Sample records for late middle ordovician

  1. The earliest cornulitid on the internal surface of the illaenid pygidium from the Middle Ordovician of Estonia

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    Olev Vinn


    Full Text Available The earliest cornulitid Cornulites sp. appears in the Darriwilian (Lasnamägi Regional Stage of Estonia. Internal annulation is present in all Middle Ordovician cornulitids and could be a plesiomorphic character for the group. The encrusted trilobites are rare in the Ordovician of Estonia. Illaenid pygidia and cranidia were encrusted by cornulitids and trepostome bryozoans. The encrustation of both Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobites took place post mortem. The studied hard substrate communities of Middle Ordovician and Late Ordovician trilobite pygidia and cranidia are typical of the Ordovician.

  2. Middle to Late Ordovician faunal studies from central Australia and Tasmania during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube

    A profound transformation of the marine biosphere took place during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), recognized as the longest interval of sustained biodiversification in the history of life. Successions through the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone of the Amadeus Basin......, but the diversity is generally relatively low. The bivalves are the most dominant and diverse group in the central Australian fauna, whereas the brachiopods are the most dominant and diverse group in the Tasmanian fauna. Thirteen trilobite, five brachiopod, four conodont and 22 mollusc taxa have been documented......, but the preservation and low number of specimens prevent formal definition of additional new taxa. Although highly endemic at species level, the investigated brachiopod, trilobite and mollusc faunas display a high degree of overall similarity at generic level with Middle Ordovician faunas from North China. Other...

  3. Late Ordovician brachiopods from eastern North Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian


    Late Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopods, typical of the North American Red River fauna, are found sporadically in the BOrglum River Formation of the Centrum SO area, Kronprins Christian Land, eastern North Greenland. The geographical distribution of this characteristic brachiopod fauna......) to younger strata exclusively yielding specimens of H.gigas. As H.gigas occurs in the upper part of the Cape Calhoun Formation in Washington Land, it indicates that the upper boundary of the Cape Calhoun Formation is considerably younger than previous estimates, reaching into the uppermost Katian (middle...... (Richmondian), it possesses a strong provincial signal during the later Ordovician. The new occurrences indicate that this fauna extended to the north-eastern margin of the Laurentian Craton. It lived in close association with cosmopolitan faunal elements that may have been the earliest sign of the succeeding...

  4. Late Ordovician palaeogeography and the positions of the Kazakh terranes through analysis of their brachiopod faunas (United States)

    Popov, Leonid E.; Cocks, Robin M.


    Detailed biogeographical and biofacies analyses of the Late Ordovician brachiopod faunas with 160 genera, grouped into 94 faunas from individual lithotectonic units within the Kazakh Orogen strongly support an archipelago model for that time in that area. The Kazakh island arcs and microcontinents within several separate clusters were located in the tropics on both sides of the Equator. Key units, from which the Late Ordovician faunas are now well known, include the Boshchekul, Chingiz-Tarbagatai, and Chu-Ili terranes. The development of brachiopod biogeography within the nearly ten million year time span of the Late Ordovician from about 458 to 443 Ma (Sandbian, Katian, and Hirnantian), is supported by much new data, including our revised identifications from the Kazakh Orogen and elsewhere. The Kazakh archipelago was west of the Australasian segment of the Gondwana Supercontinent, and relatively near the Tarim, South China and North China continents, apart from the Atashu-Zhamshi Microcontinent, which probably occupied a relatively isolated position on the south-western margin of the archipelago. Distinct faunal signatures indicate that the Kazakh terranes were far away from Baltica and Siberia throughout the Ordovician. Although some earlier terranes had joined each other before the Middle Ordovician, the amalgamation of Kazakh terranes into the single continent of Kazakhstania by the end of the Ordovician is very unlikely. The Late Ordovician brachiopods from the other continents are also compared with the Kazakh faunas and global provincialisation statistically determined.

  5. Cornulitids (tubeworms) from the Late Ordovician Hirnantia fauna of Morocco (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Marco, Juan Carlos; Vinn, Olev


    Two species of cornulitids, Cornulites gondwanensis sp. nov. and C. aff. shallochensis Reed are described from the Hirnantian of Morocco, within an assemblage representative of the Hirnantia brachiopod fauna occurring near the Ordovician South Pole. The dominance of aggregated and solitary free forms could be explained by particular sedimentary environments preceding the Hirnantian glaciation and the latest Ordovician Extinction Event. The diversity of cornulitids in the Late Ordovician of Gondwana and related terranes was relatively low, and less diverse than the cornulitids of Laurentia and Baltica. Hirnantian cornulitids from Morocco do not resemble Late Ordovician cornulitids of Baltica and Laurentia. Moroccan cornulitids seem to be closely allied to some older Gondwanan cornulitids, especially Sardinian ones. They resemble species described from the Late Ordovician and Llandovery of Scotland suggesting a palaeobiogeographic link.

  6. Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas from the Cincinnati, Ohio area

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    Frey, R.C.


    The distribution of pelecypod faunas in the Late Ordovician strata exposed in the Cincinnati, Ohio area, points to a close relationship between lithofacies type and the life habits of these Ordovician bivalves. Muddy clastic shallow marine facies of Edenian, Maysvillian, and early Richmondian age support faunas dominated by endobyssate filter-feeding species, including a variety of modiomorphids and the genus Ambonychia, plus infaunal filter-feeding orthonotids, and in faunal deposit-feeding palaeotaxodonts. These pelecypod groups occur in claystones with a fauna of calymenid and asaphid trilobites, nautiloids, cyclomyan monoplacophorans, and occasionally crinoids and asterozoans. Younger Richmondian strata in the area are predominantly carbonate platform facies and support pelecypod faunas dominated by robust endobyssate and epibyssate ambonychiids, cyrtodontids, and colpomyids. These pelecypods are associated with diverse assemblage of articulate brachiopods, trepostome ectoprocts, solitary rugose corals, and mollusks in skeletal limestones representing storm-reworked thickets or ramos ectoprocts. This fundamental dichotomy in Late Ordovician pelecypod faunas is recognized not only in the Cincinnati area, but in Late Ordovician strata exposed on Manitoulin Island in Ontario and eastward into Quebec. Reconstructions of the life habits of these pelecypods demonstrates the dominance of the endobyssate mode of life in these Early Paleozoic pelecypods.

  7. The Late Ordovician deglaciation sequence of the SW Murzuq Basin (Libya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien


    Rocks of Late Ordovician to Silurian age are well exposed on the western rim of theMurzuq Basin (Ghat-Tikiumit area,Libya)where seismic-scale exposures allow spectacular insights into the growth and decay of the LateOrdovician (Hirnantian) ice sheet.The ¢nal deglaciation left a complex topography...

  8. Alleged cnidarian Sphenothallus in the Late Ordovician of Baltica, its mineral composition and microstructure

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    Olev Vinn


    Full Text Available Sphenothallus is a problematic fossil with possible cnidarian affinities. Two species of Sphenothallus, S. aff. longissimus and S. kukersianus, occur in the normal marine sediments of the Late Ordovician of Estonia. S. longissimus is more common than S. kukersianus and has a range from early Sandbian to middle Katian. Sphenothallus had a wide paleo-biogeographic distribution in the Late Ordovician. The tubes of Sphenothallus are composed of lamellae with a homo-geneous microstructure. The homogeneous microstructure could represent a diagenetic fabric, based on the similarity to diagenetic structures in Torellella (Cnidaria?, Hyolithelminthes. Tubes of Sphenothallus have an apatitic composition, but one tube contains lamellae of diagenetic calcite within the apatitic structure. Sphenothallus presumably had origi-nally biomineralized apatitic tubes. Different lattice parameters of the apatite indicate that biomineralization systems of phosphatic cnidarians Sphenothallus and Conularia sp. may have been different.

  9. Tropical shoreline ice in the late Cambrian: Implications for earth's climate between the Cambrian Explosion and the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (United States)

    Runkel, Anthony C.; MacKey, T.J.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Fox, David L.


    Middle to late Cambrian time (ca. 513 to 488 Ma) is characterized by an unstable plateau in biodiversity, when depauperate shelf faunas suffered repeated extinctions. This poorly understood interval separates the Cambrian Explosion from the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event and is generally regarded as a time of sustained greenhouse conditions. We present evidence that suggests a drastically different climate during this enigmatic interval: Features indicative of meteoric ice are well preserved in late Cambrian equatorial beach deposits that correspond to one of the shelf extinction events. Thus, the middle to late Cambrian Earth was at least episodically cold and might best be considered a muted analogue to the environmental extremes that characterized the Proterozoic, even though cooling in the two periods may have occurred in response to different triggers. Such later Cambrian conditions may have significantly impacted evolution preceding the Ordovician radiation.

  10. High-resolution conodont oxygen isotope record of Ordovician climate change (United States)

    Chen, J.; Chen, Z.; Algeo, T. J.


    The Ordovician Period was characterized by several major events, including a prolonged 'super greenhouse' during the Early Ordovician, the 'Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE)' of the Middle and early Late Ordovician, and the Hirnantian ice age and mass extinction of the latest Ordovician (Webby et al., 2004, The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event, Columbia University Press). The cause of the rapid diversification of marine invertebrates during the GOBE is not clear, however, and several scenarios have been proposed including widespread development of shallow cratonic seas, strong magmatic and tectonic activity, and climate moderation. In order to investigate relationships between climate change and marine ecosystem evolution during the Ordovician, we measured the oxygen isotopic composition of single coniform conodonts using a Cameca secondary ion mass spectrometer. Our δ18O profile shows a shift at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition that is indicative of a rapid 6 to 8 °C cooling. This cooling event marks the termination of the Early Ordovician 'super greenhouse' and may have established cooler tropical seawater temperatures that were more favorable for invertebrate animals, setting the stage for the GOBE. Additional cooling episodes occurred during the early Sandbian, early Katian, and Hirnantian, the last culminating in a short-lived (extinction. Our results differ from those of Trotter et al. (2008, 'Did cooling oceans trigger Ordovician biodiversification? Evidence from conodont thermometry,' Science 321:550-554). Instead of a slow, protracted cooling through the Early and Middle Ordovician, our high-resolution record shows that cooling occurred in several discrete steps, with the largest step being at the Early/Middle Ordovician transition.

  11. A new age model for the Late Ordovician bentonites in Oslo, Norway (United States)

    Gottschalk Ballo, Eirik; Eivind Augland, Lars; Hammer, Øyvind; Svensen, Henrik


    During the Late Ordovician, explosive volcanic eruptions led to the deposition of worldwide bentonites. Some of the largest of these eruptions took place in the Sandbian and produced the Milbrig and Deicke K-bentonites of North America and the Kinnekulle K-bentonite of Scandinavia. We have studied the classic locality of Hagemann and Spjeldnæs (1955) - one of the most complete sections of Ordovician bentonites in Europe. The bentonites are present in the Arnestad Formation comprising dark shale with carbonate nodule beds grading into an increasingly more carbonate rich environment. Through a 50-meter interval we have identified 33 bentonites of which 10 have not previously been reported from this locality. The bentonites have an average thickness of 4.9 cm with a few exceptions such as the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (35 cm) and the Grimstorp B (13 cm). We have measured magnetic susceptibility of two 2-3 meter intervals with a sampling distance of 5 cm, using a handheld magnetic susceptibility meter in the field. These data show significant periodicity peaks that correlate well with Milankovitch cycles and are suggested to represent astronomically forced changes in sediment supply. This study further presents high-precision U-Pb zircon ages of five bentonites from the section, including the Kinnekulle K-bentonite and Grimstorp B. These two beds were previously dated by Svensen et al. (2015) from a locality south of Oslo. Our new data improves the precision of the ages of these two key beds, and constrain the duration of the entire interval and thus the onset and termination of the late Ordovician volcanic system that deposited these tephras. We conclude that the Oslo section provides a high-resolution age model to understand one of the most intense volcanic periods of the Paleozoic by combining radiometric and cyclostratigraphic data. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hagemann, F. and Spjeldnæs, N. (1955). "The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo region, Norway. 6. Notes on bentonites (K

  12. A proposed GSSP for the base of the Middle Ordovician Series: the Huanghuachang section,Yichang, China

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    XiaofengWang; SvendStouge; Bernd-D.Erdtmann; XiaohongChen; ZhihongLi; ChuanshangWang; QingluanZeng; ZhiqiangZhou; HuimingChen


    The Huanghuachang section near Yichang, southern China meets the requirements of Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Middle Ordovician Series and the yet-to-be-named third stage of the Ordovician System (or lower stage of Middle Ordovician Series). The conodont succession at the section is complete across the Lower to Middle Ordovician series boundary and several excellent phylogenetic lineages of Baltoniodus, Trapezognathus, Periodon, and Microzarkodina are represented. The definition of the base of the Middle Ordovician is proposed to be the first appearance datum (FAD) of Baltoniodus? triangularis in the section. It is followed closely by the FAD of Microzarkodina flabellum, which is taken as a reasonable proxy for the boundary. This level approximates the boundary between the lower and upper intervals of the Azygograptus suecicus graptolite Biozone, and nearly coincides with the base of the Belonechitina henryi chitinozoan Biozone.The proposed GSSP for the base of the international Middle Ordovician Series is located in a roadside exposure at the base of Bed (SHod) 16, 10.57 m above the base of the Dawan Formation in the measured Huanghuachang section near Yichang City, southern China. The same faunal succession is also recorded from the Chenjiahe (formerly Daping) section, 5 km to the north of the Huanghuachang section. The proposed boundary horizon can be recognized and correlated globally with high precision in both relatively shallow-water carbonate facies as well as in deep-water graptolite facies.

  13. Late ordovician stratigraphy, zircon provenance and tectonics, Lachlan Fold Belt, southeastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fergusson, C.L.; Fanning, C.M.


    Ordovician quartz turbidites of the Lachlan Fold Belt in southeastern Australia accumulated in a marginal sea and overlapped an adjoining island arc (Molong volcanic province) developed adjacent to eastern Gondwana. The turbidite succession in the Shoalhaven River Gorge, in the southern highlands of New South Wales, has abundant outcrop and graptolite sites. The succession consists of, from the base up, a unit of mainly thick-bedded turbidites (undifferentiated Adaminaby Group), a unit with conspicuous bedded chert (Numeralla Chert), a unit with common thin-bedded turbidites [Bumballa Formation (new name)] and a unit of black shale (Warbisco Shale). Coarse to very coarse sandstone in the Bumballa Formation is rich in quartz and similar to sandstone in the undifferentiated Adaminaby Group. Detrital zircons from sandstone in the Bumballa Formation, and from sandstone at a similar stratigraphic level from the upper Adaminaby Group of the Genoa River area in eastern Victoria, include grains as young as 453-473 Ma, slightly older than the stratigraphic ages. The dominant detrital ages are in the interval 500-700 Ma (Pacific Gondwana component) with a lessor concentration of Grenville ages (1000-1300 Ma). This pattern resembles other Ordovician sandstones from the Lachlan Fold Belt and also occurs in Triassic sandstones and Quaternary sands from eastern Australia. The Upper Ordovician succession is predominantly fine grained, which reflects reduced clastic inputs from the source in the Middle Cambrian to earliest Ordovician Ross-Delamerian Fold Belts that developed along the eastern active margin of Gondwana. Development of subduction zones in the Late Ordovician marginal sea are considered to be mainly responsible for the diversion of sediment and the resulting reduction in the supply of terrigenous sand to the island arc and eastern part of the marginal sea. Sixty zircons from each sample were analysed and results are presented. Methods following standard procedures

  14. The onset of the 'Ordovician Plankton Revolution' in the late Cambrian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Servais, Thomas; Perrier, Vincent; Danelian, Taniel


    Positive Carbon Isotope Excursion δ13Ccarb (SPICE) event in the late Cambrian (Paibian Stage, Furongian Series) has been related to a major increase in atmospheric O2 (from 10-18% to some 20 - 29%) and to increased oceanic nutrient availability. Here we analyze the diversification of the planktonic groups...... during the late Cambrian and Early Ordovician, in particular in relation to the SPICE event. Our analyses include the changing diversities of the phytoplankton (acritarchs), diverse groups of zooplankton (e.g., radiolarians, graptolites, chitinozoans) and the switch to a planktonic mode of life of fossil...... of the different planktonic organisms can be related directly to the SPICE event. However, a long term (10-20millionyears) oxygenation pulse related to the SPICE event might have fuelled the explosion of phytoplankton diversity observed in the latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician that led to completely modified...

  15. Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan (United States)

    Turner, Brian R.; Makhlouf, Issa M.; Armstrong, Howard A.


    The Late Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits in southern Jordan, comprise a lower and upper glacially incised palaeovalley system, occupying reactivated basement and Pan-African fault-controlled depressions. The lower palaeovalley, incised into shoreface sandstones of the pre-glacial Tubeiliyat Formation, is filled with thin glaciofluvial sandstones at the base, overlain by up to 50 m of shoreface sandstone. A prominent glaciated surface near the top of this palaeovalley-fill contains intersecting glacial striations aligned E-W and NW-SE. The upper palaeovalley-fill comprises glaciofluvial and marine sandstones, incised into the lower palaeovalley or, where this is absent, into the Tubeiliyat Formation. Southern Jordan lay close to the margin of a Late Ordovician terrestrial ice sheet in Northwest Saudi Arabia, characterised by two major ice advances. These are correlated with the lower and upper palaeovalleys in southern Jordan, interrupted by two subsidiary glacial advances during late stage filling of the lower palaeovalley when ice advanced from the west and northwest. Thus, four ice advances are now recorded from the Late Ordovician glacial record of southern Jordan. Disturbed and deformed green sandstones beneath the upper palaeovalley-fill in the Jebel Ammar area, are confined to the margins of the Hutayya graben, and have been interpreted as structureless glacial loessite or glacial rock flour. Petrographic and textural analyses of the deformed sandstones, their mapped lateral transition into undeformed Tubeiliyat marine sandstones away from the fault zone, and the presence of similar sedimentary structures to those in the pre-glacial marine Tubeiliyat Formation suggest that they are a locally deformed facies equivalent of the Tubeiliyat, not part of the younger glacial deposits. Deformation is attributed to glacially induced crustal stresses and seismic reactivation of pre-existing faults, previously weakened by epeirogenesis, triggering sediment

  16. A new Late Ordovician erratic anthaspidellid sponge (Porifera) originating from Baltica

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    Rhebergen, F.


    The new anthaspidellid taxon Brevaspidella dispersa is erected for specimens recovered from the Late Ordovician sponge assemblages of the island of Gotland, Sweden and the Dutch-German border region. In the latter area, they are collected from Early Pleistocene fluvial deposits of the Baltic River

  17. Brachiopod associations from the Middle Ordovician of the Oslo Region, Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela, Yves; Hansen, Thomas


    The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups and their pr......The marine upper Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) Elnes Formation of southern Norway contains very rich and diverse invertebrate faunas. Stratigraphically detailed recent collections of these well-preserved faunas have permitted a more thorough description of the various faunal groups...... by linguliformeans although some sections of the formation are dominated by the plectambonitoids Alwynella ildjernensis Spjeldnaes or Cathrynia aequistriata (Hadding) or by orthid brachiopods. Statistical analysis of the brachiopod fauna reveals that the general depositional trend of the Elnes Formation...... in muddy to marly deposits formed around maximal storm wave base and an orthid-dominated association representing an environment characterised by a fairly coarse or hard bottom substrate formed well above storm wave base but below fair weather wave base....

  18. High potential for weathering and climate effects of non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician (United States)

    Porada, Philipp; Lenton, Tim; Pohl, Alexandre; Weber, Bettina; Mander, Luke; Donnadieu, Yannick; Beer, Christian; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kleidon, Axel


    Early non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician may have strongly increased chemical weathering rates of surface rocks at the global scale. This could have led to a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and, consequently, a decrease in global temperature and an interval of glaciations. Under current climatic conditions, usually field or laboratory experiments are used to quantify enhancement of chemical weathering rates by non-vascular vegetation. However, these experiments are constrained to a small spatial scale and a limited number of species. This complicates the extrapolation to the global scale, even more so for the geological past, where physiological properties of non-vascular vegetation may have differed from current species. Here we present a spatially explicit modelling approach to simulate large-scale chemical weathering by non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician. For this purpose, we use a process-based model of lichens and bryophytes, since these organisms are probably the closest living analogue to Late Ordovician vegetation. The model explicitly represents multiple physiological strategies, which enables the simulated vegetation to adapt to Ordovician climatic conditions. We estimate productivity of Ordovician vegetation with the model, and relate it to chemical weathering by assuming that the organisms dissolve rocks to extract phosphorus for the production of new biomass. Thereby we account for limits on weathering due to reduced supply of unweathered rock material in shallow regions, as well as decreased transport capacity of runoff for dissolved weathered material in dry areas. We simulate a potential global weathering flux of 2.8 km3 (rock) per year, which we define as volume of primary minerals affected by chemical transformation. Our estimate is around 3 times larger than today's global chemical weathering flux. Furthermore, chemical weathering rates simulated by our model are highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 concentration, which implies

  19. Cambrian-lower Middle Ordovician passive carbonate margin, southern Appalachians: Chapter 14 (United States)

    Read, J. Fred; Repetski, John E.


    The southern Appalachian part of the Cambrian–Ordovician passive margin succession of the great American carbonate bank extends from the Lower Cambrian to the lower Middle Ordovician, is as much as 3.5 km (2.2 mi) thick, and has long-term subsidence rates exceeding 5 cm (2 in.)/k.y. Subsiding depocenters separated by arches controlled sediment thickness. The succession consists of five supersequences, each of which contains several third-order sequences, and numerous meter-scale parasequences. Siliciclastic-prone supersequence 1 (Lower Cambrian Chilhowee Group fluvial rift clastics grading up into shelf siliciclastics) underlies the passive margin carbonates. Supersequence 2 consists of the Lower Cambrian Shady Dolomite–Rome-Waynesboro Formations. This is a shallowing-upward ramp succession of thinly bedded to nodular lime mudstones up into carbonate mud-mound facies, overlain by lowstand quartzose carbonates, and then a rimmed shelf succession capped by highly cyclic regressive carbonates and red beds (Rome-Waynesboro Formations). Foreslope facies include megabreccias, grainstone, and thin-bedded carbonate turbidites and deep-water rhythmites. Supersequence 3 rests on a major unconformity and consists of a Middle Cambrian differentiated rimmed shelf carbonate with highly cyclic facies (Elbrook Formation) extending in from the rim and passing via an oolitic ramp into a large structurally controlled intrashelf basin (Conasauga Shale). Filling of the intrashelf basin caused widespread deposition of thin quartz sandstones at the base of supersequence 4, overlain by widespread cyclic carbonates (Upper Cambrian lower Knox Group Copper Ridge Dolomite in the south; Conococheague Formation in the north). Supersequence 5 (Lower Ordovician upper Knox in the south; Lower to Middle Ordovician Beekmantown Group in the north) has a basal quartz sandstone-prone unit, overlain by cyclic ramp carbonates, that grade downdip into thrombolite grainstone and then storm

  20. Depositional Architecture of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician Siliciclastic Barik Formation; Al Huqf Area, Oman (United States)

    Abbasi, Iftikhar Ahmed


    Early Paleozoic siliciclastics sediments of the Haima Supergroup are subdivided into a number of formations and members based on lithological characteristics of various rock sequences. One of the distinct sandstone sequence, the Barik Formation (Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician) of the Andam Group is a major deep gas reservoir in central Oman. The sandstone bodies are prospective reservoir rocks while thick shale and clay interbeds act as effective seal. Part of the Barik Formation (lower and middle part) is exposed in isolated outcrops in Al Huqf area as interbedded multistoried sandstone, and green and red shale. The sandstone bodies are up to 2 meters thick and can be traced laterally for 300 m to over 1 km. Most of sandstone bodies show both lateral and vertical stacking. Two types of sandstone lithofacies are identified on the basis of field characteristics; a plane-bedded sandstone lithofacies capping thick red and green color shale beds, and a cross-bedded sandstone lithofacies overlying the plane-bedded sandstone defining coarsening upward sequences. The plane-bedded sandstone at places contains Cruziana ichnofacies and bivalve fragments indicating deposition by shoreface processes. Thick cross-bedded sandstone is interpreted to be deposited by the fluvial dominated deltaic processes. Load-casts, climbing ripples and flaser-bedding in siltstone and red shale indicate influence of tidal processes at times during the deposition of the formation. This paper summarizes results of a study carried out in Al Huqf area outcrops to analyze the characteristics of the sandstone-body geometry, internal architecture, provenance and diagenetic changes in the lower and middle part of the formation. The study shows build-up of a delta complex and its progradation over a broad, low-angle shelf where fluvial processes operate beside shoreface processes in a vegetation free setting. Keywords: Andam Group, Barik Formation, Ordovician sandstone, Al Huqf, Central Oman,

  1. Phylogenetic paleobiogeography of Late Ordovician Laurentian brachiopods

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    Jennifer E. Bauer


    Full Text Available Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis of four brachiopod genera was used to uncover large-scale geologic drivers of Late Ordovician biogeographic differentiation in Laurentia. Previously generated phylogenetic hypotheses were converted into area cladograms, ancestral geographic ranges were optimized and speciation events characterized as via dispersal or vicariance, when possible. Area relationships were reconstructed using Lieberman-modified Brooks Parsimony Analysis. The resulting area cladograms indicate tectonic and oceanographic changes were the primary geologic drivers of biogeographic patterns within the focal taxa. The Taconic tectophase contributed to the separation of the Appalachian and Central basins as well as the two midcontinent basins, whereas sea level rise following the Boda Event promoted interbasinal dispersal. Three migration pathways into the Cincinnati Basin were recognized, which supports the multiple pathway hypothesis for the Richmondian Invasion.

  2. Main consistent patterns of Stromatoporoid Development in the Late Ordovician and Silurian in the North Urals Palaeobasin (United States)

    Antropova, E.


    In the history of the Earth there have been no basins with similar characteristics. The North Urals palaeobasin had its own unique features. The dominant benthic organisms of basin ecosystem during the Ordovician and Silurian were stromatoporoids, corals, and brachiopods. This fauna is vitally important for the aims of stratigraphy so long as conodonts are extremely rare in sections of the Northern Urals area. The most complete ordering of stromatoporoid complexes has been established and made it possible to estimate rates and measures of extinction at a level of the province. It was also found out that stromatoporoids were organisms responsive to subtle changes of environment and that they accommodated differently to those changing conditions. The evolution of stromatoporoids was accompanied by phylogenetic reorganization and formation of endemic communities in the Late Ordovician and Early Silurian. In the Late Silurian taxonomical diversity of stromatoporoids was mainly controlled by migration processes and cosmopolites with wide palaeogeographic links prevailed in the palaeobasin. Therefore palaeobasin at that time was open to stromatoporoid fauna migration which is confirmed by the occurrence of genera and species that disperse in coeval deposits of many areas, for example, Baltic States, Sweden, Ukraine (Podolia), Western Siberia, Arctic islands of Russia, Mongolia, Canada (islands). The evolution of stromatoporoid communities in the Ordovician-Silurian was intermitted by biotic crises. The analysis of stromatoporoid development helps to define crucial points of ecosystem's reorganizations coinciding with critical geological and biotic events in the history of the North Urals palaeobasin existence, as well as global events during the Ordovician and Silurian (Hirnantian Event, Ireviken Event, Lau Event). The analysis of crises indicates local dependence of stromatoporoid biodiversity on depositional environments. Large local biocenos reorganizations and biotic

  3. Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf sequences of the Eastern Great Basin: Barn Hills and Lakeside Mountains, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, M.T. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Geosciences); Sheehan, P.M. (Milwaukee Public Museum, WI (United States). Dept of Geology)


    Detailed stratigraphic sections through Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian shelf strata of the Eastern Great Basin were measured in two Utah localities, Barn Hills (Confusion Range) and Lakeside Mountains. Six major subfacies occur in these strata: mud-cracked and crinkly laminated subfacies, Laminated mudstone subfacies, cross-bedded grainstone subfacies, cross-laminated packstone subfacies, grainy bioturbated subfacies, muddy bioturbated subfacies, and thalassinoides burrowed subfacies. These occur in 1--10 m thick cycles in three facies: muddy cyclic laminite facies (tidal flats), cross-bedded facies (subtidal shoals), and bioturbated facies (moderate to low-energy shelf). The vertical facies succession, stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles, and exposure surfaces define correlatable sequences. The authors recognize four Upper Ordovician sequences (Mayvillian to Richmondian). An uppermost Ordovician (Hirnantian) sequence is missing in these sections but occurs basinward. Lower Silurian sequences are of early Llandoverian (A), middle Llandoverian (B), early late Llandoverian (C1--C3), late late Llandoverian (C4--C5), latest Llandoverian (C6) to early Wenlock age. In general, Upper Ordovician and latest Llandoverian-Wenlockian facies are muddier than intervening Llandoverian facies. The shift to muddier shelf facies in latest Llandoverian probably corresponds to the development of a rimmed shelf. The sequence framework improves correlation of these strata by combining sedimentologic patterns with the biostratigraphic data. For example, in the Lakesides, the Ordovician-Silurian boundary is shifted 37 m downward from recent suggestions. In addition, the sequence approach highlights intervals for which additional biostratigraphic information is needed.

  4. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar Lallena, Jorge; Monceret, Eric


    , and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature...... (CT), indicative of continental fracturing.The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian...

  5. The oldest iocrinid crinoids from the Early/Middle Ordovician of China: Possible paleogeographic implications (United States)

    Lin, Jih-Pai; Ausich, William I.; Balinski, Andrzej; Bergström, Stig M.; Sun, Yuanlin


    This study reports new crinoid material, which is identified as Muicrinus dawanensis new genus and new species from South China, representing the oldest known iocrinid in the world. These new fossils, which are characterized by bearing simple primibrachials and a helically coiled column, are from the lower-middle part of the Dawan Formation, which ranges from the upper Floian (Lower Ordovician) to the lower Dapingian (Middle Ordovician) (∼470 Ma). A total of 11 related taxa with 80 characters were selected to conduct phylogenetic analyses. Our results indicated that South China specimens are closely related to ones that are endemic to Laurentia. Synapomorphies shared between species in those two cratons include elongate supraradial plates and isotomous arm branching. Furthermore, the phylogenetic closeness of endemic taxa that only occurred in two cratons leads us to suggest a geographic connection between those regions during deep time. Combining biogeographic evidence reported from Cambrian studies, this study supports the "missing-link" configuration of Rodinia during the breakup phase. Based on the crinoid global biodiversity pattern updated here, the potential for discovery of new Paleozoic crinoid faunas in China is very high.

  6. Sequence stratigraphy in the middle Ordovician shale successions, mid-east Korea: Stratigraphic variations and preservation potential of organic matter within a sequence stratigraphic framework (United States)

    Byun, Uk Hwan; Lee, Hyun Suk; Kwon, Yi Kyun


    The Jigunsan Formation is the middle Ordovician shale-dominated transgressive succession in the Taebaeksan Basin, located in the eastern margin of the North China platform. The total organic carbon (TOC) content and some geochemical properties of the succession exhibit a stratigraphically distinct distribution pattern. The pattern was closely associated with the redox conditions related to decomposition, bulk sedimentation rate (dilution), and productivity. To explain the distinct distribution pattern, this study attempted to construct a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework for the Jigunsan Formation. The shale-dominated Jigunsan Formation comprises a lower layer of dark gray shale, deposited during transgression, and an upper layer of greenish gray siltstone, deposited during highstand and falling stage systems tracts. The concept of a back-stepped carbonate platform is adopted to distinguish early and late transgressive systems tracts (early and late TST) in this study, whereas the highstand systems tracts and falling stage systems tracts can be divided by changes in stacking patterns from aggradation to progradation. The late TST would be initiated on a rapidly back-stepping surface of sediments and, just above the surface, exhibits a high peak in TOC content, followed by a gradually upward decrease. This trend of TOC distribution in the late TST continues to the maximum flooding surface (MFS). The perplexing TOC distribution pattern within the late TST most likely resulted from both a gradual reduction in productivity during the late TST and a gradual increase in dilution effect near the MFS interval. The reduced production of organic matter primarily incurred decreasing TOC content toward the MFS when the productivity was mainly governed by benthic biota because planktonic organisms were not widespread in the Ordovician. Results of this study will help improve the understanding of the source rock distribution in mixed carbonate

  7. End Ordovician extinctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David A. T.; Hammarlund, Emma; Rasmussen, Christian M. Ø.


    -global anoxia associated with a marked transgression during the Late Hirnantian. Most recently, however, new drivers for the extinctions have been proposed, including widespread euxinia together with habitat destruction caused by plate tectonic movements, suggesting that the end Ordovician mass extinctions were...

  8. Trilobites from the Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Harper, David Alexander Taylor


    During the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) sandstones and siltstones were deposited in the epicontinental Larapintine Sea, which covered large parts of central Australia. The Darriwilian Stairway Sandstone has, for the first time, been sampled stratigraphically for macrofossils to track marine...... benthic biodiversity in this clastic-dominated shallow-water palaeoenvironment situated along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The faunas from the Stairway Sandstone are generally of low diversity and dominated by bivalves but include several animal groups, with trilobites representing 25......% of the entire shelly fauna. Thirteen trilobite taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; the fauna displays a high degree of endemism. One new species, Basilicus (Parabasilicus) brumbyensis sp. nov. is described....

  9. Late Cambrian - Early Ordovician turbidites of Gorny Altai (Russia): Compositions, sources, deposition settings, and tectonic implications (United States)

    Kruk, Nikolai N.; Kuibida, Yana V.; Shokalsky, Sergey P.; Kiselev, Vladimir I.; Gusev, Nikolay I.


    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition was the time of several key events in the history of Central Asia. They were the accretion of Mariana-type island arc systems to the Siberian continent, the related large-scale orogeny and intrusions of basaltic and granitic magma and the formation of a huge turbidite basin commensurate with the Bengal Gulf basin in the western part of the Central Asian orogenic belt (CAOB). The structure of the basin, as well as the sources and environments of deposition remain open to discussion. This paper presents new major- and trace-element data on Late-Cambrian-Early Ordovician turbidites from different parts of the Russian Altai and a synthesis of Nd isotope composition and ages of detrital zircons. The turbidites share chemical similarity with material shed from weathered continental arcs. Broad variations of CIA (39-73) and ICV (0.63-1.66) signatures in sandstones suggest origin from diverse sources and absence of significant sorting. Trace elements vary considerably and have generally similar patterns in rocks from different terranes. On the other hand, there are at least two provinces according to Nd isotope composition and age of detrital zircons. Samples from eastern Russian Altai contain only Phanerozoic zircons and have Nd isotope ratios similar to those in Early Cambrian island arcs (εNdt + 4.4… + 5.4; TNd(DM)-2-st = 0.8-0.9 Ga). Samples from central, western, and southern parts of Russian Altai contain Precambrian zircons (some as old as Late Archean) and have a less radiogenic Nd composition (εNdt up to -3.6; TNd(DM)-2-st up to 1.5 Ga). The chemical signatures of Late Cambrian to Early Ordovician turbidites indicate a provenance chemically more mature than the island arc rocks, and the presence of zircons with 510-490 Ma ages disproves their genetic relation with island arcs. The turbidite basin formed simultaneously with peaks of granitic and alkali-basaltic magmatism in the western Central Asian orogen and resulted from

  10. The chromium isotopic composition of an Early to Middle Ordovician marine carbonate platform, eastern Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Arcy, Joan Mary; Frei, Robert; Gilleaudeau, Geoffrey Jon

    A broad suite of redox proxy data suggest that despite ocean and atmosphere oxygenation in the late Neoproterozoic, euxinic conditions persisted in the global deep oceans until the at least Ordovician [1,2,3]. Major changes in the sulphur isotopic composition of carbonate associated sulphate and ...

  11. The Late Ordovician Extinction: How it became the best understood of the five major extinctions. (United States)

    Sheehan, P.


    The end Ordovician extinction has become arguably the best-understood major extinction event in Earth History. A plethora of workers have established the pattern of faunal change and causes of the extinction with remarkably little disagreement. The first indication of increased extinction at the end of the Ordovician was a graph of global diversity patterns by Norman Newell in 1967, although he did not recognize it as a major event. The presence of a major extinction event became clear as William Berry and Art Boucot assembled data for Silurian correlation charts in the late 1960s. The first reports of North African glaciation in the late 1960s provided a cause for the extinction and study of the event snowballed. It was no accident that recognition of the extinction began in North America, because it was there that the extinction completely overturned faunas in the epicontinental seas. Glacio-eustatic regression of shallow seaway coincided with the disappearance of endemic Laurentian faunas and replacement by a highly cosmopolitan fauna in the Silurian. Once the event was established in North America, paleontologists soon found evidence of the event around the globe. The well-documented Hirnantia Fauna was found to correspond to the glacial interval, and Pat Brenchley soon recognized that there were two pulses of extinction, at the beginning and end of the glaciation. At the same time that the faunal changes were being documented geologic studies of the glaciation provided information on the environmental changes associated with the extinction. The timing of the glacial maximum was established in Africa and by the presence of dropstones in high latitude marine rocks. The 1990s saw geochemical techniques employed that allowed examination of atmospheric CO2 and temperature changes. In many places carbonate deposition declined. Glacio-eustatic regression was obvious in many areas, and a sea-level decline in the range of 50-100 m was established. Shallow

  12. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Middle to lower Upper Ordovician Postolonnec Formation in the Armorican Massif (France): integrating pXRF, gammay-ray and lithological data (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Loi, Alfredo; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Claeys, Philippe


    these sections, but would help to resolve temporal uncertainties and confirm our interpretations. The relative strength of the potential obliquity and precession-eccentricity signals also can provide further insights in the global glaciation history of the Middle to Late Ordovician given that a larger obliquity component can be expected if there was a more developed polar ice sheet on the Gondwanan palaeocontinent. Dabard M.P., Loi A., Paris, F., Ghienne J.F., Pistis M., and Vidal M. (2015): Sea-level curve for the Middle to early Late Ordovician in the Armorican Massif (western France): Icehouse third-order glacio-eustatic cycles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeocology, 436, 96-111, doi:10.106/j.palaeo.2015.06.038

  13. Stratigraphical distribution of the Ordovician conodont Erraticodon Dzik in Argentina (United States)

    Heredia, S.; Carlorosi, J.; Mestre, A.; Soria, T.


    Three different species of the Ordovician genus Erraticodon Dzik are described and illustrated. Erraticodon patu Cooper is reported from the Lower-Midde Ordovician strata of the Acoite and Alto del Cóndor formations. E. cf. Erraticodon balticus and Erraticodon hexianensis from Middle Ordovician carbonate deposits of the San Juan Formation are analyzed and compared to specimens of these species from Australia, China, Newfoundland, and Baltica. E. patu and E. hexianensis are recorded for first time in the San Juan Formation of Precordillera. The elements of E. cf. E. balticus resemble closely E. balticus Dzik but lack the important denticle on the posterior process of the S elements. An evaluation of the stratigraphic occurrences of these species relative to those of key Lower and Middle Ordovician conodont species such as Trapezognathus diprion Lindström, Oepikodus intermedius Serpagli, Baltoniodus triangularis (Lindström), Baltoniodus navis Lindström, Yangtzeplacognathus crassus (Chen and Zhang) and Eoplacognathus pseudoplanus (Viira) indicates they value for biostratigraphic correlation.

  14. A Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian G. Jakobsen


    Full Text Available A bivalve-dominated molluscan fauna is described from the Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia. The fauna comprises 16 species of bivalves and rostroconchs plus six gastropod species which are treated under open nomenclature. Two new bivalves, Sthenodonta paenesymmetrica sp. nov. and Modiolopsis pojetai sp. nov., are described. The relatively low-diverse molluscan fauna constitutes around 62% of the total benthic macrofauna. Approximately 75% of the molluscs comprise bivalves, especially nuculoids, which were biogeographically restricted to low latitudes during the Ordovician. The molluscan assemblage displays a very high degree of endemism at species level, though the bivalve Sthenodonta eastii also occurs in the Georgina Basin farther to the northeast. This indicates a possible marine connective seaway between the Georgina and Amadeus basins during the Darriwilian. Nuculites, Cyrtodonta, and Modiolopsis are cosmopolitan and previously reported from North China, Avalonia, and Southern Gondwana.

  15. Diagenetic modification of Knox evaporative-dolomite geochemistry by middle Ordovician paleoaquifer/burial fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanez, I.P.; Read, J.F.


    Early Ordovician upper Knox cyclic carbonates (100,000-year periods) were deposited on a ramp in a semiarid setting. Inner ramp facies are completely dolomitized, whereas only cycle caps on the outer ramp are dolomite. Laminite caps on leading edges of prograding flats were dolomitized by evaporative, storm-recharged marine waters that precipitated CoCO/sub 3/ and minor amounts of CaSO/sub 4/. Subtidal facies beneath interiors of supratidal flats (up to 200 km wide)were dolomitized by shallow subsurface brines as the flats prograded. Inner ramp areas existed as supretidal flats for as long as 100,000 years, hence only there are sequences completely dolomitized. Tidal-flat dolomites consist of euhedral to subhedral fabric preservation mosaics (crystals 5-50, and up to 300 in replaced pelletal layers). Dolomitized subtidal sediments are composed of 20-200 dolomite crystals. Most of the early dolomites are fabric retentive initially, becoming more fabric destructive with increasing exposure to dolomitizing fluids. Fe values are up to 2000 ppm, and Mn values are up to 500 ppm. delta/sup 18/O values show strong geographic control, with samples depleted (up to - 7 per thousand) relative to pristine evaporative dolomites derived from concentrated Ordovician seawater. Burial dolomites are enriched in Fe (up to 14,000 ppm) and depleted in delta/sup 18/O, suggesting precipitation from basinal brines at elevated temperatures. Geochemical data suggest that evaporative dolomites have undergone modification by isotopically lighter fluids. Alteration most likely occurred within a Middle Ordovician meteoric aquifer system or less likely by later Paleozoic basinal brines. Regional geologic data for Knox Group carbonates throughout the eastern US are vital in constraining dolomitization models.

  16. Effect of the Ordovician paleogeography on the (instability of the climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pohl


    Full Text Available The Ordovician Period (485–443 Ma is characterized by abundant evidence for continental-sized ice sheets. Modeling studies published so far require a sharp CO2 drawdown to initiate this glaciation. They mostly used non-dynamic slab mixed-layer ocean models. Here, we use a general circulation model with coupled components for ocean, atmosphere, and sea ice to examine the response of Ordovician climate to changes in CO2 and paleogeography. We conduct experiments for a wide range of CO2 (from 16 to 2 times the preindustrial atmospheric CO2 level (PAL and for two continental configurations (at 470 and at 450 Ma mimicking the Middle and the Late Ordovician conditions. We find that the temperature-CO2 relationship is highly non-linear when ocean dynamics are taken into account. Two climatic modes are simulated as radiative forcing decreases. For high CO2 concentrations (≥ 12 PAL at 470 Ma and ≥ 8 PAL at 450 Ma, a relative hot climate with no sea ice characterizes the warm mode. When CO2 is decreased to 8 PAL and 6 PAL at 470 and 450 Ma, a tipping point is crossed and climate abruptly enters a runaway icehouse leading to a cold mode marked by the extension of the sea ice cover down to the mid-latitudes. At 450 Ma, the transition from the warm to the cold mode is reached for a decrease in atmospheric CO2 from 8 to 6 PAL and induces a ~9 °C global cooling. We show that the tipping point is due to the existence of a 95% oceanic Northern Hemisphere, which in turn induces a minimum in oceanic heat transport located around 40° N. The latter allows sea ice to stabilize at these latitudes, explaining the potential existence of the warm and of the cold climatic modes. This major climatic instability potentially brings a new explanation to the sudden Late Ordovician Hirnantian glacial pulse that does not require any large CO2 drawdown.

  17. Palynological tracers of eustatic and climatic changes in the Late Ordovician on the North Gondwanan Margin (United States)

    Le Hérissé, A.; Vecoli, M.


    groups and phytoplanctonic responses to varying palaeoenvironmental conditions (as for more recent analogues) has important applications to the study of climatic changes, the deglaciation history and the sedimentary environment of the late Ordovician in a broader context.

  18. Graptolite graveyard: Re-Os dating of macroplankton at the Lower-Middle Ordovician boundary (Floian-Dapingian stage boundary), Tøyen Shale, southern Sweden (United States)

    Goswami, V.; Stein, H. J.; Hannah, J. L.; Ahlberg, P.; Maletz, J.


