WorldWideScience

Sample records for late phase behaviors

  1. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.; Nisbet, A.; Thome, D.; Savkin, M.; Hoe, S.; Brynildsen, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper looks at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the late phase of a radioactive release, and the development of the initial late phase strategy. It discusses the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Based on this the following recommendations are made: (1) the issues that will arise at the start of the late phase response to a radioactive release require preparation work in advance of any release; (2) this preparation should consider the adequacy of legislation, technical data and modelling, options for waste storage and disposal, resources for monitoring and implementing clean up; (3) late phase preparedness requires regular exercising and (4) the possibility of terrorist releases adds further emphasis to the need for preparedness for the late phase. (authors)

  2. Late-time cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1990-11-01

    It is shown that the potential galaxy formation and large-scale structure problems of objects existing at high redshifts (Z approx-gt 5), structures existing on scales of 100M pc as well as velocity flows on such scales, and minimal microwave anisotropies (ΔT/T) approx-lt 10 -5 can be solved if the seeds needed to generate structure form in a vacuum phase transition after decoupling. It is argued that the basic physics of such a phase transition is no more exotic than that utilized in the more traditional GUT scale phase transitions, and that, just as in the GUT case, significant random gaussian fluctuations and/or topological defects can form. Scale lengths of ∼100M pc for large-scale structure as well as ∼1 M pc for galaxy formation occur naturally. Possible support for new physics that might be associated with such a late-time transition comes from the preliminary results of the SAGE solar neutrino experiment, implying neutrino flavor mixing with values similar to those required for a late-time transition. It is also noted that a see-saw model for the neutrino masses might also imply a tau neutrino mass that is an ideal hot dark matter candidate. However, in general either hot or cold dark matter can be consistent with a late-time transition. 47 refs., 2 figs

  3. Late time phase transition as dark energy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We show that the dark energy field can naturally be described by the scalar condensates of a non-abelian gauge group. This gauge group is unified with the standard model gauge groups and it has a late time phase transition. The small phase transition explains why the positive acceleration of the universe is ...

  4. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huifang; Wang, Yitao; Cai, Wei [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Zhu, Jiang [Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Ozaki, Toshinori [Laboratory of DNA Damage Signaling, Chiba Cancer Center Research Institute, 666-2 Nitona, Chuohku, Chiba 260-8717 (Japan); Bu, Youquan, E-mail: buyqcn@aliyun.com [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China); Molecular Medicine and Cancer Research Center, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016 (China)

    2015-03-13

    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. - Highlights: • PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. • PRR11-knockdown caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase and G2 phase. • The treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. • PRR11-knockdown led to multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. • Forced expression of PRR11 promoted the PCC and inhibited

  5. PRR11 regulates late-S to G2/M phase progression and induces premature chromatin condensation (PCC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chundong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yi; Zhu, Huifang; Wang, Yitao; Cai, Wei; Zhu, Jiang; Ozaki, Toshinori; Bu, Youquan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that proline-rich protein 11 (PRR11) is a novel tumor-related gene product likely implicated in the regulation of cell cycle progression as well as lung cancer development. However, its precise role in cell cycle progression remains unclear. In the present study, we have further investigated the expression pattern and functional implication of PRR11 during cell cycle in detail in human lung carcinoma-derived H1299 cells. According to our immunofluorescence study, PRR11 was expressed largely in cytoplasm, the amount of PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase, and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. Consistent with those observations, siRNA-mediated knockdown of PRR11 caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase. Intriguingly, the treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. Moreover, knockdown of PRR11 also resulted in a remarkable retardation of G2/M progression, and PRR11-knockdown cells subsequently underwent G2 phase cell cycle arrest accompanied by obvious mitotic defects such as multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. In addition, forced expression of PRR11 promoted the premature Chromatin condensation (PCC), and then proliferation of PRR11-expressing cells was massively attenuated and induced apoptosis. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that PRR11, which is strictly regulated during cell cycle progression, plays a pivotal role in the regulation of accurate cell cycle progression through the late S phase to mitosis. - Highlights: • PRR11 started to increase in the late S phase and was retained until just before mitotic telophase. • PRR11-knockdown caused a significant cell cycle arrest in the late S phase and G2 phase. • The treatment with dNTPs further augmented PRR11 silencing-mediated S phase arrest. • PRR11-knockdown led to multipolar spindles and multiple nuclei. • Forced expression of PRR11 promoted the PCC and inhibited

  6. Does Early Childhood Callous-Unemotional Behavior Uniquely Predict Behavior Problems or Callous-Unemotional Behavior in Late Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2016-01-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…

  7. On the Importance of the Flare's Late Phase for the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Eparvier, Frank; Jones, Andrew R.; Hock, Rachel; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Klimchuk, James A.; Didkovsky, Leonid; Judge, Darrell; Mariska, John; Bailey, Scott; hide

    2011-01-01

    The new solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance observations from NASA Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have revealed a new class of solar flares that are referred to as late phase flares. These flares are characterized by the hot 2-5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe XVI 33.5 nm) showing large secondary peaks that appear many minutes to hours after an eruptive flare event. In contrast, the cool 0.7-1.5 MK coronal emissions (e.g., Fe IX 17.1 nm) usually dim immediately after the flare onset and do not recover until after the delayed second peak of the hot coronal emissions. We refer to this period of 1-5 hours after the fl amrea sin phase as the late phase, and this late phase is uniquely different than long duration flares associated with 2-ribbon flares or large filament eruptions. Our analysis of the late phase flare events indicates that the late phase involves hot coronal loops near the flaring region, not directly related to the original flaring loop system but rather with the higher post-eruption fields. Another finding is that space weather applications concerning Earth s ionosphere and thermosphere need to consider these late phase flares because they can enhance the total EUV irradiance flare variation by a factor of 2 when the late phase contribution is included.

  8. Diurnal phase of late-night against late-afternoon of stratiform and convective precipitation in summer southern contiguous China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Rucong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); China Meteorological Administration, LaSW, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Yuan, Weihua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, Jian [China Meteorological Administration, LaSW, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing (China); Fu, Yunfei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, LASG, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Beijing (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Laboratory of Satellite Remote Sensing and Climate Environment, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2010-09-15

    Using the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) observations combined with the surface rain gauge data during 1998-2006, the robust diurnal features of summer stratiform and convective precipitation over the southern contiguous China are revealed by exploring the diurnal variations of rain rate and precipitation profile. The precipitation over the southern contiguous China exhibits two distinguishing diurnal phases: late-night (2200-0600 LST) and late-afternoon (1400-2200 LST), dependent on the location, precipitation type and duration time. Generally, the maximum rain rate and the highest profile of stratiform precipitation occur in the late-afternoon (late-night) over the southeastern (southwestern) China, while most of the stratiform short-duration rain rate tends to present late-afternoon peaks over the southern China. For convective precipitation, the maximum rain rate and the highest profile occur in the late-afternoon over most of the southern contiguous China, while the convective long-duration rain rate exhibits late-night peaks over the southwestern China. Without regional dependence, the convective precipitation exhibits much larger amplitude of diurnal variations in both near surface rain rate and vertical extension compared with stratiform precipitation and the convective rain top rises most rapidly between noon and afternoon. However, there are two distinctive sub-regions. The diurnal phases of precipitation there are very weakly dependent on precipitation type and duration time. Over the eastern periphery of the Tibetan Plateau, the maximum rain rate and the highest profile of either convective or stratiform precipitation occur in the late-night. Over the southeastern coastal regions, both the near surface rain rate and rain top of convective and stratiform precipitation peak in the late-afternoon. (orig.)

  9. Models and correlations of the DEBRIS Late-Phase Melt Progression Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.C.; Gasser, R.D.

    1997-09-01

    The DEBRIS Late Phase Melt Progression Model is an assembly of models, embodied in a computer code, which is designed to treat late-phase melt progression in dry rubble (or debris) regions that can form as a consequence of a severe core uncover accident in a commercial light water nuclear reactor. The approach is fully two-dimensional, and incorporates a porous medium modeling framework together with conservation and constitutive relationships to simulate the time-dependent evolution of such regions as various physical processes act upon the materials. The objective of the code is to accurately model these processes so that the late-phase melt progression that would occur in different hypothetical severe nuclear reactor accidents can be better understood and characterized. In this report the models and correlations incorporated and used within the current version of DEBRIS are described. These include the global conservation equations solved, heat transfer and fission heating models, melting and refreezing models (including material interactions), liquid and solid relocation models, gas flow and pressure field models, and the temperature and compositionally dependent material properties employed. The specific models described here have been used in the experiment design analysis of the Phebus FPT-4 debris-bed fission-product release experiment. An earlier DEBRIS code version was used to analyze the MP-1 and MP-2 late-phase melt progression experiments conducted at Sandia National Laboratories for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  10. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memo...

  11. Toward an understanding of late life suicidal behavior: the role of lifespan developmental theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Amy; O'Riley, Alisa A

    2016-01-01

    Suicidal behavior in late life differs in important ways from suicidal behavior that occurs earlier in the lifespan, suggesting the possibility of developmental differences in the etiology of suicidal behavior. This paper examines late life suicidal behavior within the context of lifespan developmental theory. This paper presents a conceptual framework for using lifespan developmental theory to better understand late life suicidal behavior. We argue that the motivational theory of lifespan development, which focuses on control, is particularly relevant to late life suicide. This theory posits that opportunities to exert control over important aspects of one's life diminish in late life as a result of declines in physical functioning and other factors, and that successful aging is associated with adaptive regulation of this developmental change. Although continued striving to meet goals is normative throughout the lifespan, most individuals also increase the use of compensatory strategies in old age or when faced with a decline in functioning. We propose that individuals who do not adapt to developmental changes by altering their strategies for exerting control will be at risk for suicidal behavior in late life. This paper reviews evidence that supports the importance of control with respect to suicidal outcomes in older adults, as well as findings regarding specific types of control strategies that may be related to suicide risk in older adults with health-related limitations. Although suicidal behavior is not a normal part of aging, the application of lifespan developmental theory may be useful in understanding and potentially preventing suicide among older adults.

  12. Probing the Production of Extreme-ultraviolet Late-phase Solar Flares Using the Model Enthalpy-based Thermal Evolution of Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu; Ding, Mingde

    2018-04-01

    Recent observations in extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths reveal an EUV late phase in some solar flares that is characterized by a second peak in warm coronal emissions (∼3 MK) several tens of minutes to a few hours after the soft X-ray (SXR) peak. Using the model enthalpy-based thermal evolution of loops (EBTEL), we numerically probe the production of EUV late-phase solar flares. Starting from two main mechanisms of producing the EUV late phase, i.e., long-lasting cooling and secondary heating, we carry out two groups of numerical experiments to study the effects of these two processes on the emission characteristics in late-phase loops. In either of the two processes an EUV late-phase solar flare that conforms to the observational criteria can be numerically synthesized. However, the underlying hydrodynamic and thermodynamic evolutions in late-phase loops are different between the two synthetic flare cases. The late-phase peak due to a long-lasting cooling process always occurs during the radiative cooling phase, while that powered by a secondary heating is more likely to take place in the conductive cooling phase. We then propose a new method for diagnosing the two mechanisms based on the shape of EUV late-phase light curves. Moreover, from the partition of energy input, we discuss why most solar flares are not EUV late flares. Finally, by addressing some other factors that may potentially affect the loop emissions, we also discuss why the EUV late phase is mainly observed in warm coronal emissions.

  13. Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether immune challenge with a viral mimic, synthetic double-stranded ribonucleic acid (Poly I: C during different neonatal periods can differently affect depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult mice. Methods: Male C57BL/6 mice were treated with either saline or Poly I:C (1 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg on postnatal days (PND 3-5 (early neonatal phase or PND 14-16 (late neonatal phase, and then subjected to behavioral tests, including tail suspension test and forced swimming test, during adolescence (PND 35 or 40 and adulthood (PND 85 or 90. Results: The results demonstrated that early neonatal immune activation increases depression-related behaviors in both adolescent and adult mice, but late neonatal immune activation only increases depression in adult mice. In other words, these findings indicated that the nature of the offspring's neuropathology can depend on the severity of the insult, the pup's age at the time of the insult, and offspring age at the time of behavioral testing. Conclusion: These findings suggest that dose and timing of neonatal insult and offspring age may be important factors for evaluating neuropsychiatric disorders in adults who experienced early life infection.

  14. Behavior problems in late childhood: the roles of early maternal attachment and teacher-child relationship trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Erin E; Collins, Brian A; Supplee, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were: (1) to examine the roles of early maternal attachment relationships and teacher-child relationships during childhood for externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood, and (2) to investigate teacher-child relationships, as well as externalizing and internalizing behaviors in early childhood as possible mechanisms linking early maternal attachment relationships to behavior problems in late childhood. Longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Early Child Care Research Network Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1140 mothers and children) were used in this investigation. There were three main findings. First, insecure/other maternal attachment relationships in early childhood (i.e., 36 months) were associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood (Grade 5). Second, elevated levels of teacher-child conflict during childhood were associated with externalizing behaviors in late childhood whereas low levels of teacher-child closeness were associated with internalizing behaviors. Third, the effects of insecure/other attachment on externalizing and internalizing behaviors in late childhood were mediated through teacher-child relationships during childhood and early externalizing and internalizing behaviors. Implications for attachment theory are discussed.

  15. Protective actions in the late phase intervention criteria and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: In the past 15 years, the Chernobyl and Goiania accidents resulted in extensive postemergency phase response. Large amounts of 137 Cs were released to the environment during these accidents, leading to a prolonged or quasi-prolonged exposure of the affected populations. The experiences gained from these accidents and others have revealed a need for an updated and fully complete system of decision-making an implementation of long-term countermeasures. In the post-release phase it is expected that a reasonably complete picture of radiation and contamination levels and affected areas in the environment is available. In this phase the dominant risks originate from radioactive materials deposited on the ground, mainly from external exposure and ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs. Measured surface contamination density can thus be used to estimate doses from both the external and ingestion exposure pathways and can therefore be used to make decisions about the introduction of countermeasures. The major countermeasures in the late phase of a nuclear or radiological accident where long-lived radionuclides have been dispersed in the environment are relocation/resettlement, foodstuff restrictions, agricultural countermeasures and cleanup of contaminated land. An overview of these late phase countermeasures is given in the paper. In addition, recommendations from the international radiation protection organizations ICRP, IAEA and from the EU on late phase countermeasures are presented together with the background for their derivation. An important aim of late phase countermeasures is to reduce the likely numbers of cancers as much and as effectively as reasonably possible. However, the total health consequences from long-term exposure situations, and of any countermeasures subsequently implemented, include more than the injuries and increased risks directly attributable to radiation exposure. Stressors, such as the perception of the hazard posed by radiation in

  16. Phase behavior and phase inversion for dispersant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solheim, A.; Brandvik, P.J.

    1991-06-01

    This report describes some preliminary phase behavior studies and phase inversion temperature measurements in seawater, bunker oil and dispersant. The objectives have been to find new ways of characterizing dispersants for dispersing oil spill at sea and, perhaps, to throw new lights on the mechanism of dispersion formation (oil-in-water emulsification). The work has been focussed on the relation to phase behavior and the existence of microemulsion in equilibrium with excess oil and water phases. The dispersing process is also compared to the recommended conditions for emulsion formation. When forming an oil-in-water emulsion in an industrial process, it is recommended to choose an emulsifier which gives a phase inversion temperature (PIT) which is 20 - 60 o C higher than the actual temperature for use. The emulsification process must take place close to the PIT which is the temperature at which the emulsion change from oil-in-water emulsion to water-in-oil emulsion when the system is stirred. This condition corresponds to the temperature where the phase behavior change character. The purpose has been to find out if the composition of the dispersants corresponds to the recommendations for oil-in-water emulsification. The amount of experimental work has been limited. Two kinds of experiments have been carried out. Phase behavior studies have been done for seawater, bunker oil and four different dispersants where one had an optimal composition. The phase behavior was hard to interpret and is not recommended for standard dispersants test. The other experimental technique was PIT-measurements by conductivity measurements versus temperature. 4 figs., 1 tab., 4 refs

  17. Multiple determinants controlling activation of yeast replication origins late in S phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, K L; Diller, J D; Ferguson, B M; Nyland, S V; Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1996-07-01

    Analysis of a 131-kb segment of the left arm of yeast chromosome XIV beginning 157 kb from the telomere reveals four highly active origins of replication that initiate replication late in S phase. Previous work has shown that telomeres act as determinants for late origin activation. However, at least two of the chromosome XIV origins maintain their late activation time when located on large circular plasmids, indicating that late replication is independent of telomeres. Analysis of the replication time of plasmid derivatives containing varying amounts of chromosome XIV DNA show that a minimum of three chromosomal elements, distinct from each tested origin, contribute to late activation time. These late determinants are functionally equivalent, because duplication of one set of contributing sequences can compensate for the removal of another set. Furthermore, insertion of an origin that is normally early activated into this domain results in a shift to late activation, suggesting that the chromosome XIV origins are not unique in their ability to respond to the late determinants.

  18. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Escobar, Martha L.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes. PMID:21960964

  19. Late protein synthesis-dependent phases in CTA long-term memory: BDNF requirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araceli eMartínez-Moreno

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that long-term memory persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related long-term memory when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC, a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA, have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis dependent in different time-windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 hours after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  20. Late Protein Synthesis-Dependent Phases in CTA Long-Term Memory: BDNF Requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Araceli; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Escobar, Martha L

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that long-term memory (LTM) persistence requires a late protein synthesis-dependent phase, even many hours after memory acquisition. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an essential protein synthesis product that has emerged as one of the most potent molecular mediators for long-term synaptic plasticity. Studies in the rat hippocampus have been shown that BDNF is capable to rescue the late-phase of long-term potentiation as well as the hippocampus-related LTM when protein synthesis was inhibited. Our previous studies on the insular cortex (IC), a region of the temporal cortex implicated in the acquisition and storage of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), have demonstrated that intracortical delivery of BDNF reverses the deficit in CTA memory caused by the inhibition of IC protein synthesis due to anisomycin administration during early acquisition. In this work, we first analyze whether CTA memory storage is protein synthesis-dependent in different time windows. We observed that CTA memory become sensible to protein synthesis inhibition 5 and 7 h after acquisition. Then, we explore the effect of BDNF delivery (2 μg/2 μl per side) in the IC during those late protein synthesis-dependent phases. Our results show that BDNF reverses the CTA memory deficit produced by protein synthesis inhibition in both phases. These findings support the notion that recurrent rounds of consolidation-like events take place in the neocortex for maintenance of CTA memory trace and that BDNF is an essential component of these processes.

  1. Huginn. A late-phase nuclear emergency exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauritzen, Bent (ed.) [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2001-02-01

    The Huginn late-phase exercise was carried out by the NKS/BOK-1.4 project group in the spring 2000. National teams from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden took part in the exercise. The objective of the exercise was to test the ability to calculate the radiological and economical consequences of various agricultural countermeasures following a nuclear accient. This report describes the findings of the four national teams, including the approaches made by the tesms, selection of countermeasures and the results of the cost-benefit analyses that they performed. The methods used and findings by the four teams have been compared and recommendations issued based on the exercise results. (au)

  2. Gender differences in nutritional behavior and weight status during early and late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askovic, Branka; Kirchengast, Sylvia

    2012-07-01

    The current study aimed to determine gender differences in nutritional habits, eating behaviour, weight status, body image and weight control practices during early and late adolescence. 677 Viennese pupils (253 boys and 424 girls) between the ages 10 and 18 years (x = 14.1 yrs; +/- 2.2) were enrolled in the study. Weight status was determined by means of body mass index percentiles. To assess eating behavior, food preferences, body image and weight control practices, a 48 item questionnaire was developed. Significant gender differences in weight status were observable during late adolescence only. Girls are significantly less satisfied with their body weight. Furthermore, girls practice dieting and weight control to avoid any weight gain more frequently than boys. Gender differences in eating behavior intensified from early to late adolescence. From early to late adolescence, meal size decreased among girls, while it remains stabile or increased among boys. Boys eat generally more than girls. Furthermore, boys preferred meat and fast food while girls consumed fruits, vegetables and healthy food significantly more frequently. These gender differences are explained by gender specific energetic demands and culture typical beauty ideals.

  3. Montessori-based activities among persons with late-stage dementia: Evaluation of mental and behavioral health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Scott E; Boyd, P August; Bates, Samantha M; Cain, Daphne S; Geiger, Jennifer R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Literature regarding Montessori-based activities with older adults with dementia is fairly common with early stages of dementia. Conversely, research on said activities with individuals experiencing late-stage dementia is limited because of logistical difficulties in sampling and data collection. Given the need to understand risks and benefits of treatments for individuals with late-stage dementia, specifically regarding their mental and behavioral health, this study sought to evaluate the effects of a Montessori-based activity program implemented in a long-term care facility. Method Utilizing an interrupted time series design, trained staff completed observation-based measures for 43 residents with late-stage dementia at three intervals over six months. Empirical measures assessed mental health (anxiety, psychological well-being, quality of life) and behavioral health (problem behaviors, social engagement, capacity for activities of daily living). Results Group differences were observed via repeated measures ANOVA and paired-samples t-tests. The aggregate, longitudinal results-from baseline to final data interval-for the psychological and behavioral health measures were as follows: problem behaviors diminished though not significantly; social engagement decreased significantly; capacities for activities of daily living decreased significantly; quality of life increased slightly but not significantly; anxiety decreased slightly but not significantly; and psychological well-being significantly decreased. Conclusion Improvements observed for quality of life and problem behaviors may yield promise for Montessori-based activities and related health care practices. The rapid physiological and cognitive deterioration from late-stage dementia should be considered when interpreting these results.

  4. On the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAGGERTY, ROY; MCKENNA, SEAN A; MEIGS, LUCY C

    2000-06-12

    The authors investigated the late-time (asymptotic) behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves (BTCs) with rate-limited mass transfer (e.g., in dual or multi-porosity systems) and found that the late-time concentration, c, is given by the simple expression: c = t{sub ad} (c{sub 0}g {minus} m{sub 0}{partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}t), for t >> t{sub ad} and t{sub a} >> t{sub ad} where t{sub ad} is the advection time, c{sub 0} is the initial concentration in the medium, m{sub 0} is the 0th moment of the injection pulse; and t{sub a} is the mean residence time in the immobile domain (i.e., the characteristic mass transfer time). The function g is proportional to the residence time distribution in the immobile domain, the authors tabulate g for many geometries, including several distributed (multirate) models of mass transfer. Using this expression they examine the behavior of late-time concentration for a number of mass transfer models. One key results is that if rate-limited mass transfer causes the BTC to behave as a power-law at late-time (i.e., c {approximately} t{sup {minus}k}), then the underlying density function of rate coefficients must also be a power-law with the form a{sup k{minus}}, as a {r_arrow}0. This is true for both density functions of first-order and diffusion rate coefficients. BTCs with k < 3 persisting to the end of the experiment indicate a mean residence time longer than the experiment and possibly infinite, and also suggest an effective rate coefficient that is either undefined or changes as a function of observation time. They apply their analysis to breakthrough curves from Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.

  5. Conflict Beliefs, Goals, and Behavior in Romantic Relationships during Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Valerie A.; Kobielski, Sarah J.; Martin, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about social cognition regarding conflict in romantic relationships during late adolescence. The current study examined beliefs, social goals, and behavioral strategies for conflict in romantic relationships and their associations with relationship quality among a sample of 494 college students. Two dimensions of conflict beliefs,…

  6. Finding myself: a theory on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Deanna M

    2014-01-01

    This study employed a grounded theory research design to develop a theoretical model focused on the maturation of spirituality and its influence on behavior during late adolescence. Quantitative research studies have linked spirituality with decreased health-risk behaviors and increased health-promotion behaviors during late adolescence. Qualitative, theoretical data is proposed to discover the underlying reasons this relationship exists and increase the ability to apply this knowledge to practice. Twenty-one adolescents, age 16-21 years, were e-mail interviewed and transcripts analyzed using a conceptual lens of Blumer's symbolic interactionism. From this analysis, a theoretical model emerged with the core concept, finding myself that represents 5 core process concepts. Implications of this study illustrate that late adolescents are aware of their personal spiritual maturation as well as its influence on behavior. In addition, a distinction between the generic concept of spirituality, personal spirituality, and religion emerged.

  7. MCM-BP regulates unloading of the MCM2–7 helicase in late S phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Atsuya; Frappier, Lori; Méchali, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Origins of DNA replication are licensed by recruiting MCM2–7 to assemble the prereplicative complex (pre-RC). How MCM2–7 is inactivated or removed from chromatin at the end of S phase is still unclear. Here, we show that MCM-BP can disassemble the MCM2–7 complex and might function as an unloader of MCM2–7 from chromatin. In Xenopus egg extracts, MCM-BP exists in a stable complex with MCM7, but is not associated with the MCM2–7 hexameric complex. MCM-BP accumulates in nuclei in late S phase, well after the loading of MCM2–7 onto chromatin. MCM-BP immunodepletion in Xenopus egg extracts inhibits replication-dependent MCM dissociation without affecting pre-RC formation and DNA replication. When excess MCM-BP is incubated with Xenopus egg extracts or immunopurified MCM2–7, it binds to MCM proteins and promotes disassembly of the MCM2–7 complex. Recombinant MCM-BP also releases MCM2–7 from isolated late-S-phase chromatin, but this activity is abolished when DNA replication is blocked. MCM-BP silencing in human cells also delays MCM dissociation in late S phase. We propose that MCM-BP plays a key role in the mechanism by which pre-RC is cleared from replicated DNA in vertebrate cells. PMID:21196493

  8. Emotional and behavioral problems in late preterm and early term births: outcomes at child age 36 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stene-Larsen, Kim; Lang, Astri M; Landolt, Markus A; Latal, Beatrice; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2016-12-01

    Recent findings has shown that late preterm births (gestational weeks 34-36) and early term births (gestational weeks 37-38) is associated with an increased risk of several psychological and developmental morbidities. In this article we investigate whether late preterm and early term births is associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems at 36 months of age and whether there are gender differences in risk of these outcomes. Forty-three thousand, two hundred ninety-seven children and their mothers participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). One thousand, eight hundred fifty-three (4.3%) of the children in the sample were born late preterm and 7,835 (18.1%) were born early term. Information on gestational age and on prenatal and postnatal risk factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Information on emotional and behavioral problems was assessed by standardized questionnaires (CBCL/ITSEA) filled out by the mothers. Gender-stratified logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between late preterm / early term and emotional and behavioral problems at 36 months of age. We found a gender-specific increased risk of emotional problems in girls born late preterm (OR 1.47 95%CI 1.11-1.95) and in girls born early term (OR 1.21 95%CI 1.04-1.42). We did not find an increased risk of emotional problems in boys born late preterm (OR 1.09 95%CI 0.82-1.45) or early term (OR 0.93 95%CI 0.79-1.10). Behavioral problems were not increased in children born late preterm or early term. Girls born late preterm and early term show an increased risk of emotional problems at 36 months of age. This finding suggests that gender should be taken into account when evaluating children born at these gestational ages.

  9. Numerical investigation of the late-time Kerr tails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, Istvan; Toth, Gabor Zs, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.hu, E-mail: tgzs@rmki.kfki.hu [RMKI, H-1121 Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33 (Hungary)

    2011-10-07

    The late-time behavior of a scalar field on fixed Kerr background is examined in a numerical framework incorporating the techniques of conformal compactification and hyperbolic initial value formulation. The applied code is 1+(1+2) as it is based on the use of the spectral method in the angular directions while in the time-radial section fourth order finite differencing, along with the method of lines, is applied. The evolution of various types of stationary and non-stationary pure multipole initial states are investigated. The asymptotic decay rates are determined not only in the domain of outer communication but along the event horizon and at future null infinity as well. The decay rates are found to be different for stationary and non-stationary initial data, and they also depend on the fall off properties of the initial data toward future null infinity. The energy and angular momentum transfers are found to show significantly different behavior in the initial phase of the time evolution. The quasinormal ringing phase and the tail phase are also investigated. In the tail phase, the decay exponents for the energy and angular momentum losses at I{sup +} are found to be smaller than at the horizon which is in accordance with the behavior of the field itself and it means that at late times the energy and angular momentum falling into the black hole become negligible in comparison with the energy and angular momentum radiated toward I{sup +}. The energy and angular momentum balances are used as additional verifications of the reliability of our numerical method.

  10. Numerical investigation of the late-time Kerr tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, Istvan; Toth, Gabor Zs

    2011-01-01

    The late-time behavior of a scalar field on fixed Kerr background is examined in a numerical framework incorporating the techniques of conformal compactification and hyperbolic initial value formulation. The applied code is 1+(1+2) as it is based on the use of the spectral method in the angular directions while in the time-radial section fourth order finite differencing, along with the method of lines, is applied. The evolution of various types of stationary and non-stationary pure multipole initial states are investigated. The asymptotic decay rates are determined not only in the domain of outer communication but along the event horizon and at future null infinity as well. The decay rates are found to be different for stationary and non-stationary initial data, and they also depend on the fall off properties of the initial data toward future null infinity. The energy and angular momentum transfers are found to show significantly different behavior in the initial phase of the time evolution. The quasinormal ringing phase and the tail phase are also investigated. In the tail phase, the decay exponents for the energy and angular momentum losses at I + are found to be smaller than at the horizon which is in accordance with the behavior of the field itself and it means that at late times the energy and angular momentum falling into the black hole become negligible in comparison with the energy and angular momentum radiated toward I + . The energy and angular momentum balances are used as additional verifications of the reliability of our numerical method.

  11. Fluctuation effects in bulk polymer phase behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, F.S.; Rosedale, J.H.; Stepanek, P.; Lodge, T.P.; Wiltzius, P.; Hjelm R, Jr.; Fredrickson, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    Bulk polymer-polymer, and block copolymer, phase behaviors have traditionally been interpreted using mean-field theories. Recent small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) studies of critical phenomena in model binary polymer mixtures confirm that non-mean-field behavior is restricted to a narrow range of temperatures near the critical point, in close agreement with the Ginzburg criterion. In contrast, strong derivations from mean-field behavior are evident in SANS and rheological measurements on model block copolymers more than 50C above the order-disorder transition (ODT), which can be attributed to sizeable composition fluctuations. Such fluctuation effects undermine the mean-field assumption, conventionally applied to bulk polymers, and result in qualitative changes in phase behavior, such as the elimination of a thermodynamic stability limit in these materials. The influence of fluctuation effects on block copolymer and binary mixture phase behavior is compared and contrasted in this presentation

  12. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup : comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoven, Andor F; Braat, Manon N G J A; Prince, Jip F; van Doormaal, Pieter J; van Leeuwen, Maarten S; Lam, Marnix G E H; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J

    OBJECTIVES: To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. METHODS: 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial

  13. Physiotherapeutic approach on the late phase of chikungunya: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileciram Monialy Barros Marinho Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: in April of 2016, the epidemiological bulletin reported 39,017 suspected cases of chikungunya fever in Brazil. The main symptoms of the disease in the acute phase are: high fever, polyarthralgia, back pain, headache and fatigue; while in the late phase present polyarthralgia or musculoskeletal pain which often has prolonged duration. Description: in the late phase, the patient presented complaints mainly of: severe pain on the ankle joints wrists, elbows and shoulders. The medical handling consisted of continuous ultrasound sessions with the frequency of 1 MHz. The infrared laser with a dosage of 4J and 3s per point; TENS-burst with a pulse width of 250 us and the frequency of 2Hz, carried out for 10 days. The physiotherapeutic treatment proposal was an innovation, however there are no medical literatures for completementary medication for the treatment which could reduce the use of analgesics and could cause prolonged comfort to the patient ratified by EVA and the SF-36. Discussion: the use of ultrasound and low intensity laser are performed on the signs of chronic articular treatment in order to reduce inflammation, pain and joint stiffness. Therefore, a remarkable reduction of the algic state and the improvement of the patient's life along the r ten consecutive sessions of a proposed protocol in this study, thus there is a need for further researches on this issue so it is possible to perform a medical handling based on evidences on the theme.

  14. On the late-time behavior of Virasoro blocks and a classification of semiclassical saddles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam [Department of Physics, Boston University,Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Kaplan, Jared [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University,Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-12

    Recent work has demonstrated that black hole thermodynamics and information loss/restoration in AdS{sub 3}/CFT{sub 2} can be derived almost entirely from the behavior of the Virasoro conformal blocks at large central charge, with relatively little dependence on the precise details of the CFT spectrum or OPE coefficients. Here, we elaborate on the non-perturbative behavior of Virasoro blocks by classifying all ‘saddles’ that can contribute for arbitrary values of external and internal operator dimensions in the semiclassical large central charge limit. The leading saddles, which determine the naive semiclassical behavior of the Virasoro blocks, all decay exponentially at late times, and at a rate that is independent of internal operator dimensions. Consequently, the semiclassical contribution of a finite number of high-energy states cannot resolve a well-known version of the information loss problem in AdS{sub 3}. However, we identify two infinite classes of sub-leading saddles, and one of these classes does not decay at late times.

  15. Liver CT for vascular mapping during radioembolisation workup: comparison of an early and late arterial phase protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoven, Andor F. van den; Braat, Manon N.G.J.A.; Prince, Jip F.; Doormaal, Pieter J. van; Leeuwen, Maarten S. van; Lam, Marnix G.E.H.; Bosch, Maurice A.A.J. van den [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-01-15

    To compare right gastric (RGA) and segment 4 artery (A4) origin detection rates during radioembolisation workup between early and late arterial phase liver CT protocols. 100 consecutive patients who underwent liver CT between May 2012-January 2015 with early or late arterial phase protocol (n = 50 each, 10- vs. 20-s post-threshold delay) were included. RGA/A4 origin detection rates, assessed by two raters, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the hepatic artery relative to the portal vein were compared between the protocols. The first-second rater scored the RGA origin as visible in 58-65 % (specific proportion of agreement 82 %, κ = 0.62); A4 origin in 96-89 % (94 %, κ = 0.54). Thirty-six percent of RGA origins not detectable by DSA were identified on CT. Origin detection rates were not significantly different for early/late arterial phases. Mean CNR was higher in the early arterial phase protocol (1.7 vs. 1.2, p < 0.001). A 10-s delay arterial phase CT protocol does not significantly improve detection of small intra- and extrahepatic branches. RGA origin detection requires further optimization, whereas A4/MHA origin detection is adequate, with good inter-rater reproducibility. CT remains important for preprocedural planning, because it may reveal arterial anatomy not discernible on DSA. (orig.)

  16. Dysfunctional Relationship Beliefs in Parent-Late Adolescent Relationship and Conflict Resolution Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamci, Zeynep

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of dysfunctional relationships beliefs on both the perceptions of their relationships with the parents and conflict resolution behaviors of late adolescence. The sample was consisted of 372 Turkish university students (248 women and 124 men). Interpersonal Cognitive Distortions Scale,…

  17. Physical and behavioral development in rats after late prenatal exposure to diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, S B; Sahoo, R N

    1990-01-01

    The effect of late prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZP) on physical and behavioral development of rat pups was investigated. Prenatal exposure to DZP (20 mg/kg, sc, in last week of pregnancy) did not alter litter size and no gross malformations were noted at birth. Body weight at birth and subsequent weight gain was significantly less in these animals. The development of reflexes and neuromuscular maturation was normal. Open field locomotor activity and rearing scores were significantly decreased. Test of social play in juvenile rats revealed normal pattern of sexual dimorphism with increased masculinized behavior. Acquisition and retention of passive avoidance task was not affected by DZP exposure, however, retention of brightness discrimination task was significantly decreased. The hypnotic effect of a challenge dose of DZP and convulsive effect of pentylene tetrazole remained unaltered. Open field activity test in adult animals revealed increased ambulation. Probe dose of amphetamine in these animals caused paradoxical decrease in activity. It is concluded that exposure to high dose of DZP during late prenatal period may not manifest in physical or neuromuscular impairment during early development period, except for weight loss, however, it may have long term effects on behavior becoming manifest in adolescence and at maturity.

  18. Anisotropic colloids: bulk phase behavior and equilibrium sedimentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marechal, M.A.T.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the phase behavior of anisotropically shaped (i.e. non-spherical) colloids using computer simulations. Only hard-core interactions between the colloids are taken into account to investigate the effects of shape alone. The bulk phase behavior of three different shapes of

  19. Light phase testing of social behaviors: not a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase.

  20. Evaluation of the renal venous system on late arterial and venous phase images with MDCT angiography in potential living laparoscopic renal donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamoto, S.; Lawler, L.P.; Fishman, E.K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to assess whether both renal arteries and renal veins can be evaluated using single-phase MDCT data sets alone to eliminate the need for both arterial and venous phase data sets. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive potential living renal donors who underwent 4- MDCT were evaluated. CT was performed with 120 mL of IV contrast material at an injection rate of 3 mL/sec. Both late arterial and venous phase acquisitions were obtained at 25 and 55 sec from the start of IV contrast injection, respectively. The number of the right and left renal veins and its anatomic variations were assessed by two reviewers. Late arterial phase images were evaluated initially, and then venous phase images were analyzed to assess opacification of the renal vein and to see whether venous phase data sets changed or added information about the venous anatomy as seen on late arterial phase images. Results: The retroaortic left renal vein was found in two subjects, and the circumaortic left renal vein was detected in three subjects. The renal veins were adequately opacified on late arterial phase images in all subjects. There were six subjects who had a normal left renal vein with a small posterior branch coursing posterior to the aorta and draining into the inferior vena cava, which were difficult to differentiate from the lumbar vein or ascending lumbar vein; in three of these six subjects, the small posterior branch was opacified only on venous phase images. Conclusion: Late arterial phase images obtained at 25 sec after the start of contrast injection can reveal the renal vein anatomy except for a small posterior branch of the left renal vein difficult to differentiate from the lumbar or ascending lumbar vein, as seen in three subjects. The data suggest that venous phase imaging is not necessary for the evaluation of renal vein anatomy. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the renal venous system on late arterial and venous phase images with MDCT angiography in potential living laparoscopic renal donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamoto, S.; Lawler, L.P.; Fishman, E.K. [Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States). The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science

    2005-03-15

    Objective: The objective of our study was to assess whether both renal arteries and renal veins can be evaluated using single-phase MDCT data sets alone to eliminate the need for both arterial and venous phase data sets. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive potential living renal donors who underwent 4- MDCT were evaluated. CT was performed with 120 mL of IV contrast material at an injection rate of 3 mL/sec. Both late arterial and venous phase acquisitions were obtained at 25 and 55 sec from the start of IV contrast injection, respectively. The number of the right and left renal veins and its anatomic variations were assessed by two reviewers. Late arterial phase images were evaluated initially, and then venous phase images were analyzed to assess opacification of the renal vein and to see whether venous phase data sets changed or added information about the venous anatomy as seen on late arterial phase images. Results: The retroaortic left renal vein was found in two subjects, and the circumaortic left renal vein was detected in three subjects. The renal veins were adequately opacified on late arterial phase images in all subjects. There were six subjects who had a normal left renal vein with a small posterior branch coursing posterior to the aorta and draining into the inferior vena cava, which were difficult to differentiate from the lumbar vein or ascending lumbar vein; in three of these six subjects, the small posterior branch was opacified only on venous phase images. Conclusion: Late arterial phase images obtained at 25 sec after the start of contrast injection can reveal the renal vein anatomy except for a small posterior branch of the left renal vein difficult to differentiate from the lumbar or ascending lumbar vein, as seen in three subjects. The data suggest that venous phase imaging is not necessary for the evaluation of renal vein anatomy. (author)

  2. Serum IgE and IgG4 against muscle larva excretory-secretory products during the early and late phases of human trichinellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Marcela A; Forastiero, María A; Saracino, María P; Vila, Cecilia C; Venturiello, Stella M

    2017-11-01

    In human trichinellosis, the relevance of the presence and persistence of specific serum IgE and IgG4 during the early and late phases of infection is still controversial.The aim of this work was to determine the percentage of human sera presenting IgE and IgG4 against Trichinella spiralis muscle larvae excretory-secretory products as well as their levels during the early and late phases of the infection. The antigen recognition pattern by serum total immunoglobulins (IgGAM), IgE, and IgG4 was assessed over time. Serum samples during early and late phases were analyzed by ELISA and immunoelectrotransfer blot (IETB).Results showed that (a)-IgE and IgG4 are present at constant levels in both phases; (b)-IgE recognized the glycoproteins of ~ 45 and ~ 55 kDa and IgG4 only the ~ 45 kDa; (c)-in the late phase, the percentage of specific IgE positive sera was higher than that of specific IgG4 by IETB; while in serum samples taken during the early phase, no differences were found between both isotypes; (d)-both isotypes displayed different glycoprotein recognition patterns: the pattern corresponding to IgE was coincident with that of IgGAM, comprising seven glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 116 to ~ 29 kDa), whereas IgG4 revealed four glycoproteins (ranging from ~ 97 to ~ 45 kDa), showing a different sera recognition percentage depending on the phase studied.In conclusion, IgE and IgG4 cannot be considered exclusive isotypes of neither the early nor the late phase of infection and they are as useful as the detection of total antibodies in the early diagnosis.

  3. Circadian wheel running behavior is altered in an APP/E4 mouse model of late onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Katelyn N; Kakalec, Peter A; Smith, Meghann L; Howell, Stefanie N; Flinn, Jane M

    2017-12-01

    Circadian rhythms are altered in several diseases associated with aging, one of which is Alzheimer's disease (AD). One example of a circadian rhythm is the rest-activity cycle, which can be measured in mice by monitoring their wheel-running. The present study sought to investigate differences in light phase/dark phase activity between a mouse model of late onset AD (APP/E4) and control (C57Bl6J) mice, in both the pre-plaque and post-plaques stages of the disease. To assess activity level, 24-h wheel running behavior was monitored at six months (pre-plaque) and twelve months (post-plaque) for a period of nine days. The following measures were analyzed: counts (wheel rotations) during the dark phase, counts during the light phase, hour of activity onset, and hour of activity offset. Key findings indicate that activity onset is delayed in APP/E4 mice at six and twelve months, and activity profiles for APP/E4 and C57Bl6J mice differ during the light and dark phase in such a way that APP/E4 mice run less in the early hours of the dark phase and more in the later hours of the dark phase compared to C57Bl6J mice. These findings imply that rest-activity cycle is altered in the pre-plaque stages of AD in APP/E4 mice, as they show impairments as early as six months of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Global profiling of DNA replication timing and efficiency reveals that efficient replication/firing occurs late during S-phase in S. pombe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Eshaghi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During S. pombe S-phase, initiation of DNA replication occurs at multiple sites (origins that are enriched with AT-rich sequences, at various times. Current studies of genome-wide DNA replication profiles have focused on the DNA replication timing and origin location. However, the replication and/or firing efficiency of the individual origins on the genomic scale remain unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using the genome-wide ORF-specific DNA microarray analysis, we show that in S. pombe, individual origins fire with varying efficiencies and at different times during S-phase. The increase in DNA copy number plotted as a function of time is approximated to the near-sigmoidal model, when considering the replication start and end timings at individual loci in cells released from HU-arrest. Replication efficiencies differ from origin to origin, depending on the origin's firing efficiency. We have found that DNA replication is inefficient early in S-phase, due to inefficient firing at origins. Efficient replication occurs later, attributed to efficient but late-firing origins. Furthermore, profiles of replication timing in cds1Delta cells are abnormal, due to the failure in resuming replication at the collapsed forks. The majority of the inefficient origins, but not the efficient ones, are found to fire in cds1Delta cells after HU removal, owing to the firing at the remaining unused (inefficient origins during HU treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results indicate that efficient DNA replication/firing occurs late in S-phase progression in cells after HU removal, due to efficient late-firing origins. Additionally, checkpoint kinase Cds1p is required for maintaining the efficient replication/firing late in S-phase. We further propose that efficient late-firing origins are essential for ensuring completion of DNA duplication by the end of S-phase.

  5. Coupled Interfacial Tension and Phase Behavior Model Based on Micellar Curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, V. A.

    2017-11-08

    This article introduces a consistent and robust model that predicts interfacial tensions for all microemulsion Winsor types and overall compositions. The model incorporates film bending arguments and Huh\\'s equation and is coupled to phase behavior so that simultaneous tuning of both interfacial tension (IFT) and phase behavior is possible. The oil-water interfacial tension and characteristic length are shown to be related to each other through the hydrophilic-lipophilic deviation (HLD). The phase behavior is tied to the micelle curvatures, without the need for using the net average curvature (NAC). The interfacial tension model is related to solubilization ratios in order to introduce a coupled interfacial tension-phase behavior model for all phase environments. The approach predicts two- and three-phase interfacial tensions and phase behavior (i.e., tie lines and tie triangles) for changes in composition and HLD input parameters, such as temperature, pressure, surfactant structure, and oil equivalent alkane carbon number. Comparisons to experimental data show excellent fits and predictive capability.

  6. Thermotropic and Barotropic Phase Behavior of Phosphatidylcholine Bilayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutake Tamai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilayers formed by phospholipids are frequently used as model biological membranes in various life science studies. A characteristic feature of phospholipid bilayers is to undergo a structural change called a phase transition in response to environmental changes of their surroundings. In this review, we focus our attention on phase transitions of some major phospholipids contained in biological membranes, phosphatidylcholines (PCs, depending on temperature and pressure. Bilayers of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC, which is the most representative lipid in model membrane studies, will first be explained. Then, the bilayer phase behavior of various kinds of PCs with different molecular structures is revealed from the temperature–pressure phase diagrams, and the difference in phase stability among these PC bilayers is discussed in connection with the molecular structure of the PC molecules. Furthermore, the solvent effect on the phase behavior is also described briefly.

  7. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  8. Prevalence of Bulimic Behaviors and Trends in Eating Attitudes among Turkish Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiziltan, Gul; Karabudak, Efsun; Unver, Sibel; Sezgin, Emine; Unal, Ayse

    2006-01-01

    The eating attitudes and the prevalence of bulimic behaviors in a group of 300 late adolescents were investigated using the key questions from the Bulimia Investigatory Test, Edinburgh (BITE), and additional questions. Only four subjects (1.3%) scored above the cut-off point on the BITE, and prevalence rates of males and females were the same.…

  9. Analyses of the pathways involved in early- and late-phase induction of IFN-beta during C. muridarum infection of oviduct epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sishun Hu

    Full Text Available We previously reported that the IFN-β secreted by Chlamydia muridarum-infected murine oviduct epithelial cells (OE cells was mostly dependent on the TLR3 signaling pathway. To further characterize the mechanisms of IFN-β synthesis during Chlamydia infection of OE cells in vitro, we utilized specific inhibitory drugs to clarify the roles of IRF3 and NF-κB on both early- and late-phase C. muridarum infections. Our results showed that the pathways involved in the early-phase of IFN-β production were distinct from that in the late-phase of IFN-β production. Disruption of IRF3 activation using an inhibitor of TBK-1 at early-phase Chlamydia infection had a significant impact on the overall synthesis of IFN-β; however, disruption of IRF3 activation at late times during infection had no effect. Interestingly, inhibition of NF-κB early during Chlamydia infection also had a negative effect on IFN-β production; however, its impact was not significant. Our data show that the transcription factor IRF7 was induced late during Chlamydia infection, which is indicative of a positive feedback mechanism of IFN-β synthesis late during infection. In contrast, IRF7 appears to play little or no role in the early synthesis of IFN-β during Chlamydia infection. Finally, we demonstrate that antibiotics that target chlamydial DNA replication are much more effective at reducing IFN-β synthesis during infection versus antibiotics that target chlamydial transcription. These results provide evidence that early- and late-phase IFN-β production have distinct signaling pathways in Chlamydia-infected OE cells, and suggest that Chlamydia DNA replication might provide a link to the currently unknown chlamydial PAMP for TLR3.

  10. Multiple-phase behavior and memory effect of polymer gel

    CERN Document Server

    Annaka, M; Nakahira, T; Sugiyama, M; Hara, K; Matsuura, T

    2002-01-01

    A poly(4-acrylamidosalicylic acid) gel (PASA gel) exhibits multiple phases as characterized by distinct degrees of swelling; the gel can take one of four different swelling values, but none of the intermediate values. The gel has remarkable memory: the phase behavior of the gel depends on whether the gel has experienced the most swollen phase or the most collapsed phase in the immediate past. The information is stored and reversibly erased in the form of a macroscopic phase transition behavior. The structure factors corresponding to these four phases were obtained by SANS, which indicated the presence of characteristic structures depending on pH and temperature, particularly in the shrunken state. (orig.)

  11. Phase Transition Behavior in a Neutral Evolution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dawn; Scott, Adam; Maric, Nevena; Bahar, Sonya

    2014-03-01

    The complexity of interactions among individuals and between individuals and the environment make agent based modeling ideal for studying emergent speciation. This is a dynamically complex problem that can be characterized via the critical behavior of a continuous phase transition. Concomitant with the main tenets of natural selection, we allow organisms to reproduce, mutate, and die within a neutral phenotype space. Previous work has shown phase transition behavior in an assortative mating model with variable fitness landscapes as the maximum mutation size (μ) was varied (Dees and Bahar, 2010). Similarly, this behavior was recently presented in the work of Scott et al. (2013), even on a completely neutral landscape, for bacterial-like fission as well as for assortative mating. Here we present another neutral model to investigate the `critical' phase transition behavior of three mating types - assortative, bacterial, and random - in a phenotype space as a function of the percentage of random death. Results show two types of phase transitions occurring for the parameters of the population size and the number of clusters (an analogue of species), indicating different evolutionary dynamics for system survival and clustering. This research was supported by funding from: University of Missouri Research Board and James S. McDonnell Foundation.

  12. Phase behavior of the 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, Ray M.; Maroudas, Dimitrios; Ford, David M.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a coarse-grained description of the phase behavior of the isolated 38-atom Lennard-Jones cluster (LJ 38 ). The model captures both the solid-solid polymorphic transitions at low temperatures and the complex cluster breakup and melting transitions at higher temperatures. For this coarse model development, we employ the manifold learning technique of diffusion mapping. The outcome of the diffusion mapping analysis over a broad temperature range indicates that two order parameters are sufficient to describe the cluster's phase behavior; we have chosen two such appropriate order parameters that are metrics of condensation and overall crystallinity. In this well-justified coarse-variable space, we calculate the cluster's free energy landscape (FEL) as a function of temperature, employing Monte Carlo umbrella sampling. These FELs are used to quantify the phase behavior and onsets of phase transitions of the LJ 38 cluster

  13. Social Isolation During Adolescence Strengthens Retention of Fear Memories and Facilitates Induction of Late-Phase Long-Term Potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; You, Qiang-Long; Wei, Mei-Dan; Wang, Qian; Luo, Zheng-Yi; Lin, Song; Huang, Lang; Li, Shu-Ji; Li, Xiao-Wen; Gao, Tian-Ming

    2015-12-01

    Social isolation during the vulnerable period of adolescence produces emotional dysregulation that often manifests as abnormal behavior in adulthood. The enduring consequence of isolation might be caused by a weakened ability to forget unpleasant memories. However, it remains unclear whether isolation affects unpleasant memories. To address this, we used a model of associative learning to induce the fear memories and evaluated the influence of isolation mice during adolescence on the subsequent retention of fear memories and its underlying cellular mechanisms. Following adolescent social isolation, we found that mice decreased their social interaction time and had an increase in anxiety-related behavior. Interestingly, when we assessed memory retention, we found that isolated mice were unable to forget aversive memories when tested 4 weeks after the original event. Consistent with this, we observed that a single train of high-frequency stimulation (HFS) enabled a late-phase long-term potentiation (L-LTP) in the hippocampal CA1 region of isolated mice, whereas only an early-phase LTP was observed with the same stimulation in the control mice. Social isolation during adolescence also increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in the hippocampus, and application of a tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor inhibitor ameliorated the facilitated L-LTP seen after isolation. Together, our results suggest that adolescent isolation may result in mental disorders during adulthood and that this may stem from an inability to forget the unpleasant memories via BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity. These findings may give us a new strategy to prevent mental disorders caused by persistent unpleasant memories.

  14. The Phase Behavior of γ-Oryzanol and β-Sitosterol in Edible Oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawalha, H.I.M.; Venema, P.; Bot, A.; Flöter, E.; Adel, den R.; Linden, van der E.

    2015-01-01

    The phase behavior of binary mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol and ternary mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol in sunflower oil was studied. Binary mixtures of ¿-oryzanol and ß-sitosterol show double-eutectic behavior. Complex phase behavior with two intermediate mixed solid phases was

  15. Identification and initial assessment of candidate BWR late-phase in-vessel accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.

    1991-01-01

    Work sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to identify and perform preliminary assessments of candidate BWR [boiling water reactor] in-vessel accident management strategies was completed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during fiscal year 1990. Mitigative strategies for containment events have been the subject of a companion study at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The focus of this Oak Ridge effort was the development of new strategies for mitigation of the late phase events, that is, the events that would occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage. The work began with an investigation of the current status of BWR in-vessel accident management procedures and proceeded through a preliminary evaluation of several candidate new strategies. The steps leading to the identification of the candidate strategies are described. The four new candidate late-phase (in-vessel) accident mitigation strategies identified by this study and discussed in the report are: (1) keep the reactor vessel depressurized; (2) restore injection in a controlled manner; (3) inject boron if control blade damage has occurred; and (4) containment flooding to maintain core and structural debris in-vessel. Additional assessments of these strategies are proposed

  16. Traders' behavioral coupling and market phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rong; Zhang, Yin; Li, Honggang

    2017-11-01

    Traditional economic theory is based on the assumption that traders are completely independent and rational; however, trading behavior in the real market is often coupled by various factors. This paper discusses behavioral coupling based on the stock index in the stock market, focusing on the convergence of traders' behavior, its effect on the correlation of stock returns and market volatility. We find that the behavioral consensus in the stock market, the correlation degree of stock returns, and the market volatility all exhibit significant phase transitions with stronger coupling.

  17. Long-Term Improvements After Multimodal Rehabilitation in Late Phase After Stroke: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunketorp-Käll, Lina; Lundgren-Nilsson, Åsa; Samuelsson, Hans; Pekny, Tulen; Blomvé, Karin; Pekna, Marcela; Pekny, Milos; Blomstrand, Christian; Nilsson, Michael

    2017-07-01

    Treatments that improve function in late phase after stroke are urgently needed. We assessed whether multimodal interventions based on rhythm-and-music therapy or horse-riding therapy could lead to increased perceived recovery and functional improvement in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. Participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy, horse-riding therapy, or control using concealed randomization, stratified with respect to sex and stroke laterality. Therapy was given twice a week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was change in participants' perception of stroke recovery as assessed by the Stroke Impact Scale with an intention-to-treat analysis. Secondary objective outcome measures were changes in balance, gait, grip strength, and cognition. Blinded assessments were performed at baseline, postintervention, and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. One hundred twenty-three participants were assigned to rhythm-and-music therapy (n=41), horse-riding therapy (n=41), or control (n=41). Post-intervention, the perception of stroke recovery (mean change from baseline on a scale ranging from 1 to 100) was higher among rhythm-and-music therapy (5.2 [95% confidence interval, 0.79-9.61]) and horse-riding therapy participants (9.8 [95% confidence interval, 6.00-13.66]), compared with controls (-0.5 [-3.20 to 2.28]); P =0.001 (1-way ANOVA). The improvements were sustained in both intervention groups 6 months later, and corresponding gains were observed for the secondary outcomes. Multimodal interventions can improve long-term perception of recovery, as well as balance, gait, grip strength, and working memory in a mixed population of individuals in late phase after stroke. URL: http//www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01372059. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Alcohol Use and Related Behaviors among Late-Adolescent Urban Youths: Peer and Parent Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwinn, Traci M.; Schinke, Steven P.

    2014-01-01

    Peer and parent influences on alcohol use and related risky behaviors were examined in a sample of late-adolescent (M = 17.3 years; SD = 1.11 years) urban youths. Participants (N = 400) completed an online measure assessing peer influences of alcohol use and alcohol offers and also parental influences of rules against alcohol use and perceived…

  19. Non-Darcy behavior of two-phase channel flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianmin; Wang, Xiaoping

    2014-08-01

    We study the macroscopic behavior of two-phase flow in porous media from a phase-field model. A dissipation law is first derived from the phase-field model by homogenization. For simple channel geometry in pore scale, the scaling relation of the averaged dissipation rate with the velocity of the two-phase flow can be explicitly obtained from the model which then gives the force-velocity relation. It is shown that, for the homogeneous channel surface, Dacry's law is still valid with a significantly modified permeability including the contribution from the contact line slip. For the chemically patterned surfaces, the dissipation rate has a non-Darcy linear scaling with the velocity, which is related to a depinning force for the patterned surface. Our result offers a theoretical understanding on the prior observation of non-Darcy behavior for the multiphase flow in either simulations or experiments.

  20. Differential association with cellular substructures of pseudorabies virus DNA during early and late phases of replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Porat, T.; Veach, R.A.; Blankenship, M.L.; Kaplan, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pseudorabies virus DNA synthesis can be divided into two phases, early and late, which can be distinguished from each other on the basis of the structures of the replicating DNA. The two types of replicating virus DNA can also be distinguished from each other on the basis of the cellular substructures with which each is associated. Analysis by electron microscopic autoradiography showed that during the first round of replication, nascent virus DNA was found in the vicinity of the nuclear membrane; during later rounds of replication the nascent virus DNA was located centrally within the nucleus. The degree of association of virus DNA synthesized at early and late phases with the nuclear matrix fractions also differed; a larger proportion of late than of early nascent virus DNA was associated with this fraction. While nascent cellular DNA only was associated in significant amounts with the nuclear matrix fraction, a large part (up to 40%) of all the virus DNA remained associated with this fraction. However, no retention of specific virus proteins in this fraction was observed. Except for two virus proteins, which were preferentially extracted from the nuclear matrix, approximately 20% of all virus proteins remained in the nuclear matrix fraction. The large proportion of virus DNA associated with the nuclear fraction indicated that virus DNA may be intimately associated with some proteins

  1. Phase behavior, rheological characteristics and microstructure of sodium caseinate-Persian gum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Farzad; Kadkhodaee, Rassoul; Emadzadeh, Bahareh; Phillips, Glyn O

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the phase behavior of sodium caseinate-Persian gum mixtures was investigated. The effect of thermodynamic incompatibility on phase distribution of sodium caseinate fractions as well as the flow behavior and microstructure of the biopolymer mixtures were also studied. The phase diagram clearly demonstrated the dominant effect of Persian gum on the incompatibility of the two biopolymers. SDS-PAGE electrophoresis indicated no selective fractionation of sodium caseinate subunits between equilibrium phases upon de-mixing. The microstructure of mixtures significantly changed depending on their position within the phase diagram. Fitting viscometric data to Cross and Bingham models revealed that the apparent viscosity, relaxation time and shear thinning behavior of the mixtures is greatly influenced by the volume ratio and concentration of the equilibrium phases. There is a strong dependence of the flow behavior of sodium caseinate-Persian gum mixtures on the composition of the equilibrium phases and the corresponding microstructure of the system. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Controlling block copolymer phase behavior using ionic surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, D.; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India E-mail: debes.phys@gmail.com (India)

    2016-05-23

    The phase behavior of poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide-poly(ethylene oxide) PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer [P85 (EO{sub 26}PO{sub 39}EO{sub 26})] in presence of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in aqueous solution as a function of temperature has been studied using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The measurements have been carried out for fixed concentrations (1 wt%) of block copolymer and surfactants. Each of the individual components (block copolymer and surfactant) and the nanoparticle–surfactant mixed system have been examined at varying temperature. The block copolymer P85 forms spherical micelles at room temperature whereas shows sphere-to-rod like micelle transition at higher temperatures. On the other hand, SDS surfactant forms ellipsoidal micelles over a wide temperature range. Interestingly, it is found that phase behavior of mixed micellar system (P85 + SDS) as a function of temperature is drastically different from that of P85, giving the control over the temperature-dependent phase behavior of block copolymers.

