Century English: Stability and Change," by Merja Kytö, Mats Rydèn and Erik Smitterberg...

  17. "Mind your p's and q's": or the peregrinations of an apostrophe in 17th Century English

    CERN Document Server

    Piton, Odile

    2010-01-01

    If the use of the apostrophe in contemporary English often marks the Saxon genitive, it may also indicate the omission of one or more let-ters. Some writers (wrongly?) use it to mark the plural in symbols or abbreviations, visual-ised thanks to the isolation of the morpheme "s". This punctuation mark was imported from the Continent in the 16th century. During the 19th century its use was standardised. However the rules of its usage still seem problematic to many, including literate speakers of English. "All too often, the apostrophe is misplaced", or "errant apostrophes are springing up every-where" is a complaint that Internet users fre-quently come across when visiting grammar websites. Many of them detail its various uses and misuses, and attempt to correct the most common mistakes about it, especially its mis-use in the plural, called greengrocers' apostro-phes and humorously misspelled "greengro-cers apostrophe's". While studying English travel accounts published in the seventeenth century, we noticed th...

  18. Reengineering Engineering: A Glimpse of Late Professionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Callaham, Arthur A.

    1999-01-01

    The role of the engineer in the late capitalist society of the last half century has been misunderstood at best. The lack of a consistent job description for engineers in various fields, a lack of job security, and a lack of respect from both industry and society have spawned severe angst in the engineering community. A classic remedy for this situation has been the rallying of engineering practitioners under a banner of increased professionalism. If engineers could make themselves more li...

  19. Comet of the Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Fred; Ottewell, G.

    The present century has been a disappointing one for comets, but past centuries often featured spectacular, unforgettable comet shows that dominated the night (and even daytime) sky for months: comets that outshone Venus or even the Moon, whose spectacular tails stretched more than halfway across the sky or were weirdly split, and whose apparition was held responsible for everything from wars to unusually good wine vintages. Published to coincide with the first naked-eye appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp, perhaps our own comet of the century, this book is an irresistible guide to comet facts and lore throughout history.

  20. Late Accretion and the Late Veneer

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The concept of Late Veneer has been introduced by the geochemical community to explain the abundance of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle and their chondritic proportions relative to each other. However, in the complex scenario of Earth accretion, involving both planetesimal bombardment and giant impacts from chondritic and differentiated projectiles, it is not obvious what the "Late Veneer" actually corresponds to. In fact, the process of differentiation of the Earth was probably intermittent and there was presumably no well-defined transition between an earlier phase where all metal sunk into the core and a later phase in which the core was a closed entity separated from the mantle. In addition, the modellers of Earth accretion have introduced the concept of "Late Accretion", which refers to the material accreted by our planet after the Moon-forming event. Characterising Late Veneer, Late Accretion and the relationship between the two is the major goal of this chapter.

  1. 中国知识分子的心态与富强的真理化--以19世纪末20世纪初的中国知识分子为考察对象%Chinese Intellectuals’ Psychology and the Truthization of Prosperity ---An Investigation on Chinese Intellectuals of the Late 19 th and Early 20 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐百军

    2014-01-01

    19世纪末20世纪初被视为中国的一个特定“转型期”,在这一特殊的社会政治语境下“富强”成为了当时中国知识分子首要关注的社会议题,几乎每个有良知的知识分子都在以各自的方式寻求中国富强的现代化道路。文章以19世纪末20世纪初的中国知识分子为考察对象,指出在当时的历史境况下他们异常偏好于将富强视为一种真理性思想。这一真理化倾向与中国知识分子的心态有着莫大的内在关联,而这种关联可以通过传统的松动、意义世界的沦丧和浪漫情怀的激化三个心态面向来得以呈现。最后,文章从富强思想的内生性与外生性两个维度对中国知识分子的心态进行了反观和评估。%The late 19th and early 20th century was thought of as a special transition period of China , which made the prosperity become the first social topic of Chinese intellectuals at that time , and nearly every-one of them explored China ’ prosperity road in the manner of their owns .Through the investigation on them , we find that they preferred to regard prosperity as truth gradually in that historical circumstance .Actually, there are some overwhelming connections between the truthization of prosperity and Chinese intellectuals ’ psy-chology.For that, we make an analysis from three aspects:the looseness of tradition , the bankruptcy of mean-ing world, and the intensification of romantic feelings .Ultimately, we view the Chinese intellectuals ’ psychol-ogy from the two standpoints of endogeneity and exogeneity of prosperity .We insert that it was a blind action that Chinese intellectuals theoretically explored the prosperity truth in an anxious abnormal psychology , but we still fully affirm its historical value .

  2. Thomas Birch's 'Weekly Letter' (1741-66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-09-20

    Thomas Birch (1705-66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720-90), wrote a 'Weekly Letter' from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396-400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the 'Hardwicke circle' gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the 'Weekly Letter' constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science.

  3. The Armory Chamber and Armed Forces of Russia in the Second Half of 17th - Early 18th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlenko Sergey P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the insufficiently studied aspect of the activities of the Armory chamber in the second half of 17th - beginning of 18th centuries – supplying the needs of the Russian armed forces. Political and military realities of the first half of the seventeenth century revealed the need for the modernization and transformation of the armed forces of Russia. Military reform required a massive amount of combat weapons and equipment made by Western European standard. The middle of the 17th century was the times of a search for an optimal algorithm which would provide the armed forces with weapons and equipment. The integration in this process of the court gunsmith and Armory was an effective solution. The content of the Inventory of the Armory Chamber in 1647 can be divided into two parts: 1 parade and ceremonial weapons and armor, designed for the sovereign and court 2 a huge number of combat weapons deposed in a different storages. The research is based on the complex of archival documents showing the role of the Armory chamber officials in organizing the purchase of combat weapons, its testing, preserving, repairing and transfer to the troops. The author also observed the changes in the activities of the institution in the last quarter of the century – when craftspeople of the court Armory workshop participated in the manufacturing of some special types of combat arms and service as a military gunsmith directly in troops and provincial armories.