    There exist only 16 radiometric ages for the entire 42 m.y. Ordovician Period. Stage boundaries are biostratigraphically defined by the first appearance of agreed on graptolite and conodont species. Cosmopolitan graptolites are common in the Ordovician and their relatively brief stratigraphic durations make them ideal for global correlations. The Floian-Dapingian stage boundary (Lower-Middle Ordovician boundary) is very poorly constrained, with an absence of radiometric dates for several million years below the boundary and poor statistics on ages in the lower Dapingian [1]. Here we use the Ordovician Tøyen Shale, widespread across southern Sweden and Norway with a highly-refined graptolite biostratigraphy, to add a new age constraint [2]. With drill core from Lerhamn, Sweden (samples from 35.75-36.70 m depth), we employ a novel approach to directly date the fauna. We physically extracted a well-preserved 5-cm fossil of macroplankton (graptolite) from organic-rich shales (up to 4% TOC) for Re-Os dating. The graptolite and its hosting shale together define a well-constrained Model 1 isochron of 469.4 ± 1.7 Ma (2s, MSWD = 1.7, n = 9) and an initial 187Os/188Os (Osi) of 0.802 ± 0.002 for seawater. The Osi documents sustained radiogenic Os input to seawater from the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian through the Early Ordovician, in concert with the Sr isotope seawater curve. The analyzed graptolite belongs to the species Pseudophyllograptus augustifolius, a member of the upper Floian fauna [2]. Our nominal age for the dated graptolite and the shale is lower Dapingian according to the 2017 GTS [1]. Therefore, the Re-Os age suggests the Floian-Dapingian stage boundary may be younger than currently accepted. As defined in the GTS, the Dapingian stage is only 2.7 m.y. (470.0 ± 1.4 to 467.3 ± 1.1 Ma); combined uncertainties could give the Dapingian a mere 0.2 m.y. duration (or a maximum of 5 m.y). Although uncertainties overlap, our first dating of the Lower-Middle Ordovician

  19. A record of astronomically forced climate change in a late Ordovician (Sandbian) deep marine sequence, Ordos Basin, North China (United States)

    Fang, Qiang; Wu, Huaichun; Hinnov, Linda A.; Wang, Xunlian; Yang, Tianshui; Li, Haiyan; Zhang, Shihong


    The late Ordovician Pingliang Formation on the southwestern margin of the Ordos Basin, North China, consists of rhythmic alternations of shale, limestone, and siliceous beds. To explore the possible astronomical forcing preserved in this lithological record, continuous lithological rank and magnetic susceptibility (MS) stratigraphic series were obtained from a 34 m thick section of the Pingliang Formation at Guanzhuang. Power spectral analysis of the MS and rank series reveal 85.5 cm to 124 cm, 23 cm to 38 cm, and 15 cm to 27 cm thick sedimentary cycles that in ratio match that of late Ordovician short eccentricity, obliquity and precession astronomical cycles. The power spectrum of the MS time series, calibrated to interpreted short orbital eccentricity cycles, aligns with spectral peaks to astronomical parameters, including 95 kyr short orbital eccentricity, 35.3 kyr and 30.6 kyr obliquity, and 19.6 kyr and 16.3 kyr precession cycles. The 15 cm to 27 cm thick limestone-shale couplets mainly represent precession cycles, and siliceous bed deposition may be related to both precession and obliquity forcing. We propose that precession-forced sea-level fluctuations mainly controlled production of lime mud in a shallow marine environment, and transport to the basin. Precession and obliquity controlled biogenic silica productivity, and temperature-dependent preservation of silica may have been influenced by obliquity forcing.

  20. Lower and Middle Ordovician conodonts of Laurentian affinity from blocks of limestone in the Rosroe Formation, South Mayo Trough, western Ireland and their palaeogeographic implication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stouge, Svend; Harper, David A. T.; Sevastopulo, George D.


    The Middle Ordovician Rosroe Formation consists of some 1350m of coarse, mainly siliciclastic to volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, deposited in a submarine fan environment, and is restricted to the southern limb of the South Mayo Trough, western Ireland. Discrete allochthonous blocks, reaching 5m...

  1. Nature and regional significance of unconformities associated with the Middle Ordovician Hagan K-bentonite complex in the North American midcontinent (United States)

    Kolata, Dennis R.; Huff, W.D.; Bergstrom, Stig M.


    Stratal patterns of the Middle Ordovician Hagan K-bentonite complex and associated rocks show that the Black River-Trenton unconformity in the North American midcontinent formed through the complex interplay of eustasy, sediment accumulation rates, siliciclastic influx, bathymetry, seawater chemistry, and perhaps local tectonic uplift. The unconformity is diachronous and is an amalgamated surface that resulted from local late Turinian lowstand exposure followed by regional early Chatfieldian transgressive drowning and sediment starvation. The duration of the unconformity is greatest in southern Wisconsin, northern Illinois, and northern Indiana, where the Deicke and Millbrig K-bentonite Beds converge at the unconformity. On the basis of published isotopic ages for the Deicke and Millbrig beds, it is possible that in these regions erosion and non-deposition spanned a period of as much as 3.2 m.y. Two broad coeval depositional settings are recognized within the North American midcontinent during early Chatfieldian time. 1) An inner shelf, subtidal facies of fossiliferous shale (Spechts Ferry Shale Member and Ion Shale Member of the Decorah Formation) and argillaceous lime mudstone and skeletal wackestone (Guttenberg and Kings Lake Limestone Members) extended from the Canadian shield and Transcontinental arch southeastward through Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and Missouri. 2) A seaward, relatively deep subtidal, sediment-starved, middle shelf extended eastward from the Mississippi Valley region to the Taconian foreland basins in the central and southern Appalachians and southward through the pericratonic Arkoma and Black Warrior basins. In the inner shelf region, the Black River-Trenton unconformity is a composite of at least two prominent hardground omission surfaces, one at the top of the Castlewood and Carimona Limestone Members and the other at the top of the Guttenberg and Kings Lake Limestone Members, both merging to a single surface in the middle shelf region

  2. Stratigraphy of the cambo-ordovician succession in Illnois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasemi, Yaghoob; Khorasgani, Zohreh; Leetaru, Hannes


    The Upper Cambrian through Lower Ordovician succession (Sauk II-III sequences) in the Illinois Basin covers the entire state of Illinois and most of the states of Indiana and Kentucky. To determine lateral and vertical lithologic variations of the rocks within the Cambro-Ordovician deposits that could serve as reservoir or seal for CO2 storage, detailed subsurface stratigraphic evaluation of the succession in Illinois was conducted. The Cambro-Ordovician succession in the Illinois Basin consists of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic deposits. Its thickness ranges from nearly 800 feet in the extreme northwest to nearly 8000 feet in the Reelfoot Rift in the extreme southeastern part of the state. In northern and central Illinois, the Cambro-Ordovician rocks are classified as the Cambrian Knox and the Ordovician Prairie du Chien Groups, which consist of alternating dolomite and siliciclastic units. In the southern and deeper part of the Illinois Basin, the Cambro-Ordovician deposits consist chiefly of fine to coarsely crystalline dolomite capped by the Middle Ordovician Everton Formation. Detailed facies analysis indicates that the carbonate units consist mainly of mudstone to grainstone facies (fossiliferous/oolitic limestone and dolomite) with relics of bioclasts, ooids, intraclasts and peloids recording deposition on a shallow marine ramp setting. The dominant lithology of the Knox and the overlying Prairie du Chien Group is fine to coarsely crystalline, dense dolomite. However, porous and permeable vugular or fractured/cavernous dolomite intervals that grade to dense fine to coarsely crystalline dolomite are present within the dolomite units. Several hundred barrels of fluid were lost in some of these porous intervals during drilling, indicating high permeability. The sandstone intervals are porous and permeable and are texturally and compositionally mature. The permeable sandstone and porous dolomite intervals are laterally extensive and could serve as important

  3. Biodiversity, biogeography and phylogeography of Ordovician rhynchonelliform brachiopods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, David A. T.; Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Liljeroth, Maria


    -levels were high. Pivotal to the entire diversification is the role of gamma (inter-provincial) diversity and by implication the spread of the continents and frequency of island arcs and microcontinents. The phylogeographical analysis demonstrates that this new palaeogeographical configuration...... with local biodiversity epicentres, notably on the South China Palaeoplate; low-latitude porambonitoid-dominated faunas with early plectambonitoid and clitambonitoid representatives, as well as high-latitude assemblages mostly dominated by orthoids, can be recognized, but many taxa are rooted in Late......The phylogeographical evolution and the consequent changing distribution and diversity of rhynchonelliform brachiopods through the Ordovician are linked to the dynamic palaeogeography of the period. The Early Ordovician (Tremadocian and Floian) is characterized by globally low-diversity faunas...

  4. Composition and significance of the Katian (Upper Ordovician conodont fauna of the Vaux Limestone (‘Calcaire des Vaux’ in Normandy, France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Ferretti


    Full Text Available Study of new conodont collections from the Vaux Limestone exposed at its classical locality at Saint-Hilaire-la-Gérard in the Sées syncline, the conodont fauna of which was previously described in a preliminary way by Weyant et al. (1977, Un épisode calcaire ashgillien dans l’est du Massif armoricain; incidence sur l’âge des dépôts glacio-marins fini-ordoviciens. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Paris, 284, Série D, 1147–1149, has provided significant new information about Late Ordovician conodonts from Normandy. A more precise age of this formation has been established based on an unexpectedly abundant conodont fauna of low diversity. Representatives of Amorphognathus, Hamarodus, Sagittodontina, Scabbardella and Eocarniodus are present and the fauna is referable to the middle Katian–lower Hirnantian A. ordovicicus Zone. Our study, the first illustrating Ordovician conodonts from Normandy, shows that the fauna is closely similar to middle Katian faunas from other parts of continental Europe and represents the Sagittodontina robusta–Scabbardella altipes biofacies of the Mediterranean Province.

  5. Brachiopod faunas after the end Ordovician mass extinction from South China: Testing ecological change through a major taxonomic crisis (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Harper, David A. T.; Rong, Jiayu; Zhan, Renbin


    Classification of extinction events and their severity is generally based on taxonomic counts. The ecological impacts of such events have been categorized and prioritized but rarely tested with empirical data. The ecology of the end Ordovician extinction and subsequent biotic recovery is tracked through abundant and diverse brachiopod faunas in South China. The spatial and temporal ranges of some 6500 identified specimens, from 10 collections derived from six localities were investigated by network and cluster analyses, nonmetric multidimensional scaling and a species abundance model. Depth zonations and structure of brachiopod assemblages along an onshore-offshore gradient in the late Katian were similar to those in the latest Ordovician-earliest Silurian (post-extinction fauna). Within this ecological framework, deeper-water faunas are partly replaced by new taxa; siliciclastic substrates continued to be dominated by the more 'Ordovician' orthides and strophomenides, shallow-water carbonate environments hosted atrypides, athyridides and pentamerides, with the more typical Ordovician brachiopod fauna continuing to dominate until the late Rhuddanian. The end Ordovician extinctions tested the resilience of the brachiopod fauna without damage to its overall ecological structure; that commenced later at the end of the Rhuddanian.

  6. Cambrian and ordovician systems around the pacific basin (part 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Teiichi


    This report describes the history of the studies made about old rocks and Cambrian and Ordovician Systems in North America. In last century, development of the Pre-Canbrian stratigraphy and mineral resources was started in Canada, while the New York System was instituted in the middle and east areas of North America, and it was later correlated to the European sequence. Walcott who published many reports including the vental anatomy of trilobites made invaluable contribution on the study of Cambrian geology. The Cambro-Ordovician faunas which distributed in the Appalachian mountains and further westerly beyond the lower Mississipy river were related to the European ones. The systems in the Cordilleran geosyncline was also described. Stratigraphy in the western sites is followed on the Alaskan faunas in the north which were allied to the Siberian faunas and later to the Eastern Asiatic ones. Lastly, Circum-Pacific Cambro-Ordovician belt was taken up. The eastern side of the Circum-Pacific Cambrian belt belonged to Olenellian province, and the other side constituted the Redlichia province. (2 figs, 5 tabs, 101 refs)

  7. Late Paleozoic-Middle Mesozoic uplift rate, cooling rate and geothermal gradient for south-central New York state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnsson, M.J.


    Apatite and zircon crystals were recovered from the Tioga metabentonite (Middle Devonian) at Cherry Valley, New York and from a metabentonite at the top of the Black River Group (Middle Ordovician) at Middleville, New York. Fission-track ages obtained from these minerals are younger than the stratigraphic ages of the units, indicating total or partial resetting of the mineral ages due to thermal annealing of fission-tracks. The age data allow for calculation of a mean uplift rate of 0.019 +- 0.009 mm/yr for the interval 193 to 155 Myr, and a mean cooling rate of 0.38 +- 0.11 0 C/Myr for the interval 354 to 155 Myr. An average geothermal gradient for the interval 354 to 155 Myr is 20 +- 11 C/km. The partially reset zircon age from the Black River metabentonite indicates that the Middle Ordovician rocks of south-central New York have been exposed to temperatures approaching approx. 175 C. This temperature, in conjunction with the calculated geothermal gradient, implies burial of these units to depths approaching 8 km. Such burial suggests that extensive Carboniferous sediments once covered southern New York, and that the Alleghenian Orogeny had a stronger sedimentalogical influence in the northern portion of the Appalachian Basin than has been previously recognized. (author)

  8. Devonian paleomagnetism of the North Tien Shan: Implications for the middle-Late Paleozoic paleogeography of Eurasia (United States)

    Levashova, Natalia M.; Mikolaichuk, Alexander V.; McCausland, Philip J. A.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob


    The Ural-Mongol belt (UMB), between Siberia, Baltica and Tarim, is widely recognized as the locus of Asia's main growth during the Paleozoic, but its evolution remains highly controversial, as illustrated by the disparate paleogeographic models published in the last decade. One of the largest tectonic units of the UMB is the Kokchetav-North Tien Shan Domain (KNTD) that stretches from Tarim in the south nearly to the West Siberian Basin. The KNTD comprises several Precambrian microcontinents and numerous remnants of Early Paleozoic island arcs, marginal basins and accretionary complexes. In Late Ordovician time, all these structures had amalgamated into a single contiguous domain. Its paleogeographic position is of crucial importance for elucidating the Paleozoic evolution of the UMB in general and of the Urals in particular. The Aral Formation, located in Kyrgyzstan in the southern part of the KNTD, consists of a thick Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalt-andesite sequence. Paleomagnetic data show a dual-polarity characteristic component (Dec/Inc = 286° / + 56°, α95 = 9°, k = 21, N = 15 sites). The primary origin of this magnetization is confirmed by a positive test on intraformational conglomerates. We combine this result with other Paleozoic data from the KNTD and show its latitudinal motion from the Late Ordovician to the end of the Paleozoic. The observed paleolatitudes are found to agree well with the values extrapolated from Baltica to a common reference point (42.5°N, 73°E) in our sampling area for the entire interval; hence coherent motion of the KNTD and Baltica is strongly indicated for most of the Paleozoic. This finding contradicts most published models of the UMB evolution, where the KNTD is separated from Baltica by a rather wide Ural Ocean containing one or more major plate boundaries. An exception is the model of Şengör and Natal'in [A.M.C. Şengör, B.A. Natal'in, Paleotectonics of Asia: fragments of a synthesis, in: A. Yin and M. Harrison (eds

  9. Silurian Micrometeorite Flux: The Demise of the Mid-Ordovician L-Chondrite Reign. (United States)

    Martin, E.; Schmitz, B.


    Earth's sedimentary record holds information about the micrometeorite flux through time, reflecting the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Around 466 Ma ago in the mid-Ordovician period the L-chondrite parent body breakup (LCPB) took place in the main asteroid belt causing a massive increase, up to two orders of magnitude, in the flux of meteorites to Earth (Schmitz, 2013). What did the meteorite flux look like after the breakup event? And when in time can we see a decrease in the fraction of L-chondritic micrometeorites? We dissolved in acids condensed, marine limestone representing the mid-Ordovician and the late Silurian about 0.5 and 40 Ma, respectively after the LCPB, and searched the residues for spinel grains from equilibrated ordinary chondrites (EC). We used 102 kg from the mid-Ordovician Komstad Limestone Formation, Killeröd quarry in Sweden, and 321 kg from the Silurian Kok Formation, Cellon section in Austria. Elemental analyses of the spinel grains were used to link the grains to different types of meteorites. In the large grain size fraction (63-355 µm) there are 4.5 EC grains/kg of rock in the mid-Ordovician sample and only 0.03 EC grains/kg in the Silurian sample. Because the two formations formed at about the same rate (a few mm per kyr) the results represent strong evidence for a major tailing off in the L-chondritic meteorite contribution by the late Silurian. The EC grains have been divided into the H, L, and LL groups based on the TiO2 content. The results show that the fraction of L chondrites compared to H and LL chondrites had declined significantly by the late Silurian. In the study of Heck et al. (2016) it was shown that ≥99% of the ordinary chondritic micrometeorites were L chondrites right after the LCPB. Our data indicate that the L-chondrite fraction had decreased to 60% by the Silurian, with the H and LL chondrites making up 30% and 10% respectively of the flux.

  10. A paired apatite and calcite clumped isotope thermometry approach to estimating Cambro-Ordovician seawater temperatures and isotopic composition (United States)

    Bergmann, Kristin D.; Finnegan, Seth; Creel, Roger; Eiler, John M.; Hughes, Nigel C.; Popov, Leonid E.; Fischer, Woodward W.


    The secular increase in δ18O values of both calcitic and phosphatic marine fossils through early Phanerozoic time suggests either that (1) early Paleozoic surface temperatures were high, in excess of 40 °C (tropical MAT), (2) the δ18O value of seawater has increased by 7-8‰ VSMOW through Paleozoic time, or (3) diagenesis has altered secular trends in early Paleozoic samples. Carbonate clumped isotope analysis, in combination with petrographic and elemental analysis, can deconvolve fluid composition from temperature effects and therefore determine which of these hypotheses best explain the secular δ18O increase. Clumped isotope measurements of a suite of calcitic and phosphatic marine fossils from late Cambrian- to Middle-late Ordovician-aged strata-the first paired fossil study of its kind-document tropical sea surface temperatures near modern temperatures (26-38 °C) and seawater oxygen isotope ratios similar to today's ratios.

  11. Pre-Alleghenian (Pennsylvanian-Permian) hydrocarbon emplacement along Ordovician Knox unconformity, eastern Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, F.M.; Kesler, S.E.


    Cores taken during exploration for Mississippi Valley-type lead and zinc ores in the Mascot-Jefferson City zinc district of eastern Tennessee commonly contain hydrocarbon residues in carbonate rocks of the Knox Group immediately below the Lower Ordovician Knox unconformity. The location and number of these residue-bearing strata reveal information about the Paleozoic history of hydrocarbon emplacement in the region. Contour maps, generated from nearly 800 holes covering more than 20 km/sup 2/, indicate that zones with elevated organic content in the uppermost 30 m of the Lower Ordovician Mascot Dolomite show a strong spatial correlation with Middle Ordovician paleotopographic highs. These same zones show no spatial association with present-day structural highs, which were formed during Pennsylvanian-Permian Alleghenian tectonism. This suggests that the physical entrapment of hydrocarbons migrating through the upper permeable units of the Mascot must have occurred prior to the principal tectonism of the Alleghenian orogeny. 7 figures, 1 table.

  12. Biofacies evidence for Late Cambrian low-paleolatitude oceans, western United State and central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Cook, H.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Melnikova, L. (Palaeontological Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))


    Biofacies that formed on carbonate platform-margin slopes adjacent to an early Paleozoic, low-paleolatitude paleoocean are contained in the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation, Tyby Shale, and Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone of the Hot Creek Range, Nevada, and the Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician part of the Shabakty Suite of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan. These in-situ limestones formed in platform-margin slope and basin-plain environments. Shoal-water faunal assemblages occur in carbonate-turbidite and debris-flow deposits interbedded with in-situ deeper water assemblages of the submarine-fan facies. Abundant sponge spicules, geographically widespread benthic trilobites, and rare ostracodes occur in some of the in-situ beds. In contrast, the shoal-water platform environments were well oxygenated and contain mainly endemic trilobite assemblages. These biofacies characteristics support an interpretation that Late Cambrian oceans were poorly oxygenated, but not anoxic, below the surface mixing layer and that benthic trilobite faunas were widely distributed in response to the more-or-less continuous deep water, low-oxygen habitats. Elements of the Late Cambrian low-oxygen biofacies are widespread in the Tien Shan structural belt of China and the Soviet Union, in central and eastern China, and along the western margin of early Paleozoic North America. This facies distribution pattern defines the transition from low-paleolatitude, shoal-water carbonate platforms to open oceans which have since been destroyed by pre-Late Ordovician and pre-middle Paleozoic Paleotectonic activity.

  13. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.


    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  14. Precisely locating the Ordovician equator in Laurentia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Jisuo; Harper, David A. T.; Cocks, L. Robin M.


    The Late Ordovician equatorial zone, like the zone today, had few hurricane-grade storms within 100 of the equator, as emphasized by the preservation of massive-bedded Thalassinoides ichnofacies in a trans-Laurentian belt more than 6000 km long, from the southwestern United States to North...... Greenland. That belt also includes nonamalgamated shell beds dominated by the brachiopod Proconchidium, which would not have been preserved after hurricane-grade storms. The belt lacks such storm-related sedimentary features as rip-up clasts, hummocky cross-stratification, or large channels. In contrast...

  15. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria) (United States)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.


    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (reptiles (scincids, lacertids, gekkonids, anguids, varanids, colubrids, testudinids, emydids), birds (coliiformes), rodents and lagomorphs (cricetids, glirids, eomyids, sciurids, castorids), insectivores and chiropterans (erinaceids, soricids, talpids), and large mammals (suids, tragulids, moschids, cervids, ?palaeomerycids, equids, chalicotheriids, rhinos, proboscidians, carnivors). Litho- and biostratigraphy (terrestrial gastropods) as well as magnetostratigraphic data and the sequence stratigraphic and geodynamic frame indicate an age of 12-12.2 Ma (early Late Sarmatian s.str., chron 5An.1n) for the locality. Therefore, Gratkorn is one of richest and most complete fauna of the late Middle Miocene of Central Europe and will be confidentially one of the key faunas for a high-resolution continental biostratigraphy and the comprehension of the faunal succession and interchanges near the Middle/Late Miocene transition. Acknowledgements This is a preliminary overview of the Gratkorn vertebrate fauna. Several taxa are still under investigation. We are especially grateful to Gudrun Daxner-Höck, Ursula Göhlich (both Natural History Museum Vienna) and Getrud Rössner (University of Munich) for their comments to the rodents, ruminants, proboscidians and bird remains. References Böhme, M., Ilg, A., Winklhofer, M. 2008. Late Miocene "washhouse" climate in Europe.- Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 275: 393-401. Gross, M., 2008. A limnic ostracod fauna from the surroundings of the Central


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    Full Text Available Extensive tracts of Devonian and older sedimentary and igneous units occur within the axial region of the western Karakoram Block of northernmost Pakistan over a distance in excess of 200 km between the the headwaters of the Karambar valley in northwestern Gilgit Agency to southwestern Chitral. Conodont data indicate that the oldest sedimentary unit so far discriminated within this belt, the Yarkhun Formation, includes horizons of Ordovician (Arenig age, consistent with an earlier-presented acritarch-based Arenig age for part of the same unit. Conodont data from the "Lun Shales", a stratigraphic potpourri with little-known Silurian and Devonian tracts, demonstrate the presence of Early Devonian (early Emsian horizons. The Shogrâm Formation, widely distributed through the region, spans an appreciable interval of the Middle and Late Devonian mid-Givetian through until at least early Famennian. A major lacuna in sedimentation may be present, represented by all or most of the earlier half of Frasnian time. A biostratigraphically and possibly biogeographically important new species, Icriodus homeomorphus, is described; it is encountered in horizons of early Famennian age (Late triangularis Zone to ?Early crepida Zone. 

  17. Cambrian–early Ordovician volcanism across the South Armorican and Occitan domains of the Variscan Belt in France: Continental break-up and rifting of the northern Gondwana margin

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    André Pouclet


    Full Text Available The Cambrian–lower Ordovician volcanic units of the South Armorican and Occitan domains are analysed in a tectonostratigraphic survey of the French Variscan Belt. The South Armorican lavas consist of continental tholeiites in middle Cambrian–Furongian sequences related to continental break-up. A significant volcanic activity occurred in the Tremadocian, dominated by crustal melted rhyolitic lavas and initial rifting tholeiites. The Occitan lavas are distributed into five volcanic phases: (1 basal Cambrian rhyolites, (2 upper lower Cambrian Mg-rich tholeiites close to N-MORBs but crustal contaminated, (3 upper lower–middle Cambrian continental tholeiites, (4 Tremadocian rhyolites, and (5 upper lower Ordovician initial rift tholeiites. A rifting event linked to asthenosphere upwelling took place in the late early Cambrian but did not evolve. It renewed in the Tremadocian with abundant crustal melting due to underplating of mixed asthenospheric and lithospheric magmas. This main tectono-magmatic continental rift is termed the “Tremadocian Tectonic Belt” underlined by a chain of rhyolitic volcanoes from Occitan and South Armorican domains to Central Iberia. It evolved with the setting of syn-rift coarse siliciclastic deposits overlain by post-rift deep water shales in a suite of sedimentary basins that forecasted the South Armorican–Medio-European Ocean as a part of the Palaeotethys Ocean.

  18. Disentangling the record of diagenesis, local redox conditions, and global seawater chemistry during the latest Ordovician glaciation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Anne-Sofie Crüger; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hammarlund, Emma U.


    as pyrite in core samples, while outcrop samples have been significantly altered as pyrite has been oxidized and remobilized by modern weathering processes. Fe speciation in the more pristine core samples indicates persistent deep water anoxia, at least locally through the Late Ordovician, in contrast...... to the prevailing interpretation of increased Hirnantian water column oxygenation in shallower environments. Deep water redox conditions were likely decoupled from shallower environments by a basinal shift in organic matter export driven by decreasing rates of organic matter degradation and decreasing shelf areas......The Late Ordovician stratigraphic record integrates glacio-eustatic processes, water-column redox conditions and carbon cycle dynamics. This complex stratigraphic record, however, is dominated by deposits from epeiric seas that are susceptible to local physical and chemical processes decoupled from...

  19. Carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician: Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones), Niquivil, Central Precordillera, Province of San Juan (Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soria, T.; Beresi, M.; Mestre, A.; Heredia, S.; Rodríguez, M.C.


    This contribution presents the description and interpretation of carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician) at the Niquivil section, considering the stratigraphical interval between the Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones. The distribution of the microfacies and the conodonts assemblages allow us to identify different sub-environments within the late Floian carbonate ramp of the Central Precordillera. Five microfacies were recognized from the base to the top: M1 Bioclastic mudstone-wackestone; M2 Bioclastic-peloidal wackestone; M3 Intra-bioclastic wackestone; M4 Intra-bioclastic packstone; M5 Peloidal grainstone. The vertical distribution of these microfacies indicates a shallowing trend of the carbonate ramp in the Niquivil section for this temporal interval, which suggests a middle ramp environment with low energy, without wave action, and that evolved towards the middle-inner ramp environment with more energy by wave action and development of tempestites. [es

  20. Mass-production of Cambro-Ordovician quartz-rich sandstone as a consequence of chemical weathering of Pan-African terranes: Environmental implications [rapid communication (United States)

    Avigad, D.; Sandler, A.; Kolodner, K.; Stern, R. J.; McWilliams, M.; Miller, N.; Beyth, M.


    A vast sheet of mature quartz sand blanketed north Africa and Arabia from the Atlantic coast to the Persian Gulf in Cambro-Ordovician times. U-Pb geochronology of a representative section of Cambrian sandstone in southern Israel shows that these sediments are dominated by 550-650 Ma detrital zircons derived from Neoproterozoic Pan-African basement. The short time lag between magmatic consolidation of a Pan-African source and deposition of its erosional products indicates that, despite their significant mineralogical maturity, the voluminous quartz-rich sandstones on the northern margin of Gondwana are essentially first-cycle sediments. Mass production of these voluminous first-cycle quartz-rich sandstones resulted from widespread chemical weathering of the Pan-African continental basement. We suggest that conditions favoring silicate weathering, particularly a warm and humid climate, low relief and low sedimentation rates prevailed over large tracts of Gondwana in the aftermath of the Pan-African orogeny. An unusually corrosive Cambro-Ordovician atmosphere and humid climate enhanced chemical weathering on the vegetation-free landscape. We infer that late Neoproterozoic-Cambro-Ordovician atmospheric pCO 2 rose as a consequence of widespread late Neoproterozoic volcanism, followed by an uptake of CO 2 by chemical weathering to produce the Cambro-Ordovician sandstone as a negative feedback.

  1. Ordovician timescale in Estonia: recent developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Olle


    Full Text Available Over 150 years of progress in the Ordovician geology and stratigraphy of Estonia has resulted in one of the most precise Ordovician timescales in the world. In this paper, an up-to-date version of the Ordovician timescale of Estonia is provided. Recent developments in graptolite, chitinozoan, and conodont biostratigraphy, and the correlation with the global standard are briefly commented upon. Application of the regional subseries rank is discussed and two new names are proposed: “Vinni” for the upper subseries of the Viru Series, and “Atla” for the upper subseries of the Harju Series.

  2. Microfossils in the Ordovician erratic boulders from South-western Finland

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    Nõlvak, J.


    Full Text Available Chitinozoans, ostracods and acritarchs found in four glacially transported limestone boulders from the south-western coast of Finland have been studied in order to test the usefulness of these microfossil groups in age determinations. Also rare specimens of conodonts, inarticulated brachiopods and foraminifers were found. Baltic limestone (or Östersjö limestone was the most problematic, because only fossils with calcitic or phosphatic shells are preserved. It is concluded that the boulders identified correlate with the Uhaku and Rakvere stages of the Middle Ordovician.

  3. Digestive structures in Ordovician trilobites Colpocoryphe and Flexicalymene from the Barrandian area of Czech Republic

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    Oldřich Fatka


    Full Text Available Two recently discovered specimens of the abundant calymenoid trilobite Colpocoryphe Novák in Perner, 1918 from the Middle Ordovician Šárka Formation and one specimen of Flexicalymene (Flexicalymene pragensis Vaněk & Vokáč, 1997 from the Upper Ordovician Bohdalec Formation, all from the Prague Basin, display remains of the digestive system. In Colpocoryphe, an internal mould of an articulated exoskeleton contains a post-stomach part of the alimentary canal preserved through the narrow axial region of the occipital ring, all thoracic segments as well as in the axial part of the pygidial shield. The anterior part of the digestive system is poorly known as the specimen shows the hypostome preserved in situ and the space between the glabella and the hypostome is represented by an empty cavity associated with probable remains of gut diverticulae on both sides of the cephalon. The second, incomplete specimen consists of five posterior thoracic segments articulated with the pygidium. The axial region of this specimen is preserved with a clearly discernible segmented intestine which terminates at the axial tip and then bends ventrally. In an enrolled specimen of Flexicalymene pragensis, supposed remains of the alimentary tract are comparatively poorly preserved but discernible in the middle and posterior parts of the thoracic axis and in the anterior part of the pygidial axis. Digestive structures within the family Calymenidae have not been described previously. Earlier discoveries of the digestive system in Ordovician trilobites of the Barrandian area are briefly reviewed.

  4. δ13C chemostratigraphy in the upper Tremadocian through lower Katian (Ordovician carbonate succession of the Siljan district, central Sweden

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    Oliver Lehnert


    Full Text Available Based on δ13C data from two drillcores recovered from the Siljan district, we present a first continuous carbon isotope record of the upper Tremadocian–lower Katian limestone succession of central Sweden. New names for some isotopic carbon excursions from the Cambrian–Ordovician boundary through the basal Darriwilian are introduced. The Mora 001 core from the western part of the Siljan impact structure ranges through the Lower–Middle Ordovician, whereas the Solberga 1 core from its eastern part ranges through the Middle–lower Upper Ordovician. Upper Tremadocian and Floian units are extremely condensed and include extensive stratigraphic gaps. Multiple hardgrounds, sometimes with minor karstic overprint, imply recurrent periods of erosion and/or non-deposition. Like in other parts of Sweden, the Dapingian and Darriwilian succession is characterized by a relatively complete sedimentary record and low sedimentation rates.

  5. Differences in grip force control between young and late middle-aged adults. (United States)

    Zheng, Lianrong; Li, Kunyang; Wang, Qian; Chen, Wenhui; Song, Rong; Liu, Guanzheng


    Grip force control is a crucial function for human to guarantee the quality of life. To examine the effects of age on grip force control, 10 young adults and 11 late middle-aged adults participated in visually guided tracking tasks using different target force levels (25, 50, and 75% of the subject's maximal grip force). Multiple measures were used to evaluate the tracking performance during force rising phase and force maintenance phase. The measurements include the rise time, fuzzy entropy, mean force percentage, coefficient of variation, and target deviation ratio. The results show that the maximal grip force was significantly lower in the late middle-aged adults than in the young adults. The time of rising phase was systematically longer among late middle-aged adults. The fuzzy entropy is a useful indicator for quantitating the force variability of the grip force signal at higher force levels. These results suggest that the late middle-aged adults applied a compensatory strategy that allow allows for sufficient time to reach the required grip force and reduce the impact of the early and subtle degenerative changes in hand motor function.

  6. Middle to Late Jurassic Tectonic Evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California-Oregon (United States)

    Harper, Gregory D.; Wright, James E.


    The geochronology, stratigraphy, and spatial relationships of Middle and Late Jurassic terranes of the Klamath Mountains strongly suggest that they were formed in a single west-facing magmatic arc built upon older accreted terranes. A Middle Jurassic arc complex is represented by the volcanic rocks of the western Hayfork terrane and consanguineous dioritic to peridotitic plutons. New U/Pb zircon dates indicate that the Middle Jurassic plutonic belt was active from 159 to 174 Ma and is much more extensive than previously thought. This plutonic belt became inactive just as the 157 Ma Josephine ophiolite, which lies west and structurally below the Middle Jurassic arc, was generated. Late Jurassic volcanic and plutonic arc rocks (Rogue Formation and Chetco intrusive complex) lie outboard and structurally beneath the Josephine ophiolite; U/Pb and K/Ar age data indicate that this arc complex is coeval with the Josephine ophiolite. Both the Late Jurassic arc complex and the Josephine ophiolite are overlain by the "Galice Formation," a Late Jurassic flysch sequence, and are intruded by 150 Ma dikes and sills. The following tectonic model is presented that accounts for the age and distribution of these terranes: a Middle Jurassic arc built on older accreted terranes undergoes rifting at 160 Ma, resulting in formation of a remnant arc/back-arc basin/island arc triad. This system collapsed during the Late Jurassic Nevadan Orogeny (150 Ma) and was strongly deformed and stacked into a series of east-dipping thrust sheets. Arc magmatism was active both before and after the Nevadan Orogeny, but virtually ceased at 140 Ma.

  7. Distribution of the order Proetida (Trilobita in Baltoscandian Ordovician strata

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    Pärnaste, Helje


    Full Text Available The trilobite order Proetida forms a minor but important faunal element within the Ordovician strata of Baltoscandia. This review follows the current systematic, taxonomic, and stratigraphical usage and discusses the distribution of these trilobites within the context of the Confacies Belt model. A database of species-level information was derived from numerous publications relating to the Scandinavian and Baltic states and relevant neighbouring regions. Important additional information on stratigraphical occurrences of genera has been derived from glacial erratic boulders (geschiebe from northern Germany and adjacent areas. The representatives from Baltoscandia of three superfamilies, Bathyuroidea, Aulacopleuroidea, and Proetoidea, are listed. The genus level was chosen as the most practicable to plot on the maps, one showing the time interval for the Kukruse Regional Stage (or Global Stage Slice Sa1, the other that for the Pirgu and Porkuni stages (or stage slices Ka4 and Hi1–Hi2. These intervals each show a diversity peak within the ranges of about 30 genera of Proetida and over 70 species from the Ordovician successions of Baltoscandia. Out of these a total of nine genera cross the Ordovician–Silurian boundary.The regional comparisons from within Baltoscandia show differences in facies dependency of certain genera, with possibly also a latitudinal component. During the late Ordovician the faunal resemblance appears to be closest to the neighbouring palaeocontinent Avalonia, suggesting a faunal exchange between or pathways to both continents from elsewhere. Besides climatic and geographical proximity of palaeocontinents, sea-level changes also have to be considered in explaining the distribution of Proetida in Baltoscandia.

  8. Possible extrinsic controls on the Ordovician radiation: Stratigraphic evidence from the Great Basin, western USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences); Fortey, R.A. (Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Palaeontology)


    The Ordovician radiation has been previously examined by looking at 1/analyses of patterns of diversification within small clades, 2/analyses of large databases to elucidate large-scale paleoecological patterns such as increased tiering and onshore-offshore shifts associated with this radiation. In order to resolve the relationships between these two scales of analysis there is critical need to examine in detail the paleoecology and possible biofacies shifts associated with the Ordovician radiation. The authors have examined the base of the Whiterock Series (Lower-Middle Ordovician) in the Great Basin as it represents one of the most complete records of the Ordovician radiation on the North American continent. Detailed field evidence suggests that the base of the Whiterock does not represent a simple faunal turnover but corresponds with the first occurrences in the region of groups that come to dominate the rest of the Paleozoic. Among the trilobites, this includes the lichides, calymenids, proetides, and phacopides. Similar patterns are found among the dominate Paleozoic bivalve, cephalopod, brachiopod and graptolite clades. Global correlation of this time interval suggests that this pattern of first broad geographic occurrences is not unique to North America. This boundary corresponds with a globally recognized sea level lowstand. In the Great Basin, significant facies shifts are present in shallow and deep water settings. While extrinsic controls are commonly reserved for extinctions, these data suggest that extrinsic factors may have been significant in the timing of the Paleozoic fauna rose to dominance.

  9. Environmental conditions and microbial community structure during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event; a multi-disciplinary study from the Canning Basin, Western Australia (United States)

    Spaak, Gemma; Edwards, Dianne S.; Foster, Clinton B.; Pagès, Anais; Summons, Roger E.; Sherwood, Neil; Grice, Kliti


    The Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE) is regarded as one of the most significant evolutionary events in the history of Phanerozoic life. The present study integrates palynological, petrographic, molecular and stable isotopic (δ13C of biomarkers) analyses of cores from four boreholes that intersected the Goldwyer Formation, Canning Basin, Western Australia, to determine depositional environments and microbial diversity within a Middle Ordovician epicontinental, tropical sea. Data from this study indicate lateral and temporal variations in lipid biomarker assemblages extracted from Goldwyer Formation rock samples. These variations likely reflect changing redox conditions between the upper (Unit 4) and lower (Units 1 + 2) Goldwyer, which is largely consistent with existing depositional models for the Goldwyer Formation. Cryptospores were identified in Unit 4 in the Theia-1 well and are most likely derived from bryophyte-like plants, making this is the oldest record of land plants in Australian Middle Ordovician strata. Biomarkers in several samples from Unit 4 that also support derivation from terrestrial organic matter include benzonaphthofurans and δ13C-depleted mid-chain n-alkanes. Typical Ordovician marine organisms including acritarchs, chitinozoans, conodonts and graptolites were present in the lower and upper Goldwyer Formation, whereas the enigmatic organism Gloeocapsomorpha prisca (G. prisca) was only detected in Unit 4. The correlation of a strong G. prisca biosignature with high 3-methylhopane indices and 13C depleted G. prisca-derived chemical fossils (biomarkers) is interpreted to suggest an ecological relationship between methanotrophs and G. prisca. This research contributes to a greater understanding of Ordovician marine environments from a molecular perspective since few biomarker studies have been undertaken on age-equivalent sections. Furthermore, the identification of the oldest cryptospores in Australia and their corresponding

  10. Late Ordovician brachiopod distribution and ecospace partitioning in the Tvären crater system, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Åsa M.; Harper, David Alexander Taylor


    of the guild structure of the fauna permits explanation of a local biodiversity hotspot in otherwise low-diversity strata elsewhere in the Scandinavian region. The Tvaren impact event had an important palaeobiologic effect upon the fossil record as it served as a local pump and reservoir for biodiversity....... Moreover the development of new community types and narrowly-defined niches helped further drive both a and p biodiversity during a critical phase of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  11. The difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Anissa Syaimima bt. Syaiful Azim


    Full Text Available Every child will go through several stages in his or her life. They are different from each other as they are in the process of development of cognition, physics, emotion, and personality. For many children, a visit to the dentist can raise their anxiety. This anxiousness will lead to stress that influences the cardiovascular function in the body. The purpose of this research was to determine the difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment. This research was a clinical trial, pure experimental study. The sample consisted of 30 children within the range of 4-12 years old where they were divided into two groups of age; middle childhood (4-7 years old and late childhood (8-12 years old. The blood pressures were measured before any dental treatment began and the values were recorded. The data were then analyzed using the One-Sample T-Test analysis. The results of blood pressure in middle childhood and late childhood were compared to the average mean values for each age group. It showed that there was a significant difference in the systolic pressure, which was found higher in the middle childhood group compared to the late childhood. From the result can be concluded that there was a difference in the pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment.

  12. Oxygenation as a driver of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (United States)

    Edwards, Cole T.; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Royer, Dana L.; Fike, David A.


    The largest radiation of Phanerozoic marine animal life quadrupled genus-level diversity towards the end of the Ordovician Period about 450 million years ago. A leading hypothesis for this Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event is that cooling of the Ordovician climate lowered sea surface temperatures into the thermal tolerance window of many animal groups, such as corals. A complementary role for oxygenation of subsurface environments has been inferred based on the increasing abundance of skeletal carbonate, but direct constraints on atmospheric O2 levels remain elusive. Here, we use high-resolution paired bulk carbonate and organic carbon isotope records to determine the changes in isotopic fractionation between these phases throughout the Ordovician radiation. These results can be used to reconstruct atmospheric O2 levels based on the O2-dependent fractionation of carbon isotopes by photosynthesis. We find a strong temporal link between the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event and rising O2 concentrations, a pattern that is corroborated by O2 models that use traditional carbon-sulfur mass balance. We conclude that that oxygen levels probably played an important role in regulating early Palaeozoic biodiversity levels, even after the Cambrian Explosion.

  13. Late Paleozoic fusulinids from Sonora, Mexcio: importance for interpretation of depositional settings, biogeography, and paleotectonics (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Poole, Forrest G.; Amaya-Martínez, Ricardo


    Three sets of fusulinid faunas in Sonora, Mexico, discussed herein, record different depositional and paleotectonic settings along the southwestern margin of Laurentia (North America) during Pennsylvanian and Permian time. The settings include: offshelf continental rise and ocean basin (Rancho Nuevo Formation in the Sonora allochthon), shallow continental shelf (La Cueva Limestone), and foredeep basin on the continental shelf (Mina México Formation). Our data represent 41 fusulinid collections from 23 localities with each locality providing one to eight collections.Reworked fusulinids in the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian part of the Rancho Nuevo Formation range in age from Desmoinesian into Virgilian (Moscovian-Gzhelian). Indigenous Permian fusulinids in the La Cueva Limestone range in age from middle or late Wolfcampian to middle Leonardian (late Sakmarian-late Artinskian), and reworked Permian fusulinids in the Mina México Formation range in age from early to middle Leonardian (middle-late Artinskian). Conodonts of Guadalupian age occur in some turbidites in the Mina México Formation, indicating the youngest foredeep deposit is at least Middle Permian in age. Our fusulinid collections indicate a hiatus of at least 10 m.y. between the youngest Pennsylvanian (Virgilian) rocks in the Sonora allochthon and the oldest Permian (middle Wolfcampian) rocks in the region.Most fusulinid faunas in Sonora show affinities to those of West Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona; however, some genera and species are similar to those in southeastern California. As most species are similar to those east of the southwest-trending Transcontinental arch in New Mexico and Arizona, this arch may have formed a barrier preventing large-scale migration and mixing of faunas between the southern shelf of Laurentia in northwestern Mexico and the western shelf in the southwestern United States.The Sonora allochthon, consisting of pre-Permian (Lower Ordovician to Upper Pennsylvanian) deep

  14. Depositional History and Sequence Stratigraphy of the Middle Ordovician Yeongheung Formation (Yeongweol Group), Taebaeksan Basin, mid-east Korea (United States)

    Kwon, Yoo Jin; Kwon, Yi Kyun


    The Middle Ordovician Yeongheung Formation consists of numerous meter-scale, shallowing-upward cycles which were deposited on a shallow-marine carbonate platform. Many diagnostic sedimentary textures and structures such as supratidal laminite, tepee structure, and solution-collapsed breccia are observed, which enable to infer the dry climate and high salinity conditions during deposition of the formation. In order to understand its depositional history, this study focuses on vertical and spatial stacking patterns of the second- to third-order sequences through the detailed outcrop description and geologic mapping. A total 19 lithofacies have been recognized, which can be grouped into 5 facies associations (FAs): FA1 (Supratidal flat), FA2 (Supratidal or dolomitization of peritidal facies), FA3 (Intertidal flat), FA4 (Shallow subtidal to peritidal platform), FA5 (Shallow subtidal shoal). Global mega-sequence boundary (Sauk-Tippecanoe) occurs in solution-collapsed breccia zone in the lower part of the formation. Correlation of the shallowing-upward cycle stacking pattern across the study area defines 6 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences. Each depositional sequences comprises a package of vertical and spatial staking of shallow subtidal cycles in the lower part and peritidal cycles in the upper part of the formation. According to sequence stratigraphic interpretation, the reconstructed relative sea-level curve of the Yeongweol platform is very similar to that of the Taebaek platform. Based on the absence of siliciclastic sequence such as the Jigunsan Formation and the lithologic & stratigraphic differences, however, the Yeongweol and Taebaek groups might not belong to a single depositional system within the North China platform. The Yeongweol Group can be divided by the four subunits into their unique lithologic successions and geographic distributions. The Eastern subunit of the Yeongweol Group is composed dominantly of carbonate rocks with a high

  15. Cerebellar Medulloblastoma in Middle-to-Late Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Aljoghaiman


    Full Text Available Medulloblastoma is a malignant brain tumor that is typically seen in children. It is classified as an embryonal tumor, classically located within the posterior fossa. When it involves the fourth ventricle, the patient commonly presents with signs and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure secondary to obstructive hydrocephalus. It is exceedingly rare for Medulloblastoma to occur in middle and late adulthood. In this paper, we present a case of a 51-year-old man who presented with a posterior fossa mass that was diagnosed later as Medulloblastoma.