  3. Late-phase MSCT in the different stages of myocardial infarction: animal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, Andreas H.; Bruners, Philipp; Kinzel, Sylvia; Katoh, Marcus; Muehlenbruch, Georg; Guenther, Rolf W.; Wildberger, Joachim E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to intraindividually evaluate myocardial late enhancement on multislice spiral computed tomography (MSCT) for the assessment of the different stages of myocardial infarction (MI) in comparison with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Reperfused MI was successfully induced in seven pigs. Delayed enhancement MR imaging and late-phase MSCT were performed on day 0 as well as 7, 28 and 90 days after the procedure. The pigs were sacrificed, and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolin-chloride (TTC) staining was acquired. MI size was compared between the different imaging techniques and over time applying Bland-Altman plots and multivariate analysis with repeated measures. On day 0 the mean MI size was 23.7 ± 11.8% of the left ventricular area on MSCT and 24.5 ± 10.6% on MR imaging. On day 90 infarct sizes decreased significantly to 16.9 ± 8.4% and 18.9 ± 8.0%, respectively (P 0.0019). On TTC staining the size of MI was 16.8 ± 8.2%. Bland-Altman plots showed a good agreement between MSCT and MR imaging with mean deviations ranging from -3.4% to -1.9%. No significant difference between MSCT and MR imaging was found. Myocardial late enhancement on MSCT correlates well with delayed enhancement MR imaging during the different stages of MI and allows for reliable assessment of reperfused MI during acute, subacute and chronic stages. (orig.)

  4. Status Update on the NCRP Scientific Committee SC 5-1 Report: Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents - 13450

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    In August 2008, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued its final Protective Action Guide (PAG) for radiological dispersal device (RDD) and improvised nuclear device (IND) incidents. This document specifies protective actions for public health during the early and intermediate phases and cleanup guidance for the late phase of RDD or IND incidents, and it discusses approaches to implementing the necessary actions. However, while the PAG provides specific guidance for the early and intermediate phases, it prescribes no equivalent guidance for the late-phase cleanup actions. Instead, the PAG offers a general description of a complex process using a site-specific optimization approach. This approach does not predetermine cleanup levels but approaches the problem from the factors that would bear on the final agreed-on cleanup levels. Based on this approach, the decision-making process involves multifaceted considerations including public health, the environment, and the economy, as well as socio-political factors. In an effort to fully define the process and approach to be used in optimizing late-phase recovery and site restoration following an RDD or IND incident, DHS has tasked the NCRP with preparing a comprehensive report addressing all aspects of the optimization process. Preparation of the NCRP report is a three-year (2010-2013) project assigned to a scientific committee, the Scientific Committee (SC) 5-1; the report was initially titled, Approach to Optimizing Decision Making for Late- Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Terrorism Incidents. Members of SC 5-1 represent a broad range of expertise, including homeland security, health physics, risk and decision analysis, economics, environmental remediation and radioactive waste management, and communication. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, and guided by a recent process led by the White House through a Principal Level Exercise (PLE), the optimization approach has since

  5. Status Update on the NCRP Scientific Committee SC 5-1 Report: Decision Making for Late-Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Incidents - 13450

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.Y. [Environmental Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In August 2008, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) issued its final Protective Action Guide (PAG) for radiological dispersal device (RDD) and improvised nuclear device (IND) incidents. This document specifies protective actions for public health during the early and intermediate phases and cleanup guidance for the late phase of RDD or IND incidents, and it discusses approaches to implementing the necessary actions. However, while the PAG provides specific guidance for the early and intermediate phases, it prescribes no equivalent guidance for the late-phase cleanup actions. Instead, the PAG offers a general description of a complex process using a site-specific optimization approach. This approach does not predetermine cleanup levels but approaches the problem from the factors that would bear on the final agreed-on cleanup levels. Based on this approach, the decision-making process involves multifaceted considerations including public health, the environment, and the economy, as well as socio-political factors. In an effort to fully define the process and approach to be used in optimizing late-phase recovery and site restoration following an RDD or IND incident, DHS has tasked the NCRP with preparing a comprehensive report addressing all aspects of the optimization process. Preparation of the NCRP report is a three-year (2010-2013) project assigned to a scientific committee, the Scientific Committee (SC) 5-1; the report was initially titled, Approach to Optimizing Decision Making for Late- Phase Recovery from Nuclear or Radiological Terrorism Incidents. Members of SC 5-1 represent a broad range of expertise, including homeland security, health physics, risk and decision analysis, economics, environmental remediation and radioactive waste management, and communication. In the wake of the Fukushima nuclear accident of 2011, and guided by a recent process led by the White House through a Principal Level Exercise (PLE), the optimization approach has since

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury Pathophysiology and Treatments: Early, Intermediate, and Late Phases Post-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algattas, Hanna; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) affects a large proportion and extensive array of individuals in the population. While precise pathological mechanisms are lacking, the growing base of knowledge concerning TBI has put increased emphasis on its understanding and treatment. Most treatments of TBI are aimed at ameliorating secondary insults arising from the injury; these insults can be characterized with respect to time post-injury, including early, intermediate, and late pathological changes. Early pathological responses are due to energy depletion and cell death secondary to excitotoxicity, the intermediate phase is characterized by neuroinflammation and the late stage by increased susceptibility to seizures and epilepsy. Current treatments of TBI have been tailored to these distinct pathological stages with some overlap. Many prophylactic, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments are used post-TBI to halt the progression of these pathologic reactions. In the present review, we discuss the mechanisms of the pathological hallmarks of TBI and both current and novel treatments which target the respective pathways. PMID:24381049

  7. Multiphase, multicomponent phase behavior prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadmohammadi, Younas

    Accurate prediction of phase behavior of fluid mixtures in the chemical industry is essential for designing and operating a multitude of processes. Reliable generalized predictions of phase equilibrium properties, such as pressure, temperature, and phase compositions offer an attractive alternative to costly and time consuming experimental measurements. The main purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of recently generalized activity coefficient models based on binary experimental data to (a) predict binary and ternary vapor-liquid equilibrium systems, and (b) characterize liquid-liquid equilibrium systems. These studies were completed using a diverse binary VLE database consisting of 916 binary and 86 ternary systems involving 140 compounds belonging to 31 chemical classes. Specifically the following tasks were undertaken: First, a comprehensive assessment of the two common approaches (gamma-phi (gamma-ϕ) and phi-phi (ϕ-ϕ)) used for determining the phase behavior of vapor-liquid equilibrium systems is presented. Both the representation and predictive capabilities of these two approaches were examined, as delineated form internal and external consistency tests of 916 binary systems. For the purpose, the universal quasi-chemical (UNIQUAC) model and the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) were used in this assessment. Second, the efficacy of recently developed generalized UNIQUAC and the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) for predicting multicomponent VLE systems were investigated. Third, the abilities of recently modified NRTL model (mNRTL2 and mNRTL1) to characterize liquid-liquid equilibria (LLE) phase conditions and attributes, including phase stability, miscibility, and consolute point coordinates, were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the ϕ-ϕ approach represents the binary VLE systems considered within three times the error of the gamma-ϕ approach. A similar trend was observed for the for the generalized model predictions using

  8. Therapist adherence is associated with outcome in cognitive-behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah I F; Gondan, Matthias; Lunn, Susanne; Tækker, Louise; Poulsen, Stig

    2017-06-01

    Studies of therapist adherence in relation to treatment outcome have produced mixed results. The aim of the present study was to investigate change in therapist adherence to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa over time, and to investigate the relationship between adherence and client outcome in early, middle, and late phases of treatment. Thirty-six clients received the focused form of "enhanced" CBT (CBT-E) for bulimia nervosa. Trained observers rated audiotapes of 92 full-length therapy sessions from early (Session 3), middle (Session 11), and late phases (Session 20) of treatment using the Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treatment Protocol Adherence Scale. Change in adherence across the 3 treatment phases was examined using multilevel analysis. The relationship between early, middle, and late adherence levels and end-of-treatment binging frequency was examined using multilevel Poisson regression analysis. Adherence decreased significantly over the course of treatment. Higher levels of therapist adherence in early and middle phases of treatment were associated with reduced binging frequency, whereas higher levels of adherence measured late in treatment was not. Results indicate that therapists' adherence to the CBT-E treatment protocol decreases over time and that high levels of protocol adherence in early and middle phases of treatment are more important for positive client outcomes than high levels of adherence in the end of treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Sirtinol abrogates late phase of cardiac ischemia preconditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Fereshteh; Shekarforoosh, Shahnaz; Hashemi, Tahmineh; Namvar Aghdash, Simin; Fekri, Asefeh; Safari, Fatemeh

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sirtinol, as an inhibitor of sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases, on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury following early and late ischemia preconditioning (IPC). Rats underwent sustained ischemia and reperfusion (IR) alone or proceeded by early or late IPC. Sirtinol (S) was administered before IPC. Arrhythmias were evaluated based on the Lambeth model. Infarct size (IS) was measured using triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The transcription level of antioxidant-coding genes was assessed by real-time PCR. In early and late IPC groups, IS and the number of arrhythmia were significantly decreased (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 vs IR, respectively). In S + early IPC, incidences of arrhythmia and IS were not different compared with the early IPC group. However, in S + late IPC the IS was different from the late IPC group (P < 0.05). In late IPC but not early IPC, transcription levels of catalase (P < 0.01) and Mn-SOD (P < 0.05) increased, although this upregulation was not significant in the S + late IPC group. Our results are consistent with the notion that different mechanisms are responsible for early and late IPC. In addition, sirtuin NAD-dependent histone deacetylases may be implicated in late IPC-induced cardioprotection.

  10. Mediators of the Associations between Externalizing Behaviors and Internalizing Symptoms in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Minglee; Fleming, Charles B.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Catalano, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests the predictive associations between externalizing behaviors and internalizing symptoms and examines the mediating roles of social competence, parent-child conflicts, and academic achievement. Using youth-, parent-, and teacher-reported longitudinal data on a sample of 523 boys and 460 girls from late childhood to early…

  11. The mediation effect of menstrual phase on negative emotion processing: evidence from N2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haiyan; Chen, Chunping; Cheng, Dazhi; Yang, Suyong; Huang, Ruiwang; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown a 'negativity bias' in emotion processing and effect of menstrual phase on emotion processing. Most of these results, however, did not match the arousal of different types of stimuli. The present study examined the time course of negative emotion processing across different menstrual phases (e.g., late luteal/premenstrual phase and follicular phase) when the arousal level of negative and neutral stimuli was equal. Following previous studies, an oddball paradigm was utilized in present study. Participants viewed neutral and negative (highly (HN) and moderately negative (MN)) stimuli with matched arousal and were asked to make deviant vs. standard judgments. The behavioral results showed a higher accuracy for HN stimuli than neutral stimuli, and the other comparisons were not significant. The major event-related potential (ERP) finding was that N2 amplitude was larger for MN than neutral in the late luteal phase, whereas such difference was absent during the follicular phase. Moreover, The N2 for HN stimuli was larger in late luteal phase than in follicular phase. Therefore, female may be with higher sensitivity to MN stimuli during late luteal phase than during follicular phase when the arousal of stimuli was well controlled. These results provide additional insight to premenstrual affective syndrome and affective disorder.

  12. Secretory activity and cell cycle alteration of alveolar type II cells in the early and late phase after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Jochen; Vordermark, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael; Gassel, Andreamaria; Flentje, Michael; Wirtz, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Type II cells and the surfactant system have been proposed to play a central role in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. We analyzed the secretory function and proliferation parameters of alveolar type II cells in the early (until 24 h) and late phase (1-5 weeks) after irradiation (RT) in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Type II cells were isolated from rats according to the method of Dobbs. Stimulation of secretion was induced with terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for a 2-h period. Determination of secretion was performed using 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine. For the early-phase analysis, freshly isolated and adherent type II cells were irradiated in vitro with 9-21 Gy (stepwise increase of 3 Gy). Secretion stimulation was initiated 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after RT. For late-phase analysis, type II cells were isolated 1-5 weeks after 18 Gy whole lung or sham RT. Each experiment was repeated at least fivefold. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle distribution and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index. Results: During the early-phase (in vitro) analysis, we found a normal stimulation of surfactant secretion in irradiated, as well as unirradiated, cells. No change in basal secretion and no dose effect were seen. During the late phase, 1-5 weeks after whole lung RT, we observed enhanced secretory activity for all secretagogues and a small increase in basal secretion in Weeks 3 and 4 (pneumonitis phase) compared with controls. The total number of isolated type II cells, as well as the rate of viable cells, decreased after the second post-RT week. Cell cycle alterations suggesting an irreversible G 2 /M block occurred in the second post-RT week and did not resolve during the observation period. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index of type II cells from irradiated rats did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion: In contrast to literature data, we observed no direct

  13. Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood : Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M.; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence

  14. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Tamar C; Kim, Ginah L; Krzemien, Alicja; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2010-12-02

    Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared during the estrogen dominant peri-ovulatory phase and the progesterone dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Twelve women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in a counterbalanced fashion. Whole brain T2* images were collected while subjects viewed pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures presented in a block design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the late follicular phase and luteal phase was determined for the contrasts HC-C, LC-C, HC-LC, and LC-HC. Both HC and LC stimuli activated numerous corticolimbic brain regions in the follicular phase, whereas only HC stimuli were effective in the luteal phase. Activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus in response to the HC-C contrast and the hippocampus in response to the LC-C contrast was significantly increased in the late follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and mid cingulum in response to the HC-LC contrast was greater during the luteal phase. These results demonstrate for the first time that brain responses to visual food cues are influenced by menstrual cycle phase. We postulate that ovarian steroid modulation of the corticolimbic brain contributes to changes in ingestive behavior during the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Combined eating behaviors and overweight: Eating quickly, late evening meals, and skipping breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Su; Mishra, Gita; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Watanabe, Etsuko; Mori, Katsumi; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Various eating behaviors have been linked with body weight management. However, combined effects of major eating behaviors are not fully understood. This study aimed to clarify the association of the combination of eating quickly (EQ), late evening meals (LEM), and skipping breakfast (SB) with being overweight. A cross-sectional study with standardized questions for EQ, LEM, and SB was conducted. Stratified random sampling of 5% of residents aged 20 to 80years was surveyed in a city in northeast Japan in 2011, and 4249 (84.9%) residents were analyzed. Association of combinations of eating behaviors on being overweight (BMI (kg/m(2)≥25.0)) was estimated by using logistic analysis, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidential interval were calculated after adjustment for potential covariates. LEM, SB, or a combination of LEM and SB was not significantly associated with being overweight. However, the combination of EQ or only EQ was significantly associated with being overweight. As the number of eating behavior practices increased, there was a linear increase in OR for being overweight. The OR of all three combined eating behaviors was higher than that of any combined two behaviors or of each behavior. This study result supports the evidence that EQ increases the risk of being overweight whether by itself or in combinations with LEM and/or SB. However, only LEM or only SB did not increase the risk of being overweight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography behavior of aldopentose derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR have been used to study the chromatographic behavior of some aldopentose. The behavior of aldopentose derivatives was investigated by means of the reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP TLC on the silica gel impregnated with paraffin oil stationary phases. Binary mixtures of methanol-water, acetone-water and dioxane-water were used as mobile phases. Retention factors, RM0, corresponding to zero percent organic modifier in the aqueous mobile phase was determined. Lipophilicity C0 was calculated as the ratio of the intercept and slope values. There was satisfactory correlation between them and log P values calculated using different theoretical procedures. Some of these correlations offer very good predicting models, which are important for a better understanding of the relationships between chemical structure and retention. The study showed that the hydrophobic parameters RM0 and C0 can be used as a measures of lipophilicity of investigated compounds.

  17. Phase Behaviors of Reservoir Fluids with Capillary Eff ect Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zhiwei

    2013-05-06

    The study of phase behavior is important for the oil and gas industry. Many approaches have been proposed and developed for phase behavior calculation. In this thesis, an alternative method is introduced to study the phase behavior by means of minimization of Helmholtz free energy. For a system at fixed volume, constant temperature and constant number of moles, the Helmholtz free energy reaches minimum at the equilibrium state. Based on this theory, a stochastic method called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, is implemented to compute the phase diagrams for several pure component and mixture systems. After comparing with experimental and the classical PT-ash calculation, we found the phase diagrams obtained by minimization of the Helmholtz Free Energy approach match the experimental and theoretical diagrams very well. Capillary effect is also considered in this thesis because it has a significant influence on the phase behavior of reservoir fluids. In this part, we focus on computing the phase envelopes, which consists of bubble and dew point lines. Both fixed and calculated capillary pressure from the Young-Laplace equation cases are introduced to study their effects on phase envelopes. We found that the existence of capillary pressure will change the phase envelopes. Positive capillary pressure reduces the dew point and bubble point temperatures under the same pressure condition, while the negative capillary pressure increases the dew point and bubble point temperatures. In addition, the change of contact angle and pore radius will affect the phase envelope. The effect of the pore radius on the phase envelope is insignificant when the radius is very large. These results may become reference for future research and study. Keywords: Phase Behavior; Particle Swarm Optimization; Capillary Pressure; Reservoir Fluids; Phase Equilibrium; Phase Envelope.

  18. Phase Behaviors of Reservoir Fluids with Capillary Eff ect Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    The study of phase behavior is important for the oil and gas industry. Many approaches have been proposed and developed for phase behavior calculation. In this thesis, an alternative method is introduced to study the phase behavior by means of minimization of Helmholtz free energy. For a system at fixed volume, constant temperature and constant number of moles, the Helmholtz free energy reaches minimum at the equilibrium state. Based on this theory, a stochastic method called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, is implemented to compute the phase diagrams for several pure component and mixture systems. After comparing with experimental and the classical PT-ash calculation, we found the phase diagrams obtained by minimization of the Helmholtz Free Energy approach match the experimental and theoretical diagrams very well. Capillary effect is also considered in this thesis because it has a significant influence on the phase behavior of reservoir fluids. In this part, we focus on computing the phase envelopes, which consists of bubble and dew point lines. Both fixed and calculated capillary pressure from the Young-Laplace equation cases are introduced to study their effects on phase envelopes. We found that the existence of capillary pressure will change the phase envelopes. Positive capillary pressure reduces the dew point and bubble point temperatures under the same pressure condition, while the negative capillary pressure increases the dew point and bubble point temperatures. In addition, the change of contact angle and pore radius will affect the phase envelope. The effect of the pore radius on the phase envelope is insignificant when the radius is very large. These results may become reference for future research and study. Keywords: Phase Behavior; Particle Swarm Optimization; Capillary Pressure; Reservoir Fluids; Phase Equilibrium; Phase Envelope.

  19. Chaotic behavior in Casimir oscillators: A case study for phase-change materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajik, Fatemeh; Sedighi, Mehdi; Khorrami, Mohammad; Masoudi, Amir Ali; Palasantzas, George

    2017-10-01

    Casimir forces between material surfaces at close proximity of less than 200 nm can lead to increased chaotic behavior of actuating devices depending on the strength of the Casimir interaction. We investigate these phenomena for phase-change materials in torsional oscillators, where the amorphous to crystalline phase transitions lead to transitions between high and low Casimir force and torque states, respectively, without material compositions. For a conservative system bifurcation curve and Poincare maps analysis show the absence of chaotic behavior but with the crystalline phase (high force-torque state) favoring more unstable behavior and stiction. However, for a nonconservative system chaotic behavior can take place introducing significant risk for stiction, which is again more pronounced for the crystalline phase. The latter illustrates the more general scenario that stronger Casimir forces and torques increase the possibility for chaotic behavior. The latter is making it impossible to predict whether stiction or stable actuation will occur on a long-term basis, and it is setting limitations in the design of micronano devices operating at short-range nanoscale separations.

  20. Differences between late preterm and full-term infants: comparing effects of a short bout of practice on early reaching behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Soares, Daniele; Cunha, Andréa Baraldi; Tudella, Eloisa

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the effects of a short bout of practice on reaching behavior between late preterm and full-term infants at the onset of goal-directed reaching. Twelve late preterm infants and twelve full-term infants received reaching practice based on a serial schedule. Late preterm and full-term infants were assessed in 3.3±1.4 and 2.6±1.0 days after the onset of goal-directed reaching in two measures in a single day: immediately before practice (pre-test) and immediately after practice (post-test). During the assessments, the infants were placed in a baby chair and a rubber toy was presented at their midline within reaching distance for 2 min. Between assessments, the infants received practice of toy-oriented reaching in 3 activities repeated for approximately 4 min. The activities were elicited in a pre-established serial sequence and were applied by a physical therapist. During the pre-test, late preterm infants presented lower range of proximal adjustments, greater proportion of reaches with semi-open hand, and greater proportion of reaches without grasping than the full-term infants. During the post-test, late preterm infants presented greater motor variability of proximal adjustments, but explored and selected distal control and grasping outcomes less compared to the full-term group. Differences in reaching and gross motor behavior between late preterm and full-term infants can be found at the age of reaching onset. Practice provided new opportunities for late preterm infants to improve perception-action coupling to reach; however, relative to full-terms, they seemed less advanced in benefiting from the experience for more refined manual tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unexpectedly normal phase behavior of single homopolymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, W.; Strauch, T.; Rampf, F.; Binder, K.

    2007-01-01

    Employing Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the topology of the phase diagram of a single flexible homopolymer chain changes in dependence on the range of an attractive square well interaction between the monomers. For a range of attraction larger than a critical value, the equilibrium phase diagram of the single polymer chain and the corresponding polymer solution phase diagram exhibit vapor (swollen coil, dilute solution), liquid (collapsed globule, dense solution), and solid phases. Otherwise, the liquid-vapor transition vanishes from the equilibrium phase diagram for both the single chain and the polymer solution. This change in topology of the phase diagram resembles the behavior known for colloidal dispersions. The interplay of enthalpy and conformational entropy in the polymer case thus can lead to the same topology of phase diagrams as the interplay of enthalpy and translational entropy in simple liquids

  2. 7T T-2*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooden, S.; Doan, N.T.; Versluis, M.J.; Goos, J.D.C.; Webb, A.G.; Oleksik, A.M.; van der Flier, W.M.; Scheltens, P.; Barkhof, F.; Weverlinge-Rynsburger, A.W.E.; Blauw, G. J.; Reiber, J.H.C.; van Buchem, M.A.; Milles, J.; van der Grond, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T

  3. Phase-specific Surround suppression in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Correlates with Figure Detection Behavior Based on Phase Discontinuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Jiang, Weiqian; Wang, Tian-Yi; Xie, Taorong; Yao, Haishan

    2018-05-21

    In the primary visual cortex (V1), neuronal responses to stimuli within the receptive field (RF) are modulated by stimuli in the RF surround. A common effect of surround modulation is surround suppression, which is dependent on the feature difference between stimuli within and surround the RF and is suggested to be involved in the perceptual phenomenon of figure-ground segregation. In this study, we examined the relationship between feature-specific surround suppression of V1 neurons and figure detection behavior based on figure-ground feature difference. We trained freely moving mice to perform a figure detection task using figure and ground gratings that differed in spatial phase. The performance of figure detection increased with the figure-ground phase difference, and was modulated by stimulus contrast. Electrophysiological recordings from V1 in head-fixed mice showed that the increase in phase difference between stimuli within and surround the RF caused a reduction in surround suppression, which was associated with an increase in V1 neural discrimination between stimuli with and without RF-surround phase difference. Consistent with the behavioral performance, the sensitivity of V1 neurons to RF-surround phase difference could be influenced by stimulus contrast. Furthermore, inhibiting V1 by optogenetically activating either parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-expressing inhibitory neurons both decreased the behavioral performance of figure detection. Thus, the phase-specific surround suppression in V1 represents a neural correlate of figure detection behavior based on figure-ground phase discontinuity. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility of self-gated isotropic radial late-phase MR imaging of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Jakob; Taron, Jana; Othman, Ahmed E.; Kuendel, Matthias; Martirosian, Petros; Ruff, Christer; Schraml, Christina; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Notohamiprodjo, Mike [Eberhard Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Grimm, Robert [Siemens Healthcare MR, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    To evaluate feasibility of a 3D-isotropic self-gated radial volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) for late-phase MRI of the liver. 70 patients were included and underwent liver MRI at 1.5 T. Depending on the diagnosis, either Gd-EOB-DTPA (35 patients) or gadobutrol (35 patients) were administered. During late (gadobutrol) or hepatocyte-specific phase (Gd-EOB-DTPA), a radial prototype sequence was acquired and reconstructed using (1) self-gating with 40 % acceptance (rVIBE{sub 40}); (2) with 100 % acceptance of the data (rVIBE{sub 100}) and compared to Cartesian VIBE (cVIBE). Images were assessed qualitatively (image quality, lesion conspicuity, artefacts; 5-point Likert-scale: 5 = excellent; two independent readers) and quantitatively (coefficient-of-variation (CV); contrast-ratio) in axial and coronal reformations. In eight cases only rVIBE provided diagnostic image quality. Image quality of rVIBE{sub 40} was rated significantly superior (p < 0.05) in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced and coronal reformatted examinations as compared to cVIBE. Lesion conspicuity was significantly improved (p < 0.05) in coronal reformatted Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced rVIBE{sub 40} in comparison to cVIBE. CV was higher in rVIBE{sub 40} as compared to rVIBE{sub 100}/cVIBE (p < 0.01). Gadobutrol-enhanced rVIBE{sub 40} and cVIBE showed higher contrast-ratios than rVIBE{sub 100} (p < 0.001), whereas no differences were found in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced examinations. Self-gated 3D-isotropic rVIBE provides significantly superior image quality compared to cVIBE, especially in multiplanar reformatted and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced examinations. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility of self-gated isotropic radial late-phase MR imaging of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Jakob; Taron, Jana; Othman, Ahmed E.; Kuendel, Matthias; Martirosian, Petros; Ruff, Christer; Schraml, Christina; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Grimm, Robert

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate feasibility of a 3D-isotropic self-gated radial volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) for late-phase MRI of the liver. 70 patients were included and underwent liver MRI at 1.5 T. Depending on the diagnosis, either Gd-EOB-DTPA (35 patients) or gadobutrol (35 patients) were administered. During late (gadobutrol) or hepatocyte-specific phase (Gd-EOB-DTPA), a radial prototype sequence was acquired and reconstructed using (1) self-gating with 40 % acceptance (rVIBE_4_0); (2) with 100 % acceptance of the data (rVIBE_1_0_0) and compared to Cartesian VIBE (cVIBE). Images were assessed qualitatively (image quality, lesion conspicuity, artefacts; 5-point Likert-scale: 5 = excellent; two independent readers) and quantitatively (coefficient-of-variation (CV); contrast-ratio) in axial and coronal reformations. In eight cases only rVIBE provided diagnostic image quality. Image quality of rVIBE_4_0 was rated significantly superior (p < 0.05) in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced and coronal reformatted examinations as compared to cVIBE. Lesion conspicuity was significantly improved (p < 0.05) in coronal reformatted Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced rVIBE_4_0 in comparison to cVIBE. CV was higher in rVIBE_4_0 as compared to rVIBE_1_0_0/cVIBE (p < 0.01). Gadobutrol-enhanced rVIBE_4_0 and cVIBE showed higher contrast-ratios than rVIBE_1_0_0 (p < 0.001), whereas no differences were found in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced examinations. Self-gated 3D-isotropic rVIBE provides significantly superior image quality compared to cVIBE, especially in multiplanar reformatted and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced examinations. (orig.)

  6. The Phase Behavior of γ-Oryzanol and β-Sitosterol in Edible Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawalha, Hassan; Venema, Paul; Bot, Arjen; Flöter, Eckhard; Adel, Ruud den; van der Linden, Erik

    The phase behavior of binary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol and ternary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol in sunflower oil was studied. Binary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol show double-eutectic behavior. Complex phase behavior with two intermediate mixed solid phases was derived from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data, in which a compound that consists of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol molecules at a specific ratio can be formed. SAXS shows that the organization of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol in the mixed phases is different from the structure of tubules in ternary systems. Ternary mixtures including sunflower oil do not show a sudden structural transition from the compound to a tubule, but a gradual transition occurs as γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol are diluted in edible oil. The same behavior is observed when melting binary mixtures of γ-oryzanol and β-sitosterol at higher temperatures. This indicates the feasibility of having an organogelling agent in dynamic exchange between solid and liquid phase, which is an essential feature of triglyceride networks.

  7. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  8. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yue; Wang, Linbing; Wang, Dawei; Guo, Meng; Liu, Pengfei; Yu, Jianxin

    2017-02-21

    Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD) Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  9. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  10. Therapist adherence is associated with outcome in cognitive–behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Sofie; Daniel, Sarah Ingrid Franksdatter; Gondan, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Studies of therapist adherence in relation to treatment outcome have produced mixed results. The aim of the present study was to investigate change in therapist adherence to cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) for bulimia nervosa over time, and to investigate the relationship between adherence...... and client outcome in early, middle, and late phases of treatment. Thirty-six clients received the focused form of “enhanced” CBT (CBT-E) for bulimia nervosa. Trained observers rated audiotapes of 92 full-length therapy sessions from early (Session 3), middle (Session 11), and late phases (Session 20...

  11. Mapracorat, a selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, causes apoptosis of eosinophils infiltrating the conjunctiva in late-phase experimental ocular allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiula M

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Monica Baiula,1 Andrea Bedini,1 Jacopo Baldi,1 Megan E Cavet,2 Paolo Govoni,3 Santi Spampinato11Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Global Pharmaceutical R&D, Bausch & Lomb Inc., Rochester, NY, USA; 3Department of Biomedical, Biotechnological and Translational Sciences, University of Parma, Parma, ItalyBackground: Mapracorat, a novel nonsteroidal selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist, has been proposed for the topical treatment of inflammatory disorders as it binds with high affinity and selectivity to the human glucocorticoid receptor and displays a potent anti-inflammatory activity, but seems to be less effective in transactivation of a number of genes, resulting in a lower potential for side effects. Contrary to classical glucocorticoids, mapracorat displays a reduced ability to increase intraocular pressure and in inducing myocilin, a protein linked to intraocular pressure elevation. Allergic conjunctivitis is the most common form of ocular allergy and can be divided into an early phase, developing immediately after allergen exposure and driven primarily by mast cell degranulation, and a late phase, developing from 6–10 hours after the antigen challenge, and characterized by conjunctival infiltration of eosinophils and other immune cells as well as by the production of cytokines and chemokines.Methods: In this study, mapracorat was administered into the conjunctival sac of ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized guinea pigs 2 hours after the induction of allergic conjunctivitis, with the aim of investigating its activity in reducing clinical signs of the late-phase ocular reaction and to determine its mechanism of anti-allergic effects with respect to apoptosis of conjunctival eosinophils and expression of the chemokines C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5, C-C motif ligand 11 (CCL11, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 and the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF

  12. 2D CFT partition functions at late times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ethan; Gur-Ari, Guy

    2017-08-01

    We consider the late time behavior of the analytically continued partition function Z( β + it) Z( β - it) in holographic 2 d CFTs. This is a probe of information loss in such theories and in their holographic duals. We show that each Virasoro character decays in time, and so information is not restored at the level of individual characters. We identify a universal decaying contribution at late times, and conjecture that it describes the behavior of generic chaotic 2 d CFTs out to times that are exponentially large in the central charge. It was recently suggested that at sufficiently late times one expects a crossover to random matrix behavior. We estimate an upper bound on the crossover time, which suggests that the decay is followed by a parametrically long period of late time growth. Finally, we discuss gravitationally-motivated integrable theories and show how information is restored at late times by a series of characters. This hints at a possible bulk mechanism, where information is restored by an infinite sum over non-perturbative saddles.

  13. The association between elevated blood lead levels and violent behavior during late adolescence: The South African Birth to Twenty Plus cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkomo, Palesa; Mathee, Angela; Naicker, Nisha; Galpin, Jacky; Richter, Linda M; Norris, Shane A

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown the adverse neuro-behavioral health effects of lead exposure among children, in particular. However, there is lack evidence in this regard from developing countries. The main aim of this study was to assess the association between blood lead levels (BLLs) during early adolescence and violent behavior in late adolescence. Our study sample from the Birth to Twenty Plus cohort in Soweto-Johannesburg, South Africa included 1332 study participants (684 females). BLLs were measured using blood samples collected at age 13years. Violent behavior was evaluated using data collected at ages 15 to 16years using the Youth Self Report questionnaire. First, bivariate analysis was used to examine data for an association between lead exposure in early adolescence and violent behavior items during late adolescence. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction and six violent behavior components were derived. Data were further analyzed for an association between BLLs at age 13years and violent behavior using PCA derived components; to determine the specific type(s) of violent behavior associated with lead exposure. Median whole BLLs were 5.6μg/dL (plead exposure (plead exposure. They highlight the urgent need for preventive measures against lead exposure among children in low or middle income countries such as South Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel phase diagram behavior and materials design in heterostructural semiconductor alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Aaron M; Siol, Sebastian; Ndione, Paul F; Peng, Haowei; Deml, Ann M; Matthews, Bethany E; Schelhas, Laura T; Toney, Michael F; Gordon, Roy G; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Ginley, David S; Gorman, Brian P; Tate, Janet; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    Structure and composition control the behavior of materials. Isostructural alloying is historically an extremely successful approach for tuning materials properties, but it is often limited by binodal and spinodal decomposition, which correspond to the thermodynamic solubility limit and the stability against composition fluctuations, respectively. We show that heterostructural alloys can exhibit a markedly increased range of metastable alloy compositions between the binodal and spinodal lines, thereby opening up a vast phase space for novel homogeneous single-phase alloys. We distinguish two types of heterostructural alloys, that is, those between commensurate and incommensurate phases. Because of the structural transition around the critical composition, the properties change in a highly nonlinear or even discontinuous fashion, providing a mechanism for materials design that does not exist in conventional isostructural alloys. The novel phase diagram behavior follows from standard alloy models using mixing enthalpies from first-principles calculations. Thin-film deposition demonstrates the viability of the synthesis of these metastable single-phase domains and validates the computationally predicted phase separation mechanism above the upper temperature bound of the nonequilibrium single-phase region.

  15. Phase behavior of charged colloids on spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Colm; Guerra, Rodrigo; Chaikin, Paul

    For a broad class of 2D materials, the transition from isotropic fluid to crystalline solid is described by the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson and Young. According to this theory, long-range order is achieved via elimination of the topological defects which proliferate in the fluid phase. However, many natural and man-made 2D systems posses spatial curvature and/or non-trivial topology, which require the presence of defects, even at T = 0 . In principle, the presence of these defects could profoundly affect the phase behavior of such a system. In this presentation, we describe experiments and simulations we have performed on repulsive particles which are bound to the surface of a sphere. We observe spatial structures and inhomogeneous dynamics that cannot be captured by the measures traditionally used to describe flat-space phase behavior. We show that ordering is achieved by a novel mechanism: sequestration of topological defects into freely-terminating grain boundaries (``scars''), and simultaneous spatial organization of the scars themselves on the vertices of an icosahedron. The emergence of icosahedral order coincides with the localization of mobility into isolated ``lakes'' of fluid or glassy particles, situated at the icosahedron vertices.

  16. Thermal behavior for a nanoscale two ferromagnetic phase system based on random anisotropy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraca, D.; Sanchez, F.H.; Pampillo, L.G.; Saccone, F.D.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in theory that explain the magnetic behavior as function of temperature for two phase nanocrystalline soft magnetic materials are presented. The theory developed is based on the well known random anisotropy model, which includes the crystalline exchange stiffness and anisotropy energies in both amorphous and crystalline phases. The phenomenological behavior of the coercivity was obtained in the temperature range between the amorphous phase Curie temperature and the crystalline phase one.

  17. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Hejazi, MD

    Full Text Available Context: Sulfur mustard (SM was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980–1988. Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. Objective: We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. Materials and methods: One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Results: Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%. Seven out of 12 patients (58.33% who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001. There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63–25.97, p < 0.001, burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97–41.89, p < 0.001, pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54–40.75, p = 0.001, dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22–37.01, p = 0.03 or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21–5.55, p = 0.01 during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. Conclusion: According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing

  18. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuç, Ayça; Başaran, Tahsin; Yesügey, S Cengiz

    2015-12-01

    The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM) layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid-liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91-104.

  19. Early, middle, or late administration of zoledronate alleviates spontaneous nociceptive behavior and restores functional outcomes in a mouse model of CFA-induced arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morado-Urbina, Carlos Eduardo; Alvarado-Vázquez, Perla Abigail; Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; Acosta-González, Rosa Issel; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel

    2014-11-01

    This study was performed to evaluate whether early, middle, or late treatment of zoledronate, an approved bisphosphonate that blocks bone resorption, can reduce nociceptive behaviors in a mouse arthritis model. Arthritis was produced by repeated intra-articular knee injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). A dose-response curve with zoledronate (3, 30, 100, and 300 μg/kg, i.p., day 4 to day 25, twice weekly for 3 weeks) was performed, and the most effective dose of zoledronate (100 μg/kg, i.p.) was initially administered at different times of disease progression: day 4 (early), day 15 (middle), or day 21 (late) and continued until day 25 after the first CFA injection. Flinching of the injected extremity (spontaneous nociceptive behavior), vertical rearings and horizontal activity (functional outcomes), and knee edema were assessed. Zoledronate improved both functional outcomes and reduced flinching behavior. At day 25, the effect of zoledronate on flinching behavior and vertical rearings was greater in magnitude when it was given early or middle rather than late in the treatment regimen. Chronic zoledronate did not reduce knee edema in CFA-injected mice nor functional outcomes in naïve mice by itself. These results suggest that zoledronate may have a positive effect on arthritis-induced nociception and functional disabilities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Phase behavior of charged hydrophobic colloids on flat and spherical surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Colm P.

    For a broad class of two-dimensional (2D) materials, the transition from isotropic fluid to crystalline solid is described by the theory of melting due to Kosterlitz, Thouless, Halperin, Nelson and Young (KTHNY). According to this theory, long-range order is achieved via elimination of the topological defects which proliferate in the fluid phase. However, many natural and man-made 2D systems posses spatial curvature and/or non-trivial topology, which require the presence of topological defects, even at T=0. In principle, the presence of these defects could profoundly affect the phase behavior of such a system. In this thesis, we develop and characterize an experimental system of charged colloidal particles that bind electrostatically to the interface between an oil and an aqueous phase. Depending on how we prepare the sample, this fluid interface may be flat, spherical, or have a more complicated geometry. Focusing on the cases where the interface is flat or spherical, we measure the interactions between the particles, and probe various aspects of their phase behavior. On flat interfaces, this phase behavior is well-described by KTHNY theory. In spherical geometries, however, we observe spatial structures and inhomogeneous dynamics that cannot be captured by the measures traditionally used to describe flat-space phase behavior. We show that, in the spherical system, ordering is achieved by a novel mechanism: sequestration of topological defects into freely-terminating grain boundaries ("scars"), and simultaneous spatial organization of the scars themselves on the vertices of an icosahedron. The emergence of icosahedral order coincides with the localization of mobility into isolated "lakes" of fluid or glassy particles, situated at the icosahedron vertices. These lakes are embedded in a rigid, connected "continent" of locally crystalline particles.

  1. Liquid crystalline phase behavior of protein fibers in water: experiments versus theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin-Mi; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2010-01-05

    We have developed a new method allowing the study of the thermodynamic phase behavior of mesoscopic colloidal systems consisting of amyloid protein fibers in water, obtained by heat denaturation and aggregation of beta-lactoglobulin, a dairy protein. The fibers have a cross section of about 5.2 nm and two groups of polydisperse contour lengths: (i) long fibers of 1-20 microm, showing semiflexible behavior, and (ii) short rods of 100-200 nm long, obtained by cutting the long fibers via high-pressure homogenization. At pH 2 without salt, these fibers are highly charged and stable in water. We have studied the isotropic-nematic phase transition for both systems and compared our results with the theoretical values predicted by Onsager's theory. The experimentally measured isotropic-nematic phase transition was found to occur at 0.4% and at 3% for the long and short fibers, respectively. For both systems, this phase transition occurs at concentrations more than 1 order of magnitude lower than what is expected based on Onsager's theory. Moreover, at low enough pH, no intermediate biphasic region was observed between the isotropic phase and the nematic phase. The phase diagrams of both systems (pH vs concentration) showed similar, yet complex and rich, phase behavior. We discuss the possible physical fundamentals ruling the phase diagram as well as the discrepancy we observe for the isotropic-nematic phase transition between our experimental results and the predicted theoretical results. Our work highlights that systems formed by water-amyloid protein fibers are way too complex to be understood based solely on Onsager's theories. Experimental results are revisited in terms of the Flory's theory (1956) for suspensions of rods, which allows accounting for rod-solvent hydrophobic interactions. This theoretical approach allows explaining, on a semiquantitative basis, most of the discrepancies observed between the experimental results and Onsager's predictions. The sources of

  2. Phase Behavior of Three PBX Elastomers in High-Pressure Chlorodifluoromethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Chul

    2017-10-01

    The phase equilibrium behavior data are presented for three kinds of commercial polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) elastomers in chlorodifluoromethane (HCFC22). Levapren^{{registered }} ethylene- co-vinyl acetate (LP-EVA), HyTemp^{{registered }} alkyl acrylate copolymer (HT-ACM), and Viton^{{registered }} fluoroelastomer (VT-FE) were used as the PBX elastomers. For each elastomer + HCFC22 system, the cloud point (CP) and/or bubble point (BP) pressures were measured while varying the temperature and elastomer composition using a phase equilibrium apparatus fitted with a variable-volume view cell. The elastomers examined in this study indicated a lower critical solution temperature phase behavior in the HCFC22 solvent. LP-EVA showed the CPs at temperatures of 323 K to 343 K and at pressures of 3 MPa to 10 MPa, whereas HT-ACM showed the CPs at conditions between 338 K and 363 K and between 4 MPa and 12 MPa. For the LP-EVA and HT-ACM elastomers, the BP behavior was observed at temperatures below about 323 K. For the VT-FE + HCFC22 system, only the CP behavior was observed at temperatures between 323 K and 353 K and at pressures between 6 MPa and 21 MPa. As the elastomer composition increased, the CP pressure increased, reached a maximum value at a specific elastomer composition, and then remained almost constant.

  3. Protective actions in the late phase - Intervention criteria and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedemann-Jensen, P.

    2004-01-01

    Major countermeasures in the late phase of a nuclear or radiological accident where long-lived radionuclides have been dispersed in the environment are relocation/resettlement, foodstuff restrictions, agricultural countermeasures and clean-up of contaminated areas. There has essentially been a broad acceptance internationally of the principles for their introduction, but it has not been possible to reach an agreement for the purpose of defining a net benefit based upon the exact weighting to be attached to each of the attributes influencing the decision on intervention, e.g. socio-psychological attributes. Optimisation of protection, i.e. maximising the net benefit, is not a question of developing radiation protection philosophy to fully include socio-psychological factors but rather to include these factors - in parallel with the radiological protection factors - in cooperation between radiation protection experts and e.g. experts in social and psychological sciences under the responsibility of the decision-maker, who will take the final decision on the introduction of long-term countermeasures. (authors)

  4. Decrease in early right alpha band phase synchronization and late gamma band oscillations in processing syntax in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, María Herrojo; Koelsch, Stefan; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with the processing of music-syntactical irregularities as compared with regular syntactic structures in music. Previous studies reported an early ( approximately 200 ms) right anterior negative component (ERAN) by traditional event-related-potential analysis during music-syntactical irregularities, yet little is known about the underlying oscillatory and synchronization properties of brain responses which are supposed to play a crucial role in general cognition including music perception. First we showed that the ERAN was primarily represented by low frequency (music-syntactical irregularities as compared with music-syntactical regularities, were associated with (i) an early decrease in the alpha band (9-10 Hz) phase synchronization between right fronto-central and left temporal brain regions, and (ii) a late ( approximately 500 ms) decrease in gamma band (38-50 Hz) oscillations over fronto-central brain regions. These results indicate a weaker degree of long-range integration when the musical expectancy is violated. In summary, our results reveal neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing that operate at different levels of cortical integration, ranging from early decrease in long-range alpha phase synchronization to late local gamma oscillations. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Some remarks on the transitional phase between Early Roman and Late Roman Periods in the region north of the Middle Danube

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tejral, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 43-101 ISSN 1211-7250 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Early and Late Roman Period * transitional phase * Marcomanic Wars and their aftermath * ethnical and social backround of the B2/C1 phase Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://prehled-vyzkumu.arub.avcr.cz/miranda2/export/sitesavcr/arub-prehled-vyzkumu/prehled-cisel-a-clanku/prehled-vydanych-cisel/files/PV56_2_Studie2_Tejral.pdf

  6. Phase behavior of model ABC triblock copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Joon

    The phase behavior of poly(isoprene-b-styrene- b-ethylene oxide) (ISO), a model ABC triblock copolymer has been studied. This class of materials exhibit self-assembly, forming a large array of ordered morphologies at length scales of 5-100 nm. The formation of stable three-dimensionally continuous network morphologies is of special interest in this study. Since these nanostructures considerably impact the material properties, fundamental knowledge for designing ABC systems have high technological importance for realizing applications in the areas of nanofabrication, nanoporous media, separation membranes, drug delivery and high surface area catalysts. A comprehensive framework was developed to describe the phase behavior of the ISO triblock copolymers at weak to intermediate segregation strengths spanning a wide range of composition. Phases were characterized through a combination of characterization techniques, including small angle x-ray scattering, dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and birefringence measurements. Combined with previous investigations on ISO, six different stable ordered state symmetries have been identified: lamellae (LAM), Fddd orthorhombic network (O70), double gyroid (Q230), alternating gyroid (Q214), hexagonal (HEX), and body-centered cubic (BCC). The phase map was found to be somewhat asymmetric around the fI = fO isopleth. This work provides a guide for theoretical studies and gives insight into the intricate effects of various parameters on the self-assembly of ABC triblock copolymers. Experimental SAXS data evaluated with a simple scattering intensity model show that local mixing varies continuously across the phase map between states of two- and three-domain segregation. Strategies of blending homopolymers with ISO triblock copolymer were employed for studying the swelling properties of a lamellar state. Results demonstrate that lamellar domains swell or shrink depending upon the type of homopolymer that

  7. Phase-field modeling of Mn-Ni-Si precipitate behavior on the bcc-Fe matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kun Ok; Kwon, Jun Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The formation of Mn-Ni-Si precipitate (hereafter MNS precipitate) is widely accepted by one of the main reasons of late stage hardening and embrittlement of Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) during nuclear power plant (NPP) operation. Since MNS precipitate is not considered in current regulatory model, this late stage hardening can be a limiting factor for life extension of nuclear power plants up to 80 or more years. The stability of the MNS precipitate was investigated from the thermodynamic view point and they concluded that MNS precipitate is a stable phase even with very little Cu contents, and they assessed UW1 thermodynamic database which can predict the thermodynamic stability of MNS precipitate at operating temperature of NPP ( ∼ 290 .deg. C). Based on the non-classical nucleation theory, we performed the phase-field modeling of nucleation and growth of MNS precipitate. The microstructure evolution of Mn-Ni-Cu precipitate has been simulated using the phase-field method and their approaches are focused on a role of the Cu contents. Also, a role of the interstitial loop on the nucleation and growth kinetics of MNS precipitate was analyzed.

  8. Critical behavior at the deconfinement phase phase transition of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in (2+1) dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, J.; Damgaard, P.H.

    1991-01-01

    The finite-temperature deconfinement phase transition of SU(2) lattice gauge theory in (2+1) dimensions is studied by Monte Carlo methods. Comparison is made with the expected form of correlation functions on both sides of the critical point. The critical behavior is compared with expectations based on universality arguments. Attempts are made to extract unbiased values of critical exponents on several lattices sizes. The behavior of Polyakov loops in higher representations of the gauge group is studied close to the phase transition. (orig.)

  9. Experimental data showing the thermal behavior of a flat roof with phase change material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayça Tokuç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The selection and configuration of building materials for optimal energy efficiency in a building require some assumptions and models for the thermal behavior of the utilized materials. Although the models for many materials can be considered acceptable for simulation and calculation purposes, the work for modeling the real time behavior of phase change materials is still under development. The data given in this article shows the thermal behavior of a flat roof element with a phase change material (PCM layer. The temperature and energy given to and taken from the building element are reported. In addition the solid–liquid behavior of the PCM is tracked through images. The resulting thermal behavior of the phase change material is discussed and simulated in [1] A. Tokuç, T. Başaran, S.C. Yesügey, An experimental and numerical investigation on the use of phase change materials in building elements: the case of a flat roof in Istanbul, Build. Energy, vol. 102, 2015, pp. 91–104.

  10. PHASE BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT GASES IN HYDROCARBON AND AQUEOUS SOLVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KHALED A.M. GASEM; ROBERT L. ROBINSON, JR.

    1998-08-31

    Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present period, the Park-Gasem-Robinson (PGR) equation of state (EOS) has been modified to improve its volumetric and equilibrium predictions. Specifically, the attractive term of the PGR equation was modified to enhance the flexibility of the model, and a new expression was developed for the temperature dependence of the attractive term in this segment-segment interaction model. The predictive capability of the modified PGR EOS for vapor pressure, and saturated liquid and

  11. Detailed behavioral modeling of bang-bang phase detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Andreani, Pietro; Keil, U. D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the metastability of current-mode logic (CML) latches and flip-flops is studied in detail. Based on the results of this analysis, a behavioral model of bang-bang phase detectors (BBPDs) is proposed, which is able to reliably capture the critical deadzone effect. The impact of jitter...

  12. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma resistance behavior during the linear decay phase of RFPs in ETA BETA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalesso, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    In the aided-reversal mode RFP discharges produced in ETA BETA II, the plasma current is characterized by a linear decay phase, which follows an approximately exponential phase. During the same period the measured toroidal voltage is negative and initially increasing in absolute value (exponential phase) and then decreasing to almost zero during the linear phase before the current termination. The same behavior of the current has been observed in the quiescent phase in Zeta where a negative toroidal electric field was also observed. In this note we present a model that can explain the linear decay phase and fits with the experimental parameters and allows us to estimate the plasma resistance behavior during the linear phase of slow reversed field pinch discharges

  14. Solid-Phase and Oscillating Solution Crystallization Behavior of (+)- and (-)-N-Methylephedrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulashie, Samuel Kofi; Polenske, Daniel; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Lorenz, Heike

    2016-11-01

    This work involves the study of the solid-phase and solution crystallization behavior of the N-methylephedrine enantiomers. A systematic investigation of the melt phase diagram of the enantiomeric N-methylephedrine system was performed considering polymorphism. Two monotropically related modifications of the enantiomer were found. Solubilities and the ternary solubility phase diagrams of N-methylephedrine enantiomers in 2 solvents [isopropanol:water, 1:3 (Vol) and (2R, 3R)-diethyl tartrate] were determined in the temperature ranges between 15°C and 25°C, and 25°C and 40°C, respectively. Preferential nucleation and crystallization experiments at higher supersaturation leading to an unusual oscillatory crystallization behavior as well as a successful preferential crystallization experiment at lower supersaturation are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Universality in the phase behavior of soft matter: a law of corresponding states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malescio, G

    2006-10-01

    We show that the phase diagram of substances whose molecular structure changes upon varying the thermodynamic parameters can be mapped, through state-dependent scaling, onto the phase diagram of systems of molecules having fixed structure. This makes it possible to identify broad universality classes in the complex phase scenario exhibited by soft matter, and enlightens a surprisingly close connection between puzzling phase phenomena and familiar behaviors. The analysis presented provides a straightforward way for deriving the phase diagram of soft substances from that of simpler reference systems. This method is applied here to study the phase behavior exhibited by two significative examples of soft matter with temperature-dependent molecular structure: thermally responsive colloids and polymeric systems. A region of inverse melting, i.e., melting upon isobaric cooling, is predicted at relatively low pressure and temperature in polymeric systems.

  16. Correlations between phase behaviors and ionic conductivities of (ionic liquid + alcohol) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nam Ku; Bae, Young Chan

    2010-01-01

    To understand the basic properties of ionic liquids (ILs), we examined the phase behavior and ionic conductivity characteristics using various compositions of different ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [emim] [PF6] and 1-benzyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [bzmim] [PF6]) in several different alcohols (ethanol, propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and hexanol). We conducted a systematic study of the impact of different factors on the phase behavior of imidazolium-based ionic liquids in alcohols. Using a new experimental method with a liquid electrolyte system, we observed that the ionic conductivity of the ionic liquid/alcohol was sensitive to the surrounding temperature. We employed Chang et al.'s thermodynamic model [Chang et al. (1997, 1998) ] based on the lattice model. The obtained co-ordinated unit parameter from this model was used to describe the phase behavior and ionic conductivities of the given system. Good agreement with experimental data of various alcohol and ILs systems was obtained in the range of interest.

  17. Mobile ICT Acceptance in Late Adopter Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Gregory; Sudzina, Frantisek; Petrovcikova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid global diffusion of the smartphone, some countries have experienced much slower uptake of the technology. The low smartphone penetration within Slovakia provides the opportunity to explore what drives smartphone use in late majority countries. Slovakia is a central European nation...... and part of the Eurozone. It has advanced telecommunications infrastructure and is subject to the same telecommunications regulations as other EU members. While neighbours have high smartphone penetration, Slovakia is a late majority adopter. This study uses Triandis’ theory of interpersonal behavior...... to investigate the question: What drives the use of smartphones in late majority countries? By studying the differences between current and potential smartphone users, the study revisits Karahanna et al.’s research question: Do potential adopters and users of IT hold the same behavioral and normative beliefs...

  18. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sugam, E-mail: sugam@barc.gov.in; Aswal, V. K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kohlbrecher, J. [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, Paul Scherrer Institut, H-5232 PSI Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-06-24

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology.

  19. Tuning of electrostatic vs. depletion interaction in deciding the phase behavior of nanoparticle-polymer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sugam; Aswal, V. K.; Kohlbrecher, J.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle-polymer system interestingly show a re-entrant phase behavior where charge stabilized silica nanoparticles (phase I) undergo particle clustering (phase II) and then back to individual particles (phase I) as a function of polymer concentration. Such phase behavior arises as a result of dominance of various interactions (i) nanoparticle-nanoparticle electrostatic repulsion (ii) polymer induced attractive depletion between nanoparticles and (iii) polymer-polymer repulsion, at different concentration regimes. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used to study the evolution of interaction during this re-entrant phase behavior of nanoparticles by contrast-marching the polymer. The SANS data have been modeled using a two-Yukawa potential accounting for both attractive and repulsive parts of the interaction between nanoparticles. The degree of both of these parts has been separately tuned by varying the polymer concentration and ionic strength of the solution. Both of these parts are found to have long-range nature. At low polymer concentrations, the electrostatic repulsion dominates over the depletion attraction. The magnitude and the range of the depletion interaction increase with the polymer concentration leading to nanoparticle clustering. At higher polymer concentrations, the increased polymer-polymer repulsion reduces the strength of depletion leading to re-entrant phase behavior. The clusters formed under depletion attraction are found to have surface fractal morphology

  20. Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grison, Pierre; Lauro, J.-F.

    1979-01-01

    Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320 0 C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data [fr

  1. Behavior of pumps conveying two-phase liquid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grison, P; Lauro, J F [Electricite de France, 78 - Chatou. Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1979-01-01

    Determination of the two-phase flow (critical or otherwise) through a pump is an essential requirement for complete description of a loss of primary coolant accident in a PWR plant. Theoretical and experimental research at Electricite de France on this subject is described and problems associated with the introduction of a two-phase fluid (with mass transfer) are discussed, with an attempt to single out new phenomena involved and establish their effect on pump behavior. A complementary experimental investigation is described and the results of tests at pressures and temperatures up to 120 bars and 320/sup 0/C respectively are compared with the theoretical model data.

  2. Phase behavior of random copolymers in quenched random media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, A.K.; Shakhnovich, E.I.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the behavior of random heteropolymers in a quenched disordered medium. We develop a field theory and obtain a mean-field solution that allows for replica symmetry breaking. The presence of an external disorder leads to the formation of compact states; a homopolymeric effect. We compute the phase diagram for two classes of problems. First, we consider the situation wherein the bare heteropolymer prefers like segments to segregate, and second, we examine cases where the bare heteropolymer prefers unlike segments to mix. For the first class of systems, we find a phase diagram characterized by a replica symmetry broken phase that exists below a particular temperature. This temperature grows with the strength of the external disorder. In the second class of situations, the phase diagram is much richer. Here we find two replica symmetry broken phases with different patterns separated by a reentrant phase. The reentrant phase and one of the two replica symmetry broken phases are induced by interactions with the external disorder. The dependence of the location of the phase boundaries on the strength of the external disorder are elucidated. We discuss our results from a physical standpoint, and note the testable experimental consequences of our findings. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  3. Hyperlexia III: separating 'autistic-like' behaviors from autistic disorder; assessing children who read early or speak late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffert, Darold A

    2011-12-01

    Three conditions -- Hyperlexia (children who read early), Einstein syndrome (children who speak late), and "Blindisms" (in children with impaired vision) -- can present with "autistic-like" symptoms, traits, and behaviors that need to be differentiated from autistic disorder. Careful attention to that critical difference has important epidemiologic, etiologic, treatment, and outcome implications. This paper describes these conditions, makes suggestions for proper identification that can prevent unnecessary worry and distress for parents and other caregivers, and suggests appropriate management.