  4. A Portrait of the PETE Major: Re-Touched for the Early Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullick, Bryan A.; Lux, Karen M.; Belcher, Donald G.; Davies, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    Background: The literature on those who choose to become PE teachers received healthy attention in the late twentieth century but has been largely ignored since. Querying those PETE majors in first decade of the new century enables PETE faculty to have updated and pertinent knowledge of their charges. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to…

  5. El Calepino Ilocano (c.1797) del P. Vivar: Innovaciones lexicográficas y política traductora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández Rodríguez, R.; Zwartjes, O.; Arzápalo Marín, R.; Smith-Stark, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    There is a general lack of knowledge in the Spanish-Philippine linguistic sources. My aim in this paper then is to present the works written on Ilocano by the Augustinian friars from the sixteenth until the nineteenth century, with particular focus on the late seventeenth-century manuscript work by

  6. The Sensible and Insensible Body: A Visual Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Bourke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Translating pain into tangible images brings it into the public consciousness, raising the spectre of bodily suffering as virtually intrinsic to the human condition. Beginning with Descartes, who famously advanced mind-body theories in the late seventeenth century, this essay explores the effects of his influence together with shifting attitudes towards pain and its role over the long nineteenth century.

  7. A new neuropsychology for the XXI century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2013-12-01

    Regardless of the significant interest in comparing neuropsychological syndromes across cultures, little interest is observed in comparing these syndromes across time. Most of the neuropsychological syndromes were described during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century (e.g., aphasia, alexia, agraphia, acalculia, etc.). However, living conditions have so dramatically changed during the last 100 years that those classical neuropsychological syndromes have to be re-stated and reconsidered; eventually, new syndromes could be proposed. In this paper, an analysis of the impact of the new living conditions in spoken language, written language, numerical abilities, memory, spatial orientation, people recognition, and executive functions is presented. It is concluded that it is time to re-analyze and re-interpret the classical neuropsychological syndromes; and develop new assessment procedures, more in accordance with the twenty-first century living conditions.

  8. International dimensions of higher education in nursing in Canada: tapping the wisdom of the 20th century while embracing possibilities for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Linda D; Paul, Pauline; Burgess-Pinto, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    New focus on the internationalization of universities occurred in the late 20th century and higher education in nursing has been quick to embrace the opportunities. In this manuscript, writers provide a brief overview of the nursing and more general literature from the late 20th century relating to key dimensions of internationalization, as well as present data from a survey conducted in 1995-96 of the international activities and dimensions at Canadian faculties/schools of nursing. While it is clear that nurses in Canadian universities were engaged in significant international endeavours in the 20th century, the literature and our experience suggest that the extent of such activity has increased substantially in recent years. Discussion centres on examination of how knowledge generated in the 20th century can inform current internationalization initiatives and on identification of key questions that merit consideration as we move forward in the 21st century.

  9. Late recurrence of medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brittney; Razzaqi, Faisal; Yu, Lolie; Craver, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with a cerebellar medulloblastoma, diagnosed at age three, treated with near total surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, that recurred 13 years after the initial diagnosis. This late recurrence exceeds the typical 10-year survival statistics that are in common use, and exceeds the Collins rule. Continued follow-up of these children is justified to increase the likelihood of detecting these late recurrences early and to learn more about these late recurrences.

  10. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  11. Spinning-wheels and plots: the family and textile manufacturing in the Guimarães county (Portugal in the late 19th century - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.133 Teias e tramas: família e manufactura têxtil no concelho de Guimarães (Portugal nos finais do século XIX - doi: 10.4025/dialogos.v9i3.133

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Silvia Volpi Scott

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Possible relationships between the development of cotton textile manufacturing and the family organization in northeastern Portugal are discussed. The São Tiago de Ronfe (Guimarães county community in the late 19th century is analyzed. Studies of the community during two centuries (1700-1900 have shown that changes at the economical level caused by the relative success of the cotton industry during the period were decisive factors for modifications in the compositions and the structure of the family. The last decades of the 19th century showed a trend towards certain important changes such as the age in which marriages were celebrated, rates if illegitimate children and definitive option for celibacy. These factors will be examined from the point of view of the above economical activity.Este artigo discute as possíveis relações existentes entre o desenvolvimento da manufatura têxtil do algodão e a organização da família no Noroeste Português, tomando como exemplo o estudo da comunidade de São Tiago de Ronfe (Concelho de Guimarães nas décadas finais do século XIX. Argumenta-se que as mudanças no nível econômico, causadas pelo relativo sucesso da manufatura do algodão no período, constituíram fatores decisivos para algumas alterações na composição e estrutura da família que foram detectadas através do estudo dessa comunidade ao longo de dois séculos (1700-1900. As décadas finais do século XIX apresentaram uma tendência de alteração de elementos importantes - como a idade de acesso ao casamento, os índices de ilegitimidade e de celibato definitivo, entre outros - que serão examinados à luz das mudanças vinculadas àquela atividade econômica.

  12. POLITICAL ISLAM IN THE 21ST CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Izquierdo Brichs

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, political Islam or Islamism has created enormous concern both in the political media and the news media. The revolution in Iran in the late 1970s and the election victory by FIS in Algeria in the late 1980s represented two decisive points in the popular and ideological mobilisation by Islamist groups. Immediately after that, the civil war in Algeria and terrorist violence left their mark on the 1990s. The perception of Islamism today is still associated, in many cases, with the dynamics of the end of the past century, and with the jihadism of a few fundamentalist groups, without taking into account the fact that the majority of Islamist groups have undergone an enormous evolution, and that the context in which they are operating is also very different. As we will see, instead of the jihadism or the ideological radicalness of the past century, today’s political Islam is much better represented by the moderation (both ideological and in terms of political activity of Turkey’s AKP party, the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt, Morocco’s PJD, Tunisia’s al-Nahdah and most of the parties and large groups. Central factors in this dynamic of moderation are, on one hand, the link between Islamist groups with regimes and, on the other, the claims for and acceptance of liberal democracy as a strategy in their political struggle.

  13. Ars combinatoria and cosmological models: interactions and survival in a Cuzco school painting of the XVIII century

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro; Rey-Marquez, Juan R

    2015-01-01

    "The Lord made me a very great favor in an imaginary vision" wrote Maria de Agreda in the seventeenth century, "His Majesty put me at the foot of a beautiful Ladder, and showed me I had to climb it." These words refer to the spiritual ascent, present in the Judeo-Christian tradition, and crystallized in the visions of prophets and Catholic saints. Genesis (18: 10-22) narrates that Jacob, going to Haran, slept on some stones and saw a ladder between heaven and earth along which angels were ascending and descending. From this dream, the symbolic union between heaven and earth has been figured with stairs, ascribing to it different meanings over the centuries. On the steps of the ladder people saw a metaphor for the graduality of ascent; Benedict used a ladder of twelve steps of humility in his Regula, and in the seventh century AD John Climacus, Bishop of Sinai, established a thirty-step Scala Paradisi of meditation leading to God. In this work we discuss the historical echoes of the Benedictine rule, together ...