  16. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel


    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  17. A survey of European astronomical tables in the late middle ages

    CERN Document Server

    Chabás, José


    This is a survey of the numerous astronomical tables compiled in the late Middle Ages, which represent a major intellectual enterprise. Such tables were often the best way available at the time for transmitting precise information to the reader.

  18. Redox conditions and marine microbial community changes during the end-Ordovician mass extinction event (United States)

    Smolarek, Justyna; Marynowski, Leszek; Trela, Wiesław; Kujawski, Piotr; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.


    The end-Ordovician (Hirnantian) crisis is the first globally distinct extinction during the Phanerozoic, but its causes are still not fully known. Here, we present an integrated geochemical and petrographic analysis to understand the sedimentary conditions taking place before, during and after the Late Ordovician ice age. New data from the Zbrza (Holy Cross Mountains) and Gołdap (Baltic Depression) boreholes shows that, like in other worldwide sections, the total organic carbon (TOC) content is elevated in the upper Katian and uppermost Hirnantian to Rhudannian black shales, but depleted (below 1%) during most of the Hirnantian. Euxinic conditions occurred in the photic zone in both TOC-rich intervals. This is based on the maleimide distribution, occurrence of aryl isoprenoids and isorenieratane, as well as a dominance of tiny pyrite framboids. Euxinic conditions were interrupted by the Hirnantian regression caused by glaciation. Sedimentation on the deep shelf changed to aerobic probably due to intense thermohaline circulation. Euxinia in the water column occurred directly during the time associated with the second pulse of the mass extinction with a termination of the end-Ordovician glaciation and sea level rise just at the Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary. In contrast, we suggest based on inorganic proxies that bottom water conditions were generally oxic to dysoxic due to upwelling in the Rheic Ocean. The only episode of seafloor anoxia in the Zbrza basin was found at the O/S boundary, where all inorganic indicators showed elevated values typical for anoxia (U/Th > 1.25; V/Cr > 4.25; V/(V + Ni): 0.54-0.82 and Mo > 10-25 ppm). Significant differences in hopanes to steranes ratio and in C27-C29 sterane distribution between the Katian, Rhudannian and Hirnantian deposits indicate changes in marine microbial communities triggered by sharp climate change and Gondwana glaciation. The increase from biomarkers of cyanobacteria (2α-methylhopanes) after the O

  19. Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental changes during the continental Middle-Late Permian transition at the SE Iberian Ranges, Spain (United States)

    De la Horra, R.; Galán-Abellán, A. B.; López-Gómez, J.; Sheldon, N. D.; Barrenechea, J. F.; Luque, F. J.; Arche, A.; Benito, M. I.


    The Middle and Late Permian are characterized by a pair of mass-extinction events that are recorded in both marine and continental environments. Here, we present the first continental western peri-Tethyan record of an extinction event located in the Middle-Late interval. In the SE Iberian Ranges, Central Spain, the transition between the Lower and Middle subunits of the Middle Permian Alcotas Formation indicates a significant paleoclimatic change from arid and semiarid conditions towards more humid conditions. Coincident with the onset of humid conditions there were changes in the sedimentology, mineralogy, and geochemistry that indicate significant environmental changes including a shift in weathering intensity and a change of fluvial style from braided to meandering systems. Near the top of the Middle Subunit, a local biotic crisis is recorded by palynomorph assemblages. Following this crisis, there is a total absence of coal beds, plant remains, and microflora that defines a barren zone in the uppermost part of the Alcotas Formation which is recorded throughout the basin. The barren zone is accompanied by a shift back to braided stream systems, but not by a return to carbonate-bearing paleosols indicative of arid or semi-arid conditions. This combination of features is consistent with other Middle-Late continental basins related with mass extinctions, so the barren zone is interpreted as the extinction interval. The regional character of the extinction interval and its proximity with the Middle-Late Permian transition could be related with the global mid-Capitanian biotic turnover described in this period of time in other marine basins. However, the common difficulties of dating with precision non-marine rocks make this relationship difficult to probe in the Iberian Basin and in other Middle-Late Permian basins. Further work, including high resolution carbon-isotope analyses and complete studies of the magnetostratigraphy, should be desirable in order to obtain

  20. Middle and Late Pleistocene glaciations in the southwestern Pamir and their effects on topography [Topography of the SW Pamir shaped by middle-late Pleistocene glaciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stübner, Konstanze; Grin, Elena; Hidy, Alan J.; Schaller, Mirjam; Gold, Ryan D.


    Glacial chronologies provide insight into the evolution of paleo-landscapes, paleoclimate, topography, and the erosion processes that shape mountain ranges. In the Pamir of Central Asia, glacial morphologies and deposits indicate extensive past glaciations, whose timing and extent remain poorly constrained. Geomorphic data and 15 new "1"0Be exposure ages from moraine boulders and roches moutonnées in the southwestern Pamir document multiple Pleistocene glacial stages. The oldest exposure ages, View the MathML source113 ± 10ka, underestimate the age of the earliest preserved glacial advance and imply that the modern relief of the southwestern Pamir (peaks at ~5000–6000 m a.s.l.; valleys at ~2000–3000 m a.s.l.) already existed in the late Middle Pleistocene. Younger exposure ages (~40–80 ka, ~30 ka) complement the existing Central Asian glacial chronology and reflect successively less extensive Late Pleistocene glaciations. The topography of the Pamir and the glacial chronologies suggest that, in the Middle Pleistocene, an ice cap or ice field occupied the eastern Pamir high-altitude plateau, whereas westward flowing valley glaciers incised the southwestern Pamir. Since the Late Pleistocene deglaciation, the rivers of the southwestern Pamir adjusted to the glacially shaped landscape. As a result, localized rapid fluvial incision and drainage network reorganization reflect the transient nature of the deglaciated landscape.

  1. Bedrock Geology and Asbestos Deposits of the Upper Missisquoi Valley and Vicinity, Vermont (United States)

    Cady, Wallace Martin; Albee, Arden Leroy; Chidester, A.H.


    The upper Missisquoi Valley and vicinity as described in this report covers an area of about 250 square miles at the headwaters of the Missisquoi River in north-central Vermont. About 90 percent of the area is forested and the remainder is chiefly farm land. The topography reflects the geologic structure and varied resistance of the bedrock to erosion. Most of the area is on the east limb of the Green Mountain anticlinorium, which is the principal structural feature of Vermont. The bedrock is predominantly sedimentary and volcanic rock that has been regionally metamorphosed. It was intruded before metamorphism by mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, and after metamorphism by felsic and mafic igneous rocks. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks range in age from Cambrian(?) to Middle Silurian, the intrusive igneous rocks from probably Late Ordovician to probably late Permian. Metamorphism and principal folding in the region occurred in Middle Devonian time. The metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks make up a section at least 25,000 feet thick and can be divided into nine formations. The Hazens Notch formation of Cambrian(?) and Early Cambrian age is characterized by carbonaceous schist. It is succeeded in western parts of the area by the Jay Peak formation of Early Cambrian age, which is chiefly a schist that is distinguished by the general absence of carbonaceous zones; in central parts of the area the Hazens Notch formation is followed by the Belvidere Mountain amphibolite, probably the youngest of the formations of Early Cambrian age. The Ottauquechee formation, composed of carbonaceous phyllite and quartzite, and phyllitic graywacke, is of Middle Cambrian age. The Stowe formation of Late Cambrian(?) and Early(?) Ordovician age overlies the Ottauquechee and is predominantly noncarbonaceous schist, though it also contains greenstone and carbonaceous schist and phyllite. The Umbrella Hill formation of Middle Ordovician age is characteristically a

  2. Stratigraphic framework of Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in the central Appalachian Basin from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, West Virginia (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Harris, Anita G.; Repetski, John E.; revised and digitized by Crangle, Robert D.


    A 275-mi-long restored stratigraphic cross section from Medina County, Ohio, through southwestern and south-central Pennsylvania to Hampshire County, W. Va., provides new details on Cambrian and Ordovician stratigraphy in the central Appalachian basin and the structure of underlying Precambrian basement rocks. From west to east, the major structural elements of the block-faulted basement in this section are (1) the relatively stable, slightly extended craton, which includes the Wooster arch, (2) the fault-controlled Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone, which separates the craton from the adjoining Rome trough, (3) the Rome trough, which consists of an east-facing asymmetric graben and an overlying sag basin, and (4) a positive fault block, named here the South-central Pennsylvania arch, which borders the eastern margin of the graben part of the Rome trough. Pre-Middle Ordovician structural relief on Precambrian basement rocks across the down-to-the-west normal fault that separates the Rome trough and the adjoining South-central Pennsylvania arch amounted to between 6,000 and 7,000 ft. The restored cross section shows eastward thickening of the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence from about 3,000 ft near the crest of the Wooster arch at the western end of the section to about 5,150 ft at the Ohio-West Virginia hinge zone adjoining the western margin of the Rome trough to about 19,800 ft near the depositional axis of the Rome trough. East of the Rome trough, at the adjoining western edge of the South-central Pennsylvania arch, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence thins abruptly to about 13,500 ft and then thins gradually eastward across the arch to about 12,700 ft near the Allegheny structural front and to about 10,150 ft at the eastern end of the restored section. In general, the Cambrian and Ordovician sequence along this section consists of four major lithofacies that are predominantly shallow marine to peritidal in origin. In ascending stratigraphic order, the lithofacies

  3. Evidence of an upper ordovician thermo-metamorphic event in the SW-Corner of the Cantabrian Mountains (N-Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krumm, S.


    Full Text Available According to Illite «crystallinity» (IC data, the metamorphic evolution of the SW Cantabrian Mountains took place in several steps. After a Precambrian deformation with accompanying low-grade metamorphism a thermal event during the Upper Ordovician affected the Cambro-Ordovician sediments. This event is marked by anchizonal IC values in the Pre-Silurian sequence contrasting the diagenetic data obtained from Siluro-Devonian rocks.Apparently, the metamorphic history in that part of the Cantabrian Mountains ended during the Late Ordovician, a Hercynian metamorphism cannot be proven conclusively.Segun la cristalinidad de Illita (IC la evolución metamórfica de la zona sudoeste de la Cordillera Cantábrica tuvo lugar en varias etapas. Siguiendo una deformación precámbrica con un metamorfismo de bajo grado, un evento térmico durante el Ordovícico Superior afecto a la secuencia Cambro-Ordovícica. Este evento esta marcado en las rocas pre-Silúricas por valores de IC indicando la anchizona. Estos datos contrastan con valores obtenidos de la secuencia Siluro-Devónica, que son característicos de la diagénesis.Aparentemente, la evolución metamórfica del sudoeste de la Cordillera Cantábrica termino durante el Ordovícico, un metamorfismo Hercínico no pudo ser comprobado.

  4. Erratum to: On the Progression and Stability of Adolescent Identity Formation. A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeus, Wim; van de Schoot, Rens; Keijsers, Loes; Schwartz, S.J.; Branje, Susan


    This article corrects: On the Progression and Stability of Adolescent Identity Formation: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescence Vol. 81, Issue 5, 1565–1581,

  5. Geologic drivers of late ordovician faunal change in laurentia: investigating links between tectonics, speciation, and biotic invasions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Wright

    Full Text Available Geologic process, including tectonics and global climate change, profoundly impact the evolution of life because they have the propensity to facilitate episodes of biogeographic differentiation and influence patterns of speciation. We investigate causal links between a dramatic faunal turnover and two dominant geologic processes operating within Laurentia during the Late Ordovician: the Taconian Orogeny and GICE related global cooling. We utilize a novel approach for elucidating the relationship between biotic and geologic changes using a time-stratigraphic, species-level evolutionary framework for articulated brachiopods from North America. Phylogenetic biogeographic analyses indicate a fundamental shift in speciation mode-from a vicariance to dispersal dominated macroevolutionary regime-across the boundary between the Sandbian to Katian Stages. This boundary also corresponds to the onset of renewed intensification of tectonic activity and mountain building, the development of an upwelling zone that introduced cool, nutrient-rich waters into the epieric seas of eastern Laurentia, and the GICE isotopic excursion. The synchronicity of these dramatic geologic, oceanographic, and macroevolutionary changes supports the influence of geologic events on biological evolution. Together, the renewed tectonic activity and oceanographic changes facilitated fundamental changes in habitat structure in eastern North America that reduced opportunities for isolation and vicariance. They also facilitated regional biotic dispersal of taxa that led to the subsequent establishment of extrabasinal (=invasive species and may have led to a suppression of speciation within Laurentian faunas. Phylogenetic biogeographic analysis further indicates that the Richmondian Invasion was a multidirectional regional invasion event that involved taxa immigrating into the Cincinnati region from basins located near the continental margins and within the continental interior.

  6. Hydrogeological evidence of low rock mass permeabilities in ordovician strata: Bruce nuclear site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauheim, R.L.; Roberts, R.M.; Avis, J.D.; Heagle, D.


    One of the key attributes contributing to the suitability of the Bruce nuclear site to host a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for Low and Intermediate Level Waste (L&ILW) is the low permeability of the Ordovician host rock and of the overlying and underlying strata. The permeability of these rocks is so low that diffusion is a much more significant transport mechanism than advection. Hydrogeological evidence for the low permeability of the Ordovician strata comes from two principal sources, direct and indirect. Direct evidence of low permeability is provided by the hydraulic testing performed in deep boreholes, DGR-2 through DGR-6. Straddle-packer hydraulic testing was performed in 57 Ordovician intervals in these five holes. The testing provided continuous coverage using ~30-m straddle intervals of the Ordovician strata exposed in boreholes DGR-2, DGR-3, DGR-4, and DGR-5, while testing was targeted on discontinuous 10.2-m intervals in DGR-6. The average horizontal hydraulic conductivities of these intervals determined from the tests ranged from 2E-16 to 2E-10 m/s. The Lower Member of the Cobourg Formation, which is the proposed host formation for the DGR, was found to have a horizontal hydraulic conductivity of 4E-15 to 3E-14 m/s. The only horizontal hydraulic conductivity values measured that were greater than 2E-12 m/s are from the Black River Group, located at the base of the Ordovician sedimentary sequence. Indirect evidence of low permeability is provided by the observed distribution of hydraulic heads through the Ordovician sequence. Hydraulic head profiles, defined by hydraulic testing and confirmed by Westbay multilevel monitoring systems, show significant underpressures relative to a density-compensated hydrostatic condition throughout most of the Ordovician strata above the Black River Group, whereas the Black River Group is overpressured. Pressure differences of 1 MPa or more are observed between adjacent intervals in the boreholes. The observed

  7. Sedimentary Provenance Constraints on the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Paleogeography of the Sichuan Basin, SW China (United States)

    Li, Y.; He, D.; Li, D.; Lu, R.


    Sedimentary provenance of the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous sediments in the Sichuan Basin is constrained by sandstone petrology and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, which provides critical insights into mid-late Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the Sichuan Basin. Petrographic analyses of 22 sandstone samples indicate moderate to high mature sediments and are primarily derived from cratonic or recycled sources. U-Pb age data for the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous detrital zircons generally show populations at 130-200, 200-330, 400-490, 680-890, 1730-1960, and 2360-2600 Ma, with up-section variations. The Middle Jurassic sediments contain a relatively high density of 1.85 and 2.5 Ga zircons and a low density of the 800 Ma zircons, which are consistent with derivation mainly from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane and the South Qinling belt, and secondarily from the Western Jiangnan Orogen. The Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sedimentation with a scattered age distribution shared common multiple-source to sink systems that were predominantly draining towards the south and southeast, but increasingly drained southward, and were later disrupted by a synchronous northeastward drainage capture. Late Cretaceous sediments have a distinct reduction in Block.

  8. On the Progression and Stability of Adolescent Identity Formation : A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meeus, W.H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070442215; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Keijsers, L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836206; Schwartz, S.; Branje, S.J.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/192657860


    This study examined identity development in a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents thereby covering the ages of 12–20. Systematic evidence for identity progression was found: The number of diffusions, moratoriums, and searching moratoriums (a newly obtained status)

  9. Remission and incidence of obstructive sleep apnea from middle childhood to late adolescence. (United States)

    Spilsbury, James C; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Rosen, Carol L; Redline, Susan


    To study the incidence, remission, and prediction of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) from middle childhood to late adolescence. Longitudinal analysis. The Cleveland Children's Sleep and Health Study, an ethnically mixed, urban, community-based cohort, followed 8 y. There were 490 participants with overnight polysomnography data available at ages 8-11 and 16-19 y. Baseline participant characteristics and health history were ascertained from parent report and US census data. OSA was defined as an obstructive apnea- hypopnea index ≥ 5 or an obstructive apnea index ≥ 1. OSA prevalence was approximately 4% at each examination, but OSA largely did not persist from middle childhood to late adolescence. Habitual snoring and obesity predicted OSA in cross-sectional analyses at each time point. Residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood, African-American race, and premature birth also predicted OSA in middle childhood, whereas male sex, high body mass index, and history of tonsillectomy or adenoidectomy were risk factors among adolescents. Obesity, but not habitual snoring, in middle childhood predicted adolescent OSA. Because OSA in middle childhood usually remitted by adolescence and most adolescent cases were incident cases, criteria other than concern alone over OSA persistence or incidence should be used when making treatment decisions for pediatric OSA. Moreover, OSA's distinct risk factors at each time point underscore the need for alternative risk-factor assessments across pediatric ages. The greater importance of middle childhood obesity compared to snoring in predicting adolescent OSA provides support for screening, preventing, and treating obesity in childhood. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Conodont biostratigraphy of lower Ordovician rocks, Arbuckle Group, southern Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresbach, R.I.; Ethington, R.L. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))


    The Arbuckle Group of southern Oklahoma displays the only complete exposure of the shallow-water carbonates that characterize the Lower Ordovician of interior North America. Trilobites have been described from some parts of this sequence and sporadic occurrences of other invertebrates are known, but much of the sequence is sparingly fossiliferous. As a consequence, these magnificent exposures have not contributed notably to continuing efforts toward development of a comprehensive biostratigraphic scheme for the Lower Ordovician of the North American platform. Samples collected at 25-ft intervals through the Arbuckle Group along and adjacent to Interstate Highway 35 on the south flank of the Arbuckle anticline near Ardmore, Oklahoma, produced conodonts in abundances ranging from a few tens to over a thousand elements per kilogram and displaying good to excellent preservation with low CAI. These conodonts document a biostratigraphic continuum that provides a standard for correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks in the subsurface of central US and of the many localized and incomplete outcrops of generally equivalent strata in the Ozark and Upper Mississippi Valley regions. The stratigraphic continuity of the collections makes the I-35 section an ideal standard reference section for graphic correlation of Lower Ordovician rocks containing conodonts of the Mid-Continent Province.

  11. Depositional environments and cyclicity of the Early Ordovician carbonate ramp in the western Tarim Basin (NW China) (United States)

    Guo, Chuan; Chen, Daizhao; Song, Yafang; Zhou, Xiqiang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Gongjing


    During the Early Ordovician, the Tarim Basin (NW China) was mainly occupied by an extensive shallow-water carbonate platform, on which a carbonate ramp system was developed in the Bachu-Keping area of the western part of the basin. Three well-exposed typical outcrop sections of the Lower Ordovician Penglaiba Formation were investigated in order to identify the depositional facies and to clarify origins of meter-scale cycles and depositional sequences, thereby the platform evolution. Thirteen lithofacies are identified and further grouped into three depositional facies (associations): peritidal, restricted and open-marine subtidal facies. These lithofacies are vertically stacked into meter-scale, shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles. The peritidal cycles are mainly distributed in the lower and uppermost parts of the Penglaiba Formation deposited in the inner-middle ramp, and commonly start with shallow subtidal to intertidal facies followed by inter- to supratidal facies. In contrast, the subtidal cycles occur throughout the formation mostly in the middle-outer ramp and are dominated by shallow to relatively deep (i.e., intermediate) subtidal facies. The dominance of asymmetrical and incomplete cycles suggests a dominant control of Earth's orbital forcing on the cyclic deposition on the platform. On the basis of vertical facies and cycle stacking patterns, and accommodation changes illustrated by the Fischer plots from all studied sections, five third-order depositional sequences are recognized in the Penglaiba Formation. Individual sequences comprise a lower transgressive part and an upper regressive one. In shallow-water depositional environments, the transgressive packages are dominated by thicker-than-average subtidal cycles, indicating an increase in accommodation space, whereas regressive parts are mainly represented by thinner-than-average peritidal and subtidal cycles, denoting a decrease in accommodation space. In contrast, in intermediate to

  12. The late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record of eastern Asia: synthesis and review. (United States)

    Bae, Christopher J


    Traditionally, Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils that cannot be allocated to Homo erectus sensu lato or modern H. sapiens have been assigned to different specific taxa. For example, in eastern Asia, these hominin fossils have been classified as archaic, early, or premodern H. sapiens. An increasing number of Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils are currently being assigned to H. heidelbergensis. This is particularly the case for the African and European Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record. There have been suggestions that perhaps the eastern Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins can also be allocated to the H. heidelbergensis hypodigm. In this article, I review the current state of the late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record from eastern Asia and examine the various arguments for assigning these hominins to the different specific taxa. The two primary conclusions drawn from this review are as follows: 1) little evidence currently exists in the eastern Asian Middle Pleistocene hominin fossil record to support their assignment to H. heidelbergensis; and 2) rather than add to the growing list of hominin fossil taxa by using taxonomic names like H. daliensis for northeast Asian fossils and H. mabaensis for Southeast Asian fossils, it is better to err on the side of caution and continue to use the term archaic H. sapiens to represent all of these hominin fossils. What should be evident from this review is the need for an increase in the quality and quantity of the eastern Asian hominin fossil data set. Fortunately, with the increasing number of large-scale multidisciplinary paleoanthropological field and laboratory research projects in eastern Asia, the record is quickly becoming better understood. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China—Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim


    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  14. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China-Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction. (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim


    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  15. Late Middle Pleistocene hominin teeth from Panxian Dadong, South China. (United States)

    Liu, Wu; Schepartz, Lynne A; Xing, Song; Miller-Antonio, Sari; Wu, Xiujie; Trinkaus, Erik; Martinón-Torres, María


    The hominin teeth and evidence of hominin activities recovered from 1991 to 2005 at the Panxian Dadong site in South China are dated to the late Middle Pleistocene (MIS 8-6 or ca. 130-300 ka), a period for which very little is known about the morphology of Asian populations. The present study provides the first detailed morphometric description and comparisons of four hominin teeth (I(1), C1, P(3) and P3) from this site. Our study shows that the Panxian Dadong teeth combine archaic and derived features that align them with Middle and Upper Pleistocene fossils from East and West Asia and Europe. These teeth do not display any typical Neanderthal features and they are generally more derived than other contemporaneous populations from Asia and Africa. However, the derived traits are not diagnostic enough to specifically link the Panxian Dadong teeth to Homo sapiens, a common problem when analyzing the Middle Pleistocene dental record from Africa and Asia. These findings are contextualized in the discussion of the evolutionary course of Asian Middle Pleistocene hominins, and they highlight the necessity of incorporating the Asian fossil record in the still open debate about the origin of H. sapiens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neoproterozoic-Early Paleozoic Peri-Pacific Accretionary Evolution of the Mongolian Collage System: Insights From Geochemical and U-Pb Zircon Data From the Ordovician Sedimentary Wedge in the Mongolian Altai (United States)

    Jiang, Y. D.; Schulmann, K.; Kröner, A.; Sun, M.; Lexa, O.; Janoušek, V.; Buriánek, D.; Yuan, C.; Hanžl, P.


    Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic accretionary processes of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt have been evaluated so far mainly using the geology of ophiolites and/or magmatic arcs. Thus, the knowledge of the nature and evolution of associated sedimentary prisms remains fragmentary. We carried out an integrated geological, geochemical, and zircon U-Pb geochronological study on a giant Ordovician metasedimentary succession of the Mongolian Altai Mountains. This succession is characterized by dominant terrigenous components mixed with volcanogenic material. It is chemically immature, compositionally analogous to graywacke, and marked by significant input of felsic to intermediate arc components, pointing to an active continental margin depositional setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages suggest a source dominated by products of early Paleozoic magmatism prevailing during the Cambrian-Ordovician and culminating at circa 500 Ma. We propose that the Ordovician succession forms an "Altai sedimentary wedge," the evolution of which can be linked to the geodynamics of the margins of the Mongolian Precambrian Zavhan-Baydrag blocks. This involved subduction reversal from southward subduction of a passive continental margin (Early Cambrian) to the development of the "Ikh-Mongol Magmatic Arc System" and the giant Altai sedimentary wedge above a north dipping subduction zone (Late Cambrian-Ordovician). Such a dynamic process resembles the tectonic evolution of the peri-Pacific accretionary Terra Australis Orogen. A new model reconciling the Baikalian metamorphic belt along the southern Siberian Craton with peri-Pacific Altai accretionary systems fringing the Mongolian microcontinents is proposed to explain the Cambro-Ordovician geodynamic evolution of the Mongolian collage system.

  17. Age and geochemistry of the Charlestown Group, Ireland: Implications for the Grampian orogeny, its mineral potential and the Ordovician timescale (United States)

    Herrington, Richard J.; Hollis, Steven P.; Cooper, Mark R.; Stobbs, Iain; Tapster, Simon; Rushton, Adrian; McConnell, Brian; Jeffries, Teresa


    Accurately reconstructing the growth of continental margins during episodes of ocean closure has important implications for understanding the formation, preservation and location of mineral deposits in ancient orogens. The Charlestown Group of county Mayo, Ireland, forms an important yet understudied link in the Caledonian-Appalachian orogenic belt located between the well documented sectors of western Ireland and Northern Ireland. We have reassessed its role in the Ordovician Grampian orogeny, based on new fieldwork, high-resolution airborne geophysics, graptolite biostratigraphy, U-Pb zircon dating, whole rock geochemistry, and an examination of historic drillcore from across the volcanic inlier. The Charlestown Group can be divided into three formations: Horan, Carracastle, and Tawnyinah. The Horan Formation comprises a mixed sequence of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline basalt, crystal tuff and sedimentary rocks (e.g. black shale, chert), forming within an evolving peri-Laurentian affinity island arc. The presence of graptolites Pseudisograptus of the manubriatus group and the discovery of Exigraptus uniformis and Skiagraptus gnomonicus favour a latest Dapingian (i.e. Yapeenian Ya 2/late Arenig) age for the Horan Formation (equivalent to c. 471.2-470.5 Ma according to the timescale of Sadler et al., 2009). Together with three new U-Pb zircon ages of 471.95-470.82 Ma from enclosing felsic tuffs and volcanic breccias, this fauna provides an important new constraint for calibrating the Middle Ordovician timescale. Overlying deposits of the Carracastle and Tawnyinah formations are dominated by LILE- and LREE-enriched calc-alkaline andesitic tuffs and flows, coarse volcanic breccias and quartz-feldspar porphyritic intrusive rocks, overlain by more silicic tuffs and volcanic breccias with rare occurrences of sedimentary rocks. The relatively young age for the Charlestown Group in the Grampian orogeny, coupled with high Th/Yb and zircon inheritance (c. 2.7 Ga) in intrusive

  18. Genetic and Environmental Architecture of Changes in Episodic Memory from Middle to Late Middle Age (United States)

    Panizzon, Matthew S.; Neale, Michael C.; Docherty, Anna R.; Franz, Carol E.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Toomey, Rosemary; Xian, Hong; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K.; McKenzie, Ruth M.; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William S.


    Episodic memory is a complex construct at both the phenotypic and genetic level. Ample evidence supports age-related cognitive stability and change being accounted for by general and domain-specific factors. We hypothesized that general and specific factors would underlie change even within this single cognitive domain. We examined six measures from three episodic memory tests in a narrow age cohort at middle and late middle age. The factor structure was invariant across occasions. At both timepoints two of three test-specific factors (story recall, design recall) had significant genetic influences independent of the general memory factor. Phenotypic stability was moderate to high, and primarily accounted for by genetic influences, except for one test-specific factor (list learning). Mean change over time was nonsignificant for one test-level factor; one declined; one improved. The results highlight the phenotypic and genetic complexity of memory and memory change, and shed light on an understudied period of life. PMID:25938244

  19. Environmental control on concretion-forming processes: Examples from Paleozoic terrigenous sediments of the North Gondwana margin, Armorican Massif (Middle Ordovician and Middle Devonian) and SW Sardinia (Late Ordovician) (United States)

    Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Loi, Alfredo


    Concretions of various compositions are common in the Paleozoic terrigenous successions of the north Gondwana margin. This study focuses on phosphatic (P) and siliceous (Si) concretions present in some successions of the Armorican Massif (NW France) and SW Sardinia (W Italy). It shows that they consist of mudstones, fine- to very fine-grained sandstones or shellbeds with a more or less abundant P-cement and form a continuum between a phosphatic end-member and a siliceous biogenic end-member. The P2O5 contents are ranging from 0.26% to 21.5% and are related to apatite. The SiO2 contents vary from 25% to 82% and are linked both to a terrigenous phase and to a biogenic silica phase. Concretions showing the lower P-contents (P2O5 5). Comparison with the surrounding sediments shows that all the concretions are enriched in chlorite and in Middle Rare Earth Elements (Las/Gds: 0.12-0.72) and some of them in Y (up to 974 ppm), Rare Earth Elements (more than 300 ppm) and Sr (260-880 ppm). The concretions with highest biogenic silica concentrations are contained in the outer shelf sediments whereas the other concretions are present from the proximal part of the inner shelf to the outer shelf. A genetic model in two stages is proposed. During early diagenesis, the dissolution of shells and degradation of organic matter progressively enrich the pore water in dissolved Si, Ca and P. When the suboxic zone is reached, P-precipitation begins, leading to the formation of protoconcretions. In shallow environments, the relative permeability of sediments and the winnowing or reworking of the upper few centimetres by bottom currents allow for suboxic conditions to be maintained, leading to P-rich concretion formation. In deeper environments, the anoxic zone is reached more rapidly, thereby preventing extensive phosphogenesis. Nevertheless in the protoconcretions the early P-cement preserves pore spaces from compaction. In the presence of biogenic siliceous particles, the fluids are

  20. Middle Pleistocene protein sequences from the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus and the phylogeny of extant and extinct Middle/Late Pleistocene Rhinocerotidae. (United States)

    Welker, Frido; Smith, Geoff M; Hutson, Jarod M; Kindler, Lutz; Garcia-Moreno, Alejandro; Villaluenga, Aritza; Turner, Elaine; Gaudzinski-Windheuser, Sabine


    Ancient protein sequences are increasingly used to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships between extinct and extant mammalian taxa. Here, we apply these recent developments to Middle Pleistocene bone specimens of the rhinoceros genus Stephanorhinus . No biomolecular sequence data is currently available for this genus, leaving phylogenetic hypotheses on its evolutionary relationships to extant and extinct rhinoceroses untested. Furthermore, recent phylogenies based on Rhinocerotidae (partial or complete) mitochondrial DNA sequences differ in the placement of the Sumatran rhinoceros ( Dicerorhinus sumatrensis ). Therefore, studies utilising ancient protein sequences from Middle Pleistocene contexts have the potential to provide further insights into the phylogenetic relationships between extant and extinct species, including Stephanorhinus and Dicerorhinus . ZooMS screening (zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry) was performed on several Late and Middle Pleistocene specimens from the genus Stephanorhinus , subsequently followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to obtain ancient protein sequences from a Middle Pleistocene Stephanorhinus specimen. We performed parallel analysis on a Late Pleistocene woolly rhinoceros specimen and extant species of rhinoceroses, resulting in the availability of protein sequence data for five extant species and two extinct genera. Phylogenetic analysis additionally included all extant Perissodactyla genera ( Equus , Tapirus ), and was conducted using Bayesian (MrBayes) and maximum-likelihood (RAxML) methods. Various ancient proteins were identified in both the Middle and Late Pleistocene rhinoceros samples. Protein degradation and proteome complexity are consistent with an endogenous origin of the identified proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of informative proteins resolved the Perissodactyla phylogeny in agreement with previous studies in regards to the placement of the families Equidae, Tapiridae, and

  1. A new Ordovician arthropod from the Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa (USA) reveals the ground plan of eurypterids and chasmataspidids (United States)

    Lamsdell, James C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Liu, Huaibao P.; Witzke, Brian J.; McKay, Robert M.


    Euchelicerates were a major component of Palaeozoic faunas, but their basal relationships are uncertain: it has been suggested that Xiphosura—xiphosurids (horseshoe crabs) and similar Palaeozoic forms, the synziphosurines—may not represent a natural group. Basal euchelicerates are rare in the fossil record, however, particularly during the initial Ordovician radiation of the group. Here, we describe Winneshiekia youngae gen. et sp. nov., a euchelicerate from the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian) Winneshiek Lagerstätte of Iowa, USA. Winneshiekia shares features with both xiphosurans (a large, semicircular carapace and ophthalmic ridges) and dekatriatan euchelicerates such as chasmataspidids and eurypterids (an opisthosoma of 13 tergites). Phylogenetic analysis resolves Winneshiekia at the base of Dekatriata, as sister taxon to a clade comprising chasmataspidids, eurypterids, arachnids, and Houia. Winneshiekia provides further support for the polyphyly of synziphosurines, traditionally considered the stem lineage to xiphosurid horseshoe crabs, and by extension the paraphyly of Xiphosura. The new taxon reveals the ground pattern of Dekatriata and provides evidence of character polarity in chasmataspidids and eurypterids. The Winneshiek Lagerstätte thus represents an important palaeontological window into early chelicerate evolution.

  2. Geological Carbon Sequestration Storage Resource Estimates for the Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone, Illinois and Michigan Basins, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, David; Ellett, Kevin; Leetaru, Hannes


    The Cambro-Ordovician strata of the Midwest of the United States is a primary target for potential geological storage of CO2 in deep saline formations. The objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive evaluation of the Cambro-Ordovician strata in the Illinois and Michigan Basins above the basal Mount Simon Sandstone since the Mount Simon is the subject of other investigations including a demonstration-scale injection at the Illinois Basin Decatur Project. The primary reservoir targets investigated in this study are the middle Ordovician St Peter Sandstone and the late Cambrian to early Ordovician Knox Group carbonates. The topic of this report is a regional-scale evaluation of the geologic storage resource potential of the St Peter Sandstone in both the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Multiple deterministic-based approaches were used in conjunction with the probabilistic-based storage efficiency factors published in the DOE methodology to estimate the carbon storage resource of the formation. Extensive data sets of core analyses and wireline logs were compiled to develop the necessary inputs for volumetric calculations. Results demonstrate how the range in uncertainty of storage resource estimates varies as a function of data availability and quality, and the underlying assumptions used in the different approaches. In the simplest approach, storage resource estimates were calculated from mapping the gross thickness of the formation and applying a single estimate of the effective mean porosity of the formation. Results from this approach led to storage resource estimates ranging from 3.3 to 35.1 Gt in the Michigan Basin, and 1.0 to 11.0 Gt in the Illinois Basin at the P10 and P90 probability level, respectively. The second approach involved consideration of the diagenetic history of the formation throughout the two basins and used depth-dependent functions of porosity to derive a more realistic spatially variable model of porosity rather than applying a

  3. Hydrogeology of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest: B in Regional aquifer-system analysis (United States)

    Young, H.L.; Siegel, D.I.


    The Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system contains the most extensive and continuous aquifers in the northern Midwest of the United States. It is the source of water for many municipalities, industries, and rural water users. Since the beginning of ground-water development from the aquifer system in the late 1800's, hydraulic heads have declined hundreds of feet in the heavily pumped Chicago-Milwaukee area and somewhat less in other metropolitan areas. The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a regional assessment of this aquifer system within a 161,000-square-mile area encompassing northern Illinois, northwestern Indiana, Iowa, southeastern Minnesota, northern Missouri, and Wisconsin.

  4. Stratigraphic significance of Cruziana: New data concerning the Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magwood, J.P.A.; Pemberton, S.G. (Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada))


    The classic Cambrian-Ordovician ichnostratigraphic paradigm originally developed in Europe is based on the assumption that Cruziana - ichnofossils presumably produced by trilobites - can be used in much the same way as trilobite body fossils have been used in chronostratigraphy. That these ichnofossils can be found in many otherwise unfossiliferous, shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits has made them extremely valuable as correlation tools. The paradigm has been used to date lower Paleozoic units in eastern Canada and Europe. It has also been used as supporting evidence to show close affinities between (1) eastern North America, Wales, and Spain and (2) Spain, northern Africa, and southern Asia. Ichnospecies indicative of the Lower Ordovician (Tremadocian and Arenigian), according to the paradigm, have been recovered from the Lower Cambrian (Atdabanian) Gog Group, near Lake Louise, Alberta, Canada. This discovery indicates that these ichnospecies cannot be used as global Lower Ordovician index fossils.

  5. Petrography and geochemistry of the volcanic rocks of the Rodeio Velho Member, Ordovician of the Camaqua basin (RS-Brazil): preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Delia del Pilar M. de; Lopes, Ricardo da C.; Gomes, Cristiane H.; Lima, Larissa de.


    A geochemical study based in REE, minor elements and petrographic analyses from the volcanic rocks pertaining to the Rodeio Velho Member, comprising lava flows and epizonal intrusive bodies, both corresponding to andesites, subalkaline and alkaline basalts and trachyandesites; and stratified pyroclastic deposits, showed that fractional crystallization of deep source magma is the fundamental mechanism controlling the relationships among these rocks. This igneous event occurred in an alkaline intraplate environment, associated to a widespread extension tectonics, probably corresponding to a final stage of the Pan African - Brasiliano Orogeny during the Middle Ordovician. (author)

  6. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence. (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J


    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Examination of the Reelfoot Rift Petroleum System, south-central United States, and the elements that remain for potential exploration and development (United States)

    Coleman, James; Pratt, Thomas L.


    The Reelfoot rift is one segment of a late Proterozoic(?) to early Paleozoic intracontinental rift complex in the south-central United States. The rift complex is situated beneath Mesozoic to Cenozoic strata of the Mississippi embayment of southeastern Missouri, northeastern Arkansas, and western Tennessee and Kentucky. The rift portion of the stratigraphic section consists primarily of synrift Cambrian and Ordovician strata, capped by a postrift sag succession of Late Ordovician to Cenozoic age. Potential synrift source rocks have been identified in the Cambrian Elvins Shale. Thermal maturity of Paleozoic strata within the rift ranges from the oil window to the dry gas window. Petroleum generation in Elvins source rocks likely occurred during the middle to late Paleozoic. Upper Cretaceous sedimentary rocks unconformably overlie various Paleozoic units and define the likely upper boundary of the petroleum system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The Authors have elaborated four range charts of mammalian (large and micro, molluscs and fresh-water and brackish ostracodes faunas, for the selected Plio-Pleistocene fossiliferous localities of the Italy. A new Mammal Age (Aurelian correlatable to late Middle and Late Pleistocene has been defined. Inside this age two Faunal Units (Torre in Pietra and Vitinia have been defined as characteristic for Early and Middle Aurelian, while no gisements have been chosen for the late Aurelian. Biochronological units are calibrated on magnetostratigraphic and isotopic scales and by radiometric datings.    

  9. Middle and late Badenian palaeoenvironments in the northern Vienna Basin and their potential link to the Badenian Salinity Crisis (United States)

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Grunert, Patrick; Mandic, Oleg; Lukeneder, Petra; Gallardo, Ángela García; Neubauer, Thomas A.; Carnevale, Giorgio; Landau, Bernard M.; Sauer, Roman; Strauss, Philipp


    Hydrocarbon exploration in the Bernhardsthal and Bernhardsthal-Sued oil fields documents an up to 2000 m thick succession of middle and upper Badenian deposits in this part of the northern Vienna Basin (Austria). Based on palaeontological analyses of core-samples, well-log data and seismic surveys we propose an integrated stratigraphy and describe the depositional environments. As the middle/late Badenian boundary is correlated with the Langhian/Serravallian boundary, the cores capture the crucial phase of the Middle Miocene Climate Transition. The middle Badenian starts with a major transgression leading to outer neritic to upper bathyal conditions in the northern Vienna Basin, indicated by Bathysiphon-assemblages and glass-sponges. A strong palaeo-relief and rapid synsedimentary subsidence accentuated sedimentation during this phase. The middle/late Badenian boundary coincides with a major drop of relative sea level by about 200 m, resulting in a rapid shift from deeper marine depositional environments to coastal and freshwater swamps. In coeval marine settings, a more than 100 m thick unit of anhydrite-bearing clay formed. This is the first evidence of evaporite precipitation during the Badenian Salinity Crisis in the Vienna Basin. Shallow lagoonal environments with diverse and fully marine mollusc and fish assemblages were established during the subsequent late Badenian re-flooding. In composition, the mollusc fauna differs considerably from older ones and is characterized by the sudden appearance of species with eastern Paratethyan affinities.

  10. Timing of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization: Relation to Appalachian orogenic events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; van der Pluijm, B.A. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (USA))


    Although Mississippi Valley-type deposits in Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks of the Appalachian orogen are commonly interpreted to have been precipitated by basinal brines, the timing of brine migration remains poorly known. Late Paleozoic K-Ar isotopic ages on authigenic K-feldspar, which is widespread in Appalachian carbonate rocks, as well as evidence of paleomagnetic overprints of similar age, have focused attention on the possibility that these Mississippi Valley-type deposits formed as a result of late Paleozoic deformation. Geologic and geochemical similarities among most of these deposits, from Georgia to Newfoundland, including unusually high sphalerite/galena ratios, isotopically heavy sulfur, and relatively nonradiogenic lead, suggest that they are coeval. Sphalerite sand that parallels host-rock layering in many of the deposits indicates that mineralization occurred before regional deformation. Although the late Paleozoic age of deformation in the southern Appalachians provides little constraint on the age of Mississippi Valley-type mineralization, deformation of these deposits in the Newfoundland Appalachians is early to middle Paleozoic in age. Thus, if Ordovician-hosted, Appalachian Mississippi Valley-type deposits are coeval, they must have formed by middle Paleozoic time and cannot be the product of a late Paleozoic fluid-expulsion event. This hypothesis has important implications for basin evolution, fluid events, and remagnetization in the Appalachians.

  11. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician-Silurian times


    M. I. Wegmann; U. Riller; F. D. Hongn; Johannes Glodny; Onno Oncken


    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NWArgentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relat...