  4. The differences in RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expression between late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory cycle phases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sikora

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available RCAS1 expression is related to the regulation of activated immune cells and to connective tissue remodeling within the endometrium. DFF45 seems to play an important role in the apoptotic process, most likely by acting through the regulation of DNA fragmentation. Its expression changes within the endometrium seem to be related to the resistance of endometrial cells to apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate RCAS1 and DFF45 endometrial expressions during ovulation and the implantation period. RCAS1 and DFF45 expression was assessed by the Western-blot method in endometrial tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. The tissue samples were classified according to the menstrual cycle phases in which they were collected, with a division into three phases: late proliferative, early secretory, and mid-secretory. The lowest level of RCAS1 and the highest level of DFF45 endometrial expression was found during the early secretory cycle phase. Statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 endometrial expression was identified in the endometrium during the late proliferative as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. Moreover, statistically significantly higher RCAS1 and statistically significantly lower DFF45 expression was found in the endometrium during the mid-secretory as compared to the early secretory cycle phase. The preparation for implantation process in the endometrium is preceded by dynamic changes in endometrial ECM and results from the proper interaction between endometrial and immune cells. The course of this process is conditioned by the immunomodulating activity of endometrial cells and their resistance to immune-mediated apoptosis. These dynamic changes are closely related to RCAS1 and DFF45 expression alterations.

  5. Living bacteria rheology: Population growth, aggregation patterns, and collective behavior under different shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, P.; Almeida, P. L.; Portela, R.; Sobral, R. G.; Grilo, I. R.; Cidade, T.; Leal, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    The activity of growing living bacteria was investigated using real-time and in situ rheology—in stationary and oscillatory shear. Two different strains of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus—strain COL and its isogenic cell wall autolysis mutant, RUSAL9—were considered in this work. For low bacteria density, strain COL forms small clusters, while the mutant, presenting deficient cell separation, forms irregular larger aggregates. In the early stages of growth, when subjected to a stationary shear, the viscosity of the cultures of both strains increases with the population of cells. As the bacteria reach the exponential phase of growth, the viscosity of the cultures of the two strains follows different and rich behaviors, with no counterpart in the optical density or in the population's colony-forming units measurements. While the viscosity of strain COL culture keeps increasing during the exponential phase and returns close to its initial value for the late phase of growth, where the population stabilizes, the viscosity of the mutant strain culture decreases steeply, still in the exponential phase, remains constant for some time, and increases again, reaching a constant plateau at a maximum value for the late phase of growth. These complex viscoelastic behaviors, which were observed to be shear-stress-dependent, are a consequence of two coupled effects: the cell density continuous increase and its changing interacting properties. The viscous and elastic moduli of strain COL culture, obtained with oscillatory shear, exhibit power-law behaviors whose exponents are dependent on the bacteria growth stage. The viscous and elastic moduli of the mutant culture have complex behaviors, emerging from the different relaxation times that are associated with the large molecules of the medium and the self-organized structures of bacteria. Nevertheless, these behaviors reflect the bacteria growth stage.

  6. Differential involvement of IL-6 in the early and late phase of 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) release in Concanavalin A-induced hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternak, Magdalena; Jakubowski, Andrzej; Czarnowska, Elzbieta; Slominska, Ewa M; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Szafarz, Malgorzata; Walczak, Maria; Sitek, Barbara; Wojcik, Tomasz; Jasztal, Agnieszka; Kaminski, Karol; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Exogenous 1-methylnicotinamide (MNA) displays anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this work was to characterize the profile of release of endogenous MNA during the initiation and progression of murine hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (ConA). In particular we aimed to clarify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as the energy state of hepatocytes in MNA release in early and late phases of ConA-induced hepatitis in mice. Hepatitis was induced by ConA in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice, and various parameters of liver inflammation and injury, as well as the energy state of hepatocytes, were analysed in relation to MNA release. The decrease in ATP/ADP and NADH/NAD ratios, cytokine release (IL-6, IFN-ɤ), acute phase response (e.g. haptoglobin) and liver injury (alanine aminotransaminase, ALT) were all blunted in ConA-induced hepatitis in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice. The release of MNA in response to Con A was also significantly blunted in IL-6(-/-) mice as compared to IL-6(+/+) mice in the early stage of ConA-induced hepatitis. In turn, nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) activities were blunted in the liver and MNA plasma concentration was elevated to similar degree in the late stage after Concanavalin A in IL-6(+/+) and IL-6(-/-) mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that in ConA-induced hepatitis, early, but not late MNA release was IL-6-dependent. Our results suggest that in the initiation and early hepatitis, MNA release is linked to the energy deficit/impaired redox status in hepatocytes, while in a later phase, MNA release is rather linked to the systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Collagen films with stabilized liquid crystalline phases and concerns on osteoblast behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Minjian; Ding, Shan; Min, Xiang; Jiao, Yanpeng, E-mail: tjiaoyp@jnu.edu.cn; Li, Lihua; Li, Hong; Zhou, Changren, E-mail: tcrz9@jnu.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    To duplicate collagen's in vivo liquid crystalline (LC) phase and investigate the relationship between the morphology of LC collagen and osteoblast behavior, a self-assembly method was introduced for preparing collagen films with a stabilized LC phase. The LC texture and topological structure of the films before and after stabilization were observed with polarizing optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the collagen films and osteoblast behavior was studied with the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo(-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide method, proliferation index detection, alkaline phosphatase measurements, osteocalcin assay, inverted microscopy, SEM observation, AFM observation, and cytoskeleton fluorescence staining. The results showed that the LC collagen film had continuously twisting orientations in the cholesteric phase with a typical series of arced patterns. The collagen fibers assembled in a well-organized orientation in the LC film. Compared to the non-LC film, the LC collagen film can promote cell proliferation, and increase ALP and osteocalcin expression, revealing a contact guide effect on osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Collagen film with liquid crystalline (LC) phase was observed by POM, SEM and AFM. • The effect of LC collagen film on osteoblasts behaviors was studied in detail. • LC collagen film promoted osteoblast proliferation and osteogenesis activity.

  8. Numerical module for debris behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisselev, A.E.; Kobelev, G.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vasiliev, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    The late phase of a hypothetical severe accident in a nuclear reactor is characterized by the appearance of porous debris and liquid pools in core region and lower head of the reactor vessel. Thermal hydraulics and heat transfer in these regions are very important for adequate analysis of severe accident dynamics. The purpose of this work is to develop a universal module which is able to model above-mentioned phenomena on the basis of modern physical concepts. The original approach for debris evolution is developed from classical principles using a set of parameters including debris porosity; average particle diameter; temperatures and mass fractions of solid, liquid and gas phases; specific interface areas between different phases; effective thermal conductivity of each phase, including radiative heat conductivity; mass and energy fluxes through the interfaces. The calculation results of several tests on modeling of porous debris behavior, including the MP-1 experiment, are presented in comparison with experimental data. The results are obtained using this module implemented into the Russian best estimate code, RATEG/SVECHA/HEFEST, which was developed for modeling severe accident thermal hydraulics and late phase phenomena in VVER nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Spheroidization behavior of dendritic b.c.c. phase in Zr-based モ-phase composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Guoyuan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The spheroidization behavior of the dendritic b.c.c. phase dispersed in a bulk metallic glass (BMG matrix was investigated through applying semi-solid isothermal processing and a subsequent rapid quenching procedure to a Zr-based モ-phase composite. The Zr-based composite with the composition of Zr56.2Ti13.8Nb5.0Cu6.9Ni5.6Be12.5 was prefabricated by a water-cooled copper mold-casting method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results show that the composite consists of a glassy matrix and uniformly distributed fine dendrites of the モ-Zr solid solution with the body-centered-cubic (b.c.c. structure. Based on the differential scanning calorimeter (DSC examination results, and in view of the b.c.c. モ-Zr to h.c.p. メ-Zr phase transition temperature, a semi-solid holding temperature of 900 ìC was determined. After reheating the prefabricated composite to the semi-solid temperature, followed by an isothermal holding process at this temperature for 5 min, and then quenching the semi-solid mixture into iced-water; the two-phase microstructure composed of a BMG matrix and uniformly dispersed spherical b.c.c. モ-Zr particles with a high degree of sphericity was achieved. The present spheroidization transition is a thermodynamically autonomic behavior, and essentially a diffusion process controlled by kinetic factors; and the formation of the BMG matrix should be attributed to the rapid quenching of the semi-solid mixture as well as the large glass-forming ability of the remaining melt in the semi-solid mixture.

  10. The strength evaluation and σ-phase aging behavior of cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jae Do; Park, Joong Cheul; Lee, Woo Ho; Jang, Sun Sik

    1999-01-01

    σ-phase of cast stainless steel(CF8M) was artificially precipitated by means of thermal aging at 700 deg C with various holding time (0.33, 5, 15, 50 and 150 hrs) to evaluate the behavior of thermal aging status of strength change. The structure observation, hardness test, tensile test, impact test and fatigue crack growth rates test for as-received and degraded material were also performed to evaluate static strength, toughness and fatigue crack growth behavior corresponding to the aging condition of CF8M. The results showed that the area fraction of σ-phase and hardness value increased with thermal aging time. But, for the impact values, upper shelf energy decreased and fatigue crack growth rates increased with σ-phase aging progressed than that of virgin material

  11. 17th International Conference on Petroleum Phase Behavior and Fouling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Yan, Wei; Andersen, Simon

    2017-01-01

    This special section of Energy & Fuels contains contributedpapers from the 17th International Conference on PetroleumPhase Behavior and Fouling (Petrophase 2016). Petrophase 2016 was organized by the Technical University of Denmark and Schlumberger and took place in Elsinore (Helsingør) Denmark...... from June 19th to 23rd at the Beach Hotel Marienlyst. Petrophase is an international conference aimed at researchers in industry and academia dedicated to the study of the properties and chemistry of petroleum fluids and their effect on producing, processing, and refining in the upstream, midstream......, and downstream industries. The conference started in 1999 as “The International Conference on Petroleum Phase Behavior & Fouling” and has since evolved into an annual event taking place in countries all around the world. Petrophase has been fortunate to have enjoyed financial and organizational support from many...

  12. Association of menstrual phase with smoking behavior, mood and menstrual phase-associated symptoms among young Japanese women smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2013-03-02

    Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 ± 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 ± 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms

  13. Molecular dynamics simulations of melting behavior of alkane as phase change materials slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Zhonghao; Wang Shuangfeng; Wu Maochun; Zhang Yanlai; Li Fuhuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The melting behavior of phase change materials slurry was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation method. ► Four different PCM slurry systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed. ► Amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions were used in the molecular dynamics simulations. ► The simulated melting temperatures are very close to the published experimental values. - Abstract: The alkane based phase change materials slurry, with high latent heat storage capacity, is effective to enhance the heat transfer rate of traditional fluid. In this paper, the melting behavior of composite phase change materials slurry which consists of n-nonadecane and water was investigated by using molecular dynamics simulation. Four different systems including pure water and water/n-nonadecane composite were constructed with amorphous structure and periodic boundary conditions. The results showed that the simulated density and melting temperature were very close to the published experimental values. Mixing the n-nonadecane into water decreased the mobility but increased the energy storage capacity of composite systems. To describe the melting behavior of alkane based phase change materials slurry on molecular or atomic scale, molecular dynamics simulation is an effective method.

  14. Continuous phase transition and critical behaviors of 3D black hole with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Meng-Sen; Liu, Fang; Zhao, Ren

    2014-01-01

    We study the phase transition and the critical behavior of the BTZ black hole with torsion obtained in (1 + 2)-dimensional Poincaré gauge theory. According to Ehrenfest’s classification, when the parameters in the theory are arranged properly, the BTZ black hole with torsion may possess the second-order phase transition which is also a smaller mass/larger mass black hole phase transition. Nevertheless, the critical behavior is different from the one in the van der Waals liquid/gas system. We also calculated the critical exponents of the relevant thermodynamic quantities, which are the same as the ones obtained in the Hořava-Lifshitz black hole and the Born–Infeld black hole. (paper)

  15. A quaternary lead based perovskite structured materials with diffuse phase transition behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Martínez, R.; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J.F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Curie–Weiss plot for the inverse of the relative dielectric permittivity and (b) log (1/ε − 1/ε m ) as function of log (T − T m ) for ceramics at 1 kHz. Highlights: ► Retaining phase pure structure with quaternary complex stoichiometric compositions. ► P–E loops with good saturation polarization (P s ∼ 30.7 μC/cm 2 ). ► Diffused relaxor phase transition behavior with γ estimated is ∼1.65. -- Abstract: A lead based quaternary compound composed of 0.25(PbZr 0.52 Ti 0.48 O 3 ) + 0.25(PbFe 0.5 Ta 0.5 O 3 ) + 0.25 (PbF 0.67 W 0.33 O 3 ) + 0.25(PbFe 0.5 Nb 0.5 O 3 ) – (PZT–PFT–PFW–PFN) was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction techniques. It showed moderate high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and two diffuse phase transitions, one below the room temperature ∼261 K and other above ∼410 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed a tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature where as scanning electron micrograph (SEM) indicates inhomogeneous surface with an average grain size of 500 nm–3 μm. Well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops with good saturation polarization (spontaneous polarization, P s ∼ 30.68 μC/cm 2 ) were observed. Temperature-dependent ac conductivity displayed low conductivity with kink in spectra near the phase transition. In continuing search for developing new ferroelectric materials, in the present study we report stoichiometric compositions of complex perovskite ceramic materials: (PZT–PFT–PFW–PFN) with diffuse phase transition behavior. The crystal structure, dielectric properties, and ferroelectric properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, dielectric spectroscopy, and polarization. 1/ε versus (T) plots revealed diffuse relaxor phase transition (DPT) behavior. The compositional variation on the phase transition temperature, dielectric constant, and ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transitions are discussed.

  16. A quaternary lead based perovskite structured materials with diffuse phase transition behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas, E-mail: pvsri123@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Martinez, R.; Kumar, Ashok [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Scott, J.F. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States); Cavendish Laboratory, Dept. Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB0 3HE (United Kingdom); Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@uprrp.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nano Materials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: (a) Curie-Weiss plot for the inverse of the relative dielectric permittivity and (b) log (1/{epsilon} - 1/{epsilon}{sub m}) as function of log (T - T{sub m}) for ceramics at 1 kHz. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Retaining phase pure structure with quaternary complex stoichiometric compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P-E loops with good saturation polarization (P{sub s} {approx} 30.7 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Diffused relaxor phase transition behavior with {gamma} estimated is {approx}1.65. -- Abstract: A lead based quaternary compound composed of 0.25(PbZr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Ta{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) + 0.25 (PbF{sub 0.67}W{sub 0.33}O{sub 3}) + 0.25(PbFe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}) - (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) was synthesized by conventional solid-state reaction techniques. It showed moderate high dielectric constant, low dielectric loss, and two diffuse phase transitions, one below the room temperature {approx}261 K and other above {approx}410 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns revealed a tetragonal crystal structure at room temperature where as scanning electron micrograph (SEM) indicates inhomogeneous surface with an average grain size of 500 nm-3 {mu}m. Well saturated ferroelectric hysteresis loops with good saturation polarization (spontaneous polarization, P{sub s} {approx} 30.68 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}) were observed. Temperature-dependent ac conductivity displayed low conductivity with kink in spectra near the phase transition. In continuing search for developing new ferroelectric materials, in the present study we report stoichiometric compositions of complex perovskite ceramic materials: (PZT-PFT-PFW-PFN) with diffuse phase transition behavior. The crystal structure, dielectric properties, and ferroelectric properties were characterized by XRD, SEM, dielectric spectroscopy, and polarization. 1/{epsilon} versus (T) plots revealed diffuse relaxor phase transition (DPT) behavior. The

  17. Phase Behavior and Equations of State of the Actinide Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidester, B.; Pardo, O. S.; Panero, W. R.; Fischer, R. A.; Thompson, E. C.; Heinz, D. L.; Prescher, C.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Campbell, A.

    2017-12-01

    The distribution of the long-lived heat-producing actinide elements U and Th in the deep Earth has important implications for the dynamics of the mantle and possibly the energy budget of Earth's core. The low shear velocities of the Large Low-Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs) on the core-mantle boundary suggests that these regions are at least partially molten and may contain concentrated amounts of the radioactive elements, as well as other large cations such as the rare Earth elements. As such, by exploring the phase behavior of actinide-bearing minerals at extreme conditions, some insight into the mineralogy, formation, and geochemical and geodynamical effects of these regions can be gained. We have performed in situ high-pressure, high-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments and calculations on two actinide oxide materials, UO2 and ThO2, to determine their phase behavior at the extreme conditions of the lower mantle. Experiments on ThO2 reached 60 GPa and 2500 K, and experiments on UO2 reached 95 GPa and 2500 K. We find that ThO2 exists in the fluorite-type structure to 20 GPa at high temperatures, at which point it transforms to the high-pressure cotunnite-type structure and remains thus up to 60 GPa. At room temperature, an anomalous expansion of the fluorite structure is observed prior to the transition, and may signal anion sub-lattice disorder. Similarly, UO2 exists in the fluorite-type structure at ambient conditions and up to 28 GPa at high temperatures. Above these pressures, we have observed a previously unidentified phase of UO2 with a tetragonal structure as the lower-temperature phase and the cotunnite-type phase at higher temperatures. Above 78 GPa, UO2 undergoes another transition or possible dissociation into two separate oxide phases. These phase diagrams suggest that the actinides could exist as oxides in solid solution with other analogous phases (e.g. ZrO2) in the cotunnite-type structure throughout much of Earth's lower mantle.

  18. Pressure-temperature phase behavior of mixtures of natural sphingomyelin and ceramide extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Hanna M G; Parsons, Edward S; McCarthy, Nicola L C; Ces, Oscar; Seddon, John M; Law, Robert V; Brooks, Nicholas J

    2015-03-31

    Ceramides are a group of sphingolipids that act as highly important signaling molecules in a variety of cellular processes including differentiation and apoptosis. The predominant in vivo synthetic pathway for ceramide formation is via sphingomyelinase catalyzed hydrolysis of sphingomyelin. The biochemistry of this essential pathway has been studied in detail; however, there is currently a lack of information on the structural behavior of sphingomyelin- and ceramide-rich model membrane systems, which is essential for developing a bottom-up understanding of ceramide signaling and platform formation. We have studied the lyotropic phase behavior of sphingomyelin-ceramide mixtures in excess water as a function of temperature (30-70 °C) and pressure (1-200 MPa) by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. At low ceramide concentrations the mixtures form the ripple gel phase (P(β)') below the gel transition temperature for sphingomyelin, and this observation has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Formation of the ripple gel phase can also be induced at higher temperatures via the application of hydrostatic pressure. At high ceramide concentration an inverse hexagonal phase (HII) is formed coexisting with a cubic phase.

  19. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBruinWeller, MS; Weller, FR; Scholte, A; Rijssenbeek, LHM; vanderBaan, S; Bogaard, JM; deMonchy, JGR

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  20. Early and late allergic reaction in the nose assessed by whole body plethysmography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin-Weller, M. S.; Weller, F. R.; Scholte, A.; Rijssenbeek, L. H.; van der Baan, S.; Bogaard, J. M.; de Monchy, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Physiological changes during late phase nasal responses after allergen challenge are difficult to establish and different criteria are used for the definition of a positive late phase nasal reaction. The objective of this study was to assess the value of whole body plethysmography in detecting

  1. A Simplified Micromechanical Modeling Approach to Predict the Tensile Flow Curve Behavior of Dual-Phase Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Tarun; Kumar, B. Ravi; Singh, Vishal

    2017-11-01

    Micromechanical modeling is used to predict material's tensile flow curve behavior based on microstructural characteristics. This research develops a simplified micromechanical modeling approach for predicting flow curve behavior of dual-phase steels. The existing literature reports on two broad approaches for determining tensile flow curve of these steels. The modeling approach developed in this work attempts to overcome specific limitations of the existing two approaches. This approach combines dislocation-based strain-hardening method with rule of mixtures. In the first step of modeling, `dislocation-based strain-hardening method' was employed to predict tensile behavior of individual phases of ferrite and martensite. In the second step, the individual flow curves were combined using `rule of mixtures,' to obtain the composite dual-phase flow behavior. To check accuracy of proposed model, four distinct dual-phase microstructures comprising of different ferrite grain size, martensite fraction, and carbon content in martensite were processed by annealing experiments. The true stress-strain curves for various microstructures were predicted with the newly developed micromechanical model. The results of micromechanical model matched closely with those of actual tensile tests. Thus, this micromechanical modeling approach can be used to predict and optimize the tensile flow behavior of dual-phase steels.

  2. Behavioral and anatomical consequences of early versus late symbol training in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srihasam, Krishna; Mandeville, Joseph B; Morocz, Istvan A; Sullivan, Kevin J; Livingstone, Margaret S

    2012-02-09

    Distinct brain regions, reproducible from one person to the next, are specialized for processing different kinds of human expertise, such as face recognition and reading. Here, we explore the relationship between age of learning, learning ability, and specialized brain structures. Specifically, we ask whether the existence of reproducible cortical domains necessarily means that certain abilities are innate, or innately easily learned, or whether reproducible domains can be formed, or refined, by interactions between genetic programs and common early experience. Functional MRI showed that intensive early, but not late, experience caused the formation of category-selective regions in macaque temporal lobe for stimuli never naturally encountered by monkeys. And behaviorally, early training produced more fluent processing of these stimuli than the same training in adults. One explanation for these results is that in higher cortical areas, as in early sensory areas, experience drives functional clustering and functional clustering determines how that information is processed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface mechanical attrition treatment induced phase transformation behavior in NiTi shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.; Wen, C.S.; Lu, J.; Wu, S.L.; Xin, Y.C.; Zhang, W.J.; Chu, C.L.; Chung, J.C.Y.; Yeung, K.W.K.; Kwok, D.T.K.; Chu, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    The phase constituents and transformation behavior of the martensite B19' NiTi shape memory alloy after undergoing surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) are investigated. SMAT is found to induce the formation of a parent B2 phase from the martensite B19' in the top surface layer. By removing the surface layer-by-layer, X-ray diffraction reveals that the amount of the B2 phase decreases with depth. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) further indicates that the deformed martensite in the sub-surface layer up to 300 μm deep exhibits the martensite stabilization effect. The graded phase structure and transformation behavior in the SMATed NiTi specimen can be attributed to the gradient change in strain with depth.

  4. Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys

  5. Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.

  6. Mercury Phase II Study - Mercury Behavior in Salt Processing Flowsheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.; Shah, H.; Wilmarth, W. R.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) in the Savannah River Site Liquid Waste System (LWS) originated from decades of canyon processing where it was used as a catalyst for dissolving the aluminum cladding of reactor fuel. Approximately 60 metric tons of mercury is currently present throughout the LWS. Mercury has long been a consideration in the LWS, from both hazard and processing perspectives. In February 2015, a Mercury Program Team was established at the request of the Department of Energy to develop a comprehensive action plan for long-term management and removal of mercury. Evaluation was focused in two Phases. Phase I activities assessed the Liquid Waste inventory and chemical processing behavior using a system-by-system review methodology, and determined the speciation of the different mercury forms (Hg+, Hg++, elemental Hg, organomercury, and soluble versus insoluble mercury) within the LWS. Phase II activities are building on the Phase I activities, and results of the LWS flowsheet evaluations will be summarized in three reports: Mercury Behavior in the Salt Processing Flowsheet (i.e. this report); Mercury Behavior in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Flowsheet; and Mercury behavior in the Tank Farm Flowsheet (Evaporator Operations). The evaluation of the mercury behavior in the salt processing flowsheet indicates, inter alia, the following: (1) In the assembled Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 in Tank 21, the total mercury is mostly soluble with methylmercury (MHg) contributing over 50% of the total mercury. Based on the analyses of samples from 2H Evaporator feed and drop tanks (Tanks 38/43), the source of MHg in Salt Batches 7, 8 and 9 can be attributed to the 2H evaporator concentrate used in assembling the salt batches. The 2H Evaporator is used to evaporate DWPF recycle water. (2) Comparison of data between Tank 21/49, Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), and Tank 50 samples suggests that the total mercury as well as speciated

  7. Thermodynamic nonequilibrium phase change behavior and thermal properties of biological solutions for cryobiology applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bumsoo; Bischof, John C

    2004-04-01

    Understanding the phase change behavior of biomaterials during freezing/thawing including their thermal properties at low temperatures is essential to design and improve cryobiology applications such as cryopreservation and cryosurgery. However, knowledge of phase change behavior and thermal properties of various biomaterials is still incomplete, especially at cryogenic temperatures (solutions--either water-NaCl or phosphate buffered saline (PBS)--with various chemical additives were investigated. The chemical additives studied are glycerol and raffinose as CPAs, an AFP (Type III, molecular weight = 6500), and NaCl as a cryosurgical adjuvant. The phase change behavior was investigated using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a cryomicroscope. The specific and latent heat of these solutions were also measured with the DSC. The saline solutions have two distinct phase changes--water/ice and eutectic phase changes. During freezing, eutectic solidification of both water-NaCl and PBS are significantly supercooled below their thermodynamic equilibrium eutectic temperatures. However, their melting temperatures are close to thermodynamic equilibrium during thawing. These eutectic phase changes disappear when even a small amount (0.1 M glycerol) of CPA was added, but they are still observed after the addition of an AFP. The specific heats of these solutions are close to that of ice at very low temperatures (< or = -100 degrees C) regardless of the additives, but they increase between -100 degrees C and -30 degrees C with the addition of CPAs. The amount of latent heat, which is evaluated with sample weight, generally decreases with the addition of the additives, but can be normalized to approximately 300 J/g based on the weight of water which participates in the phase change. This illustrates that thermal properties, especially latent heat, of a biomaterial should be evaluated based on the understanding of its phase change behavior. The results of the present

  8. Neonatal immune activation during early and late postnatal brain development differently influences depression-related behaviors in adolescent and adult C57BL/6 mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Majidi-Zolbanin; Mohammad-Hossein Doosti; Behzad Baradaran; Mohammad Amani; Maryam Azarfarin; Ali-Akbar Salari

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Immune challenge during early and late neonatal periods can induce robust alterations in physiological and behavioral functions, resulting in greater risk for the development of neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety and depression, later in life. In addition, previous studies concluded that increasing age correlates with increased depression behaviors in humans and rodents. This study aimed to investigate for the first time whether immune challenge with a viral mimic, synthetic dou...

  9. The effects of Nitinol phases on corrosion and fatigue behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Melissa

    The purpose of these studies was to provide a detailed understanding of Nitinol phases and their effects on corrosion and fatigue life. The two primary phases, austenite and martensite, were carefully evaluated with respect to material geometry, corrosion behavior, wear, and fatigue life. Material characterization was performed using several techniques that include metallography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties such as elongation, ultimate tensile strength, modulus, transformation strain, and plateau stress. In addition, accelerated wear testing and four point bend fatigue testing were completed to study the fatigue life and durability of the material. The corrosion of Nitinol was found to be dependent on various surface conditions. Electrochemical corrosion behavior of each phase was investigated using cyclic potentiodyamic polarization testing. The corrosion response of electropolished Nitinol was found to be acceptable, even after durability testing. Stress-induced martensite had a lower breakdown potential due to a rougher surface morphology, while thermally induced martensite and austenite performed similarly well. The surface conditioning also had a significant effect on Nitinol mechanical properties. Electropolishing provided a smooth mirror finish that reduced localized texture and enhanced the ductility of the material. Quasi-static mechanical properties can be good indicators of fatigue life, but further fatigue testing revealed that phase transformations had an important role as well. The governing mechanisms for the fatigue life of Nitinol were determined to be both martesitic phase transformations and surface defects. A new ultimate dislocation strain model was proposed based on specific accelerated step-strain testing.

  10. Coupled Interfacial Tension and Phase Behavior Model Based on Micellar Curvatures

    KAUST Repository

    Torrealba, V. A.; Johns, R. T.

    2017-01-01

    This article introduces a consistent and robust model that predicts interfacial tensions for all microemulsion Winsor types and overall compositions. The model incorporates film bending arguments and Huh's equation and is coupled to phase behavior

  11. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to E-cigarette nicotine vapors during late prenatal and early postnatal life altered behavior in adult mice. Methods: Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until d...

  12. Effect of three-body forces on the phase behavior of charged colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, J. Z.; Bratko, D.; Blanch, H. W.; Prausnitz, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    Statistical-thermodynamic theory for predicting the phase behavior of a colloidal solution requires the pair interaction potential between colloidal particles in solution. In practice, it is necessary to assume pairwise additivity for the potential of mean force between colloidal particles, but little is known concerning the validity of this assumption. This paper concerns interaction between small charged colloids, such as surfactant micelles or globular proteins, in electrolyte solutions and the multibody effect on phase behavior. Monte Carlo simulations for isolated colloidal triplets in equilateral configurations show that, while the three-body force is repulsive when the three particles are near contact, it becomes short-ranged attractive at further separations, contrary to a previous study where the triplet force is attractive at all separations. The three-body force arises mainly from hard-sphere collisions between colloids and small ions; it is most significant in solutions of monovalent salt at low concentration where charged colloids experience strong electrostatic interactions. To illustrate the effect of three-body forces on the phase behavior of charged colloids, we calculated the densities of coexisting phases using van der Waals-type theories for colloidal solutions and for crystals. For the conditions investigated in this work, even though the magnitude of the three-body force may be as large as 10% of the total force at small separations, three-body forces do not have a major effect on the densities of binary coexisting phases. However, coexisting densities calculated using Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory are much different from those calculated using our simulated potential of mean force. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Polymorphic Behavior and Phase Transition of Poly(1-Butene and Its Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The properties of semicrystalline polymeric materials depend remarkably on their structures, especially for those exhibiting a polymorphic behavior. This offers an efficient way to tailor their properties through crystal engineering. For control of the crystal structure, and therefore the physical and mechanical properties, a full understanding of the polymorph selection of polymers under varied conditions is essential. This has stimulated a mass of research work on the polymorphic crystallization and related phase transformation. Considering that the isotactic poly(1-butene (iPBu exhibits pronounced polymorphs and complicated transition between different phases, the study on its crystallization and phase transformation has attracted considerable attention during the past decades. This review provides the context of the recent progresses made on the crystallization and phase transition behavior of iPBu. We first review the crystal structures of known crystal forms and then their formation conditions and influencing factors. In addition, the inevitable form II to form I spontaneous transition mechanism and the transformation kinetics is reviewed based on the existing research works, aiming for it to be useful for its processing in different phases and the further technical development of new methods for accelerating or even bypass its form II to form I transformation.

  14. Phase Behavior of a Phospholipid/Fatty Acid/Water Mixture Studied in Atomic Detail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knecht, Volker; Mark, Alan E.; Marrink, Siewert-Jan

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to study the phase behavior of a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)/palmitic acid (PA)/water 1:2:20 mixture in atomic detail. Starting from a random solution of DPPC and PA in water, the system adopts either a gel phase at temperatures below similar

  15. A Preliminary fMRI Study of a Novel Self-Paced Written Fluency Task: Observation of Left-Hemispheric Activation, and Increased Frontal Activation in Late vs. Early Task Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh eGolestanirad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropsychological tests of verbal fluency are very widely used to characterize impaired cognitive function. For clinical neuroscience studies and potential medical applications, measuring the brain activity that underlies such tests with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is of significant interest - but a challenging proposition because overt speech can cause signal artifacts, which tend to worsen as the duration of speech tasks becomes longer. In a novel approach, we present the group brain activity of 12 subjects who performed a self-paced written version of phonemic fluency using fMRI-compatible tablet technology that recorded responses and provided task-related feedback on a projection screen display, over long-duration task blocks (60 s. As predicted, we observed robust activation in the left anterior inferior and medial frontal gyri, consisting with previously reported results of verbal fluency tasks which established the role of these areas in strategic word retrieval. In addition, the number of words produced in the late phase (last 30 s of written phonemic fluency was significantly less (p < 0.05 than the number produced in the early phase (first 30 s. Activation during the late phase vs. the early phase was also assessed from the first 20 s and last 20 s of task performance, which eliminated the possibility that the sluggish hemodynamic response from the early phase would affect the activation estimates of the late phase. The last 20 s produced greater activation maps covering extended areas in bilateral precuneus, cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, insula, middle frontal gyrus and cingulate gyrus. Among them, greater activation was observed in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area BA 9 and cingulate gyrus (BA 24, 32 likely as part of the initiation, maintenance, and shifting of attentional resources.

  16. Pathways to Late-Life Suicidal Behavior: Cluster Analysis and Predictive Validation of Suicidal Behavior in a Sample of Older Adults With Major Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanto, Katalin; Galfalvy, Hanga; Vanyukov, Polina M; Keilp, John G; Dombrovski, Alexandre Y

    Clinical heterogeneity is a key challenge to understanding suicidal risk, as different pathways to suicidal behavior are likely to exist. We aimed to identify such pathways by uncovering latent classes of late-life depression cases and relating them to prior and future suicidal behavior. Data were collected from June 2010 to September 2015. In this longitudinal study we examined distinct associations of clinical and cognitive/decision-making factors with suicidal behavior in 194 older (50+ years) nondemented, depressed patients; 57 nonpsychiatric healthy controls provided benchmark data. The DSM-IV was used to establish diagnostic criteria. We identified multivariate patterns of risk factors, defining clusters based on personality traits, perceived social support, cognitive performance, and decision-making in an analysis blinded to participants' history of suicidal behavior. We validated these clusters using past and prospective suicidal ideation and behavior. Of 5 clusters identified, 3 were associated with high risk for suicidal behavior: (1) cognitive deficits, dysfunctional personality, low social support, high willingness to delay future rewards, and overrepresentation of high-lethality attempters; (2) high-personality pathology (ie, low self-esteem), minimal or no cognitive deficits, and overrepresentation of low-lethality attempters and ideators; (3) cognitive deficits, inability to delay future rewards, and similar distribution of high- and low-lethality attempters. There were significant between-cluster differences in number (P suicide attempts and in the likelihood of future suicide attempts (P = .010, 30 attempts by 22 patients, 2 fatal) and emergency psychiatric hospitalizations to prevent suicide (P = .005, 31 participants). Three pathways to suicidal behavior in older patients were found, marked by (1) very high levels of cognitive and dispositional risk factors suggesting a dementia prodrome, (2) dysfunctional personality traits, and (3) impulsive

  17. Phase behavior of methane hydrate in silica sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Shi-Cai; Liu, Chang-Ling; Ye, Yu-Guang; Liu, Yu-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrate p-T trace in coarse-grained sediment is consistent with that in bulk water. • Fine-grained sediment affects hydrate equilibrium for the depressed water activity. • Hydrate equilibrium in sediment is related to the pore size distribution. • The application of hydrate equilibrium in sediment depends on the actual condition. -- Abstract: Two kinds of silica sand powder with different particle size were used to investigate the phase behavior of methane hydrate bearing sediment. In coarse-grained silica sand, the measured temperature and pressure range was (281.1 to 284.2) K and (5.9 to 7.8) MPa, respectively. In fine-grained silica sand, the measured temperature and pressure range was (281.5 to 289.5) K and (7.3 to 16.0) MPa, respectively. The results show that the effect of coarse-grained silica sand on methane hydrate phase equilibrium can be ignored; however, the effect of fine-grained silica sand on methane hydrate phase equilibrium is significant, which is attributed to the depression of water activity caused by the hydrophilicity and negatively charged characteristic of silica particle as well as the pore capillary pressure. Besides, the analysis of experimental results using the Gibbs–Thomson equation shows that methane hydrate phase equilibrium is related to the pore size distribution of silica sand. Consequently, for the correct application of phase equilibrium data of hydrate bearing sediment, the geological condition and engineering requirement should be taken into consideration in gas production, resource evaluation, etc

  18. Multi-dimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus during LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a DVI Injection Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, T.S.; Yun, B.J.; Euh, D.J.; Chu, I.C.; Song, C.H.

    2002-01-01

    Multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor vessel with a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (Multi-dimensional Investigation in Downcomer Annulus Simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accidents(LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the multidimensional phenomena of a phasic interaction between steam and water in the downcomer annulus very well. MIDAS is a steam-water separate effect test facility, which is 1/4.93 linearly scaled-down of 1400 MWe PWR type of a nuclear reactor, focused on understanding multi-dimensional thermalhydraulic phenomena in downcomer annulus with various types of safety injection during the refill or reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The initial and the boundary conditions are scaled from the pre-test analysis based on the preliminary calculation using the TRAC code. The superheated steam with a superheating degree of 80 K at a given downcomer pressure of 180 kPa is injected equally through three intact cold legs into the downcomer. (authors)

  19. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan

    2017-02-22

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  20. Late phase cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease: a possible target for therapy?

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladan; B. Bajic, Vladimir; Zivkovic, Lada; Arendt, Thomas; Perry, George; Spremo-Potparevic, Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is represented by neuronal loss and this loss is correlated to a constant state of neuronal instability induced by intrinsic and extrinsic factors. In this paper data is presented regarding the possible roles of late phase cell cycle proteins in normal and affected neurons with the goal that understanding the mechanisms involved in the regulation of these proteins may represent a novel strategy for AD treatment. The results demonstrate a relative differential pattern of expression of certain proteins (APC/C, Mad1 and Mad2, Bub R1, Bub1, CDK 11, cohesin subunit Rad 21 and astrin) in the AD brain versus age matched controls, and it is suggested that targeting these proteins might translate into potential treatments for AD. Although the data presented here is of some interest, the ability to translate such information into clinical applications is often a challenge.

  1. A Scoping Analysis Of The Impact Of SiC Cladding On Late-Phase Accident Progression Involving Core–Concrete Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, M. T. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of the current work is to carry out a scoping analysis to determine the impact of ATF on late phase accident progression; in particular, the molten core-concrete interaction portion of the sequence that occurs after the core debris fails the reactor vessel and relocates into containment. This additional study augments previous work by including kinetic effects that govern chemical reaction rates during core-concrete interaction. The specific ATF considered as part of this study is SiC-clad UO2.

  2. Phase behavior of poly(dimethylsiloxane)-poly(ethylene oxide) amphiphilic block and graft copolymers in compressed carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoychev, Ivan; Peters, Felix; Kleiner, Matthias; Sadowski, Gabriele; Clerc, Sebastien; Ganachaud, Francois; Chirat, Mathieu; Lacroix-Desmazes, Patrick; Fournel, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    The phase behavior of triblock and graft-type poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) copolymer surfactants has been investigated in compressed carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). For this purpose, cloud-point pressures have been measured in the pressure and temperature range from P=10 to 40 MPa and from T= 293 to 338 K. The Perturbed-Chain Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (EoS) has been applied to model the experimental data in order to better understand the influence of the structure of the copolymers on the phase behavior of the system. The pure-component parameters for PDMS have been fitted originally to PDMS/n-pentane system. These parameters are successfully applied for PDMS in CO 2 by adjusting a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter. The phase behavior of the triblock copolymers was successfully predicted by PC-SAFT. In contrast, the phase behavior of the graft copolymers was difficult to predict accurately at this stage. (authors)

  3. Influence of vitamin E acetate and other lipids on the phase behavior of mesophases based on unsaturated monoglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagalowicz, L; Guillot, S; Acquistapace, S; Schmitt, B; Maurer, M; Yaghmur, A; de Campo, L; Rouvet, M; Leser, M; Glatter, O

    2013-07-02

    The phase behavior of the ternary unsaturated monoglycerides (UMG)-DL-α-tocopheryl acetate-water system has been studied. The effects of lipid composition in both bulk and dispersed lyotropic liquid crystalline phases and microemulsions were investigated. In excess water, progressive addition of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate to a binary UMG mixture results in the following phase sequence: reversed bicontinuous cubic phase, reversed hexagonal (H(II)) phase, and a reversed microemulsion. The action of DL-α-tocopheryl acetate is then compared to that of other lipids such as triolein, limonene, tetradecane, and DL-α-tocopherol. The impact of solubilizing these hydrophobic molecules on the UMG-water phase behavior shows some common features. However, the solubilization of certain molecules, like DL-α-tocopherol, leads to the presence of the reversed micellar cubic phase (space group number 227 and symmetry Fd3m) while the solubilization of others does not. These differences in phase behavior are discussed in terms of physical-chemical characteristics of the added lipid molecule and its interaction with UMG and water. From an applications point of view, phase behavior as a function of the solubilized content of guest molecules (lipid additive in our case) is crucial since macroscopic properties such as molecular release depend strongly on the phase present. The effect of two hydrophilic emulsifiers, used to stabilize the aqueous dispersions of UMG, was studied and compared. Those were Pluronic F127, which is the most commonly used stabilizer for these kinds of inverted type structures, and the partially hydrolyzed emulsifier lecithin (Emultop EP), which is a well accepted food-grade emulsifier. The phase behavior of particles stabilized by the partially hydrolyzed lecithin is similar to that of bulk sample at full hydration, but this emulsifier interacts significantly with the internal structure and affects it much more than F127.

  4. Temperature-dependent Raman and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy studies on phase transition behavior of VO{sub 2} films with M1 and M2 phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okimura, Kunio, E-mail: okifn@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp; Hanis Azhan, Nurul [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokai University, Hiratsuka 259-1292 (Japan); Hajiri, Tetsuya [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kimura, Shin-ichi [UVSOR Facility, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zaghrioui, Mustapha; Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Université François Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)

    2014-04-21

    Structural and electronic phase transitions behavior of two polycrystalline VO{sub 2} films, one with pure M1 phase and the other with pure M2 phase at room temperature, were investigated by temperature-controlled Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). We observed characteristic transient dynamics in which the Raman modes at 195 cm{sup −1} (V-V vibration) and 616 cm{sup −1} (V-O vibration) showed remarkable hardening along the temperature in M1 phase film, indicating the rearrangements of V-V pairs and VO{sub 6} octahedra. It was also shown that the M1 Raman mode frequency approached those of invariant M2 peaks before entering rutile phase. In UPS spectra with high energy resolution of 0.03 eV for the M2 phase film, narrower V{sub 3d} band was observed together with smaller gap compared to those of M1 phase film, supporting the nature of Mott insulator of M2 phase even in the polycrystalline film. Cooperative behavior of lattice rearrangements and electronic phase transition was suggested for M1 phase film.

  5. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sebastian M.; Hooten, Mevin; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Proaño, Carolina B.; Anderson, David J.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Wikelski, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM) that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  6. Unusual crystallization behavior in Ga-Sb phase change alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Putero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ X-ray scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the crystallization behavior of Sb-rich Ga-Sb alloys. Measurements of the sheet resistance during heating indicated a reduced crystallization temperature with increased Sb content, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The electrical contrast increased with increasing Sb content and the resistivities in both the amorphous and crystalline phases decreased. It was found that by tuning the composition between Ga:Sb = 9:91 (in at.% and Ga:Sb = 45:55, the change in mass density upon crystallization changes from an increase in mass density which is typical for most phase change materials to a decrease in mass density. At the composition of Ga:Sb = 30:70, no mass density change is observed which should be very beneficial for phase change random access memory (PCRAM applications where a change in mass density during cycling is assumed to cause void formation and PCRAM device failure.

  7. Strengthening behavior of beta phase in lamellar microstructure of TiAl alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hanliang; Seo, D. Y.; Maruyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    β phase can be introduced to TiAl alloys by the additions of β stabilizing elements such as Cr, Nb, W, and Mo. The β phase has a body-centered cubic lattice structure and is softer than the α2 and γ phases in TiAl alloys at elevated temperatures, and hence is thought to have a detrimental effect on creep strength. However, fine β precipitates can be formed at lamellar interfaces by proper heat treatment conditions and the β interfacial precipitate improves the creep resistance of fully lamellar TiAl alloys, since the phase interface of γ/β retards the motion of dislocations during creep. This paper reviews recent research on high-temperature strengthening behavior of the β phase in fully lamellar TiAl alloys.

  8. Complex phase behavior in solvent-free nonionic surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillmyer, M.A.; Bates, F.S.; Almdal, K.

    1996-01-01

    Unsolvated block copolymers and surfactant solutions are ''soft materials'' that share a common set of ordered microstructures, A set of polyethyleneoxide-polyethylethylene (PEG-PEE) block copolymers that are chemically similar to the well-known alkane-oxyethylene (C(n)EO(m)) nonionic surfactants...... was synthesized here. The general phase behavior in these materials resembles that of both higher molecular weight block copolymers and lower molecular weight nonionic surfactant solutions. Two of the block copolymers exhibited thermally induced order-order transitions and were studied in detail by small...

  9. Scaling behavior in first-order quark-hadron phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    It is shown that in the Ginzburg-Landau description of first-order quark-hadron phase transition the normalized factorial moments exhibit scaling behavior. The scaling exponent ν depends on only one effective parameter g, which characterizes the strength of the transition. For a strong first-order transition, we find ν=1.45. For weak transition it is 1.30 in agreement with the earlier result on second-order transition

  10. Characteristic behavior of bubbles and slugs in transient two-phase flow using image-processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shoji; Ishizaki, Yasuo; Ohashi, Hirotada; Akiyama, Mamoru

    1995-01-01

    Simulation of transient two-phase flow has been performed by solving transient hydrodynamic equations. However, constitution relations used in this simulation are primarily based on steady-state experimental results. Thus it is important to understand the transient behavior of bubbles and slugs, in particular, transient behavior of the void fraction, the interfacial area and the flow pattern, to confirm the applicability of the present simulation method and to advance two-phase flow simulation further. The present study deals with measurement of transient two-phase flow. We have measured local and instantaneous void fractions using imaging techniques, and compared the experimental data with simulation results. (author)

  11. Early and late preferences in relative clause attachment in Portuguese and Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Maia

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents new data about the cross-language application of the Late Closure principle (Frazier, 1978, whose universality was put in question by data from Spanish (Cuetos & Mitchell, 1988. Using sentences containing a restrictive relative clause unambiguously modifying the first or the second noun of a complex NP (os cúmplices do ladrão/o cúmplice dos ladrões que fugiram, this study compares the behavior of Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers participating in a self-paced reading task. The data confirm that, in early phases of processing, attachment preferences are driven by a locality principle such as Late Closure. Based on a review of studies on Portuguese, Spanish and other Romance languages, we argue that the high- versus low-attachment difference across languages emerges cleanly only in off-line tasks, such as questionnaire studies, thus limiting the types of explanations for the cross-linguistic differences. We also advance an explanation for the high attachment preferences found in unspeeded questionnaire studies based on the Implicit Prosody Hypothesis (Fodor, 1998a, 2002.

  12. Effects of sodium β-sitosteryl sulfate on the phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Ananda; Misono, Takeshi; Bhadani, Avinash; Sakai, Kenichi; Kaise, Chihiro; Kaneko, Teruhisa; Sakai, Hideki

    2018-01-01

    We have studied the phase behavior of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) containing sodium β-sitosteryl sulfate (PSO 4 ). PSO 4 was found to lower the phase transition temperature of DPPC to a higher degree than cholesterol or β-sitosterol. It also gave rise to the formation of a modulated (ripple) phase (P β ) at low to moderate concentrations. At concentrations greater than 25 mol%, it completely changed the membrane into a fluid phase. This shows that PSO 4 is capable of disordering the hydrocarbon chains of PC efficiently. The characteristics of PSO 4 for fluidizing the membrane can be useful for the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Microstructural evolution and tensile behavior of Ti{sub 2}AlNb alloys based α{sub 2}-phase decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei, E-mail: gackmol@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Zeng, Weidong, E-mail: zengwd@nwpu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Li, Dong; Zhu, Bin; Zheng, Youping [State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an 710072 (China); Liang, Xiaobo [Beijing Iron & Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2016-04-26

    The formation mechanism of the fine plate-like O-phases within α{sub 2}-phases and tensile behavior of an isothermally forged Ti–22Al–25Nb (at%) orthorhombic alloy at 1040 °C during heat treatment were investigated. The investigation indicated that the alloys were heat-treated in O+B2 phase region after α{sub 2}+B2 phase region isothermally forging, the equiaxed α{sub 2}-phase was not stable and decomposed into O+α{sub 2} phases. The α{sub 2} phases formed during isothermal forging process have higher concentration of Nb and begun to decompose during O+B2 phase region heat treatment. And then the α{sub 2} phases separated into Niobium-lean and Niobium-rich regions through the Niobium diffusion: α{sub 2}→α{sub 2} (Nb-lean)+O (Nb-rich). Nb-rich regions with composition similar to Ti{sub 2}AlNb transformed to the O-phase, while the Nb-lean regions remained untransformed and retained the α{sub 2}-phase. The deformation behavior and fracture mechanism of Ti–22Al–25Nb alloy at room temperature were discussed. The deformation behavior and microstructural evolution of this alloy at different temperatures and stain rates were also investigated using uniaxial tensile test.

  14. At-sea behavior varies with lunar phase in a nocturnal pelagic seabird, the swallow-tailed gull.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian M Cruz

    Full Text Available Strong and predictable environmental variability can reward flexible behaviors among animals. We used long-term records of activity data that cover several lunar cycles to investigate whether behavior at-sea of swallow-tailed gulls Creagrus furcatus, a nocturnal pelagic seabird, varied with lunar phase in the Galápagos Islands. A Bayesian hierarchical model showed that nighttime at-sea activity of 37 breeding swallow-tailed gulls was clearly associated with changes in moon phase. Proportion of nighttime spent on water was highest during darker periods of the lunar cycle, coinciding with the cycle of the diel vertical migration (DVM that brings prey to the sea surface at night. Our data show that at-sea behavior of a tropical seabird can vary with environmental changes, including lunar phase.

  15. Observations of the late superhump in VW Hydri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Woerd, H.; Van Der Klis, M.; Van Paradijs, J.; Beuermann, K.; Motch, C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of simultaneous optical and near-IR photometry, optical fast spectroscopy, and Exosat X-ray observations of the dwarf nova VW Hyi, obtained simultaneously during three consecutive orbital cycles, approximately two days after the 1983 November superoutburst terminated. The optical data show clear evidence for a late superhump, which is shifted + 0.7 in phase relative to the orbital modulation. An attempt is made to derive from the observed spectral distribution the contribution of the late superhump. The orbital hump and the late superhump apparently are not related to each other. This important effect excludes all models, in which the late superhump phenomenon is interpreted in terms of variations in the bright-spot brightness. 43 references

  16. Longitudinal pathways from unconventional personal attributes in the late 20s to cannabis use prior to sexual intercourse in the late 30s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Yeon; Brook, Judith S; Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, David W

    2017-11-01

    A quarter of people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States are women. Furthermore, African American and Hispanic/Latina women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV, compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Cannabis use prior to intercourse may be associated with increased risky sexual behaviors which are highly related to HIV. The ultimate goal of this research is to better understand the relationships between unconventional personal attributes (e.g., risk-taking behaviors) in the late 20s, substance use (e.g., alcohol) in the mid 30s, and cannabis use prior to intercourse in the late 30s using a community sample; such an understanding may inform interventions. This study employing data from the Harlem Longitudinal Development Study includes 343 female participants (50% African Americans, 50% Puerto Ricans). Structural equation modeling indicated that unconventional personal attributes in the late 20s were associated with substance use in the mid 30s (β=0.32, pcannabis use prior to sexual intercourse in the late 30s (β=0.64, pcannabis use prior to sexual intercourse in the late 30s (β=0.39, pprevention are that these precursors may be useful as patient screening tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative analysis of tensile deformation behavior by in-situ neutron diffraction for ferrite-martensite type dual-phase steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morooka, Satoshi; Umezawa, Osamu; Harjo, Stefanus; Hasegawa, Kohei; Toji, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    The yielding and work-hardening behavior of ferrite-martensite type dual-phase (DP) alloys were clearly analyzed using the in-situ neutron diffraction technique. We successfully established a new method to estimate the stress and strain partitioning between ferrite and martensite phase during loading. Although these phases exhibit the same lattice structure with similar lattice parameters, their lattice strains on (110), (200) and (211) are obviously different from each other under an applied stress. The misfit strains between those phases were clearly accompanied with the phase-scaled internal stream (phase stress). Thus, the martensite phase yielded by higher applied stress than macro-yield stress, which resulted in high work-hardening rate of the DP steel. We also demonstrated that ferrite phase fraction influenced work-hardening behavior. (author)

  18. Normal-phase liquid chromatography retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and their methyl-substituted derivatives on an aminopropyl stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Hayes, Hugh V; Sander, Lane C; Campiglia, Andres D; Wise, Stephen A

    2017-09-01

    Retention indices for 124 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 62 methyl-substituted (Me-) PAHs were determined using normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) on a aminopropyl (NH 2 ) stationary phase. PAH retention behavior on the NH 2 phase is correlated to the total number of aromatic carbons in the PAH structure. Within an isomer group, non-planar isomers generally elute earlier than planar isomers. MePAHs generally elute slightly later but in the same region as the parent PAHs. Correlations between PAH retention behavior on the NH 2 phase and PAH thickness (T) values were investigated to determine the influence of non-planarity for isomeric PAHs with four to seven aromatic rings. Correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.19 (five-ring peri-condensed molecular mass (MM) 252 Da) to r = -0.99 (five-ring cata-condensed MM 278 Da). In the case of the smaller PAHs (MM ≤ 252 Da), most of the PAHs had a planar structure and provided a low correlation. In the case of larger PAHs (MM ≥ 278 Da), nonplanarity had a significant influence on the retention behavior and good correlation between retention and T was obtained for the MM 278 Da, MM 302 Da, MM 328 Da, and MM 378 Da isomer sets. Graphical abstract NPLC separation of the three-, four-, five-, and six-ring PAH isomers with different number of aromatic carbon atoms and degrees of non-planarity (Thickness, T). The inserted figure plots the number of aromatic carbon atoms vs. the log I value for the 124 parent PAHs.

  19. A cluster phase analysis for collective behavior in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Felip, Maurici A; Davis, Tehran J; Frank, Till D; Dixon, James A

    2018-06-01

    Collective behavior can be defined as the ability of humans to coordinate with others through a complex environment. Sports offer exquisite examples of this dynamic interplay, requiring decision making and other perceptual-cognitive skills to adjust individual decisions to the team self-organization and vice versa. Considering players of a team as periodic phase oscillators, synchrony analyses can be used to model the coordination of a team. Nonetheless, a main limitation of current models is that collective behavior is context independent. In other words, players on a team can be highly synchronized without this corresponding to a meaningful coordination dynamics relevant to the context of the game. Considering these issues, the aim of this study was to develop a method of analysis sensitive to the context for evidence-based measures of collective behavior. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of martensitic phase transformation on the behavior of 304 austenitic stainless steel under tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H., E-mail: wanghm@lanl.gov [Materials Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jeong, Y. [Materials Science and Engineering Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Clausen, B.; Liu, Y.; McCabe, R.J. [Materials Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Barlat, F. [Graduate Institute of Ferrous Technology, POSTECH (Korea, Republic of); Tomé, C.N. [Materials Science and Technology, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The present work integrates in-situ neutron diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and crystal plasticity modeling to investigate the effect of martensitic phase transformation on the behavior of 304 stainless steel under uniaxial tension. The macroscopic stress strain response, evolution of the martensitic phase fraction, texture evolution of each individual phase, and internal elastic strains were measured at room temperature and at 75 °C. Because no martensitic transformation was observed at 75 °C, the experimental results at 75 °C were used as a reference to quantify the effect of formed martensitic phase on the behavior of 304 stainless steel at room temperature. A crystallographic phase transformation model was implemented into an elastic–viscoplastic self-consistent framework. The phase transformation model captured the macroscopic stress strain response, plus the texture and volume fraction evolution of austenite and martensite. The model also predicts the internal elastic strain evolution with loading in the austenite, but not in the martensite. The results of this work highlight the mechanisms that control phase transformation and the sensitivity of modeling results to them, and point out to critical elements that still need to be incorporated into crystallographic phase transformation models to accurately describe the internal strain evolution during phase transformation.

  1. Co-operation and Phase Behavior under the Mixed Updating Rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wen; Li Yao-Sheng; Xu Chen

    2015-01-01

    We present a model by considering two updating rules when the agents play prisoner's dilemma on a square lattice. Agents can update their strategies by referencing one of his neighbors of higher payoffs under the imitation updating rule or directly replaced by one of his neighbors according to the death-birth updating rule. The frequency of co-operation is related to the probability q of occurrence of the imitation updating or the death-birth updating and the game parameter b. The death-birth updating rule favors the co-operation while the imitation updating rule favors the defection on the lattice, although both rules suppress the co-operation in the well-mixed population. Therefore a totally co-operative state may emerge when the death-birth updating is involved in the evolution when b is relatively small. We also obtain a phase diagram on the q-b plane. There are three phases on the plane with two pure phases of a totally co-operative state and a totally defective state and a mixing phase of mixed strategies. Based on the pair approximation, we theoretically analyze the phase behavior and obtain a quantitative agreement with the simulation results. (paper)

  2. Evaporite-hosted native sulfur in Trans-Pecos Texas: Relation to late-phase basin and range deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentz, T.F.; Henry, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Major deposits of biogenic native sulfur are associated with narrow, northeast-trending grabens and normal faults that disrupt the gently tilted, east-dipping Upper Permian evaporite succession of the western Delaware Basin in Trans-Pecos Texas. Orebodies are restricted to geologic traps in the fractured and dissolution-modified downfaulted blocks of the grabens. Other parallel, regionally distributed grabens and normal faults are commonly the sites of noncommercial sulfur deposits and genetically related secondary-replacement (diagenetic) limestone bodies. The sulfur-bearing structures probably formed during the later of two episodes of Basin and Range extension that have not previously been differentiated in Texas but are well defined elsewhere in the western United States. In Texas several lines of evidence collectively support the existence of late-phase, northwest-directed extension that was initiated in the middle Miocene

  3. A PAF receptor antagonist inhibits acute airway inflammation and late-phase responses but not chronic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness in a primate model of asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. H. Gundel

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the effects of a PAF receptor antagonist, WEB 2170, on several indices of acute and chronic airway inflammation and associated changes in lung function in a primate model of allergic asthma. A single oral administration WEB 2170 provided dose related inhibition of the release of leukotriene C4 (LTC4 and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2 recovered and quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid obtained during the acute phase response to inhaled antigen. In addition, oral WEB 2170 treatment in dual responder primates blocked the acute influx of neutrophils into the airways as well as the associated late-phase airway obstruction occurring 6 h after antigen inhalation. In contrast, a multiple dosing regime with WEB 2170 (once a day for 7 consecutive days failed to reduce the chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic and associated airway hyperresponsiveness to inhaled methacholine that is characteristic of dual responder monkeys. Thus, we conclude that the generation of PAF following antigen inhalation contributes to the development of lipid mediators, acute airway inflammation and associated late-phase airway obstruction in dual responder primates; however, PAF does not play a significant role in the maintenance of chronic airway inflammation and associated airway hyperresponsiveness in this primate model.