  14. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  15. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  16. Gini Eşitsizlik Katsayılarıyla Cemaatlerin 19. Yüzyıl Sonlarında Osmanlı Vilayetlerindeki Coğrafi Dağılımlarının Belirlenmesi = Determining Spatial Distribution of Communities in Ottoman Districts in Late 19th Century by Gini Inequality Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ÇİFTÇİ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ottoman society had a heterogeneous community structure that is different from our time. There were seven big communities that were determined by the base religious identity in censuses. There were numerical distributions of the communities in the 33 provinces in the 19th century. In this study, the character of geographical spatial distributions of communities with Gini inequality measurement is examined. Findings show that, the Muslim, Rome and Armenian communities were the essential elements. The other result found by this study is that, at the end of the 19th century international market economy remained in regional level, not at the national level.

  17. Statisticians of the centuries

    CERN Document Server

    Seneta, E; Crépel, P; Fienberg, S; Gani, J

    2001-01-01

    Statisticians of the Centuries aims to demonstrate the achievements of statistics to a broad audience, and to commemorate the work of celebrated statisticians. This is done through short biographies that put the statistical work in its historical and sociological context, emphasizing contributions to science and society in the broadest terms rather than narrow technical achievement. The discipline is treated from its earliest times and only individuals born prior to the 20th Century are included. The volume arose through the initiative of the International Statistical Institute (ISI), the principal representative association for international statistics (founded in 1885). Extensive consultations within the statistical community, and with prominent members of ISI in particular, led to the names of the 104 individuals who are included in the volume. The biographies were contributed by 73 authors from across the world. The editors are the well-known statisticians Chris Heyde and Eugene Seneta. Chris Heyde is Pro...

  18. Political Mythologies of the Twentieth Century in the Perspective of Hermann Heller, Ernst Cassirer, and Karl Löwith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Andrew Barash

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available (Translated by the author Beginning in the late 19th century, politics became a particularly problematic topic of philosophical inquiry in Europe. The problematic character of politics continued to deepen with the radicalization of political tendencies in Germany and in Europe during 1920s and 1930s, and it has not ceased to haunt philosophical inquiry, even beyond the reorientation of Europe following World War II. The problematic status of politics after the late 19th century became partic...

  19. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources, care and ways to engage in meaningful connections. During the late stages, your role as a ... drinks. This will help you track the person's natural routine, and then you can plan a schedule. ...

  20. Suicides in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  1. New Century, New Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN XULONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ Nuclear weapons changed the world of the 20th century. Their powerful force rewrote history. Nuclear bombs dropped on Japan by the United States accelerated the collapse of Japanese militarism and hastened the end of World War Ⅱ. The West led by the United States and the East bloc led by the Soviet Union started a bitter nuclear arms race that mutually assured destruction. The balance of terror between the two blocs stabilized in the Cold War and prevented the world from actual armed conflict, thus maintaining a long-term but occasionally uneasy peace in Europe and the world.

  2. A New Teacher for a New Nation? Teacher Education, "English", and Schooling in Early Twentieth-Century Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Bill; Reid, Jo-Anne

    2012-01-01

    The late nineteenth-century expansion of public schooling in Australia from an initial focus on the elementary phase to post-primary provision, and then to a more systematic secondary education over the early to mid-twentieth century, went hand in hand with the emergence of new populations of children and young people--a new constituency. In turn,…

  3. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  4. A Sociological Look at Biofuels: Ethanol in the Early Decades of the Twentieth Century and Lessons for Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a broad sociological understanding of why biofuels lost out to leaded gasoline as the fuel par excellence of the twentieth century, while drawing comparisons with biofuels today. It begins by briefly discussing the fuel-scape in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, examining the farm…

  5. Defining Fifth-century Ceramics in North Hertfordshire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith J. Fitzpatrick-Matthews

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During large scale excavations at Baldock in the 1980s, a series of fifth-century and later deposits was identified. Analysis of the pottery showed new forms and fabrics appeared at this time. Similar fabrics were also identified on sites outside the town. This paper explores the implications of the material for understanding the Late Roman/early medieval transition in Hertfordshire.

  6. Crítica social e idéias médicas nos excessos do desejo: uma análise dos "romances para homens" de finais do século XIX e início do XX Social criticism and medical ideas on desires' excesses: a study of "novels for men" from late nineteenth to early twentieth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra El Far

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura analisar a produção literária pornográfica desde a segunda metade do século XIX até o início do XX no Brasil. Também conhecidos como "leitura para homens" ou "romances para homens", esses enredos alcançaram uma repercussão singular naquele período. Se, em um primeiro momento, essas narrativas, repletas de fantasias e desejos, tratavam de questões sociais e políticas, com a chegada do novo século, de modo evidente, elas passaram a estabelecer um estreito diálogo com as teorias médicas e científicas da época.This article analyses the pornographic literature from the second half of the nineteenth century until the beginning of the twentieth century in Brazil. Also known as "reading for men" or "novels for men", these plots reached a singular repercussion at the time. If at first these stories, full of fantasies and desires, talked about both social and political issues, with the coming of the new century they clearly started to establish a close dialogue with current medical and scientific theories.

  7. A century of physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bromley, D Allan

    2002-01-01

    In this amazing tour d'horizon, D. Allan Bromley uses the occasion of the centenary of the American Physical Society to reflect upon the growth of physics over the past 100 years, its fragmentation into numerous subdisciplines, the impact physics has had upon modern technology, and the re-emergence of the fundamental unity of the discipline in recent years. Hundreds of historical illustrations accompany the text. Bromley conveys much of the excitement and wonder that research in physics generated in the 20th century and asks what new things are in store in the next century. He covers such topics as relativity and quantum mechanics, the Manhattan project, superconductivity, transistors and the revolution brought about by solid-state electronics, protein folding, the uses of nuclear and atomic physics in biology and medicine, plate tectonics, the expansion of the universe and the Big Bang, and gravitational radiation. Bromley, the Sterling Professor of the Sciences and Dean of Yale University, served as Assista...