  12. Links Between Contexts and Middle to Late Childhood Social-Emotional Development. (United States)

    Duong, Jeffrey; Bradshaw, Catherine P


    Guided by the social-emotional learning (SEL) framework, we studied developmental trajectory patterns of five key competency outcomes spanning middle through late childhood: altruism, empathy, self-efficacy, aggression, and hyperactivity. We then assessed their links to middle childhood home, parental, and community contexts. Data from the Institute of Education Sciences' Social and Character Development Program, which comprised nearly 2,400 elementary school students who were followed from Grades 3 through 5, were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Three trajectory groups emerged for each outcome, which were linked to childhood contexts. Positive parenting was associated with a lower likelihood of following a negative empathy trajectory among children. Neighborhood intergenerational closure promoted a stable self-efficacy trajectory. Residing in a high-risk community was linked to increasing normative beliefs about aggression. These findings suggest an important role of contexts in influencing childhood social-emotional development in the later elementary school years. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  13. Trends and correlates of marijuana use among late middle-aged and older adults in the United States, 2002-2014. (United States)

    Salas-Wright, Christopher P; Vaughn, Michael G; Cummings-Vaughn, Lenise A; Holzer, Katherine J; Nelson, Erik J; AbiNader, Millan; Oh, Sehun


    Recent trend studies suggest that marijuana use is on the rise among the general population of adults ages 18 and older in the United States. However, little is known about the trends in marijuana use and marijuana-specific risk/protective factors among American adults during the latter part of adulthood. Findings are based on repeated, cross-sectional data collected from late middle-aged (ages 50-64) and older adults (ages 65 and older) surveyed as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health between 2002 and 2014. The prevalence of past-year marijuana use among late middle-aged adults increased significantly from a low of 2.95% in 2003 to a high of 9.08% in 2014. Similarly, the prevalence of marijuana use increased significantly among older adults from a low of 0.15% in 2003 to a high of 2.04% in 2014. Notably, the upward trends in marijuana use remained significant even when accounting for sociodemographic, substance use, behavioral, and health-related factors. We also found that decreases in marijuana-specific protective factors were associated with the observed trend changes in marijuana use among late middle-aged and older adults, and observed a weakening of the association between late-middle aged marijuana use and risk propensity, other illicit drug use, and criminal justice system involvement over the course of the study. Findings from the present study provide robust evidence indicating that marijuana use among older Americans has increased markedly in recent years, with the most evident changes observed between 2008 and 2014. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The diploporite blastozoan Lepidocalix pulcher from the Middle Ordovician of northern Algeria: Taxonomic revision and palaeoecological implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamouna Makhlouf


    Full Text Available We present revision of the taxonomy and palaeoecology of the Ordovician aristocystitid Lepidocalix pulcher from the Zaouïa of Stita (Great Kabylia, Algeria. An emended diagnosis is proposed, highlighting the four-fold ambulacral system and the typical thecal plating organised in circlets. Lepidocalix is here assigned to the subfamily Calicinae of the family Aristocystitidae. The latex casts show fitted sutures between plates, slightly abraded spines, and well-preserved oral surface. The thecal plates possess up to three dipores, each, included into the spines. The presence of such covered diplopores would have reduced the respiration rate, by restricting their exchange surface area. The spines covering the dipores are not articulated and they could have a protective role. Lepidocalix is interpreted as stationary epifauna, probably using iceberg strategy to be stabilized into the soft substrate.

  15. Ordovician ash geochemistry and the establishment of land plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parnell John


    Full Text Available Abstract The colonization of the terrestrial environment by land plants transformed the planetary surface and its biota, and shifted the balance of Earth’s biomass from the subsurface towards the surface. However there was a long delay between the formation of palaeosols (soils on the land surface and the key stage of plant colonization. The record of palaeosols, and their colonization by fungi and lichens extends well back into the Precambrian. While these early soils provided a potential substrate, they were generally leached of nutrients as part of the weathering process. In contrast, volcanic ash falls provide a geochemically favourable substrate that is both nutrient-rich and has high water retention, making them good hosts to land plants. An anomalously extensive system of volcanic arcs generated unprecedented volumes of lava and volcanic ash (tuff during the Ordovician. The earliest, mid-Ordovician, records of plant spores coincide with these widespread volcanic deposits, suggesting the possibility of a genetic relationship. The ash constituted a global environment of nutrient-laden, water-saturated soil that could be exploited to maximum advantage by the evolving anchoring systems of land plants. The rapid and pervasive inoculation of modern volcanic ash by plant spores, and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing fungi, suggests that the Ordovician ash must have received a substantial load of the earliest spores and their chemistry favoured plant development. In particular, high phosphorus levels in ash were favourable to plant growth. This may have allowed photosynthesizers to diversify and enlarge, and transform the surface of the planet.

  16. Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental reconstruction for middle and late holocene in Uruguay southeastern New contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Puerto, L.; Bracco, R.; Inda, H.; Garcia, F.; Panario, D.; Castineira, C.; Capdepont, I.


    This work is about the study carried out within the framework of the environmental evolution and the prehistoric human occupation on coastal lagoons in the east of Uruguay. The analysis of the sediments in the zone enable the reconstruction of the Holocene climate history as well as the construction of the Paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental model belong to the middle and late Holocene

  17. Carbonate rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in the Lancaster quadrangle, Pennsylvania (United States)

    Meisler, Harold; Becher, Albert E.


    Detailed mapping has shown that the carbonate rocks of Cambrian and Ordovician age in the Lancaster quadrangle, Pennsylvania, can be divided into 14 rock-stratigraphic units. These units are defined primarily by their relative proportions of limestone and dolomite. The oldest units, the Vintage, Kinzers, and Ledger Formations of Cambrian age, and the Conestoga Limestone of Ordovician age are retained in this report. The Zooks Corner Formation, of Cambrian age, a dolomite unit overlying the Ledger Dolomite, is named here for exposures along Conestoga Creek near the village of Zooks Corner. The Conococheague (Cambrian) and Beekmantown (Ordovician) Limestones, as mapped by earlier workers, have been elevated to group rank and subdivided into formations that are correlated with and named for geologic units in Lebanon and Berks Counties, Pa. These formations, from oldest to youngest, are the Buffalo Springs, Snitz Creek, Millbach, and Richland Formations of the Conococheague Group, and the Stonehenge, Bpler, and Ontelaunee Formations of the Beekmantown Group. The Annville and Myerstown Limestones, which are named for lithologically similar units in Dauphin and Lebanon Counties, Pa., overlie the Beekmantown Group in one small area in the quadrangle.

  18. Precipitation change and its effects on prehistorical human activities in the Gonghe Basin, Northeastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during middle and late Holocene (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoqing; Hou, Guangliang; Wang, Fangfang; Wang, Qingbo


    Northeastern Qinghai-tibet Plateau is considered as the ideal region for study of the climate change during the Holocene. Based on the meteorological data, the surface & fossil pollen data, this paper reconstructed the precipitation series of the region since middle Holocene with the GIS and MAT techniques, and discussed its relationship with prehistorical human activities. The results indicate that there are four major climatic phases: (I) Middle Holocene Humid Phase (6300-5000 aBP), with the primitive millet-farming first imported into the region; (II) Late Middle Holocene Sub-humid Phase (5000-3900 aBP), with the millet-farming spread rapidly within the region; (III) Late Holocene Fluctuation Phase (3900-2900 aBP), with the mean annual precipitation dropped down to lower than 240 mm, and a production mode-shift to a combination of cropping and husbandry; (IV) Late Holocene Stationary Phase (2900-0 aBP), with a precipitation alike the modern time, and a steady farming-pastoral economic pattern.

  19. Environmental changes in the Late Ordovician–early Silurian: Review and new insights from black shales and nitrogen isotopes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Melchin, M. J.; Mitchell, Ch. E.; Holmden, Ch.; Štorch, Petr


    Roč. 125, 11/12 (2013), s. 1635-1670 ISSN 0016-7606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/0619 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Late Ordovician * glaciation * Rhuddanian * anoxic event * extinction * nitrogen isotope data Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 4.398, year: 2013

  20. Sedimentary architecture and chronostratigraphy of a late Quaternary incised-valley fill: A case study of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene Rhine system in the Netherlands (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F. S.; Stouthamer, E.; Bosch, J. H. A.; Van den Berg, M. W.; Wallinga, J.; Versendaal, A. J.; Bunnik, F. P. M.; Middelkoop, H.


    This paper describes the sedimentary architecture, chronostratigraphy and palaeogeography of the late Middle and Late Pleistocene (Marine Isotope Stage/MIS 6-2) incised Rhine-valley fill in the central Netherlands based on six geological transects, luminescence dating, biostratigraphical data and a 3D geological model. The incised-valley fill consists of a ca. 50 m thick and 10-20 km wide sand-dominated succession and includes a well-developed sequence dating from the Last Interglacial: known as the Eemian in northwest Europe. The lower part of the valley fill contains coarse-grained fluvio-glacial and fluvial Rhine sediments that were deposited under Late Saalian (MIS 6) cold-climatic periglacial conditions and during the transition into the warm Eemian interglacial (MIS 5e-d). This unit is overlain by fine-grained fresh-water flood-basin deposits, which are transgressed by a fine-grained estuarine unit that formed during marine high-stand. This ca. 10 m thick sequence reflects gradual drowning of the Eemian interglacial fluvial Rhine system and transformation into an estuary due to relative sea-level rise. The chronological data suggests a delay in timing of regional Eemian interglacial transgression and sea-level high-stand of several thousand years, when compared to eustatic sea-level. As a result of this glacio-isostatic controlled delay, formation of the interglacial lower deltaic system took only place for a relative short period of time: progradation was therefore limited. During the cooler Weichselian Early Glacial period (MIS 5d-a) deposition of deltaic sediments continued and extensive westward progradation of the Rhine system occurred. Major parts of the Eemian and Weichselian Early Glacial deposits were eroded and buried as a result of sea-level lowering and climate cooling during the early Middle Weichselian (MIS 4-3). Near complete sedimentary preservation occurred along the margins of the incised valley allowing the detailed reconstruction presented

  1. Paleosoils and pedogenic calcretes formations in Fray Bentos (Oligocene - early miocene) Raigon (late pliocene and middle pleistocene) and Libertad (early - middle pleistocene)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofalo, O.; Morras, H.; Sanchez-Bettucci, L.


    The Fray Bentos formation is composed by loessic deposits based on paleosoils and pedogenic calcretes (Oligocene - early miocene). In this deposits are tubular and lamellar formations which would have been formed in arid climates.The fluvial origen of Raigon Formation, (late pliocene and middle pleistocene) presents a paleosoil roof which is generated under a subhumid climate.The Libertad Formation during the glacial intervals consisted of loess deposits

  2. Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek formations, Pioneer Mountains, central Idaho; stratigraphic and structural revisions, and new data on graptolite faunas (United States)

    Dover, James H.; Berry, William B.N.; Ross, Reuben James


    Recent geologic mapping in the northern Pioneer Mountains combined with the identification of graptolites from 116 new collections indicate that the Ordovician and Silurian Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations occur in a series of thrust-bounded slices within a broad zone of imbricate thrust faulting. Though confirming a deformational style first reported in a 1963 study by Michael Churkin, our data suggest that the complexity and regional extent of the thrust zone were not previously recognized. Most previously published sections of the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations were measured across unrecognized thrust faults and therefore include not only structural repetitions of graptolitic Ordovician and Silurian rocks but also other tectonically juxtaposed lithostratigraphic units of diverse ages as well. Because of this discovery, the need to reconsider the stratigraphic validity of these formations and their lithology, nomenclature, structural distribution, facies relations, and graptolite faunas has arisen. The Phi Kappa Formation in most thrust slices has internal stratigraphic continuity despite the intensity of deformation to which it was subjected. As revised herein, the Phi Kappa Formation is restricted to a structurally repeated succession of predominantly black, carbonaceous, graptolitic argillite and shale. Some limy, light-gray-weathering shale occurs in the middle part of the section, and fine-grained locally pebbly quartzite is present at the base. The basal quartzite is here named the Basin Gulch Quartzite Member of the Phi Kappa. The Phi Kappa redefined on a lithologic basis represents the span of Ordovician time from W. B. N. Berry's graptolite zones 2-4 through 15 and also includes approximately 17 m of lithologically identical shale of Early and Middle Silurian age at the top. The lower contact of the formation as revised is tectonic. The Phi Kappa is gradationally overlain by the Trail Creek Formation as restricted herein. Most of the coarser

  3. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35 (United States)

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.


    Cambrian and Ordovician shelf, platform, and basin rocks are present in Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona and were deposited on the southwestern continental margin of North America (Laurentia). Cambrian and Ordovician rocks in Sonora, Mexico, are mostly exposed in scattered outcrops in the northern half of the state. Their discontinuous nature results from extensive Quaternary and Tertiary surficial cover, from Tertiary and Mesozoic granitic batholiths in western Sonora, and from widespread Tertiary volcanic deposits in the Sierra Madre Occidental in eastern Sonora. Cambrian and Ordovician shelf rocks were deposited as part of the the southern miogeocline on the southwestern continental margin of North America.

  4. Advances in the Ordovician graptolite biostratigraphy of the St Petersburg area, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suyarkova, Anna A.


    Full Text Available The Ordovician shallow-water shelf deposits rich in benthic fauna are exposed along the Russian part of the Baltic–Ladoga Klint. Graptolites occur only at some stratigraphic levels, being comparatively numerous in marls and clays and very rare in carbonate layers. Since the 19th century graptolites have been collected from exposures of the Pakerort, Hunneberg, Billingen, and Volkhov regional stages (Tremadocian–Dapingian, while in the Uhaku–Idavere stratigraphic interval (Darriwilian–lower Sandbian rare graptolites have been found in boreholes. Up to now, only some collections have been systematically studied. On the basis of new graptolite finds, recently the Pterograptus elegans Biozone was established in the upper Aseri Stage and the Nemagraptus gracilis Biozone in the lower Kukruse Stage. Detailed sampling of the Shundorovo Formation (upper Idavere Stage resulted in the discovery of numerous diplograptids at five stratigraphic levels, in association with various dendroids. These diplograptids were provisionally assigned to ?Archiclimacograptus antiquus lineatus Elles & Wood. A systematic description of the late Darriwilian and early Sandbian diplograptids is under preparation.

  5. The late Middle Devonian fauna of Red Hill I, Nevada, and its paleobiogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-P. Schultze


    Full Text Available The fauna of the Middle Devonian Red Hill I locality, Nevada, is unusual in the co-occurrence of a rich fish assemblage with a rich invertebrate one. Sponges are second in abundance of specimens and number of species only to the fishes and occur together with other invertebrates (conodonts, conulariids, dacryoconarid tentaculites, gastropods, bivalves, brachiopods, arthropods, and unidentifiable ammonoids and echinoderms. The invertebrates indicate a marine depositional paleoenvironment. The conodonts indicate a placement within the lower disparalis Zone, late Givetian. The fish assemblage is dominated by the antiarch Asterolepis. All the other fishes, acanthodians, actinopterygians and sarcopterygians, are less common. The closest biogeographic relationship of the fish fauna is with the Middle/Late Devonian fish fauna of the Baltic Region, followed by that of eastern Canada (Miguasha, Scotland and Iran. This distribution corresponds to the Devonian Euramerica faunal province with connection to eastern Gondwana (Iran and Australia. Localities with the same genera as Red Hill I are interpreted as marine with the exception of the Scottish localities. Asterolepis is the most widely distributed vertebrate genus, mostly marine, but it may be able to enter freshwater like Eusthenopteron if one accepts a freshwater depositional paleoenvironment for the Scottish localities. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000001

  6. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xu, Meihong; Fan, Rui; Ma, Xiaotao; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qihe; Ren, Jinwei; Mao, Ruixue; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong


    Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p nutrition education group. However, there was no statistical significance between groups. Intensive nutrition education has significant effects on blood glucose control in late middle-aged adults with type 2 diabetes. Intensive education can cultivate good diet habits and increase physical activity, which are important for diabetes patients in the short and long terms. These findings may contribute to improving

  7. Very low-temperature metamorphism in Ordovician metasedimentary rocks above and below the Sardic unconformity, SW Sardinia, Italy (United States)

    Franceschelli, M.; Battaglia, S.; Cruciani, G.; Pasci, S.; Puxeddu, M.


    In the Iglesiente region, the Cabitza and Monte Argentu Formations are separated by an angular unconformity known as the Sardic unconformity. This is related to an early Ordovician mild compressional phase, known as the "Sardic phase". The pelitic samples from the structurally lower Cabitza Formation consist of alternating reddish phyllosilicate-rich and whitish phyllosilicate-poor, sialic layers, whose S0 bedding plane is parallel to a pre-Variscan S1P schistosity overprinted by the Variscan S1V schistosity. Pelitic samples from the Monte Argentu Formation are characterized by a Variscan S1V axial plane schistosity. Samples from the two formations consist of quartz and phyllosilicates. The latter are potassic white mica, chlorite, paragonite, locally kaolinite, and pyrophyllite. The illite crystallinity values determined for the Cabitza samples are 0.25-0.31, with an average of 0.29; meanwhile, the Monte Argentu samples produce values of 0.33-0.38, with an average of 0.35. The chlorite crystallinity and b0 of potassic white mica values show greater heterogeneity in the Cabitza than the Monte Argentu samples. The b0 values and P-T pseudosections allow us to confirm that there is no significant difference in the P-T metamorphism conditions between the Cabitza and Monte Argentu samples. The Iglesiente region, which is considered to be the rift zone behind the Middle Ordovician Sarcidano-Barbagia volcanic arc, underwent the "Sardic phase", giving rise to E-W folds. These were first overprinted by weak E-W, and then by stronger N-S-oriented Variscan deformation events.

  8. Picrite "Intelligence" from the Middle-Late Triassic Stikine arc: Composition of mantle wedge asthenosphere (United States)

    Milidragovic, D.; Zagorevski, A.; Weis, D.; Joyce, N.; Chapman, J. B.


    Primitive, near-primary arc magmas occur as a volumetrically minor ≤100 m thick unit in the Canadian Cordillera of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. These primitive magmas formed an olivine-phyric, picritic tuff near the base of the Middle-Late Triassic Stuhini Group of the Stikine Terrane (Stikinia). A new 40Ar/39Ar age on hornblende from a cross-cutting basaltic dyke constrains the tuff to be older than 221 ± 2 Ma. An 87Sr/86Sr isochron of texturally-unmodified tuff samples yields 212 ± 25 Ma age, which is interpreted to represent syn-depositional equilibration with sea-water. Parental trace element magma composition of the picritic tuff is strongly depleted in most incompatible trace elements relative to MORB and implies a highly depleted ambient arc mantle. High-precision trace element and Hf-Nd-Pb isotopic analyses indicate an origin by mixing of a melt of depleted ambient asthenosphere with ≤2% of subducted sediment melt. Metasomatic addition of non-conservative incompatible elements through melting of subducted Panthalassa Ocean floor sediments accounts for the arc signature of the Stuhini Group picritic tuff, enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and high field strength elements (HFSE), and anomalous enrichment in Pb. The inferred Panthalassan sediments are similar in composition to the Neogene-Quaternary sediments of the modern northern Cascadia Basin. The initial Hf isotopic composition of the picritic tuff closely approximates that of the ambient Middle-Late Triassic asthenosphere beneath Stikinia and is notably less radiogenic than the age-corrected Hf isotopic composition of the Depleted (MORB) Mantle reservoir (DM or DMM). This suggests that the ambient asthenospheric mantle end-member experienced melt depletion (F ≤ 0.05) a short time before picrite petrogenesis. The mantle end-member in the source of the Stuhini Group picritic tuff is isotopically similar to the mantle source of

  9. Loneliness and social isolation among young and late middle-age adults: Associations with personal networks and social participation. (United States)

    Child, Stephanie T; Lawton, Leora


    Associations between social networks and loneliness or social isolation are well established among older adults. Yet, limited research examines personal networks and participation on perceived loneliness and social isolation as distinct experiences among younger adults. Accordingly, we explore relationships among objective and subjective measures of personal networks with loneliness and isolation, comparing a younger and older cohort. The UC Berkeley Social Networks Study offers unique cohort data on young (21-30 years old, n = 472) and late middle-age adults' (50-70 years old, n = 637) personal network characteristics, social participation, network satisfaction, relationship status, and days lonely and isolated via online survey or in-person interview. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine associations between social network characteristics, loneliness, and isolation by age group. Young adults reported twice as many days lonely and isolated than late middle-age adults, despite, paradoxically, having larger networks. For young adults, informal social participation and weekly religious attendance were associated with fewer days isolated. Among late middle-age adults, number of close kin and relationship status were associated with loneliness. Network satisfaction was associated with fewer days lonely or isolated among both age groups. Distinct network characteristics were associated with either loneliness or isolation for each cohort, suggesting network factors are independently associated with each outcome, and may fluctuate over time. Network satisfaction was associated with either loneliness or isolation among both cohorts, suggesting perceptions of social networks may be equally important as objective measures, and remain salient for loneliness and isolation throughout the life course.

  10. Visceral predictors of cardiovascular deconditioning in late middle-aged men (United States)

    Goldwater, D. J.; De Roshia, C.; Natelson, B. H.; Levin, B. E.


    A number of visceral and behavioral factors connected with cardiovascular deconditioning were investigated, in order to identify a method for predicting the degree of orthostatic intolerance to spaceflight in several late-middle-aged men (55-65 years). Preliminary measurements were made of: mean arterial blood pressure plasma cortisol levels; and norepinephrine levels. Measurements of core temperature; plasma epinephrine level and subjective arousal from sleep were also obtained. Pairwise correlations were found for each of the variables and the time-to-blackout due centrifugal acceleration of up to +3 Gz. It is shown that the men with relatively low resting blood pressure were at greater risk of developing the clinical signs of cardiovascular deconditioning than were the men with higher basal blood pressure. Some applications of the experimental results to the development of selection criteria for Shuttle crews are discussed.

  11. Negative wealth shock and short-term changes in depressive symptoms and medication adherence among late middle-aged adults. (United States)

    Pool, Lindsay R; Needham, Belinda L; Burgard, Sarah A; Elliott, Michael R; de Leon, Carlos F Mendes


    Experiencing a negative wealth shock in late middle age may cause high levels of stress and induce reductions in health-related consumption. We used data on late middle age individuals (51-64 years) from the longitudinal US-based Health and Retirement Study (N=19 281) to examine the relationship between negative wealth shock and short-term outcomes that serve as markers of the pathways from wealth shock to health: elevated depressive symptoms, as a marker of the stress pathway and cost-related medication non-adherence (CRN), as a marker of the consumption pathway. Negative wealth shock was considered to be a loss of total net worth of 75% or more. Using a nested cross-over approach-a within-person design among exposed individuals only that adjusts by design for all time-invariant individual characteristics-we found that negative wealth shock was significantly associated with increased odds of elevated depressive symptoms (OR=1.50, CI 1.10 to 2.05), but was not significantly associated with higher odds of CRN (OR=1.18, CI 0.76 to 1.82), even after further adjustment for time-varying sociodemographic and health covariates. Negative wealth shock during late middle age confers an increased risk of elevated depressive symptoms, but does not change levels of CRN. Personal and policy factors that may buffer the mental health risks of negative wealth shock, such as social support and social welfare policy, should be considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  12. The late Pleistocene glacial sequence in the middle Maruia valley, southeast Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabin, M.C.G.


    Glacial and fluvioglacial landforms and deposits preserved in the middle reaches of the Maruia valley, southeast Nelson, New Zealand, record the activity of the Maruia glacier during the late Pleistocene Otira Glaciation. Five advances are recognised, from oldest to youngest: Creighton 1, 2, 3, and the Reid Stream 1, 2 advances. There was an interstadial interval between the Creighton 3 and Reid Stream 1 advances. The Reid Stream 1 advance occurred shortly after 14 800 years B.P. (NZ536, old T/sub 0.5/). (auths)

  13. Ordovician gas exploration breakthrough in the Gucheng lower uplift of the Tarim Basin and its enlightenment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhaoming


    Full Text Available A steady high yield natural gas flow was tapped in the Ordovician strata of Well Gucheng 6 drilled in the Gucheng lower uplift in the Tarim Basin in 2012, marking the discovery of another carbonate gas exploration field after the other two fields in the middle and northern Tarim Basin (the so called Tazhong and Tabei in the industry. The exploration in the Gucheng lower uplift has experienced three stages: the first stage, marine facies clastic exploration from 1995 to 2003, focusing on the Devonian Donghe sandstone lithologic traps, the Silurian overlapping lithologic traps, and the Upper Ordovician shelf slope turbidites; the second stage focusing on the reef shoal carbonate reservoirs from 2003 to 2006, during which oil and gas were first discovered in Well Gucheng 4; the third stage can be divided into two periods, in the first period, deeper insight into interbed karstification reservoir exploration, intense research on tricky seismic issues, selection of favorable zones, and 3D seismic deployment in advance laid a robust foundation for breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration; and during 2009–2012, through an in-depth investigation, Well Gucheng 6 was drilled, bringing about the major breakthrough in oil and gas exploration in this study area. This success proves that the Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Gucheng area have good geological conditions and broad prospect for oil and gas exploration, which give us enlightenment in three aspects: a. new insight into geologic understanding is the prerequisite of exploration breakthrough; b. addressing bottleneck technologies, and acquiring 3D seismic data are the guarantees of exploration breakthrough; and c. emancipation of mind and persistent exploration are key to the findings in new domains.

  14. Geology of the Cupsuptic quadrangle, Maine (United States)

    Harwood, David S.


    The Cupsuptic quadrangle, in west-central Maine, lies in a relatively narrow belt of pre-Silurian rocks extending from the Connecticut River valley across northern New Hampshire to north-central Maine. The Albee Formation, composed of green, purple, and black phyllite with interbedded-quartzite, is exposed in the core of a regional anticlinorium overlain to the southeast by greenstone of the Oquossoc Formation which in turn is overlain by black slate of the Kamankeag Formation. In the northern part of the quadrangle the Albee Formation is overlain by black slate, feldspathic graywacke, and minor greenstone of the Dixville Formation. The Kamankeag Formation is dated as 1-ate Middle Ordovician by graptolites (zone 12) found near the base of the unit. The Dixville Formation is correlated with the Kamankeag Formation and Oquossoc Formation and is considered to be Middle Ordovician. The Albee Formation is considered to be Middle to Lower Ordovician from correlations with similar rocks in northeastern and southwestern Vermont. The Oquossoc and Kamankeag Formations are correlated with the Amonoosuc and Partridge Formations of northern New Hampshire. The pre-Silurian rocks are unconformably overlain by unnamed rocks of Silurian age in the southeast, west-central, and northwest ninths of the quadrangle. The basal Silurian units are boulder to cobble polymict conglomerate and quartz-pebble conglomerate of late Lower Silurian (Upper Llandovery) age. The overlying rocks are either well-bedded slate and quartzite, silty limestone, or arenaceous limestone. Thearenaceous limestone contains Upper Silurian (Lower Ludlow) brachiopods. The stratified rocks have been intruded by three stocks of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite, a large body of metadiorite and associated serpentinite, smaller bodies of gabbro, granodiorite, and intrusive felsite, as well as numerous diabase and quartz monzonite dikes. The metadiorite and serpentinite, and possibly the gabbro and granodiorite are Late

  15. Hydraulic Testing of Silurian and Ordovician Strata at the Bruce Site (United States)

    Beauheim, R. L.; Avis, J. D.; Chace, D. A.; Roberts, R. M.; Toll, N. J.


    Ontario Power Generation is proposing a Deep Geologic Repository (DGR) for the long-term management of its Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (L&ILW) within a Paleozoic-age sedimentary sequence beneath the Bruce Site near Tiverton, Ontario, Canada. The concept envisions that the DGR would be excavated at a depth of approximately 680 m within the Ordovician Cobourg Formation, a massive, dense, argillaceous limestone. A key attribute of the Bruce site is the extremely low permeabilities associated with the thick Ordovician carbonate and argillaceous bedrock formations that will host and enclose the DGR. Such rock mass permeabilities are thought sufficiently low to contribute toward or govern a diffusion-dominated transport regime. To support this concept, hydraulic testing was performed in 2008 and 2009 in two deep boreholes at the proposed repository site, DGR-3 and DGR-4. The hydraulic testing was performed using a straddle-packer tool with a 30.74-m test interval. Sequential tests were performed over the entire open lengths of the boreholes from the F Unit of the Silurian Salina Formation into the Ordovician Gull River Formation, a distance of approximately 635 m. The tests consisted primarily of pressure-pulse tests, with a few slug tests performed in several of the higher permeability Silurian units. The tests are analyzed using the nSIGHTS code, which allows the entire pressure history a test interval has experienced since it was penetrated by the drill bit to be included in the test simulation. nSIGHTS also allows the model fit to the test data to be optimized over an n-dimensional parameter space to ensure that the final solution represents a true global minimum rather than simply a local minimum. The test results show that the Ordovician-age strata above the Coboconk Formation (70+ m below the Cobourg) have average horizontal hydraulic conductivities of 1E-13 m/s or less. Coboconk and Gull River hydraulic conductivities are as high as 1E-11 m

  16. Changes in support networks in late middle age: the extension of gender and educational differences. (United States)

    Fischer, Claude S; Beresford, Lauren


    This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women's network advantages over men and college graduates' network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in "talk" support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Hirnantian (latest Ordovician bio- and chemostratigraphy of the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hints, Linda


    Full Text Available Integrated study of the uppermost Ordovician Porkuni Stage in the Stirnas-18 core, western Latvia, has revealed one of the most complete Hirnantian successions in the eastern Baltic region. The interval is characterized by two shallowing upwards depositional sequences that correspond to the Kuldiga and Saldus formations. The whole-rock carbon stable isotope curve indicates a long rising segment of the Hirnantian carbon isotope excursion, with the highest peak in the upper part of the Kuldiga Formation. The bioclast carbon and oxygen curves fit well with the whole-rock carbon data. Micro- and macrofossil data enabled seven combined associations to be distinguished within the Hirnantian strata. The early Porkuni fauna of the Spinachitina taugourdeaui Biozone, with pre-Hirnantian affinities, is succeeded by an interval with a Hindella–Cliftonia brachiopod association, a specific polychaete fauna, the chitinozoan Conochitina scabra, and the conodont Noixodontus girardeauensis. The middle part of the Kuldiga Formation is characterized by a low-diversity Dalmanella testudinaria brachiopod association, high diversity of scolecodonts, and the occurrence of the chitinozoan Lagenochitina prussica. From the middle part of the Kuldiga Formation the youngest occurrence yet known of the conodont Amorphognathus ordovicicus is reported. Also typical of the Kuldiga Formation is the occurrence of the trilobite Mucronaspis mucronata. The uppermost Hirnantian Saldus Formation contains no shelly fauna, but yields redeposited conodonts and at least partly indigenous chitinozoans and scolecodonts. Palaeontological criteria and stable isotope data enable correlation of the Stirnas section with other Hirnantian successions in the Baltic region and elsewhere.

  18. Acute Effects of Tai Chi Training on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Responses in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Cheung, Tiffany C Y; Liu, Karen P Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Bae, Young-Hyeon; Hui, Stanley Sai-Chuen; Tsang, William W N; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Fong, Shirley S M


    This study explored the immediate effects of Tai Chi (TC) training on attention and meditation, perceived stress level, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood, and palmar skin temperature in late middle-aged adults. Twenty TC practitioners and 20 nonpractitioners volunteered to join the study. After baseline measurements were taken, the TC group performed TC for 10 minutes while their cognitive states and cardiovascular responses were concurrently monitored. The control group rested for the same duration in a standing position. Both groups were then reassessed. The participants' attention and meditation levels were measured using electroencephalography; stress levels were measured using Perceived Stress Scale; heart rate and blood oxygenation were measured using an oximeter; and palmar skin temperature was measured using an infrared thermometer. Attention level tended to increase during TC and dropped immediately thereafter ( p training could temporarily improve attention and decrease perceived stress levels, it could not improve meditation, palmar skin temperature, or blood oxygenation among late middle-aged adults.

  19. An exploratory study of parent-child communication about sex and the sexual attitudes of early, middle, and late adolescents. (United States)

    Fisher, T D


    In an attempt to examine the relationship between parent-child communication about sex and parent-adolescent attitudes about sex, 12- to 20-year-olds (N = 141) and their parents completed sexual communication and attitude questionnaires. The correlation between parents' and children's attitudes were high for all the early adolescents and low for all the middle adolescents. Only among the late adolescents was there a significant difference in the correlations between the sexual attitudes of parents and their children as a function of family communication level, with the attitudes of adolescents and parents in the high communication group being highly correlated and the attitudes of adolescents and parents in the low communication group not being significantly correlated. Middle adolescents had significantly more permissive sexual attitudes than early and late adolescents. Gender variables were also studied, but conclusions were limited due to the small number of participating fathers. All findings must be tempered with the recognition of the possible sampling bias introduced by the use of a convenience sample. It is suggested that the more responsible sexuality seen in adolescents who can talk to their parents about sex may be a function of the similarity in sexual attitudes between these late adolescents and their parents.

  20. Magnetic stratigraphy of the Ordovician in the lower reach of the Kotuy River: the age of the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum and the rate of geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the superchron (United States)

    Pavlov, V. E.; Tolmacheva, T. Yu.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Latyshev, A. V.; Fetisova, A. M.; Bigun, I. V.


    Until recently, the existing data prevented the geophysicists from accurately dating the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, which outcrops in the middle reach of the Kotuy River, constraining the time of its formation to a wide interval from the end of the Late Cambrian to the beginning of the Silurian. The obtained paleomagnetic data unambiguously correlate the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum to the Nyaian regional stage and constrain its formation, at least a considerable part of it, by the Tremadocian. This result perfectly agrees with the data on the Bysy-Yuryakh conodonts studied in this work and yields a spectacular example of the successful application of paleomagnetic studies in solving important tasks of stratigraphy and, correspondingly, petroleum geology. Within the Bysy-Yuryakh stratum, we revealed a large normal-polarity interval corresponding to the long (>1 Ma) period when the geomagnetic reversals were absent. This result, in combination with the data for the Tremadocian and Middle-Upper Cambrian sequences of the other regions, indicates that (1) the rate of occurrence of the geomagnetic reversals on the eve of the Ordovician Moyero superchron of reversed polarity was at most one reversal per Ma; (2) the superchron does not switch on instantaneously but is preceded by a certain gradual change in the operation conditions of the dynamo mechanism which, inter alia, manifests itself by the reduction of the frequency of geomagnetic reversals with the approach of the superchron. This finding supports the views according to which a process preparing the establishment of the superchrons takes place at the core-mantle boundary.

  1. Forming mechanism of the Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Fu


    Full Text Available The Ordovician karst carbonate reservoirs on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin are important oil and gas exploration targets in the basin, but their dissolution mechanisms are in controversy. In this paper, based on the integrated study of sedimentation, sequence and reservoir, together with microscopic analysis and macroscopic seismic data analysis, the carbonate karst reservoirs in the study area were divided into three types: dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoir, pore-cavity dolomite reservoir and fracture-cavity siliceous reservoir, and their forming mechanisms were discussed respectively. Some findings were obtained. First, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs are distributed in the upper Yingshan Fm and Yijianfang Fm of the Ordovician vertically, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs are mainly developed in the Penglai Fm and lower Yingshan Fm of the Ordovician with great thickness. Second, dissolved pore-cavity limestone reservoirs were formed by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary (lowstand tract, while pore-cavity dolomite reservoirs were formed by deep burial dolomitization controlled by karstification on the third-order sequence boundary, both of which are distributed in the highstand tract below the third-order sequence boundary. Third, siliceous reservoirs are developed under the control of faulting, as a result of reworking of deep hydrothermal fluids along faults to the limestone, and the siliceous reservoirs and their hydrothermal solution fracture-cavity systems are distributed near faults. It is further predicted that, in addition to the three types of reservoir above, platform-margin reef-flat reservoirs are developed in the Ordovician on the northern slope of central Tarim Basin.

  2. Updated chronology for Middle to Late Miocene mammal sites of the Daroca area (Calatayud-Montalbán Basin, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Jan A.; Krijgsman, Wout; Abels, Hemmo A.; Álvarez-Sierra, Maria A.; Garci´a-Paredes, Israel; Lo´pez-Guerrero, Paloma; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo; Ventra, Dario

    The micromammal sequence of the Calatayud-Montalbán Basin in Northeast Central Spain is exceptional in terms of its faunal richness and dating accuracy. However, until now, several classical localities with ages close to the Middle to Late Miocene transition have never been directly tied to the

  3. Recent understanding of the Svalbard basement in the light of new radiometric age determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Y.


    Several tectonothermal events in the pre-Carboniferous basement of Svalbard during Caledonian and Proterozoic times have been dated recently by radiometric age determinations. Three or four stages have been recognized in the Caledonian period; a post-orogentic graben formation during the Devonian, a late Caledonian event in the Middle Silurian, an earely Caledonian event in the Middle Ordovician and possibly an earliest event in the Middle to Late Cambrian. The Grenvillian event, 950-1270 Ma, has been well established by both radiometric ages and unconformities in Nordaustlandet and southwestern Spitsbergen. Sveco-Karelian ages, 1670-1750 Ma, also have been obtained from Ny Friesland, northerneastern Spitsbergen. Two even older ages (zircon U-Pb) upper intercept ages), 2.1 and 3.2 Ga, may suggest the presence of still older crust in Svalbard and adjacent areas. 40 refs., 2 figs

  4. Possible Significance of Early Paleozoic Fluctuations in Bottom Current Intensity, Northwest Iapetus Ocean (United States)

    Lash, Gary G.


    Sedimentologic and geochemical characteristics of red and green deep water mudstone exposed in the central Appalachian orogen define climatically-induced fluctuations in bottom current intensity along the northwest flank of the Iapetus Ocean in Early and Middle Ordovician time. Red mudstone accumulated under the influence of moderate to vigorous bottom current velocities in oxygenated bottom water produced during climatically cool periods. Interbedded green mudstone accumulated at greater sedimentation rates, probably from turbidity currents, under the influence of reduced thermohaline circulation during global warming periods. The close association of green mudstone and carbonate turbidites of Early Ordovician (late Tremadocian to early Arenigian) age suggests that a major warming phase occurred at this time. Increasing temperatures reduced bottom current velocities and resulted in increased production of carbonate sediment and organic carbon on the carbonate platform of eastern North America. Much of the excess carbonate sediment and organic carbon was transported into deep water by turbidity currents. Although conclusive evidence is lacking, this eustatic event may reflect a climatic warming phase that followed the postulated glacio-eustatic Black Mountain event. Subsequent Middle Ordovician fluctuations in bottom current intensity recorded by thin red-green mudstone couplets probably reflect periodic growth and shrinkage of an ice cap rather than major glacial episodes.

  5. Platystrophia (Orthida and new related Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod genera

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    Harper, David A. T.


    Full Text Available More than 150 Ordovician and Early Silurian brachiopod species have been assigned to the genus Platystrophia King, 1850 mainly on the basis of their Spirifer-like shell exteriors. King’s concept of the genus was based on Platystrophia biforata King, which is not conspecific with Terebratulites biforatus Schlotheim, traditionally regarded as the type species of Platystrophia. Porambonites costatus Pander, 1830 is formally proposed as the type species of the genus to replace P. biforata; the latter is considered to be a nomen dubium. In our revised diagnosis, Platystrophia is restricted to a group of Arenig to upper Caradoc species from Baltica and Avalonia, whereas the Ashgill and lower Silurian taxa of these regions, hitherto assigned to Platystrophia, are placed in the new genus Neoplatystrophia. Platystrophia ponderosa Foerste, 1909 from the Upper Ordovician of North America is proposed as the type species of a new genus Vinlandostrophia. Two new species, Platystrophia baltica and Platystrophia pogrebovi from the Llanvirn–Caradoc of the East Baltic are also described.

  6. Individuality and relatedness in middle and late adulthood. A study of women and men in the Netherlands, East-, and West-Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.


    Individuality and relatedness are two comprehensive orientations during the whole life course. Scientific knowledge regarding the subjective importance and meaning of individuality and relatedness in middle and late adulthood is scarcely available. This thesis investigates the quantitative as well

  7. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Li


    Full Text Available Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total glycerin (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c. Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05. HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However

  8. Developing a scale to measure "attachment to the local community" in late middle aged individuals. (United States)

    Sakai, Taichi; Omori, Junko; Takahashi, Kazuko; Mitsumori, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Maasa; Ono, Wakanako; Miyazaki, Toshie; Anzai, Hitomi; Saito, Mika


    Objectives This study was conducted to develop a scale for measuring "attachment to the local community" for its use in health services. The scale is also intended to nurture new social relationships in late middle-aged individuals.Methods Thirty items were initially planned to be included in the scale to measure "attachment to the local community", according to a previous study that identified the concept. The study subjects were late middle-aged residents of City B in Prefecture A, located in Tokyo suburbs. From the basic resident register data, 1,000 individuals (local residents in the 50-69 year age group) were selected by a multi-stage random sampling technique, on the basis of their residential area, age, and sex (while maintaining the male to female ratio). An unsigned self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the subjects, and the responses were collected by postal mail. The collected data was analyzed using psychometric study of scale.Results Valid responses were obtained from 583 subjects, and the response rate was 58.3%. In an item analysis, none of the items were rejected. In a subsequent factor analysis, 7 items were eliminated. These items included 2 items with a factor loading of attachment to the local community" was 0.95, demonstrating internal consistency. We then examined the correlation with an existing scale to measure social support; the results revealed a statistically significant correlation and confirmed criterion-related validity (Pattachment to the local community."

  9. Relation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality--is there evidence for mortality selection?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, F.; Peeters, A.; Mackenbach, J. P.; Kunst, A. E.


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To test whether mortality selection was a dominant factor in determining trends in old age mortality, by empirically studying the existence of a negative correlation between trends in late middle age mortality and trends in old age mortality among the same cohorts. DESIGN AND

  10. Cracking and thermal maturity of Ordovician oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Anlai Ma


    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of the Ordovician oils from the Tahe oilfield of Tarim Basin, NW China was assessed through various maturity parameters, such as biomarkers, aromatic parameters, and diamondoid parameters. Both Ts/(Ts+Tm and C29Ts/(C29H+C29Ts values indicate that the maturity of oils has not reached the condensates stage, which is consistent with the maturity obtained by MPI1. However, the diamondoid maturity suggests that the oil maturity ranges 1.1%–1.6% Ro, which is apparently higher than that of the maturity obtained by the biomarker and MPI1. This discrepancy in maturity may indicate that the Ordovician reservoir has multiple filling history. The 4-MD+3-MD concentration of oils disperses and increases slowly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is lower than 0.55. Meanwhile, the value increases rapidly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is higher than 0.55. It is proposed that the diamondoid baseline is about 15 μg/goil for marine oils in the Tahe oilfield based on the diamondoid concentration of marine oils from reservoirs of various age. The concentration of 4-MD+3-MD of most Ordovician oils generally ranges from 4.5 to 35 μg/goil, suggesting that the degree of oil-cracking is lower than 50% and the deep Ordovician have potential of oil exploration. The distribution of the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD is characterized by being high in the east and south, low in the west and north, proposing that the two migration pathways exit in the oilfield, which are from east to west and from south to north, respectively. The migration directions are consistent with the results obtained from the oil density and the maturity parameters such as Ts/(Ts+Tm. Thus, suggesting the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD can be used as migration index in oilfield scale.

  11. Demons, fast and death : mental health in the late middle ages = Demonios, ayuno y muerte : salud mental en la Baja Edad Media


    Espi Forcen, Fernando


    Abstract Introduction: With the expansion of Christianity in the Roman Empire, a religious approach was taken to understand mental illness during the Middle Ages. Hypothesis: It is possible to elucidate the status of mental health in the Late Middle Ages through psychiatric interpretation of demonic possessions, holy fasting and death anxiety. Methods: A number of cases of exorcisms narrated in the hagiographies of Saints, several cases of women who practiced fasting have been analyzed, an...

  12. Chronology of Late Saalian and Middle Weichselian episodes of ice-free lacustrine sedimentation recorded in the Arumetsa section, southwestern Estonia

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    Maris Rattas


    Full Text Available The information obtained from a 21 m thick open-pit section of silty-clayey sediments in the Arumetsa bedrock valley, southwestern Estonia, revealed that lacustrine to glaciolacustrine sedimentation at the site started prior to 151 ka ago and lasted to about the end of marine isotope stage 6 (MIS6 at 130 ka. Further down from the 151 ka age-level to the bottom of the buried valley there are ca 60 m of lacustrine fine-grained sediments, the age of which remains still unclear. The Late Saalian sediments at Arumetsa are discordantly overlain by Middle Weichselian clay, silt and sand, deposited between ca 44 and 37 ka ago. As testified by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL ages, and pollen and diatom record, the Middle Weichselian fine-grained sediments contain redeposited Holsteinian but no Eemian pollen, and have not been fully bleached during deposition. Chronological, microfossil and sedimentological data show two hiatuses in the Arumetsa section. The first hiatus has left no sedimentary evidence for the period between ca 130 ka and 44 ka ago (MIS5 to older half of MIS3. The younger hiatus from ca 37 to 22 ka occurs between the Middle Weichselian lacustrine silt and the Late Weichselian till layer on top of the section.

  13. Middle-Late Holocene environmental history of Kulunda (Southwestern Siberia): vegetation, climate, humans (United States)

    Rudaya, N.; Nazarova, L.; Papin, D.; Nourgaliev, D.