  4. Phase Behavior of Diblock Copolymer–Homopolymer Ternary Blends: Congruent First-Order Lamellar–Disorder Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickey, Robert J.; Gillard, Timothy M.; Irwin, Matthew T.; Morse, David C.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S. (UMM)

    2016-10-13

    We have established the existence of a line of congruent first-order lamellar-to-disorder (LAM–DIS) transitions when appropriate amounts of poly(cyclohexylethylene) (C) and poly(ethylene) (E) homopolymers are mixed with a corresponding compositionally symmetric CE diblock copolymer. The line of congruent transitions, or the congruent isopleth, terminates at the bicontinuous microemulsion (BμE) channel, and its trajectory appears to be influenced by the critical composition of the C/E binary homopolymer blend. Blends satisfying congruency undergo a direct LAM–DIS transition without passing through a two-phase region. We present complementary optical transmission, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMS) results that establish the phase behavior at constant copolymer volume fraction and varying C/E homopolymer volume ratios. Adjacent to the congruent composition at constant copolymer volume fraction, the lamellar and disordered phases are separated by two-phase coexistence windows, which converge, along with the line of congruent transitions, at an overall composition in the phase prism coincident with the BμE channel. Hexagonal and cubic (double gyroid) phases occur at higher diblock copolymer concentrations for asymmetric amounts of C and E homopolymers. These results establish a quantitative method for identifying the detailed phase behavior of ternary diblock copolymer–homopolymer blends, especially in the vicinity of the BμE.

  5. Application of advanced statistical methods in assessment of the late phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, R.

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a new methodology for improving of estimates of radiological situation on terrain in the late phase of a nuclear accident. Methods of Bayesian filtering are applied to the problem. The estimates are based on combination of modeled and measured data provided by responsible authorities. Exploiting information on uncertainty of both the data sources, we are able to produce improved estimate of the true situation on terrain. We also attempt to account for model error, which is unknown and plays crucial role in accuracy of the estimates. The main contribution of this paper is application of an approach based on advanced statistical methods, which allows for estimating of model error covariance structure upon measurements. Model error is estimated on basis of measured-minus-observed residuals evaluated upon measured and modeled values. The methodology is demonstrated on a sample scenario with simulated measurements. (authors)

  6. Application of advanced statistical methods in assessment of the late phase of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, R.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a new methodology for improving of estimates of radiological situation on terrain in the late phase of a nuclear accident. Methods of Bayesian filtering are applied to the problem. The estimates are based on combination of modeled and measured data provided by responsible authorities. Exploiting information on uncertainty of both the data sources, we are able to produce improved estimate of the true situation on terrain. We also attempt to account for model error, which is unknown and plays crucial role in accuracy of the estimates. The main contribution of this paper is application of an approach based on advanced statistical methods, which allows for estimating of model error covariance structure upon measurements. Model error is estimated on basis of measured-minus-observed residuals evaluated upon measured and modeled values. The methodology is demonstrated on a sample scenario with simulated measurements. (authors)

  7. The phase behavior of polydisperse multiblock copolymer melts : (a theoretical study)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angerman, Hindrik Jan

    1998-01-01

    Summary The main theme of this thesis is the influence of polydispersity on the phase behavior of copolymer melts. With “polydispersity” we do not only refer to polydispersity in overall chain length, but also to polydispersity in the composition and the monomer sequence of the chains. Study of the

  8. Simple cosmological model with inflation and late times acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydłowski, Marek; Stachowski, Aleksander

    2018-03-01

    In the framework of polynomial Palatini cosmology, we investigate a simple cosmological homogeneous and isotropic model with matter in the Einstein frame. We show that in this model during cosmic evolution, early inflation appears and the accelerating phase of the expansion for the late times. In this frame we obtain the Friedmann equation with matter and dark energy in the form of a scalar field with a potential whose form is determined in a covariant way by the Ricci scalar of the FRW metric. The energy density of matter and dark energy are also parameterized through the Ricci scalar. Early inflation is obtained only for an infinitesimally small fraction of energy density of matter. Between the matter and dark energy, there exists an interaction because the dark energy is decaying. For the characterization of inflation we calculate the slow roll parameters and the constant roll parameter in terms of the Ricci scalar. We have found a characteristic behavior of the time dependence of density of dark energy on the cosmic time following the logistic-like curve which interpolates two almost constant value phases. From the required numbers of N-folds we have found a bound on the model parameter.

  9. Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai Wang; Tjong, Sie Chin

    2014-07-22

    Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700-900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350-550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs.

  10. Late-time tails of wave propagation in higher dimensional spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Yoshida, Shijun; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the late-time tails appearing in the propagation of massless fields (scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational) in the vicinities of a D-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. We find that at late times the fields always exhibit a power-law falloff, but the power law is highly sensitive to the dimensionality of the spacetime. Accordingly, for odd D>3 we find that the field behaves as t -(2l+D-2) at late times, where l is the angular index determining the angular dependence of the field. This behavior is entirely due to D being odd; it does not depend on the presence of a black hole in the spacetime. Indeed this tail is already present in the flat space Green's function. On the other hand, for even D>4 the field decays as t -(2l+3D-8) , and this time there is no contribution from the flat background. This power law is entirely due to the presence of the black hole. The D=4 case is special and exhibits, as is well known, t -(2l+3) behavior. In the extra dimensional scenario for our Universe, our results are strictly correct if the extra dimensions are infinite, but also give a good description of the late-time behavior of any field if the large extra dimensions are large enough

  11. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherafat, Z.; Paydar, M.H.; Ebrahimi, R.; Sohrabi, S.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, mechanical properties and deformation behavior of Al/Al7075, two-phase material were investigated. The two-phase materials were fabricated by mixing commercially pure Al powder with Al7075 chips and consolidating the mixture through hot extrusion process at 500 o C. Mechanical properties and deformation behavior of the fabricated samples were evaluated using tensile and compression tests. A scanning electron microscope was used to study the fracture surface of the samples including different amount of Al powder, after they were fractured in tensile test. The results of the tensile and compression tests showed that with decreasing the amount of Al powder, the strength increases and ductility decreases. Calculation of work hardening exponent (n) indicated that deformation behavior does not follow a regular trend. In a way that the n value was approved to be variable and a strong function of strain and Al powder wt% of the sample. The results of the fractography studies indicate that the type of fracture happened changes from completely ductile to nearly brittle by decreasing the wt% of Al powder from 90% to 40%.

  12. Differences in grip force control between young and late middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lianrong; Li, Kunyang; Wang, Qian; Chen, Wenhui; Song, Rong; Liu, Guanzheng

    2017-09-01

    Grip force control is a crucial function for human to guarantee the quality of life. To examine the effects of age on grip force control, 10 young adults and 11 late middle-aged adults participated in visually guided tracking tasks using different target force levels (25, 50, and 75% of the subject's maximal grip force). Multiple measures were used to evaluate the tracking performance during force rising phase and force maintenance phase. The measurements include the rise time, fuzzy entropy, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation, and target deviation ratio. The results show that the maximal grip force was significantly lower in the late middle-aged adults than in the young adults. The time of rising phase was systematically longer among late middle-aged adults. The fuzzy entropy is a useful indicator for quantitating the force variability of the grip force signal at higher force levels. These results suggest that the late middle-aged adults applied a compensatory strategy that allow allows for sufficient time to reach the required grip force and reduce the impact of the early and subtle degenerative changes in hand motor function.

  13. ω-3 and folic acid act against depressive-like behavior and oxidative damage in the brain of rats subjected to early- or late-life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Maciel, Amanda L; Abelaira, Helena M; de Moura, Airam B; de Souza, Thays G; Dos Santos, Thais R; Darabas, Ana Caroline; Parzianello, Murilo; Matos, Danyela; Abatti, Mariane; Vieira, Ana Carolina; Fucillini, Vanessa; Michels, Monique; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2018-03-30

    To investigate the antidepressant and antioxidant effects of omega-3, folic acid and n-acetylcysteine (NAC) in rats which were subjected to early or late life stress. Early stress was induced through maternal deprivation (MD), while late life stress was induced using the chronic mild stress (CMS) protocol. Young rats which were subjected to MD and the adult rats which were subjected to CMS were treated with omega-3 fatty acids (0.72 g/kg), NAC (20 mg/kg) or folic acid (50 mg/kg) once/day, for a period of 20 days. Then, the animals' immobility times were evaluated using the forced swimming test. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in the brain. Depressive-like behavior induced by CMS was prevented by NAC and folic acid, and depressive-like behavior induced by MD was prevented by NAC, folic acid and omega-3. NAC, folic acid and omega-3 were able to exert antioxidant effects in the brain of rats subjected to CMS or MD. These preventive treatments decreased the levels of protein carbonylation and lipid peroxidation, and also decreased the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate and reduced the activity of myeloperoxidase activity in the rat brain which was induced by CMS or MD. NAC, folic acid and omega-3 increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the rat brain subjected to early or late life stress. NAC, omega-3 and folic acid may present interesting lines of treatment based on their antioxidant properties, which cause an inhibition of behavioral and brain changes that occur from stressful life events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase behavior of the modified-Yukawa fluid and its sticky limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöll-Paschinger, Elisabeth; Valadez-Pérez, Néstor E; Benavides, Ana L; Castañeda-Priego, Ramón

    2013-11-14

    Simple model systems with short-range attractive potentials have turned out to play a crucial role in determining theoretically the phase behavior of proteins or colloids. However, as pointed out by D. Gazzillo [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 124504 (2011)], one of these widely used model potentials, namely, the attractive hard-core Yukawa potential, shows an unphysical behavior when one approaches its sticky limit, since the second virial coefficient is diverging. However, it is exactly this second virial coefficient that is typically used to depict the experimental phase diagram for a large variety of complex fluids and that, in addition, plays an important role in the Noro-Frenkel scaling law [J. Chem. Phys. 113, 2941 (2000)], which is thus not applicable to the Yukawa fluid. To overcome this deficiency of the attractive Yukawa potential, D. Gazzillo has proposed the so-called modified hard-core attractive Yukawa fluid, which allows one to correctly obtain the second and third virial coefficients of adhesive hard-spheres starting from a system with an attractive logarithmic Yukawa-like interaction. In this work we present liquid-vapor coexistence curves for this system and investigate its behavior close to the sticky limit. Results have been obtained with the self-consistent Ornstein-Zernike approximation (SCOZA) for values of the reduced inverse screening length parameter up to 18. The accuracy of SCOZA has been assessed by comparison with Monte Carlo simulations.

  15. Peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Q.; Wu, X. Y.; Wang, J. X.; Kawata, S.; Wang, P. X.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we qualitatively analyzed peculiarities of laser phase behavior associated with the accelerated electron in a chirped laser pulse. We unveiled the relationship between the changes in the orientation of the electron trajectory and the cusps in magnitude of the phase velocity of the optical field along the electron trajectory in a chirped laser pulse. We also explained how the chirp effect induced the singular point of the phase velocity. Finally, we discussed the phase velocity and phase witnessed by the electron in the particle's moving instantaneous frame

  16. Effect of Secondary Phase Precipitation on the Corrosion Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang Chan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels (DSSs with austenitic and ferritic phases have been increasingly used for many industrial applications due to their good mechanical properties and corrosion resistance in acidic, caustic and marine environments. However, DSSs are susceptible to intergranular, pitting and stress corrosion in corrosive environments due to the formation of secondary phases. Such phases are induced in DSSs during the fabrication, improper heat treatment, welding process and prolonged exposure to high temperatures during their service lives. These include the precipitation of sigma and chi phases at 700–900 °C and spinodal decomposition of ferritic grains into Cr-rich and Cr-poor phases at 350–550 °C, respectively. This article gives the state-of the-art review on the microstructural evolution of secondary phase formation and their effects on the corrosion behavior of DSSs.

  17. Effect of oxygen on the thermomechanical behavior of tantalum thin films during the β-α phase transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knepper, Robert; Stevens, Blake; Baker, Shefford P.

    2006-01-01

    Tantalum thin films were prepared in the metastable β phase, and their thermomechanical behaviors were investigated in situ in an ultrahigh vacuum environment. Controlled levels of oxygen were incorporated into the films either during deposition, by surface oxidation after deposition, or during thermomechanical testing. The transformation from the β phase to the stable α phase takes place in conjunction with a distinct increase in tensile stress. The thermomechanical behavior is strongly affected by the amount of oxygen to which the film is exposed and the method of exposure. Increasing oxygen content inhibits the phase transformation, requiring higher temperatures to reach completion. It is shown that the phase transformation takes place by a nucleation and growth process that is limited by growth. Changes in the activation energy for the phase transformation due to solute drag are estimated as a function of oxygen content and the mechanisms behind the stress evolution are elucidated

  18. Late Quaternary landscape development at the margin of the Pomeranian phase (MIS 2) near Lake Wygonin (Northern Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Schneider, Anna; Nicolay, Alexander; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Kordowski, Jarosław; Noryskiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Raab, Alexandra; Raab, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    In Central Europe, Late Quaternary landscapes experienced multiple phases of geomorphologic activity. In this study,we used a combined geomorphological, pedological, sedimentological and palynological approach to characterize landscape development after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) near Lake Wygonin in Northern Poland. The pedostratigraphical findings from soil pits and drillings were extrapolated using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electric resistivity tomography (ERT). During the Pomeranian phase, glacial and fluvioglacial processes dominated the landscape near Lake Wygonin. At the end of the glacial period, periglacial processes became relevant and caused the formation of ventifacts and coversands containing coated sand grains. At approximately 15,290-14,800 cal yr BP, a small pond formed in a kettle hole (profile BWI2). The lacustrine sediments lack eolian sand components and therefore indicate the decline of eolian processes during that time. The increase of Juniperus and rock-rose (Helianthemum) in the pollen diagram is a prominent marker of the Younger Dryas. At the end of the Younger Dryas, a partial reshaping of the landscape is indicated by abundant charcoal fragments in disturbed lake sediments. No geomorphologic activity since the beginning of the Holocene is documented in the terrestrial and wetland archives. The anthropogenic impact is reflected in the pollen diagram by the occurrence of rye pollen grains (Cerealia type, Secale cereale) and translocated soil sediments dated to 1560-1410 cal yr BP, proving agricultural use of the immediate vicinity. With the onset of land use, gully incision and the accumulation of colluvial fans reshaped the landscape locally. Since 540-460 cal yr BP, further gully incision in the steep forest tracks has been associated with the intensification of forestry. Outside of the gully catchments, the weakly podzolized Rubic Brunic Arenosols show no features of Holocene soil erosion. Reprinted from CATENA, Volume 124

  19. Dielectric behavior and phase transition in [111]-oriented PIN–PMN–PT single crystals under dc bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Wan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and electric field dependences of the dielectric behavior and phase transition for [111]-oriented 0.23PIN–0.52PMN–0.25PT (PIN-PMN–0.25PT and 0.24PIN–0.43PMN–0.33PT (PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystals were investigated over a temperature range from -100°C to 250°C using field-heating (FH dielectric measurements. The transition phenomenon from ferroelectric microdomain to macrodomain was found in rhombohedra (R phase region in the single crystals under dc bias. This transition temperature Tf of micro-to-macrodomain is sensitive to dc bias and move quickly to lower temperature with increasing dc bias. The phase transition temperatures in the two single crystals shift toward high temperature and the dielectric permittivities at the phase transition temperature decrease with increasing dc bias. Especially, the phase transition peaks are gradually broad in PIN–PMN–0.33PT single crystal with the increasing dc bias. Effects of dc bias on the dielectric behavior and phase transition in PIN–PMN–PT single crystals are discussed.

  20. Phase behavior in diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Checon, A.

    1983-01-01

    Theoretical formulation of a straight edge diffraction shows a phase difference of π/2 between the incoming and diffracted waves. Experiments using two straight edges do not confirm the π/2 difference but suggest that the incoming wave is in phase with the wave diffracted into the shadowed region of the edge and out of phase by a factor of π with the wave diffracted into the illuminated region. (Author) [pt

  1. Relationship between ADAMTS13 activity, von Willebrand factor antigen levels and platelet function in the early and late phases after TIA or ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Dominick J H; Murphy, Stephen J X; Starke, Richard; Harrison, Paul; Brown, Martin M; Sidhu, Paul S; Mackie, Ian J; Scully, Marie; Machin, Samuel J

    2015-01-15

    Reduced ADAMTS13 activity is seen in thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), and may lead to accumulation of prothrombotic ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) multimers in vivo. ADAMTS13 activity and its relationship with VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels and platelet function in 'non-TTP related' TIA or ischaemic stroke has not been comprehensively studied. In this prospective pilot observational analytical case-control study, ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag levels were quantified in platelet poor plasma in 53 patients in the early phase (≤ 4 weeks) and 34 of these patients in the late phase (≥ 3 months) after TIA or ischaemic stroke on aspirin. Data were compared with those from 22 controls not on aspirin. The impact of ADAMTS13 on platelet function in whole blood was quantified by measuring Collagen-ADP (C-ADP) and Collagen-Epinephrine closure times on a platelet function analyser (PFA-100(®)). Median ADAMTS13 activity was significantly reduced in the early phase (71.96% vs. 95.5%, P TIA or stroke compared with controls (86.3% vs. 95.5%, P=0.19). There was a significant inverse relationship between ADAMTS13 activity and VWF:Ag levels in the early phase (r=-0.31; P=0.024), but not in the late phase after TIA or stroke (P=0.74). There was a positive correlation between ADAMTS13 activity and C-ADP closure times in early phase patients only, likely mediated via VWF:Ag levels. ADAMTS13 activity is reduced and VWF:Ag expression is increased within 4 weeks of TIA or ischaemic stroke onset, and can promote enhanced platelet adhesion and aggregation in response to stimulation with collagen and ADP via VWF-mediated pathways. These data improve our understanding of the dynamic haemostatic and thrombotic profiles of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVD) patients, and are important in view of the potential future role that ADAMTS13 may have to play as an anti-thrombotic agent in CVD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermodynamic phase behavior of API/polymer solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2014-07-07

    To improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), these materials are often integrated into a polymer matrix that acts as a carrier. The resulting mixture is called a solid dispersion. In this work, the phase behaviors of solid dispersions were investigated as a function of the API as well as of the type and molecular weight of the carrier polymer. Specifically, the solubility of artemisinin and indomethacin was measured in different poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEG 400, PEG 6000, and PEG 35000). The measured solubility data and the solubility of sulfonamides in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) K10 and PEG 35000 were modeled using the perturbed-chain statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The results show that PC-SAFT predictions are in a good accordance with the experimental data, and PC-SAFT can be used to predict the whole phase diagram of an API/polymer solid dispersion as a function of the kind of API and polymer and of the polymer's molecular weight. This remarkably simplifies the screening process for suitable API/polymer combinations.

  3. Experimental determination and modeling of the phase behavior for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate from methanol and carbon dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Musko, Nikolai E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    to predict the phase behavior of the multicomponent systems. It was shown that CPA is capable of predicting the phase behavior of such complex systems containing polar and associating components at high temperatures and pressures with reasonable accuracy considering the non-ideality of such mixtures......-Plus-Association (CPA) equation of state was applied to model the phase behavior of the experimentally studied systems. In this regard, the CPA binary interaction parameters were estimated based on experimental data for the corresponding binary systems available in the literature, and subsequently the model was applied...

  4. Effect of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late-phase production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nassiri Moghaddam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of methionine, protein and tallow on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production. A completely randomized design with a 3×2×2 factorial arrangement, with three levels (0.34, 0.31, and 0.27% of methionine (MET, two levels (12.8 and 14.7% of protein (PRO and two levels (1 and 3% of tallow (TAL with constant level of linoleic acid (1.55 ± 0.02%, was used. A number of 144 Hi-Line W-36 layers from 70 to 76 wk of age was randomly distributed into 12 treatment groups with 4 replicates of 3 hens each. Egg production and egg weight were daily recorded and feed intake and egg quality traits were recorded every 2 wk. There was a significant interaction between PRO levels and TAL for egg weight. Low levels of TAL and PRO decreased egg weight throughout the experiment. High levels of MET and TAL with concomitant reduced PRO, increased eggshell thickness, and a significant interaction between levels of MET, PRO and TAL was observed during the experiment (70 to 76 wk. Low level of protein (12.8% significantly decreased albumen weight in the third 2-wk period. Yolk color increased when hens were fed low levels of PRO and TAL. Results of this experiment indicated that the simultaneous reduction of dietary PRO and MET in diets of Hi-Line W-36 laying hens in the late phase of production, reduced egg weight (P<0.05. Productive performance and egg quality were not affected by 12 and 20% reduction of PRO and MET, respectively. It seems that decreasing the levels of MET and PRO to lower than the recommended values can decrease egg weight without negative effects on productive performance and egg quality of laying hens in the late phase of production.

  5. Investigation of electrochemical corrosion behavior in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution of boronized dual-phase steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayali, Yusuf; Anaturk, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion behaviors in a 3.5% NaCl solution of boronized Dual-Phase (DP) steels were examined. ► The martensite ratio increased with an increase in the intercritical annealing temperature. ► The corrosion resistance decreased with increase of the martensite ratio. ► The boride layer increased the corrosion resistance of DP steel 2–3-fold. ► The superior properties of DP steel as well as poor corrosion properties were improved by the boriding process. - Abstract: In this study, corrosion behaviors of boronized and non-boronized dual-phase steel were investigated with Tafel extrapolation and linear polarization methods in a 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Microstructure analyses show that the boride layer on the dual-phase steel surface had a flat and saw smooth morphology. It was detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the boride layer contained FeB and Fe 2 B phases. The amount of martensite increases with an increase in the intercritical annealing temperature. Both the amount of martensite and the morphology of the phase constituents have an influence on the corrosion behavior of dual-phase steel. A higher corrosion tendency was observed with an increased amount of martensite. The corrosion resistance of boronized dual-phase steel is higher compared with that of dual-phase steel

  6. Two-phase behavior and compression effects in the PEFC gas diffusion medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Partha P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kang, Qinjun [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schulz, Volker P [APL-LANDAU GMBH; Wang, Chao - Yang [PENN STATE UNIV; Becker, Jurgen [NON LANL; Wiegmann, Andreas [NON LANL

    2009-01-01

    A key performance limitation in the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC), manifested in terms of mass transport loss, originates from liquid water transport and resulting flooding phenomena in the constituent components. A key contributor to the mass transport loss is the cathode gas diffusion layer (GDL) due to the blockage of available pore space by liquid water thus rendering hindered oxygen transport to the active reaction sites in the electrode. The GDL, therefore, plays an important role in the overall water management in the PEFC. The underlying pore-morphology and the wetting characteristics have significant influence on the flooding dynamics in the GDL. Another important factor is the role of cell compression on the GDL microstructural change and hence the underlying two-phase behavior. In this article, we present the development of a pore-scale modeling formalism coupled With realistic microstructural delineation and reduced order compression model to study the structure-wettability influence and the effect of compression on two-phase behavior in the PEFC GDL.

  7. Effects of Si and Ti on the phase stability and swelling behavior of AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Kenik, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The swelling behavior of neutron irradiated stainless steels is strongly influenced by solute segregation and precipitation phenomena. The extent to which in-reactor swelling behavior may be simulated by heavy ion irradiation depends upon the extent to which in-reactor phase changes are reproduced; this question is addressed by comparing the precipitation behavior under neutron irradiation with behavior during 4 MeV Ni ion irradiation for AISI 316 stainless steel and a related stainless steel containing additions of titanium and silicon. The results are discussed qualitatively in terms of the effects of damage rate on solute segregation and the effects of displacement cascades on the dissolution of particles. It is shown that the partitioning of elements into various phases during irradiation is not a sufficient condition for the iniatiation of swelling in stainless steels modified with silicon and titanium. It is also necessary for helium to be generated simultaneously with the breakdown of the matrix into various phases; it is believed that helium trapping at the growing particle-matrix interface is responsible for the observed physical association between voids and precipitates. (Auth.)

  8. Effects of Si and Ti on the phase stability and swelling behavior of AISI 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Kenik, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    Swelling behavior of neutron irradiated stainless steels is influenced by solute segregation and preciptation phenomena. The extent to which in-reactor swelling behavior may be simulated by heavy ion irradiation depends upon the extent to which in-reactor phase changes are reproduced; this question is addressed by comparing the precipitation behavior under neutron irradiation with behavior during 4 MeV Ni ion irradiation for AISI 316 stainless steel and a related stainless steel containing additions of titanium and silicon. The results are discussed qualitatively in terms of the effects of damage rate on solute segregation and the effects of displacement cascades on the dissolution of particles. It is shown that the partitioning of elements into various phases during irradiation is not a sufficient condition for the initiation of swelling in stainless steels modified with silicon and titanium. It is also necessary for helium to be generated simultaneously with the breakdown of the matrix into various phases; it is believed that helium trapping at the growing particle-matrix interface is responsible for the observed physical association between voids and precipitates

  9. Strain-induced alignment and phase behavior of blue phase liquid crystals confined to thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukusoglu, Emre; Martinez-Gonzalez, Jose A; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Ye; de Pablo, Juan J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2017-12-06

    We report on the influence of surface confinement on the phase behavior and strain-induced alignment of thin films of blue phase liquid crystals (BPs). Confining surfaces comprised of bare glass, dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] ammonium chloride (DMOAP)-functionalized glass, or polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)-coated glass were used with or without mechanically rubbing to influence the azimuthal anchoring of the BPs. These experiments reveal that confinement can change the phase behavior of the BP films. For example, in experiments performed with rubbed-PVA surfaces, we measured the elastic strain of the BPs to change the isotropic-BPII phase boundary, suppressing formation of BPII for film thicknesses incommensurate with the BPII lattice. In addition, we observed strain-induced alignment of the BPs to exhibit a complex dependence on both the surface chemistry and azimuthal alignment of the BPs. For example, when using bare glass surfaces causing azimuthally degenerate and planar anchoring, BPI oriented with (110) planes of the unit cell parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses below 3 μm but transitioned to an orientation with (200) planes aligned parallel to the contacting surfaces for thicknesses above 4 μm. In contrast, BPI aligned with (110) planes parallel to confining surfaces for all other thicknesses and surface treatments, including bare glass with uniform azimuthal alignment. Complementary simulations based on minimization of the total free energy (Landau-de Gennes formalism) confirmed a thickness-dependent reorientation due to strain of BPI unit cells within a window of surface anchoring energies and in the absence of uniform azimuthal alignment. In contrast to BPI, BPII did not exhibit thickness-dependent orientations but did exhibit orientations that were dependent on the surface chemistry, a result that was also captured in simulations by varying the anchoring energies. Overall, the results in this paper reveal that the orientations

  10. Stabilisation of late transition metal and noble metal films in hexagonal and body centred tetragonal phases by epitaxial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueger, E.

    2005-08-26

    In this work ultrathin metallic films with a crystal phase different to their natural bulk structure were produced by hetero-epitaxial growth on metallic substrates. A further aim of this work was to understand the initiation, growth and stability of crystal phase modifications of these films. there exist cases where the films turn beyond the pseudomorphic-growth to a crystal phase different from their natural bulk structure. The present work presents and discusses such a case in addition to the general phenomenon of pseudomorphic-growth. In particular it is shown that metals whose natural phase is face centred cubic (fcc) can be grown in body centred tetragonal (bct) or hexagonal close packed (hcp) phases in the form of thin films on (001) surfaces of appropriate substrates. The growth behavior, electron diffraction analysis, appearance conditions, geometric fit considerations, examples and a discussion of the phase stability of non-covered films and superlattices is given reviewing all epitaxial-systems whose diffraction pattern can be explained by the hexagonal or pseudomorphic bct phase. (orig.)

  11. The phase behavior of a hard sphere chain model of a binary n-alkane mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malanoski, A. P.; Monson, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to study the solid and fluid phase properties as well as phase equilibrium in a flexible, united atom, hard sphere chain model of n-heptane/n-octane mixtures. We describe a methodology for calculating the chemical potentials for the components in the mixture based on a technique used previously for atomic mixtures. The mixture was found to conform accurately to ideal solution behavior in the fluid phase. However, much greater nonidealities were seen in the solid phase. Phase equilibrium calculations indicate a phase diagram with solid-fluid phase equilibrium and a eutectic point. The components are only miscible in the solid phase for dilute solutions of the shorter chains in the longer chains. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  12. Phase behavior for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+supercritical CO2+DME mixture at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Chio, Sang-Won; Byun, Hun-Soo

    2016-01-01

    The phase behavior curves of binary and ternary system were measured for poly(alkyl methacrylate) in supercritical CO 2 , as well as for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+dimethyl ether (DME) (or 1-butene) in CO 2 . The solubility curves are reported for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+DME in supercritical CO 2 at temperature from (300 to 465) K and a pressure from (3.66 to 248) MPa. Also, The high-pressure static-type apparatus of cloud-point curve was tested by comparing the measured phase behavior data of the poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA]+CO 2 +20.0 and 30.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA) system with literature data of 10.4, 28.8 and 48.4 wt% MMA concentration. The phase behavior data for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+CO 2 +DME mixture were measured in changes of the pressure-temperature (p, T) slope and with DME concentrations. Also, the cloud-point pressure for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+1- butene solution containing supercritical CO 2 shows from upper critical solution temperature (UCST) region to lower critical solution temperature (LCST) region at concentration range from (0.0 to 95) wt% 1-butene at below 455 K and at below 245MPa.

  13. Pressure Dependence of the Liquid-Liquid Phase Transition of Nanopore Water Doped Slightly with Hydroxylamine, and a Phase Behavior Predicted for Pure Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoe, Atsushi; Iwaki, Shinji; Oguni, Masaharu; Tôzaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-09-01

    Phase transition behaviors of confined pure water and confined water doped with a small amount of hydroxylamine (HA) with a mole fraction of xHA = 0.03 were examined by high-pressure differential thermal analyses at 0.1, 50, 100, and 150 MPa; the average diameters of silica pores used were 2.0 and 2.5 nm. A liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) of the confined HA-doped water was clearly observed and its pressurization effect could be evaluated, unlike in the experiments on undoped water. It was found that pressurization causes the transition temperature (Ttrs) to linearly decrease, indicating that the low-temperature phase has a lower density than the high-temperature one. Transition enthalpy (ΔtrsH) decreased steeply with increasing pressure. Considering the linear decrease in Ttrs with increasing pressure, the steep decrease in ΔtrsH indicates that the LLPT effect of the HA-doped water attenuates with pressure. We present a new scenario of the phase behavior concerning the LLPT of pure water based on the analogy from the behavior of slightly HA-doped water, where a liquid-liquid critical point (LLCP) and a coexistence line are located in a negative-pressure regime but not in a positive-pressure one. It is reasonably understood that doping a small amount of HA into water results in negative chemical pressurization and causes the LLPT to occur even at ambient pressure.

  14. X-ray diffraction study of elastic strains for modelling γ/γ' two-phase behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, L.; Massaoudi, M.; Lavelle, B.

    2005-01-01

    To describe the two-phase monocrystals behavior, we used has X-rays diffraction method. Our study is based on the mechanics of the continuous media framework in elasticity. We extend to the quadratic structure the study by X-rays developed at the laboratory on cubic materials with coarse grains. We show that the two phases γ and γ' undergo a tetragonal distortion and that the strains are not constant in each phase. Our results are in agreement with a study by the finite element method developed in addition

  15. Dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior and dynamic phase transition in the spin-1 Blume-Capel model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deviren, Bayram, E-mail: bayram.deviren@nevsehir.edu.tr [Department of Physics, Nevsehir University, 50300 Nevsehir (Turkey); Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2012-03-15

    The nature (time variation) of response magnetization m(wt) of the spin-1 Blume-Capel model in the presence of a periodically varying external magnetic field h(wt) is studied by employing the effective-field theory (EFT) with correlations as well as the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. We determine the time variations of m(wt) and h(wt) for various temperatures, and investigate the dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior. We also investigate the temperature dependence of the dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation near the transition point in order to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) of the dynamic transitions as well as obtain the dynamic phase transition temperatures. The hysteresis loops are obtained for different reduced temperatures and we find that the areas of the loops are decreasing with the increasing of the reduced temperatures. We also present the dynamic phase diagrams and compare the results of the EFT with the results of the dynamic mean-field approximation. The phase diagrams exhibit many dynamic critical points, such as tricritical ( Bullet ), zero-temperature critical (Z), triple (TP) and multicritical (A) points. According to values of Hamiltonian parameters, besides the paramagnetic (P), ferromagnetic (F) fundamental phases, one coexistence or mixed phase region, (F+P) and the reentrant behavior exist in the system. The results are in good agreement with some experimental and theoretical results. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Kinetic spin-1 Blume-Capel model is studied using the effective-field theory. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigated the dynamic magnetic hysteresis behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dynamic magnetization, hysteresis loop area and correlation are investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer System exhibits tricritical, zero-temperature, triple and multicritical points. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the dynamic phase diagrams and compare the results of the EFT

  16. High temperature creep behavior in the (α + β) phase temperature range of M5 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trego, G.

    2011-01-01

    The isothermal steady-state creep behavior of a M5 thin sheet alloy in a vacuum environment was investigated in the (α + β) temperature, low-stress (1-10 MPa) range. To this aim, the simplest approach consists in identifying α and β creep flow rules in their respective single-phase temperature ranges and extrapolating them in the two-phase domain. However, the (α + β) experimental behavior may fall outside any bounds calculated using such creep flow data. Here, the model was improved for each phase by considering two microstructural effects: (i) Grain size: Thermo-mechanical treatments applied on the material yielded various controlled grain size distributions. Creep tests in near-α and near-β ranges evidenced a strong grain-size effect, especially in the diffusional creep regime. (ii) Chemical contrast between the two phases in the (α + β) range: From thermodynamic calculations and microstructural investigations, the β phase is enriched in Nb and depleted in O (the reverse being true for the α phase). Thus, creep tests were performed on model Zr-Nb-O thin sheets with Nb and O concentrations representative of each phase in the considered temperature range. New α and β creep flow equations were developed from this extended experimental database and used to compute, via a finite element model, the creep rates of the two-phase material. The 3D morphology of phases (β grains nucleated at α grain boundaries) was explicitly introduced in the computations. The effect of phase morphology on the macroscopic creep flow was shown using this specific morphology, compared to other typical morphologies and to experimental data. (author) [fr

  17. Dynamic Viscoelastic Behavior and Phase Morphology of HIPS/HDPE Blends

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Jing-ru; XIA Yang-yang; GAO Li-qun; YU Qiang

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic viscoelastic behavior and phase morphology of high impact polystyrene (HIPS)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) blends were investigated by dynamic rheological test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The compatibilizing effect of 1%(mass fraction, same as below) micron-CaCO3 and nano-CaCO3 on HIPS/HDPE(30/70) immiscible blend was compared. The results indicate that the complex viscosity and storage modulus of HIPS/HDPE blends at low frequencies show positive deviation from the ...

  18. Collective Behavior of Chiral Active Matter: Pattern Formation and Enhanced Flocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebchen, Benno; Levis, Demian

    2017-08-01

    We generalize the Vicsek model to describe the collective behavior of polar circle swimmers with local alignment interactions. While the phase transition leading to collective motion in 2D (flocking) occurs at the same interaction to noise ratio as for linear swimmers, as we show, circular motion enhances the polarization in the ordered phase (enhanced flocking) and induces secondary instabilities leading to structure formation. Slow rotations promote macroscopic droplets with late time sizes proportional to the system size (indicating phase separation) whereas fast rotations generate patterns consisting of phase synchronized microflocks with a controllable characteristic size proportional to the average single-particle swimming radius. Our results defy the viewpoint that monofrequent rotations form a vapid extension of the Vicsek model and establish a generic route to pattern formation in chiral active matter with possible applications for understanding and designing rotating microflocks.

  19. Phase behavior of polystyrene-block-poly(n-alkyl methacrylate) copolymers investigated by SANS, SAXS, and temperature-dependent FTIR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Du Yeol; Lee, Dong Hyun; Kim, Hye Jeong; Kim, Jin Kon; Jung, Y. M.; Kim, S. B.

    2005-01-01

    The phase behavior of polystyrene-block -poly(n-alkyl methacrylate) (PS-PnAMA) copolymer were investigated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS), Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS), and temperature-dependent Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Also, the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the transition temperatures was studied by using SANS with pressure controller. Phase behavior was changed significantly with the change of alkyl number (n). For n = 2∼4, only Lower Disordered-to-Order Tansition (LDOT) was observed, whereas the Ordered-to-Disorder (ODT) was found for n =1 and n =6. Finally, a closed-loop phase behavior was found for n =5. Using incompressible random phase approximation, the segmental interactions (χ) between PS and PnAMA for all n values were obtained. The standard expression of χ = a + b/T (where T is the absolute temperature) was valid only for n =1 and n =6. But, this relationship was not valid any more for n = 2∼4. For n =5, a more complex behavior of χ upon temperature was observed. We investigated, by using temperature-dependent FTIR, the mechanism why as closed loop phase behavior was observed for n =5. Interestingly, the conformation of C-C-O stretching band of the PnPMA chain (n=5) (and thus the directional enthapic gain) was different in the two disordered states, and, therefore, the driving force to induce the disordered state at lower temperatures was different from that at higher temperatures

  20. Cognitive impulsivity and the development of delinquency from late childhood to early adulthood: Moderating effects of parenting behavior and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menting, Barbara; Van Lier, Pol A C; Koot, Hans M; Pardini, Dustin; Loeber, Rolf

    2016-02-01

    Cognitive impulsivity may increase children's risk of developing delinquent behavior. However, the influence of cognitive impulsivity may depend on social environmental risk factors. This study examined the moderating effect of late childhood parenting behaviors and peer relations on the influence of children's cognitive impulsivity on delinquency development across adolescence and early adulthood, while taking possible interactions with intelligence also into account. Delinquent behavior of 412 boys from the Pittsburgh Youth Study was measured annually from ages 13 to 29 years with official arrest records. Cognitive impulsivity (neurocognitive test scores) and intelligence were assessed at age 12-13. Parenting behaviors (persistence of discipline, positive reinforcement, and parental knowledge), peer delinquency, and peer conventional activities were assessed between ages 10 and 13 years. Results showed that, while controlling for intelligence, the influence of youths' cognitive impulsivity on delinquency depended on their parents' behaviors. An interaction was found among cognitive impulsivity, intelligence, and peer delinquency, but instead of cognitive impulsivity, the effect of intelligence on delinquency was particularly moderated. Overall, findings suggest that when there was moderation, high cognitive impulsivity and low intelligence were associated with an increased probability for engaging in delinquency predominantly among boys in a good social environment, but not in a poor social environment.

  1. Film thickness dependence of phase separation and dewetting behaviors in PMMA/SAN blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Liao, Yonggui; Men, Yongfeng; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia

    2010-09-21

    Film thickness dependence of complex behaviors coupled by phase separation and dewetting in blend [poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) (SAN)] films on silicon oxide substrate at 175 °C was investigated by grazing incidence ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering (GIUSAX) and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the dewetting pathway was under the control of the parameter U(q0)/E, which described the initial amplitude of the surface undulation and original thickness of film, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that interplay between phase separation and dewetting depended crucially on film thickness. Three mechanisms including dewetting-phase separation/wetting, dewetting/wetting-phase separation, and phase separation/wetting-pseudodewetting were discussed in detail. In conclusion, it is relative rates of phase separation and dewetting that dominate the interplay between them.

  2. Nonresident Fathers' Parenting Style and the Adjustment of Late-Adolescent Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karre, Jennifer K.; Mounts, Nina S.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers' parenting style, mothers' parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms.…

  3. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  4. Suckling in litters with different sizes, and early and late swimming exercise differentially modulates anxiety-like behavior, memory and electrocorticogram potentiation after spreading depression in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Silva-Gondim, Mariana Barros; de Souza, Thays Kallyne Marinho; Rodrigues, Marcelo Cairrão Araújo; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo

    2017-11-28

    Analyze the hypothesis that swimming exercise, in rats suckled under distinct litter sizes, alters behavioral parameters suggestive of anxiety and recognition memory, and the electrocorticogram potentiation that occurs after the excitability-related phenomenon that is known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Male Wistar rats were suckled in litters with six or 12 pups (L 6 and L 12 groups). Animals swam at postnatal days (P) 8-23, or P60-P75 (early-exercised or late-exercised groups, respectively), or remained no-exercised. Behavioral tests (open field - OF and object recognition - OR) were conducted between P77 and P80. Between P90 and P120, ECoG was recorded for 2 hours. After this 'baseline' recording, CSD was elicited every 30 minutes over the course of 2 hours. Early swimming enhanced the number of entries and the percentage of time in the OF-center (P < 0.05). In animals that swam later, this effect occurred in the L6 group only. Compared to the corresponding sedentary groups, OR-test showed a better memory in the L6 early exercised rats, and a worse memory in all other groups (P < 0.05). In comparison to baseline values, ECoG amplitudes after CSD increased 14-43% for all groups (P < 0.05). In the L 6 condition, early swimming and late swimming, respectively, reduced and enhanced the magnitude of the post-CSD ECoG potentiation in comparison with the corresponding L 6 no-exercised groups (P < 0.05). Our data suggest a differential effect of early- and late-exercise on the behavioral and electrophysiological parameters, suggesting an interaction between the age of exercise and the nutritional status during lactation.

  5. Synergistic interactions promote behavior spreading and alter phase transitions on multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quan-Hui; Wang, Wei; Cai, Shi-Min; Tang, Ming; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Synergistic interactions are ubiquitous in the real world. Recent studies have revealed that, for a single-layer network, synergy can enhance spreading and even induce an explosive contagion. There is at the present a growing interest in behavior spreading dynamics on multiplex networks. What is the role of synergistic interactions in behavior spreading in such networked systems? To address this question, we articulate a synergistic behavior spreading model on a double layer network, where the key manifestation of the synergistic interactions is that the adoption of one behavior by a node in one layer enhances its probability of adopting the behavior in the other layer. A general result is that synergistic interactions can greatly enhance the spreading of the behaviors in both layers. A remarkable phenomenon is that the interactions can alter the nature of the phase transition associated with behavior adoption or spreading dynamics. In particular, depending on the transmission rate of one behavior in a network layer, synergistic interactions can lead to a discontinuous (first-order) or a continuous (second-order) transition in the adoption scope of the other behavior with respect to its transmission rate. A surprising two-stage spreading process can arise: due to synergy, nodes having adopted one behavior in one layer adopt the other behavior in the other layer and then prompt the remaining nodes in this layer to quickly adopt the behavior. Analytically, we develop an edge-based compartmental theory and perform a bifurcation analysis to fully understand, in the weak synergistic interaction regime where the dynamical correlation between the network layers is negligible, the role of the interactions in promoting the social behavioral spreading dynamics in the whole system.

  6. Microstructure and magnetic behavior of Mn doped GeTe chalcogenide semiconductors based phase change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Adam Abdalla Elbashir; Cheng, Xiaomin; Abuelhassan, Hassan H.; Miao, Xiang Shui

    2017-06-01

    Phase-change materials (PCMs) are the most promising candidates to be used as an active media in the universal data storage and spintronic devices, due to their large differences in physical properties of the amorphous-crystalline phase transition behavior. In the present study, the microstructure, magnetic and electrical behaviors of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film were investigated. The crystallographic structure of Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film was studied sing X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HR-TEM). The XRD pattern showed that the crystallization structure of the film was rhombohedral phase for GeTe with a preference (202) orientation. The HR-TEM image of the crystalline Ge0.94Mn0.06Te thin film demonstrated that, there were two large crystallites and small amorphous areas. The magnetization as a function of the magnetic field analyses of both amorphous and crystalline states showed the ferromagnetic hysteretic behaviors. Then, the hole carriers concentration of the film was measured and it found to be greater than 1021 cm-3 at room temperature. Moreover, the anomalous of Hall Effect (AHE) was clearly observed for the measuring temperatures 5, 10 and 50 K. The results demonstrated that the magnitude of AHE decreased when the temperature was increasing.

  7. Studies on turbulence structure and liquid film behavior in annular two-phase flow flowing in a throat section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Miyabe, Masaya; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Kataoka, Isao; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu

    2004-01-01

    Experimental studies on turbulence structure and liquid film behavior in annular two-phase flow were carried out concerned with the steam injector systems for a next-generation nuclear reactor. In the steam injector, steam/water annular two-phase flow is formed at the mixing nozzle. To make an appropriate design for high-performance steam injector system, it is very important to accumulate the fundamental data of thermo-hydro dynamic characteristics of annular flow in the steam injector. Especially, the turbulence modification in multi-phase flow due to the phase interaction is one of the most important phenomena and has attracted research attention. In this study, the liquid film behavior and the resultant turbulence modification due to the phase interaction were investigated. The behavior of the interfacial waves on liquid film flow such as the ripple or disturbance waves were observed to make clear the interfacial velocity and the special structure of the interfacial waves by using the high-speed video camera and the digital camera. The measurements for gas-phase velocity profiles and turbulent intensity in annular flow passing through the throat section were precisely performed to investigate quantitatively the turbulent modification in annular flow by using the constant temperature hot-wire anemometer. The measurements for liquid film thickness by the electrode needle method were also carried out. (author)

  8. Thermodynamics and Phase Behavior of Miscible Polymer Blends in the Presence of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nicholas Philip

    The design of environmentally-benign polymer processing techniques is an area of growing interest, motivated by the desire to reduce the emission of volatile organic compounds. Recently, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2) has gained traction as a viable candidate to process polymers both as a solvent and diluent. The focus of this work was to elucidate the nature of the interactions between scCO2 and polymers in order to provide rational insight into the molecular interactions which result in the unexpected mixing thermodynamics in one such system. The work also provides insight into the nature of pairwise thermodynamic interactions in multicomponent polymer-polymer-diluent blends, and the effect of these interactions on the phase behavior of the mixture. In order to quantify the strength of interactions in the multicomponent system, the binary mixtures were characterized individually in addition to the ternary blend. Quantitative analysis of was made tractable through the use of a model miscible polymer blend containing styrene-acrylonitrile copolymer (SAN) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (dPMMA), a mixture which has been considered for a variety of practical applications. In the case of both individual polymers, scCO2 is known to behave as a diluent, wherein the extent of polymer swelling depends on both temperature and pressure. The solubility of scCO 2 in each polymer as a function of temperature and pressure was characterized elsewhere. The SAN-dPMMA blend clearly exhibited lower critical solution temperature behavior, forming homogeneous mixtures at low temperatures and phase separating at elevated temperature. These measurements allowed the determination of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter chi23 for SAN (species 2) and dPMMA (species 3) as a function of temperature at ambient pressure, in the absence of scCO2 (species 1). Characterization of the phase behavior of the multicomponent (ternary) mixture was also carried out by SANS. An in situ SANS

  9. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2016-01-01

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter’s two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus–Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein–Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms. (paper)

  10. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2016-11-16

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter's two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus-Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms.

  11. Behavior of varying-alpha cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Sandvik, Haavard Bunes; Magueijo, Joao

    2002-01-01

    We determine the behavior of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' α(t) during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing α(t), radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which α increases, α remains constant in universes such as our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by a negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then α tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive α to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of α from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes

  12. High-pressure phase behavior of systems with ionic liquids: Part V. The binary system carbon dioxide+1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroon, M.C.; Shariati - Sarabi, A.; Costantini, M.; Spronsen, van J.; Witkamp, G.J.; Sheldon, R.A.; Peters, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    The phase behavior of the binary system consisting of the supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (CO2) and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([bmim][BF4]) was studied experimentally. A synthetic method was used to measure its phase behavior. Bubble-point pressures of the

  13. An increased flip angle in late phase Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI shows improved performance in bile duct visualization compared to T2w-MRCP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelter, Lars, E-mail: lars.stelter@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Freyhardt, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.freyhardt@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Grieser, Christian, E-mail: christian.grieser@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Walter, Thula, E-mail: thula.walter@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Geisel, Dominik, E-mail: dominik.geisel@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Baur, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.baur@charite.de [Klinik für Radiologie, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • EOB-MRC acquired with a flip angle of 35° revealed a better diagnostic performance compared to T2w-MRCP. • EOB-MRC increased the readers’ confidence in identifying anatomic variations of the biliary tree. • As EOB-MRC comprises functional information it is a valuable adjunct to T2w-MRCP. - Abstract: Objectives: To estimate the additional value of an increased flip angle of 35° in late phase Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography, as compared to T2w-MRCP. Methods: 40 adult patients underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver including a T2-weighted 3D TSE MRCP (T2w-MRCP) as well as a late phase T1-weighted THRIVE sequences applying a flip angle of 35° (fa35). Two experienced observers evaluated the images regarding the delineation of the different biliary regions using a three-point grading system. A five-point scale was applied to determine the readers’ confidence in identifying anatomical variations of the biliary tree. ROI analysis was performed to compare the signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise (CNR) ratios. Results: The quality for visualizing the biliary tree differed between T2w-MRCP and fa35 (p = <0.001). Late phase EOB-MRC was rated as good for delineating the entire biliary system, whereas T2w-MRCP received an overall poor rating. Especially the depiction of the intrahepatic bile ducts was estimated as problematic in T2w-MRCP. T2w-MRCP and fa35 revealed a discordant assessment of anatomical variations in 12.5% of the cases, comprising a generally higher confidence level for fa35 (4.0 ± 1.1 vs. 2.2 ± 1.2, p = <0.001). SNR proofed to be significantly higher in fa35 (p = <0.001), whereas T2w-MRCP revealed a significantly higher CNR (<0.001). Conclusions: Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiography acquired with a flip angle of 35° revealed a better diagnostic performance compared to T2w-MRCP and might be a valuable adjunct in assessing functional bile duct abnormalities.

  14. Phase change heat transfer and bubble behavior observed on twisted wire heater geometries in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Troy R.; Koeln, Justin P.; Fassmann, Andrew W.; Barnett, Robert J.; Ban, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Subcooled water boiled in microgravity on twists of thin wires. • Wire twisting creates heat transfer enhancements because of high local temperatures. • A preliminary version of a new bubble dynamics method is discussed. • A critical distance that fluid must be superheated for boiling onset is presented. - Abstract: Phase change is an effective method of transferring heat, yet its application in microgravity thermal management systems requires greater understanding of bubble behavior. To further this knowledge base, a microgravity boiling experiment was performed (floating) onboard an aircraft flying in a parabolic trajectory to study the effect of surface geometry and heat flux on phase change heat transfer in a pool of subcooled water. A special emphasis was the investigation of heat transfer enhancement caused by modifying the surface geometry through the use of a twist of three wires and a twist of four wires. A new method for bubble behavior analysis was developed to quantify bubble growth characteristics, which allows a quantitative comparison of bubble dynamics between different data sets. It was found that the surface geometry of the three-wire twist enhanced heat transfer by reducing the heat flux needed for bubble incipience and the average wire temperature in microgravity. Simulation results indicated that increased local superheating in wire crevices may be responsible for the change of bubble behavior seen as the wire geometry configuration was varied. The convective heat transfer rate, in comparison to ground experiments, was lower for microgravity at low heating rates, and higher at high heating rates. This study provides insights into the role of surface geometry on superheating behavior and presents an initial version of a new bubble behavior analysis method. Further research on these topics could lead to new designs of heater surface geometries using phase change heat transfer in microgravity applications

  15. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea; Zapf, Antonia; Pradier, Olivier; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  16. Effect of a prostaglandin - given rectally for prevention of radiation-induced acute proctitis - on late rectal toxicity. Results of phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kertesz, Tereza; Herrmann, Markus K.A.; Christiansen, Hans; Hermann, Robert M.; Hess, Clemens F.; Hille, Andrea [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Zapf, Antonia [Dept. of Medical Statistics, Univ. of Goettingen (Germany); Pradier, Olivier [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Brest (France); Schmidberger, Heinz [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Univ. of Mainz (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    Background and purpose: to assess the late effect of a prostaglandin, given rectally during irradiation, on late rectal toxicity. In the acute treatment setting no significant differences in reducing the incidence of acute proctitis symptoms in patients receiving misoprostol, however, significantly more rectal bleeding had been reported. Patients and methods: a total of 100 patients who had undergone radiotherapy for prostate cancer had been entered into this phase III randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study with misoprostol or placebo suppositories. The toxicity was evaluated yearly after cessation of irradiation by the RTOG/LENT-SOMA scale. Results: the median follow-up was 50 months. 20 patients suffered from grade 1, four patients from grade 2 as well, and three patients only from grade 2 toxicity. Frequency, bleeding and urgency were the most commonly reported symptoms. In keeping with other studies and clinical experience, the symptoms peaked within the first 2 years with a median for grade 1 of 13 months and for grade 2 of 15 months. The presence of acute toxicity grade 2 showed a correlation with the development of any late toxicity (p = 0.03). Any acute rectal bleeding was significant correlated with any late rectal bleeding (p = 0.017). Conclusion: misoprostol given as once-daily suppository for prevention of acute radiation-induced proctitis does neither influence the incidence and severity of radiation-induced acute nor late rectal toxicity. Misoprostol has no negative impact on the incidence and severity of late rectal bleeding, in contrast to acute rectal bleeding. The routine clinical use of misoprostol suppositories cannot be recommended. (orig.)

  17. Non-power law behavior of the radial profile of phase-space density of halos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popolo, A. Del

    2011-01-01

    We study the pseudo phase-space density, ρ(r)/σ 3 (r), of ΛCDM dark matter halos with and without baryons (baryons+DM, and pure DM), by using the model introduced in Del Popolo (2009), which takes into account the effect of dynamical friction, ordered and random angular momentum, baryons adiabatic contraction and dark matter baryons interplay. We examine the radial dependence of ρ(r)/σ 3 (r) over 9 orders of magnitude in radius for structures on galactic and cluster of galaxies scales. We find that ρ(r)/σ 3 (r) is approximately a power-law only in the range of halo radius resolved by current simulations (down to 0.1% of the virial radius) while it has a non-power law behavior below the quoted scale, with inner profiles changing with mass. The non-power-law behavior is more evident for halos constituted both of dark matter and baryons while halos constituted just of dark matter and with angular momentum chosen to reproduce a Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) density profile, are characterized by an approximately power-law behavior. The results of the present paper lead to conclude that density profiles of the NFW type are compatible with a power-law behavior of ρ(r)/σ 3 (r), while those flattening to the halo center, like those found in Del Popolo (2009) or the Einasto profile, or the Burkert profile, cannot produce radial profile of the pseudo-phase-space density that are power-laws at all radii. The results argue against universality of the pseudo phase-space density and as a consequence argue against universality of density profiles constituted by dark matter and baryons as also discussed in Del Popolo (2009)

  18. Normal-phase liquid chromatography retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle isomers on an aminopropyl stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Hayes, Hugh V; Sander, Lane C; Campiglia, Andres D; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    Retention indices for 67 polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) and 80 alkyl-substituted PASHs were determined using normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) on an aminopropyl (NH 2 ) stationary phase. The retention behavior of PASH on the NH 2 phase is correlated with the number of aromatic carbon atoms and two structural characteristics have a significant influence on their retention: non-planarity (thickness, T) and the position of the sulfur atom in the bay-region of the structure. Correlations between solute retention on the NH 2 phase and T of PASHs were investigated for three cata-condensed (cata-) PASH isomer groups: (a) 13 four-ring molecular mass (MM) 234 Da cata-PASHs, (b) 20 five-ring MM 284 Da cata-PASHs, and (c) 12 six-ring MM 334 Da cata-PASHs. Correlation coefficients ranged from r = -0.49 (MM 234 Da) to r = -0.65 (MM 334 Da), which were significantly lower than structurally similar PAH isomer groups (r = -0.70 to r = -0.99). The NPLC retention behavior of the PASHs are compared to similar results for PAHs.

  19. Phase behavior and radiation effects in high level waste class

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turcotte, R.P.; Roberts, F.P.

    1977-02-01

    Results are presented that demonstrate that detailed and reproducible data can be obtained for complex waste glasses. For the major glass composition examined, thermal treatment was shown to cause formation of several crystalline phases which contribute to an increased leachability. Although not discussed in detail here, Zn 2 SiO 4 formation results in microcracking due to a thermal expansion mismatch with the glass matrix, and SrMoO 4 has a higher leachability than the glass matrix. The temperature dependence describing equilibrium concentrations of these two phases and a qualitative understanding of ingrowth kinetics have been established, hence conditions necessary to eliminate their formation during processing and early storage, are known. Radiation damage effects, when extrapolated to long times, suggest energy storage of approximately 50 cal/gram and either positive or negative density changes occur (depending on the glass composition) in the 1 percent range. No radiation damage-related changes of serious concern have been found for homogeneous glasses by 244 Cm doping experiments now approaching a simulated damage time of approximately 10 3 years (for UO 2 fuel wastes). More work is needed concerning heterogeneous damage which will occur in devitrified glasses. As a final point, the complications with respect to understanding behavior of polyphase systems with respect to either radiation damage or leaching behavior, are self evident. Homogeneous glasses with improved leach resistance, and thermal and radiation stability are clear objectives for future glass development

  20. Possible effects of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, H.; Tokunaga, T.; Aichi, M.

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the influence of two-phase flow pattern on the mechanical behavior of mudstones, laboratory experiments were conducted. In the experiment, air was injected from the bottom of the water-saturated Quaternary Umegase mudstone sample under hydrostatic external stress condition. Both axial and circumferential strains at half the height of the sample and volumetric discharge of water at the outlet were monitored during the experiment. Numerical simulation of the experiment was tried by using a simulator which can solve coupled two-phase flow and poroelastic deformation assuming the extended-Darcian flow with relative permeability and capillary pressure as functions of the wetting-phase fluid saturation. In the numerical simulation, the volumetric discharge of water was reproduced well while both strains were not. Three dimensionless numbers, i.e., the viscosity ratio, the Capillary number, and the Bond number, which characterize the two-phase flow pattern (Lenormand et al., 1988; Ewing and Berkowitz, 1998) were calculated to be 2×10-2, 2×10-11, and 7×10-11, respectively, in the experiment. Because the Bond number was quite small, it was possible to apply Lenormand et al. (1988)'s diagram to evaluate the flow regime, and the flow regime was considered to be capillary fingering. While, in the numerical simulation, air moved uniformly upward with quite low non-wetting phase saturation conditions because the fluid flow obeyed the two-phase Darcy's law. These different displacement patterns developed in the experiment and assumed in the numerical simulation were considered to be the reason why the deformation behavior observed in the experiment could not be reproduced by numerical simulation, suggesting that the two-phase flow pattern could affect the changes of internal fluid pressure patterns during displacement processes. For further studies, quantitative analysis of the experimental results by using a numerical simulator which can solve the coupled

  1. Critical behavior within 20 fs drives the out-of-equilibrium laser-induced magnetic phase transition in nickel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengdin, Phoebe; You, Wenjing; Chen, Cong; Shi, Xun; Zusin, Dmitriy; Zhang, Yingchao; Gentry, Christian; Blonsky, Adam; Keller, Mark; Oppeneer, Peter M; Kapteyn, Henry C; Tao, Zhensheng; Murnane, Margaret M

    2018-03-01

    It has long been known that ferromagnets undergo a phase transition from ferromagnetic to paramagnetic at the Curie temperature, associated with critical phenomena such as a divergence in the heat capacity. A ferromagnet can also be transiently demagnetized by heating it with an ultrafast laser pulse. However, to date, the connection between out-of-equilibrium and equilibrium phase transitions, or how fast the out-of-equilibrium phase transitions can proceed, was not known. By combining time- and angle-resolved photoemission with time-resolved transverse magneto-optical Kerr spectroscopies, we show that the same critical behavior also governs the ultrafast magnetic phase transition in nickel. This is evidenced by several observations. First, we observe a divergence of the transient heat capacity of the electron spin system preceding material demagnetization. Second, when the electron temperature is transiently driven above the Curie temperature, we observe an extremely rapid change in the material response: The spin system absorbs sufficient energy within the first 20 fs to subsequently proceed through the phase transition, whereas demagnetization and the collapse of the exchange splitting occur on much longer, fluence-independent time scales of ~176 fs. Third, we find that the transient electron temperature alone dictates the magnetic response. Our results are important because they connect the out-of-equilibrium material behavior to the strongly coupled equilibrium behavior and uncover a new time scale in the process of ultrafast demagnetization.