  8. The management century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechel, Walter

    2012-11-01

    In 1886, addressing the nascent American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Henry R. Towne proposed that "the management of works" be considered a modern art--thereby heralding the Management Century, when management as we know it came into being and shaped the world in which we work. Kiechel, a past editorial director of Harvard Business Publishing, elucidates the three eras that punctuate this period: the years leading up to World War II, during which scientific exactitude gave wings to a new managerial elite; the early postwar decades, managerialism's apogee of self-confidence and a time when wartime principles of strategy were adapted, sometimes ruthlessly, to the running of companies; and the 1980s to the present, years that saw fast-moving changes, disequilibrium, and a servitude to market forces but also ushered in globalism, unprecedented innovation, and heightened expectations about how workers are to be treated. Along the way he examines the contributions of thinkers such as Frederick Taylor, Elton Mayo, Peter Drucker, and Michael Porter. What lies ahead? Perhaps the biggest challenge facing the 21st-century company, Kiechel posits, is to truly free the spark of human imagination from the organization's tidal pull toward the status quo. There's almost always a better way, he concludes--and management will continue to seek it.

  9. Several Centuries of Centrality

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    As Carolyn Bertozzi mentioned in her inaugural editorial, the relationship of “Central Science” to “Chemistry” became popularized over 40 years ago with the publication of the first edition of Brown and LeMay’s Chemistry: The Central Science, now in its 13th edition. Yet as late as 2003, Prof. Sason Shaik at The Hebrew University claimed “popularization of chemistry remains scant.” He goes on to share [his] “own experience of popularizing chemistry by delivering the following universal messag...

  10. Financial crises of XIX century in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Z. Moshenskyi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article systematically examines the course of major financial crises of the late nineteenth century (the crises of 1848, 1857, 1873 in the financial centers of Ukraine at that time, namely Kуiv, Lviv, Odessa. The paper shows the specifics of these financial centers connected with the investments in profitable sugar industry of Kyiv; with the international trade and massive exports of grain in Odessa; with the beginning of Galician oil extraction and the creation of numerous oil companies in Lviv. After brief description of these crises in the world the author provides the numerous examples for each of the financial centers revealing their specificity inUkraine. The main emphasis is given on the impact of the crises on securities markets, particularly on the dynamics of stock prices.

  11. Craft, money and mercy: an apothecary's self-portrait in sixteenth-century Bologna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gennaro Splendore, Barbara

    2017-04-01

    The apothecary occupied a liminal position in early modern society between profit and healing. Finding ways to distance their public image from trade was a common problem for apothecaries across Europe. This article uses the case of a Bolognese apothecary, Filippo Pastarino, to address the question of how early modern apothecaries chose to represent themselves to political authorities and to the wider public. 'Mercy', alongside 'craft', was a pillar of apothecaries' social identity. By contrast, no matter how central financial transactions ('money') were to their activity, apothecaries did not want to be perceived as merchants. Thus, the assistance and advice apothecaries provided to patients and customers resulted as central aspects of their social role. In this context, Bolognese apothecaries aimed to defend their current status, which had been challenged by naturalist Ulysses Aldrovandi, city authorities and local monasteries. However, Pastarino's claims can also be seen as antecedents to the self-legitimizing strategy that seventeenth-century artisans deployed when faced with the need to enhance their new status as natural philosophers. The present study attributes a name, a date of birth and a shop to Filippo Pastarino, revising previous interpretations. More broadly, by focusing on how these artisans defended their position in the city it enriches our understanding of the self-representation of apothecaries.

  12. Popular Religion in the Periphery. Church Attendance in 17th Century Eastern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuha Miia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available On the fringes of post-Reformation Europe, church and state authorities faced problems in enforcing church attendance. In the Swedish kingdom, religious uniformity was seen as vital for the success of the state after the Lutheran confession had been established, and absences from church were punishable by law. The seventeenth century saw significant tightening of legislation relating to church absences and other breaches of the Sabbath, and severe punishments were introduced. Despite considerable deterrents, it was sometimes difficult to control local inhabitants: absence cases were regularly brought before the local courts in Eastern Finland, where authorities were hampered by a combination of geographical distance and a highly mobile population. In this article, popular church-going practices are studied with an approach inspired by historical anthropology. In popular practice church attendance was required only on the most important holy days of the year, whereas on Sundays and prayer days, work or leisure were considered socially acceptable pursuits. Explanations of nonattendance should not only make reference to trying conditions: in certain situations people would travel long distances to church, despite the obvious difficulties they faced. Popular religious traditions and old conceptions of sacred time also affected behaviour among peasants. The great holy days of the year formed a ritual cycle, the aim of which was the maintenance of good relations with the supernatural. For the success of oneself and one’s household, it was more important to follow the norms of popular culture than the orders of the authorities.

  13. Late Sovereign Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    the promotion of national interests with those of the Union. In this late sovereign phase of diplomacy, political and legal authorities overlap, territorial exclusivity is replaced with functional boundaries, and states begin to speak with one voice. The article explores three interlinked aspects of late...... sovereign diplomacy: the teleological interpretation of the EC and EU treaties; the intense socialization of state representatives; and the negotiation process, which promotes national positions as part of a European cause, thereby delocalizing the national interest. While the EU has not rendered national...... diplomacy obsolete, it has profoundly changed its meaning and consequences....

  14. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...... pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion. Quite the opposite pattern is disclosed for late motherhood....

  15. [Portable antiquities: transporation, ruins, and communications in nineteenth-century archeology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorny, Irina

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses an issue in nineteenth-century archeology: the transformation of ancient American ruins into scientific evidence. It focuses specifically on the case of Palenque, a city discovered in the jungle in the late eighteenth century. The archeological exploration of this find, which occurred shortly after Central American and Mexican independence, entailed efforts to make these ruins portable. The article analyzes some of the means devised and used in their transportation.