    Environmental reconstruction of Mid-Late Holocene vegetation and climate was inferred from pollen records of Lake Big Yarovoe (Kulunda steppe, Southwestern Siberia). Reconstruction suggests generally prevalence of steppe during last 4.45 ka. Relatively warm and dry climate, open semi-desert and dry steppes with patchy birch forest spread between 4.45 and 3.80 ka BP. The largest development of conifers forest started in Kulunda after 3.80 ka BP. Constant presence of dark-coniferous trees Abies and especially Picea between 3.80 and 2.7 ka BP indicates the most humid period in the region during studied time. Onset of the Late Holocene is characterised by dominance of steppe with birch and pine forests in lowlands and river valleys. After AD 1860, open steppe and semi-desert vegetation with fragmentary birch forest have been dominated parallel to sharp reduction of conifers in Kulunda. These results are in agreement with general scheme of Holocene environmental history of surrounding areas including Baraba forest-steppe, Kazakh Upland and Altai Mountains. Territory of Kulunda consists many archaeological sites of Bronze, Iron and Middle Ages. Second half of Bronze Age (4.45-3.80 ka BP) was represented by local human cultures or migrants from the North Kazakhstan. The main archaeological culture of Kulunda alike in the whole Ob`-Irtysh interfluve in this period was Elunino culture. The economical activities of Elunino community were connected with animal breeding especially with sheep and goats. The most humid period (~1795-710 BC; 3.8-2.7 ka BP) in Kulunda corresponded to the end of early Bronze Age and to the onset of the Iron Age. In 18 century BC Andronovo culture, associated with the Indo-Iranians and migrants from Central Kazakhstan, spread in the region. Cattle breeding economy was distinctive features of Andronovo people, however, increase of sheep, goats and horses with transition to nomadic life style was characteristic of the late Bronze Age. This trend is in

  14. Educational differences in disability pension among Swedish middle-aged men: role of factors in late adolescence and work characteristics in adulthood. (United States)

    Johansson, Elin; Leijon, Ola; Falkstedt, Daniel; Farah, Ahmed; Hemmingsson, Tomas


    The association between level of education and disability pension (DP) is well known. Earlier studies have investigated the importance of early life factors and work characteristics but not in combination. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between level of education and DP among Swedish middle-aged working men and to what extent such an association can be explained by factors measured in late adolescence and work characteristics in adulthood. Information about IQ, health-related lifestyle factors, psychiatric and musculoskeletal diagnoses was obtained from the 1969 conscription cohort, consisting of 49,321 Swedish men. Data collected when subjects were 18-20 years of age were combined with national register-based information about level of education, job control and physical strain at work in adulthood, and information about DP between 1991 and 2002. There was a strong graded association between level of education and DP. Those with the lowest level of education had a four times greater probability of having DP as compared with those with the highest level. In multivariable analyses, factors measured in late adolescence, IQ in particular, attenuated the association more than work-related characteristics in adulthood. The authors found an association between level of education and DP among Swedish middle-aged working men. A large part of the association was explained by factors measured in late adolescence, IQ in particular, and somewhat less by work characteristics measured in adulthood. Level of education remained as a significant predictor of DP in middle age after full adjustment.

  15. Early, middle, or late administration of zoledronate alleviates spontaneous nociceptive behavior and restores functional outcomes in a mouse model of CFA-induced arthritis. (United States)

    Morado-Urbina, Carlos Eduardo; Alvarado-Vázquez, Perla Abigail; Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; Acosta-González, Rosa Issel; Castañeda-Corral, Gabriela; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel


    This study was performed to evaluate whether early, middle, or late treatment of zoledronate, an approved bisphosphonate that blocks bone resorption, can reduce nociceptive behaviors in a mouse arthritis model. Arthritis was produced by repeated intra-articular knee injections of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). A dose-response curve with zoledronate (3, 30, 100, and 300 μg/kg, i.p., day 4 to day 25, twice weekly for 3 weeks) was performed, and the most effective dose of zoledronate (100 μg/kg, i.p.) was initially administered at different times of disease progression: day 4 (early), day 15 (middle), or day 21 (late) and continued until day 25 after the first CFA injection. Flinching of the injected extremity (spontaneous nociceptive behavior), vertical rearings and horizontal activity (functional outcomes), and knee edema were assessed. Zoledronate improved both functional outcomes and reduced flinching behavior. At day 25, the effect of zoledronate on flinching behavior and vertical rearings was greater in magnitude when it was given early or middle rather than late in the treatment regimen. Chronic zoledronate did not reduce knee edema in CFA-injected mice nor functional outcomes in naïve mice by itself. These results suggest that zoledronate may have a positive effect on arthritis-induced nociception and functional disabilities. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology from the basement of the Central Qilian Terrane: implications for tectonic evolution of northeastern Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Liu, Changfeng; Wu, Chen; Zhou, Zhiguang; Yan, Zhu; Jiang, Tian; Song, Zhijie; Liu, Wencan; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Hongyuan


    The Tuolai Group dominates the Central Qilian Terrane, and there are different opinions on the age and tectonic attribute of the Tuolai Group. Based on large-scale geologic mapping and zircon dating, the Tuolai Group is divided into four parts: metamorphic supracrustal rocks, Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks, early-middle Ordovician acid intrusive rocks and middle Ordovician basic intrusive rocks. The metamorphic supracrustal rocks are the redefined Tuolai complex-group and include gneiss and schist assemblage by faulting contact. Zircon U-Pb LA-MC-ICP-MS dating was conducted on these samples of gneiss and migmatite from the gneiss assemblage, quartzite, two-mica schist and slate from the schist assemblage. The five detrital samples possess similar age spectra; have detrital zircon U-Pb main peak ages of 1.7 Ga with youngest U-Pb ages of 1150 Ma. They are intruded by Neoproterozoic acid intrusive rocks. Therefore, the Tuolai Group belonging to late Mesoproterozoic and early Neoproterozoic. With this caveat in mind, we believe that U-Pb detrital zircon dating, together with the geologic constraints obtained from this study and early work in the neighboring regions. We suggest that the formation age of the entire crystalline basement rocks of metasedimentary sequence from the Central Qilian Terrane should be constrained between the Late Mesoproterozoic and the Late Neoproterozoic, but not the previous Paleoproterozoic. The basement of the Central Qilian Terrane contains the typical Grenville ages, which indicates the Centre Qilian Terrane have been experienced the Grenville orogeny event.

  17. Osteoporosis influences the middle and late periods of fracture healing in a rat osteoporotic model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-wei; LI Wei; XU Shao-wen; YANG Di-sheng; WANG Yun; LIN Min; ZHAO Guang-feng


    Objective: To evaluate the influence of osteoporosis on the middle and late periods of fracture healing process through observing the histomorphological changes, bone mineral density and biomechanical properties in ovariectomized rats. Methods: Eighty-four female SD rats of 4 months old were randomly divided into osteoporosis group and sham operation group, 42 in each. Rats in osteoporosis group were performed ovariectomy operation while those in sham operation group were given sham operation. A midshaft tibia fracture model was established 10 weeks after ovariectomy. Tibias were harvested 2, 4, 6, 12, 18 weeks after fracture for bone mineral density, histomorphological and biomechanical evaluation. Results: Compared with the sham operation group, callus bone mineral density was 12.8%, 18.0%, 17.0% lower in osteoporosis group 6, 12, 18 weeks after fracture, respectively (P<0.05); callus failure load was 24.3%, 31.5%, 26.6%, 28.8% lower in osteoporosis group, and callus failure stress was 23.9%, 33.6%, 19.1%, 24.9% lower in osteoporosis group 4, 6, 12, 18 weeks after fracture, respectively (P<0.05). In osteoporosis group, endochondral bone formation was delayed, more osteoclast cells could be seen around the trabecula, and the new bone trabecula arranged loosely and irregularly. Conclusions: Osteoporosis influences the middle and late periods of fracture healing in the rat osteoporotic model. The impairment is considered to be the result of combined effects of prolonged endochondral calcification, high activated osteoclast cell and the deceleration of the increase in bone mineral density.

  18. New understandings of the lithofacies paleogeography of the middle assemblage of Majiagou Fm in the Ordos Basin and its exploration significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Fu


    Full Text Available Accurate lithofacies-paleogeographic reconstruction is of great significance in predicting the dolomite reservoir distribution of the middle assemblage of Ordovician Majiagou Fm in the Ordos Basin. In this paper, the controlling effects of palaeotectonic background over sedimentation were first analyzed. Then the sedimentary mode of the middle assemblage was established and the lithofacies-paleogeography was reconstructed objectively for three intervals (Ma55, Ma57 and Ma59, based on the observation results of a large number of drilling cores and rock sections, together with the results of logging interpretation of rock composition and structure, single factor maps analysis and seismic data interpretation. The following findings were obtained. First, the middle assemblage of Majiagou Fm presents the uplift-depression alternation; two secondary low uplift zones extending in NS, i.e. Wushen Banner–Wuqi and Shenmu–Yulin–Yan'an, are developed in the eastern side of the central paleo-uplift, between which there is intraplatform depression, and lagoons are deposited in the Mizhi area in the east of the basin. Second, in the Ordos Basin, four NE-trending rift troughs are developed in the Proterozoic, which greatly affects the Ordovician sedimentary pattern and controls the distribution of intraplatform grain banks. Third, influenced jointly by the uplift-depression alternation and the intraplatform rift troughs of the Proterozoic, the intraplatform grain banks in the middle assemblage are mainly developed in the two low uplift zones, i.e. Shenmu–Yulin–Yan'an and Wushen Banner–Wuqi, trending NE in a similar echelon distribution. In conclusion, the two low uplift zones are the main development areas for high-quality carbonate reservoirs within the middle assemblage of Majiagou Fm in the basin.

  19. Sedimentology of middle ordovician carbonates in the Argentine precordillera: evidence of regional relative sea-level changes (United States)

    Keller, M.; Eberlein, S.; Lehnert, O.


    The Las Aguaditas Formation in the Argentine Precordillera of San Juan is the only Ordovician carbonate sequence deposited on a slope. Spiculites, mudstones and calcisiltites represent the autochthonous sediments, characterized by a fine lamination, rare fossils and their dark colour. The pelagic fauna consists of rare radiolarians/calcispheres, trinucleid trilobites, graptolites and conodonts. The latter are typical of an open marine environment and proved a Llanvirn—Llandeilo age for the Las Aguaditas Formation. In the upper part of the succession there are several intercalations of megabreccias. Their thickness decreases from about 20 to 4 m towards the top of the formation, accompanied by an increasing amount of carbonate turbidites. The clasts of the breccias are derived from the slope as well as the platform. Each of the megabreccia horizons represents a system of channels, lobes and interchannel deposits, which together form a slope apron. On top of the lower breccia a small biostrome developed, where bryozoans and crinoids are preserved in an autochthonous position. Sedimentation of the Las Aguaditas Formation started with the drowning of the underlying carbonate platform (San Juan limestones). Near the Arenig-Llanvirn boundary, a rapid ecstatic sea-level rise led to the deposition of graptolitic black shales and mudstones. Upwards, allochthonous carbonates become increasingly abundant. The onset of megabreccia deposition coincides with a major relative sea-level fall, caused by block movements in connection with rifting. The subsequent transition from breccia formation towards turbiditic sedimentation corresponds to an environmental shift from the slope towards the toe of slope and basin and marks a renewed moderate sea-level rise.

  20. Cambrian and Ordovician Fossil-Lagerstätten in the Barrandian area

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fatka, O.; Budil, P.; Kraft, P.; Mergl, M.; Mikuláš, Radek; Valent, M.; Lajblová, K.; Rak, Š.; Steinová, M.; Szabad, M.; Micka, V.; Aubrechtová, M.; Lajbl, L.; Nohejlová, M.; Vodička, J.


    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 22-25 ISSN 1212-6209. [Congress of CGS and SGS. Moninec, 2011.09.22-2011.09.25] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0395; GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Cambrian * Ordovician * Fossil-Lagerstätten Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  1. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood. (United States)

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M


    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. A New Tephrochronology for Early Diverse Stone Tool Technologies and Long-Distance Raw Material Transport in the Middle-Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa. (United States)

    Blegen, N.; Jicha, B.


    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records significant behavioral change, the earliest fossils of Homo sapiens and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in the Middle to Late Pleistocene thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating the appearances of various behaviors preserved in archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments preserved in the fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40Ar/ 39Ar dates, provides new ages between 396.3 ± 3.4 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing some of the earliest evidence of diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40Ar/ 39Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. Long-distance tephra correlation between the Baringo and Lake Victoria basins also provides a new date of 100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new or older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by 130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks relevant to modern human evolution. In conjunction with recent archaeological and paleoenvironmental data, this tephrochronology provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution through the East African Middle and Late Pleistocene as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances.

  3. Depositional facies mosaics and their time lines in Lower Ordovician carbonates of central Appalachians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, C.T.; Goldhammer, R.K.; Hardie, L.A.


    A comparative sedimentology and facies stratigraphy study of the Lower Ordovician carbonate of the central Appalachians (Beekmantown Group and equivalents) has been carried out. Our approach used subfacies (rock record of subenvironments) as the basin units of section measurement. The authors differentiated related sets of subfacies into larger facies units (rock record of environments). Facies were then correlated from section to section using fossils and lithostratigraphy to make a 3-dimensional facies mosaic. Within this mosaic, time lines were constructed using onlap-offlap tongues and cyclic sequences. These time lines cut across facies boundaries. Using this approach, the authors have established that the lower 600 m of the Lower Ordovician carbonate sequence is made up of 4 main facies: (1) cyclic laminite facies composed of a package of shoaling-upward shelf lagoon-peritidal cycles, (2) thin-bedded grainstone facies deposited in a shelf lagoon, (3) Renalcis bioherm facies recording a shelf lagoon patch-reef environment, and (4) Epiphyton bioherm facies recording a shelf-edge reef system. The distribution of these facies along time lines across the strike of the central Appalachians is markedly zoned. Epiphyton bioherm facies dominate the eastern margin while cyclic laminite facies dominate the western margin, with thin-bedded grainstone and Renalcis bioherm facies making up the central belt. This zonation of facies is a typical shallow carbonate shelf system with fringing reefs along the eastern, seaward margin and tidal flats along the western, landward margin. Vertical distribution of these facies across strike records 3 major sea level changes during deposition of the lower 600 m of this extensive Lower Ordovician carbonate shelf.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The origin of the largest modern vertebrate group, the Teleostei, saw major refinements in the last decades, thanks to newly discovered and stratigraphically closely spaced Triassic Lagerstätten. Here we report the oldest Pholidophoriformes (stem teleosts that were collected during a large scale yet detailed excavation of Upper Ladinian (Middle Triassic marine deposits in Xingyi City, Guizhou Province, China. Taxonomic comparisons support the erection of a new pholidophorid genus, Malingichthys gen. nov., with two species. The new genus shows a partially fused skull roof, a preopercular bone with a hockey-stick shape and, for the first time in Pholidophoridae, supraneural elements. Most Triassic marine vertebrate clades (fishes and reptiles, Malingichthys included first emerged in the South China Block, with Late Ladinian most showing an important faunal transformation that was strengthened by our last findings. The material here described is about 2 million years older than the previous records for pholidophorids. 

  5. Paleoredoc and pyritization of soft-bodied fossils in the Ordovician Frankfort Shale of New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrell, Una C.; Briggs, Derek E. G.; Hammarlund, Emma U.


    Multiple beds in the Frankfort Shale (Upper Ordovician, New York State), including the original "Beecher's Trilobite Bed," yield fossils with pyritized soft-tissues. A bed-by-bed geochemical and sedimentological analysis was carried out to test previous models of soft-tissue pyritization...

  6. Middle to Late Eocene paleoenvironmental changes in a marine transgressive sequence from the northern Tethyan margin (Adelholzen, Germany) (United States)

    GEBHARDT, Holger; ĆORIĆ, Stjepan; DARGA, Robert; BRIGUGLIO, Antonino; SCHENK, Bettina; WERNER, Winfried; ANDERSEN, Nils; SAMES, Benjamin


    The northern Tethyan margin is a key region for determining environmental changes associated with the collision of continental and oceanic tectonic plates and Alpine orogeny. Herein we investigated Middle to Late Eocene neritic to bathyal sediments deposited during an interval of unstable climatic conditions. In order to quantify paleoenvironmental changes, we developed a detailed age model based on biozonations of planktic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, and larger benthic foraminifera. The section at Adelholzen covers the almost complete Lutetian Stage (calcareous nannoplankton zones NP15a-16, planktic foraminifera zones E8-11, shallow benthic (foraminifera) zones SBZ13-15) and large parts of the Priabonian Stage (NP18-20, E14/15), while the intermediate Bartonian Stage (NP17) is completely missing. Foraminiferal, calcareous nannoplankton, and macrofossil assemblages were analyzed for changes in paleo-water depth, mixing and stratification, paleo-primary productivity (pPP), food supply, and bottom water oxygenation. Paleo-water depth estimates range from 50 m (middle neritic, early Lutetian) to nearly 500 m (upper bathyal, late Priabonian). The combination of assemblage composition, planktic and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, and derived parameters (carbon-flux to sea floor, pPP) enabled us to identify a series of distinct paleoceanographic events of at least regional significance. Such events are characterized by considerable changes in primary productivity or reduced bottom water ventilation. Calculated pPP-values indicate oligotrophic conditions throughout. PMID:26346423

  7. Hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian rocks. Siljan Region (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Lehnert, O. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany); Meinhold, G. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany)


    Hydrocarbon exploration in the vicinity of Europe's largest impact structure (Siljan, Central Sweden) focused for years on abiogenic concepts and largely neglected state of the art knowledge on hydrocarbon generation via thermal decomposition of organic matter. In our study we use sedimentary rocks obtained from three drill sites (Mora001, Stumsnaes 1 and Solberga 1) within the ring structure around the central uplift to investigate the hydrocarbon potential of Ordovician and Silurian strata of the region and also for comparison with the shale oil and gas potential of age equivalent rocks of the Baltic Sea. Elemental analyses provided information on concentrations of carbonate and organic carbon, total sulfur as well as on the composition of major and minor elements of the sediments. The data has been used to evaluate the depositional environment and possible diagenetic alterations of the organic matter. RockEval pyrolysis and solvent hydrocarbon extraction gave insight into the hydrocarbon generation potential and the type and thermal maturity of the sediments. From the geochemistry data of the studied wells it is obvious that changes of depositional environments (lacustrine - marine) have occurred during Ordovician and Silurian times. Although, the quality of the organic matter has been influenced in marine and brackish environments through sulfate reduction, we observe for a number of marine and lacustrine sediments a good to excellent preservation of the biological precursors which qualify the sediments as hydrocarbon source rocks (Type II kerogens). Lacustrine source rocks show a higher remaining hydrocarbon potential (up to {proportional_to}550 mg HC per g C{sub org}) than those of marine or brackish environments. Our investigations indicate that the thermal maturity of organic matter of the drill sites has reached the initial stage of oil generation. However, at Mora001 some of the sediments were stained with oil indicating that hydrocarbons have

  8. Late-Stage Caregiving (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  9. Building the Bronze Age : Architectural and social change on the Greek mainland during Early Helladic III, Middle Helladic and Late Helladic I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Corien


    Communities living on the Greek Mainland during the end of the Early Bronze Age (EBA. ca. 2200-2000 BC) and the earlier Middle Bronze Age (MBA, ca. 2000-1800 BC) were thought to be relatively simple and egalitarian, while during the later MBA and early Late Bronze Age (LBA, ca. 1700-1600 BC),

  10. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age. (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A


    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Depositional environments, provenance and paleoclimatic implications of Ordovician siliciclastic rocks of the Thango Formation, Spiti Valley, Tethys Himalaya, northern India (United States)

    Rashid, Shaik A.; Ganai, Javid A.


    Recently published findings indicate that the Ordovician period has been much more dynamic than previously anticipated thus making this period significant in geological time. The Ordovician of India can best be studied in the Spiti region because the Spiti basin records the complete uninterrupted history of excellent marine sedimentary rocks starting from Cambrian to Paleogene which were deposited along the northern margin of India. Due to these reasons the geochemical data on the Ordovician rocks from the Spiti region is uncommon. The present geochemical study on the Ordovician Thango Formation (Sanugba Group) is mainly aimed to understand the provenance and the paleoclimatic conditions. The sandstones are the dominant lithology of the Thango Formation with intercalations of minor amount of shales. Detailed petrographic and sedimentological analysis of these rocks suggest that three major depositional environments, viz., fluvial, transitional and marine prevailed in the basin representing transgressive and regressive phases. The major and trace element ratios such as SiO2/Al2O3, K2O/Na2O and La-Th- Sc discrimination diagram suggest that these rocks were deposited in passive margin tectonic settings. Various geochemical discriminants and elemental ratios such as K2O/Na2O, Al2O3/TiO2, La/Sc, Th/Sc, Cr/Th, Zr/Sc, (Gd/Yb)N and pronounced negative Eu anomalies indicate the rocks to be the product of weathering of post-Archean granites. The striking similarities of the multi-elemental spider diagrams of the studied sediments and the Himalayan granitoids indicate that sediments are sourced from the Proterozoic orogenic belts of the Himalayan region. Chemical index of alteration (CIA) values of the studied sediments (55-72) suggest that the source rocks underwent low to moderate degree of chemical weathering. The span of the CIA values (55-72) recorded in the sediments from the Spiti region may have resulted from varying degrees of weathering conditions in the source area

  12. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallaste, Toivo


    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  13. The role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage Alzheimer's disease. (United States)

    Dassa, Ayelet; Amir, Dorit


    Language deficits in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) manifest, among other things, in a gradual deterioration of spontaneous speech. People with AD tend to speak less as the disease progresses and their speech becomes confused. However, the ability to sing old tunes sometimes remains intact throughout the disease. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of singing familiar songs in encouraging conversation among people with middle to late stage AD. Six participants attended group music therapy sessions over a one-month period. Using content analysis, we qualitatively examined transcriptions of verbal and sung content during 8 group sessions for the purpose of understanding the relationship between specific songs and conversations that occurred during and following group singing. Content analysis revealed that songs from the participants' past-elicited memories, especially songs related to their social and national identity. Analyses also indicated that conversation related to the singing was extensive and the act of group singing encouraged spontaneous responses. After singing, group members expressed positive feelings, a sense of accomplishment, and belonging. Carefully selecting music from the participants' past can encourage conversation. Considering the failure in spontaneous speech in people with middle to late stage AD, it is important to emphasize that group members' responses to each other occurred spontaneously without the researcher's encouragement. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. Acute Effects of Tai Chi Training on Cognitive and Cardiovascular Responses in Late Middle-Aged Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany C. Y. Cheung


    Full Text Available This study explored the immediate effects of Tai Chi (TC training on attention and meditation, perceived stress level, heart rate, oxygen saturation level in blood, and palmar skin temperature in late middle-aged adults. Twenty TC practitioners and 20 nonpractitioners volunteered to join the study. After baseline measurements were taken, the TC group performed TC for 10 minutes while their cognitive states and cardiovascular responses were concurrently monitored. The control group rested for the same duration in a standing position. Both groups were then reassessed. The participants’ attention and meditation levels were measured using electroencephalography; stress levels were measured using Perceived Stress Scale; heart rate and blood oxygenation were measured using an oximeter; and palmar skin temperature was measured using an infrared thermometer. Attention level tended to increase during TC and dropped immediately thereafter (p<0.001. Perceived stress level decreased from baseline to posttest in exclusively the TC group (p=0.005. Heart rate increased during TC (p<0.001 and decreased thereafter (p=0.001. No significant group, time, or group-by-time interaction effects were found in the meditation level, palmar skin temperature, and blood oxygenation outcomes. While a 10-minute TC training could temporarily improve attention and decrease perceived stress levels, it could not improve meditation, palmar skin temperature, or blood oxygenation among late middle-aged adults.

  15. Did the amalgamation of continents drive the end Ordovician mass extinctions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mac Ørum Rasmussen, Christian; Harper, David Alexander Taylor


    not uniformly distributed, nor was the succeeding recovery. Here we argue that changing plate tectonic configurations during the Ordovician–Silurian interval may have exerted a primary control on biotic extinction and recovery. In particular the proximity and ultimate loss of microcontinents and associated...... smaller terranes around Laurentia may have restricted shelf and slope habitats during the latest Ordovician but, nevertheless, in a contracted Iapetus Ocean, provided migration routes to help drive a diachronous early Silurian recovery. The conclusion that plate tectonics was a primary factor controlling...

  16. Sleep-wake habits in middle and late adolescence and the criteria for the choice of subjects on sleep research


    林, 光緒; 田中, 秀樹; 岩城, 達也; 福田, 一彦; 堀, 忠雄


    Sleep-wake habits in middle and late adolescence were surveyed for college of technology (n=799), college of nursing (n=460) and university (n=1062) students. Daytime sleepiness and nodding off were often occurred. They made up for shortened sleep time at holiday. One third of them took replacement naps. Some of them had the irregular life habits, such as delayed bed-time, shortened sleep time, irregular meal time and engaging in night work, suggesting that these habits might alter the phase ...

  17. External auditory exostoses in the Xuchang and Xujiayao human remains: Patterns and implications among eastern Eurasian Middle and Late Pleistocene crania. (United States)

    Trinkaus, Erik; Wu, Xiu-Jie


    In the context of Middle and Late Pleistocene eastern Eurasian human crania, the external auditory exostoses (EAE) of the late archaic Xuchang 1 and 2 and the Xujiayao 15 early Late Pleistocene human temporal bones are described. Xujiayao 15 has small EAE (Grade 1), Xuchang 1 presents bilateral medium EAE (Grade 2), and Xuchang 2 exhibits bilaterally large EAE (Grade 3), especially on the right side. These cranial remains join the other eastern Eurasian later Pleistocene humans in providing frequencies of 61% (N = 18) and 58% (N = 12) respectively for archaic and early modern human samples. These values are near the upper limits of recent human frequencies, and they imply frequent aquatic exposure among these Pleistocene humans. In addition, the medial extents of the Xuchang 1 and 2 EAE would have impinged on their tympanic membranes, and the large EAE of Xuchang 2 would have resulted in cerumen impaction. Both effects would have produced conductive hearing loss, a serious impairment in a Pleistocene foraging context.

  18. A Stranger in the Midst: Searching for Relict Grains from Rare Meteorite Types in Mid-Ordovician Limestone Strata (United States)

    Martin, E.; Schmitz, B.


    A layer of Mid-Ordovician limestone harbors exceptional amounts of L-chondritic chromite grains. The layer also contains grains from potentially rarer types of meteorites, following the discovery of the fossil meteorite Österplana 065.

  19. Middle-State Caregiving (United States)

    ... Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here What You Need to Know Online ...

  20. The Sanrafaelic remagnetization revisited: Magnetic properties and magnetofabrics of Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates of the Eastern Precordillera of San Juan, Argentina (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Poiré, Daniel G.


    Systematic rock-magnetic and magnetofabric studies were carried out on samples from twenty-three palaeomagnetic sites distributed on the La Laja, Zonda, La Flecha, La Silla and San Juan Formations, which constitute a thick middle Cambrian to early Ordovician carbonate sequence exposed in the Eastern Precordillera of Argentina. Previous palaeomagnetic studies on these rocks showed that this succession is characterized by a recent full overprint in the lower levels and a post-tectonic Permian remagnetization associated to the widespread Sanrafaelic event in the upper part. Our investigation revealed that the fluctuations of the magnetic properties are stratigraphically (lithologically) controlled. Anisotropy of magnetic and anhysteretic susceptibility measurements defined consistent fabrics along the entire section that switch progressively from "inverse", at the bottom, to "normal", at the top, with "intermediate" fabrics occurring mainly at medium levels. Degree of dolomitization significantly affects many rock-magnetic parameters, but appears unrelated to the presence of the Permian remagnetization, which is determined to reside in magnetite despite the complex magnetic mineralogy shown by the studied carbonates. Hysteresis cycles of rocks affected by the Sanrafaelic remagnetization are governed by ferromagnetic fractions showing a clear difference respect to those not affected and characterized by the dominance of paramagnetic or diamagnetic signals. The magnetic fabrics and mineralogical characterization rule out a thermoviscous origin and suggest a chemical remagnetization originated in the authigenic formation of magnetite for the Sanrafaelic overprint. X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that clay minerals are virtually absent in the whole succession with no traces of illite in any sample, discarding burial diagenesis of clay minerals for the origin of the remagnetization. Lack of late Palaeozoic magmatic rocks near the study area difficults correlation of

  1. Testing the correlation of fragmented pollen records of the middle and late Pleistocene temperate stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuneš, Petr; Odgaard, Bent Vad

    Quaternary temperate stages have long been described based on changing pollen abundances of various tree taxa in lacustrine sediments. Later, attempts have been made to assign such biostratigraphic units to distinct marine isotope stages (MIS). Existing continuous chronosequences from Southern...... records depends on site-to-site correlations. This comparison has often been performed on a visual basis, lacking clearly defined protocols and statements of underlying assumptions. Here I test the correlation of well and poorly known pollen records of the middle- and late-Pleistocene temperate stages...... from Northern-Central Europe and evaluate the usefulness of several numerical techniques. TWINSPAN analysis identifies groups of temperate stages based on presence/absence of their indicative taxa and may be useful for distinguishing between older and younger interglacials. Site-to-site sequence...

  2. New method to estimate paleoprecipitation using fossil amphibians and reptiles and the middle and late Miocene precipitation gradients in Europe (United States)

    Böhme, M.; Ilg, A.; Ossig, A.; Küchenhoff, H.


    Existing methods for determining paleoprecipitation are subject to large errors (±350 400 mm or more using mammalian proxies), or are restricted to wet climate systems due to their strong facies dependence (paleobotanical proxies). Here we describe a new paleoprecipitation tool based on an indexing of ecophysiological groups within herpetological communities. In recent communities these indices show a highly significant correlation to annual precipitation (r2 = 0.88), and yield paleoprecipitation estimates with average errors of ±250 280 mm. The approach was validated by comparison with published paleoprecipitation estimates from other methods. The method expands the application of paleoprecipitation tools to dry climate systems and in this way contributes to the establishment of a more comprehensive paleoprecipitation database. This method is applied to two high-resolution time intervals from the European Neogene: the early middle Miocene (early Langhian) and the early late Miocene (early Tortonian). The results indicate that both periods show significant meridional precipitation gradients in Europe, these being stronger in the early Langhian (threefold decrease toward the south) than in the early Tortonian (twofold decrease toward the south). This pattern indicates a strengthening of climatic belts during the middle Miocene climatic optimum due to Southern Hemisphere cooling and an increased contribution of Arctic low-pressure cells to the precipitation from the late Miocene onward due to Northern Hemisphere cooling.

  3. Middle and late Holocene climate change and human impact inferred from diatoms, algae and aquatic macrophyte pollen in sediments from Lake Montcortès (NE Iberian Peninsula)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scussolini, P.; Vegas-Vilarrúbia, T.; Rull, V.; Corella, J.P.; Valero-Garcés, B.; Gomà, J.


    During the middle and late Holocene, the Iberian Peninsula underwent large climatic and hydrologic changes, but the temporal resolution and regional distribution of available palaeoenvironmental records is still insufficient for a comprehensive assessment of the regional variability. The high

  4. Reproductive cyst and operculum formation in the Cambrian-Ordovician galeate-plexus microfossils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agic, Heda; Moczydlowska, Malgorzata; Canfield, Donald Eugene


    Unicellular organic-walled microfossils from the Cambrian-Ordovician transition in Estonia (ca. 490-480million years ago) exhibit rare characters reflecting their function as reproductive algal cysts. The studied assemblages record the evolutionary history of phytoplankton in the early Palaeozoic...... alga Acetabularia (Chlorophyta), which possesses an intrinsic lid-forming apparatus used during the organism's reproductive stage. Based on the observations on the fossil material and studies on the Acetabularia lid formation, we propose a model of operculum formation in the galeate plexus micro-organisms...

  5. Middle to Late Devonian–Carboniferous collapse basins on the Finnmark Platform and in the southwesternmost Nordkapp basin, SW Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. P. Koehl


    Full Text Available The SW Barents Sea margin experienced a pulse of extensional deformation in the Middle–Late Devonian through the Carboniferous, after the Caledonian Orogeny terminated. These events marked the initial stages of formation of major offshore basins such as the Hammerfest and Nordkapp basins. We mapped and analyzed three major fault complexes, (i the Måsøy Fault Complex, (ii the Rolvsøya fault, and (iii the Troms–Finnmark Fault Complex. We discuss the formation of the Måsøy Fault Complex as a possible extensional splay of an overall NE–SW-trending, NW-dipping, basement-seated Caledonian shear zone, the Sørøya–Ingøya shear zone, which was partly inverted during the collapse of the Caledonides and accommodated top–NW normal displacement in Middle to Late Devonian–Carboniferous times. The Troms–Finnmark Fault Complex displays a zigzag-shaped pattern of NNE–SSW- and ENE–WSW-trending extensional faults before it terminates to the north as a WNW–ESE-trending, NE-dipping normal fault that separates the southwesternmost Nordkapp basin in the northeast from the western Finnmark Platform and the Gjesvær Low in the southwest. The WNW–ESE-trending, margin-oblique segment of the Troms–Finnmark Fault Complex is considered to represent the offshore prolongation of a major Neoproterozoic fault complex, the Trollfjorden–Komagelva Fault Zone, which is made of WNW–ESE-trending, subvertical faults that crop out on the island of Magerøya in NW Finnmark. Our results suggest that the Trollfjorden–Komagelva Fault Zone dies out to the northwest before reaching the western Finnmark Platform. We propose an alternative model for the origin of the WNW–ESE-trending segment of the Troms–Finnmark Fault Complex as a possible hard-linked, accommodation cross fault that developed along the Sørøy–Ingøya shear zone. This brittle fault decoupled the western Finnmark Platform from the southwesternmost Nordkapp basin and merged with the

  6. δ13C chemostratigraphy of the Middle and Upper Ordovician succession in the Tartu-453 drillcore, southern Estonia, and the significance of the HICE

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    Heikki Bauert


    Full Text Available The δ13C isotope data from the Tartu-453 core section in southern Estonia enabled creation of a continuous Ordovician carbon isotope record, ranging from the Floian to the end of the Hirnantian. Five positive δ13C excursions and one negative δ13C excursion were recognized. Most of the positive excursions correspond to those defined on the Baltoscandian carbon isotope chemostratigraphic scheme, except for the Paroveja and Rakvere ICEs which are not well expressed in the Tartu-453 curve. Besides the positive δ13C excursions, a distinctive negative δ13C excursion, the Lower Sandbian NICE, was recorded in the Tartu-453 succession. The well-expressed HICE extends about 10 m higher than the traditional Ordovician–Silurian boundary (between the Porkuni and Juuru regional stages into the Juuru Regional Stage, suggesting that the Ordovician–Silurian boundary is positioned significally higher than traditionally suggested for the East Baltic area.

  7. Ancient glaciations and hydrocarbon accumulations in North Africa and the Middle East (United States)

    Le Heron, Daniel Paul; Craig, Jonathan; Etienne, James L.


    At least six glaciations are purported to have affected North Africa and the Middle East region over the last one billion years, including two in the Cryogenian (Neoproterozoic), Hirnantian (Late Ordovician), Silurian, Carboniferous and Early Permian events. The sedimentary record associated with these glaciations, together with the intensity to which each has been investigated, is highly variable. As hydrocarbon exploration proceeds aggressively across the North Africa and Middle East regions, we review the relationship between glaciation and hydrocarbon accumulations. With the exception of Oman, and locally Egypt, which were tectonically active both during the Neoproterozoic and Early Palaeozoic all glaciations took place along an essentially stable passive continental margin. During the Neoproterozoic, two glaciations are recognised, referred to as older and younger Cryogenian glaciations respectively. Both of these Cryogenian events are preserved in Oman; only the younger Cryogenian has been reported in North Africa in Mauritania and Mali at the flanks of the Taoudenni Basin. The process of initial deglaciation in younger Cryogenian glaciations resulted in incision, at least locally producing large-bedrock palaeovalleys in Oman, and the deposition of glacial diamictites, gravels, sandstones and mudstones. As deglaciation progressed "cap carbonates" were deposited, passing vertically into shale with evidence for deposition in an anoxic environment. Hence, younger Cryogenian deglaciation may be associated with hydrocarbon source rock deposits. Hirnantian (Late Ordovician) glaciation was short lived (economic significance across central North Africa. Therefore, an appreciation of the processes of ice sheet growth and decay provides significant insights into the controls on large-scale heterogeneities within these sediments, and in analogue deposits produced by glaciations of different ages. Deglacial, Early Silurian black shale represents the most important

  8. Continuity versus discontinuity of the human settlement of Europe between the late Early Pleistocene and the early Middle Pleistocene. The mandibular evidence (United States)

    Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Arsuaga, Juan Luís; Carbonell, Eudald


    One of the most interesting aspects of the settlement of Europe is the possible continuity or discontinuity of the populations living in this continent during the Early and Middle Pleistocene. In this paper we present an analysis of the mandibular fossil record from four important Pleistocene European sites, Gran Dolina-TD6-2 (Sierra de Atapuerca), Mauer, Arago, and Atapuerca-Sima de los Huesos. We focus this study in the recognition of key derived mandibular features that may be useful to assess the relationship among the populations represented at these sites. In order to make an approach to the ecological scenario, we also present a short review and discussion of the archaeological and paleoenvironmental evidences at that time. Our results suggest that probably there was a demographic discontinuity between the late Early Pleistocene populations (MIS 21-MIS 19), and those dated to the MIS 15. Hybridization between residents and new settlers cannot be discarded. However, some features of the Gran Dolina-TD6 hominins point to some relationship between the population represented in this site (probably dated to the MIS 21) and the European Middle Pleistocene and early Late Pleistocene populations. A hypothetical scenario is presented in order to understand this apparent contradiction with the model of discontinuity.

  9. Lateralization and Binaural Interaction of Middle-Latency and Late-Brainstem Components of the Auditory Evoked Response. (United States)

    Dykstra, Andrew R; Burchard, Daniel; Starzynski, Christian; Riedel, Helmut; Rupp, Andre; Gutschalk, Alexander


    We used magnetoencephalography to examine lateralization and binaural interaction of the middle-latency and late-brainstem components of the auditory evoked response (the MLR and SN10, respectively). Click stimuli were presented either monaurally, or binaurally with left- or right-leading interaural time differences (ITDs). While early MLR components, including the N19 and P30, were larger for monaural stimuli presented contralaterally (by approximately 30 and 36 % in the left and right hemispheres, respectively), later components, including the N40 and P50, were larger ipsilaterally. In contrast, MLRs elicited by binaural clicks with left- or right-leading ITDs did not differ. Depending on filter settings, weak binaural interaction could be observed as early as the P13 but was clearly much larger for later components, beginning at the P30, indicating some degree of binaural linearity up to early stages of cortical processing. The SN10, an obscure late-brainstem component, was observed consistently in individuals and showed linear binaural additivity. The results indicate that while the MLR is lateralized in response to monaural stimuli-and not ITDs-this lateralization reverses from primarily contralateral to primarily ipsilateral as early as 40 ms post stimulus and is never as large as that seen with fMRI.

  10. Size variation in early human mandibles and molars from Klasies River, South Africa: comparison with other middle and late Pleistocene assemblages and with modern humans. (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Lockwood, Charles A; Scott, Jeremiah E; Grine, Frederick E


    Previous studies of the Middle Stone Age human remains from Klasies River have concluded that they exhibited more sexual dimorphism than extant populations, but these claims have not been assessed statistically. We evaluate these claims by comparing size variation in the best-represented elements at the site, namely the mandibular corpora and M(2)s, to that in samples from three recent human populations using resampling methods. We also examine size variation in these same elements from seven additional middle and late Pleistocene sites: Skhūl, Dolní Vestonice, Sima de los Huesos, Arago, Krapina, Shanidar, and Vindija. Our results demonstrate that size variation in the Klasies assemblage was greater than in recent humans, consistent with arguments that the Klasies people were more dimorphic than living humans. Variation in the Skhūl, Dolní Vestonice, and Sima de los Huesos mandibular samples is also higher than in the recent human samples, indicating that the Klasies sample was not unusual among middle and late Pleistocene hominins. In contrast, the Neandertal samples (Krapina, Shanidar, and Vindija) do not evince relatively high mandibular and molar variation, which may indicate that the level of dimorphism in Neandertals was similar to that observed in extant humans. These results suggest that the reduced levels of dimorphism in Neandertals and living humans may have developed independently, though larger fossil samples are needed to test this hypothesis.

  11. Active Features of Guguan-Guizhen Fault at the Northeast Margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block since Late Quaternary (United States)

    Shi, Yaqin; Feng, Xijie; Li, Gaoyang; Ma, Ji; Li, Miao; Zhang, Yi


    Guguan-Guizhen fault is located at the northeast margin of Qinghai-Tibet Block and northwest margin of Ordos Block; it is the boundary of the two blocks, and one of the multiple faults of northwest Haiyuan-Liupanshan-Baoji fault zone. Guguan-Guizhen fault starts from Putuo Village, Huating County, Gansu Province, and goes through Badu Town, Long County in Shaanxi Province ends in Guozhen Town in Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. The fault has a full length of about 130km with the strike of 310-330°, the dip of SW and the rake of 50-60°, which is a sinistral slip reverse fault in the north part, and a sinistral slip normal fault in the southeast part. Guguan-Guizhen fault has a clear liner structure in satellite images and significant landform elevation difference with a maximum difference of 80m, and is higher in the east lower in the west. The northwest side of Guguan-Guizhen fault is composed of purplish-red Lower Cretaceous sandstones and river terrace; the northeast side is composed of Ordovician Limestone. Shigou, Piliang, Songjiashan, Tianjiagou and Chenjiagou fault profiles are found to the south of Badu Village. After 14C and optically stimulated luminescence dating, the fault does not dislocate the stratum since late Pleistocene (90.5±4.4ka) in Shigou, Piliang and Songjiashan fault profiles, and does not dislocate the cobble layer of Holocene first terrace and recent sliderock (3180±30 BP). But the fault dislocated the stratum of middle Pleistocene in some of the fault profiles. All the evidences above indicate that the fault is active in middle Pleistocene, and being silence since late Pleistocene. It might be active in Holocene to the north of Badu Village due to collapses are found in a certain area. The cause of these collapses is Qinlong M6-7 earthquake in 600 A.D., and might be relevant with Guguan-Guizhen fault after analysis of the scale, feature and age determination of the collapse. If any seismic surface rupture and ancient earthquake traces

  12. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.


    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  13. Petrography, Geochemistry and Proposed Genesis of Ordovician Oolitic Iron Formation Members of the Lashkarak Formation, Eastern Alborz

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    Mansoore Maghsoudloo Mahalli


    Full Text Available Introduction Oolitic iron formations are sedimentary rocks with >5 vol.% oolites and >15 wt.% iron, corresponding to 21.4 wt.% Fe2O3 (Young, 1989; Petranek and Van Houten, 1997; Mucke and Farshad, 2005. In Iran, new iron oolite-bearing members have been identified in the Lashkarak Formation (lower-middle Ordovician in the Abarsej, Dehmola and Simehkuh sections, eastern Alborz (Ghobadi Pour et al., 2011. At present, the mineralogy and geochemistry of these members are not known. Consequently, research reported here was conducted to reveal the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Ordovician oolitic iron formationmembers and to discuss their genesis and economic importance. Materials and Analyses Field geology and sampling was carried out to collect 25 samples from the ooliticiron formation members in the Abarsej, Dehmola and Simehkuh section in eastern Alborz. Samples were prepared for polished-thin sections (n=10, XRD analysis (n=15. Whole-rock chemical analysis (n=15 by XRF for major elements and by ICP-ES for trace elements was performed by laboratories at the SarCheshmeh copper mine complex, Kerman, Iran. One sample was analyzed by SEM at the Wales Museum, UK. Results Microscopic studies show that the oolitic iron formation members are hosted by carbonate argillite rocks. They are mainly composed of oolites rather than pisoliths (small bodies somewhat larger and more irregular than oolites, whereas oolites have mainly ellipsoidal forms and locally spherical shapes. Most (6 oolites show banding with a central core. Simple oolites without a core are scarce. Mineralogically, oolites are mainly chamositic and hematitic in composition; goethite, pyrite and glauconite occur in traces and siderite is absent. Quartz, calcite and zircon are accessory minerals which are present in the groundmass. Geochemically, TFeO % of the oolitic iron formation horizons ranges from 8 to 48 % with an average of 21%. The CaO content ranges from 2 to 37% and

  14. Biogeography of late Silurian and devonian rugose corals (United States)

    Oliver, W.A.