  2. Effects of Phytoplankton Growth Phase on Delayed Settling Behavior of Marine Snow Aggregates at Sharp Density Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, K. W.; Montgomery, Q. W.; Prairie, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Marine snow aggregates play a fundamental role in the marine carbon cycle. Since marine snow aggregates are larger and thus sink faster than individual phytoplankton, aggregates often dominate carbon flux. Previous studies have shown that marine snow aggregates will significantly decrease their settling velocity when passing through sharp density transitions within the ocean, a phenomenon defined as delayed settling. Given the importance of aggregate settling to carbon export, these small-scale changes in aggregate settling dynamics may have significant impacts on the efficiency of the biological pump. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how different physical properties of aggregates can affect this delayed settling. In this study, we investigated the effect of phytoplankton growth phase on delayed settling behavior. Using phytoplankton cultures stopped at four different growth phases, we formed marine snow aggregates in the laboratory in rotating cylindrical tanks. We then observed individual aggregates as they settled through a stratified tank. We will present data which illustrates that aggregates experience greatly reduced settling rates when passing through sharp density gradients and that the growth phase of the phytoplankton used to form these aggregates has a significant effect on this delayed settling behavior. A thorough understanding of the impact of phytoplankton growth phase on the delayed settling behavior of marine snow will offer insight into the way phytoplankton growth phase may influence the efficiency of the biological pump, carbon flux, and the carbon cycle as a whole.

  3. Supramolecular structure, phase behavior and thermo-rheological properties of a poly (L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) statistical copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugartemendia, Jone M; Muñoz, M E; Santamaria, A; Sarasua, J R

    2015-08-01

    PLAcoCL samples, both unaged, termed PLAcoCLu, and aged over time, PLAcoCLa, were prepared and analyzed to study the phase structure, morphology, and their evolution under non-quiescent conditions. X- ray diffraction, Differential Scanning Calorimetry and Atomic Force Microscopy were complemented with thermo-rheological measurements to reveal that PLAcoCL evolves over time from a single amorphous metastable state to a 3 phase system, made up of two compositionally different amorphous phases and a crystalline phase. The supramolecular arrangements developed during aging lead to a rheological complex behavior in the PLAcoCLa copolymer: Around Tt=131 °C thermo-rheological complexity and a peculiar chain mobility reduction were observed, but at T>Tt the thermo-rheological response of a homogeneous system was recorded. In comparison with the latter, the PLLA/PCL 70:30 physical blend counterpart showed double amorphous phase behavior at all temperatures, supporting the hypothesis that phase separation in the PLAcoCLa copolymer is caused by the crystallization of polylactide segment blocks during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Visualizing phase transition behavior of dilute stimuli responsive polymer solutions via Mueller matrix polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Amal; Chandel, Shubham; Ghosh, Nirmalya; De, Priyadarsi

    2015-09-15

    Probing volume phase transition behavior of superdiluted polymer solutions both micro- and macroscopically still persists as an outstanding challenge. In this regard, we have explored 4 × 4 spectral Mueller matrix measurement and its inverse analysis for excavating the microarchitectural facts about stimuli responsiveness of "smart" polymers. Phase separation behavior of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) and pH responsive poly(N,N-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) and their copolymers were analyzed in terms of Mueller matrix derived polarization parameters, namely, depolarization (Δ), diattenuation (d), and linear retardance (δ). The Δ, d, and δ parameters provided useful information on both macro- and microstructural alterations during the phase separation. Additionally, the two step action ((i) breakage of polymer-water hydrogen bonding and (ii) polymer-polymer aggregation) at the molecular microenvironment during the cloud point generation was successfully probed via these parameters. It is demonstrated that, in comparison to the present techniques available for assessing the hydrophobic-hydrophilic switch over of simple stimuli-responsive polymers, Mueller matrix polarimetry offers an important advantage requiring a few hundred times dilute polymer solution (0.01 mg/mL, 1.1-1.4 μM) at a low-volume format.

  5. JUPITER’S PHASE VARIATIONS FROM CASSINI : A TESTBED FOR FUTURE DIRECT-IMAGING MISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga, L. C.; Jackiewicz, J.; Rages, K.; West, R. A.; Knowles, B.; Lewis, N.; Marley, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    We present empirical phase curves of Jupiter from ∼0° to 140° as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini /Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. Phase curves are of interest for studying the energy balance of Jupiter and understanding the scattering behavior of the planet as an exoplanet analog. We find that Jupiter is significantly darker at partial phases than an idealized Lambertian planet by roughly 25% and is not well fit by Jupiter-like exoplanet atmospheric models across all wavelengths. We provide analytic fits to Jupiter’s phase function in several Cassini /ISS imaging filter bandpasses. In addition, these observations show that Jupiter’s color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by models. Therefore, the color of even a near Jupiter-twin planet observed at a partial phase cannot be assumed to be comparable to that of Jupiter at full phase. We discuss how the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope and other future direct-imaging missions can enhance the study of cool giants.

  6. Retention behavior of resorcinarene-based cavitands on C8 and C18 stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartó, Endre; Prauda, Ibolya; Kilár, Ferenc; Kiss, Ibolya; Felinger, Attila

    2015-09-01

    The understanding of the retention behavior of large molecules is an area of interest in liquid chromatography. Resorcinarene-based cavitands are cavity-shaped cyclic oligomers that can create host-guest interactions. We have investigated the chromatographic behavior of two types of cyclic tetramers as analytes in high-performance liquid chromatography. The experiments were performed at four different temperatures (15, 25, 35, 45°C) on two types of reversed stationary phases (C8 and C18 ) from two different manufacturers. We have found a huge difference between the retention of resorcinarenes and cavitands. In some cases, the retention factor of cavitands was even a hundred times larger than the retention factor of resorcinarenes. The retention of methylated derivates was two to four times larger compared to that of demethylated compounds on every column. The opposite retention behavior of the resorcinarenes and cavitands on the two types of stationary phases showed well the difference of the selectivity of the XTerra and BDS Hypersil columns. The retention mechanism was studied by the thermodynamic parameters calculated from the van't Hoff equation. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Ashkin-Teller criticality and weak first-order behavior of the phase transition to a fourfold degenerate state in two-dimensional frustrated Ising antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R. M.; Zhuo, W. Z.; Chen, J.; Qin, M. H.; Zeng, M.; Lu, X. B.; Gao, X. S.; Liu, J.-M.

    2017-07-01

    We study the thermal phase transition of the fourfold degenerate phases (the plaquette and single-stripe states) in the two-dimensional frustrated Ising model on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice using Monte Carlo simulations. The critical Ashkin-Teller-like behavior is identified both in the plaquette phase region and the single-stripe phase region. The four-state Potts critical end points differentiating the continuous transitions from the first-order ones are estimated based on finite-size-scaling analyses. Furthermore, a similar behavior of the transition to the fourfold single-stripe phase is also observed in the anisotropic triangular Ising model. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates that the transitions to the fourfold degenerate states of two-dimensional Ising antiferromagnets exhibit similar transition behavior.

  8. Investigation of the neutron production phases of a large plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayd, A.; Maurer, M.; Meinke, P.; Herold, H.; Bertalot, L.; Deutsch, R.; Grauf, W.; Jaeger, U.; Kaeppeler, H.J.; Lepper, F.; Oppenlaender, T.; Schmidt, H.; Schmidt, R.; Schwarz, J.; Schwoerer, K.; Shakhatre, M.

    1982-09-01

    Plasma dynamic behavior and neutron production in large focus devices with pinch currents of approximately 1 MA have been studied with theoretical as well as experimental methods. For treating turbulent plasma motion, a hybrid code based on the analytical computer algorithm REDUCE was developed. Experimental diagnostics include schlieren photographs, reaction proton localization with pinhole cameras and neutron measurements with Ag-counters and scintillators. Calculated and measured data concern the 280 kJ, 60 kV operational mode of the POSEIDON plasma focus. It is shown that for large pinch currents ( > 500 kA), neutron emission also appears before m = 0 onset in the intermediate phase. This part of the neutron production becomes predominant for very large currents. The lifetime of this intermediate phase strongly increases with increasing current. According to theory, the late phase of the focus is governed by strong turbulence phenomena. The lifetime of the turbulence packets is approximately 150 ns and seems to explain the long lasting neutron emission in this phase. (orig.)

  9. You can't "nudge" nuggets: An investigation of college late-night dining with behavioral economics interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevet, Samuel; Niles, Meredith T; Pope, Lizzy

    2018-01-01

    A mixed-methods approach was used to evaluate and improve the "late-night dining" options in a university dining hall. Surveys assessed student desires for late-night offerings, and evaluated students' habits and motivations during late-night dining. Two interventions were implemented to see if students could be "nudged" into different choice patterns. In the first, a "veggie-heavy" entrée was added at the beginning of the entrée line, so that students would substitute an entrée containing vegetables for the alternatives. In the second, a snack-food bar was set up to cater to students who didn't want to stand in the long entrée line, and preferred a snack. Data on food choice was collected during the interventions. Survey responses showed significant differences in the reasons females and males utilized late-night dining (p<0.001). We also found that students at late-night dining had a lower emphasis on health than the general student population. Even students at late-night who reported being health-conscious showed no difference in food selections from students who said health was not important (p = 0.883). Veggie-heavy entrées had mild success in increasing vegetable selection. However, veggie-heavy entrées were largely ignored when the other option was chicken nuggets. The snack bar was very popular. Entrée placement and convenience lines may have mild impacts on food selection in a late-night dining environment.

  10. Determinants and prevalence of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizosa, Claudia M; Blumberg, Elaine J; Hovell, Melbourne F; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Garcia-Gonzalez, Gregorio; Lozada, Remedios; Kelley, Norma J; Hofstetter, C Richard; Sipan, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    Timely diagnosis of HIV is essential to improve survival rates and reduce transmission of the virus. Insufficient progress has been made in effecting earlier HIV diagnoses. The Mexican border city of Tijuana has one of the highest AIDS incidence and mortality rates in all of Mexico. This study examined the prevalence and potential correlates of late HIV testing in Tijuana, Mexico. Late testers were defined as participants who had at least one of: (1) an AIDS-defining illness within 1 year of first positive HIV test; (2) a date of AIDS diagnosis within 1 year of first positive HIV test; or (3) an initial CD4 cell count below 200 cells per microliter within 1 year of first positive HIV test. Medical charts of 670 HIV-positive patients from two HIV/AIDS public clinics in Tijuana were reviewed and abstracted; 362 of these patients were interviewed using a cross-sectional survey. Using multivariate logistic regression, we explored potential correlates of late HIV testing based on the Behavioral Ecological Model. From 342 participants for whom late testing could be determined, the prevalence of late testing was 43.2%. Multivariate logistic regression results (n = 275) revealed five significant correlates of late testing: "I preferred not to know I had HIV" (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.78, 1.46-5.31); clinic (AOR = 1.90, 1.06-3.41); exposure to peers engaging in high-risk sexual behavior (AOR = 1.14, 1.02-1.27); stigma regarding HIV-infected individuals (AOR = 0.65, 0.47-0.92); and stigma regarding HIV testing (AOR = 0.66, 0.45-0.97). These findings may inform the design of interventions to increase timely HIV testing and help reduce HIV transmission in the community at large.

  11. Degradation behavior of Mg-based biomaterials containing different long-period stacking ordered phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qiuming; Guo, Jianxin; Fu, Hui; Cai, Xuecheng; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Baozhong; Xu, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phases play an essential role in the development of magnesium alloys because they have a direct effect on mechanical and corrosion properties of the alloys. The LPSO structures are mostly divided to 18R and 14H. However, to date there are no consistent opinions about their degradation properties although both of them can improve mechanical properties. Herein we have successfully obtained two LPSO phases separately in the same Mg-Dy-Zn system and comparatively investigated the effect of different LPSO phases on degradation behavior in 0.9 wt.% NaCl solution. Our results demonstrate that a fine metastable 14H-LPSO phase in grain interior is more effective to improve corrosion resistance due to the presence of a homogeneous oxidation film and rapid film remediation ability. The outstanding corrosion resistant Mg-Dy-Zn based alloys with a metastable 14H-LPSO phase, coupled with low toxicity of alloying elements, are highly desirable in the design of novel Mg-based biomaterials, opening up a new avenue in the area of bio-Mg.

  12. The phase behavior of polydisperse multiblock copolymer melts: (a theoretical study)

    OpenAIRE

    Angerman, Hindrik Jan

    1998-01-01

    Summary The main theme of this thesis is the influence of polydispersity on the phase behavior of copolymer melts. With “polydispersity” we do not only refer to polydispersity in overall chain length, but also to polydispersity in the composition and the monomer sequence of the chains. Study of the influence of polydispersity is important because synthesizing purely monodisperse copolymers is very difficult, and for most polymerization techniques the occurrence of a certain degree of polydisp...

  13. Microstructure, Corrosion and Magnetic Behavior of an Aged Dual-Phase Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziouche, A.; Haddad, A.; Badji, R.; Zergoug, M.; Zoubiri, N.; Bedjaoui, W.; Abaidia, S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present work, the effect of the precipitation phenomena on corrosion and magnetic behavior of an aged dual-phase stainless steel was investigated. Aging treatment caused the precipitation of the σ phase, chromium carbides and secondary austenite, which was accompanied by the shifting of the δ/γ interfaces inside the δ ferrite grains. Aging between 700 and 850 °C strongly deteriorated the pitting corrosion resistance of the studied material. Magnetic investigation of the aged material using the vibration sample magnetic technique revealed the sensitivity of the intrinsic magnetic properties to the smallest microstructural change. This was confirmed by the Eddy current technique that led also to the evaluation of the aging-induced localized corrosion.

  14. High-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in supercritical carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dong Woo; Shin, Jungin; Shin, Moon Sam; Bae, Won; Kim, Hwayong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in scCO 2 was measured. ► Experimental data were correlated by the PR-EOS. ► The critical constants were estimated by the three group contribution methods. ► Acentric factor was estimated by the Lee–Kesler method. ► The Nannoolal–Rarey and Lee–Kesler method shows the best correlation results. - Abstract: Lactate esters synthesized with lactic acid and ester are used as solvents and reactants in various industries, including agricultural chemistry, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and fine chemicals. Among lactate esters, high purity propyl lactate and butyl lactate are used to produce fine chemicals and in the synthesis of chiral intermediates for use in pesticides and drugs. However, distillation for the removal of propyl lactate and butyl lactate alters or degenerates products due the high boiling points of these two lactate esters. This problem can be solved by supercritical fluid extraction (SCFE) at lower temperatures. SCFE process requires high-pressure phase behavior data on CO 2 and lactates for its design and operation. In this study, high-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in CO 2 was measured from (323.2 to 363.2) K using a variable-volume view cell apparatus. Experimental data were well correlated by the Peng–Robinson equation of state using the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rules. The critical constants were estimated by the Joback method, the Constantinou–Gani method, and the Nannoolal–Rarey method. Acentric factor was estimated by the Lee–Kesler method.

  15. Phase behavior for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+supercritical CO{sub 2}+DME mixture at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong-Seok; Chio, Sang-Won; Byun, Hun-Soo [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    The phase behavior curves of binary and ternary system were measured for poly(alkyl methacrylate) in supercritical CO{sub 2}, as well as for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+dimethyl ether (DME) (or 1-butene) in CO{sub 2}. The solubility curves are reported for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+DME in supercritical CO{sub 2} at temperature from (300 to 465) K and a pressure from (3.66 to 248) MPa. Also, The high-pressure static-type apparatus of cloud-point curve was tested by comparing the measured phase behavior data of the poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA]+CO{sub 2}+20.0 and 30.4 wt% methyl methacrylate (MMA) system with literature data of 10.4, 28.8 and 48.4 wt% MMA concentration. The phase behavior data for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+CO{sub 2}+DME mixture were measured in changes of the pressure-temperature (p, T) slope and with DME concentrations. Also, the cloud-point pressure for the poly(alkyl methacrylate)+1- butene solution containing supercritical CO{sub 2} shows from upper critical solution temperature (UCST) region to lower critical solution temperature (LCST) region at concentration range from (0.0 to 95) wt% 1-butene at below 455 K and at below 245MPa.

  16. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  17. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  18. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Late-Life Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Charles M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Assigned 24 older adults with persistent psychophysiological insomnia to immediate or delayed cognitive-behavioral intervention in waiting-list control group design. Treatment was effective in reducing sleep latency, wake after sleep onset, and early morning awakening, and in increasing sleep efficiency. Sleep improvements obtained by…

  19. Late Jurassic – early Cretaceous inversion of rift structures, and linkage of petroleum system elements across post-rift unconformity, U.S. Chukchi Shelf, arctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houseknecht, David W.; Connors, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Basin evolution of the U.S. Chukchi shelf involved multiple phases, including Late Devonian–Permian rifting, Permian–Early Jurassic sagging, Late Jurassic–Neocomian inversion, and Cretaceous–Cenozoic foreland-basin development. The focus of ongoing exploration is a petroleum system that includes sag-phase source rocks; inversion-phase reservoir rocks; structure spanning the rift, sag, and inversion phases; and hydrocarbon generation during the foreland-basin phase.

  20. Precipitation kinetics and mechanical behavior in a solution treated and aged dual phase stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badji, R., E-mail: riadbadji1@yahoo.fr [Welding and NDT Research Centre (CSC), B.P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Kherrouba, N.; Mehdi, B.; Cheniti, B. [Welding and NDT Research Centre (CSC), B.P. 64, Cheraga (Algeria); Bouabdallah, M. [LGSDS – ENP, 10, Avenue Hassan Badi, 16200 El Harrah, Alger (Algeria); Kahloun, C.; Bacroix, B. [LSPM – CNRS, Université Paris 13, 93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2014-12-15

    The precipitation kinetics and the mechanical behavior in a solution treated and aged dual phase stainless steel (DSS) are investigated. X-ray diffraction, transmission and scanning electron microscopy techniques are used to characterize the microstructure and to identify its constituents. The precipitation kinetics analysis shows that the ferrite to σ phase transformation follows the modified Johnson Mehl Avrami (JMA) model containing an impingement parameter c that is adjusted to 0.3. Activation energies calculation leads to conclude that interface reaction is the main mechanism that controls the σ phase formation. Detailed analysis of the extent of the different tensile deformation domains reveals the significant contribution of both σ phase particles and dislocation accumulation to the strain hardening of the material. - Highlights: • The precipitation kinetics of the σ phase is affected by both soft and hard impingement phenomena. • Interface reaction is found to be the main mechanism that controls the ferrite to σ phase transformation. • Both σ phase particles and dislocation accumulation contribute to the strain hardening of the dual phase steel studied.

  1. Effects of elongation on the phase behavior of the Gay-Berne fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julian T.; Allen, Michael P.; Martín del Río, Elvira; Miguel, Enrique De

    1998-06-01

    In this paper we present a computer simulation study of the phase behavior of the Gay-Berne liquid crystal model, concentrating on the effects of varying the molecular elongation κ. We study a range of length-to-width parameters 3moves to lower temperature until it falls below the I-SB coexistence line, around κ=3.4, where liquid-vapor coexistence proves hard to establish. The liquid-vapor critical point seems to be completely absent at κ=4.0. Another dramatic effect is the growth of a stable SA ``island'' in the phase diagram at elongations slightly above κ=3.0. The SA range extends to both higher and lower temperatures as κ is increased. Also as κ is increased, the I-N transition is seen to move to lower density (and pressure) at given temperature. The lowest temperature at which the nematic phase is stable does not vary dramatically with κ. On cooling, no SB-crystal transition can be identified in the equation of state for any of these elongations; we suggest that, on the basis of simulation evidence, SB and crystal are really the same phase for these models.

  2. Phase Evolution and Mechanical Behavior of the Semi-Solid SIMA Processed 7075 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Binesh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural and mechanical behaviors of semi-solid 7075 aluminum alloy were investigated during semi-solid processing. The strain induced melt activation (SIMA process consisted of applying uniaxial compression strain at ambient temperature and subsequent semi-solid treatment at 600–620 °C for 5–35 min. Microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. During the isothermal heating, intermetallic precipitates were gradually dissolved through the phase transformations of α-Al + η (MgZn2 → liquid phase (L and then α-Al + Al2CuMg (S + Mg2Si → liquid phase (L. However, Fe-rich precipitates appeared mainly as square particles at the grain boundaries at low heating temperatures. Cu and Si were enriched at the grain boundaries during the isothermal treatment while a significant depletion of Mg was also observed at the grain boundaries. The mechanical behavior of different SIMA processed samples in the semi-solid state were investigated by means of hot compression tests. The results indicated that the SIMA processed sample with near equiaxed microstructure exhibits the highest flow resistance during thixoforming which significantly decreases in the case of samples with globular microstructures. This was justified based on the governing deformation mechanisms for different thixoformed microstructures.

  3. Cdc7 is required throughout the yeast S phase to activate replication origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, A D; Fangman, W L; Brewer, B J

    1998-02-15

    The long-standing conclusion that the Cdc7 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required only to trigger S phase has been challenged by recent data that suggests it acts directly on individual replication origins. We tested the possibility that early- and late-activated origins have different requirements for Cdc7 activity. Cells carrying a cdc7(ts) allele were first arrested in G1 at the cdc7 block by incubation at 37 degrees C, and then were allowed to enter S phase by brief incubation at 23 degrees C. During the S phase, after return to 37 degrees C, early-firing replication origins were activated, but late origins failed to fire. Similarly, a plasmid with a late-activated origin was defective in replication. As a consequence of the origin activation defect, duplication of chromosomal sequences that are normally replicated from late origins was greatly delayed. Early-replicating regions of the genome duplicated at approximately their normal time. The requirements of early and late origins for Cdc7 appear to be temporally rather than quantitatively different, as reducing overall levels of Cdc7 by growth at semi-permissive temperature reduced activation at early and late origins approximately equally. Our results show that Cdc7 activates early and late origins separately, with late origins requiring the activity later in S phase to permit replication initiation.

  4. An Equation-of-State Compositional In-Situ Combustion Model: A Study of Phase Behavior Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Rode; Gerritsen, M. G.; Thomsen, Per Grove

    2009-01-01

    phase behavior sensitivity for in situ combustion, a thermal oil recovery process. For the one-dimensional model we first study the sensitivity to numerical discretization errors and provide grid density guidelines for proper resolution of in situ combustion behavior. A critical condition for success...... to ignition. For a particular oil we show that the simplified approach overestimates the required air injection rate for sustained front propagation by 17% compared to the equation of state-based approach....

  5. Strain hardening behavior and microstructural evolution during plastic deformation of dual phase, non-grain oriented electrical and AISI 304 steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Guilherme Corrêa; Gonzalez, Berenice Mendonça; Arruda Santos, Leandro de, E-mail: leandro.arruda@demet.ufmg.br

    2017-01-27

    Strain hardening behavior and microstructural evolution of non-grain oriented electrical, dual phase, and AISI 304 steels, subjected to uniaxial tensile tests, were investigated in this study. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature and the strain hardening behavior of the steels was characterized by three different parameters: modified Crussard–Jaoul stages, strain hardening rate and instantaneous strain hardening exponent. Optical microscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction measurements, phase quantification by Rietveld refinement and hardness tests were also carried out in order to correlate the microstructural and mechanical responses to plastic deformation. Distinct strain hardening stages were observed in the steels in terms of the instantaneous strain hardening exponent and the strain hardening rate. The dual phase and non-grain oriented steels exhibited a two-stage strain hardening behavior while the AISI 304 steel displayed multiple stages, resulting in a more complex strain hardening behavior. The dual phase steels showed a high work hardening capacity in stage 1, which was gradually reduced in stage 2. On the other hand, the AISI 304 steel showed high strain hardening capacity, which continued to increase up to the tensile strength. This is a consequence of its additional strain hardening mechanism, based on a strain-induced martensitic transformation, as shown by the X-ray diffraction and optical microscopic analyses.

  6. LATE CREATACEOUS-CENOZOIC SEDIMENTS OF THE BAIKAL RIFT BASIN AND CHANGING NATURAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor D. Mats

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The late Cretaceous-Cenozoic sediments of fossil soils and weathering crusts of the Baikal rift have been subject to long-term studies. Based on our research results, it is possible to distinguish the following litho-stratigraphic complexes which are related to particular stages of the rift development: the late Cretaceous–early Oligocene (crypto-rift Arheo-baikalian, the late Oligocene–early Pliocene (ecto-rift early orogenic Pra-baikalian, and the late Pliocene-Quaternary (ecto-rift late orogenic Pra-baikalian – Baikalian complexes. Changes of weathering modes (Cretaceous-quarter, soil formation (Miocene-quarter and differences of precipitation by vertical and lateral stratigraphy are analysed with regard to specific features of climate, tectonics and facial conditions of sedimentation. Tectonic phases are defined in the Cenozoic period of the Pribaikalie.

  7. Nanoscale phase transition behavior of shape memory alloys — closed form solution of 1D effective modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. P.; Sun, Q. P.

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the roles of grain size (lg) and grain boundary thickness (lb) on the stress-induced phase transition (PT) behaviors of nanocrystalline shape memory alloys (SMAs) by using a Core-shell type "crystallite-amorphous composite" model. A non-dimensionalized length scale lbarg(=lg /lb) is identified as the governing parameter which is indicative of the energy competition between the crystallite and the grain boundary. Closed form analytical solutions of a reduced effective 1D model with embedded microstructure length scales of lg and lb are presented in this paper. It is shown that, with lbarg reduction, the energy of the elastic non-transformable grain boundary will gradually become dominant in the phase transition process, and eventually bring fundamental changes of the deformation behaviors: breakdown of two-phase coexistence and vanishing of superelastic hysteresis. The predictions are supported by experimental data of nanocrystalline NiTi SMAs.

  8. Predictors of severe late radiotherapy-related toxicity after hyperfractionated radiotherapy with or without concomitant cisplatin in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Secondary retrospective analysis of a randomized phase III trial (SAKK 10/94)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Simcock, Mathew; Zimmermann, Frank; Betz, Michael; Bodis, Stephan; Bernier, Jacques; Studer, Gabriela; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: This secondary analysis was performed to identify predictive factors for severe late radiotherapy (RT)-related toxicity after treatment with hyperfractionated RT +/− concomitant cisplatin in locally advanced head and neck cancer. Materials and methods: Patients were retrospectively analyzed from the previously reported randomized phase III trial: SAKK 10/94. Severe late RT-related toxicity was defined as late RTOG ⩾ grade 3 toxicity starting 3 months after end of RT and/or potential treatment-related death within 3 years of randomization. Results: Two hundred and thirteen randomized patients were analyzed; 84 (39%) experienced severe late RT-related toxicity. With median follow-up of 9.7 years (range, 0.4–15.4 years), median time to severe late RT-related toxicity was 9.6 years. In the univariate Cox proportional hazards model the following variables were associated with severe late RT-related toxicity: advanced N-classification (p < 0.001); technically unresectable disease (p = 0.04); weight loss ratio (p = 0.003); supportive measures (p = 0.009) and severe acute dysphagia (p = 0.001). In the subsequent multivariate analysis all variables except use of supportive measures remained statistically significant. Conclusions: Chemotherapy did not appear to affect severe late RT-related toxicity, but advanced N-classification, technically unresectable disease, weight loss ratio, and severe acute dysphagia were independent predictive factors for severe late RT-related toxicity.

  9. Factors influencing young adults' attitudes and knowledge of late-life sexuality among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rebecca S; Petro, Kathryn N; Phillips, Laura L

    2009-03-01

    Although sexuality is valued throughout the lifespan, older women's sexual expression can be influenced by physical, mental and social factors, including attitudes and stereotypes held by younger generations. By gaining an understanding of what influences negative attitudes toward sexuality and beliefs about sexual consent capacity, the stigma associated with sexuality in late life may be reduced. Using vignette methodology in an online survey, we examined older women's health and young adults' (N = 606; mean age = 18.86, SD = 1.42, range 17-36) general knowledge and attitudes toward aging and sexuality, personal sexual behavior, religious beliefs and perceived closeness with an older adult on attitudes towards sexual behavior and perceptions of consent capacity among older women. The health status of older women proved important in determining young adults' acceptance and perception of sexual consent capacity regarding late-life heterosexual/autoerotic and homosexual behaviors. Specifically, young adults expressed lower acceptance and more doubt regarding capacity to consent to sexual expression when the older woman was described as cognitively impaired. Additionally, young adults' personal attitudes toward late-life sexuality, but not knowledge, predicted acceptance toward sexual expression and belief in sexual consent capacity. Attention toward the influence of older women's cognitive health and young adults' attitudes toward late-life sexuality may prove beneficial in designing interventions to decrease the stigma associated with sexual activity in later life.

  10. Anharmonic behavior and structural phase transition in Yb2O3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugandha Dogra Pandey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of structural phase transition and anharmonic behavior of Yb2O3 has been carried out by high-pressure and temperature dependent Raman scattering studies respectively. In situ Raman studies under high pressure were carried out in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature which indicate a structural transition from cubic to hexagonal phase at and above 20.6 GPa. In the decompression cycle, Yb2O3 retained its high pressure phase. We have observed a Stark line in the Raman spectra at 337.5 cm−1 which arises from the electronic transition between 2F5/2 and 2F7/2 multiplates of Yb3+ (4f13 levels. These were followed by temperature dependent Raman studies in the range of 80–440 K, which show an unusual mode hardening with increasing temperature. The hardening of the most dominant mode (Tg + Ag was analyzed in light of the theory of anharmonic phonon-phonon interaction and thermal expansion of the lattice. Using the mode Grüneisen parameter obtained from high pressure Raman measurements; we have calculated total anharmonicity of the Tg + Ag mode from the temperature dependent Raman data.

  11. Late replication domains are evolutionary conserved in the Drosophila genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreyenkova, Natalya G; Kolesnikova, Tatyana D; Makunin, Igor V; Pokholkova, Galina V; Boldyreva, Lidiya V; Zykova, Tatyana Yu; Zhimulev, Igor F; Belyaeva, Elena S

    2013-01-01

    Drosophila chromosomes are organized into distinct domains differing in their predominant chromatin composition, replication timing and evolutionary conservation. We show on a genome-wide level that genes whose order has remained unaltered across 9 Drosophila species display late replication timing and frequently map to the regions of repressive chromatin. This observation is consistent with the existence of extensive domains of repressive chromatin that replicate extremely late and have conserved gene order in the Drosophila genome. We suggest that such repressive chromatin domains correspond to a handful of regions that complete replication at the very end of S phase. We further demonstrate that the order of genes in these regions is rarely altered in evolution. Substantial proportion of such regions significantly coincide with large synteny blocks. This indicates that there are evolutionary mechanisms maintaining the integrity of these late-replicating chromatin domains. The synteny blocks corresponding to the extremely late-replicating regions in the D. melanogaster genome consistently display two-fold lower gene density across different Drosophila species.

  12. Hydrophobic silver nanoparticles trapped in lipid bilayers: Size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bothun Geoffrey D

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipid-based dispersion of nanoparticles provides a biologically inspired route to designing therapeutic agents and a means of reducing nanoparticle toxicity. Little is currently known on how the presence of nanoparticles influences lipid vesicle stability and bilayer phase behavior. In this work, the formation of aqueous lipid/nanoparticle assemblies (LNAs consisting of hydrophobic silver-decanethiol particles (5.7 ± 1.8 nm embedded within 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC bilayers is demonstrated as a function of the DPPC/Ag nanoparticle (AgNP ratio. The effect of nanoparticle loading on the size distribution, bilayer phase behavior, and bilayer fluidity is determined. Concomitantly, the effect of bilayer incorporation on the optical properties of the AgNPs is also examined. Results The dispersions were stable at 50°C where the bilayers existed in a liquid crystalline state, but phase separated at 25°C where the bilayers were in a gel state, consistent with vesicle aggregation below the lipid melting temperature. Formation of bilayer-embedded nanoparticles was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry and fluorescence anisotropy, where increasing nanoparticle concentration suppressed the lipid pretransition temperature, reduced the melting temperature, and disrupted gel phase bilayers. The characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR wavelength of the embedded nanoparticles was independent of the bilayer phase; however, the SPR absorbance was dependent on vesicle aggregation. Conclusion These results suggest that lipid bilayers can distort to accommodate large hydrophobic nanoparticles, relative to the thickness of the bilayer, and may provide insight into nanoparticle/biomembrane interactions and the design of multifunctional liposomal carriers.

  13. Late changes in barium sulfate aspiration: HRCT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, A.; Ergazakis, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.

    2003-01-01

    Aspiration of barium sulfate occurs accidentally. Lung reaction is usually mild in the early phase due to inert character of the substance and long-term reactions or late toxicities are not expected. Little if any fibrotic response is speculated. We present a case with barium aspiration, studied by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) 1 year after the event, as late pulmonary sequelae studied by CT have not been described yet, to the best of our knowledge. The HRCT revealed thickened interlobular septa, subpleural lines, subpleural cysts, and centrilobular micronodules along with barium particles in a subpleural distribution. Those findings indicated that barium is capable of producing mild though silent clinically fibrosis. (orig.)

  14. Cognitive behavioral therapy vs. Tai Chi for late life insomnia and inflammatory risk: a randomized controlled comparative efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Carrillo, Carmen; Sadeghi, Nina; Breen, Elizabeth C; Witarama, Tuff; Yokomizo, Megumi; Lavretsky, Helen; Carroll, Judith E; Motivala, Sarosh J; Bootzin, Richard; Nicassio, Perry

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the comparative efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), Tai Chi Chih (TCC), and sleep seminar education control (SS) on the primary outcome of insomnia diagnosis, and secondary outcomes of sleep quality, fatigue, depressive symptoms, and inflammation in older adults with insomnia. Randomized controlled, comparative efficacy trial. Los Angeles community. 123 older adults with chronic and primary insomnia. Random assignment to CBT, TCC, or SS for 2-hour group sessions weekly over 4 months with follow-up at 7 and 16 months. Insomnia diagnosis, patient-reported outcomes, polysomnography (PSG), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. CBT performed better than TCC and SS in remission of clinical insomnia as ascertained by a clinician (P 3.0 mg/L) at 16 months (odds ratio [OR], 0.26 [95% CI, 0.07-0.97] P insomnia was associated with lower levels of CRP (P insomnia remission. PSG measures did not change. Treatment of late-life insomnia is better achieved and sustained by cognitive behavioral therapies. Insomnia treatment and remission reduces a marker of inflammatory risk, which has implications for cardiovascular morbidity and diabetes observed with sleep disturbance in epidemiologic surveys. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dani Smith

    Full Text Available Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains.Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not.Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  16. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Klein, Jonathan D; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A

    2015-01-01

    Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth.

  17. XRD and SEM study on the phase separation and crystallization behavior for an amorphous Cu+ conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuan; Hou Jianguo; Yu Wenhai

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was carried out for an amorphous Cu + conductor 0.4 CuI-0.3 Cu 2 O-0.3 P 2 O 5 with the simultaneous conductivity measurement in the isothermal heat treament process. The results indicated that the initial amorphous material was phase-separated. In the course of time the separated amorphous phase disappeared, the crystalline γ-CuI and Cu 2 P 2 O 7 formed in sequence and grew up gradually. The correlation of the phase separation and crystallization behavior with the conductivity anomaly confirmed again the interface effect between different phases in amorphous fast ionic conductors and its universality

  18. Oculomotor Behavior Metrics Change According to Circadian Phase and Time Awake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn-Evans, Erin E.; Tyson, Terence L.; Cravalho, Patrick; Feick, Nathan; Stone, Leland S.

    2017-01-01

    There is a need for non-invasive, objective measures to forecast performance impairment arising from sleep loss and circadian misalignment, particularly in safety-sensitive occupations. Eye-tracking devices have been used in some operational scenarios, but such devices typically focus on eyelid closures and slow rolling eye movements and are susceptible to the intrusion of head movement artifacts. We hypothesized that an expanded suite of oculomotor behavior metrics, collected during a visual tracking task, would change according to circadian phase and time awake, and could be used as a marker of performance impairment.

  19. Associations between Prosocial and Problem Behavior from Early to Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Memmott-Elison, Madison K; Coyne, Sarah M

    2018-05-01

    Though recent research has highlighted prosocial behavior as negatively associated with problem behavior during adolescence, we know little about how these variables might be associated longitudinally, whether there are bidirectional effects, and whether there might be different patterns of co-occurrence of behaviors for different individuals. Thus, the current study examined relations between prosocial and problem behaviors in three different ways in an attempt to better understand these associations. Participants included 500 adolescents recruited from a Northwestern state in the USA who took part in the study every year from age 12 to 18 (50% female, 67% European American). Growth curve analyses suggested that change in prosocial behavior was negatively associated with change in aggression and delinquency over time. A longitudinal panel model suggested that prosocial behavior and aggression were negatively associated bidirectionally, and that prosocial behavior was negatively associated with delinquency over time. Finally, mixture modeling conducted at ages 12, 15, and 18 revealed heterogeneity in the ways in which prosocial and problem behaviors co-occur. The discussion focuses on the complexity of interrelations between prosocial behavior and problem behavior across adolescence.

  20. Phase behavior of supported lipid bilayers: A systematic study by coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poursoroush, Asma; Sperotto, Maria Maddalena; Laradji, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Solid-supported lipid bilayers are utilized by experimental scientists as models for biological membranes because of their stability. However, compared to free standing bilayers, their close proximity to the substrate may affect their phase behavior. As this is still poorly understood, and few co...

  1. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of a Dual-Phase Mg-Li Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization behavior of the dual-phase Mg-9Li-3Al-2Sr-2Y alloy had been investigated using a compression test. The typical dual-phase structure was observed, and average of grain size of as-homogenized alloy is about 110 µm. It mainly contains β-Li, α-Mg, Al4Sr and Al2Y phases. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX kinetic was established based on an Avrami type equation. The onset of the DRX process occurred before the peak of the stress–strain flow curves. It shows that the DRX volume fraction increases with increasing deformation temperature or decreasing strain rate. The microstructure evolution during the hot compression at various temperatures and strain rates had been investigated. The DRX grain size became larger with the increasing testing temperature or decreasing strain rate because the higher temperature or lower strain rate can improve the migration of DRX grain boundaries. The fully recrystallized microstructure can be achieved in a small strain due to the dispersed island-shape α-Mg phases, continuous the Al4Sr phases and spheroidal Al2Y particles, which can accelerate the nucleation. The continuous Al4Sr phases along the grain boundaries are very helpful for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the duplex structured Mg-Li alloy, which can prevent the pitting corrosion and filiform corrosion.

  2. Dynamic Recrystallization Behavior and Corrosion Resistance of a Dual-Phase Mg-Li Alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang; Xie, Wen; Wei, Guobing; Yang, Yan; Liu, Junwei; Xu, Tiancai; Xie, Weidong; Peng, Xiaodong

    2018-03-09

    The hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization behavior of the dual-phase Mg-9Li-3Al-2Sr-2Y alloy had been investigated using a compression test. The typical dual-phase structure was observed, and average of grain size of as-homogenized alloy is about 110 µm. It mainly contains β-Li, α-Mg, Al₄Sr and Al₂Y phases. The dynamic recrystallization (DRX) kinetic was established based on an Avrami type equation. The onset of the DRX process occurred before the peak of the stress-strain flow curves. It shows that the DRX volume fraction increases with increasing deformation temperature or decreasing strain rate. The microstructure evolution during the hot compression at various temperatures and strain rates had been investigated. The DRX grain size became larger with the increasing testing temperature or decreasing strain rate because the higher temperature or lower strain rate can improve the migration of DRX grain boundaries. The fully recrystallized microstructure can be achieved in a small strain due to the dispersed island-shape α-Mg phases, continuous the Al₄Sr phases and spheroidal Al₂Y particles, which can accelerate the nucleation. The continuous Al₄Sr phases along the grain boundaries are very helpful for enhancing the corrosion resistance of the duplex structured Mg-Li alloy, which can prevent the pitting corrosion and filiform corrosion.

  3. Structure and phase behavior of a confined nanodroplet composed of the flexible chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon-Chul; Kim, Eun-Young; Seong, Baek-Seok

    2011-04-28

    A polymer density functional theory has been employed for investigating the structure and phase behaviors of the chain polymer, which is modelled as the tangentially connected sphere chain with an attractive interaction, inside the nanosized pores. The excess free energy of the chain polymer has been approximated as the modified fundamental measure-theory for the hard spheres, the Wertheim's first-order perturbation for the chain connectivity, and the mean-field approximation for the van der Waals contribution. For the value of the chemical potential corresponding to a stable liquid phase in the bulk system and a metastable vapor phase, the flexible chain molecules undergo the liquid-vapor transition as the pore size is reduced; the vapor is the stable phase at small volume, whereas the liquid is the stable phase at large volume. The wide liquid-vapor coexistence curve, which explains the wide range of metastable liquid-vapor states, is observed at low temperature. The increase of temperature and decrease of pore size result in a narrowing of liquid-vapor coexistence curves. The increase of chain length leads to a shift of the liquid-vapor coexistence curve towards lower values of chemical potential. The coexistence curves for the confined phase diagram are contained within the corresponding bulk liquid-vapor coexistence curve. The equilibrium capillary phase transition occurs at a higher chemical potential than in the bulk phase.

  4. Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol

    2013-03-08

    We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.

  5. Phase transformation behavior of titanium during carbothermic reduction of titanomagnetite ironsand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-ran Liu; Jian-liang Zhang; Zheng-jian Liu; Xiang-dong Xing

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of titanomagnetite (TTM) ironsand, which contains 11.41wt% TiO2 and 55.63wt% total Fe, by graphite was per-formed using a thermogravimetric analysis system under an argon gas atmosphere at 1423–1623 K. The behavior and effects of titanium in TTM ironsand during the reduction process were investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. During the reduction procedure, the titanium concentrated in the slag phase, where the phase transformation followed this sequence: FeO + FeTiO3→ Fe2TiO4→ FeTiO3→ FeTi2O5→ TiO2. The calculated results for the reduction kinetics showed that the carbothermic reduction was controlled by the diffusion of ions through the product layer. Furthermore, the apparent activation energy was 170.35 kJ·mol−1.

  6. Greater Emotional Empathy and Prosocial Behavior in Late Life

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Jocelyn A.; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-re...

  7. Structure, Dynamics, and Phase Behavior of DOPC/DSPC Mixture Membrane Systems: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seonghan; Chang, Rakwoo [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Full atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for model mixture bilayer membrane systems consisting of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) phospholipids to understand the effects of two essential parameters such as lipid composition and temperature on the structural, dynamical, and phase behavior of mixture membrane systems. Although pure DSPC membranes are in the gel-like (L{sub β}' or P{sub β}') phase at 323 K, raising the temperature by only 10 K or replacing 20% of DSPC lipids by DOPC lipids can change the gel-like phase into the completely liquid-crystalline phase (L{sub α}). This phase change is accompanied by dramatic change in both structural properties such as area per lipid, membrane thickness, deuterium order parameter, and tail angle distribution, and dynamics properties such as mobility map. We also observe that the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) data of tail angle distribution as well as area per lipid (or membrane thickness)can be used as order parameters for the membrane phase transition.

  8. Structure, Dynamics, and Phase Behavior of DOPC/DSPC Mixture Membrane Systems: Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seonghan; Chang, Rakwoo

    2016-01-01

    Full atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been performed for model mixture bilayer membrane systems consisting of 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) phospholipids to understand the effects of two essential parameters such as lipid composition and temperature on the structural, dynamical, and phase behavior of mixture membrane systems. Although pure DSPC membranes are in the gel-like (L_β' or P_β') phase at 323 K, raising the temperature by only 10 K or replacing 20% of DSPC lipids by DOPC lipids can change the gel-like phase into the completely liquid-crystalline phase (L_α). This phase change is accompanied by dramatic change in both structural properties such as area per lipid, membrane thickness, deuterium order parameter, and tail angle distribution, and dynamics properties such as mobility map. We also observe that the full width at half-maximum (FWHM) data of tail angle distribution as well as area per lipid (or membrane thickness)can be used as order parameters for the membrane phase transition.

  9. Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Late Onset Criminal Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zara, Georgia; Farrington, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the emergence of a criminal career in adulthood. The main hypothesis tested is that late criminal onset (at age 21 or later) is influenced by early factors that delay antisocial manifestations. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD) was used to examine early determinants of criminal behavior. 400 Inner London…

  10. Different rates of DNA replication at early versus late S-phase sections: multiscale modeling of stochastic events related to DNA content/EdU (5-ethynyl-2'deoxyuridine) incorporation distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Zhao, Hong; Rybak, Paulina; Dobrucki, Jurek W; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Kimmel, Marek

    2014-09-01

    Mathematical modeling allows relating molecular events to single-cell characteristics assessed by multiparameter cytometry. In the present study we labeled newly synthesized DNA in A549 human lung carcinoma cells with 15-120 min pulses of EdU. All DNA was stained with DAPI and cellular fluorescence was measured by laser scanning cytometry. The frequency of cells in the ascending (left) side of the "horseshoe"-shaped EdU/DAPI bivariate distributions reports the rate of DNA replication at the time of entrance to S phase while their frequency in the descending (right) side is a marker of DNA replication rate at the time of transition from S to G2 phase. To understand the connection between molecular-scale events and scatterplot asymmetry, we developed a multiscale stochastic model, which simulates DNA replication and cell cycle progression of individual cells and produces in silico EdU/DAPI scatterplots. For each S-phase cell the time points at which replication origins are fired are modeled by a non-homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP). Shifted gamma distributions are assumed for durations of cell cycle phases (G1, S and G2 M), Depending on the rate of DNA synthesis being an increasing or decreasing function, simulated EdU/DAPI bivariate graphs show predominance of cells in left (early-S) or right (late-S) side of the horseshoe distribution. Assuming NHPP rate estimated from independent experiments, simulated EdU/DAPI graphs are nearly indistinguishable from those experimentally observed. This finding proves consistency between the S-phase DNA-replication rate based on molecular-scale analyses, and cell population kinetics ascertained from EdU/DAPI scatterplots and demonstrates that DNA replication rate at entrance to S is relatively slow compared with its rather abrupt termination during S to G2 transition. Our approach opens a possibility of similar modeling to study the effect of anticancer drugs on DNA replication/cell cycle progression and also to quantify other

  11. The anti-inflammatory effect of topical tofacitinib on immediate and late-phase cutaneous allergic reactions in dogs: a placebo-controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blubaugh, Amanda; Rissi, Daniel; Elder, Deborah; Denley, Tara; Eguiluz-Hernandez, Sitka; Banovic, Frane

    2018-03-06

    Topical Janus kinase (JAK) inhibition is a promising therapeutic target for several inflammatory skin diseases of humans. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of tofacitinib, a JAK 1/3 inhibitor, on immediate and late-phase skin reactions in dogs. Five healthy laboratory beagle dogs. Topical tofacitinib (total daily dosage: 0.5 mg/cm 2 ) or its gel vehicle were applied on either the left or right lateral thorax of each dog for eight days. Three days before application and after eight days of topical treatment, intradermal injections of histamine and anticanine-IgE antibodies were performed on both sides; they were evaluated by an investigator blinded to the interventions. The tofacitinib gel was well-tolerated; one dog developed mild erythema at Day 5 that resolved by the next application. Treatment with tofacitinib reduced histamine and anticanine-IgE global wheal scores (one-way ANOVA, P ≤ 0.005 for both) compared to baseline; there was no significant difference for the vehicle placebo (histamine; P = 0.163; IgE, P = 0.223). Late-phase reactions (LPRs) were markedly, but not significantly reduced after tofacitinib treatment (P = 0.071). A blinded histological evaluation of 6 h-anti-IgE-associated LPRs revealed a significant reduction in the total leucocyte superficial dermal cellularity (P = 0.022), as well as eosinophil (P = 0.022) and mast cell (P = 0.022) counts at tofacitinib-treated sides compared with pretreatment values. Post-treatment complete blood counts and serum chemistry profiles did not show relevant tofacitinib-induced changes. Our observations suggest that topical tofacitinib exerts an inhibitory effect on activated canine skin-emigrating immune cells; this drug should be investigated further as a topical immunosuppressive drug in dogs. © 2018 ESVD and ACVD.

  12. A Conceptual Model for Shear-Induced Phase Behavior in Crystallizing Cocoa Butter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, G.; Guthrie, S.; Marangoni, A.; Idziak, S.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a conceptual model to explain the quantitative data from synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments on the shear-induced phase behavior of cocoa butter, the main structural component of chocolate. We captured two-dimensional diffraction patterns from cocoa butter at crystallization temperatures of 17.5, 20.0, and 22.5 o C under shear rates from 45 to 1440 s -1 and under static conditions. From the simultaneous analysis of the integrated intensity, correlation length, lamellar thickness, and crystalline orientation, we postulate a conceptual model to provide an explanation for the distribution of phases II, IV, V, and X and the kinetics of the process. As previously proposed in the literature, we assume that the crystallites grow layer upon layer of slightly different composition. The shear rate and temperature applied define these compositions. Simultaneously, the shear and temperature define the crystalline interface area available for secondary nucleation by promoting segregation and affecting the size distribution of the crystallites. The combination of these factors (composition, area, and size distribution) favors dramatically the early onset of phase V under shear and determines the proportions of phases II, IV, V, and X after the transition. The experimental observations, the methodology used, and the proposed explanation are of fundamental and industrial interest, since the structural properties of crystalline networks are determined by their microstructure and polymorphic crystalline state. Different proportions of the phases will thus result in different characteristics of the final material

  13. The chromatographic behavior of arsenic compounds on anion exchange columns with binary organic acids as mobile phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, J.; Goessler, W.; Kosmus, W. [Graz Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Analytische Chemie

    1998-03-01

    Identification and quantification of arsenic compounds was performed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) as element-specific detector. Arsenous acid, methylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenic acid, arsenobetaine, and arsenocholine were separated on two anion-exchange columns (Synchropak Q 300 and PRP-X 100) with different binary organic acids as mobile phases. The influence of chromatographic parameters, such as pH and the concentration of the mobile phase were investigated. An unusual chromatographic behavior of arsenous acid was observed when tartaric acid was used as mobile phase. (orig.)

  14. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  15. The nuclear liquid gas phase transition and phase coexistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chomaz, Ph

    2001-07-01

    In this talk we will review the different signals of liquid gas phase transition in nuclei. From the theoretical side we will first discuss the foundations of the concept of equilibrium, phase transition and critical behaviors in infinite and finite systems. From the experimental point of view we will first recall the evidences for some strong modification of the behavior of hot nuclei. Then we will review quantitative detailed analysis aiming to evidence phase transition, to define its order and phase diagram. Finally, we will present a critical discussion of the present status of phase transitions in nuclei and we will draw some lines for future development of this field. (author)

  16. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Charles E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2015-01-21

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers.

  17. Theory of melt polyelectrolyte blends and block copolymers: Phase behavior, surface tension, and microphase periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sing, Charles E.; Zwanikken, Jos W.; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Polymer mixtures such as blends or block copolymers are of great interest in energy applications and functional materials, and often, one or more of these species contain charges. The traditional fashion in which such materials are studied uses Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) methods that incorporate electrostatics using Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) theory. We adapt a new and rigorous approach that does not rely on the mean-field assumptions inherent in the PB theory and instead uses Liquid State (LS) integral equation theory to articulate charge correlations that are completely neglected in PB. We use this theory to calculate phase diagrams for both blends and block copolyelectrolytes using SCFT-LS and demonstrate how their phase behavior is highly dependent on chain length, charge fraction, charge size, and the strength of Coulombic interactions. Beyond providing phase behavior of blends and block copolyelectrolytes, we can use this theory to investigate the interfacial properties such as surface tension and block copolyelectrolyte lamellar spacing. Lamellar spacing provides a way to directly compare the SCFT-LS theory to the results of experiments. SCFT-LS will provide conceptual and mathematical clarification of the role of charge correlations in these systems and aid in the design of materials based on charge polymers

  18. Behavior of quasinormal modes and high dimension RN-AdS black hole phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabab, M.; Iraoui, S.; Masmar, K. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Marrakesh (Morocco); El Moumni, H. [Cadi Ayyad University, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics Laboratory, Faculty of Science Semlalia, Marrakesh (Morocco); Ibn Zohr University, LMTI, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Agadir (Morocco)

    2016-12-15

    In this work we use the quasinormal frequencies of a massless scalar perturbation to probe the phase transition of the high dimension charged AdS black hole. The signature of the critical behavior of this black hole solution is detected in the isobaric as well as in isothermal process. This paper is a natural generalization of Liu et al. (JHEP 1409:179, 2014) to higher dimensional spacetime. More precisely our study shows a clear signal for any dimension d in the isobaric process. As to the isothermal case, we find that this signature can be affected by other parameters like the pressure and the horizon radius. We conclude that the quasinormal modes can be an efficient tool to investigate the first-order phase transition, but fail to disclose the signature of the second-order phase transition. (orig.)

  19. Phase Behavior, Solid Organic Precipitation, and Mobility Characterization Studies in Support of Enhanced Heavy Oil Recovery on the Alaska North Slope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirish Patil; Abhijit Dandekar; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    The medium-heavy oil (viscous oil) resources in the Alaska North Slope are estimated at 20 to 25 billion barrels. These oils are viscous, flow sluggishly in the formations, and are difficult to recover. Recovery of this viscous oil requires carefully designed enhanced oil recovery processes. Success of these recovery processes is critically dependent on accurate knowledge of the phase behavior and fluid properties, especially viscosity, of these oils under variety of pressure and temperature conditions. This project focused on predicting phase behavior and viscosity of viscous oils using equations of state and semi-empirical correlations. An experimental study was conducted to quantify the phase behavior and physical properties of viscous oils from the Alaska North Slope oil field. The oil samples were compositionally characterized by the simulated distillation technique. Constant composition expansion and differential liberation tests were conducted on viscous oil samples. Experiment results for phase behavior and reservoir fluid properties were used to tune the Peng-Robinson equation of state and predict the phase behavior accurately. A comprehensive literature search was carried out to compile available compositional viscosity models and their modifications, for application to heavy or viscous oils. With the help of meticulously amassed new medium-heavy oil viscosity data from experiments, a comparative study was conducted to evaluate the potential of various models. The widely used corresponding state viscosity model predictions deteriorate when applied to heavy oil systems. Hence, a semi-empirical approach (the Lindeloff model) was adopted for modeling the viscosity behavior. Based on the analysis, appropriate adjustments have been suggested: the major one is the division of the pressure-viscosity profile into three distinct regions. New modifications have improved the overall fit, including the saturated viscosities at low pressures. However, with the limited

  20. PRECIPITATION BEHAVIOR OF Co PHASES IN B2-ORDERED(Ni,Co)Al COMPOUND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.H. Tian; A.L. Fan; M. Nemoto

    2002-01-01

    The precipitation behavior of Co phases in B2-ordered (Ni, Co)Al has been investigatedin terms of transmission electron microscopy. Fine precipitation off cc-Co occurs in(Ni, Co)Al by aging at temperature over 973K. The orientation relationship betweenthe fcc-Co precipitates and the B2-(Ni, Co)Al matrix follows the Kurdjumow-Sachs(K-S) orientation relation. But when the aging temperature is under 873K the Coprecipitates have a hcp crystal structure. The orientation relationship between thehcp-Co precipitates and the B2-(Ni, Co)Al matrix follows the Burgers orientation re-lation. (Ni, Co)Al is hardened appreciably by the fine precipitation of both the fcc-Coand hcp-Co phases. The temperature dependence of the yield strength of precipitate-containing B2-ordered (Ni, Co)Al was investigated by compression tests over the rangeof 298-1273K. The fine precipitation of Co phases enhances greatly the low and in-termediate temperature yield strength. When the deformation temperature was over873K, the strength of precipitate-containing (Ni, Co)Al is comparable to ternary dual-phase (Ni, Co)Al+Ni3Al alloy.

  1. A systematic methodology review of phase I radiation dose escalation trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijls-Johannesma, Madelon; Mastrigt, Ghislaine van; Hahn, Steve M.; De Ruysscher, Dirk; Baumert, Brigitta G.; Lammering, Guido; Buijsen, Jeroen; Bentzen, Soren M.; Lievens, Yolande; Kramar, Andrew; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate the methodology used in published phase I radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation trials. A specific emphasis was placed on the frequency of reporting late complications as endpoint. Materials and methods: We performed a systematic literature review using a predefined search strategy to identify all phase I trials reporting on external radiotherapy dose escalation in cancer patients. Results: Fifty-three trials (phase I: n = 36, phase I-II: n = 17) fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 20 used a modified Fibonacci design for the RT dose escalation, but 32 did not specify a design. Late toxicity was variously defined as >3 months (n = 43) or > 6 months (n = 3) after RT, or not defined (n = 7). In only nine studies the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was related to late toxicity, while only half the studies reported the minimum follow-up period for dose escalation (n = 26). Conclusion: In phase I RT trials, late complications are often not taken into account and there is currently no consensus on the methodology used for radiation dose escalation studies. We therefore propose a decision-tree algorithm which depends on the endpoint selected and whether a validated early surrogate endpoint is available, in order to choose the most appropriate study design.