  16. Lições de coisas e ensino das ciências na França no fim do século 19: contribuição a uma história da cultura - Object lessons and science education in France in the late nineteenth century: contribution to a history of the school culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Kahn, France

    2014-05-01

    aluno, escola primária, educação intelectual, educação prática, ensino concreto, ensino das ciências, lição de coisas, método indutivo, método intuitivo, observação, pedagogia. OBJECT LESSONS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION IN FRANCE IN THE LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: CONTRIBUTION TO A HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL CULTUREAbstractApart from the major reforms carried out in the institutional organization of primary school (gratuity, obligation, secularism, the French Republicans in the late nineteenth century were willing to make a profound transformation of educational content and teaching standards. Experimental sciences have benefited greatly in 1882 and become a regular discipline of primary school, its programs and its time distribution. The lesson, teaching method which reformers were raving since the 1860s, will be closely and naturally associated with this teaching. It is indeed a first observation lesson or where students find they best opportunities to observe that in natural history lessons or basic physics? And related to each other, and science education and object lesson has two sides, one prosaic, another enchanted. Versant prosaic science education, for students who, for the most part, do not know of another school that the primary must be practical and conventional . If the lesson is particularly suitable for this teaching is that it focuses on concrete and familiar realities. Versant enchanted science education is a powerful instrument intellectual education (even moral and political education. It embodies the hope of a primary liberal education as complete, valid and worthy of its kind that classical humanities school. The lesson, matching the pedagogical approach to the same method of science (inductive method becomes by allowing this intellectual education. This tension is not unique to science education. Analysis allows rather highlighting the double discourse that Republicans held on a school they simultaneously turned into reality and dream

  17. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a bro

  18. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  19. Was I Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶历来; 罗琪芳

    2011-01-01

    “Get up, Jane!” “Oh... Mom, let me sleep five more minutes. I'm so Ured ( 困的 ).” “It's 7:50. It's too late. ” “OK, three minutes then... Wait! What did you say? What time is it? It's 7:50.”

  20. Mercury (not always rising and the social economy of nineteenth-century Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Deustua

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Peruvian mining industry of mercury or azogue in the nineteenth century.Mercury was a crucial component for Andean and Mexican silver mining during colonialtimes and still in the first century of Republican Peru. However, it was not the booming industrythat occurred at the end of the sixteenth century, in the second half of the seventeenth, and at thesecond half of the eighteenth century with production peaks at 13 000, 8000 and 7000 quintalsper year. During the nineteenth century it was rather a relative modest industry («not always rising» but also had moments of peak and decline. The article discusses production figures from the1950 by engineers Fernandez Concha, Yates, and Kent, with new statistics coming from archivalsources, which shows important regional levels of production and articulation with silver miningcenters such as Cerro de Pasco. The article also shows that mercury production was not limitedto the old colonial Huancavelica mine of Santa Bárbara but to other areas in the Huancavelicaregion, such as Angaraes and Lircay, or beyond Hunacavelica, such as Chonta in Cerro de Pascoor even Chachapoyas. It also focuses on the conflictive dynamics that mining production meantfor criollo business people, the government, merchants, and indigenous workers. There wereseveral business efforts to revitalize the mine of Santa Bárbara as well as to invest in Huancavelicamercury mining in combination with government initiatives and actions, but it is also clear theaction of mercury merchants, rescatires, who many times rather dealt with workers and humachis,independent laborers or small entrepreneurs, many times Andean Quechua peasants, who ratherbenefitted during the down cycles in mercury production. Finally, after analyzing this particularindustry, the author reflects on the meaning of economic development and historical studies tocriticize U.S. economic historians such as Stephen Haber (from Stanford University

  1. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  2. Ijtihad into Philosophy: Islam as Cultural Heritage in Post-Stalinist Daghestan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kemper

    2014-01-01

    Starting in 1960, authors of various Daghestani nationalities initiated a re-evaluation of the role of Islam in the history of Daghestan. An important historical personality to draw upon was Muhammad al-Quduqi, a Daghestani Islamic legal scholar of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries

  3. Gerard de Lairesse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Lyckle

    1998-01-01

    This book responds to a growing appreciation of the oeuvre and ideas of the classicist painter Gerard de Lairesse (1640-1711). It offers an accessible introduction to his life and work, with special attention to the historical and artistic context of the late seventeenth-century Dutch Republic. Afte

  4. A new light upon Hendrik van Deventer (1651-1724): identification and recovery of a portrait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. van der Weiden (Robin); W.J. Hoogsteder

    1997-01-01

    textabstractEarly in 1996, both the artist and the patron of a beautifully painted portrait by an anonymous painter of the late seventeenth century were identified. The painting (Figure 1) was compared with works by other portraitists, and a thorough stylistic analysis by the Netherlands Institute f

  5. 19世纪末西方在华传教士的朝鲜观——以《教务杂志》为中心的考察%About Korean Views of 19th Century Late Western Missionaries in China Investigation based on "The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石建国

    2011-01-01

    The middle of the 19th century ago, the Korea never enter vision of the western secular world. This situation in the 1860's to gradually change. In fact, the half of the nineteenth century latter western powers and the rise of Japan will overcome Korean as a aggression objective. With the process of aggression, the Hermit Kingdom-Korea has been uncovered mysterious veil. When the Korea opened veil to world, "The Chinese Recorder and Missionary Journal" that is founded by western missionaries in China has played an important role. Owing to western missionaries long life in Korea society, the more less utilitarian, and reflects the Korea has more authenticity and comprehensive face.%19世纪中叶以前的朝鲜,从未进入西方世俗世界的视野中。这种状况在19世纪60年代以后逐步改变。实际上,在整个19世纪后半叶,西方列强和崛起的日本都将侵略的矛头对准了朝鲜。伴随着列强侵略的进程,“隐士之国”朝鲜被揭开了神秘面纱。在向世人揭开朝鲜面纱时,西方传教士在中国创办的《教务杂志》(TheChineseRecorder)发挥了重要作用。由于西方传教士长久生活于朝鲜社会中,更少有功利性,因而反映的朝鲜面目更具有真实性和全面性。

  6. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  7. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  8. Kynanthropy: canine madness in Byzantine late antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Nadine

    2015-09-01

    Those afflicted bark like dogs, scramble on all fours and loiter around graveyards - canine madness, referred to as kynanthropy, was an illness concept in its own right in the medicine of late antiquity. At roughly the same time as the medical description produced by Aëtius of Amida, the Syrian chronicler John of Ephesus, also from Amida, reported an epidemic of dog-like madness sweeping his home town in ad 560. The symptoms are identical and both authors are from Amida - what is the connection between the two depictions? In addition to the history of the medical concept, the example of the canine madness of Amida and its cultural embedding allows us to contextualize and interpret the significance of dog-like behaviour for the people of the sixth century AD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. New Modernist Studies and Late Modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Kącka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available studies into late modernism—of the issues which are worth researchingor the problems which should be signalled. The article starts witha recognition of a poor presence of the category of modernism in thinkingabout the literature of the 20th and 21st centuries and submits severalproposals. At the beginning, a proposal of confronting a modernistparadigm with a paradigm of Romantic revision. This proposal was presentedwith an awareness of the fuzziness of the notion of modernism aswell as the notion of Romantic revision in Polish academic environment.The following research postulates that would be formulated are: deeperreflection on the language (in connection with tradition, heritage andtheir problematization and on the practices of reading. Later, the textposes a question about the way of studying the permeation of discoursesin the writing of specific representatives of modernism and demandsgreater recognition for the Central European perspective in research.