    Three marine benthic faunal realms can be recognized in the Early and Middle Devonian. The Eastern Americas Realm consisted of most of the eastern half of North America and South America north of the Amazon. This realm extended in a southwest direction from the Devonian equator to approximately 35??S and was an isolated epicontinental sea during much of its history. The Eastern Americas Realm was bounded on the west by the Transcontinental Arch, on the north by the Canadian Shield and on the east and southeast by a peninsular extension of the Old Red Continent. These barriers were emergent during much, but not all, of Devonian time. Seaways beyond these barriers belonged to the Old World Realm. The Malvinokaffric Realm that was farther south was apparently temperate to arctic in climate and latitudinal position and contained few corals. Rugose corals in the Eastern Americas Realm show increasing generic-level endemism from the Late Silurian through the Early Devonian; during the late Early Devonian, 92% of the rugosan genera are not known anywhere else in the world. Endemism decreased through the Middle Devonian to zero in the early Late Devonian. The Early Devonian increase in endemism paralleled, and was probably related to, the development of the Old Red Continent as a barrier between America and Africa-Europe. The waning of endemism in the Middle Devonian reflects the breaching of the land barriers. This permitted some migration in and out of the realm in early Middle Devonian time but greatest movements were in late Middle Devonian time. Principal migration directions were from western or Arctic North America into the Michigan-Hudson Bay area and from the southern Appalachian area into Africa. ?? 1977.

  15. Association of Insulin Resistance With Cerebral Glucose Uptake in Late Middle-Aged Adults at Risk for Alzheimer Disease. (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A; Bendlin, Barbara B; Starks, Erika J; Birdsill, Alex C; Johnson, Sterling C; Christian, Bradley T; Okonkwo, Ozioma C; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P; Koscik, Rebecca L; Jonaitis, Erin M; Sager, Mark A; Asthana, Sanjay


    Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. Patients with AD and individuals at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by fludeoxyglucose F 18-labeled positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). To determine whether insulin resistance predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD and to examine whether insulin resistance-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism is associated with worse cognitive performance. This population-based, cross-sectional study included 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean [SD] age, 60.7 [5.8] years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) study, a general community sample enriched for AD parental history. Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and FDG-PET at baseline. We used the homeostatic model assessment of peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. We used a voxelwise analysis to determine whether HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype, AD parental history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Regional glucose uptake determined using FDG-PET and neuropsychological factors. Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β = -0.29; P factor scores. Our results show that insulin resistance, a prevalent and increasingly common condition in developed countries, is associated with significantly lower regional cerebral glucose metabolism, which in turn may predict worse memory performance. Midlife may be a critical period for initiating treatments to lower peripheral insulin resistance to maintain neural metabolism

  16. Cognitive ability in late adolescence and disability pension in middle age: follow-up of a national cohort of Swedish males.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Sörberg

    Full Text Available Low cognitive ability in late adolescence has previously been shown to be associated with disability pension (DP in young adulthood. However, most DP's are granted later in working life, and the mechanisms of the association are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between cognitive ability in late adolescence and DP at ages 40-59, and investigate the role of individual and socioeconomic factors. Information on cognitive ability, health status, personality aspects and health behaviours at age 18-20 was obtained from the 1969-70 conscription cohort, comprising 49,321 Swedish men. Data on DP's 1991-2008 was obtained from the Longitudinal Database of Education, Income and Employment. Information on socioeconomic and work-related factors in childhood and adulthood was obtained from national sociodemographic databases. Hazard ratios for DP during follow-up were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. We found a graded relationship between cognitive ability in late adolescence and DP in middle age. One step decrease on the nine-point stanine scale of cognitive ability was associated with a crude hazard ratio of 1.26 (95% CI 1.24-1.27. Socioeconomic and work-related circumstances in adulthood explained much of the association, but factors measured already in late adolescence also showed importance. The findings suggest an accumulation of risks over the life course. Although attenuated, the graded relationship remained after adjusting for all factors.

  17. A sulfidic driver for the end-Ordovician mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma U.; Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Harper, David A.T.


    shelves. In our model, the expansion of euxinic conditions during the N. extraordinarius Zone was generated by a reorganization of nutrient cycling during sea level fall, and we argue, overall, that these dynamics in ocean chemistry played an important role for the end-Ordovician mass extinction. During......, and that a concomitant global sea level lowering pushed the chemocline deeper than the depositional setting of our sites. In the N. persculptus Zone, an interval associated with a major sea level rise, our redox indicators suggests that euxinic conditions, and ferruginous in some places, encroached onto the continental...... the first pulse of the extinction, euxinia and a steepened oxygen gradient in the water column caused habitat loss for deep-water benthic and nektonic organisms. During the second pulse, the transgression of anoxic water onto the continental shelves caused extinction in shallower habitats. (C) 2012 Elsevier...

  18. A sulfidic driver for the end-Ordovician mass extinction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammarlund, Emma; Dahl, Tais Wittchen; Harper, David Alexander Taylor


    shelves. In our model, the expansion of euxinic conditions during the N. extraordinarius Zone was generated by a reorganization of nutrient cycling during sea level fall, and we argue, overall, that these dynamics in ocean chemistry played an important role for the end-Ordovician mass extinction. During......, and that a concomitant global sea level lowering pushed the chemocline deeper than the depositional setting of our sites. In the N. persculptus Zone, an interval associated with a major sea level rise, our redox indicators suggests that euxinic conditions, and ferruginous in some places, encroached onto the continental...... the first pulse of the extinction, euxinia and a steepened oxygen gradient in the water column caused habitat loss for deep-water benthic and nektonic organisms. During the second pulse, the transgression of anoxic water onto the continental shelves caused extinction in shallower habitats....

  19. Late Cenozoic flexural deformation of the middle U.S. Atlantic passive margin (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Gardner, Thomas, W.


    resulting rom sediment loading are accomodated primately by a convex-up flexural hinge, physiographically represented by the Fall Zone. Our results elucidate an inherent danger in using topography alone to constrain late-stage passive margin deformation mechanisms. Only through careful synthesis of field stratigraphic and geomorphic elements such as fluvial terraces, Coastal Plain deposits, and offshore stratigraphy can age control be extended from the offshore depositional setting to the erosionally dominated continent. This sudy demonstrates that despite a relatively subdued topography, the middle U.S. Atlantic margin experiences progressive flexural isostatic deformation similar to that proposed for high-relief margins characterized by great escarpments. Thus margin topographic diversity remains a function of other factors, such as lithospheric composition and/or structure, supracrustal stratigraphy and structure, degree of drainage integration, drainage divide migration and climate.

  20. The lower Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician) at the northern extreme of the Mendoza Precordillera, Argentina: stratigraphic and biostratigraphic implications; El Darriwiliense inferior (Ordovícico Medio) en el extremo norte de la Precordillera de Mendoza, Argentina: implicaciones estratigráficas y bioestratigráficas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresi, M.S.; Bordonaro, O.L.; Heredia, S.E.; Mestre, A.; Toro, B.A.


    A tectonically affected Middle Ordovician succession crops out at the Los Guanacos quarry in the sierra de Las Higueras, in the Precordillera of Mendoza, western Argentina. This is represented by the San Juan Formation which is transitionally covered by a mixed carbonate-shaly unit of dark colours, 1.5 metres thick (transfacies) which can be interpreted as the base of the Los Azules Formation. A 5-cm thick intra-bioclastic pack/grainstone bed interbedded in the lower part of this unit has been interpreted as a tempestite. It is characterized both by a millimetre-thick erosional boundary, just above the dark mudstone layer and strong mechanical distribution of bioclasts and intraclasts, suggesting sedimentary structures associated with a storm event of high energy possibly occurring in the middle part of the platform. Towards the bottom, a hummocky structure thin interval, under the dark mudstone, is interpreted as the record of another tempestite event. The mudstone represents the post-storm event reflecting the low energy of the marine water environment. The lenticular layer contains predominantly lingulid shells, trilobites and graptolites, all highly fragmented, which suggests they have been reworked and subsequently mixed and quickly redeposited during a storm event that caused the mortality of these faunas. The trilobites Mendolaspis salagastensis and indeterminate species of Matagnostidae, Illaenidae, Leiostegiidae, Encrinuridae, Telephinidae and Trinucleidae have been recorded for the first time at this locality. The conodont fauna allows the identification of the Yangtzeplacognathus crassus Zone, which indicates the lower Darriwilian (Middle Ordovician). Graptolites assignable to evisograptus cf. Levisograptus austrodentatus and Levisograptus sp. are described for the first time in the studied area and biostratigraphic implications validate the early Darriwilian age for the bearing levels. Finally, based on the studied records, correlation with different

  1. Fossil embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period of Hunan, south China. (United States)

    Dong, Xi-Ping; Donoghue, Philip C J; Cheng, Hong; Liu, Jian-Bo


    Comparative embryology is integral to uncovering the pattern and process of metazoan phylogeny, but it relies on the assumption that life histories of living taxa are representative of their antecedents. Fossil embryos provide a crucial test of this assumption and, potentially, insight into the evolution of development, but because discoveries so far lack phylogenetic constraint, their significance is moot. Here we describe a collection of embryos from the Middle and Late Cambrian period (500 million years ago) of Hunan, south China, that preserves stages of development from cleavage to the pre-hatching embryo of a direct-developing animal comparable to living Scalidophora (phyla Priapulida, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera). The latest-stage embryos show affinity to the Lower Cambrian embryo Markuelia, whose life-history strategy contrasts both with the primitive condition inferred for metazoan phyla and with many proposed hypotheses of affinity, all of which prescribe indirect development. Phylogenetic tests based on these embryological data suggest a stem Scalidophora affinity. These discoveries corroborate, rather than contradict, the predictions of comparative embryology, providing direct historical support for the view that the life-history strategies of living taxa are representative of their stem lineages.

  2. Variability in Abundances of Meteorites in the Ordovician (United States)

    Heck, P. R.; Schmitz, B.; Kita, N.


    The knowledge of the flux of extraterrestrial material throughout Earth's history is of great interest to reconstruct the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt. Here, we present a review of our investigations of the nature of the meteorite flux to Earth in the Ordovician, one of the best-studied time periods for extraterrestrial matter in the geological record [1]. We base our studies on compositions of extraterrestrial chromite and chrome-spinel extracted by acid dissolution from condensed marine limestone from Sweden and Russia [1-3]. By analyzing major and minor elements with EDS and WDS, and three oxygen isotopes with SIMS we classify the recovered meteoritic materials. Today, the L and H chondrites dominate the meteorite and coarse micrometeorite flux. Together with the rarer LL chondrites they have a type abundance of 80%. In the Ordovician it was very different: starting from 466 Ma ago 99% of the flux was comprised of L chondrites [2]. This was a result of the collisional breakup of the parent asteroid. This event occurred close to an orbital resonance in the asteroid belt and showered Earth with >100x more L chondritic material than today during more than 1 Ma. Although the flux is much lower at present, L chondrites are still the dominant type of meteorites that fall today. Before the asteroid breakup event 467 Ma ago the three groups of ordinary chondrites had about similar abundances. Surprisingly, they were possibly surpassed in abundance by achondrites, materials from partially and fully differentiated asteroids [3]. These achondrites include HED meteorites, which are presumably fragments released during the formation of the Rheasilvia impact structure 1 Ga ago on asteroid 4 Vesta. The enhanced abundance of LL chondrites is possibly a result of the Flora asteroid family forming event at 1 Ga ago. The higher abundance of primitive achondrites was likely due to smaller asteroid family forming events that have not been identified yet but that did

  3. Life in the fluvial hinterland of the late Sarmatian Sea (middle Miocene): a rare terrestrial fossil site in the Styrian Basin (Austria) (United States)

    Doubrawa, Monika; Gross, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias


    This paper describes the section and fossil content of a former gravel pit in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria), which exposes sediments of a fluvial system, ranging from within channel to overbank environments. A predominately terrestrial gastropod fauna of 15 species so far, was recovered from a palaeosol formed in a moist and vegetated, floodplain or abandoned channel. Up-section, a shallow freshwater pond/lake developed within the floodplain, settled by fishes, molluscs and ostracods. By integrating regional geological and biostratigraphical data derived from the terrestrial gastropod fauna as well as from the other recovered biota, these strata are of late middle Miocene (late Sarmatian s.str.) age. Hence, this fossil site provides a rare insight into the terrestrial habitats in the hinterland of the Sarmatian Sea and their biota, which are otherwise barely known in Central Europe.

  4. Lithostratigraphy of Upper Ordovician strata exposed in Kentucky (United States)

    Weir, Gordon Whitney; Peterson, Warren Lee; Swadley, W.C.


    Ordovician formations above the Lexington Limestone crop out in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky and along the Cumberland River and its tributaries. The formations are all conformable and in places intertongue and intergrade. The major Ordovician units above the Lexington Limestone in the Blue Grass region are: The Clays Ferry Formation, the Kope Formation, the Garrard Siltstone, the Fairview Formation, the Calloway Creek Limestone, the Grant Lake Limestone, the Ashlock Formation, the Bull Fork Formation, and the Drakes Formation. The Clays Ferry Formation is made up of subequal amounts of fossiliferous limestone and shale and minor siltstone; the Clays Ferry is as much as 300 ft thick and intertongues with the Lexington Limestone and the Kope Formation. The Kope Formation resembles the partly equivalent Clays Ferry but has a higher shale content (60-80 percent) and thicker layers of shale; the Kope, as much as 275 ft thick, is mostly restricted to the northern part of the State. The Garrard Siltstone, which consists of very calcitic siltstone and minor shale, overlies the Clays Ferry Formation in the southeastern part of the Blue Grass region; the Garrard, as much as 100 ft thick, feathers out into the upper part of the Clays Ferry in southern central and northern east-central Kentucky. The Fairview Formation is characterized by even-bedded limestone interlayered with nearly equal amounts of shale and minor siltstone. The Fairview crops out in the northern part of the Blue Grass region, where it generally overlies the Kope Formation or the Garrard Siltstone; it grades southward into the Calloway Creek Limestone. The Calloway Creek contains more limestone (generally at least 70 percent) and is more irregularly and thinner bedded than the Fairview. The Grant Lake Limestone is composed of nodular-bedded limestone (70-90 percent), interlayered and intermixed with shale; it overlies the Fairview Formation in the northern part of the Blue Grass region and the Calloway

  5. New data on the natural environment of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods in the east of the European Subarctic Region of Russia (United States)

    Andreicheva, L. N.; Marchenko-Vagapova, T. I.


    The data obtained from investigation of the Middle and Late Neopleistocene lake sediments in the European Subarctic Region of Russia are reported. Chirva, Rodionovo (Scklov), Sula (Mikulino), and Byzovaya (Leningrad) sediments were subject to palynological analysis and investigation of particle size distribution and mineral composition. The spore-pollen spectra of the Chirva sediments demonstrate two climatic optima: the lower optimum is dominated by the pollen of Pinus sylvestris and broad-leaved species (up to 10%); the upper optimum is dominated by Picea sp. and Pinus sylvestris, while the pollen of Picea sect. Omorica and broad-leaved species are sporadic. The Rodionovo flora is characterized by a more xerophilous composition relative to the Chirva flora and a higher pollen content of pine, birch, wormseed plants, and wormwood. The climatic optimum of the Sula interglacial is distinguished by boreal vegetation, including spruce, birch, and birch-spruce forests with sparse broad-leaved species. The Byzovaya interstadial is marked by seven stages of changes in the vegetation: from tundra and forest-tundra communities to taiga forests with some broad-leaved species. The natural climatic sedimentation conditions in the Middle and Late Neopleistocene interglacial periods are reconstructed. The mineral composition of sediments was largely formed owing to underlying deposits.

  6. Evidence for local and global redox conditions at an Early Ordovician (Tremadocian) mass extinction (United States)

    Edwards, Cole T.; Fike, David A.; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Lu, Wanyi; Lu, Zunli


    Profound changes in environmental conditions, particularly atmospheric oxygen levels, are thought to be important drivers of several major biotic events (e.g. mass extinctions and diversifications). The early Paleozoic represents a key interval in the oxygenation of the ocean-atmosphere system and evolution of the biosphere. Global proxies (e.g. carbon (δ13C) and sulfur (δ34S) isotopes) are used to diagnose potential changes in oxygenation and infer causes of environmental change and biotic turnover. The Cambrian-Ordovician contains several trilobite extinctions (some are apparently local, but others are globally correlative) that are attributed to anoxia based on coeval positive δ13C and δ34S excursions. These extinction and excursion events have yet to be coupled with more recently developed proxies thought to be more reflective of local redox conditions in the water column (e.g. I/Ca) to confirm whether these extinctions were associated with oxygen crises over a regional or global scale. Here we examine an Early Ordovician (Tremadocian Stage) extinction event previously interpreted to reflect a continuation of recurrent early Paleozoic anoxic events that expanded into nearshore environments. δ13C, δ34S, and I/Ca trends were measured from three sections in the Great Basin region to test whether I/Ca trends support the notion that anoxia was locally present in the water column along the Laurentian margin. Evidence for anoxia is based on coincident, but not always synchronous, positive δ13C and δ34S excursions (mainly from carbonate-associated sulfate and less so from pyrite data), a 30% extinction of standing generic diversity, and near-zero I/Ca values. Although evidence for local water column anoxia from the I/Ca proxy broadly agrees with intervals of global anoxia inferred from δ13C and δ34S trends, a more complex picture is evident where spatially and temporally variable local trends are superimposed on time-averaged global trends. Stratigraphic

  7. Halophilic archaea cultivated from surface sterilized middle-late eocene rock salt are polyploid.

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    Salla T Jaakkola

    Full Text Available Live bacteria and archaea have been isolated from several rock salt deposits of up to hundreds of millions of years of age from all around the world. A key factor affecting their longevity is the ability to keep their genomic DNA intact, for which efficient repair mechanisms are needed. Polyploid microbes are known to have an increased resistance towards mutations and DNA damage, and it has been suggested that microbes from deeply buried rock salt would carry several copies of their genomes. Here, cultivable halophilic microbes were isolated from a surface sterilized middle-late Eocene (38-41 million years ago rock salt sample, drilled from the depth of 800 m at Yunying salt mine, China. Eight unique isolates were obtained, which represented two haloarchaeal genera, Halobacterium and Halolamina. We used real-time PCR to show that our isolates are polyploid, with genome copy numbers of 11-14 genomes per cell in exponential growth phase. The ploidy level was slightly downregulated in stationary growth phase, but the cells still had an average genome copy number of 6-8. The polyploidy of halophilic archaea living in ancient rock salt might be a factor explaining how these organisms are able to overcome the challenge of prolonged survival during their entombment.

  8. A reworked Lake Zone margin: Chronological and geochemical constraints from the Ordovician arc-related basement of the Hovd Zone (western Mongolia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soejono, I.; Buriánek, D.; Janoušek, V.; Svojtka, Martin; Čáp, P.; Erban, V.; Ganpurev, D.

    294/295, December (2017), s. 112-132 ISSN 0024-4937 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Ordovician magmatic arc * Mid-Silurian intra-plate magmatism * Hovd Zone * Reworked Lake Zone Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.677, year: 2016

  9. Developing Occupation-Based Preventive Programs for Late-Middle-Aged Latino Patients in Safety-Net Health Systems. (United States)

    Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Carlson, Mike; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Mahajan, Anish; Clark, Florence


    Latino adults between ages 50 and 60 yr are at high risk for developing chronic conditions that can lead to early disability. We conducted a qualitative pilot study with 11 Latinos in this demographic group to develop a foundational schema for the design of health promotion programs that could be implemented by occupational therapy practitioners in primary care settings for this population. One-on-one interviews addressing routines and activities, health management, and health care utilization were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed. Results of a content analysis of the qualitative data revealed the following six domains of most concern: Weight Management; Disease Management; Mental Health and Well-Being; Personal Finances; Family, Friends, and Community; and Stress Management. A typology of perceived health-actualizing strategies was derived for each domain. This schema can be used by occupational therapy practitioners to inform the development of health-promotion lifestyle interventions designed specifically for late-middle-aged Latinos. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Zircon U-Pb dating of early Palaeozoic monzonitic intrusives from the Goonumbla area, New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butera, K.M.; Williams, I.S.; Blevin, P.L.; Simpson, C.J.


    Zircon U-Pb ages measured on four small intrusions into the succession of Ordovician volcanic rocks that hosts North Parkes Cu-Au mine northwest of Parkes. New South Wales. place limits on the age of the volcanic sequence. The basal Nelungaloo Volcanics are constrained by a cross-cutting monzodiorite to be ≥484.3 ± 2.9Ma (Early Ordovician). Similarly. the overlying basal Goonumbla Volcanics are constrained by another cross-cutting monzodiorite to be ≥450.8 ± 4.2Ma (Middle Ordovician). A later generation of monzonites intruded into the middle and upper Goonumbla Volcanics yield ages of 439.1 ± 4.5 and 438.9 ± 4.7 Ma (Siluro-Ordovician). These various ages are consistent with the ages of fossiliferous sediments within the volcanic sequence. and indicate that both the intrusive and volcanic rocks span an appreciable period of time-neither are the product of a single magmatic episode. Intrusion of the youngest monzonites and mineralisation was virtually contemporaneous. Copyright (2001) Geological Society of Australia

  11. Eruptive history, geochronology, and post-eruption structural evolution of the late Eocene Hall Creek Caldera, Toiyabe Range, Nevada (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.


    years of the main eruption, and for the next approximately 10 million years sedimentary rocks and distal tuffs sourced from calderas farther west ponded in the caldera basin surrounding low areas nearby. Patterns of tuff deposition indicate that the area was characterized by east-west trending paleovalleys and ridges in the late Eocene and Oligocene, which permitted tuffs to disperse east-west but limited their north-south extent. Although a low-angle fault contact of limited extent separates Cambrian and Ordovician strata in the southwestern part of the study area, there is no evidence that this fault cuts overlying Tertiary rocks. Total extensional strain across the caldera is on the order of 15 percent, and there is no evidence for progressive tilting of 34–25 Ma rocks that would indicate protracted Eocene–Oligocene extension. The caldera appears to have been tilted as an intact block after 25 Ma, probably during the middle Miocene extensional faulting well documented to the north and south of the study area.

  12. Geochronology, stratigraphy and geochemistry of Cambro-Ordovician, Silurian and Devonian volcanic rocks of the Saxothuringian Zone in NE Bavaria (Germany)—new constraints for Gondwana break up and ocean-island magmatism (United States)

    Höhn, Stefan; Koglin, Nikola; Klopf, Lisa; Schüssler, Ulrich; Tragelehn, Harald; Frimmel, Hartwig E.; Zeh, Armin; Brätz, Helene


    Stratigraphically well-defined volcanic rocks in Palaeozoic volcano-sedimentary units of the Frankenwald area (Saxothuringian Zone, Variscan Orogen) were sampled for geochemical characterisation and U-Pb zircon dating. The oldest rock suite comprises quartz keratophyre, brecciated keratophyre, quartz keratophyre tuff and basalt, formed in Upper Cambrian to Tremadocian time (c. 497-478 Ma). Basaltic volcanism continued until the Silurian. Quartz keratophyre shows post-collisional calc-alkaline signature, the Ordovician-Silurian basalt has alkaline signature typical of continental rift environments. The combined datasets provide evidence of Cambro-Ordovician bimodal volcanism and successive rifting until the Silurian. This evolution very likely resulted from break-up of the northern Gondwana margin, as recorded in many terranes throughout Europe. The position at the northern Gondwana margin is supported by detrital zircon grains in some tuffs, with typical Gondwana-derived age spectra mostly recording ages of 550-750 Ma and minor age populations of 950-1100 and 1700-2700 Ma. The absence of N-MORB basalt in the Frankenwald area points to a retarded break-off of the Saxothuringian terrane along a continental rift system from Uppermost Cambrian to Middle Silurian time. Geochemical data for a second suite of Upper Devonian basalt provide evidence of emplacement in a hot spot-related ocean-island setting south of the Rheic Ocean. Our results also require partial revision of the lithostratigraphy of the Frankenwald area. The basal volcanic unit of the Randschiefer Formation yielded a Tremadocian age and, therefore, should be attributed to the Vogtendorf Formation. Keratophyre of the Vogtendorf Formation, previously assigned to the Tremadoc, is most likely of Upper Devonian age.

  13. Evenness and species abundance in graptolite communities: a new proxy for climate change during the end ordovician mass extinction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hawkins, A. D.; Mitchell, C. E.; Sheets, H. D.; Loxton, J.; Belscher, K.; Melchin, M. J.; Finney, S.; Štorch, Petr


    Roč. 43, č. 5 (2011), s. 83-83 ISSN 0016-7592. [2011 GSA Annual Meeting and Exposition. 09.10.2011-12.10.2011, Minneapolis] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : graptolites * Ordovician * climate change Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Geochronologic synthesis of the Piedra Alta Terrane, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.; Peel, E.


    In the Pre cordillera of Córdoba there are sixteen bands of ductile deformation, which allows tectonic significance assign them to four groups. One of them, which belongs to Deformation Gaza Tunnels, consists of post metamorphic strips uprooting of Orogen Pampeano Cambrian reverse nature, produced by convergent general shear (transpressional), related to collisional stages terrain Posthumous Pampa against Gondwana margin, and famatinian subduction. New radiometric data obtained by the K / Ar method amphiboles and micas allow better narrow activity tectonics of the strip, which would have nucleated after the M2 metamorphic peak (ca. 534 Ma), uprooted the Orogen Cambrian and Ordovician exhumándolo up early (onset of subduction Famatinian), when located the Charquina (474 ​​Ma) granodiorite. The period of tectonic activity FDLT (ca. 64 Ma), coincide with the approach of land Cuyania the Gondwana margin, prior to placement and final collision in the Middle to Late Ordovician. At the same time, in the field Pampeano they would be producing con tractional stages end collision with terrain Pampa the western margin of Gondwana. Subsequently, the FDLT would have cooled to the middle Silurian, when the Sierras de Cordoba and San Luis They continued their exhumation through isotherm muscovite. After cooling this generalized, deformation occurs and Devonian magmatism that penetrativamente affected the Pre cordillera eastern

  15. Whence the beardogs? Reappraisal of the Middle to Late Eocene 'Miacis' from Texas, USA, and the origin of Amphicyonidae (Mammalia, Carnivora). (United States)

    Tomiya, Susumu; Tseng, Zhijie Jack


    The Middle to Late Eocene sediments of Texas have yielded a wealth of fossil material that offers a rare window on a diverse and highly endemic mammalian fauna from that time in the southern part of North America. These faunal data are particularly significant because the narrative of mammalian evolution in the Paleogene of North America has traditionally been dominated by taxa that are known from higher latitudes, primarily in the Rocky Mountain and northern Great Plains regions. Here we report on the affinities of two peculiar carnivoraforms from the Chambers Tuff of Trans-Pecos, Texas, that were first described 30 years ago as Miacis cognitus and M. australis . Re-examination of previously described specimens and their inclusion in a cladistic analysis revealed the two taxa to be diminutive basal amphicyonids; as such, they are assigned to new genera Gustafsonia and Angelarctocyon , respectively. These two taxa fill in some of the morphological gaps between the earliest-known amphicyonid genus, Daphoenus , and other Middle-Eocene carnivoraforms, and lend additional support for a basal caniform position of the beardogs outside the Canoidea. The amphicyonid lineage had evidently given rise to at least five rather distinct forms by the end of the Middle Eocene. Their precise geographical origin remains uncertain, but it is plausible that southern North America served as an important stage for a very early phase of amphicyonid radiation.

  16. Cambro-ordovician sea-level fluctuations and sequence boundaries: The missing record and the evolution of new taxa (United States)

    Lehnert, O.; Miller, J.F.; Leslie, Stephen A.; Repetski, J.E.; Ethington, Raymond L.


    The evolution of early Palaeozoic conodont faunas shows a clear connection to sea-level changes. One way that this connection manifests itself is that thick successions of carbonates are missing beneath major sequence boundaries due to karstification and erosion. From this observation arises the question of how many taxa have been lost from different conodont lineages in these incomplete successions. Although many taxa suffered extinction due to the environmental stresses associated with falling sea-levels, some must have survived in these extreme conditions. The number of taxa missing in the early Palaeozoic tropics always will be unclear, but it will be even more difficult to evaluate the missing record in detrital successions of higher latitudes. A common pattern in the evolution of Cambrian-Ordovician conodont lineages is appearances of new species at sea-level rises and disappearances at sea-level drops. This simple picture can be complicated by intervals that consistently have no representatives of a particular lineage, even after extensive sampling of the most complete sections. Presumably the lineages survived in undocumented refugia. In this paper, we give examples of evolution in Cambrian-Ordovician shallowmarine conodont faunas and highlight problems of undiscovered or truly missing segments of lineages. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  17. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena


    In valleys of the River Seim and its tributaries in the middle Dnieper basin (west-central Russian Plain), two low terraces (T1, 10-16 m, and T0, 5-7 m above the river) and a floodplain (2-4 m) with characteristic large and small palaeochannels exist. A range of field and laboratory techniques was applied and ∼30 new numerical ages (OSL and 14C dates) were obtained to establish a chronology of incision and aggradation events that resulted in the current valley morphology. Two full incision/aggradation rhythms and one additional aggradation phase from the previous rhythm were recognized in the Late Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple-thread channels concentrated in a single flow that at some places formed large meanders. In the period 15-13 ka, high floods that rose above the present-day floods left large levees and overbank loams on Terrace T0. (5) Younger Dryas - Holocene transition: aggradation up to the modern channel level, transformation of large Late Glacial to small Holocene meanders. The established incision/aggradation rhythms are believed to be manifested over the Central Russian Plain outside the influence of ice sheets in the north and base level changes in the south. The two-phase deepening of the valley occurred in the last quarter of the last glacial epoch but can not be attributed directly to the glacial-interglacial transition. Both the detected incision events correspond to relatively


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    Full Text Available Conodonts (62 species and subspecies from acid-leaching of 226 samples from four sections through the Ali Masjid Formation west of Misri Khel in the former South Khyber Agency, north-west Pakistan, are documented by illustrations and distributional data. These indicate that most of this unit, at least in that area, spans the interval Middle crepida Zone (low in the Famennian to at least Early crenulata Zone (mid-Tournaisian, though a fauna from low in one of the sections produced conodonts indicative of the Late falsiovalis Zone (early Frasnian. Two major hiatuses are inferred: between the Late falsiovalis and Middle crepida zones, and between the Late expansa and Early duplicata zones. Coherence of the conodont biostratigraphy accords with lithologic alignments between the sections.  

  19. A new tephrochronology for early diverse stone tool technologies and long-distance raw material transport in the Middle to Late Pleistocene Kapthurin Formation, East Africa. (United States)

    Blegen, Nick; Jicha, Brian R; McBrearty, Sally


    The Middle to Late Pleistocene (780-10 ka) of East Africa records evidence of significant behavioral change, early fossils of Homo sapiens, and the dispersals of our species across and out of Africa. Studying human evolution in this time period thus requires an extensive and precise chronology relating behavioral evidence from archaeological sequences to aspects of hominin biology and evidence of past environments from fossils and geological sequences. Tephrochronology provides the chronostratigraphic resolution to achieve this through correlation and dating of volcanic ashes. The tephrochronology of the Kapthurin Formation presented here, based on tephra correlations and 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates, provides new ages between 395.6 ± 3.5 ka and 465.3 ± 1.0 ka for nine sites showing diverse blade and Levallois methods of core reduction. These are >110 kyr older than previously known in East Africa. New 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates provide a refined age of 222.5 ± 0.6 ka for early evidence of long-distance (166 km) obsidian transport at the Sibilo School Road Site. A tephra correlation between the Baringo and Victoria basins also provides a new date of ∼100 ka for the Middle Stone Age site of Keraswanin. By providing new and older dates for 11 sites containing several important aspects of hominin behavior and extending the chronology of the Kapthurin Formation forward by ∼130,000 years, the tephrochronology presented here contributes one of the longest and most refined chronostratigraphic frameworks of Middle through Late Pleistocene East Africa. This tephrochronology thus provides the foundation to understand the process of modern human behavioral evolution as it relates to biological and paleoenvironmental circumstances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mortality increase in late-middle and early-old age: heterogeneity in death processes as a new explanation. (United States)

    Li, Ting; Yang, Yang Claire; Anderson, James J


    Deviations from the Gompertz law of exponential mortality increases in late-middle and early-old age are commonly neglected in overall mortality analyses. In this study, we examined mortality increase patterns between ages 40 and 85 in 16 low-mortality countries and demonstrated sex differences in these patterns, which also changed across period and cohort. These results suggest that the interaction between aging and death is more complicated than what is usually assumed from the Gompertz law and also challenge existing biodemographic hypotheses about the origin and mechanisms of sex differences in mortality. We propose a two-mortality model that explains these patterns as the change in the composition of intrinsic and extrinsic death rates with age. We show that the age pattern of overall mortality and the population heterogeneity therein are possibly generated by multiple dynamics specified by a two-mortality model instead of a uniform process throughout most adult ages.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Hernández Campoy


    Full Text Available The diffusion of linguistic innovations and changes has become a common object of sociolinguistic and geolinguistic research. As such, the process has been studied from four complementary perspectives: (a the communicative or interpersonal, (b the time dimension, © the social perspective and (d the geographical or spatial. Despite the successful application of these methodologies to tracing the diffusion of innovations in progress and recently attested changes, attention is hardly ever given to reconstructing these four dimensions in connection with the diffusion of changes in the past. In this paper we consider the possibility of applying these methods and findings to the different faeets of the diffusion of a weIl attested change in the history of English: the spread of incipient standard spellings from London in the late Middle English period. Particular attention is given to the unfolding of this process in the course of time, its diffusion across social ranks and networks, as well as to its possible geographical circulation.

  2. Response of Landscapes of the Sikhote-Alin Western Slopes to the Middle-Late Holocene Climatic Changes (United States)

    Razzhigaeva, N. G.; Ganzey, L. A.; Panichev, A. M.; Grebennikova, T. A.; Mokhova, L. M.; Kopoteva, T. A.; Kudryavtseva, E. P.; Arslanov, Kh. A.; Maksimov, F. E.; Starikova, A. A.; Zakusin, S. V.


    The response of landscape biotic components of the western slope of the Sikhote-Alin Mountains (Bikin River middle flow) to the Middle-Late Holocene climate changes is discussed. The paleoreconstruction object was the Krasny Yar mari, which developed under the control of multidirectional short-term climatic changes. The last millennium was marked by particularly rapid and frequent changes in the local landscapes. The closely spaced orographic barrier strongly affected the development of biotic components and changes in the swamp hydrological regime. The moisture dynamics within the river catchment considerably controlled the development and change of the peat-forming plants. Several stages of the mari development were reconstructed; each began from the accumulation of eutrophic peat. It was followed by the transitional eutrophic-mesotrophic stage, with a higher role of atmospheric supply. The larch forests appeared in this part of the valley within the Atlantic-Subboreal cooling period. Korean pine developed in the forest vegetation in the low mountain relief at the beginning of the Subboreal and became one of the leading trees 2.6-2.3 ka BP. The lower role of the Korean pine and birch forest expansion in the first half of the Subatlantic could be related to the fires. The broadleaf-Korean pine forests became widespread in the Medieval Warm Period. Local swamp landscapes changed dramatically in the Little Ice Age, while the slope vegetation was not subject to any major changes. The landscapes were also affected by the fires, which became more frequent. The derivative communities with birch appeared on the mari. Moreover, this part of the valley was occasionally subject to heavy flooding.

  3. Middle ear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Gangadhara Somayaji


    Full Text Available Hearing loss is becoming more common in the society living in cities with lot of background noise around, and frequent use of gadgets like mobile phones, MP3s, and IPods are adding to the problem. The loss may involve the conductive or perceptive pathway. Majority of the patients with conductive hearing loss will revert back to normal hearing levels with medical and/or surgical treatment. However, in sensorineural hearing loss, many factors are involved in the management. Though traditionally hearing aids in various forms are the most commonly used modality in managing these patients, there are some drawbacks associated with them. Implantable middle ear amplifiers represent the most recent breakthrough in the management of hearing loss. Middle ear implants are surgically implanted electronic devices that aim to correct hearing loss by stimulating the ossicular chain or middle ear. Of late, they are also being used in the management of congenital conductive hearing loss and certain cases of chronic otitis media with residual hearing loss. The article aims to provide general information about the technology, indications and contraindications, selection of candidates, available systems, and advantages of middle ear implants. (MEI

  4. Geochronological framework of the early Paleozoic Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit, NE China, and its tectonic implications (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen-Hua; Mao, Jing-Wen; Ma, Xing-Hua; Che, He-Wei; Ou'yang, He-Gen; Gao, Xu


    The Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit of NE China is an important ore deposit in the middle section of the northern margin of the North China Craton. The early Paleozoic Bainaimiao Group is the main ore-hosting rock. The mineralization at the deposit shows features of porphyry alteration and late-stage orogenesis and transformation. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age data indicate that the ages of the Third and Fifth formations of the Bainaimiao Group are 492.7 ± 2.9 Ma (MSWD = 0.53) and 488.9 ± 3.1 Ma (MSWD = 0.92), respectively. The age of quartz diorite that intrudes the Bainaimiao Group is 459.3 ± 6.4 Ma (MSWD = 2.20). Molybdenite samples from massive Cu-Mo-bearing ores and quartz veins in the southern ore belt yield a Re-Os isochron age of 438.2 ± 2.7 Ma (MSWD = 0.16), which is consistent with the Re-Os isochron age of molybdenite in the northern ore belt, implying that the two ore belts belong to the same mineralization system. Muscovite from a post-magmatic Cu-Mo-bearing quartz-calcite vein yields an Ar-Ar isochron age of 422.5 ± 3.9 Ma (MSWD = 0.64) with an initial 40Ar/36Ar ratio of 286 ± 21. The well-defined plateau age of the muscovite is 422.4 ± 2.6 Ma (MSWD = 0.05), which represents the time of the post-magmatic orogenic transformation event. Based on our new age data and previous findings, we propose that the Bainaimiao Cu-Mo-Au deposit formed in an active continental margin setting and experienced four stages of ore mineralization: (1) a Late Cambrian-Middle Ordovician volcanic-sedimentary stage; (2) a Late Ordovician porphyry mineralization stage; (3) a Late Silurian regional metamorphism stage; and (4) an orogenic transformation stage. Subhedral and euhedral Paleoproterozoic (2402-1810 Ma) inherited zircons indicate that the Bainaimiao Group has a tectonic affinity with the North China Craton. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which is closely related to the complex closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, is favorable for prospecting for Paleozoic porphyry Cu

  5. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

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    Jin-Xiong Luo


    Full Text Available The lithofacies palaeogeography of the Late Permian Wujiaping Age in Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied based on petrography and the “single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping” method. The Upper Permian Wujiaping Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks and clastic rocks, with lesser amounts of siliceous rocks, pyroclastic rocks, volcanic rocks and coal. The rocks can be divided into three types, including clastic rock, clastic rock–limestone and limestone–siliceous rock, and four fundamental ecological types and four fossil assemblages are recognized in the Wujiaping Stage. Based on a petrological and palaeoecological study, six single factors were selected, namely, thickness (m, content (% of marine rocks, content (% of shallow water carbonate rocks, content (% of biograins with limemud, content (% of thin-bedded siliceous rocks and content (% of deep water sedimentary rocks. Six single factors maps of the Wujiaping Stage and one lithofacies palaeogeography map of the Wujiaping Age were composed. Palaeogeographic units from west to east include an eroded area, an alluvial plain, a clastic rock platform, a carbonate rock platform where biocrowds developed, a slope and a basin. In addition, a clastic rock platform exists in the southeast of the study area. Hydrocarbon source rock and reservoir conditions were preliminarily analyzed based on lithofacies palaeogeography. Sedimentary environments have obvious controls over the development of the resource rocks. With regard to the abundance of organic matter, the hydrocarbon potential of the coastal swamp environment is the best, followed by the basin environment and the carbonate rock platform. The gas reservoir types of the Wujiaping Stage can be classified as conventional and unconventional gas reservoirs, like coal bed gas and shale gas; all of them have well exploration prospects.

  6. The sedimentary facies characteristics and lithofacies palaeogeography during Middle-Late Cambrian, Sichuan Basin and adjacent area

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    Feifan Lu


    Full Text Available Combined with the regional strata filling characteristics of Middle-Upper Cambrian, the present paper conducts a systematic research on sedimentary facies in the basin and its peripheral area by utilizing 164 field outcrops and drilling and coring data. Further, the method of “multi-factor comprehensive synthesis based on single-factor analysis” was employed to investigate the sedimentary facies and palaeogeography of the study area and establish the sedimentary facies model. Stratigraphic reveals that the study area represents the pattern of thin-northwest and thick-southeast by stretching northeast-southwest. Within the present basin, the pattern of “one thin and two thick” predominates, while outside the basin “four thin and three thick” filling feature was found. Sedimentary facies shows that the study area was featured by rimmed carbonate platform. Specifically, carbonate platform, slope and northeastern corner Qinling paleooceanic Basin and southeastern corner Jiangnan Bain was identified from the west to the east. The carbonate platform contains restricted platform, evaporation-restricted platform, semi-restricted platform and the platform margin. Single factor analysis and lithofacies palaeogeographic characteristics manifests that during Middle-Late Cambrian, the western Old land evolved into peneplain stage, and that the eastern and southwestern sub-sags remained connected to the open-sea to some extent. At the time, the shllow seawater circulation was relatively restricted, while the ancient seabed tended to be flat and evaporation characteristics significantly diminished. Secondary sea-level fluctuation intensively influenced the development of scaled grain beach. It is suggested that tide marginal beach, intraplatform shoal subfacies zone, along with Shiqian-SangZhi in southeast and Zhenba-Xinshan in northeast platform-margin beach subfacies zone to be preferable targets for the favorable reservoir facies zone and

  7. Neural network development in late adolescents during observation of risk-taking action.

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    Miyuki Tamura

    Full Text Available Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months. The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas, and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus. We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed.

  8. Paleozoic stratigraphy of two areas in southwestern Indiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droste, J.B.


    Two areas recommended for evaluation as solid waste disposal sites lie along the strike of Paleozoic rocks in southwestern Indiana. Thin Pennsylvanian rocks and rocks of the upper Mississippian are at the bedrock surface in maturely dissected uplands in both areas. The gross subsurface stratigraphy beneath both areas is the same, but facies and thickness variation in some of the subsurface Paleozoic units provide for some minor differences between the areas. Thick middle Mississippi carbonates grade downward into clastics of lower Mississippian (Borden Group) and upper Devonian (New Albany Shale) rocks. Middle Devonian and Silurian rocks are dominated by carbonate lithologies. Upper Ordovician (Maquoketa Group) overly carbonates of middle Ordovician age. Thick siltstone and shale of the Borden Group-New Albany Shale zone and Maquoketa Group rocks should be suitable for repository development

  9. Bedrock stability in southeastern Sweden. Evidence from fracturing in the ordovician limestones of northern Oeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milnes, A.G.; Gee, D.G.


    The stability of the bedrock in SE Sweden with regard to radioactive waste disposal has recently been the subject of some controversy. In order to better assess the age and significance of fracturing in the Precambrian basement at the site of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), near Oskarshamn, a detailed analysis of fracturing in the lower Ordovician limestones exposed along the west coast of the neighbouring island of Oeland has been carried out. The limestones form continuously exposed shore platforms, in segments up to 30 m broad and several kilometres long. These, and numerous quarries, provide ideal objects for quantitative analysis (ground and air photo mapping, scanline logging), and unique opportunities for investigating the amount of movement on the fractures, because of well-developed bedding and abundant rod-shaped fossils on the bedding surfaces. The fracture patterns are dominated by two sets of subvertical fractures, a NW trending closely spaced and strongly orientated set and a NNE-ENE trending widely spaced and variably orientated set. Only about 10% of the fractures in both sets show lateral fossil displacement, with maximum movement of 5 cm, and only 3% of the fractures show vertical displacement of bedding (maximum 8 cm). All in all, the lower Ordovician limestones along the exposed shoreline have suffered remarkably little deformation since deposition, i.e. over the last 500 million years. Appreciable bedrock instability, if it occurred, must have been concentrated offshore, or in the unexposed segments of the coastline, where some weak indications of slight movement (changes of a few metres in stratigraphic level) have been observed. Among other recommendations for further work, geophysical investigations to test these indications are suggested. (54 refs.)

  10. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Hailay Abrha Gesesew

    Full Text Available Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care.Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: 'late HIV testing', 'late HIV diagnosis' and 'late presentation for HIV care after testing'. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value.Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6 and four (4 case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5 of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6-3.6, I2 = 79%.High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should play a key role in informing and counselling

  11. Evolutionary History of Atmospheric CO2 during the Late Cenozoic from Fossilized Metasequoia Needles.

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    Yuqing Wang

    Full Text Available The change in ancient atmospheric CO2 concentrations provides important clues for understanding the relationship between the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature. However, the lack of CO2 evolution curves estimated from a single terrestrial proxy prevents the understanding of climatic and environmental impacts due to variations in data. Thus, based on the stomatal index of fossilized Metasequoia needles, we reconstructed a history of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from middle Miocene to late Early Pleistocene when the climate changed dramatically. According to this research, atmospheric CO2 concentration was stabile around 330-350 ppmv in the middle and late Miocene, then it decreased to 278-284 ppmv during the Late Pliocene and to 277-279 ppmv during the Early Pleistocene, which was almost the same range as in preindustrial time. According to former research, this is a time when global temperature decreased sharply. Our results also indicated that from middle Miocene to Pleistocene, global CO2 level decreased by more than 50 ppmv, which may suggest that CO2 decrease and temperature decrease are coupled.