  2. Stages and Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  3. Stratigraphy, landsnail faunas, and paleoenvironmental history of Late Holocene coastal dunes, Tauroa Peninsula, northern New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brook, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The post -700 years BP depositional history of the Holocene coastal dunebelt on northwestern Tauroa Peninsula involved an initial progradational phase, then a subsequent predominantly stable phase that began some time after 650 years BP, followed by a highly unstable phase from late prehistoric time to the present-day. Fossil landsnail faunas indicate that sandfield and prostrate shrubland have been the main vegetation types on the dunefield since at least 700 years BP, but that taller shrubland established locally during the later part of the prehistoric period of dunefield stability. Five species of landsnails became extinct on the dunefield in late prehistoric-historic time, probably as a result of vegetation disturbance caused by widespread dune mobilisation and erosion. (author). 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  4. Precipitation change and its effects on prehistorical human activities in the Gonghe Basin, Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during middle and late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoqing; Hou, Guangliang; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Qingbo

    2018-02-01

    Northeastern Qinghai-tibet Plateau is considered as the ideal region for study of the climate change during the Holocene. Based on the meteorological data, the surface & fossil pollen data, this paper reconstructed the precipitation series of the region since middle Holocene with the GIS and MAT techniques, and discussed its relationship with prehistorical human activities. The results indicate that there are four major climatic phases: (I) Middle Holocene Humid Phase (6300-5000 aBP), with the primitive millet-farming first imported into the region; (II) Late Middle Holocene Sub-humid Phase (5000-3900 aBP), with the millet-farming spread rapidly within the region; (III) Late Holocene Fluctuation Phase (3900-2900 aBP), with the mean annual precipitation dropped down to lower than 240 mm, and a production mode-shift to a combination of cropping and husbandry; (IV) Late Holocene Stationary Phase (2900-0 aBP), with a precipitation alike the modern time, and a steady farming-pastoral economic pattern.

  5. Lake sediment-based Late Holocene glacier reconstruction reveals medieval retreat and two-phase Little Ice Age on subantarctic South Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Bilt, W. G. M.; Bakke, J.; Werner, J.; Paasche, O.; Rosqvist, G. N.; Vatle, S. S.

    2016-12-01

    Southern Ocean climate is rapidly changing. Yet beyond the instrumental period (± 100 years), our comprehension of climate variability in the region is restricted by a lack of high-resolution paleoclimate records. Alpine glaciers, ubiquitous on Southern Ocean islands, may provide such data as they rapidly respond to climate shifts, recording attendant changes in extent by variations in glacial erosion. Rock flour, the fine-grained fraction of this process, is suspended in meltwater streams and transfers this signal to the sediments of downstream lakes, continuously recording glacier history. Here, we use this relationship and present the first reconstruction of the Late Holocene (1250 cal. yr BP - present) glacier history of the Southern Ocean island of South Georgia, using sediments from the glacier-fed Middle Hamberg lake. Variations are resolved on multi-centennial scales due to robust chronological control. To fingerprint a glacial erosion signal, we employed a set of routinely used physical, geochemical and magnetic parameters. Using Titanium counts, validated against changes in sediment density and grain size distribution, we continuously reconstruct glacier variations over the past millennium. Refining local moraine evidence and supporting evidence from other Southern Hemisphere sites, this study shows a progressive diminishing of consecutive Late Holocene advances. These include a two-stage Little Ice Age, in agreement with other Southern Hemisphere glacier evidence. The presented record furthermore captures an unreported retreat phase behind present limits around 500 cal. yr BP.

  6. Spatiotemporal behavior and nonlinear dynamics in a phase conjugate resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siuying Raymond

    1993-01-01

    The work described can be divided into two parts. The first part is an investigation of the transient behavior and stability property of a phase conjugate resonator (PCR) below threshold. The second part is an experimental and theoretical study of the PCR's spatiotemporal dynamics above threshold. The time-dependent coupled wave equations for four-wave mixing (FWM) in a photorefractive crystal, with two distinct interaction regions caused by feedback from an ordinary mirror, was used to model the transient dynamics of a PCR below threshold. The conditions for self-oscillation were determined and the solutions were used to define the PCR's transfer function and analyze its stability. Experimental results for the buildup and decay times confirmed qualitatively the predicted behavior. Experiments were carried out above threshold to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of the PCR as a function of Pragg detuning and the resonator's Fresnel number. The existence of optical vortices in the wavefront were identified by optical interferometry. It was possible to describe the transverse dynamics and the spatiotemporal instabilities by modeling the three-dimensional-coupled wave equations in photorefractive FWM using a truncated modal expansion approach.

  7. New Fuel Alloys Seeking Optimal Solidus and Phase Behavior for High Burnup and TRU Burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, R.D.; Porter, D.L.; Kennedy, J.R.; Hayes, S.L.; Blackwood, V.S.; Jones, Z.S.; Olson, D.L.; Mishra, B.

    2015-01-01

    Recent modifications to fast reactor metallic fuels have been directed toward improving the melting and phase behaviors of the fuel alloy, for the purpose of ultra-high burnup and transuranic (TRU) burning. Improved melting temperatures increase the safety margin for uranium-based fast reactor fuel alloys, which is especially important for transuranic burning because the introduction of plutonium and neptunium acts to lower the alloy melting temperature. Improved phase behavior—single-phase, body-centered cubic—is desired because the phase is isotropic and the alloy properties are more predictable. An optimal alloy with both improvements was therefore sought through a comprehensive literature survey and theoretical analyses, and the creation and testing of some alloys selected by the analyses. Summarized here are those analyses, the impact of alloy modifications, and recent experimental results for selected pseudo-binary alloy systems that are hoped to accomplish the goals in a short timeframe. (author)

  8. Maternal Depression and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns: Association with Toddler Problems and Continuity of Effects to Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman-Westin, Emily; Cohen, Patricia R.; Stueve, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased behavior problems have been reported in offspring of mothers with depression. In-home observations link maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and mother-child interaction patterns with toddler behavior problems and examine their persistence into late childhood. Method: Maternal characteristics (N = 153) and behaviors of…

  9. Transient dysautonomia in an acute phase of encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimiya, Yuko; Kaku, Noriyuki; Sakai, Yasunari; Yamashita, Fumiya; Matsuoka, Wakato; Muraoka, Mamoru; Akamine, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Soichi; Torio, Michiko; Motomura, Yoshitomo; Hirata, Yuichiro; Ishizaki, Yoshito; Sanefuji, Masafumi; Torisu, Hiroyuki; Takada, Hidetoshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ohga, Shouichi

    2017-08-01

    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a dysautonomic condition that is associated with various types of acquired brain injuries. Traumatic brain lesions have been documented as the leading cause of PSH. However, detailed clinical features of pediatric PSH caused by intrinsic brain lesions remain to be elusive. We present a 3-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed as having cerebral palsy, developmental delay and epilepsy after perinatal hypoxia-induced brain injury. He developed status epilepticus with fever on the third day of respiratory infection. Whereas the seizure was terminated by systemic infusion of midazolam, consciousness remained disturbed for the next 48h. Serial magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed that acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) evolved on 3days after the seizure. Therapeutic hypothermia was immediately introduced, however, the brain lesion extended to the whole subcortical white matters on day 8. The intermittent bilateral dilation of pupils with increased blood pressure and tachycardia were observed until day 12. Real-time monitoring of electroencephalograms ruled out the recurrent attacks of seizures. The abnormal signs of autonomic nervous system gradually ceased and never relapsed after recovery from the hypothermia. PSH or a transient condition of dysautonomia may emerge and persist during the acute phase of AESD. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Compton Composites Late in the Early Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Mayer

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beginning roughly two hundred years after the big-bang, a tresino phase transition generated Compton-scale composite particles and converted most of the ordinary plasma baryons into new forms of dark matter. Our model consists of ordinary electrons and protons that have been bound into mostly undetectable forms. This picture provides an explanation of the composition and history of ordinary to dark matter conversion starting with, and maintaining, a critical density Universe. The tresino phase transition started the conversion of ordinary matter plasma into tresino-proton pairs prior to the the recombination era. We derive the appropriate Saha–Boltzmann equilibrium to determine the plasma composition throughout the phase transition and later. The baryon population is shown to be quickly modified from ordinary matter plasma prior to the transition to a small amount of ordinary matter and a much larger amount of dark matter after the transition. We describe the tresino phase transition and the origin, quantity and evolution of the dark matter as it takes place from late in the early Universe until the present.

  11. The impact of executive function on response to cognitive behavioral therapy in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodkind, Madeleine S; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores; Thompson, Larry W; Kesler, Shelli R; Anker, Lauren; Flournoy, John; Berman, Mika P; Holland, Jason M; O'Hara, Ruth M

    2016-04-01

    Late-life depression (LLD) is a common and debilitating condition among older adults. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has strong empirical support for the treatment of depression in all ages, including in LLD. In teaching patients to identify, monitor, and challenge negative patterns in their thinking, CBT for LLD relies heavily on cognitive processes and, in particular, executive functioning, such as planning, sequencing, organizing, and selectively inhibiting information. It may be that the effectiveness of CBT lies in its ability to train these cognitive areas. Participants with LLD completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery before enrolling in CBT. The current study examined the relationship between neuropsychological function prior to treatment and response to CBT. When using three baseline measures of executive functioning that quantify set shifting, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition to predict treatment response, only baseline Wisconsin Card Sort Task performance was associated with a significant drop in depression symptoms after CBT. Specifically, worse performance on the Wisconsin Card Sort Task was associated with better treatment response. These results suggest that CBT, which teaches cognitive techniques for improving psychiatric symptoms, may be especially beneficial in LLD if relative weaknesses in specific areas of executive functioning are present. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Evidence of significant energy input in the late phase of a solar flare from NuSTAR x-ray observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Hannah, Iain G.

    2017-01-01

    -size solar flare 1 day before the observations, at ∼18 UT on 2014 December 10, with the post-flare loops still visible at the time of NuSTAR observations. The time evolution of the source emission in the SDO/AIA 335 Å channel reveals the characteristics of an extreme-ultraviolet late-phase event, caused......We present observations of the occulted active region AR 12222 during the third Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) solar campaign on 2014 December 11, with concurrent Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA and FOXSI-2 sounding rocket observations. The active region produced a medium...... by the continuous formation of new post-flare loops that arch higher and higher in the solar corona. The spectral fitting of NuSTAR observations yields an isothermal source, with temperature 3.8–4.6 MK, emission measure (0.3–1.8) × 1046 cm−3, and density estimated at (2.5–6.0) × 108 cm−3. The observed AIA fluxes...

  13. Phase behavior of diblock copolymer/star-shaped polymer thin film mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junnan; Sakellariou, Georgios; Green, Peter F

    2016-05-07

    We investigated the phase behavior of thin film, thickness h≈ 100 nm, mixtures of a polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer with star-shaped polystyrene (SPS) molecules of varying functionalities f, where 4 ≤f≤ 64, and molecular weights per arm Marm. The miscibility of the system and the surface composition varied appreciably with Marm and f. For large values of Marm, regardless of f, the miscibility of the system was qualitatively similar to that of linear chain PS/PS-b-P2VP mixtures - the copolymer chains aggregate to form micelles, each composed of an inner P2VP core and PS corona, which preferentially segregate to the free surface. On the other hand, for large f and small Marm, SPS molecules preferentially resided at the free surface. Moreover, blends containing SPS molecules with the highest values of f and lowest values of Marm were phase separated. These observations are rationalized in terms of competing entropic interactions and the dependence of the surface tension of the star-shaped molecules on Marm and f.

  14. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiguchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Abe, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.

  15. Numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in Venturi scrubber by interface tracking method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horiguchi, Naoki, E-mail: s1430215@u.tsukuba.ac.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Yoshida, Hiroyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4, Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Abe, Yutaka [University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Self-priming occur because of pressure balance between inside and outside of throat is confirmed. • VS has similar flow with a Venturi tube except of disturbance and burble flow is considered. • Some of atomization simulated are validated qualitatively by comparison with previous studies. - Abstract: From the viewpoint of protecting a containment vessel of light water reactor and suppressing the diffusion of radioactive materials from a light water reactor, it is important to develop the device which allows a filtered venting of contaminated high pressure gas. In the filtered venting system that used in European reactors, so called Multi Venturi scrubbers System is used to realize filtered venting without any power supply. This system is able to define to be composed of Venturi scrubbers (VS) and a bubble column. In the VS, scrubbing of contaminated gas is promoted by both gas releases through the submerged VS and gas-liquid contact with splay flow formed by liquid suctioned through a hole provided by the pressure difference between inner and outer regions of a throat part of the VS. However, the scrubbing mechanism of the self-priming VS including effects of gas mass flow rate and shape of the VS are understood insufficiently in the previous studies. Therefore, we started numerical and experimental study to understand the detailed two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In this paper, to understand the VS operation characteristics for the filtered venting, we performed numerical simulations of two-phase flow behavior in the VS. In the first step of this study, we perform numerical simulations of supersonic flow by the TPFIT to validate the applicability of the TPFIT for high velocity flow like flow in the VS. In the second step, numerical simulation of two-phase flow behavior in the VS including self-priming phenomena. As the results, dispersed flow in the VS was reproduced in the numerical simulation, as same as the visualization experiments.

  16. Heat export from the tropics drives mid to late Holocene palaeoceanographic changes offshore southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; De Deckker, Patrick; Blanz, Thomas; Wacker, Lukas; Telford, Richard; Siegel, Herbert; Schneider, Ralph; Jansen, Eystein

    2018-01-01

    The Leeuwin Current (LC), an eastern boundary current, transports tropical waters from the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) towards southern latitudes and modulates oceanic conditions offshore southern Australia. New, high-resolution planktic foraminifer assemblage data and alkenone-derived sea surface temperatures (SST) provide an in-depth view on LC variability and mechanisms driving the current's properties during the mid to late Holocene (last c. 7.4 ka BP). Our marine reconstructions highlight a longer-term mid to late Holocene reduction of tropical heat export from the IPWP area into the LC. Mid Holocene (c. 7.4 to 3.5 ka BP) occurrence of high SSTs (>19.5 °C), tropical planktic foraminifera and a well-stratified water column document an enhanced heat export from the tropics. From c. 3.5 ka BP onwards, a weaker LC and a notably reduced tropical heat export cause oceanic cooling offshore southern Australia. The observed mid to late Holocene trends likely result from large-scale changes in the IPWP's heat storage linked to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phenomenon. We propose that a strong and warm LC occurs in response to a La Niña-like state of ENSO during the mid Holocene. The late Holocene LC cooling, however, results from a shift towards an El Niño-like state and a more variable ENSO system that causes cooling of the IPWP. Superimposed on these longer-term trends we find evidence of distinct late Holocene millennial-scale phases of enhanced El Niño/La Niña development, which appear synchronous with northern hemispheric climatic variability. Phases of dominant El Niño-like states occur parallel to North Atlantic cold phases: the '2800 years BP cooling event', the 'Dark Ages' and the 'Little Ice Age', whereas the 'Roman Warm Period' and the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' parallel periods of a predominant La Niña-like state. Our findings provide further evidence of coherent interhemispheric climatic and oceanic conditions during the mid to late

  17. Behavioral Correlates of Prioritizing Popularity in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Nina; Deutz, Marike H F; Schoneveld, Elke A; Burk, William J; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about individual differences in adolescents' motivation to achieve and maintain popularity. This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes in late adolescence. Participants were 314 Dutch eleventh-grade students (M age  = 16.83 years; 52 % male) who completed measures of popularity, prioritizing popularity, and prosocial, antisocial, and risk behaviors. It was hypothesized that associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes are stronger for adolescents who prioritize popularity. The results indicate that the combination of being popular and valuing popularity was strongly related to antisocial and risk behaviors, but not to prosocial behaviors. Adolescents' social status motivations thus play an important role in the association of popularity with antisocial and risk behaviors in late adolescence.

  18. Late onset Tay-Sachs disease in mice with targeted disruption of the Hexa gene: behavioral changes and pathology of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklyaeva, Elena I; Dong, Weijia; Bureau, Alexandre; Fattahie, Roya; Xu, Yongqin; Su, Meng; Fick, Gordon H; Huang, Jing-Qi; Igdoura, Suleiman; Hanai, Nobuo; Gravel, Roy A

    2004-03-19

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease resulting from a block in the hydrolysis of GM2 ganglioside, an intermediate in ganglioside catabolism. The mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease (Hexa -/-) has been described as behaviorally indistinguishable from wild type until at least 1 year of age due to a sialidase-mediated bypass of the metabolic defect that reduces the rate of GM2 ganglioside accumulation. In this study, we have followed our mouse model to over 2 years of age and have documented a significant disease phenotype that is reminiscent of the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease. Onset occurs at 11-12 months of age and progresses slowly, in parallel with increasing storage of GM2 ganglioside. The disease is characterized by hind limb spasticity, weight loss, tremors, abnormal posture with lordosis, possible visual impairment, and, late in the disease, muscle weakness, clasping of the limbs, and myoclonic twitches of the head. Immunodetection of GM2 ganglioside showed that storage varies widely in different regions, but is most intense in pyriform cortex, hippocampus (CA3 field, subiculum), amygdala, hypothalamus (paraventricular supraoptic, ventromedial and arcuate nuclei, and mammilary body), and the somatosensory cortex (layer V) in 1- to 2-year-old mutant mice. We suggest that the Tay-Sachs mouse model is a phenotypically valid model of disease and may provide for a reliable indicator of the impact of therapeutic strategies, in particular geared to the late onset, chronic form of human Tay-Sachs disease.

  19. Motivational Antecedents of Preventive Proactivity in Late Life: Linking Future Orientation and Exercise1

    OpenAIRE

    Kahana, Eva; Kahana, Boaz; Zhang, Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Future orientation is considered as a motivational antecedent of late-life proactivity. In a panel study of 453 old-old adults, we linked future orientation to exercise, a key component of late-life proactivity. Findings based on hierarchical linear modeling reveal that future orientation at baseline predicts changes in exercise during the subsequent four years. Whereas exercise behavior generally declined over time, future orientation and female gender were associated with smaller decline. T...

  20. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  1. Rationale and design of the East-West late lumen loss study: Comparison of late lumen loss between Eastern and Western drug-eluting stent study cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Robert W; Radhakrishnan, Vaishnavi; Lam, Peter S; Allocco, Dominic J; Brar, Sandeep; Fahy, Martin; Fisher, Rebecca; Ikeno, Fumiaki; Généreux, Philippe; Kimura, Takeshi; Liu, Minglei; Lye, Weng Kit; Mintz, Gary S; Nagai, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Yuka; White, Roseann; Allen, John C; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2016-12-01

    The contemporary evaluation of novel drug-eluting stents (DES) includes mechanistic observations that characterize postdeployment stent behavior. Quantification of late lumen loss due to neointimal hyperplasia 8-13 months after stent implantation, via quantitative coronary angiography (QCA), constitutes such an observation and is required by most regulatory authorities. Late lumen loss, as determined by QCA, has been validated as a surrogate for clinical endpoints such as target vessel revascularization. The mechanistic response to DES has not been directly compared across predominantly Asian or Western populations, whereas understanding their comparability across geographic populations could enhance global DES evaluation. The East-West late lumen loss study is designed to demonstrate whether the residual differences in late lumen loss, as assessed by QCA, is different between Eastern and Western DES recipients from studies with protocol angiography at 8-13 months of follow-up. Data from independent core laboratories that have characterized angiographic late lumen loss in DES clinical trials with protocol follow-up angiography will be compiled and dichotomized into Eastern and Western populations. A prospectively developed propensity score model incorporating clinical and anatomic variables affecting late lumen loss will be used to adjust comparisons of QCA measurements. Documentation of whether there are clinically meaningful differences in mechanistic response to DES implantation across genetically unique geographies could facilitate both the quality and efficiency of global device evaluation requiring invasive follow-up for novel stent designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Targeting couple and parent-child coercion to improve health behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith Slep, Amy M; Heyman, Richard E; Mitnick, Danielle M; Lorber, Michael F; Beauchaine, Theodore P

    2018-02-01

    This phase of the NIH Science of Behavior Change program emphasizes an "experimental medicine approach to behavior change," that seeks to identify targets related to stress reactivity, self-regulation, and social processes for maximal effects on multiple health outcomes. Within this framework, our project focuses on interpersonal processes associated with health: coercive couple and parent-child conflict. Diabetes and poor oral health portend pain, distress, expense, loss of productivity, and even mortality. They share overlapping medical regimens, are driven by overlapping proximal health behaviors, and affect a wide developmental span, from early childhood to late adulthood. Coercive couple and parent-child conflict constitute potent and destructive influences on a wide range of adult and child health outcomes. Such interaction patterns give rise to disturbed environmental stress reactivity (e.g., disrupted sympathetic nervous and parasympathetic nervous systems) and a wide range of adverse health outcomes in children and adults, including dental caries, obesity, and diabetes-related metabolic markers. In this work, we seek to identify/develop/validate assays assessing coercion, identify/develop and test brief interventions to reduce coercion, and test whether changes in coercion trigger changes in health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Theoretical consideration on phase behaviors of poly(ethylene oxide-block-propylene oxide)/LiCF3SO3 systems in lithium battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Sung Jin; Kim, Sun Joon; Kong, Sung Ho; Bae, Young Chan

    2004-01-01

    A new thermodynamic model is developed based on the extended perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) model and melting point depression theory to describe the phase behaviors of copolymer electrolyte/salt systems. The phase behaviors of poly(ethylene oxide-block-propylene oxide)/LiCF 3 SO 3 systems are investigated by thermo-optical analysis (TOA) technique. Quantitative descriptions according to the proposed model are in good agreement with experimental data. The obtained results show that monomer ratio and sequence type of copolymers play a great role in determining eutectic points of the given systems

  4. Phase behavior of (CO2 + methanol + lauric acid) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Franciele M.; Ramos, Luiz P.; Ndiaye, Papa M.; Corazza, Marcos L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured SVL, LLE and VLE for the binary system {lauric acid + methanol + CO 2 }. → Bubble point and dew point were measured at high pressures. → The experimental data were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule. - Abstract: In this study the phase equilibrium behaviors of the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid) and the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) were determined. The static synthetic method, using a variable-volume view cell, was employed to obtain the experimental data in the temperature range of (293 to 343) K and pressures up to 24 MPa. The mole fractions of carbon dioxide were varied according to the systems as follows: (0.7524 to 0.9955) for the binary system (CO 2 + lauric acid); (0.4616 to 0.9895) for the ternary system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (2:1); and (0.3414 to 0.9182) for the system (CO 2 + methanol + lauric acid) with a methanol to lauric acid molar ratio of (6:1). For these systems (vapor + liquid), (liquid + liquid), (vapor + liquid + liquid), and (solid + fluid) transitions were observed. The phase equilibrium data obtained for the systems were modeled using the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the classical van der Waals mixing rule with a satisfactory correlation between experimental and calculated values.

  5. Measuring laves phase particle size and thermodynamic calculating its growth and coarsening behavior in P92 steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Bing-Yin; Zhou, Rong-Can; Fan, Chang-Xin

    2010-01-01

    The growth of Laves phase particles in three kinds of P92 steels were investigated. Laves phase particles can be easily separated and distinguished from the matrix and other particles by atom number contrast using comparisons of the backscatter electrons (BSE) images and the secondary electrons (SE......) images in scanning electron microscope (SEM). The smaller Laves phase particle size results in higher creep strength and longer creep exposure time at the same conditions. DICTRA software was used to model the growth and coarsening behavior of Laves phase in the three P92 steels. Good agreements were...... attained between measurements in SEM and modeling by DICTRA. Ostwald ripening should be used for the coarsening calculation of Laves phase in P92 steels for time longer than 20000 h and 50000 h at 650°C and 600°C, respectively. © 2010 Chin. Soc. for Elec. Eng....

  6. The cognitive roles of behavioral variability: idiosyncratic acts as the foundation of identity and as transitional, preparatory, and confirmatory phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilam, David

    2015-02-01

    Behavior in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), in habitual daily tasks, and in sport and cultural rituals is deconstructed into elemental acts and categorized into common acts, performed by all individuals completing a similar task, and idiosyncratic acts, not performed by all individuals. Never skipped, common acts establish the pragmatic part of motor tasks. Repetitive performance of a few common acts renders rituals a rigid form, whereby common acts may serve as memes for cultural transmission. While idiosyncratic acts are not pragmatically necessary for task completion, they fulfill important cognitive roles. They form a long preparatory phase in tasks that involve high stakes, and a long confirmatory phase in OCD rituals. Idiosyncratic acts also form transitional phases between motor tasks, and are involved in establishing identity and preserving the flexibility necessary for adapting to varying circumstances. Behavioral variability, as manifested in idiosyncrasy, thus does not seem to be a noise or by-product of motor activity, but an essential cognitive component that has been preserved in the evolution of behavioral patterns, similar to the genetic variability in biology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The association between bullying and early stages of suicidal ideation in late adolescents in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araya Ricardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying in schools has been associated with suicidal ideation but the confounding effect of psychiatric morbidity has not always been taken into account. Our main aim was to test the association between bullying behavior and early stages of suicidal ideation in a sample of Greek adolescents and to examine whether this is independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity, including sub-threshold symptoms. Methods 5614 pupils 16-18 years old and attending 25 senior high schools were screened in the first phase and a stratified random sample of 2431 were selected for a detailed interview at the second phase. Psychiatric morbidity and suicidal ideation were assessed with the revised Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS-R while bullying was assessed with the revised Olweus bully/victim questionnaire. Results Victims of bullying behavior were more likely to express suicidal ideation. This association was particularly strong for those who were bullied on a weekly basis and it was independent of the presence of psychiatric morbidity (Odds Ratio: 7.78; 95% Confidence Interval: 3.05 - 19.90. In contrast, being a perpetrator ("bullying others" was not associated with this type of ideation after adjustment. These findings were similar in both boys and girls, although the population impact of victimization in the prevalence of suicidal ideation was potentially higher for boys. Conclusions The strong cross-sectional association between frequent victimization and suicidal ideation in late adolescence offers an opportunity for identifying pupils in the school setting that are in a higher risk for exhibiting suicidal ideation.

  8. Direct NMR Monitoring of Phase Separation Behavior of Highly Supersaturated Nifedipine Solution Stabilized with Hypromellose Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2017-07-03

    We investigated the phase separation behavior and maintenance mechanism of the supersaturated state of poorly water-soluble nifedipine (NIF) in hypromellose (HPMC) derivative solutions. Highly supersaturated NIF formed NIF-rich nanodroplets through phase separation from aqueous solution containing HPMC derivative. Dissolvable NIF concentration in the bulk water phase was limited by the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. HPMC derivatives stabilized the NIF-rich nanodroplets and maintained the NIF supersaturation with phase-separated NIF for several hours. The size of the NIF-rich phase was different depending on the HPMC derivatives dissolved in aqueous solution, although the droplet size had no correlation with the time for which NIF supersaturation was maintained without NIF crystallization. HPMC acetate and HPMC acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) effectively maintained the NIF supersaturation containing phase-separated NIF compared with HPMC. Furthermore, HPMC-AS stabilized NIF supersaturation more effectively in acidic conditions. Solution 1 H NMR measurements of NIF-supersaturated solution revealed that HPMC derivatives distributed into the NIF-rich phase during the phase separation of NIF from the aqueous solution. The hydrophobicity of HPMC derivative strongly affected its distribution into the NIF-rich phase. Moreover, the distribution of HPMC-AS into the NIF-rich phase was promoted at lower pH due to the lower aqueous solubility of HPMC-AS. The distribution of a large amount of HPMC derivatives into NIF-rich phase induced the strong inhibition of NIF crystallization from the NIF-rich phase. Polymer distribution into the drug-rich phase directly monitored by solution NMR technique can be a useful index for the stabilization efficiency of drug-supersaturated solution containing a drug-rich phase.

  9. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel, E-mail: emanuel.schwaighofer@unileoben.ac.at [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Clemens, Helmut [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria); Lindemann, Janny [Chair of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Technology, Brandenburg University of Technology, Konrad-Wachsmann-Allee 17, D-03046 Cottbus (Germany); GfE Fremat GmbH, Lessingstr. 41, D-09599 Freiberg (Germany); Stark, Andreas [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mayer, Svea [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, Roseggerstr. 12, A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2014-09-22

    New high-performance engine concepts for aerospace and automotive application enforce the development of lightweight intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloys with increased high-temperature capability above 750 °C. Besides an increased creep resistance, the alloy system must exhibit sufficient hot-workability. However, the majority of current high-creep resistant γ-TiAl based alloys suffer from poor workability, whereby grain refinement and microstructure control during hot-working are key factors to ensure a final microstructure with sufficient ductility and tolerance against brittle failure below the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Therefore, a new and advanced β-solidifying γ-TiAl based alloy, a so-called TNM alloy with a composition of Ti–43Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B (at%) and minor additions of C and Si, is investigated by means of uniaxial compressive hot-deformation tests performed with a Gleeble 3500 simulator within a temperature range of 1150–1300 °C and a strain rate regime of 0.005–0.5 s{sup −1} up to a true deformation of 0.9. The occurring mechanisms during hot-working were decoded by ensuing constitutive modeling of the flow curves by a novel phase field region-specific surface fitting approach via a hyperbolic-sine law as well as by evaluation through processing maps combined with microstructural post-analysis to determine a safe hot-working window of the refined TNM alloy. Complementary, in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiments in combination with an adapted quenching and deformation dilatometer were conducted for a deeper insight about the deformation behavior of the alloy, i.e. phase fractions and texture evolution as well as temperature uncertainties arising during isothermal and non-isothermal compression. It was found that the presence of β-phase and the contribution of particle stimulated nucleation of ζ-Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} silicides and h-type carbides Ti{sub 2}AlC enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior during

  10. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel; Clemens, Helmut; Lindemann, Janny; Stark, Andreas; Mayer, Svea

    2014-01-01

    New high-performance engine concepts for aerospace and automotive application enforce the development of lightweight intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloys with increased high-temperature capability above 750 °C. Besides an increased creep resistance, the alloy system must exhibit sufficient hot-workability. However, the majority of current high-creep resistant γ-TiAl based alloys suffer from poor workability, whereby grain refinement and microstructure control during hot-working are key factors to ensure a final microstructure with sufficient ductility and tolerance against brittle failure below the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Therefore, a new and advanced β-solidifying γ-TiAl based alloy, a so-called TNM alloy with a composition of Ti–43Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B (at%) and minor additions of C and Si, is investigated by means of uniaxial compressive hot-deformation tests performed with a Gleeble 3500 simulator within a temperature range of 1150–1300 °C and a strain rate regime of 0.005–0.5 s −1 up to a true deformation of 0.9. The occurring mechanisms during hot-working were decoded by ensuing constitutive modeling of the flow curves by a novel phase field region-specific surface fitting approach via a hyperbolic-sine law as well as by evaluation through processing maps combined with microstructural post-analysis to determine a safe hot-working window of the refined TNM alloy. Complementary, in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiments in combination with an adapted quenching and deformation dilatometer were conducted for a deeper insight about the deformation behavior of the alloy, i.e. phase fractions and texture evolution as well as temperature uncertainties arising during isothermal and non-isothermal compression. It was found that the presence of β-phase and the contribution of particle stimulated nucleation of ζ-Ti 5 Si 3 silicides and h-type carbides Ti 2 AlC enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior during deformation within

  11. Prdm8 regulates the morphological transition at multipolar phase during neocortical development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayuko Inoue

    Full Text Available Here, we found that the PR domain protein Prdm8 serves as a key regulator of the length of the multipolar phase by controlling the timing of morphological transition. We used a mouse line with expression of Prdm8-mVenus reporter and found that Prdm8 is predominantly expressed in the middle and upper intermediate zone during both the late and terminal multipolar phases. Prdm8 expression was almost coincident with Unc5D expression, a marker for the late multipolar phase, although the expression of Unc5D was found to be gradually down-regulated to the point at which mVenus expression was gradually up-regulated. This expression pattern suggests the possible involvement of Prdm8 in the control of the late and terminal multipolar phases, which controls the timing for morphological transition. To test this hypothesis, we performed gain- and loss-of-function analysis of neocortical development by using in utero electroporation. We found that the knockdown of Prdm8 results in premature change from multipolar to bipolar morphology, whereas the overexpression of Prdm8 maintained the multipolar morphology. Additionally, the postnatal analysis showed that the Prdm8 knockdown stimulated the number of early born neurons, and differentiated neurons located more deeply in the neocortex, however, majority of those cells could not acquire molecular features consistent with laminar location. Furthermore, we found the candidate genes that were predominantly utilized in both the late and terminal multipolar phases, and these candidate genes included those encoding for guidance molecules. In addition, we also found that the expression level of these guidance molecules was inhibited by the introduction of the Prdm8 expression vector. These results indicate that the Prdm8-mediated regulation of morphological changes that normally occur during the late and terminal multipolar phases plays an important role in neocortical development.

  12. Late-gestation heat stress abatement on performance and behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, M T; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Drackley, J K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cooling to lessen the effects of heat stress during the last 3 wk of gestation on performance and behavior of multiparous Holstein cows. Twenty nonlactating cows were randomly assigned to treatments approximately 21 d before their expected calving date based on mature equivalent milk production and parity. Treatments were only imposed during the last 3 wk of gestation and included heat stress (HT; n=10) and cooling (CL; n=10), both under a similar photoperiod (14 h of light and 10 h of dark). Dry cows were housed in a sand-bedded stall with the stall areas for CL cows equipped with sprinklers and fans that were on from 0700 to 1900 h, whereas those for the HT cows were not. After parturition, all cows were housed in a barn with cooling devices. Rectal temperatures were measured daily at 1400 h and respiration rates were recorded by counting the flank movements for 1 min at 1500 h on odd days over the last 3 wk of gestation to calving. Daily dry matter intake was measured from -21 d relative to expected calving to 21 d after calving and milk production was recorded daily up to 180 d in milk. Behavioral changes of dry cows were studied continuously for 24 h at -10 d relative to expected calving. The average temperature-humidity index during the last 3 wk of gestation was 69.7 and was not significantly different between treatments. Heat-stressed cows exhibited greater rectal temperatures (39.5 vs. 39.2°C), greater respiration rates (70.4 vs. 63.3 breaths/min), and decreased dry matter intake (13.7 vs. 15.5 kg/d) compared with CL cows. Compared with HT cows, CL cows produced more milk during 180 d in milk (40.5 vs. 44.6 kg/d). Heat stress decreased ruminating (243.2 vs. 282.5 min/d) and chewing times (390.6 vs. 448.7 min/d) at -10 d before calving. The CL cows had shorter standing times than their HT counterparts (390.4 vs. 474.0 min/d). These results confirm that heat stress abatement in the late gestation period improves

  13. Extreme late chronotypes and social jetlag challenged by Antarctic conditions in a population of university students from Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassino, Bettina; Horta, Stefany; Santana, Noelia; Levandovski, Rosa; Silva, Ana

    2016-01-01

    In humans, a person's chronotype depends on environmental cues and on individual characteristics, with late chronotypes prevailing in youth. Social jetlag (SJL), the misalignment between an individual׳s biological clock and social time, is higher in late chronotypes. Strong SJL is expected in Uruguayan university students with morning class schedules and very late entertainment activities. Sleep disorders have been reported in Antarctic inhabitants, that might be a response to the extreme environment or to the strictness of Antarctic life. We evaluated, for the first time in Uruguay, the chronotypes and SJL of 17 undergraduate students of the First Uruguayan Summer School on Antarctic Research, using Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ) and sleep logs (SL) recorded during 3 phases: pre-Antarctic, Antarctic, and post-Antarctic. The midsleep point of free days corrected for sleep debt on work days (MSFsc,) was used as proxy of individuals' chronotype, whose values (around 6 a.m.) are the latest ever reported. We found a SJL of around 2 h in average, which correlated positively with MSFsc, confirming that late chronotypes generate a higher sleep debt during weekdays. Midsleep point and sleep duration significantly decreased between pre-Antarctic and Antarctic phases, and sleep duration rebounded to significant higher values in the post-Antarctic phase. Waking time, but not sleep onset time, significantly varied among phases. This evidence suggests that sleep schedules more likely depended on the social agenda than on the environmental light-dark shifts. High motivation of students towards Antarctic activities likely induced a subjective perception of welfare non-dependent on sleep duration.

  14. Phase behavior of UCST blends: Effects of pristine nanoclay as an effective or ineffective compatibilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hemmati

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of unmodified nanoclay (natural montmorillonite on the miscibility, phase behavior and phase separation kinetics of polyethylene (PE/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA blends have been investigated. Depending on the blend composition, it was observed that the intercalated pristine nanoclay influences the biphasic morphology either as an effective compatibilizer or just as an ineffectual modifier. In spite of the presence of micrometer-sized agglomerated tactoids, natural nanoclay can play a thermodynamic role in reducing the interfacial tension of polymer components. The addition of clay nanoparticles was found to change the phase diagram slightly and diminishes the composition dependency of the binodal temperatures. Moreover, it was observed that a small amount of unmodified layered silicate slows down the phase separation process considerably and enhances the solubility of each polymer in the domains of its counterpart. The findings of this study verify that even poorly dispersed nanoclay with high surface tension can act as a conventional compatibilizer and change the immiscible PE/EVA blends to the partially miscible ones.

  15. Social experiences during adolescence affect anxiety-like behavior but not aggressiveness in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Neele; Jenikejew, Julia; Richter, S Helene; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert

    2017-05-30

    Adolescence has lately been recognized as a key developmental phase during which an individual's behavior can be shaped. In a recent study with male mice varying in the expression of the serotonin transporter, escapable adverse social experiences during adolescence led to decreased anxiety-like behavior and increased exploratory and aggressive behavior compared to throughout beneficial experiences. Since in this study some behavioral tests took place with a delay of one week after the last social experiences have been made, it was not clear whether the observed effects really reflected the consequences of the experienced different social environments. To test this, the present study focused on the direct effects of beneficial and adverse social experiences on aggressiveness and anxiety-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice. In contrast to the previous study, behavioral testing took place immediately after the last social experiences had been made. Interestingly, whereas individuals from an escapable adverse environment showed significantly lower levels of anxiety-like and higher levels of exploratory behavior than animals from a beneficial environment, aggressive behavior was not affected. From this, we conclude that different social experiences during adolescence exert immediate effects on anxiety-like but not aggressive behavior in male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of martensitic phase transformation on the hardening behavior and texture evolution in a 304L stainless steel under compression at liquid nitrogen temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakmak, Ercan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Choo, Hahn, E-mail: hchoo@utk.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The martensitic phase transformation behavior and its relations with the macroscopic hardening rate and the evolutions in the crystallographic texture of the constituent phases were studied for a 304L stainless steel that exhibits the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction was used to measure the evolutions of phase fractions and texture in terms of pole figures as a function of the applied compressive strain at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The phase transformation analyses show that the hcp-martensite phase fraction reaches a significant level of about 22 wt% at 15% applied strain and remains constant. The bcc-martensite phase fraction increases continuously with the deformation that correlates well with the macroscopic hardening behavior. Furthermore, the texture analyses show that transformation has dominant effect on the bcc-martensite texture evolution with little influence from subsequent plastic deformation at current testing conditions.

  17. Effect of martensitic phase transformation on the hardening behavior and texture evolution in a 304L stainless steel under compression at liquid nitrogen temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmak, Ercan; Vogel, Sven C.; Choo, Hahn

    2014-01-01

    The martensitic phase transformation behavior and its relations with the macroscopic hardening rate and the evolutions in the crystallographic texture of the constituent phases were studied for a 304L stainless steel that exhibits the transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) phenomenon. Time-of-flight neutron diffraction was used to measure the evolutions of phase fractions and texture in terms of pole figures as a function of the applied compressive strain at the liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K). The phase transformation analyses show that the hcp-martensite phase fraction reaches a significant level of about 22 wt% at 15% applied strain and remains constant. The bcc-martensite phase fraction increases continuously with the deformation that correlates well with the macroscopic hardening behavior. Furthermore, the texture analyses show that transformation has dominant effect on the bcc-martensite texture evolution with little influence from subsequent plastic deformation at current testing conditions

  18. Phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon on graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrykiejew, A; Sokołowski, S

    2012-04-14

    Using the results of extensive Monte Carlo simulations in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles, we discuss the phase behavior of mixed submonolayer films of krypton and xenon adsorbed on the graphite basal plane. The calculations have been performed using two- and three-dimensional models of the systems studied. It has been demonstrated that out-of-plane motion does not affect the properties of the films as long as the total density is well below the monolayer completion and at moderate temperatures. For the total densities close to the monolayer completion, the promotion of particles to the second layer considerably affects the film properties. Our results are in a reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The melting point of submonolayer films has been shown to exhibit non-monotonous changes with the film composition, and reaches minimum for the xenon concentration of about 50%. At the temperatures below the melting point, the structure of solid phases depends upon the film composition and the temperature; one can also distinguish commensurate and incommensurate phases. Two-dimensional calculations have demonstrated that for the xenon concentration between about 15% and 65% the adsorbed film exhibits the formation of a superstructure, in which each Xe atom is surrounded by six Kr atoms. This superstructure is stable only at very low temperatures and transforms into the mixed commensurate (√3×√3)R30° phase upon the increase of temperature. Such a superstructure does not appear when a three-dimensional model is used. Grand canonical ensemble calculations allowed us to show that for the xenon concentration of about 3% the phase diagram topology of monolayer films changes from the krypton-like (with incipient triple point) to the xenon-like (with ordinary triple point).

  19. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg...

  20. Relative timing of last glacial maximum and late-glacial events in the central tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, Gordon R. M.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Winckler, Gisela; Hall, Brenda L.; Todd, Claire E.; Rademaker, Kurt M.

    2009-11-01

    Whether or not tropical climate fluctuated in synchrony with global events during the Late Pleistocene is a key problem in climate research. However, the timing of past climate changes in the tropics remains controversial, with a number of recent studies reporting that tropical ice age climate is out of phase with global events. Here, we present geomorphic evidence and an in-situ cosmogenic 3He surface-exposure chronology from Nevado Coropuna, southern Peru, showing that glaciers underwent at least two significant advances during the Late Pleistocene prior to Holocene warming. Comparison of our glacial-geomorphic map at Nevado Coropuna to mid-latitude reconstructions yields a striking similarity between Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Late-Glacial sequences in tropical and temperate regions. Exposure ages constraining the maximum and end of the older advance at Nevado Coropuna range between 24.5 and 25.3 ka, and between 16.7 and 21.1 ka, respectively, depending on the cosmogenic production rate scaling model used. Similarly, the mean age of the younger event ranges from 10 to 13 ka. This implies that (1) the LGM and the onset of deglaciation in southern Peru occurred no earlier than at higher latitudes and (2) that a significant Late-Glacial event occurred, most likely prior to the Holocene, coherent with the glacial record from mid and high latitudes. The time elapsed between the end of the LGM and the Late-Glacial event at Nevado Coropuna is independent of scaling model and matches the period between the LGM termination and Late-Glacial reversal in classic mid-latitude records, suggesting that these events in both tropical and temperate regions were in phase.

  1. Study on thermo-hydraulic behavior during reflood phase of a PWR-LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes thermo-hydraulic behavior during the reflood phase in a postulated large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a PWR. In order to better predict the reflood transient in a nuclear safety analysis specific analytical models have been developed for, saturated film boiling heat transfer in inverted slung flow, the effect of grid spacers on core thermo-hydraulics, overall system thermo-hydraulic behavior, and the thermal response similarity between nuclear fuel rods and simulated rods. A heat transfer correlation has been newly developed for saturated film boiling based on a 4 x 4-rod experiment conducted at JAERI. The correlation provides a good agreement with existing experiments except in the vicinity of grid spacer locations. An analytical model has then been developed addressing the effect of grid spacers. The thermo-hydraulic behavior near the grid spacers was found to be predicted well with this model by considering the breakup of droplets in dispersed flow and water accumulation above the grid spacers in inverted slung flow. A system analysis code has been developed which couples the one-dimensional core and multi-loop primary system component models. It provides fairly good agreement with system behavior obtained in a large-scale integral reflood experiment with active primary system components. An analytical model for the radial temperature distribution in a rod has been developed and verified with data from existing experiments. It was found that a nuclear fuel rod has a lower cladding temperature and an earlier quench time than an electrically heated rod in a typical reflood condition. (author)

  2. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In valleys of the River Seim and its tributaries in the middle Dnieper basin (west-central Russian Plain), two low terraces (T1, 10-16 m, and T0, 5-7 m above the river) and a floodplain (2-4 m) with characteristic large and small palaeochannels exist. A range of field and laboratory techniques was applied and ∼30 new numerical ages (OSL and 14C dates) were obtained to establish a chronology of incision and aggradation events that resulted in the current valley morphology. Two full incision/aggradation rhythms and one additional aggradation phase from the previous rhythm were recognized in the Late Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple-thread channels concentrated in a single flow that at some places formed large meanders. In the period 15-13 ka, high floods that rose above the present-day floods left large levees and overbank loams on Terrace T0. (5) Younger Dryas - Holocene transition: aggradation up to the modern channel level, transformation of large Late Glacial to small Holocene meanders. The established incision/aggradation rhythms are believed to be manifested over the Central Russian Plain outside the influence of ice sheets in the north and base level changes in the south. The two-phase deepening of the valley occurred in the last quarter of the last glacial epoch but can not be attributed directly to the glacial-interglacial transition. Both the detected incision events correspond to relatively

  3. Response in the late phase to a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This paper will look at the key issues that need to be addressed during the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, and the development of the initial recovery strategy. It will then discuss the extent to which current national plans and international advice address the needs of decision makers following contamination of inhabited areas and food production systems. Since the events of September 11 th 2001, attention is becoming increasingly focussed on the response to the deliberate dispersal of radioactive material, eg so called 'dirty bombs' or deliberate contamination of the food supply. Whilst some aspects of the response to a dirty bomb will be similar to those for a nuclear accident, in other respects such deliberate dispersal will pose additional challenges (e.g. identification of the radionuclide(s) involved, likely dispersion from within an urban area for dirty bombs, identification of the geographical spread of foods contaminated). This papers also considers the extent to which existing arrangements and assessments underpinning nuclear accident response would need modification/upgrading for response to deliberate dispersal. In the transition from the emergency phase to the recovery phase, decision makers will be under pressure to make rapid decisions concerning the lifting of countermeasures implemented during the emergency phase and the need for further measures. A failure to respond promptly will leave an information void in which other, self-styled, experts will advertise their solutions, thereby adding to the pressure. This may then lead to a loss of confidence by the public, and make it more difficult to develop a practicable recovery strategy that is also acceptable to those affected. However, if decisions are made without a full understanding of the contamination pattern and its likely future impact, then it is possible that promises or actions taken early on will need to be reversed as a fuller understanding of the

  4. Phase Behavior of Binary Blends of AB+AC Block Copolymers with compatible B and C blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryamitsyn, Victor; Ganesan, Venkat

    2012-02-01

    Recently the experimental studies of phase behavior of binary blends of PS-b-P2VP and PS-b-PHS demonstrated an interesting effect: blends of symmetric PS-b-P2VP and shorter symmetric (PS-b-PHS) formed cylindrical HEX and spherical BCC phases, while each pure component formed lamellas. The miscibility of P2VP and PHS is caused by the hydrogen bonding between P2VP and PHS,which can be described as a negative Flory ?-parameter between P2VP and PHS. We developed a theory of the microphase segregation of AB+AC blends of diblock copolymers based on strong stretching theory. The main result of our theory is that in the copolymer brush-like layer formed by longer B chain and shorter C chains, the attraction between B and shorter C chains causes relative stretching of short C chains and compression of longer B chains. The latter manifests in an excessive bending force towards the grafting surface (BC|AA interface). Such bending force causes a transition from a symmetric lamella phase to a HEX cylinder or BCC spherical phases with the BC phase being a ``matrix'' component. In a blend of asymmetric BCC sphere forming copolymers (where B and C segments are the minor components), such bending force may unfold BCC spherical phase to a HEX cylinder phase, or even highly uneven lamella phases.

  5. Phase Behavior Modeling of Asphaltene Precipitation for Heavy Crudes: A Promising Tool Along with Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakkoli, M.; Kharrat, R.; Masihi, M.; Ghazanfari, M. H.; Fadaei, S.

    2012-12-01

    Thermodynamic modeling is known as a promising tool for phase behavior modeling of asphaltene precipitation under different conditions such as pressure depletion and CO2 injection. In this work, a thermodynamic approach is used for modeling the phase behavior of asphaltene precipitation. The precipitated asphaltene phase is represented by an improved solid model, while the oil and gas phases are modeled with an equation of state. The PR-EOS was used to perform flash calculations. Then, the onset point and the amount of precipitated asphaltene were predicted. A computer code based on an improved solid model has been developed and used for predicting asphaltene precipitation data for one of Iranian heavy crudes, under pressure depletion and CO2 injection conditions. A significant improvement has been observed in predicting the asphaltene precipitation data under gas injection conditions. Especially for the maximum value of asphaltene precipitation and for the trend of the curve after the peak point, good agreement was observed. For gas injection conditions, comparison of the thermodynamic micellization model and the improved solid model showed that the thermodynamic micellization model cannot predict the maximum of precipitation as well as the improved solid model. The non-isothermal improved solid model has been used for predicting asphaltene precipitation data under pressure depletion conditions. The pressure depletion tests were done at different levels of temperature and pressure, and the parameters of a non-isothermal model were tuned using three onset pressures at three different temperatures for the considered crude. The results showed that the model is highly sensitive to the amount of solid molar volume along with the interaction coefficient parameter between the asphaltene component and light hydrocarbon components. Using a non-isothermal improved solid model, the asphaltene phase envelope was developed. It has been revealed that at high temperatures, an

  6. Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/Poly(butylenes succinate) blend: Phase behavior and mechanical property control using its transesterification system as the compatibilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianxiang; Wu, Defeng

    2014-01-01

    Poly(trimethylene terephthalate)/poly(butylenes succinate) (PTT/PBS) blends and their ester-exchanged system were prepared by melt mixing for the phase behavior and the viscoelasticity studies. A typical two-phase structure can be seen on the blends because two polymers are immiscible thermodynamically. The phase inversion behavior of the blends can be well determined by the blending ratio dependence of their dynamic rheological responses, which can also be predicted by the viscous Utracki model based on the viscosity ratio. However, the dynamic viscoelastic responses of the blends cannot be well described by the emulsion model because two polymers are highly asymmetric in their viscoelasticity. Besides, transesterification is an effective approach of reducing interfacial tension and improving final phase morphology of the blends, which can be evaluated qualitatively from viscoelastic response alterations after ester exchange reaction. The mechanical properties of PTT/PBS blends were also studied. The results reveal that the ester-exchanged blends show mechanical strengths even lower than the pristine ones because of bulk degradation accompanied with transesterification, despite their improved phase structure. However, they can be used as the good compatibilizer to improve phase adhesion of the pristine blends, enhancing strengths of the PTT based blends or toughness of the PBS based blends evidently. - Highlights: • Phase inversion of the blends can be determined by their rheological responses. • Improved phase morphology can be evaluated from viscoelasticity alterations. • The ester-exchanged system is suitable to be used as the compatibilizer. • Mechanical properties can be controlled by introducing ester-exchanged system

  7. Molecular Interaction Control in Diblock Copolymer Blends and Multiblock Copolymers with Opposite Phase Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Junhan

    2014-03-01

    Here we show how to control molecular interactions via mixing AB and AC diblock copolymers, where one copolymer exhibits upper order-disorder transition and the other does lower disorder-order transition. Linear ABC triblock copolymers possessing both barotropic and baroplastic pairs are also taken into account. A recently developed random-phase approximation (RPA) theory and the self-consistent field theory (SCFT) for general compressible mixtures are used to analyze stability criteria and morphologies for the given systems. It is demonstrated that the copolymer systems can yield a variety of phase behaviors in their temperature and pressure dependence upon proper mixing conditions and compositions, which is caused by the delicate force fields generated in the systems. We acknowledge the financial support from National Research Foundation of Korea and Center for Photofunctional Energy Materials.

  8. Phase behavior and nanoscale structure of phospholipid membranes incorporated with acylated C-14-peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, T.B.; Kaasgaard, Thomas; Jensen, M.O.

    2005-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior and lateral structure of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) lipid bilayers containing an acylated peptide has been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) on vesicles and atomic force microscopy (AFM) on mica-supported bilayers. The acylated...... peptide, which is a synthetic decapeptide N-terminally linked to a C-14 acyl chain (C-14-peptide), is incorporated into DPPC bilayers in amounts ranging from 0-20 mol %. The calorimetric scans of the two-component system demonstrate a distinct influence of the C-14-peptide on the lipid bilayer...... gel phase DPPC bilayers, inserts preferentially into preexisting defect regions and has a noticeable influence on the organization of the surrounding lipids. The presence of the C-14-peptide gives rise to a laterally heterogeneous bilayer structure with coexisting lipid domains characterized by a 10...

  9. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  10. Phase transformations behavior in a Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Q. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Li, Z., E-mail: lizhou6931@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China) and Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Wang, M.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Changsha, 410083 (China); Zhang, L.; Gong, S. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Xiao, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, L693 GH (United Kingdom); Pan, Z.Y. [Hunan Nonferrous Metals Holding Group Co., Ltd., Changsha, 410015 (China)

    2011-02-24

    Research highlights: > High solute concentrations Cu-Ni-Si alloy with super high strength and high conductivity has a good prospect for replacing Cu-Be alloys. At least four different kinds of precipitation products (DO{sub 22} ordered structure, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si precipitate, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si precipitate and {gamma}-Ni{sub 5}Si{sub 2} precipitate) have been observed in previous investigation. Therefore, the overall phase transformation behavior of Cu-Ni-Si alloy appears to be very complex. And most previous studies on the phase transformation usually investigated the precipitation process at only one temperature or at most a few temperatures, which is far away to establish a time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram for Cu-Ni-Si alloy. > The phase transformation behavior of Cu-8.0Ni-1.8Si alloy has been studied systematically at wide temperature range in this paper. The results we have gained are that: after solution treatment, followed by different conditions of isothermal treatment, DO{sub 22} ordering, discontinuous precipitation and continuous precipitation were observed in the alloy; discontinuous precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si phase appeared when the alloy isothermal treated at 550 deg. C for short time, which had not been reported by the previous Cu-Ni-Si system alloy's researchers in their papers; two kinds of precipitates of {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si and {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si were determined by the TEM characterization; the orientation relationship between the two kinds of precipitates and Cu-matrix is that: (1 1 0){sub Cu}//(1 1 0){sub {beta}}//(211-bar){sub {delta}}, [112-bar]{sub Cu}//[11-bar 2]{sub {beta}}//[3 2 4]{sub {delta}}; during overaging treatment, Cu-matrix, {beta}-Ni{sub 3}Si, {delta}-Ni{sub 2}Si and {delta}'-Ni{sub 2}Si were distinguished in the samples and the orientation relationship between the precipitates and Cu-matrix can be expressed as that: (0 2 2){sub Cu}//(0 2 2){sub {beta}}//(1 0 0){sub {delta}}, (02-bar 2){sub Cu

  11. Involvement of DNA polymerase δ in DNA repair synthesis in human fibroblasts at late times after ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresler, S.L.; Gowans, B.J.; Robinson-Hill, R.M.; Hunting, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    DNA repair synthesis following UV irradiation of confluent human fibroblasts has a biphasic time course with an early phase of rapid nucleotide incorporation and a late phase of much slower nucleotide incorporation. The biphasic nature of this curve suggests that two distinct DNA repair systems may be operative. Previous studies have specifically implicated DNA polymerase δ as the enzyme involved in DNA repair synthesis occurring immediately after UV damage. In this paper, the authors describe studies of DNA polymerase involvement in DNA repair synthesis in confluent human fibroblasts at late times after UV irradiation. Late UV-induced DNA repair synthesis in both intact and permeable cells was found to be inhibited by aphidicolin, indicating the involvement of one of the aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases, α or δ. In permeable cells, the process was further analyzed by using the nucleotide analogue (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate, which inhibits DNA polymerase α several hundred times more strongly than it inhibits DNA polymerase δ. The (butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate inhibition curve for late UV-induced repair synthesis was very similar to that for polymerase δ. It appears that repair synthesis at late time after UV irradiation, like repair synthesis at early times, is mediated by DNA polymerase δ

  12. Coarsening and pattern formation during true morphological phase separation in unstable thin films under gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Avanish; Narayanam, Chaitanya; Khanna, Rajesh; Puri, Sanjay

    2017-12-01

    We address in detail the problem of true morphological phase separation (MPS) in three-dimensional or (2 +1 )-dimensional unstable thin liquid films (>100 nm) under the influence of gravity. The free-energy functionals of these films are asymmetric and show two points of common tangency, which facilitates the formation of two equilibrium phases. Three distinct patterns formed by relative preponderance of these phases are clearly identified in "true MPS". Asymmetricity induces two different pathways of pattern formation, viz., defect and direct pathway for true MPS. The pattern formation and phase-ordering dynamics have been studied using statistical measures such as structure factor, correlation function, and growth laws. In the late stage of coarsening, the system reaches into a scaling regime for both pathways, and the characteristic domain size follows the Lifshitz-Slyozov growth law [L (t ) ˜t1 /3] . However, for the defect pathway, there is a crossover of domain growth behavior from L (t ) ˜t1 /4→t1 /3 in the dynamical scaling regime. We also underline the analogies and differences behind the mechanisms of MPS and true MPS in thin liquid films and generic spinodal phase separation in binary mixtures.

  13. The relationship between ovarian steroids and uterine estrogen receptors during late pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathey, T.M.; Chung, Kyung W. (Univ. of Oklahoma, Oklahoma City (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Although a direct interdependence exists between the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, the exact role of these two hormones during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, is not completely understood. Investigations have been conducted to determine whether the circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen or changes in the ratio of progesterone/estrogen in relation to the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors are associated with triggering parturition. Ninety-day old female rats were sacrificed at gestation days 14, 16, 18, 20 and two days post-partum. The plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Uterine cytosol was subjected to a charcoal binding assay to determine the concentration of estrogen receptors. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant drop in both plasma progesterone and estradiol during late pregnancy. Also indicated is a significant increase in uterine estrogen receptors throughout late pregnancy. Finally, during this period there is a direct correlation between the shift in the progesterone/estrogen ratio and the increase in the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors in late pregnancy.