  10. Winner of the young physician's section of the Gowers' prize 2000. Too good to be true? Thomas Willis--neonatal convulsions, childhood stroke and infanticide in seventeenth century England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A N

    2001-10-01

    A case of neonatal convulsion reported by Thomas Willis (1621-1675) together with its post mortem findings is quoted as being congenital intracerebral haemorrhage or strongly suggested as being the earliest pathological description of childhood cerebrovascular disease. However these authors only reviewed the incomplete written record left by Willis, describing how this case was the fourth consecutive child that the mother had lost to neonatal convulsions. The medical record is completed by notes taken by John Locke from a lecture delivered by Willis 3 or 4 years before the case was first published. Here, Locke relates how the mother subsequently had three further children who were all treated by Willis soon after birth and all survived uneventfully. Reviewing the post mortem findings and the full case histories modern medical science gives a different interpretation. Instead, I suggest that the case history given and pathological features described are more in keeping with a whiplash shaking injury than with cerebrovascular disease or a stroke. I believe that this is the earliest pathological description of shaking injury in childhood. We can never know why Willis did not publish the full success of his management of the subsequent children but it may have been due to his dramatic experience of a similar mother early on in his medical career.

  11. “Caminando sobre la tierra, de nuevo desconocida, toda cambiada” “Caminando sobre la tierra, de nuevo desconocida, toda cambiada”. The invention of landscape painting in New Spain's cartography, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Russo

    2007-01-01

    La producción de mapas por parte de los cartógrafos indígenas, mestizos y españoles en los siglos XVI y XVII, es un laboratorio de increíble riqueza para estudiar los efectos pictóricos que la transformación territorial-administrativa empezada por la conquista tuvo al pasar por la esfera de la creación. En las imágenes, hoy en el Archivo General de la Nación, los pintores locales tuvieron que inventar una nueva forma de visualizar las tierras, los espacios y los paisajes. De esta mina inagota...

  12. The fifteenth-seventeenth century transformation of abbacus algebra: Perhaps – though not thought of by Edgar Zilsel and Joseph Needham – the best illustration of the `Zilsel-Needham thesis'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    in which all were indispensable for the outcome. He only included mathematics via its relation to the “quantitative spirit”. The present study tries to apply Zilsel’s perspective to the emergence of the Modern algebra of Viète and Descartes (etc.), by tracing the reception of algebra within the Latin...

  13. Teaching surgery in late Byzantine Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarborough, John

    2010-01-01

    When one examines Alexandrian commentaries on works of Galen and Hippocrates, disclosed are essential guides to the Art of Medicine as practiced in the late fifth, sixth, and early seventh centuries. These are outlines and contents of a 'medical curriculum' in late Byzantine Alexandria, as well as Ravenna, and thanks to the patient and skilled labors of Dickson,' Duffy,2 Irmer, Palmieri, Pritchet, Westerink, and others, following and building on the pioneering studies of Bräutigam, Meyerhoff, and Temkin, medical historians can now peruse carefully edited Greek and Latin texts and generally reliable translations of some commentaries by Agnellus of Ravenna, John of Alexandria, Palladius, and Stephanus of Athens. Deeply experienced medical practitioners became teachers of would-be medical students in Alexandria and Ravenna. Alexandria had long functioned as a city reputed to be the home of medical instruction, and by ca. 550 or slightly later, teachers began to produce commentaries on the classic texts of Greek and Roman medicine, with Galen and Hippocrates as major authorities. Underpinning what the medical professors set down in their commentaries were extended lives spent in the actual practice of medicine, sometimes as military physicians (as may have been the case of Paul of Aegina in the early seventh century), sometimes as doctors who had gained lengthy experience in Alexandria itself, and sometimes as medical professionals who had emigrated to Egypt after successful careers in another part of the Greek-speaking eastern Roman Empire. Reflecting time as a medical student and later career in Constantinople, Aetius of Amida's Tetrabiblon foreshadows editorial mechanics and techniques of textual exegesis as they emerge more clearly with the medical commentators after 550. It may well be that Stephanus, 'the Philosopher and Physician', was originally from Athens, but whether he was or not, the attribution of an Athenian background suggests that non

  14. Dendrochronology and late Holocene history of Bering piedmont glacier, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, G.C.; Post, A.; Muller, E.H.; Molnia, B.F.

    1999-01-01

    Fluctuations of the piedmont lobe of Bering Glacier and its sublobe Steller Glacier over the past two millennia are reconstructed using 34 radiocarbon dates and tree-ring data from 16 sites across the glaciers' forelands. The general sequence of glacial activity is consistent with well-dated fluctuations of tidewater and land-terminating glaciers elsewhere along the Gulf of Alaska. Extensive forested areas along 25 km of the Bering ice margin were inundated by glacio-lacustrine and glacio-fluvial sediments during a probable ice advance shortly before 500 cal yr A.D. Regrowth of forests followed the retreating ice as early as the 7th century A.D., with frequent interruptions of tree growth due to outwash aggradation. Forests overrun by ice and buried in outwash indicate readvance about 1080 cal yr A.D. Retreat followed, with ice-free conditions maintained along the distal portions of the forefield until the early 17th century after which the ice advanced to within a few kilometers of its outer Neoglacial moraine. Ice reached this position after the mid-17th century and prior to 200 yr ago. Since the early 20th century, glacial retreat has been punctuated by periodic surges. The record from forests overrun by the nonsurging Steller Lobe shows that this western ice margin was advancing by 1250 A.D., reaching near its outer moraine after 1420 cal yr A.D. Since the late 19th century, the lobe has dominantly retreated.

  15. The 8th Century Megadrought Across North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D. W.; Therrell, M. D.; Cleaveland, M. K.; Fye, F. K.; Cook, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Acuna-Soto, R.