  12. Evolutionary History of Atmospheric CO2 during the Late Cenozoic from Fossilized Metasequoia Needles. (United States)

    Wang, Yuqing; Momohara, Arata; Wang, Li; Lebreton-Anberrée, Julie; Zhou, Zhekun


    The change in ancient atmospheric CO2 concentrations provides important clues for understanding the relationship between the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global temperature. However, the lack of CO2 evolution curves estimated from a single terrestrial proxy prevents the understanding of climatic and environmental impacts due to variations in data. Thus, based on the stomatal index of fossilized Metasequoia needles, we reconstructed a history of atmospheric CO2 concentrations from middle Miocene to late Early Pleistocene when the climate changed dramatically. According to this research, atmospheric CO2 concentration was stabile around 330-350 ppmv in the middle and late Miocene, then it decreased to 278-284 ppmv during the Late Pliocene and to 277-279 ppmv during the Early Pleistocene, which was almost the same range as in preindustrial time. According to former research, this is a time when global temperature decreased sharply. Our results also indicated that from middle Miocene to Pleistocene, global CO2 level decreased by more than 50 ppmv, which may suggest that CO2 decrease and temperature decrease are coupled.

  13. Unique distributions of hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds released by flash pyrolysis from the fossilised alga Gloeocapsomorpha prisca, a major constituent in one of four Ordovician kerogens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Douglas, A.G.; Fowler, M.G.; Eglinton, T.I.


    Kerogens isolated from four rocks of Ordovician age from North America have been analysed by combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to compare and contrast the type and distribution of sulphur-containing compounds and aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons present in the

  14. Incipiently drowned platform deposit in cyclic Ordovician shelf sequence: Lower Ordovician Chepultepec Formation, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.A.; Read, J.F.


    The Chepultepec interval, 145 to 260 m (476 to 853 ft) thick, in Virginia contains the Lower Member up to 150 m (492 ft) thick, and the Upper Member, up to 85 m (279 ft) thick, of peritidal cyclic limestone and dolomite, and a Middle Member, up to 110 m (360 ft) thick, of subtidal limestone and bioherms, passing northwestward into cyclic facies. Calculated long term subsidence rates were 4 to 5 cm/1000 yr (mature passive margin rates), shelf gradients were 6 cm/km, and average duration of cycles was 140,00 years. Peritidal cyclic sequences are upward shallowing sequences of pellet-skeletal limestone, thrombolites, rippled calcisiltites and intraclast grainstone, and laminite caps. They formed by rapid transgression with apparent submergence increments averaging approximately 2 m (6.5 ft) in Lower Member and 3.5 m (11.4 ft), Upper Member. Deposition during Middle Member time was dominated by skeletal limestone-mudstone, calcisiltite with storm generated fining-upward sequences, and burrow-mixed units that were formed near fair-weather wave base, along with thrombolite bioherms. Locally, there are upward shallowing sequences, of basal wackestone/mudstone to calcisiltite to bioherm complexes (locally with erosional scalloped tops). Following each submergence, carbonate sedimentation was able to build to sea level prior to renewed submergence. Large submergence events caused tidal flats to be shifted far to the west, and they were unable to prograde out onto the open shelf because of insufficient time before subsidence was renewed, and because the open shelf setting inhibited tidal flat deposition. The Middle Member represents an incipiently drowned sequence that developed by repeated submergence events.

  15. Age and kinematics of ductile deformation in the Cerro Durazno area, NW Argentina: Significance for orogenic processes operating at the western margin of Gondwana during Ordovician - Silurian times (United States)

    Wegmann, Maja I.; Riller, Ulrich; Hongn, Fernando D.; Glodny, Johannes; Oncken, Onno


    The Cerro Durazno Pluton belongs to a suite of Paleozoic granitoid intrusions in NW-Argentina, that are central for understanding the tectonic setting of the western margin of Gondwana in Ordovician and Silurian times. The pluton and its host rocks were tectonically overprinted by metamorphic mineral shape fabrics formed under middle greenschist-facies metamorphic conditions and associated with the nearby Agua Rosada Shear Zone. Kinematic analysis of the shear zone based on the geometric relationship between individual segments of the shear plane and principal axes of mineral fabric ellipsoids indicates reverse-sense of shear with a minor component of left-lateral displacement. This is compatible with the kinematics of other ductile deformation zones in this area, collectively forming a network, which accomplished orogen-parallel extension in addition to vertical thickening. Using the Rb-Sr isotopic system, an undeformed pegmatite dike of the Cerro Durazno Pluton was dated at 455.8 ± 3.6 Ma and mineral fabrics of the Agua Rosada Shear Zone formed at middle greenschist-facies metamorphism gave deformation ages of 437.0 ± 3.8 Ma and ⩽428.4 ± 4.5 Ma. Thus, tectonic overprint at low metamorphic grade occurred about 20-30 Ma after terminal magmatism in the Cerro Durazno area. Our data from the Cerro Durazno area and regional considerations suggest that the western margin of Gondwana was characterized by orogen-parallel extension in addition to crustal thickening as well as episodes of magmatism and ductile deformation that varied greatly in time and space.

  16. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

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    Wei Ju


    Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I late Ordovician–early Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean; (II middle Silurian–middle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III late Devonian–late Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks; (IV early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting; (V late Permian–Triassic the first intraplate orogeny; (VI Jurassic–Palaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII Neocene–Quaternary intraplate orogeny.

  17. Longitudinal Examination of the Bullying-Sexual Violence Pathway across Early to Late Adolescence: Implicating Homophobic Name-Calling. (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L; Basile, Kathleen C; Leemis, Ruth W; Hipp, Tracy N; Davis, Jordan P


    The Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory has indicated that bullying perpetration predicts sexual violence perpetration among males and females over time in middle school, and that homophobic name-calling perpetration moderates that association among males. In this study, the Bully-Sexual Violence Pathway theory was tested across early to late adolescence. Participants included 3549 students from four Midwestern middle schools and six high schools. Surveys were administered across six time points from Spring 2008 to Spring 2013. At baseline, the sample was 32.2% White, 46.2% African American, 5.4% Hispanic, and 10.2% other. The sample was 50.2% female. The findings reveal that late middle school homophobic name-calling perpetration increased the odds of perpetrating sexual violence in high school among early middle school bullying male and female perpetrators, while homophobic name-calling victimization decreased the odds of high school sexual violence perpetration among females. The prevention of bullying and homophobic name-calling in middle school may prevent later sexual violence perpetration.

  18. Plant–insect interactions from Middle Triassic (late Ladinian of Monte Agnello (Dolomites, N-Italy—initial pattern and response to abiotic environmental perturbations

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    Torsten Wappler


    Full Text Available The Paleozoic–Mesozoic transition is characterized by the most massive extinction of the Phanerozoic. Nevertheless, an impressive adaptive radiation of herbivorous insects occurred on gymnosperm-dominated floras not earlier than during the Middle to Late Triassic, penecontemporaneous with similar events worldwide, all which exhibit parallel expansions of generalized and mostly specialized insect herbivory on plants, expressed as insect damage on a various plant organs and tissues. The flora from Monte Agnello is distinctive, due to its preservation in subaerially deposited pyroclastic layers with exceptionally preserved details. Thus, the para-autochthonous assemblage provides insights into environmental disturbances, caused by volcanic activity, and how they profoundly affected the structure and composition of herbivory patterns. These diverse Middle Triassic biota supply extensive evidence for insect herbivore colonization, resulting in specific and complex herbivory patterns involving the frequency and diversity of 20 distinctive damage types (DTs. These DT patterns show that external foliage feeders, piercer-and-suckers, leaf miners, gallers, and oviposition culprits were intricately using almost all tissue types from the dominant host plants of voltzialean conifers (e.g., Voltzia, horsetails, ferns (e.g., Neuropteridium, Phlebopteris, Cladophlebis and Thaumatopteris, seed ferns (e.g., Scytophyllum, and cycadophytes (e.g., Bjuvia and Nilssonia.

  19. Taphonomy and palaeoecology of the late Pleistocene to middle Holocene small mammal succession of El Harhoura 2 cave (Rabat-Témara, Morocco). (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Marion, Lucile; Nespoulet, Roland; El Hajraoui, Mohammed Abdeljalil; Denys, Christiane


    The relationship between local and global climatic variations and the origin and dispersal of Homo sapiens in Africa is complex, and North Africa may have played a major role in these events. In Morocco, very few studies are specifically dedicated to small fossil vertebrates, and neither taphonomic nor palaeoecological studies have been undertaken on these taxa, particularly in archaeological contexts. The late Pleistocene to middle Holocene succession of El Harhoura 2 cave, situated in the region of Témara, yields an exceptionally rich small vertebrate assemblage. We present the results of a first systematic, taphonomic, and palaeoecological study of the small mammals from Levels 1 to 8 of El Harhoura 2. The absence of bone sorting and polishing, as well as the presence of significant traces of digestion indicate that the small mammal bones were accumulated in the cave by predators and that no water transport occurred. Other traces observed on the surface of bones consist mainly of root marks and black traces (micro-organisms or more probably manganese) which affected the majority of the material. The percentage of fragmentation is very high in all stratigraphic levels, and the post-depositional breakage (geologic and anthropogenic phenomena) obscure the original breakage patterns of bones by predators. According to the ecology of the different species present in the levels of El Harhoura 2, and by taking into account possible biases highlighted by the taphonomic analysis, we reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution in the region. For quantitative reconstructions we used two indices: the Taxonomic Habitat Index (THI) and the Gerbillinae/Murinae ratio. Late Pleistocene accumulations were characterised by a succession of humid (Levels 3, 4a, 6, and 8) and arid (Levels 2?, 5, and 7) periods, with more or less open landscapes, ending in an ultimate humid and wooded period during the middle Holocene (Level 1). We discuss particular limits of our results and

  20. Unappreciated diversification of stem archosaurs during the Middle Triassic predated the dominance of dinosaurs. (United States)

    Foth, Christian; Ezcurra, Martín D; Sookias, Roland B; Brusatte, Stephen L; Butler, Richard J


    Archosauromorpha originated in the middle-late Permian, radiated during the Triassic, and gave rise to the crown group Archosauria, a highly successful clade of reptiles in terrestrial ecosystems over the last 250 million years. However, scientific attention has mainly focused on the diversification of archosaurs, while their stem lineage (i.e. non-archosaurian archosauromorphs) has often been overlooked in discussions of the evolutionary success of Archosauria. Here, we analyse the cranial disparity of late Permian to Early Jurassic archosauromorphs and make comparisons between non-archosaurian archosauromorphs and archosaurs (including Pseudosuchia and Ornithodira) on the basis of two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Our analysis recovers previously unappreciated high morphological disparity for non-archosaurian archosauromorphs, especially during the Middle Triassic, which abruptly declined during the early Late Triassic (Carnian). By contrast, cranial disparity of archosaurs increased from the Middle Triassic into the Late Triassic, declined during the end-Triassic extinction, but re-expanded towards the end of the Early Jurassic. Our study indicates that non-archosaurian archosauromorphs were highly diverse components of terrestrial ecosystems prior to the major radiation of archosaurs, including dinosaurs, while disparity patterns of the Ladinian and Carnian indicate a gradual faunal replacement of stem archosaurs by the crown group, including a short interval of partial overlap in morphospace during the Ladinian.

  1. Energiemarkten en energiehandel in Holland in de late middeleeuwen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelisse, Charles Louis Eduard


    This study analyses the economical and commercial development of Holland in the late Middle Ages, focusing on the fuel market and fuel trade. Energy was of vital importance to this society in which industry, trade and export were expanding rapidly. The brisk commercial and industrial development of

  2. Significant association between perceived HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV/AIDS care in low and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis (United States)

    Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Tesfay Gebremedhin, Amanuel; Demissie, Tariku Dejene; Kerie, Mirkuzie Woldie; Sudhakar, Morankar; Mwanri, Lillian


    Background Late presentation for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is a major impediment for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) outcomes. The role that stigma plays as a potential barrier to timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV among people living with HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is ambivalent. This review aimed to assess the best available evidence regarding the association between perceived HIV related stigma and time to present for HIV/AIDS care. Methods Quantitative studies conducted in English language between 2002 and 2016 that evaluated the association between HIV related stigma and late presentation for HIV care were sought across four major databases. This review considered studies that included the following outcome: ‘late HIV testing’, ‘late HIV diagnosis’ and ‘late presentation for HIV care after testing’. Data were extracted using a standardized Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) data extraction tool. Meta- analysis was undertaken using Revman-5 software. I2 and chi-square test were used to assess heterogeneity. Summary statistics were expressed as pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals and corresponding p-value. Results Ten studies from low- and middle- income countries met the search criteria, including six (6) and four (4) case control studies and cross-sectional studies respectively. The total sample size in the included studies was 3,788 participants. Half (5) of the studies reported a significant association between stigma and late presentation for HIV care. The meta-analytical association showed that people who perceived high HIV related stigma had two times more probability of late presentation for HIV care than who perceived low stigma (pooled odds ratio = 2.4; 95%CI: 1.6–3.6, I2 = 79%). Conclusions High perceptions of HIV related stigma influenced timely presentation for HIV care. In order to avoid late HIV care presentation due the fear of stigma among patients, health professionals should

  3. Late Mesoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic history of metamorphic basement from the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico, and implications for the evolution of NW Gondwana (United States)

    Weber, Bodo; González-Guzmán, Reneé; Manjarrez-Juárez, Román; Cisneros de León, Alejandro; Martens, Uwe; Solari, Luigi; Hecht, Lutz; Valencia, Victor


    the amphibolite have E-MORB characteristics and were derived from a depleted mantle source younger than the Rodinia-type basement. Inasmuch as similar amphibolites also occur in the Ediacaran metasedimentary rocks as dykes or lenses, Late Neoproterozoic magmatism in a rift setting is suggested. Hence, the geologic record of the El Triunfo Complex includes evidences for Rodinia assemblage, Tonian circum-Rodinia subduction, and breakup during the Late Neoproterozoic. Metamorphism, and partial melting are interpreted in terms of a convergent margin setting during the Ordovician. The results place the southern Chiapas Massif along with Oaxaquia and similar Northern Andes terranes on the NW margin of Gondwana interpreted as the extension of the Famatinian orogen that evolved during the closure of the Iapetus Ocean.

  4. The Late Cambrian SPICE (δ13C) event and the Sauk II-Sauk III regression: new evidence from Laurentian basins in Utah, Iowa, and Newfoundland (United States)

    Saltzman, Matthew R.; Cowan, Clinton A.; Runkel, Anthony C.; Runnegar, Bruce; Stewart, Michael C.; Palmer, Allison R.


    Carbon isotope data from Upper Cambrian sections in three Laurentian basins in northern Utah, central Iowa, and western Newfoundland record a large positive ??13C excursion (SPICE event) of up to + 5???. Peak ??13C ratios are well dated by trilobite collections to the middle of the Steptoean Stage (Dunderbergia Zone) and occur during maximum regression associated with formation of the Sauk II-Sauk III subsequence boundary on the North American craton. Maximum regression was marked by an influx of quartz sand into carbonate-platform settings in all three widely separated basins. In northern Utah, this quartz sand formed a thick sequence known as the Worm Creek Quartzite, which marks a conspicuous interruption of carbonate deposition during the Middle to Late Cambrian in the region. In western Newfoundland, the thickness of the quartz sand unit is much reduced but still marks a brief shutdown of the carbonate factory that is unique to the Cambrian shelf succession of the area. In the central Iowa area of the cratonic interior, an upward-shallowing carbonate succession culminates in cross-stratified trilobite grainstones at the peak of the SPICE in Dunderbergia Zone time, and the lowest point on the relative-sea-level curve is associated with the occurrence of coarse quartz sand derived from the encroaching shoreface. Although it is difficult to determine precisely the departure from baseline ??13C that marks the beginning of the SPICE excursion in the stratigraphic successions analyzed, our results are consistent with a rise and subsequent fall in ??13C tracking a major regressive-transgressive event recorded across northern Laurentia. The correlation of a major ??13C excursion with regression is similar to that described for the Late Ordovician, for which the pattern has been attributed to either increased carbonate relative to terrigenous weathering rates as ice sheets covered up organic-matter-containing silicates at high latitudes or high productivity and organic

  5. Early to Middle Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains, Northwest China: Evidence from sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology (United States)

    Ji, Hongjie; Tao, Huifei; Wang, Qi; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Dongxu; Qiu, Junli; Liao, Peng


    The Bogda Mountains, as an important intracontinental orogenic belt, are situated in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and are a key area for understanding the Mesozoic evolution of the CAOB. However, the tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains remains controversial during the Mesozoic Era, especially the Early to Middle Jurassic Periods. The successive Lower to Middle Jurassic strata are well preserved and exposed along the northern flank of the Western Bogda Mountains and record the uplift processes of the Bogda Mountains. In this study, we analysed sedimentary facies combined with detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology at five sections of Lower to Middle Jurassic strata to detect the tectonic evolution and changes of provenance in the Bogda area. During Early to Middle Jurassic times, the fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments dominated in the western section of the Bogda area. The existence of Early Triassic peak age indicates that the Bogda Mountains did not experience uplift during the period of early Badaowan Formation deposition. The Early Triassic to Late Permian granitoid plutons and Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the Barkol and Santanghu areas were the main provenances. The significant change in the U-Pb age spectrum implies that the Eastern Bogda Mountains initiated uplift in the period of late Badaowan Formation deposition, and the Eastern Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin were partially partitioned. The Eastern Bogda Mountains gradually became the major provenance. From the period of early Sangonghe to early Toutunhe Formations deposition, the provenance of the sediments and basin-range frame were similar to that of late Badaowan. However, the Eastern Bogda Mountains suffered intermittent uplift three times, and successive denudation. The uplifts respectively happened in early Sangonghe, late Sangonghe to early Xishanyao, and late Xishanyao to early Toutunhe. During the deposition stage of Toutunhe Formation, a

  6. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt (United States)

    He, D.


    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the course of an investigation on the major mass extintion event near the P/T boundary, in the vicinity of Shahreza (South Isfahan in Iran, a stratigraphically significant new species of foraminifera (Dagmarita shahreaensis n. sp. has been discovered in the Wuchiapingian/Dzhulfian (Late Permian of central Iran (Hambast Formation. This new species is described and emplaced in the phylogeny of the globivalvulinid foraminifera, which evolved rapidly during the Middle/Late Permian. 

  8. The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina in the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina and the dispersal pathways along western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Muñoz


    Full Text Available The eoorthid brachiopod Apheoorthina is reported for the first time from the Lower Ordovician of NW Argentina. It is represented by a species similar to A. ferrigena from the Tremadocian of the Prague Basin, increasing the faunal affinities between the Central Andean Basin and the South European microcontinents, in particular the Bohemian region (Perunica. Nine out of the fourteen brachiopod genera reported from the Tremadocian of the Central Andean Basin (~64% are shared with the Mediterranean region, four of which (~28% have been recorded in the Prague Basin, and two (Kvania and Apheoorthina are restricted to the Central Andes and Perunica. Dispersal pathways around Gondwana are analyzed in the light of major factors affecting large-scale distribution of brachiopods (environment, larval capacity for dispersal, oceanic currents. The presence in Apheoorthina aff. ferrigena of a well-preserved larval protegulum measuring 420 μm in width and 210 μm in length strongly suggests that this species had planktotrophic larvae capable of long-distance dispersal. According to recent ocean-atmosphere general circulation models for the Ordovician Period, the Central Andean margin was dominated by the cold-water Antarctica Current. Despite the complex non-zonal pattern produced by current deflections around the peri-Gondwanan microcontinents, the general westward circulation sense favoured larval dispersal from the Andean region to North Africa, Avalonia, the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, and Perunica. On the other hand, the eastwards flowing Gondwana Current connected the North Gondwana waters with the South American epicontinental seas, which could explain the reversed migration of some brachiopods.

  9. Hominin teeth from the early Late Pleistocene site of Xujiayao, Northern China. (United States)

    Xing, Song; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María; Wu, Xiujie; Liu, Wu


    It is generally accepted that from the late Middle to the early Late Pleistocene (∼340-90 ka BP), Neanderthals were occupying Europe and Western Asia, whereas anatomically modern humans were present in the African continent. In contrast, the paucity of hominin fossil evidence from East Asia from this period impedes a complete evolutionary picture of the genus Homo, as well as assessment of the possible contribution of or interaction with Asian hominins in the evolution of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. Here we present a comparative study of a hominin dental sample recovered from the Xujiayao site, in Northern China, attributed to the early Late Pleistocene (MIS 5 to 4). Our dental study reveals a mosaic of primitive and derived dental features for the Xujiayao hominins that can be summarized as follows: i) they are different from archaic and recent modern humans, ii) they present some features that are common but not exclusive to the Neanderthal lineage, and iii) they retain some primitive conformations classically found in East Asian Early and Middle Pleistocene hominins despite their young geological age. Thus, our study evinces the existence in China of a population of unclear taxonomic status with regard to other contemporary populations such as H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. The morphological and metric studies of the Xujiayao teeth expand the variability known for early Late Pleistocene hominin fossils and suggest the possibility that a primitive hominin lineage may have survived late into the Late Pleistocene in China. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Field trip guidebook for the post-meeting field trip: The Central Appalachians (United States)

    Taylor, John F.; Loch, James D.; Ganis, G. Robert; Repetski, John E.; Mitchell, Charles E.; Blackmer, Gale C.; Brezinski, David K.; Goldman, Daniel; Orndorff, Randall C.; Sell, Bryan K.


    shale and sandstone turbidites accumulated. The foreland basin thus created would fill with progressively coarser and more shallow/proximal clastic facies through the Upper Ordovician, culminating in deposition of fluvial redbeds that cap the Taconic clastic wedge. Arguably the most controversial rocks within the Tippecanoe Sequence in this area are unusual, Lower Ordovician deep marine facies that are associated with the much younger flysch of the Martinsburg Formation in the Great Valley of eastern Pennsylvania. Long considered the erosional remnants of a Taconic-style thrust sheet, and referred to as the Hamburg Klippe, these deep marine deposits have recently been reinterpreted as olistostromal deposits that were introduced by gravity sliding into the flysch basin contemporaneous with Martinsburg deposition.Besides their constituent lithofacies, rocks of the Sauk and Tippecanoe megasequences also present a stark contrast in faunas. Cambrian and Lower Ordovician faunas predate the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), a global event that saw unprecedented diversification within many major invertebrate groups (mollusks, corals, and bryozoans to name a few) that previously were only minor components of the marine fauna. Unfortunately, the much higher diversity of Middle and Upper Ordovician faunas wrought by the GOBE is somewhat muted in this region by the stresses introduced by conversion of the Appalachian shelf into a flysch basin. Another noteworthy difference between the Cambrian and Ordovician biota related to the paleogeographic setting of the rocks to be examined on this trip derives from their evolution in the shallow marine environments of Laurentia. Several shelf-wide extinctions decimated the shallow marine faunas of the Laurentian shelf through the late Cambrian producing stage-level biostratigraphic units known as biomeres. The biomere phenomenon is discussed in this guidebook and a few stops to examine Cambrian faunas and one biomere boundary

  11. Late to middle Pleistocene Arctic glacial history implied from a sedimentary record from the Northwind Ridge (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Dong, L.; Shi, X.; Zhu, A.


    Abstract: Sediment core ARC6-C21 collected from the Northwind Ridge, western Arctic Ocean, covers the late to middle Quaternary (Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 1-11), as estimated by correlation to earlier proposed Arctic Ocean stratigraphies and AMS14C dating of the youngest sediments. Detailed examination of the elemental composition of sediment along with grain size in core ARC6-C21 provides important new information about sedimentary environments and provenance. We use increased contents of coarse debris as an indicator of glacier collapse events at the margins of the western Arctic Ocean, and identify the provenance of these events from geochemical composition. Notably, peaks of MgO and CaO, including large dropstones, presumably track the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) discharge events to the Arctic Ocean. Major LIS inputs occurred during the stratigraphic intervals estimated as MIS 3, intra-MIS 5 and 7 events, MIS 8, and MIS 10. Inputs from the East Siberian Ice Sheet (ESIS) and/or Eurasia Ice Sheet (EIS)are inferred from peaks of SiO2, K2O and Na2O associated with coarse sediment. Major ESIS and/or EIS sedimentary events occurred in the intervals estimated as MIS 2, MIS 4, MIS 6, MIS 8 and MIS 10. Keywords: Sediment core, Pleistocene, western Arctic Ocean, geochemistry, grain size, sediment provenance, glaciations

  12. Changes in vegetation since the late glacial on peat bog in the Small Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciernikova, M.


    Mires are ecosystems accumulating high amount of organic matter with preserved micro- and macro-fossils. Thus they can serve as natural archives allowing reconstruction of local vegetation and landscape development. Main aim of this study was to bring evidence of the whole Holocene history of mire birch woodland located on the ridge of the Male Karpaty Mts (SW Slovakia) using pollen analysis. One peat core was sampled from the middle part containing the whole Holocene sequence. The local development of study site started with small lake in a terrain depression, which arose at the end of the Late Glacial (Middle Dryas). The Late Glacial landscape was mosaic of birch-pine forests on suitable places and Artemisia steppes. Early Holocene is characterized by steep decline of pine and increase of Corylus and other mesophilous trees (Quercus, Tilia, Ulmus, Fraxinus). Fagus started dominate in middle Holocene (about 5000 cal BP). The recent vegetation established only several hundred years ago (ca 500 cal. BP), when birch started dominate. (author)

  13. High-resolution stable isotope stratigraphy of the upper Cambrian and Ordovician in the Argentine Precordillera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sial, A.N.; Peralta, S.; Gaucher, C.


    We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America, and the nega......We report the occurrence of important carbon isotope excursions in early Paleozoic formations of the Eastern and Central Argentine Precordillera. The Steptoean positive isotope carbon excursion (SPICE) is known from North America, Kazakhstan, South China, Australia and South America......, and the negative isotope carbon excursion (SNICE) has been described for the first time in South America. We report here the record of the SPICE and SNICE in a single section in the Eastern Precordillera. In the Central Precordillera, a minor middle Darriwilian positive carbon isotope excursion (MDICE) and a late...

  14. Paleochannel and paleohydrology of a Middle Siwalik (Pliocene ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Late Cenozoic fresh water molasses sediments (+6000 m thick) deposited all along the length of the. Himalayan fore deep, form the Siwalik Supergroup. This paper reports the results of the paleodrainage and paleohydrology of the Middle Siwalik subgroup of rocks, deposited in non-marine basins adjacent to a rising ...

  15. Study of fossil wood from the Middle-Late Miocene sediments of Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam, India and its palaeoecological and palaeophytogeographical implications (United States)

    Mehrotra, R. C.; Bera, S. K.; Basumatary, S. K.; Srivastava, G.


    In order to reconstruct the palaeoclimate, a number of fossil wood pieces were collected and investigated from two new fossil localities situated in the Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam. They belong to the Tipam Group considered to be of Middle-Late Miocene in age and show affinities with Gluta (Anacardiaceae), Bischofia (Euphorbiaceae), Bauhinia, Cynometra, Copaifera-Detarium-Sindora, Millettia-Pongamia, and Afzelia-Intsia (Fabaceae). The flora also records a new species of Bauhinia named Bauhinia miocenica sp. nov. The assemblage indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of the sediments. The occurrence of some southeast Asian elements in the fossil flora indicates that an exchange of floral elements took place between India and southeast Asia during the Miocene.

  16. "Not in the Middle Ages"?: Alan Garner's "The Owl Service" and the Literature of Adolescence. (United States)

    Hardwick, Paul


    Discusses connecting with the Middle Ages in adolescent fiction. Discusses how, in "The Owl Service," Garner addresses a relationship between adolescence in the late twentieth century and an aspect of the past--specifically the Middle Ages. Considers how "The Owl Service" is a story energized by myth, concerning the…

  17. Water-quality assessment of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system in the northern Midwest, United States (United States)

    Wilson, John T.


    This report provides a regional assessment of groundwater quality of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system, based primarily on raw water samples collected by the NAWQA Program during 1995 through 2007. The NAWQA Program has published findings in local study-unit reports encompassing parts of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system. Data collected from the aquifer system were used in national synthesis reports on selected topics such as specific water-quality constituent classes, well type, or aquifer material; however, a synthesis of groundwater quality at the principal aquifer scale has not been completed and is therefore the major purpose of this report. Water samples collected by the NAWQA Program were analyzed for various classes of characteristics including physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients and dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides (tritium, radon, and radium), pesticides, and volatile organic compounds. Subsequent sections of this report provide discussions on these classes of characteristics. The assessment objectives of this report are to (1) summarize constituent concentrations and compare them to human-health benchmarks and non-health guidelines; (2) determine the geographic distribution of constituent concentrations and relate them to various factors such as confining conditions, well type, land use, and groundwater age; and (3) evaluate near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections. The most recent sample collected from each well by the NAWQA Program was used for most analyses. Near-decadal-scale changes in nitrate concentrations and pesticide detections were evaluated for selected well networks by using the most recent sample from each well and comparing it to the results from a sample collected 7 or 11 years earlier. Because some of the NAWQA well networks provide a limited areal coverage of the aquifer system, data for raw water samples from other USGS sources and state agencies were included

  18. Linking the southern West Junggar terrane to the Yili Block: Insights from the oldest accretionary complexes in West Junggar, NW China (United States)

    Ren, Rong; Han, Bao-Fu; Guan, Shu-Wei; Liu, Bo; Wang, Zeng-Zhen


    West Junggar is known to tectonically correlate with East Kazakhstan; however, the tectonic link of the southern West Junggar terrane to adjacent regions still remains uncertain. Here, we examined the oldest accretionary complexes, thus constraining its tectonic evolution and link during the Early-Middle Paleozoic. They have contrasting lithologic, geochemical, and geochronological features and thus, provenances and tectonic settings. The Laba Unit was derived from the Late Ordovician-Early Devonian continental arc system (peaking at 450-420 Ma) with Precambrian substrate, which formed as early as the Early Devonian and metamorphosed during the Permian; however, the Kekeshayi Unit was accumulated in an intra-oceanic arc setting, and includes the pre-Late Silurian and Late Silurian subunits with or without Precambrian sources. Integrated with the regional data, the southern West Junggar terrane revealed a tectonic link to the northern Yili Block during the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, as suggested by the comparable Precambrian zircon age spectra between the southern West Junggar terrane and the micro-continents in the southern Kazakhstan Orocline, the proximal accumulation of the Laba Unit in the continental arc atop the Yili Block, and the sudden appearance of Precambrian zircons in the Kekeshayi Unit during the Late Silurian. This link rejects the proposals of the southern West Junggar terrane as an extension of the northern Kazakhstan Orocline and the Middle Paleozoic amalgamation of West Junggar. A new linking model is thus proposed, in which the southern West Junggar terrane first evolved individually, and then collided with the Yili Block to constitute the Kazakhstan continent during the Late Silurian. The independent and contrasting intra-oceanic and continental arcs also support the Paleozoic archipelago-type evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  19. Introduction. Faithful to the cross in a Moving World : Late Mediëval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aelst, J.J.; van Dijk, Mathilde; Gaens, Tom


    This is the introduction to the thematic issue Faithful to the Cross in a Moving World: Late Medieval Carthusians as Devotional Reformers. The editors discuss how the Carthusian order expanded in the Late Middle Ages and how, in contrast to the first Carthusians, new charterhouses were created in or

  20. A Brief Introduction to Astronomy in the Middle East

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, John M


    The Middle East is the birthplace of astronomy and the centre for its development during the medieval period. In this brief introduction John Steele offers an intriguing insight into Middle Eastern achievements in astronomy and their profound influence on the rest of the world. Amongst other things, the book traces the Late Babylonians' ingenious schemes for modelling planetary motion. It also reveals how medieval Islamic advances in the study of the heavens, and the design of precise astronomical instruments, led to breakthroughs by Renaissance practitioners such as Copernicus and Kepler. An

  1. Middle to late Jurassic in Poland; Mellem - Oevre jura i Polen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, N.E.; Bojesen-Koefoed, J.; Drewniak, A.; Glowniak, E.; Ineson, J.; Matyja, B.A.; Merta, T.; Wierzbowski, A.


    Results of this project have contributed to the renewed research in the area of the Middle Jurassic ammonite stratigraphy. Upper Jurassic ammonite stratigraphy is a very actively researched field at the Geological Institute of the Warsaw University. The stratigraphical distribution of dinoflagellate cysts within the Upper Bajocian-Bathonian-Lower Callovian has provided a detailed correlation between the Polish Submediterranean Province (northern Tethyan realm) and the Subboreal Province of the North Sea area (chronostratigraphy and dinoflagellate zonation). One of the most interesting results is the improved correlation of the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgean boundary between these two provinces. The source mineral research contributed new data about the oil/gas potential of megafacies in the central Poland. The planned model development of catagenesis of Middle Jurassic clay sediments in relation to salt deposits could not be established from the found low TOC values and very low hydrogen index values between 6 and 141. The organic material can be characterized as kerogen-type III/IV. Kerogen is considered generally immature with regard to oil/gas formation. The detailed study of sponge bioherms in North-Western Poland has resulted in better understanding of the architecture and evolution of these bioherms. (EG)

  2. A Late Cretaceous theropod caudal vertebra from the Sultanate of Oman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Hanna, Samir S.; Hartman, Axel Frans; Jagt, John W M


    A caudal vertebra collected from conglomerates of the Al-Khod Formation (Late Cretaceous) in the Al-Khod area, Sultanate of Oman, is assigned to a medium-sized theropod dinosaur. The Al-Khod discovery represents one of the very few dinosaur records from the Middle East.

  3. Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks of Baird Mountains Quadrangle, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.


    Lower Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the Baird Mountains quadrangle form a relatively thin (about 550 m), chiefly shallow-water succession that has been imbricately thrust and metamorphosed to lower greenschist facies. Middle and Upper Cambrian rocks - the first reported from the western Brooks Range - occur in the northeastern quarter of the quadrangle, south of Angayukaqsraq (formerly Hub) Mountain. They consist of marble grading upward into thin-bedded marble/dolostone couplets and contain pelagiellid mollusks, acetretid brachiopods, and agnostid trilobites. Sedimentologic features and the Pelagiellas indicate a shallow-water depositional environment. Overlying these rocks are Lower and Middle Ordovician marble and phyllite containing graptolites and conodonts of midshelf to basinal aspect. Upper Ordovician rocks in this area are bioturbated to laminated dolostone containing warm, shallow-water conodonts. In the Omar and Squirrel Rivers areas to the west, the Lower Ordovician carbonate rocks show striking differences in lithofacies, biofacies, and thickness. Here they are mainly dolostone with locally well-developed fenestral fabric and evaporite molds, and bioturbated to laminated orange- and gray-weathering dolomitic marble. Upper Silurian dolostone, found near Angayukaqsraq Mountain and on the central Squirrel River, contains locally abundant corals and stronmatoporoids. Devonian carbonate rocks are widely distributed in the Baird Mountains quadrangle; at least two distinct sequences have been identified. In the Omar area, Lower and Middle Devonian dolostone and marble are locally cherty and rich in megafossils. In the north-central (Nakolik River) area, Middle and Upper Devonian marble is interlayered with planar to cross-laminated quartz-carbonate metasandstone and phyllite.

  4. Current issues in late Middle Palaeolithic chronology : New assessments from Northern Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroto, Julia; Vaquero, Manuel; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Baquedano, Enrique; Jorda, Jesus; Julia, Ramon; Montes, Ramon; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Rasines, Pedro; Wood, Rachel


    The Iberian Peninsula plays a central role in the current debates on the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the Neanderthal extinction. This is largely due to the chronological data which some authors have suggested show a clear divide between Northern Iberia, where the Upper Palaeolithic

  5. Hearth-side socioeconomics, hunting and paleoecology during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave, Israel. (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Gopher, Avi; Barkai, Ran


    The late Lower Paleolithic archaeofaunas of Qesem Cave in the southern Levant span 400-200 ka and associate with Acheulo-Yabrudian (mainly Amudian) industries. The large mammals are exclusively Eurasian in origin and formed under relatively cool, moist conditions. The zooarchaeological findings testify to large game hunting, hearth-centered carcass processing and meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic, not unlike the patterns known from Middle and Upper Paleolithic caves in the region. Well-defined hearth features are rarely preserved in Qesem Cave, but the heterogeneous distributions of burned bones indicate areas of frequent hearth rebuilding throughout the occupation sequence. The hominins delayed consumption of high quality body parts until they could be moved to the cave, where hearths were hubs of processing activities and social interaction. Paradoxically, the cut marks on the Qesem bones are both more abundant and more randomly oriented than those observed in Middle and Upper Paleolithic cases in the Levant. These results suggest that several individuals were directly involved in cutting meat from the bones and that the social mechanics of meat sharing during the late Lower Paleolithic at Qesem Cave differed from those typical of both the Middle and Upper Paleolithic in the region. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. New Late Neolithic (c. 7000-5000 BC) archeointensity data from Syria. Reconstructing 9000 years of archeomagnetic field intensity variations in the Middle East (United States)

    Gallet, Yves; Molist Montaña, Miquel; Genevey, Agnès; Clop García, Xavier; Thébault, Erwan; Gómez Bach, Anna; Le Goff, Maxime; Robert, Béatrice; Nachasova, Inga


    We present new archeomagnetic intensity data from two Late Neolithic archeological sites (Tell Halula and Tell Masaïkh) in Syria. These data, from 24 groups of potsherds encompassing 15 different time levels, are obtained using the Triaxe experimental protocol, which takes into account both the thermoremanent magnetization anisotropy and cooling rate effects on intensity determinations. They allow us to recover the geomagnetic intensity variations in the Middle East, between ∼7000 BC and ∼5000 BC, i.e. during the so-called pre-Halaf, proto-Halaf, Halaf and Halaf-Ubaid Transitional cultural phases. The data are compared with previous archeointensity results of similar ages from Northern Iraq (Yarim Tepe II and Tell Sotto) and Bulgaria. We find that previous dating of the Iraqi material was in error. When corrected, all northern Mesopotamian data show a relatively good consistency and also reasonably match with the Bulgarian archeointensity dataset. Using a compilation of available data, we construct a geomagnetic field intensity variation curve for the Middle East encompassing the past 9000 years, which makes it presently the longest known regional archeomagnetic intensity record. We further use this compilation to constrain variations in dipole field moment over most of the Holocene. In particular, we discuss the possibility that a significant dipole moment maximum occurred during the third millennium BC, which cannot easily be identified in available time-varying global geomagnetic field reconstructions.

  7. Geology of the Stroudsburg quadrangle and Adjacent areas, Pennsylvania--New Jersey (United States)

    Epstein, Jack Burton


    The Stroudsburg area is within the Valley and Ridge and Great Valley physiographic provinces, Northampton and Monroe Counties, Pennsylvania, and Warren County, New Jersey. The northeast-trending subparallel valleys and ridges resulted from erosion of folded heterogeneous sedimentary rocks. These are Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian in age and are more than 17,000 feet thick. Deposition of a thick flysch sequence (Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age) accompanied onset of Taconic orogenesis. It was followed by deposition of a thick molasse sequence of Silurian and Early Devonian age (continental and marginal-marine clastics--Shawangunk Formation and Bloomsburg Red Beds--overlain by predominantly marginal-marine and subtidal limestone, dolomite, shale, and sandstone--Poxono Island Formation through Oriskany Group). Basin deepening and gradual shallowing occurred during Esopus through Mahantango deposition, heralding the Acadian clastic wedge exposed north of the Stroudsburg area. Interpretation of sedimentary structures and regional stratigraphic relations suggest that the Silurian and Devonian rocks were deposited in the following environments: A1luviated coastal plain (meandering and braided streams), tidal flats (supratidal and intertidal), barrier zone, and neritic zone (upper and lower). The rock stratigraphic units have been grouped into four lithotectonic units, each having a different style of deformation. Folds produced in these rocks are disharmonic, and it is believed that each rock sequence is set off from units above and below by decollements, or zones of detachment. Movement was northwest into the Appalachian basin, primarily by gravitational sliding. The contact between the Shawangunk Formation of Silurian age and Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age, is one zone of detachment as well as an angular unconformity. Deformational effects of the Middle to Late Ordovician Taconic orogeny are elusive, but it appears that the folds and most minor

  8. Takaka Fossil Cave : a stratified Late Glacial to Late Holocene deposit from Takaka Hill, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthy, T.H.; Roscoe, D.


    A rich terrestrial vertebrate fauna from the pitfall trap deposit of Takaka Fossil Cave on Takaka Hill, South Island, New Zealand, is described. Radiocarbon ages on moa bones bracket the onset of sedimentation in the site to between 12361 and 11354 14 C yrs BP. Euryapteryx geranoides was in the Late Glacial moa fauna that predates the onset of sedi-mentation in the site, but was absent in younger faunas. The moa Anomalopteryx didiformis was present in the Late Glacial fauna as well throughout the Holocene. A total of 1633 bones from 25 species of birds and a further 895 bones of 154 individuals of vertebrates other than birds (two species of frog, one tuatara, three lizards, two bats, and a rat) were identified in the total recovered fauna. A well-preserved partial skeleton of Haast's eagle (Harpagornis moorei) of Late Glacial age had severe arthritis. Unusually small specimens of Euryapteryx were morphologically diagnosed as E. geranoides, and confirmed as such by mitochondrial DNA analysis. The molluscan fauna contained two aquatic, troglobitic hydrobiids and 29 taxa of land snails. While there is little change in species diversity between lower and upper layers, there are marked changes in relative abundance of some taxa that suggest the environment was drier in the Early and Middle Holocene than it was in the Late Holocene. (author). 26 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Detrital zircon ages in Buller and Takaka terranes, New Zealand : constraints on early Zealandia history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.J.; Mortimer, N.; Campbell, H.J.; Griffin, W.L.


    Detrital zircon ages are presented for 34 early Palaeozoic sandstones from Buller and Takaka terranes, New Zealand, and formerly adjacent parts of Australia-Antarctica. The Buller-Takaka datasets always have two major groups: Ordovician-late Neoproterozoic, 444-700 Ma (but mainly 540-700 Ma), termed 'Gondwana Assembly' (GA), and early Neoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic, 700-1600 Ma (but mainly 900-1200 Ma), termed 'Rodinia Assembly' (RA). In both terranes, significant age components within these groups are strikingly similar and also have RA/GA ratios, 0.6-1.8. The Cambrian volcanic arc of the Takaka Terrane has contributed little to the zircon patterns. Proportions of Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician zircons, characteristic of granitoid sources in the Ross-Delamerian Orogen are low. The zircons are predominantly reworked with contemporary zircons only evident in a few Buller datasets. The zircon patterns suggest that two major sources (late Mesoproterozoic and late Neoproterozoic), enduring over 120 Ma, were widely distributed and it is postulated they form Precambrian basement beneath southern Zealandia. (author).

  10. Late Pliocene Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology (United States)

    Necea, Diana; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.


    The Romanian East Carpathians display large-scale heterogeneities along the mountain belt, unusual foredeep geometries, significant post-collisional and neotectonic activity, and major variations in topography, mostly developed in the aftermath of late Miocene (Sarmatian; ˜11 Ma) subduction/underthrusting and continental collision between the East European/Scythian/Moesian foreland and the inner Carpathians Tisza-Dacia unit. In particular, the SE corner of the arcuate orogenic belt represents the place of still active large-scale differential vertical movements between the uplifting mountain chain and the subsiding Focşani foredeep basin. In this key area, we have analysed the configuration of the present day landforms and the drainage patterns in order to quantify the amplitude, timing and kinematics of these post-collisional late Pliocene-Quaternary vertical movements. A river network is incising in the upstream a high topography consisting of the external Carpathians nappes and the Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene sediments of the foreland. Further eastwards in the downstream, this network is cross-cutting a low topography consisting of the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene sediments of the foreland. Geological observations and well-preserved geomorphic features demonstrate a complex succession of geological structures. The late Pliocene-Holocene tectonic evolution is generally characterised by coeval uplift in the mountain chain and subsidence in the foreland. At a more detailed scale, these vertical movements took place in pulses of accelerated motion, with laterally variable amplitude both in space and in time. After a first late Pliocene uplifting period, subsidence took place during the Earliest Pleistocene resulting in a basal Quaternary unconformity. This was followed by two, quantifiable periods of increased uplift, which affected the studied area at the transition between the Carpathians orogen and the Focşani foreland basin in the late Early Pleistocene and the

  11. The first finding of Asian black bear (Carnivora, Ursidae, Ursus (Euarctos) thibetanus G. Cuvier, 1823) in the Late Pleistocene of northern Eurasia. (United States)

    Kosintsev, P A; Tiunov, M P; Gimranov, D O; Panov, V S


    An M1 tooth of Asian black bear (Ursus (Euarctos) thibetanus G. Cuvier, 1823) was found in deposits of the Tetyukhinskaya cave (Middle Sikhote-Alin, 44°35'N, 135°36'E). This finding is the first reliable evidence of Asian black bear's presence in Pleistocene of Primorye. Its morphological and morphometric descriptions are given. The period of inhabitation of U. (E.) thibetanus determined based on the radiocarbon date obtained during the study of the tooth, is 39 874 ± 133 BP (NSK-850, UGAMS-21786), which corresponds to the middle of Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3) of Late Pleistocene. The composition of ancient theriofauna indicates the existence of wide variety of landscapes in Primorye in the middle of Late Pleistocene. A refugium of forest fauna, in which species of taiga, nemoral, and Central Asian mountain-forest theriocomplexes were present, was located in southern Primorye in Late Pleistocene.