  14. The relationship between ovarian steroids and uterine estrogen receptors during late pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathey, T.M.; Chung, Kyung W.

    1991-01-01

    Although a direct interdependence exists between the ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, the exact role of these two hormones during pregnancy, especially late pregnancy, is not completely understood. Investigations have been conducted to determine whether the circulating levels of progesterone and estrogen or changes in the ratio of progesterone/estrogen in relation to the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors are associated with triggering parturition. Ninety-day old female rats were sacrificed at gestation days 14, 16, 18, 20 and two days post-partum. The plasma levels of estradiol and progesterone were measured by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Uterine cytosol was subjected to a charcoal binding assay to determine the concentration of estrogen receptors. Our findings demonstrate that there is a significant drop in both plasma progesterone and estradiol during late pregnancy. Also indicated is a significant increase in uterine estrogen receptors throughout late pregnancy. Finally, during this period there is a direct correlation between the shift in the progesterone/estrogen ratio and the increase in the concentration of uterine estrogen receptors in late pregnancy

  15. SPSP Phase III Recruiting, Selecting, and Developing Secure Power Systems Professionals: Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, Lori Ross [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Conway, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tobey, D. H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greitzer, Frank L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dalton, Angela C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pusey, Portia K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The Secure Power Systems Professional Phase III final report was released last year which an appendix of Behavioral Interview Guidelines by Job Roles. This new report is that appendix broken out as a standalone document to assist utilities in recruiting and developing Secure Power Systems Professionals at their site.

  16. The pathophysiology of diabetes involves a defective amplification of the late-phase insulin response to glucose by glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide-regardless of etiology and phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, F K; Krarup, T

    2003-01-01

    [maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY)3]; and 5) newly diagnosed type 1 diabetic patients. All participants underwent three hyperglycemic clamps (2 h, 15 mM) with continuous infusion of saline, 1 pmol GLP-1 (7-36)amide/kg body weight.min or 4 pmol GIP pmol/kg body weight.min. The early-phase (0-20 min......The effect of the insulinotropic incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is preserved in typical middle-aged, obese, insulin-resistant type 2 diabetic patients, whereas a defective amplification of the so-called late-phase plasma insulin response (20-120 min) to glucose by the other...... incretin hormone, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), is seen in these patients. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate plasma insulin and C-peptide responses to GLP-1 and GIP in five groups of diabetic patients with etiology and phenotype distinct from the obese type 2...

  17. Strain-hardening behavior and microstructure development in polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with LPSO phase subjected to cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiraishi, Kazuma [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Mayama, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: mayama@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Yamasaki, Michiaki [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia); Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawamura, Yoshihito [Magnesium Research Center/Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1, Kurokami, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2016-08-30

    The strain-hardening behavior and microstructural development of polycrystalline as-cast Mg-Zn-Y alloys with various volume fractions of the long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase subjected to cyclic loading were experimentally evaluated. For all alloys, cyclic loading tests with a constant strain amplitude of 0.5% for up to 100 cycles showed asymmetric cyclic hardening behavior. That is, the absolute value of the compressive peak stress significantly increased during cyclic loading while the tensile peak stress slightly decreased. With increasing volume fraction of the LPSO phase, the stress amplitude significantly increased. Cyclic loading tests after compressive preloading up to 200 or 250 MPa resulted in a significant increase in the stress amplitude, while a number of kink bands developed during preloading. For the cyclic hardening behavior, the contribution of the increase in kinematic hardening was significant in the alloys with a higher volume fraction of the LPSO phase. Transmission electron microscopy observation of the cyclically deformed Mg{sub 85}Zn{sub 6}Y{sub 9} alloy indicated the formation of a deformation-induced band, where the crystal structure was transformed from 18R-LPSO to hcp-Mg with the exclusion of solute elements.

  18. Meeting the Late-Career Needs of Faculty Transitioning Through Retirement: One Institution's Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Joanna M; Felice, Marianne E; Ockene, Judith K; Milner, Robert J; Congdon, John L; Tosi, Stephen; Thorndyke, Luanne E

    2018-03-01

    Medical school faculty are aging, but few academic health centers are adequately prepared with policies, programs, and resources (PPR) to assist late-career faculty. The authors sought to examine cultural barriers to successful retirement and create alignment between individual and institutional needs and tasks through PPR that embrace the contributions of senior faculty while enabling retirement transitions at the University of Massachusetts Medical School, 2013-2017. Faculty 50 or older were surveyed, programs at other institutions and from the literature (multiple fields) were reviewed, and senior faculty and leaders, including retired faculty, were engaged to develop and implement PPR. Cultural barriers were found to be significant, and a multipronged, multiyear strategy to address these barriers, which sequentially added PPR to support faculty, was put in place. A comprehensive framework of sequenced PPR was developed to address the needs and tasks of late-career transitions within three distinct phases: pre-retirement, retirement, and post-retirement. This sequential introduction approach has led to important outcomes for all three of the retirement phases, including reduction of cultural barriers, a policy that has been useful in assessing viability of proposed phased retirement plans, transparent and realistic discussions about financial issues, and consideration of roles that retired faculty can provide. The authors are tracking the issues mentioned in consultations and efficacy of succession planning, and will be resurveying faculty to further refine their work. This framework approach could serve as a template for other academic health centers to address late-career faculty development.

  19. Circadian Phase-Shifting Effects of Bright Light, Exercise, and Bright Light + Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngstedt, Shawn D; Kline, Christopher E; Elliott, Jeffrey A; Zielinski, Mark R; Devlin, Tina M; Moore, Teresa A

    2016-02-26

    Limited research has compared the circadian phase-shifting effects of bright light and exercise and additive effects of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the phase-delaying effects of late night bright light, late night exercise, and late evening bright light followed by early morning exercise. In a within-subjects, counterbalanced design, 6 young adults completed each of three 2.5-day protocols. Participants followed a 3-h ultra-short sleep-wake cycle, involving wakefulness in dim light for 2h, followed by attempted sleep in darkness for 1 h, repeated throughout each protocol. On night 2 of each protocol, participants received either (1) bright light alone (5,000 lux) from 2210-2340 h, (2) treadmill exercise alone from 2210-2340 h, or (3) bright light (2210-2340 h) followed by exercise from 0410-0540 h. Urine was collected every 90 min. Shifts in the 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) cosine acrophase from baseline to post-treatment were compared between treatments. Analyses revealed a significant additive phase-delaying effect of bright light + exercise (80.8 ± 11.6 [SD] min) compared with exercise alone (47.3 ± 21.6 min), and a similar phase delay following bright light alone (56.6 ± 15.2 min) and exercise alone administered for the same duration and at the same time of night. Thus, the data suggest that late night bright light followed by early morning exercise can have an additive circadian phase-shifting effect.

  20. XRCC1 Polymorphism Associated With Late Toxicity After Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, Petra; Behrens, Sabine [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Schmezer, Peter [Division of Epigenomics and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Helmbold, Irmgard [Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Barnett, Gillian; Coles, Charlotte [Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, United Kingdom (UK) (United Kingdom); Yarnold, John [Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Talbot, Christopher J. [Department of Genetics, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Imai, Takashi [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Azria, David [Department of Radiation Oncology and Medical Physics, I.C.M. – Institut regional du Cancer Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Koch, C. Anne [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Dunning, Alison M. [Centre for Cancer Genetic Epidemiology, University of Cambridge, Strangeways Research Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Burnet, Neil [Department of Oncology, Oncology Centre, Cambridge University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bliss, Judith M. [The Institute of Cancer Research, Clinical Trials and Statistics Unit, Sutton (United Kingdom); Symonds, R. Paul; Rattay, Tim [Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, Leicester (United Kingdom); Suga, Tomo [Advanced Radiation Biology Research Program, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Kerns, Sarah L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NH (United States); and others

    2015-08-01

    Purpose: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress–related genes associated with risk of late toxicities in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Using a 2-stage design, 305 SNPs in 59 candidate genes were investigated in the discovery phase in 753 breast cancer patients from 2 prospective cohorts from Germany. The 10 most promising SNPs in 4 genes were evaluated in the replication phase in up to 1883 breast cancer patients from 6 cohorts identified through the Radiogenomics Consortium. Outcomes of interest were late skin toxicity and fibrosis of the breast, as well as an overall toxicity score (Standardized Total Average Toxicity). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to assess associations between SNPs and late toxicity. A meta-analysis approach was used to summarize evidence. Results: The association of a genetic variant in the base excision repair gene XRCC1, rs2682585, with normal tissue late radiation toxicity was replicated in all tested studies. In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, carrying the rare allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of skin toxicities (multivariate odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.96, P=.02) and a decrease in Standardized Total Average Toxicity scores (−0.08, 95% confidence interval −0.15 to −0.02, P=.016). Conclusions: Using a stage design with replication, we identified a variant allele in the base excision repair gene XRCC1 that could be used in combination with additional variants for developing a test to predict late toxicities after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients.

  1. XRCC1 Polymorphism Associated With Late Toxicity After Radiation Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seibold, Petra; Behrens, Sabine; Schmezer, Peter; Helmbold, Irmgard; Barnett, Gillian; Coles, Charlotte; Yarnold, John; Talbot, Christopher J.; Imai, Takashi; Azria, David; Koch, C. Anne; Dunning, Alison M.; Burnet, Neil; Bliss, Judith M.; Symonds, R. Paul; Rattay, Tim; Suga, Tomo; Kerns, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxidative stress–related genes associated with risk of late toxicities in breast cancer patients receiving radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Using a 2-stage design, 305 SNPs in 59 candidate genes were investigated in the discovery phase in 753 breast cancer patients from 2 prospective cohorts from Germany. The 10 most promising SNPs in 4 genes were evaluated in the replication phase in up to 1883 breast cancer patients from 6 cohorts identified through the Radiogenomics Consortium. Outcomes of interest were late skin toxicity and fibrosis of the breast, as well as an overall toxicity score (Standardized Total Average Toxicity). Multivariable logistic and linear regression models were used to assess associations between SNPs and late toxicity. A meta-analysis approach was used to summarize evidence. Results: The association of a genetic variant in the base excision repair gene XRCC1, rs2682585, with normal tissue late radiation toxicity was replicated in all tested studies. In the combined analysis of discovery and replication cohorts, carrying the rare allele was associated with a significantly lower risk of skin toxicities (multivariate odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61-0.96, P=.02) and a decrease in Standardized Total Average Toxicity scores (−0.08, 95% confidence interval −0.15 to −0.02, P=.016). Conclusions: Using a stage design with replication, we identified a variant allele in the base excision repair gene XRCC1 that could be used in combination with additional variants for developing a test to predict late toxicities after radiation therapy in breast cancer patients

  2. A Dual-Stage Two-Phase Model of Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubner, Ronald; Steinhauser, Marco; Lehle, Carola

    2010-01-01

    The dual-stage two-phase (DSTP) model is introduced as a formal and general model of selective attention that includes both an early and a late stage of stimulus selection. Whereas at the early stage information is selected by perceptual filters whose selectivity is relatively limited, at the late stage stimuli are selected more efficiently on a…

  3. An “unreasonable effectiveness” of Hilbert transform for the transition phase behavior in an Aharonov–Bohm two-path interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Englman, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recent phase shift data of Takada et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113 (2014) 126601) for a two level system are reconstructed from their current intensity curves by the method of Hilbert transform, for which the underlying Physics is the principle of causality. An introductory algebraic model illustrates pedagogically the working of the method and leads to newly derived relationships involving phenomenological parameters, in particular for the sign of the phase slope between the resonance peaks. While the parametrization of the experimental current intensity data in terms of a few model parameters shows only a qualitative agreement for the phase shift, due to the strong impact of small, detailed variations in the experimental intensity curve on the phase behavior, the numerical Hilbert transform yields a satisfactory reproduction of the phase.

  4. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  5. Impact of phase stability on the corrosion behavior of the austenitic candidate materials for NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullen, D.B.; Gdowski, G.E.; McCright, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    The Nuclear Waste Management Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is responsible for the development of the waste package design to meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensing requirements for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. The metallic container component of the waste package is required to assist in providing substantially complete containment of the waste for a period of up to 1000 years. Long term phase stability of the austenitic candidate materials (304L and 316L stainless steels and alloy 825) over this time period at moderate temperatures (100-250 0 C) can impact the mechanical and corrosion behavior of the metal barrier. A review of the technical literature with respect to phase stability of 304L, 316L and 825 is presented. The impact of martensitic transformations, carbide precipitation and intermediate (σ, chi, and eta) phase formation on the mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of these alloys at repository relevant conditions is discussed. The effect of sensitization on intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) of each alloy is also addressed. A summary of the impact of phase stability on the degradation of each alloy in the proposed repository environment is included. 32 refs., 6 figs

  6. Phase behavior and reactive transport of partial melt in heterogeneous mantle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J.; Hesse, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    The reactive transport of partial melt is the key process that leads to the chemical and physical differentiation of terrestrial planets and smaller celestial bodies. The essential role of the lithological heterogeneities during partial melting of the mantle is increasingly recognized. How far can enriched melts propagate while interacting with the ambient mantle? Can the melt flow emanating from a fertile heterogeneity be localized through a reactive infiltration feedback in a model without exogenous factors or contrived initial conditions? A full understanding of the role of heterogeneities requires reactive melt transport models that account for the phase behavior of major elements. Previous work on reactive transport in the mantle focuses on trace element partitioning; we present the first nonlinear chromatographic analysis of reactive melt transport in systems with binary solid solution. Our analysis shows that reactive melt transport in systems with binary solid solution leads to the formation of two separate reaction fronts: a slow melting/freezing front along which enthalpy change is dominant and a fast dissolution/precipitation front along which compositional changes are dominated by an ion-exchange process over enthalpy change. An intermediate state forms between these two fronts with a bulk-rock composition and enthalpy that are not necessarily bounded by the bulk-rock composition and enthalpy of either the enriched heterogeneity or the depleted ambient mantle. The formation of this intermediate state makes it difficult to anticipate the porosity changes and hence the stability of reaction fronts. Therefore, we develop a graphical representation for the solution that allows identification of the intermediate state by inspection, for all possible bulk-rock compositions and enthalpies of the heterogeneity and the ambient mantle. We apply the analysis to the partial melting of an enriched heterogeneity. This leads to the formation of moving precipitation

  7. Influence of shear cutting parameters on the fatigue behavior of a dual-phase steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paetzold, I.; Dittmann, F.; Feistle, M.; Golle, R.; Haefele, P.; Hoffmann, H.; Volk, W.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of the edge condition of car body and chassis components made of steel sheet on fatigue behavior under dynamic loading presents a major challenge for automotive manufacturers and suppliers. The calculated lifetime is based on material data determined by the fatigue testing of specimens with polished edges. Prototype components are often manufactured by milling or laser cutting, whereby in practice, the series components are produced by shear cutting due to its cost-efficiency. Since the fatigue crack in such components usually starts from a shear cut edge, the calculated and experimental determined lifetime will vary due to the different conditions at the shear cut edges. Therefore, the material data determined with polished edges can result in a non-conservative component design. The aim of this study is to understand the relationship between the shear cutting process and the fatigue behavior of a dual-phase steel sheet. The geometry of the shear cut edge as well as the depth and degree of work hardening in the shear affected zone can be adjusted by using specific shear cutting parameters, such as die clearance and cutting edge radius. Stress-controlled fatigue tests of unnotched specimens were carried out to compare the fatigue behavior of different edge conditions. By evaluating the results of the fatigue experiments, influential shear cutting parameters on fatigue behavior were identified. It was possible to assess investigated shear cutting strategies regarding the fatigue behavior of a high-strength steel DP800.

  8. EFFICACY OF PHYSIOTHERAPY INTERVENTIONS LATE AFTER STROKE: A META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrarello , Francesco; Baccini , Marco; Rinaldi , Lucio Antonio; Cavallini , Maria Chiara; Mossello , Enrico; Masotti , Giulio; Marchionni , Niccolò; Di Bari , Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Physiotherapy is usually provided only in the first few months after stroke, while its effectiveness and appropriateness in the chronic phase are uncertain. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCT) to evaluate the efficacy of physiotherapy interventions on motor and functional outcomes late after stroke. Methods. We searched published studies where participants were randomized to an active physiotherapy intervention,...

  9. Real-Time Visualization of the Precipitation and Phase Behavior of Octaethylporphyrin in Lipid Microparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parra, Elisa; Hervella, Pablo; Needham, David

    2017-01-01

    , as single microparticles. We employed a real-time, single-particle microscopic technique based on micropipette injection to characterize the behavior of these materials and their mixtures upon solvent loss and precipitation. A clear phase separation was observed between the triolein liquid core...... supersaturations. This type of real-time, single-particle characterization is expected to offer important information about the formulation of other hydrophobic compounds of interest, where finding the proper encapsulation environment is a key step for their retention and stability....

  10. Microstructural characterization, formation mechanism and fracture behavior of the needle δ phase in Fe–Ni–Cr type superalloys with high Nb content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ning, Yongquan, E-mail: luckyning@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an 710072 (China); Huang, Shibo [Anshan Iron & Steel Group Corporation Bayuquan Subsidiary Company, Bayuquan 115007 (China); Fu, M.W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Dong, Jie [Inspection & Research Institute of Boiler & Pressure Vessel of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang 330029 (China)

    2015-11-15

    Microstructural characterization, formation mechanism and fracture behavior of the needle δ phase in Fe–Ni–Cr type superalloys with high Nb content (GH4169, equivalent to Inconel 718) have been quantitatively investigated in this research. The typical microstructures of δ phases with the stick, mixed and needle shapes obviously present in Inconel 718 after the isothermal upsetting at the temperature of 980–1060 °C with the initial strain rate of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −1} s{sup −1}. It is found that the shape of the δ phase has a great effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy, viz., the stick δ phase behaves good plasticity and the needle δ phase has good strength. In addition, the needle δ phase can be used to control the grain size as it can prevent grain growth. The combined effect of the localized necking and microvoid coalescence leads to the final ductile fracture of the GH4169 components with the needle δ phase. Both dislocation motion and atom diffusion are the root-cause for the needle δ phase to be firstly separated at grain boundary and then at sub-boundary. The formation mechanism of the needle δ phase is the new finding in this research. Furthermore, it is the primary mechanism for controlling the needle δ phase in Fe–Ni–Cr type superalloys with high Nb content. - Highlights: • Shape of the δ phase takes great effect on mechanical property. • Needle δ phase plays a great role to prevent grain growth. • Needle δ phase can enhance the fracture strength. • Microstructure mechanism of the needle δ phase has been investigated. • Fracture behavior of the needle δ phase has been studied.

  11. Palynological evidence for vegetation patterns in the Transvaal (South Africa during the late Pleistocene and Holocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scott

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Palynological evidence relating to the nature of Late Quaternary vegetation types and plant migrations in the Transvaal is briefly summarized. It is suggested that, after an early temperate, relatively moist phase and a subsequent relatively dry phase lasting until about 25 000 yr B.P., a vegetation-type with ericaceous elements developed. It resembled belts presently occurring above the treeline and was possibly widespread over the plains of the Transvaal during the last glacial maximum period. In the central parts of the province, warm semi-arid savanna subsequently expanded during the early Holocene and was followed by a more broad-leafed type of woodland in the late Holocene. This change probably resulted from slightly wetter and, at times, also slightly warmer and cooler conditions.

  12. Triple Arterial Phase MR Imaging with Gadoxetic Acid Using a Combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, Keyhole, and Viewsharing Techniques and Two-Dimensional Parallel Imaging in Comparison with Conventional Single Arterial Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Department of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul 05030 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul 04342 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Joon Koo [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 03080 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul 03087 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ{sup 2} test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  13. Triple arterial phase MR imaging with gadoxetic acid using a combination of contrast enhanced time robust angiography, keyhole, and viewsharing techniques and two-dimensional parallel imaging in comparison with conventional single arterial phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Han, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Mi Hye [Dept. of Radiology, Konkuk University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Ju [Philips Healthcare Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    To determine whether triple arterial phase acquisition via a combination of Contrast Enhanced Time Robust Angiography, keyhole, temporal viewsharing and parallel imaging can improve arterial phase acquisition with higher spatial resolution than single arterial phase gadoxetic-acid enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Informed consent was waived for this retrospective study by our Institutional Review Board. In 752 consecutive patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI, either single (n = 587) or triple (n = 165) arterial phases was obtained in a single breath-hold under MR fluoroscopy guidance. Arterial phase timing was assessed, and the degree of motion was rated on a four-point scale. The percentage of patients achieving the late arterial phase without significant motion was compared between the two methods using the χ2 test. The late arterial phase was captured at least once in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 84.2% (494/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Significant motion artifacts (score ≤ 2) were observed in 13.3% (22/165), 1.2% (2/165), 4.8% (8/165) on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd scans of triple arterial phase acquisitions and 6.0% (35/587) of single phase acquisitions. Thus, the late arterial phase without significant motion artifacts was captured in 96.4% (159/165) of the triple arterial phase group and in 79.9% (469/587) of the single arterial phase group (p < 0.001). Triple arterial phase imaging may reliably provide adequate arterial phase imaging for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI.

  14. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.N.; Son, S.F.; Asay, B.W.; Sander, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6 mm±0.4 mm exists below which ignition by CO 2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29 W/cm 2 and 38 W/cm 2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials

  15. Importance of the gas phase role to the prediction of energetic material behavior: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A. N.; Son, S. F.; Asay, B. W.; Sander, R. K.

    2005-03-01

    Various thermal (radiative, conductive, and convective) initiation experiments are performed to demonstrate the importance of the gas phase role in combustion modeling of energetic materials (EM). A previously published condensed phase model that includes a predicted critical irradiance above which ignition is not possible is compared to experimental laser ignition results for octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). Experimental results conflict with the predicted critical irradiance concept. The failure of the model is believed to result from a misconception about the role of the gas phase in the ignition process of energetic materials. The model assumes that ignition occurs at the surface and that evolution of gases inhibits ignition. High speed video of laser ignition, oven cook-off and hot wire ignition experiments captures the ignition of HMX and TNT in the gas phase. A laser ignition gap test is performed to further evaluate the effect of gas phase laser absorption and gas phase disruption on the ignition process. Results indicate that gas phase absorption of the laser energy is probably not the primary factor governing the gas phase ignition observations. It is discovered that a critical gap between an HMX pellet and a salt window of 6mm±0.4mm exists below which ignition by CO2 laser is not possible at the tested irradiances of 29W /cm2 and 38W/cm2 for HMX ignition. These observations demonstrate that a significant disruption of the gas phase, in certain scenarios, will inhibit ignition, independent of any condensed phase processes. These results underscore the importance of gas phase processes and illustrate that conditions can exist where simple condensed phase models are inadequate to accurately predict the behavior of energetic materials.

  16. Critical behavior and microscopic structure of charged AdS black holes via an alternative phase space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Dehyadegari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS black holes have similar thermodynamic behavior as the Van der Waals fluid system, provided one treats the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic variable (pressure in an extended phase space. In this paper, we disclose the deep connection between charged AdS black holes and Van der Waals fluid system from an alternative point of view. We consider the mass of an AdS black hole as a function of square of the charge Q2 instead of the standard Q, i.e. M=M(S,Q2,P. We first justify such a change of view mathematically and then ask if a phase transition can occur as a function of Q2 for fixed P. Therefore, we write the equation of state as Q2=Q2(T,Ψ where Ψ (conjugate of Q2 is the inverse of the specific volume, Ψ=1/v. This allows us to complete the analogy of charged AdS black holes with Van der Waals fluid system and derive the phase transition as well as critical exponents of the system. We identify a thermodynamic instability in this new picture with real analogy to Van der Waals fluid with physically relevant Maxwell construction. We therefore study the critical behavior of isotherms in Q2–Ψ diagram and deduce all the critical exponents of the system and determine that the system exhibits a small–large black hole phase transition at the critical point (Tc,Qc2,Ψc. This alternative view is important as one can imagine such a change for a given single black hole i.e. acquiring charge which induces the phase transition. Finally, we disclose the microscopic properties of charged AdS black holes by using thermodynamic geometry. Interestingly, we find that scalar curvature has a gap between small and large black holes, and this gap becomes exceedingly large as one moves away from the critical point along the transition line. Therefore, we are able to attribute the sudden enlargement of the black hole to the strong repulsive nature of the internal constituents at the phase transition.

  17. The staphylococcal accessory regulator, SarA, is an RNA-binding protein that modulates the mRNA turnover properties of late-exponential and stationary phase Staphylococcus aureus cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M Morrison

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The modulation of mRNA turnover is gaining recognition as a mechanism by which Staphylococcus aureus regulates gene expression, but the factors that orchestrate alterations in transcript degradation are poorly understood. In that regard, we previously found that 138 mRNA species, including the virulence factors protein A (spa and collagen binding protein (cna, are stabilized in a sarA-dependent manner during exponential phase growth, suggesting that SarA protein may directly or indirectly effect the RNA turnover properties of these transcripts. Herein, we expanded our characterization of the effects of sarA on mRNA turnover during late exponential and stationary phases of growth. Results revealed that the locus affects the RNA degradation properties of cells during both growth phases. Further, using gel mobility shift assays and RIP-ChIP, it was found that SarA protein is capable of binding mRNA species that it stabilizes both in vitro and within bacterial cells. Taken together, these results suggest that SarA post-transcriptionally regulates S. aureus gene expression in a manner that involves binding to and consequently altering the mRNA turnover properties of target transcripts.

  18. MELCOR 1.8.2 assessment: The MP-1 and MP-2 late phase melt progression experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tautges, T.J.

    1994-05-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated, engineering-level computer code being developed at Sandia National Laboratories for the USNRC, that models the entire spectrum of severe accident phenomena in a unified framework for both BWRs and PWRs. As a part of an ongoing assessment program, MELCOR has been used to model the MP-1 and MP-2 experiments, which provided data for late-phase melt progression in PWR geometries. Core temperature predicted by MELCOR were within 250--500 K of measured data in both MP-1 and MP-2. Relocation in the debris bed and metallic crust regions of MP-2 was predicted accurately compared to PIE data. Temperature gradients in lower portions of the test bundle were not predicted well in both MP-1 and MP-2, due to the lack of modeling of the heat transfer path to the cooling jacket in those portions of the test bundles. Fifteen sensitivity studies were run on various core (COR), control volume hydrodynamics (CVH) and heat structures (HS) package parameters. No unexpected sensitivities were found, and in particular there were no sensitivities to reduced time step, finer nodalization or to computer platform. Calculations performed by the DEBRIS and TAC2D codes for MP-1 and MP-2 showed better agreement with measured data than those performed by MELCOR. This was expected, through, due to the fully 2-dimensional modeling used in the other codes

  19. Crossover from Polaronic to Magnetically Phase-Separated Behavior in La1-xSrxCoO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, D.; El Khatib, S.; Wang, S.; Barker, J.; Zhao, J.; Zheng, H.; Mitchell, J. F.; Leighton, C.

    2013-03-01

    Dilute hole-doping in La1-xSrxCoO3 leads to the formation of ``spin-state polarons'' where a non-zero spin-state is stabilized on the nearest Co3+ ions surrounding a hole. Here, we discuss the development of electronic/magnetic properties of this system from non-magnetic x=0, through the regime of spin-state polarons, and into the region where longer-range spin correlations and phase separation develop. We present magnetometry, transport, heat capacity, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) on single crystals. Magnetometry indicates a crossover with x from Langevin-like behavior (polaronic) to a state with a freezing temperature and finite coercivity. Fascinating correlations with this behavior are seen in transport measurements, the evolution from polaronic to clustered states being accompanied by a crossover from Mott variable range hopping to intercluster hopping. SANS data shows Lorentzian scattering from short-range ferromagnetic clusters first emerging around x = 0.03 with correlation lengths of order two unit cells. We argue that this system provides a unique opportunity to understand in detail the crossover from polaronic to truly phase-separated states.

  20. HIV Prevention among Mexican Migrants at Different Migration Phases: Exposure to Prevention Messages and Association With Testing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Zhang, Xiao; Simon, Norma-Jean; Rhoads, Natalie; Gonzalez-Fagoaga, J. Eduardo; Gonzalez, Ahmed Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Mobile populations are at increased risk for HIV infection. Exposure to HIV prevention messages at all phases of the migration process may help decrease im/migrants’ HIV risk. We investigated levels of exposure to HIV prevention messages, factors associated with message exposure, and the association between exposure to prevention messages and HIV testing behavior among Mexican im/migrants at different phases of the migration process. We conducted a cross-sectional, probability survey of Mexican im/migrants (N=3,149) traveling through the border city of Tijuana, Mexico. The results indicate limited exposure to prevention messages (57%–75%) and suboptimal last 12-month HIV testing rates (14%–25%) across five migration phases. Compared to pre-departure levels (75%), exposure to messages decreases at all post-departure migration phases (57%–63%, pmigration continuum. PMID:26595267

  1. Adiabatic quantum games and phase-transition-like behavior between optimal strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ponte, M. A.; Santos, Alan C.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we propose a game of a single qubit whose strategies can be implemented adiabatically. In addition, we show how to implement the strategies of a quantum game through controlled adiabatic evolutions, where we analyze the payment of a quantum player for various situations of interest: (1) when the players receive distinct payments, (2) when the initial state is an arbitrary superposition, and (3) when the device that implements the strategy is inefficient. Through a graphical analysis, it is possible to notice that the curves that represent the gains of the players present a behavior similar to the curves that give rise to a phase transition in thermodynamics. These transitions are associated with optimal strategy changes and occur in the absence of entanglement and interaction between the players.

  2. Phase Behavior, Thermal Stability and Rheological Properties of PPEK/PC Blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phase behavior, thermal stability and rheological properties of the blends of poly(phthalazinone ether ketone) (PPEK)with bisphenol-A polycarbonate (PC) prepared by solution coprecipitation were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Frourier-Transform IR spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and capillary rheometer. The DSC results indicated that PPEK/PC blends are almost immiscible in full compositions. FT-IR investigation showed that there were no apparent specific interactions between the constituent polymers. The blends keep excellent thermal stability and the addition of PC degrades the thermal stability of blends to some degree. The thermal degradation processes of the blends are much similar to that of PC. The studies on rheological properties of blends show that blending PPEK with PC is beneficial to reducing the melt viscosity and improving the appearance of PPEK.

  3. Solid-State NMR Investigation of Drug-Excipient Interactions and Phase Behavior in Indomethacin-Eudragit E Amorphous Solid Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubach, Joseph W; Hau, Jonathan

    2018-02-20

    To investigate the nature of drug-excipient interactions between indomethacin (IMC) and methacrylate copolymer Eudragit® E (EE) in the amorphous state, and evaluate the effects on formulation and stability of these amorphous systems. Amorphous solid dispersions containing IMC and EE were spray dried with drug loadings from 20% to 90%. PXRD was used to confirm the amorphous nature of the dispersions, and DSC was used to measure glass transition temperatures (T g ). 13 C and 15 N solid-state NMR was utilized to investigate changes in local structure and protonation state, while 1 H T 1 and T 1ρ relaxation measurements were used to probe miscibility and phase behavior of the dispersions. T g values for IMC-EE solid dispersions showed significant positive deviations from predicted values in the drug loading range of 40-90%, indicating a relatively strong drug-excipient interaction. 15 N solid-state NMR exhibited a change in protonation state of the EE basic amine, with two distinct populations for the EE amine at -360.7 ppm (unprotonated) and -344.4 ppm (protonated). Additionally, 1 H relaxation measurements showed phase separation at high drug load, indicating an amorphous ionic complex and free IMC-rich phase. PXRD data showed all ASDs up to 90% drug load remained physically stable after 2 years. 15 N solid-state NMR experiments show a change in protonation state of EE, indicating that an ionic complex indeed forms between IMC and EE in amorphous solid dispersions. Phase behavior was determined to exhibit nanoscale phase separation at high drug load between the amorphous ionic complex and excess free IMC.

  4. Anticipatory phase correction in sensorimotor synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repp, Bruno H; Moseley, Gordon P

    2012-10-01

    Studies of phase correction in sensorimotor synchronization often introduce timing perturbations that are unpredictable with regard to direction, magnitude, and position in the stimulus sequence. If participants knew any or all of these parameters in advance, would they be able to anticipate perturbations and thus regain synchrony more quickly? In Experiment 1, we asked musically trained participants to tap in synchrony with short isochronous tone sequences containing a phase shift (PS) of -100, -40, 40, or 100 ms and provided advance information about its direction, position, or both (but not about its magnitude). The first two conditions had little effect, but in the third condition participants shifted their tap in anticipation of the PS, though only by about ±40 ms on average. The phase correction response to the residual PS was also enhanced. In Experiment 2, we provided complete advance information about PSs of various magnitudes either at the time of the immediately preceding tone ("late") or at the time of the tone one position back ("early") while also varying sequence tempo. Anticipatory phase correction was generally conservative and was impeded by fast tempo in the "late" condition. At fast tempi in both conditions, advancing a tap was more difficult than delaying a tap. The results indicate that temporal constraints on anticipatory phase correction resemble those on reactive phase correction. While the latter is usually automatic, this study shows that phase correction can also be controlled consciously for anticipatory purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Behavior of bowhead whales of the Davis Strait and Bering/Beaufort stocks versus regional differences in human activities. Final report on Phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.W.; Davis, R.A.; Richardson, W.J.

    1991-07-01

    The objectives were to determine (1) whether there are differences in behavior between the Bering/Chukchi/Beaufort and the Davis Strait/Baffin Bay populations and (2), if so, whether the differences might be attributable to the long-term cumulative effects of exposure to the presumed greater amount of human activity in the former area. Phase 1 showed that there are some differences in behavior. The Phase 2 report documents the relative amounts of human activity in the two areas in 1974-86, and evaluates whether regional differences in whale behavior and in human activities may be related. Activities considered include bowhead hunting and other subsistence activities, commercial fishing and shipping, marine seismic exploration, offshore oil exploration, and low-level aircraft flights. Bering/Beaufort bowheads were subjected to at least 3-5 times as much human activity in 1974-86. Most differences in behavior between the two stocks were better explained by environmental or biological factors than by disturbance. However, for bowheads migrating in autumn, regional differences in behavior may be related to the whaling that occurs in the Beaufort Sea in autumn

  6. Cell flux through S phase in the mouse duodenal epithelium determined by cell sorting and radioautography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerknes, M.; Cheng, H.

    1982-01-01

    An accumulation of cells in early S phase was observed in normal mouse duodenal epithelium studied with flow cytometry. To determine if this accumulation of cells was the result of a lower rate of DNA synthesis, animals were given a single injection of 3 H-thymidine and the epithelium collected one hour later. The epithelium was processed for flow cytometry. Seven sort windows were established in different portions of the DNA histogram. Cells from each window were sorted onto glass slides that were then processed for radioautography. The number of silver grains over the nuclei of each sorted population was counted. It was found that cells in early S phase had significantly fewer grains over their nuclei than did mid- or late-S phase cells. We conclude that the accumulation of cells in early S phase is due, at least in part, to a lower rate of DNA synthesis in early than in mid or late S phase

  7. Analysis of large two phase uranium dioxide bubble behavior in water and sodium pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.L.

    1984-05-01

    An understanding of the behavior of large, two-phase UO 2 bubbles is important in assessing the consequences of a hypothetical core disruptive accident in a fast reactor. The UVABUBL II computer program was written to study the dynamics and heat and mass transfer in large UO 2 bubbles, and the code was used to analyze data from the underwater and undersodium FAST experiments conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in which the behavior of UO 2 bubbles under a wide variety of conditions was examined. Significant understanding of the phenomena that govern UO 2 bubble behavior in both water and sodium was obtained by matching calculations of pressure, bubble size, and bubble growth and collapse rate to the experimental data. Heat and mass transfer included radiative heat losses and coolant entrainment. Larger heat transfer rates were calculated for the water tests with significant surface vaporization occurring. Because of the high thermal conductivity of sodium, no surface vaporization was calculated for the sodium tests. Entrainment was not found to be necessary for either the water or sodium tests, but calculations that included entrainment implied that it may be occurring. 38 references

  8. Running economy in early and late maturing youth soccer players does not differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, V; De Clercq, D; Janssens, M; Bourgois, J; Philippaerts, R

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maturity on running economy in a population of young soccer players. 13 boys (mean age 14.3 years) active in soccer were divided into two groups: 6 early and 7 late maturers. Anthropometrical characteristics, respiratory exchange ratio, heart rate and maximal oxygen uptake were measured. Running economy was assessed at three submaximal running speeds (8, 9.5 and 11 km/h). Allometric coefficients were calculated and used to diminish the effect of body mass. In addition, running style was analysed biomechanically (stride length and meaningful kinematic values). There was no significant difference in the running economy of early and late maturing soccer players, nor any significant differences in mass adjusted physiological values. Therefore physiological differences cannot explain why late maturers succeed in keeping up with early maturers. Late maturing boys take longer relative strides, and have more anteversion of the thigh at heel contact, a smaller knee-angle during swing-phase and a lower mass moment of inertia. Running style seems to be an important determinant in running economy of children.

  9. Effect of Alcohols on the Phase Behavior and Emulsification of a Sucrose Fatty Acid Ester/Water/Edible Oil System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Tsutashi; Ogawa, Akihiro; Ohara, Yukari; Nishina, Shogo; Nakanishi, Maho; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2018-02-01

    The effect of alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, propylene glycol, glycerin, sucrose) on the phase behavior and emulsification of sucrose stearic acid ester (SSE)/water/edible vegetable oil (EVO) systems was investigated. Adding sucrose, propylene glycol, and glycerin narrowed the oil-separated two-phase region in the phase diagram of the SSE/water/EVO systems, whereas adding ethanol and 1-propanol expanded the oil-separated two-phase region. Changing the course of emulsification in the phase diagram showed that the size of the oil-droplet particle typically decreased in a system with a narrowed oil-separated region. The emulsification properties of the systems varied with respect to changes in the phase diagram. The microstructure of the systems was examined using small-angle X-ray scattering, and the ability to retain the oil in the lamellar structure of the SSEs was suggested as an important role in emulsification, because the mechanism of the systems was the same as that for the liquid crystal emulsification method.

  10. Discussing the precipitation behavior of {sigma} phase using diffusion equation and thermodynamic simulation in dissimilar stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Chih-Chun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China); Wu, Weite, E-mail: wwu@dragon.nchu.edu.t [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Rd., Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-17

    Research highlights: This article concentrates the phase transformation in {delta} {yields} {sigma} in dissimilar stainless steels using the Vitek equation and thermodynamics simulation during the multi-pass welding. The phase transformation in {delta} {yields} {sigma} is very important to the properties of stainless steel composites. In this study, the diffusion behavior of Cr, Ni and Si in the {delta}, {sigma}, and {gamma} phases were discussed using the DSC analysis and diffusion equation calculation. This method has a novelty for discussing the phase transformation in {delta} {yields} {sigma} in the dissimilar stainless steel. We hope that we can give a scientific contribution for the phase transformation of the dissimilar stainless steels during the multi-pass welding. - Abstract: This study performed a precipitation examination of the {sigma} phase using the Vitek diffusion equation and thermodynamic simulation in dissimilar stainless steels during multi-pass welding. The results of the experiment demonstrate that the diffusion rates (D{sub Cr}{sup {delta}} and D{sub Ni}{sup {delta}}) of Cr and Ni are higher in {delta}-ferrite than (D{sub Cr}{sup {gamma}} and D{sub Ni}{sup {gamma}}) in the {gamma} phase and that they facilitate the precipitation of {sigma} phase in the third pass fusion zone. When the diffusion activation energy of Cr in {delta}-ferrite is equal to that of Ni in {delta}-ferrite (Q{sub dCr}{sup {delta}}=Q{sub dNi}{sup {delta}}), phase transformation of the {delta} {yields} {sigma} can be occurred.

  11. Liquid-liquid phase separation and solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy with different cooling rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Lin; Li, Shanshan; Wang, Lin; Wu, Di; Zuo, Min; Zhao, Degang

    2018-03-01

    The cooling rate has a significant effect on the solidification behavior and microstructure of monotectic alloy. In this study, different cooling rate was designed through casting in the copper mold with different bore diameters. The effects of different cooling rate on the solidification behavior of Al55Bi36Cu9 (at.%) immiscible alloy have been investigated. The liquid-liquid phase separation of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy melt was investigated by resistivity test. The solidification microstructure and phase analysis of Al55Bi36Cu9 immiscible alloy were performed by the SEM and XRD, respectively. The results showed that the liquid-liquid phase separation occurred in the solidification of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic melt from 917 °C to 653 °C. The monotectic temperature, liquid phase separation temperature and immiscibility zone of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was lower than those of Al-Bi binary monotectic alloy. The solidification morphology of Al55Bi36Cu9 monotectic alloy was very sensitive to the cooling rate. The Al/Bi core-shell structure formed when Al55Bi36Cu9 melt was cast in the copper mold with a 8 mm bore diameter.

  12. Defects annihilation behavior of neutron-irradiated SiC ceramics densified by liquid-phase-assisted method after post-irradiation annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Idzat Idris

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies on the recovery behavior of neutron-irradiated high-purity SiC have shown that most of the defects present in it are annihilated by post-irradiation annealing, if the neutron fluence is less than 1×1026 n/m2 (>0.1MeV and the irradiation is performed at temperatures lower than 973K. However, the recovery behavior of SiC fabricated by the nanoinfiltrated and transient eutectic phase (NITE process is not well understood. In this study, the effects of secondary phases on the irradiation-related swelling and recovery behavior of monolithic NITE-SiC after post-irradiation annealing were studied. The NITE-SiC specimens were irradiated in the BR2 reactor at fluences of up to 2.0–2.5×1024 n/m2 (E>0.1MeV at 333–363K. This resulted in the specimens swelling up ∼1.3%, which is 0.1% higher than the increase seen in concurrently irradiated high-purity SiC. The recovery behaviors of the specimens after post-irradiation thermal annealing were examined using a precision dilatometer; the specimens were heated at temperatures of up to 1673K using a step-heating method. The recovery curves were analyzed using a first-order model, and the rate constants for each annealing step were obtained to determine the activation energy for volume recovery. The NITE-A specimen (containing 12 wt% sintering additives recovered completely after annealing at ∼1573K; however, it shrank because of the volatilization of the oxide phases at 1673K. The NITE-B specimen (containing 18wt% sintering additives did not recover fully, since the secondary phase (YAG was crystallized during the annealing process. The recovery mechanism of NITE-A SiC was based on the recombination of the C and Si Frenkel pairs, which were very closely sited or only slightly separated at temperatures lower than 1223K, as well as the recombination of the slightly separated C Frenkel pairs and the migration of C and Si interstitials at temperatures of 1223–1573K. That is to say, the

  13. Catalytic effect of additional metallic phases on the hydrogen absorption behavior of a Zr-Based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, F; Peretti, H; Castro, E; Real, S; Visitin, A; Triaca, W

    2005-01-01

    The electrochemical hydrogen absorption of electrodes containing Zr 0 .9Ti 0 .1(Ni 0 .5Mn 0 .25Cr 0 .20V 0 .05) 2 is studied in alkaline media by monitoring the activation and discharge capacity along charge-discharge cycling.The considered alloy is tested in both as melted and annealed condition in order to investigate the catalytic effect of small amounts of micro segregated secondary phases of the Zr-Ni system. Since these catalytic phases are only present in the as melted alloys, tests are also carried out using a composite material elaborated from powders of the annealed alloy with the addition of 18 wt.% of the suspected catalytic phases, melted separately.The hydrogen absorption-desorption behavior for the different cases is discussed and correlated with the metallurgical characterization of the materials.The catalytic effects are studied employing cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance techniques. The results are analyzed in terms of a developed physicochemical model

  14. Developmental pathways from maltreatment to risk behavior: Sexual behavior as a catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya

    2018-05-01

    Although delinquency, substance use, and sexual activity are established to be highly intercorrelated, the extant research provides minimal evidence in support of one particular sequence of risk behavior or on the cascade effects from maltreatment. The present study tested a longitudinal model incorporating maltreatment, deviant peers, sexual behavior, delinquency, and substance use to elucidate the sequential pathway(s) from maltreatment to each specific risk behavior throughout adolescence. Data came from a longitudinal study on the effects of maltreatment on adolescent development (N = 454) with four study assessments from early (Time 1 M age = 10.98) to late adolescence (Time 4 M age = 18.22). Results from the cross-lagged model showed a sequence from maltreatment to sexual behavior (Time 1), to delinquency (Time 2), to sexual behavior (Time 3), to substance use and delinquency (Time 4). These findings support sexual behavior as the initial risk behavior that is the catalyst for engagement in more advanced risk behaviors across adolescence.

  15. Influence of processing variables and alloy chemistry on the corrosion behavior of ZIRLO nuclear fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comstock, R.J.; Sabol, G.P.; Schoenberger, G.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the thermal heat treatments used during the fabrication of ZIRLO (Zr-1Nb-1Sn-0.1Fe) fuel clad tubing and in ZIRLO alloy chemistry were explored to develop a further understanding of the relationship between processing, microstructure, and cladding corrosion performance. Heat treatment variables included intermediate tube annealing temperatures as well as a beta-phase heat treatment during the latter stages of the tube reduction schedule. Chemistry variables included deviations in niobium and tin content from the nominal composition. The effects of both heat treatment and chemistry on corrosion behavior were assessed by autoclave tests in both pure and lithiated water and high-temperature steam. Analytical electron microscopy demonstrated that the best out-reactor corrosion performance is obtained for microstructures containing a fine distribution of beta-niobium and Zr-Nb-Fe particles. Deviations from this microstructure, such as the presence of beta-zirconium phase, tend to degrade corrosion resistance. ZIRLO fuel cladding was irradiated in four commercial reactors. In all cases, the microstructure in the cladding included beta-niobium and Zr-Nb-Fe particles. ZIRLO fuel cladding processed with a late-stage beta heat treatment to further refine the second-phase particle size exhibited in-reactor corrosion behavior that was similar to reference ZIRLO cladding. Variations of the in-reactor corrosion behavior of ZIRLO were correlated to tin content, with higher oxide thickness observed in the ZIRLO cladding containing higher tin. The results of these studies indicate that optimum corrosion performance of ZIRLO is achieved by maintaining a uniform distribution of fine second-phase particles and controlled levels of tin

  16. Solubility and phase behaviors of DGA compounds in supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jia; Meng Qingyang

    2010-01-01

    Solubility and phase behaviors of DGA compounds in supercritical CO 2 (Sc-CO 2 ) was investigated. The results indicated: The dissolving ability of these six DGA compounds in Sc-CO 2 is TEDGA> TBDGA>THDGA>TODGA>TDDGA >TDdDGA; The solubility of DGA in Sc-CO 2 increase with increasing density of CO 2 , pressure and δ CO 2 ; The structure of DGA compounds is the mainly factor effected on solubility of DGA compounds in Sc-CO 2 , and the effect of hydrophobicity on solubility is much smaller than that of DGA's structure. In Sc-CO 2 , TDDGA and TDdDGA can't form the available extraction system; TEDGA and TBDGA are useful for extraction of solid powder; TODGA and THDGA are both useful for extraction of solid powder and solution contained some kind of actinide metal. (authors)

  17. Mitigating crystallization of saturated FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel: 4. The phase behavior of 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol – Methyl stearate binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanan, Athira; Bouzidi, Laziz; Narine, Suresh S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the phase behavior of a model binary system made of OPO (1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol); a TAG (triacylglycerol) highly effective in depressing onset of crystallization of biodiesel, and MeS (methyl stearate); a prevalent saturated FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) in biodiesel. The thermal behavior, crystal structure and microstructure of the OPO/MeS mixtures were investigated with DSC (differential scanning calorimetry), XRD (X-ray diffraction) and PLM (polarized light microscope). The OPO/MeS system presented a phase diagram with peritectic and eutectic transitions. A simple thermodynamic modeling of the liquidus line indicated a relatively complex mixing behavior, and highlighted the prevailing effect of the peritectic compound on solubility. Different types of microstructures that were more or less influenced by MeS, OPO or/and compound microstructures were observed in the mixtures. They are associated with the crystal phases and the thermal transitions. Furthermore, MeS, OPO and compound crystal structures (monoclinic, orthorhombic and triclinic, respectively) served as templates for the crystal forms of the coexisting phases. The singularities in the liquidus line are attributed to chain length mismatch between the palmitic acid and the FAME (fatty acid methyl ester). The phase diagram achieved for OPO/MeS system is complete and can help in designing additive formulations to improve the cold flow behavior of biodiesel. - Highlights: • 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl glycerol/methyl stearate (OPO/MeS) studied in detail. • Phase diagram with thermal transitions, polymorphism, microstructure achieved. • Phase trajectory singularities attributed to length mismatch of linear chains. • Mechanism for disruption of crystallization of biodiesel evidenced and explained.

  18. Partial diagenetic overprint of late jurassic belemnites from New Zealand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Campbell, Hamish J.; Frei, Robert

    2013-01-01

    δ7Li values become more positive with progressive alteration. The direction and magnitude of the trends in the geochemical record indicate that one main phase of alteration that occurred in the Late Cretaceous caused most of the diagenetic signature in the calcite. Despite relatively deep burial......The preservation potential and trends of alteration of many isotopic systems (e.g. Li, Mg, Ca) that are measured in fossil carbonates are little explored, yet extensive paleoenvironmental interpretations have been made on the basis of these records. Here we present a geochemical dataset for a Late...... Jurassic (~153 Ma) belemnite (Belemnopsis sp.) from New Zealand that has been partially overprinted by alteration. We report the physical pathways and settings of alteration, the resulting elemental and isotopic trends including δ7Li values and Li/Ca ratios, and assess whether remnants of the primary shell...

  19. Aging behavior and mechanical properties of maraging steels in the presence of submicrocrystalline Laves phase particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, A.; Ghavidel, M.R. Zamanzad; Nedjad, S. Hossein; Heidarzadeh, A.; Ahmadabadi, M. Nili

    2011-01-01

    Cold rolling and annealing of homogenized Fe-Ni-Mn-Mo-Ti-Cr maraging steels resulted in the formation of submicrocrystalline Fe 2 (Mo,Ti) Laves phase particles. Optical and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and hardness tests were used to study the microstructure, aging behavior and mechanical properties of the annealed steels. The annealed microstructures showed age hardenability during subsequent isothermal aging at 753 K. Ultrahigh fracture stress but poor tensile ductility was obtained after substantial age hardening in the specimens with 2% and 4% chromium. Increasing chromium addition up to 6% toughened the aged microstructure at the expense of the fracture stress by increasing the volume fraction of retained austenite. The Laves phase particles acted as crack nucleation sites during tensile deformation. - Highlights: → Laves phases dispersed in a BCC iron matrix by annealing of cold rolled samples. → The samples showed age hardenability during subsequent isothermal aging at 753 K. → Ultrahigh fracture stress but poor ductility was obtained after age hardening. → Increasing chromium addition toughened the aged microstructure. → Laves phase particles acting as crack nucleation sites during tensile deformation.

  20. The use of lipids as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phase change materials (PCMs) are substances capable of absorbing and releasing large 2 amounts of thermal energy (heat or cold) as latent heat over constant temperature as they 3 undergo a change in state of matter (phase transition), commonly, between solid and 4 liquid phases. Since the late 194...

  1. Formation of primary pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis (Bangiophyceae, Rhodophyta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shual, Li; Jiang, Ming; Duan, Delin

    2006-09-01

    The formation of pit connection during conchocelis phase of Porphyra yezoensis Ueda was observed and examined with transmission electron microscope (TEM) and epifluorence microscope. It is indicated that the pit connection was formed in late stage of conchocelis phase and the early stages of conchosporangial cell development, and disappeared in bispore stage. The pit connection contained a thin membrane layer at outer pit plug. Stained with 4', 6'-diamidino-2-phenylidole dihydrochloride hydrate (DAPI), transferring of DNA or RNA between adjacent cells were observed in late stage of conchocelis development, it was deduced that pit connection might serve as a channel for signal transduction and genetic substance transportation in conchocelis phase.

  2. Lateness to School Remediation Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuegbulam, Charles N.; Ibrahim, Haj. Naheed

    2015-01-01

    Primary and secondary school in Nigeria encourage punctuality to school yet a good number of the learners came late to school. This is especially true in the case of day students. Learners who come late to school are usually punished in one way or the other yet the lateness to school phenomenon still persist. Lateness to school behaviour affects…

  3. Growth Kinetics of Laves Phase and Its Effect on Creep Rupture Behavior in 9Cr Heat Resistant Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-xin XIA; Chuan-yang WANG; Chen LEI; Yun-ting LAI; Yan-fen ZHAO; Lu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    The effects of Laves phase formation and growth on creep rupture behaviors of P92 steel at 883 K were studied.The microstructural evolution was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission elec-tron microscopy.Kinetic modeling was carried out using the software DICTRA.The results indicated Fe2 (W,Mo) Laves phase has formed during creep with 200 MPa applied stress at 883 K for 243 h.The experimental results showed a good agreement with thermodynamic calculations.The plastic deformation of laths is the main reason of creep rupture under the applied stress beyond 160 MPa,whereas,creep voids initiated by coarser Laves phase play an effective role in creep rupture under the applied stress lower than 160 MPa.Laves phase particles with the mean size of 243 nm lead to the change of creep rupture feature.Microstructures at the vicinity of fracture surface,the gage portion and the threaded ends of creep rupture specimens were also observed,indicating that creep tensile stress enhances the coarsening of Laves phase.

  4. Assessing the feasibility of harm reduction services for MSM: the late night breakfast buffet study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellogg Timothy A

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the leveling off in new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM in San Francisco, new evidence suggests that many recent HIV infections are linked with the use of Methamphetamine (MA. Among anonymous HIV testers in San Francisco, HIV incidence among MA users was 6.3% compared to 2.1% among non-MA users. Of particular concern for prevention programs are frequent users and HIV positive men who use MA. These MSM pose a particular challenge to HIV prevention efforts due to the need to reach them during very late night hours. Methods The purpose of the Late Night Breakfast Buffet (LNBB was to determine the feasibility and uptake of harm reduction services by a late night population of MSM. The "buffet" of services included: needle exchange, harm reduction information, oral HIV testing, and urine based sexually transmitted infection (STI testing accompanied by counseling and consent procedures. The study had two components: harm reduction outreach and a behavioral survey. For 4 months during 2004, we provided van-based harm reduction services in three neighborhoods in San Francisco from 1 – 5 a.m. for anyone out late at night. We also administered a behavioral risk and service utilization survey among MSM. Results We exchanged 2000 needles in 233 needle exchange visits, distributed 4500 condoms/lubricants and provided 21 HIV tests and 12 STI tests. Fifty-five MSM enrolled in the study component. The study population of MSM was characterized by low levels of income and education whose ages ranged from 18 – 55. Seventy-eight percent used MA in the last 3 months; almost 25% used MA every day in the same time frame. Of the 65% who ever injected, 97% injected MA and 13% injected it several times a day. MA and alcohol were strong influences in the majority of unprotected sexual encounters among both HIV negative and HIV positive MSM. Conclusion We reached a disenfranchised population of MA-using MSM who are at

  5. Distinct phases of eustatic and tectonic forcing for late Quaternary landscape evolution in southwest Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mouslopoulou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The extent to which climate, eustasy and tectonics interact to shape the late Quaternary landscape is poorly known. Alluvial fans often provide useful indexes that allow the decoding of information recorded on complex coastal landscapes, such as those of the eastern Mediterranean. In this paper we analyse and date (using infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL dating a double alluvial fan system on southwest Crete, an island straddling the forearc of the Hellenic subduction margin, in order to constrain the timing and magnitude of its vertical deformation and discuss the factors contributing to its landscape evolution. The studied alluvial system is exceptional because each of its two juxtaposed fans records individual phases of alluvial and marine incision, thus providing unprecedented resolution in the formation and evolution of its landscape. Specifically, our analysis shows that the fan sequence at Domata developed during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS 3 due to five distinct stages of marine transgressions and regressions and associated river incision, in response to sea-level fluctuations and tectonic uplift at averaged rates of  ∼ 2.2 mm yr−1. Interestingly, comparison of our results with published tectonic uplift rates from western Crete shows that uplift during 20–50 kyr BP was minimal (or even negative. Thus, most of the uplift recorded at Domata must have occurred in the last 20 kyr. This implies that eustasy and tectonism impacted the landscape at Domata over mainly distinct time intervals (e.g. sequentially and not synchronously, with eustasy forming and tectonism preserving the coastal landforms.

  6. Deciphering natural to anthropogenic control on sedimentation: the Late Holocene Magdala (Kinneret Lake, Israel) harbour hystory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, G.; Rossi, V.; Amorosi, A.; Bertoni, D.; Ribolini, A.; Sammartino, I.; Zanchetta, G.

    2012-04-01

    Using a multidisciplinary approach involving geologists, geomorphologists and archeologists, the late Holocene sedimentary succession buried beneath the ancient Magdala harbour area (Kinneret Lake, Israel) was studied, in order to highlight the strict relationships among harbour evolutive phases (e.g. foundation, siltation, abandonment), natural events (e.g. sea-level variations, climatic changes and earthquakes among the most important) and, obviously, archaeological history. Recent excavations performed within the "Magdala Project" have discovered a harbour structure with late Hellenistic-Roman mooring stones at altitudes of 208.100 m and 208.320 m bsl respectively, suggestive of a higher lake-level (about 212 m bsl) than previously hypothesized. Along the most representative sections of trenches, integrated sedimentological, micropalaeontological (benthic meiofauna and pollen) and geochemical analyses were carried out on sedimentary deposits underlying and overlying the harbour structures, to define the main depositional facies and evolution phases that took place during the last millennia. Spatial variability of coeval palaeoenvironments across the archaeological site allowed to reconstruct a comprehensive picture of the harbour complex, evidencing the occurrence of three main evolution phases, similar to those reported from several Mediterranean Sea harbour systems: 1) a pre-harbor foundation phase; 2) a sin-harbor activity phase and 3) an harbor-abandonment phase. The first phase corresponds to the development of a natural lacustrine sandy beach barren in archaeological remains and containing an ostracod fauna very similar to the one observed within the present-day lake basin at ca. 5 m water depth. The second phase was characterized by the formation of an early Hellenistic sheltered lacustrine basin, recording the first anthropogenic control exerted on coastal sedimentation by the construction of harbour structures ("anthropogenically forced sheltered basin

  7. Precipitation behavior and effect of new precipitated β phase in AZ80 magnesium alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Wei; HAN En-hou; XU Yong-bo; LIU Lu

    2006-01-01

    Granular precipitate that was a new kind of β-Mg17Al12 phase found in aged AZ80 wrought Mg alloy at all aging temperature was studied. The structure and precipitation behavior of this granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitate were studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effect of the granular precipitate on mechanical properties of AZ80 alloy was also studied. The new precipitate that was granular and nucleated both on grain boundaries (GBs) and twin boundaries, has the same crystal structure and lattice parameter as those of the continuous or discontinuous precipitated β-Mg17Al12. And the nucleation and growth of the granular precipitate are faster than those of the other two precipitates at higher temperatures (above 583 K), but are suppressed at lower temperatures (below 423 K). At lower temperatures, the discontinuous β-Mg17Al12 precipitates firstly and the granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitates after aged more than 40 h. The crack is easily nucleated on the phase boundaries of granular phase and matrix because of the weak binding force. As a result, the strength and ductility of AZ80 Mg alloy are decreased by the granular β-Mg17Al12 precipitate.