    2002-12-01

    Tree-ring data suggest that the 8th and 16th century megadroughts may have been the most severe and sustained droughts to impact North America in the past 1500 years. The 16th century megadrought may have persisted for up to 40 years, and extended from the tropics to the boreal forest and from the Pacific to Atlantic coasts. Evidence for the 8th century drought is sparse, but tree-ring and lake sediment data indicate that this drought extended from the northern Great Plains, across the southwestern United States, and into central Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula. Tree-ring data from Colorado and New Mexico document severe drought from A.D. 735-765, and may provide accurate and precise dating for the onset of the epic droughts reconstructed during the late first millennium A.D. with sedimentary data from Elk Lake, Minnesota; Moon Lake, South Dakota; La Piscina de Yuriria, Guanajuato; and Lake Chichancanab, Yucatan. If these chronological refinements are correct, then the sedimentary records suggest much greater persistence to the 8th century megadrought than indicated by the very high resolution tree-ring data, and a strong second pulse of prolonged drought late in the first millennium. Analyses of instrumental precipitation and drought indices during the 20th century, along with tree-ring reconstructions of climate in Mexico and the Southwest, indicate that annual and decadal droughts can both simultaneously impact the entire region from New Mexico and Texas down into central Mexico. The intensity and large-scale impact of drought across this region seem to be greatest when La Nina conditions and the low phase of the North Pacific oscillation prevail. The tree-ring dated 8th century megadrought occurred near the decline of the Classic Period civilizations at Teotihuacan in central Mexico and in the Mayan region of the Yucatan. The 8th century megadrought may have interacted with anthropogenic environmental degradation, epidemic disease, and social upheaval to

  16. 拆迁普店街:二十世纪末中国都市小说中摧毁和复兴主题的含混 (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  17. On the Late Invention of the Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    The invention of the gyroscope is usually attributed to the French physicist Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault in 1852. He certainly invented the word and also used his gyroscope to demonstrate the rotation of the Earth. However, the gyroscope was actually invented around 1812 by German physicist Johann Bohnenberger who called his device simply the ``machine''. Several others, including American physicist Walter R. Johnson (who called his apparatus the ``rotascope''), independently invented the gyroscope in the 1830's. Each of these devices employed a central object (sphere or disc) that could spin freely on a shaft. This was placed between three independent gimbals, which could also move freely. Bohnenberger's ``machine'' has much the same appearance as an armillary sphere. Such devices had been produced for at least the preceding three centuries. They were used to display the movements of various celestial bodies. However, armillary spheres are only simulations of celestial appearances, not actual demonstrations of physical phenomena. Gimbal systems similar to those found in gyroscopes were used on ships to level oil lamps from at least the sixteenth century and the ideas behind armillary spheres date back at least a millennium before that. So why was the gyroscope invented so late? Some possible reasons will be presented for the long delay between the development of the individual underlying components and the eventual appearance of the gyroscope in its modern form.

  18. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in broa...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  19. Late-onset hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dudek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, the number of men over the age of 50 years exceeds 6 million. It is estimated that about 2-6% of this population develops symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. In men, testosterone deficiency increases slightly with age. LOH is a clinically and biochemically defined disease of older men with serum testosterone level below the reference parameters of younger healthy men and with symptoms of testosterone deficiency, manifested by pronounced disturbances of quality of life and harmful effects on multiple organ systems. Testosterone replacement therapy may give several benefits regarding body composition, metabolic control, and psychological and sexual parameters.

  20. The 'range problem' after a century of rangeland science: New research themes for altered landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rangeland science profession in the United States has its roots in the widespread overgrazing and concurrent severe droughts of the late 19th Century. These drivers contributed to rangeland resource degradation especially in the American Southwest—what E. O. Wooton (1908) called "The Range Probl...

  1. Franciszek Neugebauer's Ichnograms as a Pioneering Diagnostic Method in Orthopedics in the 19th Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowska-Zamachowska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an original orthopedic diagnostic method from the late 19th century developed by Franciszek Neugebauer, a distinguished Polish physician. His technique of detecting skeletal abnormalities was an excellent coping method in the time before the first diagnostic imaging method - x-ray imaging - had been invented.

  2. Rethinking Business Models for 21st Century Higher Education: A European Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichy, Jessica; Enström, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    The late 20th century was an era of social, economic, technological, and political change, resulting in significant shifts in the perception of enlightenment, knowledge, and education. The impact of these changes have become quite apparent in higher education where there is now mounting pressure for faculty to deliver high quality education to an…

  3. Silesians at the Department of Theology of the Krakow University in the 15th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Markowski

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of universities in Prague, Vienna and Krakow enabled the Silesians to participate to a greater extent in the university culture of late Middle Ages. Although a number of higher education institutions had sprung up in Central Europe in the 15th century, the relationship with the Krakow University proved the most permanent and fruitful.

  4. The Great Escape: Technological Lock-in vs Appropriate Technology in Early Twentieth Century British Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltjer, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    America’s lead over Europe in manufacturing productivity from the late nineteenth century onwards has often been contributed to differences in initial conditions, trapping Europe in a relatively declining, labor-intensive and low-productive technological path. In this paper, I reassess the

  5. Nineteenth-Century World's Fairs as Accountability Systems: Scopic Systems, Audit Practices and Educational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobe, Noah W.; Boven, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Late-19th century World's Fairs constitute an important chapter in the history of educational accountability. International expositions allowed for educational systems and practices to be "audited" by lay and expert audiences. In this article we examine how World's Fair exhibitors sought to make visible educational practices and…

  6. Conceptual Revolutions in Twentieth-Century Art. NBER Working Paper No. 15073

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galenson, David

    2009-01-01

    Art critics and scholars have acknowledged the breakdown of their explanations and narratives of contemporary art in the face of what they consider the incoherent era of "pluralism" or "postmodernism" that began in the late twentieth century. This failure is in fact a result of their inability to understand the nature of the development of…

  7. KRAR: Nineteenth century turtle-shell masks from Mabuyag collected by Samuel McFarlane

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Philp, Jude

    2015-01-01

    .... The majority of items were krar, turtle-shell masks. This paper uses archival resources to present the circumstances of the transactions between McFarlane and European museums which purchased the krar from him in the late nineteenth century to answer...