  8. Effect of vision angle on the phase transition in flocking behavior of animal groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P. The; Lee, Sang-Hee; Ngo, V. Thanh

    2015-09-01

    The nature of the phase transition in a system of self-propelling particles has been extensively studied during the past few decades. A theoretical model was proposed by [T. Vicsek et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1226] with a simple rule for updating the direction of motion of each particle. Based on the model of Vicsek et al., in this paper, we consider a group of animals as particles moving freely in a two-dimensional space. Due to the fact that the viewable area of animals depends on the species, we consider the motion of each individual within an angle φ =ϕ /2 (ϕ is called the angle of view) of a circle centered at its position of radius R . We obtained a phase diagram in the space (φ ,ηc ) with ηc being the critical noise. We show that the phase transition exists only in the case of a wide view's angle φ ≥0.5 π . The flocking of animals is a universal behavior of the species of prey but not the one of the predator. Our simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observation [C. Beccoa et al., Physica A 367, 487 (2006), 10.1016/j.physa.2005.11.041].

  9. MicroRNA Expression Profile in Bovine Granulosa Cells of Preovulatory Dominant and Subordinate Follicles during the Late Follicular Phase of the Estrous Cycle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Gebremedhn

    Full Text Available In bovine, ovarian follicles grow in a wave-like fashion with commonly 2 or 3 follicular waves emerging per estrous cycle. The dominant follicle of the follicular wave which coincides with the LH-surge becomes ovulatory, leaving the subordinate follicles to undergo atresia. These physiological processes are controlled by timely and spatially expressed genes and gene products, which in turn are regulated by post-transcriptional regulators. MicroRNAs, a class of short non-coding RNA molecules, are one of the important posttranscriptional regulators of genes associated with various cellular processes. Here we investigated the expression pattern of miRNAs in granulosa cells of bovine preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles during the late follicular phase of bovine estrous cycle using Illumina miRNA deep sequencing. In addition to 11 putative novel miRNAs, a total of 315 and 323 known miRNAs were detected in preovulatory dominant and subordinate follicles, respectively. Moreover, in comparison with the subordinate follicles, a total of 64 miRNAs were found to be differentially expressed in preovulatory dominant follicles, of which 34 miRNAs including the miR-132 and miR-183 clusters were significantly enriched, and 30 miRNAs including the miR-17-92 cluster, bta-miR-409a and bta-miR-378 were significantly down regulated in preovulatory dominant follicles. In-silico pathway analysis revealed that canonical pathways related to oncogenesis, cell adhesion, cell proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism were significantly enriched by the predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, Luciferase reporter assay analysis showed that one of the differentially regulated miRNAs, the miR-183 cluster miRNAs, were validated to target the 3'-UTR of FOXO1 gene. Moreover FOXO1 was highly enriched in granulosa cells of subordinate follicles in comparison with the preovulatory dominant follicles demonstrating reciprocal expression pattern

  10. Phase behavior of mixtures of oppositely charged nanoparticles: Heterogeneous Poisson-Boltzmann cell model applied to lysozyme and succinylated lysozyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesheuvel, P.M.; Lindhoud, S.; Vries, de R.J.; Stuart, M.A.C.

    2006-01-01

    We study the phase behavior of mixtures of oppositely charged nanoparticles, both theoretically and experimentally. As an experimental model system we consider mixtures of lysozyme and lysozyme that has been chemically modified in such a way that its charge is nearly equal in magnitude but opposite

  11. Oxidation behavior analysis of cladding during severe accidents with combined codes for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingwei; Cao, Xinrong; Liu, Zhengzhi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new verified oxidation model of cladding has been added in Severe Accident Program (SAP). • A coupled analysis method utilizing RELAP5 and SAP codes has been developed and applied to analyze a SA caused by LBLOCA. • Analysis of cladding oxidation under a SA for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) has been performed by SAP. • Estimation of the production of hydrogen has been achieved by coupled codes. - Abstract: Core behavior at a high temperature is extremely complicated during transition from Design Basic Accident (DBA) to the severe accident (SA) in Light Water Reactors (LWRs). The progression of core damage is strongly affected by the behavior of fuel cladding (oxidation, embrittlement and burst). A Severe Accident Program (SAP) is developed to simulate the process of fuel cladding oxidation, rupture and relocation of core debris based on the oxidation models of cladding, candling of melted material and mechanical slumping of core components. Relying on the thermal–hydraulic boundary parameters calculated by RELAP5 code, analysis of a SA caused by the large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) without mitigating measures for Qinshan Phase II Nuclear Power Plant (QSP-II NPP) was performed by SAP for finding the key sequences of accidents, estimating the amount of hydrogen generation and oxidation behavior of the cladding

  12. Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P<0.01 reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.. When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose produced an inhibition (P<0.05 of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.

  13. 7 CFR 920.112 - Late payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.112 Late payments. Pursuant to § 920.41(a), interest will be charged at a 1.5 percent monthly simple interest rate. Assessments for kiwifruit shall be deemed late if not received... late charge will be assessed when payment becomes 30 days late. Interest and late payment charges shall...

  14. Late-time acceleration with steep exponential potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahalam, M. [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Yang, Weiqiang [Liaoning Normal University, Department of Physics, Dalian (China); Myrzakulov, R. [Eurasian National University, Department of General and Theoretical Physics, Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics, Astana (Kazakhstan); Wang, Anzhong [Zhejiang University of Technology, Institute for Advanced Physics and Mathematics, Hangzhou (China); Baylor University, GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Waco, TX (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this letter, we study the cosmological dynamics of steeper potential than exponential. Our analysis shows that a simple extension of an exponential potential allows to capture late-time cosmic acceleration and retain the tracker behavior. We also perform statefinder and Om diagnostics to distinguish dark energy models among themselves and with ΛCDM. In addition, to put the observational constraints on the model parameters, we modify the publicly available CosmoMC code and use an integrated data base of baryon acoustic oscillation, latest Type Ia supernova from Joint Light Curves sample and the local Hubble constant value measured by the Hubble Space Telescope. (orig.)

  15. Late-time acceleration with steep exponential potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahalam, M.; Yang, Weiqiang; Myrzakulov, R.; Wang, Anzhong

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we study the cosmological dynamics of steeper potential than exponential. Our analysis shows that a simple extension of an exponential potential allows to capture late-time cosmic acceleration and retain the tracker behavior. We also perform statefinder and Om diagnostics to distinguish dark energy models among themselves and with ΛCDM. In addition, to put the observational constraints on the model parameters, we modify the publicly available CosmoMC code and use an integrated data base of baryon acoustic oscillation, latest Type Ia supernova from Joint Light Curves sample and the local Hubble constant value measured by the Hubble Space Telescope. (orig.)

  16. Last Words: David's Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Graces (1824. Subjectivity, Death, and Postrevolutionary Late Style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padiyar, Satish

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Completed as he was approaching death in 1825, Jacques-Louis David's final refractory history painting is an intricate summation of a life in politics and painting. The article attempts to re-interpret the canvas in relation to the dual problem of 'late style' and the condition of exile. I argue that this history painting invokes the metaphor of non-sex for the condition of exile; and as a late gesture stages an anomalous return to a pre-lapsarian eighteenth century. The painting, I conclude, reveals less the transcendent subjectivity of an artist approaching biological death, than the critical disarming of a once-radical neoclassical aesthetic itself, in its tragic late phase.

  17. Early symptomatic and late seizures in Kosovar children with bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namani, Sadie A; Kuchar, Ernest; Koci, Remzie; Mehmeti, Murat; Dedushi, Kreshnike

    2011-11-01

    Despite the dramatic decrease of mortality rate among children with bacterial meningitis in recent decades, some patients are left with neurologic sequelae. The purpose of this study was to analyze the occurrence of seizures as predictors for meningitis-related deaths or neurological sequelae including late seizures. This study uses a retrospective chart review of 277 children (aged 0-16 years, median 2 years, 162 boys) treated for bacterial meningitis in University Clinical Centre in Prishtina (Kosovo). Of the 277 children treated for bacterial meningitis, 60 children (22%) manifested seizures prior to admission, 57 children (21%) had seizures after admission, and late seizures were diagnosed in 24 children (9%). The risk for adverse outcome was significantly higher in patients who had seizures prior to admission (52/60) and in patients who manifested seizures later than 24 h (41/41; RR 8.17 and 6.78 respectively, p < 0.0001). All children who manifested late seizures were diagnosed with meningitis-related acute neurologic complications: subdural effusion (18), hydrocephalus (6), intracranial bleeding (1), and subdural empyema (2). Of the 60 children who presented seizures prior to admission, only 11 manifested late seizures. Seizures prior to admission were predictors of high risk of adverse outcome in bacterial meningitis in children. The risk of secondary epilepsy (9%) occurred only in children with evident structural neurologic complications during the acute phase of bacterial meningitis.

  18. Responses of Nucleus Tractus Solitarius (NTS) early and late neurons to blood pressure changes in anesthetized F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakova, Jenya; Li, Liang; Hatcher, Jeffrey T; Gu, He; Zhang, Xueguo; Chen, Jin; Cheng, Zixi Jack

    2017-01-01

    Previously, many different types of NTS barosensitive neurons were identified. However, the time course of NTS barosensitive neuronal activity (NA) in response to arterial pressure (AP) changes, and the relationship of NA-AP changes, have not yet been fully quantified. In this study, we made extracellular recordings of single NTS neurons firing in response to AP elevation induced by occlusion of the descending aorta in anesthetized rats. Our findings were that: 1) Thirty-five neurons (from 46 neurons) increased firing, whereas others neurons either decreased firing upon AP elevation, or were biphasic: first decreased firing upon AP elevation and then increased firing during AP decrease. 2) Fourteen neurons with excitatory responses were activated and rapidly increased their firing during the early phase of AP increase (early neurons); whereas 21 neurons did not increase firing until the mean arterial pressure changes (ΔMAP) reached near/after the peak (late neurons). 3) The early neurons had a significantly higher firing rate than late neurons during AP elevation at a similar rate. 4) Early neuron NA-ΔMAP relationship could be well fitted and characterized by the sigmoid logistic function with the maximal gain of 29.3. 5) The increase of early NA correlated linearly with the initial heart rate (HR) reduction. 6) The late neurons did not contribute to the initial HR reduction. However, the late NA could be well correlated with HR reduction during the late phase. Altogether, our study demonstrated that the NTS excitatory neurons could be grouped into early and late neurons based on their firing patterns. The early neurons could be characterized by the sigmoid logistic function, and different neurons may differently contribute to HR regulation. Importantly, the grouping and quantitative methods used in this study may provide a useful tool for future assessment of functional changes of early and late neurons in disease models.

  19. Development of an Attachment-Informed Measure of Sexual Behavior in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szielasko, Alicia L.; Symons, Douglas K.; Price, E. Lisa

    2013-01-01

    There is considerable interest in relations between sexual behavior and romantic attachment styles in adolescence as attachment needs are increasingly met through intimate partners rather than parents. The objectives of this research were to organize a measure of sexual behavior within an attachment theory framework, and then show that this new…

  20. Developments in long-term explicit memory late in the first year of life: behavioral and electrophysiological indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Patricia J; Wiebe, Sandra A; Carver, Leslie J; Waters, Jennie M; Nelson, Charles A

    2003-11-01

    Coincident with developments in the temporal-cortical explicit memory network, long-term recall abilities are newly emergent late in the first year of human life. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) in 9-month-olds as an index of the integrity of the neural substrate underlying a task thought to reflect explicit memory, namely, deferred imitation. ERP measures of recognition memory 1 week after unique laboratory experiences predicted whether and how much infants recalled of the experiences 1 month later. The findings further imply that memory storage and consolidation processes are a major source of variability in long-term recall memory late in the first year of life.

  1. Ground stone tool assemblages at the end of the Chalcolithic period: A preliminary analysis of the Late Chalcolithic sites in the Fazael Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggai Cohen-Klonymus

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The very Late Chalcolithic sites of the Fazael Valley exhibit changes in settlement patterns and material culture. This paper presents the analysis of the ground stone tool assemblages of these sites, and includes the combination of attribute analysis, functional typology, and spatial and contextual analyses, allowing comparisons both between the different sites and between different phases within the sites. The assemblages of the late sites of Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 show similar use of raw materials and tool design, which is clearly different from the assemblage of the earlier typical Ghassulian Chalcolithic site of Fazael 1. In Fazael 2, two phases revealed a shift from the use of large grinding tools to mortars and small grinding tools. In both the earlier and the later phases, the separation of activity areas within the site is clear. Grinding activity in both phases is restricted to the western side of the site, while mortars and spindle whorls were found only in the south-eastern part. Finally, a comparison with Fazael 1, as well as with other Late Chalcolithic sites, such as Gilat, 'Ein Hilu and 'En Esur, show that the large number of mortars found in Fazael 2 and Fazael 7 is unique, and may hint at a shift to different subsistence strategies appearing in this region in the latest phases of the Chalcolithic period.

  2. Behavioral characterization of A53T mice reveals early and late stage deficits related to Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina L Paumier

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD pathology is characterized by the formation of intra-neuronal inclusions called Lewy bodies, which are comprised of alpha-synuclein (α-syn. Duplication, triplication or genetic mutations in α-syn (A53T, A30P and E46K are linked to autosomal dominant PD; thus implicating its role in the pathogenesis of PD. In both PD patients and mouse models, there is increasing evidence that neuronal dysfunction occurs before the accumulation of protein aggregates (i.e., α-syn and neurodegeneration. Characterization of the timing and nature of symptomatic dysfunction is important for understanding the impact of α-syn on disease progression. Furthermore, this knowledge is essential for identifying pathways and molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. To this end, we examined various functional and morphological endpoints in the transgenic mouse model expressing the human A53T α-syn variant directed by the mouse prion promoter at specific ages relating to disease progression (2, 6 and 12 months of age. Our findings indicate A53T mice develop fine, sensorimotor, and synaptic deficits before the onset of age-related gross motor and cognitive dysfunction. Results from open field and rotarod tests show A53T mice develop age-dependent changes in locomotor activity and reduced anxiety-like behavior. Additionally, digigait analysis shows these mice develop an abnormal gait by 12 months of age. A53T mice also exhibit spatial memory deficits at 6 and 12 months, as demonstrated by Y-maze performance. In contrast to gross motor and cognitive changes, A53T mice display significant impairments in fine- and sensorimotor tasks such as grooming, nest building and acoustic startle as early as 1-2 months of age. These mice also show significant abnormalities in basal synaptic transmission, paired-pulse facilitation and long-term depression (LTD. Combined, these data indicate the A53T model exhibits early- and late-onset behavioral and synaptic

  3. Influence of humidity on the phase behavior of API/polymer formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudic, Anke; Ji, Yuanhui; Luebbert, Christian; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous formulations of APIs in polymers tend to absorb water from the atmosphere. This absorption of water can induce API recrystallization, leading to reduced long-term stability during storage. In this work, the phase behavior of different formulations was investigated as a function of relative humidity. Indomethacin and naproxen were chosen as model APIs and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVPVA64) as excipients. The formulations were prepared by spray drying. The water sorption in pure polymers and in formulations was measured at 25°C and at different values of relative humidity (RH=25%, 50% and 75%). Most water was absorbed in PVP-containing systems, and water sorption was decreasing with increasing API content. These trends could also be predicted in good agreement with the experimental data using the thermodynamic model PC-SAFT. Furthermore, the effect of absorbed water on API solubility in the polymer and on the glass-transition temperature of the formulations was predicted with PC-SAFT and the Gordon-Taylor equation, respectively. The absorbed water was found to significantly decrease the API solubility in the polymer as well as the glass-transition temperature of the formulation. Based on a quantitative modeling of the API/polymer phase diagrams as a function of relative humidity, appropriate API/polymer compositions can now be selected to ensure long-term stable amorphous formulations at given storage conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. MicroRNA-155 attenuates late sepsis-induced cardiac dysfunction through JNK and β-arrestin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Song, Yan; Shaikh, Zahir; Li, Hui; Zhang, Haiju; Caudle, Yi; Zheng, Shouhua; Yan, Hui; Hu, Dan; Stuart, Charles; Yin, Deling

    2017-07-18

    Cardiac dysfunction is correlated with detrimental prognosis of sepsis and contributes to a high risk of mortality. After an initial hyperinflammatory reaction, most patients enter a protracted state of immunosuppression (late sepsis) that alters both innate and adaptive immunity. The changes of cardiac function in late sepsis are not yet known. MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is previously found to play important roles in both regulations of immune activation and cardiac function. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were operated to develop into early and late sepsis phases, and miR-155 mimic was injected through the tail vein 48 h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The effect of miR-155 on CLP-induced cardiac dysfunction was explored in late sepsis. We found that increased expression of miR-155 in the myocardium protected against cardiac dysfunction in late sepsis evidenced by attenuating sepsis-reduced cardiac output and enhancing left ventricular systolic function. We also observed that miR-155 markedly reduced the infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils into the myocardium and attenuated the inflammatory response via suppression of JNK signaling pathway. Moreover, overexpression of β-arrestin 2 (Arrb2) exacerbated the mice mortality and immunosuppression in late sepsis. Furthermore, transfection of miR-155 mimic reduced Arrb2 expression, and then restored immunocompetence and improved survival in late septic mice. We conclude that increased miR-155 expression through systemic administration of miR-155 mimic attenuates cardiac dysfunction and improves late sepsis survival by targeting JNK associated inflammatory signaling and Arrb2 mediated immunosuppression.

  5. The effect of the number of condensed phases modeled on aerosol behavior during an induced steam generator tube rupture sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bixler, N.E.; Schaperow, J.H.

    1998-06-01

    VICTORIA is a mechanistic computer code designed to analyze fission product behavior within a nuclear reactor coolant system (RCS) during a severe accident. It provides detailed predictions of the release of radioactive and nonradioactive materials from the reactor core and transport and deposition of these materials within the RCS. A recently completed independent peer review of VICTORIA, while confirming the overall adequacy of the code, recommended a number of modeling improvements. One of these recommendations, to model three rather than a single condensed phase, is the focus of the work reported here. The recommendation has been implemented as an option so that either a single or three condensed phases can be treated. Both options have been employed in the study of fission product behavior during an induced steam generator tube rupture sequence. Differences in deposition patterns and mechanisms predicted using these two options are discussed

  6. An Assessment of the Effects of Hydrotherapy During the Active Phase of Labor on the Labor Process and Parenting Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncay, Semra; Kaplan, Sena; Moraloglu Tekin, Ozlem

    2017-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect on labor process and parenting behavior of hydrotherapy applied during the active phase of labor. This quasi-experimental study was conducted by using an equivalent comparison group ( n = 40). The participants in the experimental group whose cervical dilation was 5 cm were taken to the hydrotherapy tub. This application continued until cervical dilation reached 10 cm. The Participants Questionnaire, The Birth Follow-up Questionnaire, The Postpartum ]collection tools. The duration of the active phase and second stage of labor was extremely short in the experimental group in comparison with the equivalent comparison group ( p = .001). The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scores of the experimental group were lower than those of the equivalent comparison group when cervical dilation was 6 cm and 10 cm ( p = .001). The experimental group also displayed more positive parenting behavior and positive labor feeling ( p = .001).

  7. Improved acceptance of Chromonaela odorata by goat kids after weaning is caused by in utero exposure during late but not early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Schonewille, J.T.; Tien, D.V.; Everts, H.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current experiment was to study the effect of the phase of pregnancy on in utero learning of Chromonaela odorata by the goat kids by comparing mid pregnancy (day 50–99, MP) with late pregnancy (day 100–145, LP). It was hypothesized that kids born to dams fed C. odorata during late

  8. Relationship transitions and change in health behavior: A four-phase, twelve-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josefsson, Kim; Elovainio, Marko; Stenholm, Sari; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kauppi, Maarit; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2018-03-19

    Extensive scientific evidence shows an association between involvement in social relationships and healthy lifestyle. Prospective studies with many participants and long follow-ups are needed to study the dynamics and change in social factors within individuals over time. Our aim was to determine whether a change in relationship status (single, married, divorced, widow, cohabiting) is followed by a change in health behavior (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and body mass index). We used data from 81,925 healthy adults participating in the prospective longitudinal Finnish Public Sector Study in the period 2000-2013. We analyzed 327,700 person-observations from four data collection phases. Missing data were multiply imputed. A within-individual methodology was used to minimize the possibility of selection effects affecting the interpretation. All four health behaviors showed associations with relationship status. The effects were very similar and in the same direction in women and men, although there were gender differences in the magnitudes of the effects. The end of a relationship was followed by a decrease in body mass index, increased odds of being a smoker, increase in physical activity, and increase in alcohol consumption (widowed men). The effects were reverse when forming a new relationship. A change in relationship status is associated with a change in health behavior. The association is not explained by socioeconomic status, subjective health status, or anxiety level. People leaving or losing a relationship are at increased risk of unhealthy behavior (smoking and alcohol consumption), but at the same time they have a lower BMI and show higher physical activity compared to the time they were in a relationship. It is not clear if the cumulative health effect of these health behavior changes is positive or negative. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Myocardial enhancement pattern in patients with acute myocardial infarction on two-phase contrast-enhanced Ecg-gated multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.M.; Seo, J.B.; Hong, M.K.; Do, K.H.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.S.; Song, J.W.; Park, S.J.; Park, S.W.; Lim, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the myocardial enhancement pattern of the left ventricle on two-phase contrast-enhanced electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT examinations were performed in 16 patients with AMI. The presence, location and pattern of myocardial enhancement were evaluated. MDCT findings were compared with the catheter angiographic results. RESULTS: Subendocardial (n=9) or transmural (n=6) area of early perfusion defects of the myocardium was detected in 15 of 16 patients (94%) on early-phase CT images. Variable delayed myocardial enhancement patterns on late-phase CT images were observed in 12 patients (75%): (1) subendocardial residual perfusion defect and subepicardial late enhancement (n=6); (2) transmural late enhancement (n=1); (3) isolated subendocardial late enhancement (n=1); and (4) isolated subendocardial residual perfusion defect (n=2). On catheter angiography, 14 of 15 corresponding coronary arteries showed significant stenosis. CONCLUSION: Variable abnormal myocardial enhancement pattern was seen on two-phase, contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT in patients with AMI. Assessment of myocardial attenuation on CT angiography gives additional information of the location and extent of infarction

  10. Phthalocyanines with eight oligo(ethylene oxide) alkoxy units: thermotropic phase behavior, aggregate formation and ion complexation with redox-active ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piet, D.P.; Verheij, H.J.; Zuilhof, H.

    2003-01-01

    The thermotropic phase behavior of phthalocyanines (Pc's) with eight oligo(ethylene oxide) alkoxy side chains has been investigated. An increase in the number of ethylene oxide units results in a decrease in the solid-to-mesophase and isotropization temperatures. The investigated compounds display a

  11. Roosting behavior of premigratory Dunlins (Calidris alpina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Gill, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    We studied roosting behavior of Dunlins (Calidris alpina) during late summer along the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in relation to tidal cycle, time of day, time of season, and occurrence of predators. Within Angyoyaravak Bay, peak populations of 70,000-100,000 Dunlins occur each year. The major diurnal roost sites were adjacent to intertidal feeding areas, provided an unobstructed view of predators, and were close to shallow waters used for bathing. At one site studied intensively, roosting flocks formed at high water consistently during the day but rarely at night. On about 75% of the days, Dunlins also came to the roost at dawn and dusk when the tide was low. The size of the roosting flock, the length of time birds spent at the roost site, and behavior at the roost site were highly variable throughout the season and significantly affected by both tide level and time of day. Roosting behavior changed significantly between early and late August, as Dunlins underwent heavy wing and body molt, and began premigratory fattening. The reaction of Dunlins to potential predators, the formation of roosting flocks in response to light cues, and seasonal changes in social behavior at the roost site suggested that communal roosting behavior may be related not only to the risk of predation but also to behavior during migration.

  12. Late complications of clinical clostridium histolyticum collagenase use in Dupuytren's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren M Rozen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: While Dupuytren's disease can cause disabling contractures requiring open surgery, a less-invasive option using Clostridium Histolyticum collagenase (CHC via percutaneous injection was recently reported. A recent prospective, randomized trial demonstrated few complications during 90 days follow-up, however did not assess any longer term follow-up for these patients. Long-term outcomes in this setting have not been adequately reported, and the current manuscript aims to identify late complications from the clinical use of percutaneous CHC. METHODS: The current manuscript reports an extended 12-month follow-up for a cohort of twelve of patients enrolled in the original prospective, randomized trial, treated at a single institution. An analysis of complications requiring surgical intervention was undertaken. RESULTS: Two of twelve patients reported debilitating pain and triggering requiring surgical intervention. Extensive deep-tissue scarring and adhesions were identified, providing the first visual and qualitative analysis of the pathologic effects of CHC. CONCLUSION: Late complications from CHC use can and have occurred, outside the follow-up period of the initial phase III trials. Longer term follow-up of such patients is thus essential, and further investigation and characterization of the late effects of CHC use is warranted.

  13. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  14. Experimental Determination and Modeling of the Phase Behavior for the Selective Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol in Supercritical CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Beier, Matthias Josef; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2011-01-01

    In this study the phase behavior of mixtures relevant to the selective catalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by molecular oxygen in supercritical CO2 is investigated. Initially, the solubility of N2 in benzaldehyde as well as the dew points of CO2–benzyl alcohol–O2 and CO2...

  15. Composition, phase behavior and thermal stability of natural edible fat from rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Fuentes, Julio A; Camey-Ortíz, Guadalupe; Hernández-Medel, María del Rosario; Pérez-Mendoza, Francisco; Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the chemical composition, the main physicochemical properties, phase behavior and thermal stability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) seed fat were studied. These results showed that the almond-like decorticated seed represents 6.1% of the wet weight fruit and is: 1.22% ash, 7.80% protein, 11.6% crude fiber, 46% carbohydrates, and 33.4% fat (d.b.). The main fatty acids in the drupe fat were 40.3% oleic, 34.5% arachidic, 6.1% palmitic, 7.1% stearic, 6.3% gondoic, and 2.9% behenic; the refraction, saponification and iodine values were 1.468, 186, and 47.0, respectively. The phase behavior analysis showed relatively simple crystallization and melting profiles: crystallization showed three well-differentiated groups of triglycerides around maximum peaks at +30.8, +15.6 and -18.1 degrees C; the fat-melting curve had a range between -14.5 and +51.8 degrees C with a fusion enthalpy of 124.3 J/g. The thermal stability analyzed in an inert atmosphere of N(2) and in a normal oxidizing atmosphere, showed that in the latter, fat decomposition begins at 237.3 degrees C and concludes at 529 degrees C, with three stages of decomposition. According to these results, rambutan seed fat has physicochemical and thermal characteristics that may become interesting for specific applications in several segments of the food industry.

  16. Effect of vision angle on the phase transition in flocking behavior of animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, P The; Lee, Sang-Hee; Ngo, V Thanh

    2015-09-01

    The nature of the phase transition in a system of self-propelling particles has been extensively studied during the past few decades. A theoretical model was proposed by [T. Vicsek et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1226 (1995)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.75.1226] with a simple rule for updating the direction of motion of each particle. Based on the model of Vicsek et al., in this paper, we consider a group of animals as particles moving freely in a two-dimensional space. Due to the fact that the viewable area of animals depends on the species, we consider the motion of each individual within an angle φ=ϕ/2 (ϕ is called the angle of view) of a circle centered at its position of radius R. We obtained a phase diagram in the space (φ,η_{c}) with η_{c} being the critical noise. We show that the phase transition exists only in the case of a wide view's angle φ≥0.5π. The flocking of animals is a universal behavior of the species of prey but not the one of the predator. Our simulation results are in good agreement with experimental observation [C. Beccoa et al., Physica A 367, 487 (2006)PHYADX0378-437110.1016/j.physa.2005.11.041].

  17. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Panel with Phase Change Materials under Different Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power generation efficiency of photovoltaic (PV panels depends on the solar irradiation flux and the operating temperature of the solar cell. To increase the power generation efficiency of a PV system, this study evaluated the feasibility of phase change materials (PCMs to reduce the temperature rise of solar cells operating under the climate in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, two PCMs with different phase change characteristics were prepared and the phase change temperatures and thermal conductivities were compared. The diurnal thermal behavior of PV panels with PCMs under the Seoul climate was evaluated using a 2-D transient thermal analysis program. This paper discusses the heat flow characteristics though the PV cell with PCMs and the effects of the PCM types and macro-packed PCM (MPPCM methods on the operating temperatures under different weather conditions. Selection of the PCM type was more important than the MMPCM methods when PCMs were used to enhance the performance of PV panels and the mean operating temperature of PV cell and total heat flux from the surface could be reduced by increasing the heat transfer rate through the honeycomb grid steel container for PCMs. Considering the mean operating temperature reduction of 4 °C by PCM in this study, an efficiency improvement of approximately 2% can be estimated under the weather conditions of Seoul.

  18. Phase behavior of fluorocarbon and hydrocarbon double-chain hydroxylated and galactosylated amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles. Long-term shelf-stability of their liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, L; Gadras, C; Greiner, J; Rolland, J P; Santaella, C; Vierling, P; Gulik, A

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the morphological characterization, by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and the thermotropic phase behavior, by differential scanning calorimetry and/or X-ray scattering, of aqueous dispersions of various hydroxylated and galactosylated double-chain amphiphiles and bolaamphiphiles, several of them containing one or two hydrophobic fluorocarbon chains. Colloidal systems are observed in water with the hydroxylated hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon bolaamphiphiles only when they are dispersed with a co-amphiphile such as rac-1,2-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) or rac-1,2-distearoylphosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Liposomes are formed providing the relative content of bolaamphiphiles does not exceed 20% mol. Most of these liposomes can be thermally sterilized and stored at room temperature for several months without any significant modification of their size and size distribution. The hydrocarbon galactosylated bolaamphiphile HO[C24][C12]Gal forms in water a lamellar phase (the gel to liquid-crystal phase transition is complete at 45 degrees C) and a Im3m cubic phase above 47 degrees C. The fluorocarbon HO[C24][F6C5]Gal analog displays a more complex and metastable phase behavior. The fluorinated non-bolaform galactosylated [F8C7][C16]AEGal and SerGal amphiphiles form lamellar phases in water. Low amounts (10% molar ratio) of the HO[C24][F6C5]Gal or HO[C24][C12]Gal bolaamphiphiles or of the single-headed [F8C7][C16]AEGal improve substantially the shelf-stability of reference phospholipon/cholesterol 2/1 liposomes. These liposomes when co-formulated with a single-headed amphiphile from the SerGal series are by far less stable.

  19. Characterization of bovine serum albumin partitioning behaviors in polymer-salt aqueous two-phase systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Yin Hui; Yap, Yee Jiun; Tan, Chin Ping; Anuar, Mohd Shamsul; Tejo, Bimo Ario; Show, Pau Loke; Ariff, Arbakariya Bin; Ng, Eng-Poh; Ling, Tau Chuan

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, a linear relationship is proposed relating the natural logarithm of partition coefficient, ln K for protein partitioning in poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG)-phosphate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) to the square of tie-line length (TLL(2)). This relationship provides good fits (r(2) > 0.98) to the partition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in PEG (1450 g/mol, 2000 g/mol, 3350 g/mol, and 4000 g/mol)-phosphate ATPS with TLL of 25.0-50.0% (w/w) at pH 7.0. Results also showed that the plot of ln K against pH for BSA partitioning in the ATPS containing 33.0% (w/w) PEG1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate with varied working pH between 6.0 and 9.0 exhibited a linear relationship which is in good agreement (r(2) = 0.94) with the proposed relationship, ln K = α' pH + β'. These results suggested that both the relationships proposed could be applied to correlate and elucidate the partition behavior of biomolecules in the polymer-salt ATPS. The influence of other system parameters on the partition behavior of BSA was also investigated. An optimum BSA yield of 90.80% in the top phase and K of 2.40 was achieved in an ATPS constituted with 33.0% (w/w) PEG 1450 and 8.0% (w/w) phosphate in the presence of 8.5% (w/w) sodium chloride (NaCl) at pH 9.0 for 0.3% (w/w) BSA load. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Membrane fusion and inverted phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellens, H.; Siegel, D.P.; Alford, D.; Yeagle, P.L.; Boni, L.; Lis, L.J.; Quinn, P.J.; Bentz, J.

    1989-01-01

    We have found a correlation between liposome fusion kinetics and lipid phase behavior for several inverted phase forming lipids. N-Methylated dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE-Me), or mixtures of dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC), will form an inverted hexagonal phase (HII) at high temperatures (above TH), a lamellar phase (L alpha) at low temperatures, and an isotropic/inverted cubic phase at intermediate temperatures, which is defined by the appearance of narrow isotropic 31 P NMR resonances. The phase behavior has been verified by using high-sensitivity DSC, 31 P NMR, freeze-fracture electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature range over which the narrow isotropic resonances occur is defined as delta TI, and the range ends at TH. Extruded liposomes (approximately 0.2 microns in diameter) composed of these lipids show fusion and leakage kinetics which are strongly correlated with the temperatures of these phase transitions. At temperatures below delta TI, where the lipid phase is L alpha, there is little or no fusion, i.e., mixing of aqueous contents, or leakage. However, as the temperature reaches delta TI, there is a rapid increase in both fusion and leakage rates. At temperatures above TH, the liposomes show aggregation-dependent lysis, as the rapid formation of HII phase precursors disrupts the membranes. We show that the correspondence between the fusion and leakage kinetics and the observed phase behavior is easily rationalized in terms of a recent kinetic theory of L alpha/inverted phase transitions. In particular, it is likely that membrane fusion and the L alpha/inverted cubic phase transition proceed via a common set of intermembrane intermediates

  1. Effect of the Heusler phase formation on the magnetic behavior of the Cu–10 wt.%Mn alloy with Al and Ag additions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, T.M., E-mail: thaisa.mary@gmail.com [Instituto de Química – UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Santos, C.M.A. [Instituto de Química – UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Silva, R.A.G. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra – UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Magnani, M. [Instituto de Química – UNESP, Caixa Postal 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The presence of the Cu{sub 2}MnAl phase was observed in annealed alloys. • Al and Ag additions shift the equilibrium concentration to higher Al values. • There is a correlation between the Ag-rich phase and the Cu{sub 2}MnAl phase. - Abstract: In this work, the formation of the Cu{sub 2}AlMn Heusler phase and its influence on the magnetic behavior of the Cu–Mn–Al–Ag alloys in the range of 8–10 wt.% of aluminum and 2–4 wt.% of silver were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM) and saturation magnetization measurements at 4 K. The results showed that there is a correlation between the presence of the Ag-rich phase and the formation of the Cu{sub 2}MnAl phase.

  2. Effectiveness of influenza vaccine against laboratory-confirmed influenza, in the late 2011–2012 season in Spain, among population targeted for vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In Spain, the influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) was estimated in the last three seasons using the observational study cycEVA conducted in the frame of the existing Spanish Influenza Sentinel Surveillance System. The objective of the study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza-like illness (ILI) among the target groups for vaccination in Spain in the 2011–2012 season. We also studied influenza VE in the early (weeks 52/2011-7/2012) and late (weeks 8-14/2012) phases of the epidemic and according to time since vaccination. Methods Medically attended patients with ILI were systematically swabbed to collect information on exposure, laboratory outcome and confounding factors. Patients belonging to target groups for vaccination and who were swabbed 4 months, respectively, since vaccination. A decrease in VE with time since vaccination was only observed in individuals aged ≥ 65 years. Regarding the phase of the season, decreasing point estimates were only observed in the early phase, whereas very low or null estimates were obtained in the late phase for the shortest time interval. Conclusions The 2011–2012 influenza vaccine showed a low-to-moderate protective effect against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza in the target groups for vaccination, in a late season and with a limited match between the vaccine and circulating strains. The suggested decrease in influenza VE with time since vaccination was mostly observed in the elderly population. The decreasing protective effect of the vaccine in the late part of the season could be related to waning vaccine protection because no viral changes were identified throughout the season. PMID:24053661

  3. Phase Transformation Behavior of Oxide Particles Formed in Mechanically Alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ga Eon; Choi, Jung-Sun; Noh, Sanghoon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Choi, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Do [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    The phase transformation behavior of the oxides formed in mechanically alloyed Fe-5Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is investigated. Non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides with sizes of less than 300 nm are observed in the mechanically alloyed powder. The diffusion and redistribution reactions of the elements in these oxides during heating of the powder above 800 ℃ were observed, and these reactions result in the formation of a Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase after heating at 1050 ℃. Thus, it is considered that the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder and some Fe powder are formed from the non-stoichiometric Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides after the mechanical alloying process, and a considerable energy accumulated during the mechanical alloying process leads to a phase transformation of the Y-rich and Fe-rich oxides to Y{sub α}Fe{sub β}O{sub γ}-type phase during heating.

  4. The effect of aluminum content on phase constitution and heat treatment behavior of Ti-Cr-Al alloys for healthcare application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Daisuke; Ikeda, Masahiko

    2005-01-01

    As life expectancy steadily increases, developing reliable functional materials for healthcare applications gains importance. Titanium and its alloys, while attractive for such applications, are expensive. The present investigation suggests that it may be possible to reduce costs by using new, low-cost beta Ti alloys. To assess their reliability, the heat treatment behavior of beta Ti alloys, Ti-7 mass% Cr with varying Al content (0%, 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5%), was investigated through electrical resistivity and Vickers hardness measurements. In the Ti-7Cr-0Al alloy quenched from 1173 K, only the beta phase was identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD). In Ti-7Cr-1.5 to 4.5 Al alloys, XRD detected both beta and orthorhombic martensite. On isochronal heat treatment behavior of Ti-7Cr-3.0, 4.5 Al alloys, resistivity at liquid nitrogen temperature and resistivity ratio increased between 423 and 523 K.These increases are due to reverse transformation of orthorhombic martensite to the metastable beta phase

  5. Transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.

    1974-01-01

    The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)

  6. Exploring Poly(ethylene glycol-Polyzwitterion Diblock Copolymers as Biocompatible Smart Macrosurfactants Featuring UCST-Phase Behavior in Normal Saline Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noverra M. Nizardo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonionic-zwitterionic diblock copolymers are designed to feature a coil-to-globule collapse transition with an upper critical solution temperature (UCST in aqueous media, including physiological saline solution. The block copolymers that combine presumably highly biocompatible blocks are synthesized by chain extension of a poly(ethylene glycol (PEG macroinitiator via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP of sulfobetaine and sulfabetaine methacrylates. Their thermoresponsive behavior is studied by variable temperature turbidimetry and 1H NMR spectroscopy. While the polymers with polysulfobetaine blocks exhibit phase transitions in the physiologically interesting window of 30–50 °C only in pure aqueous solution, the polymers bearing polysulfabetaine blocks enabled phase transitions only in physiological saline solution. By copolymerizing a pair of structurally closely related sulfo- and sulfabetaine monomers, thermoresponsive behavior can be implemented in aqueous solutions of both low and high salinity. Surprisingly, the presence of the PEG blocks can affect the UCST-transitions of the polyzwitterions notably. In specific cases, this results in “schizophrenic” thermoresponsive behavior displaying simultaneously an UCST and an LCST (lower critical solution temperature transition. Exploratory experiments on the UCST-transition triggered the encapsulation and release of various solvatochromic fluorescent dyes as model “cargos” failed, apparently due to the poor affinity even of charged organic compounds to the collapsed state of the polyzwitterions.

  7. Dryout characteristics and flow behavior of gas-water two-phase flow through U-shaped and inverted U-shaped bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, T.; Roko, K.; Shiraha, M.; Midoriyama, S.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the flow behavior, pressure drop characteristics, and dryout characteristics by joule heating for the gas-water flow through U-shaped and inverted U-shaped tubes invertical plane. The height of the vertical straight section of the test tube is 4100 mm, and two bend radii, 116 mm and 435 mm, are chosen for the experiments. The test tubes used are of transparent acrylic resin for the flow behavior test, and of stainless steel for the other tests, inside diameter being 18 mm for the former and 18.5 mm for the latter. Flow patterns in the vertical upflow and downflow sections are shown on the diagram of the superficial gas velocity versus liquid velocity. Further, the flow behavior in the bend section is made clear in relation to flow rates of gas and liquid. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the test tube for the made clear in relation to flow rates of gas and liquid. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the test tube for the two-phase flow is shown in comparison with that for the single-phase flow of water. The threshold conditions of dryout in the bend section by joule heatig are shown on the diagram of the superficial gas velocity versus liquid velocity. The location of the dryout in the bend section is also clarified. (orig.)

  8. Lifshitz-Slyozov kinetics of a nonconserved system that separates into phases of different density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Shah, Peter Jivan; Andersen, Jørgen Vitting

    1990-01-01

    Computer-simulation techniques are applied to analyze the late-stage ordering kinetics of a two-dimensional annealed dilute Ising model quenched into regions of its phase diagram that involve phase separation of phases with different densities. The order parameter of the model is a nonconserved...... of the phase-separation kinetics in O/W(110) systems at high coverage....

  9. Investigating the evolution of the phase behavior of AOT-based w/o microemulsions in dodecane as a function of droplet volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, R; Choudhury, N

    2012-04-15

    AOT-based water in oil (w/o) microemulsions are one of the most extensively studied reverse micellar systems because of their rich phase behavior and their ability to form in the absence of any co-surfactant. The aggregation characteristics and interaction of the microemulsion droplets in these systems are known to be governed by AOT-oil compatibility and water to AOT molar ratio (w). In this manuscript by using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and viscometry techniques, we show that droplet volume fraction too plays an important role in shaping the phase behavior of these microemulsions in dodecane. The phase separation characteristics and the evolution of the viscosity and the hydrodynamic radius of the microemulsion droplets on approaching the cloud points have thus been found to undergo complete transformation as one goes from low to high droplet volume fraction even at a fixed 'w'. Modeling of the DLS data attributes this to the weakening of inter droplet attractive interaction caused by the growing dominance of the excluded volume effect with increase in droplet volume fraction. In the literature, the inter droplet attractive interaction driven phase separation in these microemulsions is explained based on gas-liquid type phase transition, conceptualized in the framework of Baxter adhesive hard sphere theory. The modeling of our viscosity data, however, does not support such proposition as the characteristic stickiness parameter (τ(-1)) of the microemulsion droplets in this system remains much lower than the critical value (τ(c)(-1)≈10.25) required to enforce such phase transition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Block Copolymers of Macrolactones/Small Lactones by a “Catalyst-Switch” Organocatalytic Strategy. Thermal Properties and Phase Behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Ladelta, Viko

    2018-03-16

    Poly(macrolactones) (PMLs) can be considered as biodegradable alternatives of polyethylene; however, controlling the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of macrolactone (ML) monomers remains a challenge due to their low ring strain. To overcome this problem, phosphazene (t-BuP4), a strong superbase, has to be used as catalyst. Unfortunately, the one-pot sequential block copolymerization of MLs with small lactones (SLs) is impossible since the high basicity of t-BuP4 promotes both intra- and intermolecular transesterification reactions, thus leading to random copolymers. By using ROP and the “catalyst-switch” strategy [benzyl alcohol, t-BuP4/neutralization with diphenyl phosphate/(t-BuP2)], we were able to synthesize different well-defined PML-b-PSL block copolymers (MLs: dodecalactone, ω-pentadecalactone, and ω-hexadecalactone; SLs: δ-valerolactone and ε-caprolactone). The thermal properties and the phase behavior of these block copolymers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. This study shows that the thermal properties and phase behavior of PMLs-b-PSLs are largely influenced by the PMLs block if PMLs components constitute the majority of the block copolymers.

  12. Block Copolymers of Macrolactones/Small Lactones by a “Catalyst-Switch” Organocatalytic Strategy. Thermal Properties and Phase Behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Ladelta, Viko; Kim, Joey D.; Bilalis, Panagiotis; Gnanou, Yves; Hadjichristidis, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    Poly(macrolactones) (PMLs) can be considered as biodegradable alternatives of polyethylene; however, controlling the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of macrolactone (ML) monomers remains a challenge due to their low ring strain. To overcome this problem, phosphazene (t-BuP4), a strong superbase, has to be used as catalyst. Unfortunately, the one-pot sequential block copolymerization of MLs with small lactones (SLs) is impossible since the high basicity of t-BuP4 promotes both intra- and intermolecular transesterification reactions, thus leading to random copolymers. By using ROP and the “catalyst-switch” strategy [benzyl alcohol, t-BuP4/neutralization with diphenyl phosphate/(t-BuP2)], we were able to synthesize different well-defined PML-b-PSL block copolymers (MLs: dodecalactone, ω-pentadecalactone, and ω-hexadecalactone; SLs: δ-valerolactone and ε-caprolactone). The thermal properties and the phase behavior of these block copolymers were studied by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. This study shows that the thermal properties and phase behavior of PMLs-b-PSLs are largely influenced by the PMLs block if PMLs components constitute the majority of the block copolymers.

  13. Non-singular Brans–Dicke collapse in deformed phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasouli, S.M.M., E-mail: mrasouli@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Centro de Matemática e Aplicações (CMA - UBI), Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Physics Group, Qazvin Branch, Islamic Azad University, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ziaie, A.H., E-mail: ah_ziaie@sbu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., Evin, 19839 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, PO Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalalzadeh, S., E-mail: shahram.jalalzadeh@unila.edu.br [Federal University of Latin-American Integration, Technological Park of Itaipu PO box 2123, Foz do Iguaçu-PR, 85867-670 (Brazil); Moniz, P.V., E-mail: pmoniz@ubi.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal); Centro de Matemática e Aplicações (CMA - UBI), Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marquês d’Avila e Bolama, 6200 Covilhã (Portugal)

    2016-12-15

    We study the collapse process of a homogeneous perfect fluid (in FLRW background) with a barotropic equation of state in Brans–Dicke (BD) theory in the presence of phase space deformation effects. Such a deformation is introduced as a particular type of non-commutativity between phase space coordinates. For the commutative case, it has been shown in the literature (Scheel, 1995), that the dust collapse in BD theory leads to the formation of a spacetime singularity which is covered by an event horizon. In comparison to general relativity (GR), the authors concluded that the final state of black holes in BD theory is identical to the GR case but differs from GR during the dynamical evolution of the collapse process. However, the presence of non-commutative effects influences the dynamics of the collapse scenario and consequently a non-singular evolution is developed in the sense that a bounce emerges at a minimum radius, after which an expanding phase begins. Such a behavior is observed for positive values of the BD coupling parameter. For large positive values of the BD coupling parameter, when non-commutative effects are present, the dynamics of collapse process differs from the GR case. Finally, we show that for negative values of the BD coupling parameter, the singularity is replaced by an oscillatory bounce occurring at a finite time, with the frequency of oscillation and amplitude being damped at late times.

  14. Non-singular Brans–Dicke collapse in deformed phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasouli, S.M.M.; Ziaie, A.H.; Jalalzadeh, S.; Moniz, P.V.

    2016-01-01

    We study the collapse process of a homogeneous perfect fluid (in FLRW background) with a barotropic equation of state in Brans–Dicke (BD) theory in the presence of phase space deformation effects. Such a deformation is introduced as a particular type of non-commutativity between phase space coordinates. For the commutative case, it has been shown in the literature (Scheel, 1995), that the dust collapse in BD theory leads to the formation of a spacetime singularity which is covered by an event horizon. In comparison to general relativity (GR), the authors concluded that the final state of black holes in BD theory is identical to the GR case but differs from GR during the dynamical evolution of the collapse process. However, the presence of non-commutative effects influences the dynamics of the collapse scenario and consequently a non-singular evolution is developed in the sense that a bounce emerges at a minimum radius, after which an expanding phase begins. Such a behavior is observed for positive values of the BD coupling parameter. For large positive values of the BD coupling parameter, when non-commutative effects are present, the dynamics of collapse process differs from the GR case. Finally, we show that for negative values of the BD coupling parameter, the singularity is replaced by an oscillatory bounce occurring at a finite time, with the frequency of oscillation and amplitude being damped at late times.

  15. High-Pressure Phase Behavior of Polycaprolactone, Carbon Dioxide, and Dichloromethane Ternary Mixture Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwon, JungMin; Kim, Hwayong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Hun Yong [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Hyun [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    The high-pressure phase behavior of a polycaprolactone (Mw=56,145 g/mol, polydispersity 1.2), dichloromethane, and carbon dioxide ternary system was measured using a variable-volume view cell. The experimental temperatures and pressures ranged from 313.15 K to 353.15 K and up to 300 bar as functions of the CO{sub 2}/dichloromethane mass ratio and temperature, at poly(D-lactic acid) weight fractions of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0%. The correlation results were obtained from the hybrid equation of state (Peng-Robinson equation of state + SAFT equation of state) for the CO{sub 2}-polymer system using the van der Waals one-fluid mixing rule. The three binary interaction parameters were optimized by the simplex method algorithm.

  16. Late-time cosmological approach in mimetic f(R, T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baffou, E.H. [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Houndjo, M.J.S. [Institut de Mathematiques et de Sciences Physiques (IMSP), Porto-Novo (Benin); Faculte des Sciences et Techniques de Natitingou, Natitingou (Benin); Hamani-Daouda, M. [Universite de Niamey, Departement de Physique, Niamey (Niger); Alvarenga, F.G. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Engenharia e Ciencias Naturais, CEUNES, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil)

    2017-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the late-time cosmic acceleration in mimetic f(R, T) gravity with the Lagrange multiplier and potential in a Universe containing, besides radiation and dark energy, a self-interacting (collisional) matter. We obtain through the modified Friedmann equations the main equation that can describe the cosmological evolution. Then, with several models from Q(z) and the well-known particular model f(R, T), we perform an analysis of the late-time evolution. We examine the behavior of the Hubble parameter, the dark energy equation of state and the total effective equation of state and in each case we compare the resulting picture with the non-collisional matter (assumed as dust) and also with the collisional matter in mimetic f(R, T) gravity. The results obtained are in good agreement with the observational data and show that in the presence of the collisional matter the dark energy oscillations in mimetic f(R, T) gravity can be damped. (orig.)

  17. Cholinergic induction of input-specific late-phase LTP via localized Ca2+ release in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Jang, Hyun-Jong; Jo, Yang-Hyeok; Singer, Wolf; Rhie, Duck-Joo

    2012-03-28

    Acetylcholine facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), substrates of learning, memory, and sensory processing, in which acetylcholine also plays a crucial role. Ca(2+) ions serve as a canonical regulator of LTP/LTD but little is known about the effect of acetylcholine on intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics. Here, we investigated dendritic Ca(2+) dynamics evoked by synaptic stimulation and the resulting LTP/LTD in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons of the rat visual cortex. Under muscarinic stimulation, single-shock electrical stimulation (SES) inducing ∼20 mV EPSP, applied via a glass electrode located ∼10 μm from the basal dendrite, evoked NMDA receptor-dependent fast Ca(2+) transients and the subsequent Ca(2+) release from the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-sensitive stores. These secondary dendritic Ca(2+) transients were highly localized within 10 μm from the center (SD = 5.0 μm). The dendritic release of Ca(2+) was a prerequisite for input-specific muscarinic LTP (LTPm). Without the secondary Ca(2+) release, only muscarinic LTD (LTDm) was induced. D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid and intracellular heparin blocked LTPm as well as dendritic Ca(2+) release. A single burst consisting of 3 EPSPs with weak stimulus intensities instead of the SES also induced secondary Ca(2+) release and LTPm. LTPm and LTDm were protein synthesis-dependent. Furthermore, LTPm was confined to specific dendritic compartments and not inducible in distal apical dendrites. Thus, cholinergic activation facilitated selectively compartment-specific induction of late-phase LTP through IP(3)-dependent Ca(2+) release.

  18. Fluctuations of Imbalanced Fermionic Superfluids in Two Dimensions Induce Continuous Quantum Phase Transitions and Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Strack

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the nature of superfluid pairing in imbalanced Fermi mixtures in two spatial dimensions. We present evidence that the combined effect of Fermi surface mismatch and order parameter fluctuations of the superfluid condensate can lead to continuous quantum phase transitions from a normal Fermi mixture to an intermediate Sarma-Liu-Wilczek superfluid with two gapless Fermi surfaces—even when mean-field theory (incorrectly predicts a first-order transition to a phase-separated “Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer plus excess fermions” ground state. We propose a mechanism for non-Fermi-liquid behavior from repeated scattering processes between the two Fermi surfaces and fluctuating Cooper pairs. Prospects for experimental observation with ultracold atoms are discussed.

  19. The phase differences of the interdecadal variabilities of tropical cyclone activity in the peak and late seasons over the western North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Tingting; Xu, Shibin; Huang, Fei; Zhao, Jinping

    2018-04-01

    This study compares the interdecadal variations in tropical cyclone (TC) activities over the western North Pacific (WNP) basin during the peak season (July-September) and late season (October-December) of 1955-2014 and explores the possible physical mechanisms behind the variations. Both the peak- and late-season tropical storm (TS) days show distinct interdecadal variations, while the late-season TS days lead the peak-season TS days by approximately 4 years on an interdecadal time scale. The late-season TC activity is related to the east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient across the equatorial Pacific. The westerly winds induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the low-level vorticity, which favors TC genesis over the TC genesis region. The peak-season TC activity appears to relate to the SST gradient between the Indian Ocean and the Central Pacific. The westerly wind induced by the SST gradient can reduce the vertical wind shear and increase the mid-level relative humidity, thereby enhancing the TC activity. The full picture of the interdecadal variation in the WNP TC activity during the peak and late seasons revealed in this study provides a new perspective on the seasonal TC forecasts and future projections.

  20. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  1. Creep of Two-Phase Microstructures for Microelectronic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Heidi Linch [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The mechanical properties of low-melting temperature alloys are highly influenced by their creep behavior. This study investigates the dominant mechanisms that control creep behavior of two-phase, low-melting temperature alloys as a function of microstructure. The alloy systems selected for study were In-Ag and Sn-Bi because their eutectic compositions represent distinctly different microstructure.” The In-Ag eutectic contains a discontinuous phase while the Sn-Bi eutectic consists of two continuous phases. In addition, this work generates useful engineering data on Pb-free alloys with a joint specimen geometry that simulates microstructure found in microelectronic applications. The use of joint test specimens allows for observations regarding the practical attainability of superplastic microstructure in real solder joints by varying the cooling rate. Steady-state creep properties of In-Ag eutectic, Sn-Bi eutectic, Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joints have been measured using constant load tests at temperatures ranging from O°C to 90°C. Constitutive equations are derived to describe the steady-state creep behavior for In-Ageutectic solder joints and Sn-xBi solid-solution joints. The data are well represented by an equation of the form proposed by Dom: a power-law equation applies to each independent creep mechanism. Rate-controlling creep mechanisms, as a function of applied shear stress, test temperature, and joint microstructure, are discussed. Literature data on the steady-state creep properties of Sn-Bi eutectic are reviewed and compared with the Sn-xBi solid-solution and pure Bi joint data measured in the current study. The role of constituent phases in controlling eutectic creep behavior is discussed for both alloy systems. In general, for continuous, two-phase microstructure, where each phase exhibits significantly different creep behavior, the harder or more creep resistant phase will dominate the creep behavior in a lamellar microstructure. If a

  2. Origin and mixing timescale of Earth's late veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescher, C.; Allu Peddinti, D.; Bell, E. A.; Bello, L.; Cernok, A.; Ghosh, N.; Tucker, J.; Wielicki, M. M.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental studies on the partitioning behavior of highly siderophile elements (HSE) between silicate and metallic melts imply that the Earth's mantle should have been highly depleted in these elements by core formation in an early magma ocean. However, present HSE contents of the Earth's mantle are ~3 orders of magnitude higher than that expected by experiments. The apparent over-abundance of HSE has commonly been explained by the addition of meteoritic material in the "late veneer" which describes the exogenous mass addition following the moon forming impact and concluding with the late heavy bombardment at ~3.8-3.9 Ga. The strongest evidence for this theory is that the platinum group element (PGE) contents in today's mantle are present in chondritic relative abundances, as opposed to a fractionated pattern expected with metal-silicate partitioning. Archean komatiites indicate that the PGE content of the Earth's mantle increased from about half their present abundances at 3.5 Ga to their present abundances at 2.9 Ga. This secular increase in PGE content suggests a progressive mixing of the late veneer material into the Earth's mantle. However, this time scale also implies that the whole mantle was relatively well mixed by 2.9 Ga. We use a compilation of existing isotopic and trace element data in order to constrain the origin and composition of the late veneer. We use PGE abundances, W abundances and W isotopic compositions in chondritic meteorites and the primitive upper mantle to compute the amount of mass delivered during the late veneer and find the late veneer mass to be ~0.6 % the mass of the bulk silicate Earth (consistent with earlier estimates). We also use the 187Re-187Os and 190Pt-186Os systems to constrain the composition and timing of delivery of the impacting population. We model the efficiency of mantle mixing in this time frame by using 3-dimensional numerical geodynamical simulations and geochemical constraints. Initial parameters include the

  3. The phase diagrams and compensation behaviors of mixed spin Blume-Capel model in a trimodal magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.F. [Department of Physics, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yan, S.L. [Department of Physics, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Jiangsu Key Loboratory of Film Materials, Suzhou University, Suzhou 215006 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: slyan@suda.edu.cn

    2008-04-07

    The phase diagrams and compensation behaviors of mixed spin-1/2 and spin-1 Blume-Capel model in a trimodal magnetic field are investigated in the framework of the effective field theory on simple cubic lattice. The change of negative crystal field and trimodal concentration can affect the TCP, the second-order phase and the magnetic field degeneration at ground state in T-H space. In T-D space, the trajectory of the TCP takes on the acre curve and there exist the two TCPs under certain condition. In addition to giving one or two compensation temperature points in M-T space, the mixed spin Blume-Capel model also provides one or two novel compensation magnetic field points in M-H