  8. The Emotional Economies of Protestant Missions to Aboriginal People in Nineteenth-Century Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLisky, Claire Louise

    2014-01-01

    Taking Norbert Elias’ ideas about emotional change as its foil, this paper explores the changing role and function of emotion on late-nineteenth century Protestant missions in Australia. Like Elias, though for religious rather than historical reasons, missionaries during this period conceived...

  9. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  10. PHONOGRAPHIC INDUSTRY: SUMMIT AND DECLINE IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valterlei Borges de Araújo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By highlighting the Brazilian context as the analytical approach, this article gathers data on the impacts on music consumption brought by the development of the phonographic industry. Since the emergence of the phonograph in the late 19th century until the revolution brought by the digitization and sharing of files in the first decade of the 21st century, this research presents, chronologically, the main devices for sound reproduction or physical music supports that have appeared within this time period, thus creating a record of the technological evolution in the phonographic industry in the 20th century. It is a fact that many of the resources currently used were already available in the second half of the last century, however to a small extent and with a high cost of production. This article targets the present-day reconfiguration of the means of production and distribution of music, as well as its means of consumption and some of its effects on the industry, the artists and users.

  11. Attempts to Save Tragedy in the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Przybyszewska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the issue of genre-transformation of tragedy in 19th-century Polish drama. The fundamental question is tragedy’s potential after liberation from the most important structural categories of the genre: the three unities, catharsis and anagnorisis. The discussion on the 19th-century patterns of tragedy, derived from contemporary theory, criticism, and theatrical production, are based on research by Marek Dybizbański, who presented an interesting analysis of the problem, which was an important indicator of contemporary literary thought, in his study called Tragedia polska drugiej połowy XIX wieku — wzorce i odstępstwa [The Polish Tragic Drama in Late 19th Century — Patterns and Divergence]. The issues discussed were: disproportion between expectations and effects, indicated by repertoires and contemporary debate on drama, lack of standard productions of tragedy, matched by great surplus of texts that tried to set the standard, and by programmatic declarations on how to do it. The author, following Dybizbański’s discussion, focuses on the question why the 19th century in Poland was, for tragedy, a lost time.

  12. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World War,…

  13. The Loss of Balance between the Art and Science of Management: Observations on the British Experience of Education for Management in the 20th Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero Wilson, Robbie

    2015-01-01

    This essay considers the developments in education for management in 20th-century Britain. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, that is, the highpoint of the United Kingdom's economic success, management was considered more of an art than a science, and formal education specifically for management was limited. After the Second World…

  14. [Medical pluralism revealed by private correspondence in XVIII century Catalonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzoso, A

    2001-01-01

    This work constitutes an approach to the complex world of medical pluralism during the modern age. First, there is a review of the recent historiography concerned with recovering all the possible medical resources that existed and were offered to the patient. The complexity of this medical world are then described, noting the persistence of some elements throughout the late medieval and early modern period. Within the theoretical framework and historical setting established, the work concludes by showing the complexity and permanent interrelationship in the care options, from the point of view of private correspondence of the Veciana family at the end of the XVIII century.

  15. Never too late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  16. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  17. Twenty-first century vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino

    2011-01-01

    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  18. L’effet de présence : entre image fixe et image animée, les représentations de la Passion (fin XIXe-début XXe siècle In search of presence: Representations of the Passion between the fixed and moving image (late 19th, early 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Saint-Martin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Les représentations de la Passion et de la Vie de Jésus ont figuré parmi les premiers titres des débuts du cinéma. A posteriori, la critique des films religieux, notamment dans les années soixante, a été sévère pour ces tentatives jugées plus commerciales que très inspirées. L’intérêt pour le cinéma des premiers temps s’est approfondi dans les dernières décennies et favorise une autre approche de ces productions des années 1895-1920. Restituer l’univers visuel dans lequel ces films ont pris naissance permet de préciser les modalités de représentation des sujets biblique, en lien avec l’historicisme et l’orientalisme. Outre les liens étroits avec la peinture et la photographie, ces premiers films retrouvent certains effets narratifs des jeux de la Passion ou des projections d’images fixes encore abondantes au tournant du XXe siècle. S’attacher à la conception de la figuration contribue à cerner le « désir de voir » et l’effet de présence christique qui se manifestent dans ces premières Passion filmées.Representations of the Passion and the Life of Jesus Christ were a popular topic in early cinema. Retrospective criticism, especially in the 1960’s, was judgmental towards the first religious films, insofar as they were regarded more as commercially driven reenactments than inspired works. Interest in early cinema deepened in recent decades, and has led to a different reading of productions from the period 1895-1920. By restoring the universe of visual references in which these films arose, we are able to relate representations of biblical subjects to movements in historicism and Orientalism. Beyond their close relationship with painting and photography, these early films also reproduced the narrative effects of Passion plays or projections of fixed images that were still widespread at the turn of the 20th century. A focus on figurative conception will help us reconnect with the "need to see" and

  19. UN ENCUENTRO DE ARQUEOLOGÍAS: RESCATES Y ESTUDIO DE COLECCIONES DEL INICIO DEL PERÍODO TARDÍO (CA. SIGLOS XI-XIII (CATAMARCA, ARGENTINA / An encounter of archaeologies: rescues and study of collections of the Late Period beginning (ca. XI-XIII centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Palamarczuk

    2015-12-01

    the sample. The three AMS radiocarbon dates allow locate funeral events between the eleventh and twelfth centuries and contribute to the discussion on the chronology of the whole.

  20. Thomas Birch's ‘Weekly Letter’ (1741–66): correspondence and history in the mid-eighteenth-century Royal Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Markman

    2014-01-01

    Thomas Birch (1705–66), Secretary of the Royal Society from 1752 to 1765, and Philip Yorke, second Earl of Hardwicke (1720–90), wrote a ‘Weekly Letter’ from 1741 to 1766, an unpublished correspondence of 680 letters now housed in the British Library (Additional Mss 35396–400). The article examines the dimensions and purposes of this correspondence, an important conduit of information for the influential coterie of the ‘Hardwicke circle’ gathered around Yorke in the Royal Society. It explores the writers' self-conception of the correspondence, which was expressed in deliberately archaic categories of seventeenth-century news exchange, such as the newsletter, aviso and a-la-main. It shows how the letter writers negotiated their difference in status through the discourse of friendship, and concludes that the ‘Weekly Letter’ constituted for the correspondents a form of private knowledge, restricted in circulation to their discrete group, and as such unlike the open and networked model of Enlightenment science. PMID:25254279