  12. Precise dating of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition in Murcia (Spain supports late Neandertal persistence in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Zilhão


    Full Text Available The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain. At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal. This chronology represents a lag of minimally 3000 years with the rest of Europe, where that transition and the associated process of Neandertal/modern human admixture took place between 40,000 and 42,000 years ago. The lag implies the presence of an effective barrier to migration and diffusion across the Ebro river depression, which, based on available paleoenvironmental indicators, would at that time have represented a major biogeographical divide. In addition, (a the Phlegraean Fields caldera explosion, which occurred 39,850 years ago, would have stalled the Neandertal/modern human admixture front because of the population sink it generated in Central and Eastern Europe, and (b the long period of ameliorated climate that came soon after (Greenland Interstadial 8, during which forests underwent a marked expansion in Iberian regions south of 40°N would have enhanced the “Ebro Frontier” effect. These findings have two broader paleoanthropological implications: firstly, that, below the Ebro, the archeological record made prior to 37,000 years ago must be attributed, in all its aspects and components, to the Neandertals (or their ancestors; secondly, that modern human emergence is best seen as an uneven, punctuated process during which long-lasting barriers to gene flow and cultural diffusion could have existed across rather short distances, with

  13. [Musical hallucinosis following infarction of the right middle cerebral artery]. (United States)

    Augustin, J; Guegan-Massardier, E; Levillain, D; Lemarchand, M; Mihout, B; Hannequin, D


    A 44-year-old woman demonstrated a musical hallucinosis four months after a massive infarction in the territory of the right middle cerebral artery. This musical hallucinosis consisting of familiar tunes, was continuous and perceived by both ears. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, middle and late auditory evoked potentials suggested that right Heschl's gyrus and associative areas were imparied. Audiometry demonstrated a low right transmission deafness. The hallucinosis was persistent for seven months and stopped just after hemorrhage of the right ear. This case gives the opportunity to review the different mechanisms responsible for musical hallucinosis.

  14. Linear magnetic anomalies and tectonic development of the middle Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    -By analyzing the magnetic anomalies, the linear magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are identified. It means that the crust along the spreading axis is broken, and new oceanic crust is formed. Geophysical data have revealed that a model of three extensive episodes occurs in the Okinawa Trough, which can be named as "doming episode" from the Middle to Late Miocene (Phase I), the episode from the Pliocence to Early Pleistocene (Phase Ⅱ ), and the recent "spreading episode" (Phase Ⅲ ). The magnetic anomalies in the middle Okinawa Trough are very similar to those found in the middle Red Sea, indicating that the Okinawa Trough is developing towards the "Red Sea stage". Similar to the Red Sea, there are a "main trough" and a "axial trough" in the Okinawa Trough.

  15. Unraveling the phylogenetic relationships of the Eccoptochilinae, an enigmatic array of ordovician cheirurid trilobites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wesley Gapp

    Full Text Available The Cheiruridae are a diverse group of trilobites and several subfamilies within the clade have been the focus of recent phylogenetic studies. This paper focuses on the relationships of one of those subfamilies, the Ordovician Eccoptochilinae. We analyze sixteen species from six genera within the traditionally defined group, using the pilekiid Anacheirurus frederici as an outgroup. To assess the monophyly of the Eccoptochilinae seven sphaerexochine species, Kawina arnoldi, Sphaerexochus arenosus, S. atacius, S. latifrons, S. mirus, S. parvus, and S. scabridus were included in the analysis as well. The results of this analysis show that the genus Eccoptochile represents a paraphyletic grade and species traditionally assigned to Parasphaerexochus and Skelipyx plot within Pseudosphaerexochus. Also, representative species of Sphaerexochinae plot within the traditionally defined Eccoptochilinae, suggesting Eccoptochilinae itself is paraphyletic. To resolve this, we propose all species of Pseudosphaerexochus be placed within Sphaerexochinae and Eccoptochilinae be restricted to a monotypic Eccoptochile clavigera.

  16. A new archosauriform (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Manda beds (Middle Triassic) of southwestern Tanzania. (United States)

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Butler, Richard J; Gower, David J


    Archosauria and their closest relatives, the non-archosaurian archosauriforms, diversified in the Early and Middle Triassic, soon after the end-Permian extinction. This diversification is poorly documented in most Lower and Middle Triassic rock sequences because fossils of early groups of archosauriforms are relatively rare compared to those of other amniotes. The early Middle Triassic (? late Anisian) Manda beds of southwestern Tanzania form an exception, with early archosaur skeletons being relatively common and preserved as articulated or associated specimens. The Manda archosaur assemblage is exceptionally diverse for the Middle Triassic. However, to date, no non-archosaurian archosauriforms have been reported from these rocks. Here, we name a new taxon, Asperoris mnyama gen. et sp. nov., from the Manda beds and thoroughly describe the only known specimen. The specimen consists of a well-preserved partial skull including tooth-bearing elements (premaxilla, maxilla), the nasal, partial skull roof, and several incomplete elements. All skull elements are covered in an autapomorphic highly rugose sculpturing. A unique combination of character states indicates that A. mnyama lies just outside Archosauria as a stem archosaur within Archosauriformes, but more precise relationships of A. mnyama relative to other early archosauriform clades (e.g., Erythrosuchidae) cannot be determined currently. Asperoris mnyama is the first confirmed non-archosaurian archosauriform from the Manda beds and increases the morphological and taxonomic diversity of early archosauriforms known from the Middle Triassic. The direct association of A. mnyama with species referable to Archosauria demonstrates that non-archosaurian archosauriforms were present during the rise and early diversification of Archosauria. Non-archosaurian archosauriforms and archosaurs co-occur in fossil reptile assemblages across Pangaea from the late Early Triassic to the end of the Late Triassic.

  17. The Bolognese Societates Armatae of the Late 13th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gassmann Jürg


    Full Text Available The Bologna archives preserve the bye-laws of 24 „armed societies”, dating from between 1230 and the early 1300s, written in good notary Latin. Though known to exist in other Italian city-states, only few non-Bolognese armed society bye-laws are preserved. These armed societies had disappeared everywhere by the Late Middle Ages.

  18. A model of late quaternary landscape development in the Delaware Valley, New Jersey and Pennsylvania (United States)

    Ridge, J.C.; Evenson, E.B.; Sevon, W.D.


    In the Delaware Valley of New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania the late Quaternary history of colluviation, fluvial adjustment, and soil formation is based on the ages of pre-Wisconsinan soils and glacial deposits which are indicated by feld relationships and inferred from mid-latitude climate changes indicated by marine oxygen-isotope records. The area is divided into four terranes characterized by sandstone, gneiss, slate and carbonate rocks. Since the last pre-Wisconsinan glaciation (> 130 ka, inferred to be late Illinoian), each terrane responded differently to chemical and mechanical weathering. During the Sangamon interglacial stage (??? 130-75 ka) in situ weathering is inferred to have occurred at rates greater than transportation of material which resulted in the formation of deep, highly weathered soil and saprolite, and dissolution of carbonate rocks. Cold climatic conditions during the Wisconsinan, on the other hand, induced erosion of the landscape at rates faster than soil development. Upland erosion during the Wisconsinan removed pre-Wisconsinan soil and glacial sediment and bedrock to produce muddy to blocky colluvium, gre??zes lite??es, and alluvial fans on footslopes. Fluvial gravel and overlying colluvium in the Delaware Valley, both buried by late Wisconsinan outwash, are inferred to represent episodes of early and middle Wisconsinan (??? 75-25 ka) upland erosion and river aggradiation followed by river degradation and colluvium deposition. Early-middle Wisconsinan colluvium is more voluminous than later colluvium despite colder, possibly permafrost conditions during the late Wisconsinan ??? 25-10 ka). Extensive colluviation during the early and middle Wisconsinan resulted from a longer (50 kyr), generally cold interval of erosion with a greater availability of easily eroded pre-Wisconsinan surficial materials on uplands than during the late Wisconsinan. After recession of late Wisconsinan ice from its terminal position, soil formation and

  19. El Paso Formation - a Lower Ordovician platform carbonate deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemons, R.E.


    The eastward-transgressive Lower Ordovician El Paso Formation conformably overlies Bliss Sandstone in southern New Mexico. Locally, lower El Paso was deposited on low hills of plutonic and volcanic rocks. The region subsided gradually throughout Canadian time, receiving the El Paso carbonate rock blanket up to 460 m thick. Lithologic and chronologic correlative rocks were deposited over most of the southwestern US as the first Paleozoic carbonate platform sequence. The El Paso Formation contains four members, listed here in ascending order: Hitt Canyon, Jose, McKelligon, and Padre. Gradually decreasing sand content upward through the Hitt Canyon indicates deepening water and/or greater distance to shore. Girvanella(.) oncolites are locally abundant. Stromatolite mounds near the top of the Hitt Canyon, combined with an influx of sand, ooids, and rounded bioclasts in the Jose Member, recorded a shoaling phase. The overlying McKelligon Member contains little or no sand, and sponge-Calathium mounds are prominent at some locales. Stromatolite mounds are interbedded with sponge-Calathium mounds in a few sections. Lower Padre Member beds are typically silty to sandy and locally contain thinly-laminated zones. The Padre contains more restricted fauna that includes traces of ostracods. Pervasive bioturbation of El Paso beds and fauna consisting of echinoderms, sponges, gastropods, trilobites, Nuia, Calathium, cephalopods, and algae plus minor brachiopods and Pulchrilamina indicate predominating shallow-subtidal environments. Low-energy platform environments, in which a large volume of micritic muds accumulated, were disturbed thousands of times by storms producing abundant thin, poorly washed biosparite, intrasparite, and intrasparrudite lenses.

  20. New agnostina (Trilobita from the Llanvirn (Ordovician of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rábano, I.


    Full Text Available The agnostids from the Lower Llanvirn shales of the Southern Central-Iberian Zone (Mounts of Toledo, Villuercas and Almadén district are described. Seven localities are new for Ordovician agnostids and two are revised. Three new species, belonging to the genera Geragnostella and Geragnostus, are described: Geragnostella gilcidae n. sp., Geragnostus hispanicus n. sp. and Geragnostus ninhursagae n. sp. The new names Geragnostus pilleti nom. nov. and Geragnostus abdullaevi nom. nov. are proposed to rename, respectively, the species G. howelli PILLET, 1978 and G. elongatus ABDULLAEV, 1972, regarded herein as junior objective homonyms of other previously defined species.

    Se estudian los trilobites agnóstidos procedentes de nueve localidades, siete de ellas nuevas para estas faunas, situadas en las pizarras del Llanvirn inferior de la parte meridional de la Zona Centroibérica (Montes de Toledo, Villuercas y región de Almadén. Se determina la presencia de los géneros Geragnostella y Geragnostus, y se describen tres nuevas especies: Geragnostella gilcidae n. sp., Geragnostus hispanicus n. sp. y Geragnostus ninhursagae n. sp. Se proponen también los nuevos nombres Geragnostus pilleti nom. nov. y Geragnostus abdullaevi nom. nov. para designar, respectivamente, las especies G. howelli PILLET, 1978, y G. elongatus ABDULLAEV, 1972, consideradas ambas homónimos objetivos primarios de otras especies definidas con anterioridad.

  1. Evaluation of ¡Vivir Mi Vida! to improve health and wellness of rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latino adults: results of a feasibility and pilot study of a lifestyle intervention. (United States)

    Schepens Niemiec, Stacey L; Blanchard, Jeanine; Vigen, Cheryl L P; Martínez, Jenny; Guzmán, Laura; Concha, Alyssa; Fluke, Michelle; Carlson, Mike


    AimThe aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally tailored lifestyle intervention, ¡Vivir Mi Vida! (Live My Life!). This intervention was designed to improve the health and well-being of high risk late middle-aged Latino adults and to be implemented in a rural primary care system. Rural-dwelling Latino adults experience higher rates of chronic disease compared with their urban counterparts, a disparity exacerbated by limited access to healthcare services. Very few lifestyle interventions exist that are both culturally sensitive and compatible for delivery within a non-metropolitan primary care context. Participants were 37 Latino, Spanish-speaking adults aged 50-64-years-old, recruited from a rural health clinic in the Antelope Valley of California. ¡Vivir Mi Vida! was delivered by a community health worker-occupational therapy team over a 16-week period. Subjective health, lifestyle factors, and cardiometabolic measures were collected pre- and post-intervention. Follow-up interviews and focus groups were held to collect information related to the subjective experiences of key stakeholders and participants.FindingsParticipants demonstrated improvements in systolic blood pressure, sodium and saturated fat intake, and numerous patient-centered outcomes ranging from increased well-being to reduced stress. Although participants were extremely satisfied with the program, stakeholders identified a number of implementation challenges. The findings suggest that a tailored lifestyle intervention led by community health workers and occupational therapists is feasible to implement in a primary care setting and can improve health outcomes in rural-dwelling, late middle-aged Latinos.

  2. Early-middle Eocene birds from the Lillebaelt Clay Formation of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer


    The marine Lillebaelt Clay Formation of central Denmark is of early-middle Eocene age (late Ypresian - middle Lutetian; microfossil zones NP 13-NP 15). Over 20 bird fossils collected by amateur palaeontologists have been acquired through the Danish national ‘Danekrae' fossil treasure trove...... Clay Formation deposits derive from just after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum, a period of global elevated temperatures resulting from rapid greenhouse warming. Comparison between this bird assemblage and the recently revised assemblage from the older (earliest Ypresian) Fur Formation of Denmark...

  3. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang


    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  4. Late Mesozoic basin and range tectonics and related magmatism in Southeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezi Wang


    Full Text Available During the Late Mesozoic Middle Jurassic–Late Cretaceous, basin and range tectonics and associated magmatism representative of an extensional tectonic setting was widespread in southeastern China as a result of Pacific Plate subduction. Basin tectonics consists of post-orogenic (Type I and intra-continental extensional basins (Type II. Type I basins developed in the piedmont and intraland during the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, in which coarse-grained terrestrial clastic sediments were deposited. Type II basins formed during intra-continental crustal thinning and were characterized by the development of grabens and half-grabens. Graben basins were mainly generated during the Middle Jurassic and were associated with bimodal volcanism. Sediments in half-grabens are intercalated with rhyolitic tuffs and lavas and are Early Cretaceous in age with a dominance of Late Cretaceous–Paleogene red beds. Ranges are composed of granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks, A-type granites and dome-type metamorphic core complexes. The authors analyzed lithological, geochemical and geochronological features of the Late Mesozoic igneous rock assemblages and proposed some geodynamical constraints on forming the basin and range tectonics of South China. A comparison of the similarities and differences of basin and range tectonics between the eastern and western shores of the Pacific is made, and the geodynamical evolution model of the Southeast China Block during Late Mesozoic is discussed. Studied results suggest that the basin and range terrane within South China developed on a pre-Mesozoic folded belt was derived from a polyphase tectonic evolution mainly constrained by subduction of the western Pacific Plate since the Late Mesozoic, leading to formation of various magmatism in a back-arc extensional setting. Its geodynamic mechanism can compare with that of basin and range tectonics in the eastern shore of the Pacific. Differences of basin and range

  5. Paleozoic evolution of active margin basins in the southern Central Andes (northwestern Argentina and northern Chile) (United States)

    Bahlburg, H.; Breitkreuz, C.

    The geodynamic evolution of the Paleozoic continental margin of Gondwana in the region of the southern Central Andes is characterized by the westward progression of orogenic basin formation through time. The Ordovician basin in the northwest Argentinian Cordillera Oriental and Puna originated as an Early Ordovician back-arc basin. The contemporaneous magmatic arc of an east-dipping subduction zone was presumably located in northern Chile. In the back-arc basin, a ca. 3500 meter, fining-up volcaniclastic apron connected to the arc formed during the Arenigian. Increased subsidence in the late Arenigian allowed for the accomodation of large volumes of volcaniclastic turbidites during the Middle Ordovician. Subsidence and sedimentation were caused by the onset of collision between the para-autochthonous Arequipa Massif Terrane (AMT) and the South American margin at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. This led to eastward thrusting of the arc complex over its back-arc basin and, consequently, to its transformation into a marine foreland basin. As a result of thrusting in the west, a flexural bulge formed in the east, leading to uplift and emergence of the Cordillera Oriental shelf during the Guandacol Event at the Arenigian-Llanvirnian transition. The basin fill was folded during the terminal collision of the AMT during the Oclóyic Orogeny (Ashgillian). The folded strata were intruded post-tectonically by the presumably Silurian granitoids of the "Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental." The orogeny led to the formation of the positive area of the Arco Puneño. West of the Arco Puneño, a further marine basin developed during the Early Devonian, the eastern shelf of which occupied the area of the Cordillera Occidental, Depresión Preandina, and Precordillera. The corresponding deep marine turbidite basin was located in the region of the Cordillera de la Costa. Deposition continued until the basin fill was folded in the early Late Carboniferous Toco Orogeny. The basin

  6. Carbon black nanoparticle exposure during middle and late fetal development induces immune activation in male offspring mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sayed, Yasser S.; Shimizu, Ryuhei; Onoda, Atsuto; Takeda, Ken; Umezawa, Masakazu


    Increasing exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) has raised concerns regarding their health and safety profiles in humans and animals, especially in developing organisms, which may display increased sensitivity to NP toxicity. The present study examined the effects of gestational exposure to carbon black NP (CB-NP) on the development of the offspring immune system. Pregnant mice were exposed to CB-NP (95 μg/kg body weight) by intranasal instillation on gestational days 9 and 15. The thymus and spleen were collected from their offspring mice on postnatal day (PND) 1, 3 and 5. Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were examined by determining the expression of cell-surface molecules using flow cytometry. Gene expression in the thymus and spleen was examined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Prenatal exposure to CB-NP increased total thymocytes and their immunophenotypes (CD4 − CD8 − and CD4 + CD8 + cells). It also induced an increase in total lymphocytes, and CD4 − CD8 − , particularly CD3 − B220 − cells, at PND 5 in the spleen of newborn male offspring, reflecting the stimulation of immature splenocytes. Furthermore, mRNA expression of genes related to the induction of peripheral tolerance (i.e. thymic Traf6) was upregulated. These data suggest that respiratory exposure to CB-NP during middle and late gestation may have allergic or inflammatory effects in male offspring, and may provide initial information on the potential developmental immunotoxicity of nanoparticles

  7. Late Neogene marine incursions and the ancestral Gulf of California (United States)

    McDougall, K.


    The late Neogene section in the Salton Trough, California, and along the lower Colorado River in Arizona is composed of marine units bracketed by nonmarine units. Microfossils from the marine deposits indicate that a marine incursion inundated the Salton Trough during the late Miocene. Water depths increased rapidly in the Miocene and eventually flooded the region now occupied by the Colorado River as far north as Parker, Arizona. Marine conditions were restricted in the Pliocene as the Colorado River filled the Salton Trough with sediments and the Gulf of California assumed its present configuration. Microfossils from the early part of this incursion include a diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers (Amphistegina gibbosa, Uvigerina peregrina, Cassidulina delicata, and Bolivina interjuncta), planktic foraminifers (Globigerinoides obliquus, G. extremus, and Globigerina nepenthes), and calcareous nannoplankton (Discoaster brouweri, Discoaster aff. Discoaster surculus, Sphenolithus abies, and S. neoabies), whereas microfossils in the final phase contain a less diverse assemblage of benthic foraminifers that are diagnostic of marginal shallow-marine conditions (Ammonia, Elphidium, Bolivina, Cibicides, and Quinqueloculina). Evidence of an earlier middle Miocene marine incursion comes from reworked microfossils found near Split Mountain Gorge in the Fish Creek Gypsum (Sphenolithus moriformis) and near San Gorgonio Pass (Cyclicargolithus floridanus and Sphenolithus heteromorphus and planktic foraminifers). The middle Miocene incursion may also be represented by the older marine sedimentary rocks encountered in the subsurface near Yuma, Arizona, where rare middle Miocene planktic foraminifers are found. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  8. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence of late life depression in low and middle income countries (United States)

    Guerra, M.; Prina, A.M.; Ferri, C.P.; Acosta, D.; Gallardo, S.; Huang, Y.; Jacob, K.S.; Jimenez-Velazquez, I.Z.; Llibre Rodriguez, J.J.; Liu, Z.; Salas, A.; Sosa, A.L.; Williams, J.D.; Uwakwe, R.; Prince, M.


    Background Current estimates of the prevalence of depression in later life mostly arise from studies carried out in Europe, North America and Asia. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of depression using a standardised method in a number of low and middle income countries (LMIC). Methods A one-phase cross-sectional survey involving over 17,000 participants aged 65 years and over living in urban and rural catchment areas in 13 sites from 9 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, China, India and Nigeria). Depression was assessed and compared using ICD-10 and EURO-D criteria. Results Depression prevalence varied across sites according to diagnostic criteria. The lowest prevalence was observed for ICD-10 depressive episode (0.3 to 13.8%). When using the EURO-D depression scale, the prevalence was higher and ranged from 1.0% to 38.6%. The crude prevalence was particularly high in the Dominican Republic and in rural India. ICD-10 depression was also associated with increased age and being female. Limitations Generalisability of findings outside of catchment areas is difficult to assess. Conclusions Late life depression is burdensome, and common in LMIC. However its prevalence varies from culture to culture; its diagnosis poses a significant challenge and requires proper recognition of its expression. PMID:26544620

  9. A comparative cross-cultural study of the prevalence of late life depression in low and middle income countries. (United States)

    Guerra, M; Prina, A M; Ferri, C P; Acosta, D; Gallardo, S; Huang, Y; Jacob, K S; Jimenez-Velazquez, I Z; Llibre Rodriguez, J J; Liu, Z; Salas, A; Sosa, A L; Williams, J D; Uwakwe, R; Prince, M


    Current estimates of the prevalence of depression in later life mostly arise from studies carried out in Europe, North America and Asia. In this study we aimed to measure the prevalence of depression using a standardised method in a number of low and middle income countries (LMIC). A one-phase cross-sectional survey involving over 17,000 participants aged 65 years and over living in urban and rural catchment areas in 13 sites from 9 countries (Cuba, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, Venezuela, Peru, China, India and Nigeria). Depression was assessed and compared using ICD-10 and EURO-D criteria. Depression prevalence varied across sites according to diagnostic criteria. The lowest prevalence was observed for ICD-10 depressive episode (0.3 to 13.8%). When using the EURO-D depression scale, the prevalence was higher and ranged from 1.0% to 38.6%. The crude prevalence was particularly high in the Dominican Republic and in rural India. ICD-10 depression was also associated with increased age and being female. Generalisability of findings outside of catchment areas is difficult to assess. Late life depression is burdensome, and common in LMIC. However its prevalence varies from culture to culture; its diagnosis poses a significant challenge and requires proper recognition of its expression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Late Eocene Inversion and Exhumation of the Sivas Basin (Central Anatolia) Based On Low-Temperature Thermochronometry: Implications for Diachronous Initiation of Arabia-Eurasia Collision (United States)

    Darin, M. H.; Umhoefer, P. J.; Thomson, S. N.; Schleiffarth, W. K.


    The timing of initial Arabia-Eurasia collision along the Bitlis-Zagros suture is controversial, with widely varying estimates from middle Eocene to late Miocene ( 45-10 Ma). The Cenozoic Sivas Basin (central Anatolia) preserves a detailed record of the initial stages of Arabia collision directly north of the suture in the Eurasian foreland. New apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He thermochronology data from Late Cretaceous to Paleogene units indicate rapid basin inversion and initiation of the north-vergent Southern Sivas Fold and Thrust Belt (SSFTB) during the late Eocene to early Oligocene ( 40-30 Ma), consistent with the age of a basin-wide unconformity and switch from marine to nonmarine sedimentation. We interpret late Eocene exhumation and the predominantly north-vergent kinematics of the SSFTB to reflect northward propagation of contraction into the Sivas retro-foreland basin due to initial collision of the Arabian passive margin with the Anatolide-Tauride block along the southern Eurasian margin during the late middle Eocene. We test this hypothesis by comparing our new results with regional-scale compilations of both published thermochronology and geochronology data from the entire Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. Low-temperature thermochronology data from eastern Anatolia, the Caucasus, Zagros, and Alborz demonstrate that rapid cooling and intraplate deformation occurred across much of the Eurasian foreland during the middle Eocene to early Oligocene ( 45-30 Ma). Our regional compilation of published geochronology data from central and eastern Anatolia reveals a distinct magmatic lull during the latest Eocene, Oligocene, and earliest Miocene (ca. 38-20 Ma), slightly earlier than a diachronous magmatic lull initiating at 25-5 Ma from northwest to southeast in Iran (Chiu et al., 2013). These results support a tectonic model for diachronous collision in which initial collision of the Arabia promontory occurred in central-eastern Anatolia during the middle-late

  11. The Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic transition in Cova Gran (Catalunya, Spain) and the extinction of Neanderthals in the Iberian Peninsula. (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Jorge; Mora, Rafael; de la Torre, Ignacio


    The excavations carried out in Cova Gran de Santa Linya (Southeastern PrePyrenees, Catalunya, Spain) have unearthed a new archaeological sequence attributable to the Middle Palaeoloithic/Upper Palaeolithic (MP/UP) transition. This article presents data on the stratigraphy, archaeology, and (14)C AMS dates of three Early Upper Palaeolithic and four Late Middle Palaeolithic levels excavated in Cova Gran. All these archaeological levels fall within the 34-32 ka time span, the temporal frame in which major events of Neanderthal extinction took place. The earliest Early Upper Palaeolithic (497D) and the latest Middle Palaeolithic (S1B) levels in Cova Gran are separated by a sterile gap and permit pinpointing the time period in which the Mousterian disappeared from Northeastern Spain. Technological differences between the Early Upper Palaeolithic and Late Middle Palaeolithic industries in Cova Gran support a cultural rupture between the two periods. A series of 12 (14)C AMS dates prompts reflections on the validity of reconstructions based on radiocarbon data. Thus, results from excavations in Cova Gran lead us to discuss the scenarios relating the MP/UP transition in the Iberian Peninsula, a region considered a refuge of late Neanderthal populations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbonate rocks of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska: Their correlation and paleogeographic significance (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Harris, Alta; Repetski, John E.


    Paleozoic carbonate strata deposited in shallow platform to off-platform settings occur across the Seward Peninsula and range from unmetamorphosed Ordovician–Devonian(?) rocks of the York succession in the west to highly deformed and metamorphosed Cambrian–Devonian units of the Nome Complex in the east. Faunal and lithologic correlations indicate that early Paleozoic strata in the two areas formed as part of a single carbonate platform. The York succession makes up part of the York terrane and consists of Ordovician, lesser Silurian, and limited, possibly Devonian rocks. Shallow-water facies predominate, but subordinate graptolitic shale and calcareous turbidites accumulated in deeper water, intraplatform basin environments, chiefly during the Middle Ordovician. Lower Ordovician strata are mainly lime mudstone and peloid-intraclast grainstone deposited in a deepening upward regime; noncarbonate detritus is abundant in lower parts of the section. Upper Ordovician and Silurian rocks include carbonate mudstone, skeletal wackestone, and coral-stromatoporoid biostromes that are commonly dolomitic and accumulated in warm, shallow to very shallow settings with locally restricted circulation. The rest of the York terrane is mainly Ordovician and older, variously deformed and metamorphosed carbonate and siliciclastic rocks intruded by early Cambrian (and younger?) metagabbros. Older (Neoproterozoic–Cambrian) parts of these units are chiefly turbidites and may have been basement for the carbonate platform facies of the York succession; younger, shallow- and deep-water strata likely represent previously unrecognized parts of the York succession and its offshore equivalents. Intensely deformed and altered Mississippian carbonate strata crop out in a small area at the western edge of the terrane. Metacarbonate rocks form all or part of several units within the blueschist- and greenschist-facies Nome Complex. The Layered sequence includes mafic meta¬igneous rocks and

  13. Human talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). (United States)

    Pablos, Adrián; Martínez, Ignacio; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gracia, Ana; Sala, Nohemi; Arsuaga, Juan Luis


    Here we present and describe comparatively 25 talus bones from the Middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain). These tali belong to 14 individuals (11 adult and three immature). Although variation among Middle and Late Pleistocene tali tends to be subtle, this study has identified unique morphological characteristics of the SH tali. They are vertically shorter than those of Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens, and show a shorter head and a broader lateral malleolar facet than all of the samples. Moreover, a few shared characters with Neanderthals are consistent with the hypothesis that the SH population and Neanderthals are sister groups. These shared characters are a broad lateral malleolar facet, a trochlear height intermediate between modern humans and Late Pleistocene H. sapiens, and a short middle calcaneal facet. It has been possible to propose sex assignment for the SH tali based on their size. Stature estimates based on these fossils give a mean stature of 174.4 cm for males and 161.9 cm for females, similar to that obtained based on the long bones from this same site. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Early to Middle Eocene vegetation dynamics at the Wilkes Land Margin (Antarctica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contreras, L.; Pross, J.; Bijl, P.K.; Koutsodendris, A.; Raine, J.I.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Brinkhuis, H.


    The early Eocene epoch was characterized by extreme global warmth, which in terrestrial settings was characterized by an expansion of near-tropical vegetation belts into the high latitudes. During the middle to late Eocene, global cooling caused the retreat of tropical vegetation to lower latitudes.

  15. The anatomy, taphonomy, taxonomy and systematic affinity of Markuelia: Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician scalidophorans (United States)

    Dong, X.-P.; Bengtson, S.; Gostling, N.J.; Cunningham, J.A.; Harvey, T.H.P.; Kouchinsky, A.; Val'Kov, A.K.; Repetski, J.E.; Stampanoni, M.; Marone, F.; Donoghue, P.C.J.


    Markuelia is a vermiform, annulated introvertan animal known as embryonic fossils from the Lower Cambrian to Lower Ordovician. Analysis of an expanded and revised dataset for Introverta shows that the precise position of Markuelia within this clade is dependent on the taxa included. As a result, Markuelia is assigned to the scalidophoran total group to reflect uncertainty as to whether it is a stem-scalidophoran or a stem-priapulid. The taxonomy of the genus is revised to provide an improved taxonomic framework for material assigned to Markuelia. Five species are recognized: M. secunda Val'kov, M. hunanensis Dong and Donoghue, M. lauriei Haug et al., M. spinulifera sp. nov. and M. waloszeki sp. nov. Finally, the preservation of Markuelia is evaluated in the light of both the taphonomy of the fossil embryos themselves and the experimental taphonomy of the priapulid Priapulus caudatus, which has been proposed as both a close relative and an anatomical analogue of Markuelia. ?? The Palaeontological Association.

  16. ADHD Symptoms in Middle Adolescence Predict Exposure to Person-Related Life Stressors in Late Adolescence in 5-HTTLPR S-allele Homozygotes. (United States)

    Brinksma, Djûke M; Hoekstra, Pieter J; de Bildt, Annelies; Buitelaar, Jan K; van den Hoofdakker, Barbara J; Hartman, Catharina A; Dietrich, Andrea


    Literature suggests that life stressors predict attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and that this relationship is moderated by the serotonin transporter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). It is less clear whether, on reverse, ADHD symptoms may influence the risk of exposure to life stressors. Furthermore, the role of life stressors may vary across development depending on the type of life stressor. We used threewave longitudinal data of 1,306 adolescents from the general population and clinicreferred cohort of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey. The 5-HTTLPR genotype (SS, LS, LL), parent-reported ADHD symptoms at three time points (T1: Mage = 11.2; T2: Mage = 13.5; T3: Mage = 16.2 years), and the number of personrelated ('dependent') and environment-related ('independent') life stressors occurring between measurements (T1-T2, T2-T3) were assessed. Using path analyses, we examined bidirectional relations between exposure to these life stressors and ADHD symptoms between the separate waves moderated by 5-HTTLPR status. Exposure to life stressors did not predict ADHD symptoms. Rather, we found that in 5-HTTLPR Sallele homozygotes, ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence (T2) predicted exposure to the number of person-related life stressors later in adolescence (T2-T3, p = 0.001). There was no relation with environment-related life stressors. Our study suggests that S-allele homozygotes with higher levels of ADHD symptoms in middle adolescence are more vulnerable to becoming exposed to person-related ('dependent') life stressors in late adolescence. Findings emphasize the need to be aware of social-emotional adversities that may occur in genetically vulnerable adolescents with ADHD symptoms in the transition into adulthood.

  17. Carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician: Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones), Niquivil, Central Precordillera, Province of San Juan (Argentina); Microfacies carbonáticas de la Formación San Juan (Ordovícico: zonas de conodontos Oepikodus evae y Oepikodus intermedius), Niquivil, Precordillera Central, Provincia de San Juan (Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soria, T.; Beresi, M.; Mestre, A.; Heredia, S.; Rodríguez, M.C.


    This contribution presents the description and interpretation of carbonate microfacies of the San Juan Formation (Ordovician) at the Niquivil section, considering the stratigraphical interval between the Oepikodus evae and Oepikodus intermedius conodont zones. The distribution of the microfacies and the conodonts assemblages allow us to identify different sub-environments within the late Floian carbonate ramp of the Central Precordillera. Five microfacies were recognized from the base to the top: M1 Bioclastic mudstone-wackestone; M2 Bioclastic-peloidal wackestone; M3 Intra-bioclastic wackestone; M4 Intra-bioclastic packstone; M5 Peloidal grainstone. The vertical distribution of these microfacies indicates a shallowing trend of the carbonate ramp in the Niquivil section for this temporal interval, which suggests a middle ramp environment with low energy, without wave action, and that evolved towards the middle-inner ramp environment with more energy by wave action and development of tempestites. [Spanish] En la presente contribución se realiza la descripción e interpretación de las microfacies carbonáticas de la Formación San Juan (Ordovícico) en la sección de Niquivil, considerando el intervalo estratigráfico comprendido entre las zonas de conodontos Oepikodus evae y Oepikodus intermedius. El análisis de las microfacies y los conodontos asociados permiten el reconocimiento de diferentes subambientes carbonáticos dentro de la rampa carbonática desarrollada durante el Floiense tardío de la Precordillera Central. Se reconocieron cinco microfacies que, de base a techo, son: M1 Mudstone-Wackestone bioclástico; M2 Wackestone bioclástico-peloidal; M3 Wackestone intra-bioclástico; M4 Packstone intra-bioclástico; M5 Grainstone peloidal. La interpretación vertical de estas microfacies indica una tendencia hacia la somerización de la rampa carbonática en la sección de Niquivil para el lapso temporal estudiado. El que se correspondería con un ambiente de

  18. Arc-continent collision and the formation of continental crust: A new geochemical and isotopic record from the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland (United States)

    Draut, Amy E.; Clift, Peter D.; Amato, Jeffrey M.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Schouten, Hans


    Collisions between oceanic island-arc terranes and passive continental margins are thought to have been important in the formation of continental crust throughout much of Earth's history. Magmatic evolution during this stage of the plate-tectonic cycle is evident in several areas of the Ordovician Grampian-Taconic orogen, as we demonstrate in the first detailed geochemical study of the Tyrone Igneous Complex, Ireland. New U-Pb zircon dating yields ages of 493 2 Ma from a primitive mafic intrusion, indicating intra-oceanic subduction in Tremadoc time, and 475 10 Ma from a light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched tonalite intrusion that incorporated Laurentian continental material by early Arenig time (Early Ordovician, Stage 2) during arc-continent collision. Notably, LREE enrichment in volcanism and silicic intrusions of the Tyrone Igneous Complex exceeds that of average Dalradian (Laurentian) continental material that would have been thrust under the colliding forearc and potentially recycled into arc magmatism. This implies that crystal fractionation, in addition to magmatic mixing and assimilation, was important to the formation of new crust in the Grampian-Taconic orogeny. Because similar super-enrichment of orogenic melts occurred elsewhere in the Caledonides in the British Isles and Newfoundland, the addition of new, highly enriched melt to this accreted arc terrane was apparently widespread spatially and temporally. Such super-enrichment of magmatism, especially if accompanied by loss of corresponding lower crustal residues, supports the theory that arc-continent collision plays an important role in altering bulk crustal composition toward typical values for ancient continental crust. ?? 2009 Geological Society of London.

  19. Division of volcanic activity cycles in the late mesozoic in South Jiangxi and North Guangdong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qinglong; Wu Jianhua


    Based on stratigraphical unconformity, rock association, fossil assemblage, isotope age and tectonic features, the volcanic activity in late Mesozoic in south Jiangxi and north Guandong can be divided into four cycles: Yutian volcanic activity cycle, Lianhuazhai volcanic activity cycle. Banshi volcanic activity cycle and Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle. Yutian volcanic cycle which occurs in middle Jurassic epoch is the bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Lianhuazhai volcanic cycle which occurs in late Jurassic epoch is unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite. Banshi volcanic cycle occurs from the late stage of early Cretaceous to the early stage of late Cretaceous epoch. There are two types of rock associations related to this cycle: unimodal rock association composed of rhyolite or basalt and bimodal rock association composed of rhyolite and basalt. Nanxiong volcanic activity cycle which occurred in late stage of late Cretaceous epoch is the unimodal rock association composed of basalt which is the interlayer of the red sedimentary series

  20. Unusual central Nevada geologic terranes produced by Late Devonian Antler orogeny and Alamo impact (United States)

    Poole, Forrest G.; Sandberg, Charles


    This Special Paper is the product of nearly 25 years of geologic investigations. It is an exposition of two small areas, both less than 25 km east of the Mississippian Roberts Mountains allochthon, but each displaying a different, unique geologic terrane, previously undocumented in Nevada and perhaps in North America. One area, the Bisoni-McKay, at the south end of the Fish Creek Range, displays an olistostrome, shed eastward during the late Late Devonian (early Famennian) from a migrating Antler orogenic forebulge. The other, the Warm Springs–Milk Spring, at the south end of the Hot Creek Range, displays a deeper marine terrane affected by the early Late Devonian (middle Frasnian) Alamo impact.

  1. Transitions between subclasses of bullying and victimization when entering middle school. (United States)

    Williford, Anne; Boulton, Aaron J; Jenson, Jeffrey M


    We examined the effects of depressive symptoms, antisocial attitudes, and perspective-taking empathy on patterns of bullying and victimization during the transition from late elementary (4th grade to 5th grade) to middle school (6th grade) among 1,077 students who participated in the Youth Matters (YM) bullying prevention trial. Latent transition analysis was used to establish classes of bullying, victimization, bully-victimization, and uninvolvement. The intervention had a positive impact on children as they moved from elementary to middle school. More students in the YM group transitioned from the involved statuses to the uninvolved status than students in the control group during the move to middle school. Elementary school bullies with higher levels of depressive symptoms were less likely than other students to move to an uninvolved status in the first year of middle school. Students who held greater antisocial attitudes were more likely to be a member of the bully-victim status than the uninvolved status during the move to middle school. Perspective-taking empathy, however, was not a significant predictor of status change during the transition to middle school. Implications for school-based prevention programs during the move to middle school are noted. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Impact of early adolescent externalizing problem behaviors on identity development in middle to late adolescence: a prospective 7-year longitudinal study. (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Klimstra, Theo A; Hale, William W; Koot, Hans M; Meeus, Wim


    Adolescents at-risk for problem behaviors can have more difficulties in developing a firm sense of personal identity. Hence the purpose of this prospective longitudinal study was to scrutinize how externalizing problems in early adolescence impact identity development in middle to late adolescence. Participants were 443 (43.12% female) Dutch adolescents. Teachers rated their externalizing problem behaviors when participants were 11 or 12 years old and their identity formation was studied during five consecutive years (from 14 to 18 years of age). The sample was divided into four groups: boys and girls with a high versus a low-risk for externalizing problem behaviors. Participants completed a self-report measure of identity commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Multi-group Latent Growth Curve and profile stability analyses were used to evaluate identity development across adolescence. Findings indicated that high-risk boys and girls reported a less structured identity, with lower levels of commitment and higher levels of reconsideration of commitment. Since externalizing problems behaviors and lack of a coherent sense of identity might reinforce each other, early intervention for high-risk adolescents might foster positive youth development.

  3. Reconstructing in space and time the closure of the middle and western segments of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean in the Tibetan Plateau (United States)

    Fan, Jian-Jun; Li, Cai; Wang, Ming; Xie, Chao-Ming


    When and how the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean closed is a highly controversial subject. In this paper, we present a detailed study and review of the Cretaceous ophiolites, ocean islands, and flysch deposits in the middle and western segments of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone (BNSZ), and the Cretaceous volcanic rocks, late Mesozoic sediments, and unconformities within the BNSZ and surrounding areas. Our aim was to reconstruct the spatial-temporal patterns of the closing of the middle and western segments of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean. Our conclusion is that the closure of the ocean started during the Late Jurassic and was mainly complete by the end of the Early Cretaceous. The closure of the ocean involved both "longitudinal diachronous closure" from north to south and "transverse diachronous closure" from east to west. The spatial-temporal patterns of the closure process can be summarized as follows: the development of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere and its subduction started before the Late Jurassic; after the Late Jurassic, the ocean began to close because of the compressional regime surrounding the BNSZ; along the northern margin of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean, collisions involving the arcs, back-arc basins, and marginal basins of a multi-arc basin system first took place during the Late Jurassic-early Early Cretaceous, resulting in regional uplift and the regional unconformity along the northern margin of the ocean and in the Southern Qiangtang Terrane on the northern side of the ocean. However, the closure of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean cannot be attributed to these arc-arc and arc-continent collisions, because subduction and the development of the Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan oceanic lithosphere continued until the late Early Cretaceous. The gradual closure of the middle and western segments of Bangong-Nujiang Tethyan Ocean was diachronous from east to west, starting in the east in the middle Early Cretaceous, and being mainly

  4. Late Neogene low-angle thrusting on the northwestern margin of the South Carpathians (Poiana Rusca, West Romania) (United States)

    Oczlon, Martin S.; Onescu, Dan


    Mineral exploration drillholes and geoelectric prospecting provide for the first time evidence for thrusting of the South Carpathian Paleozoic basement over northerly adjacent Middle Miocene sediments. Investigations were carried out in two locations, 30 km apart, along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, Romania, southwestern Carpathians. Drill holes in both locations encountered weakly consolidated Middle Miocene clay, sand, and fine gravel below Paleozoic low-grade metamorphic rocks. Intersections from various drill holes demonstrate the presence of low-angle thrusting. Kinematic indicators are so far lacking, but with a thrust direction oriented roughly normal to strike of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, minimum displacement is 1-1.4 km in northwestern or northern direction, respectively. Thrusting occurred most likely during the Late Miocene-Pliocene, whereafter Quaternary regional uplift dissected the thrust plane. In the tectonic framework of Neogene dextral translation of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the southerly adjacent Moesian Platform, transtension appears responsible for Middle Miocene basin formation along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca region. Proceeding collision of the Tisza-Dacia Block with the East European Craton introduced stronger impingement of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the Moesian Platform, leading to a Late Miocene-Pliocene transpressional regime, in which the northern Poiana Rusca basement was thrust over its adjacent Middle Miocene sediments.

  5. Return to Black Mountain palaeomagnetic reassessment of the Chatsworth and Ninmaroo formations, western Queensland, Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, K L; Lackie, M A; Schmidt, P W; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2003.02164.x


    Palaeomagnetic results from late Middle Cambrian-Early Ordovician carbonate sequences sampled at Black Mountain (Mt Unbunmaroo), Mt Datson and near Chatsworth Station (southeastern Georgina Basin) are presented. A palaeomagnetic reassessment of these carbonates was designed in an effort to constrain regional magnetization ages as results from an earlier study, conducted at Mt Unbunmaroo, play a pivotal role in a proposed Cambrian inertial interchange true polar wander (IITPW) event. Remanent magnetizations within these carbonates were found to be variably developed with most specimens displaying two of the five isolated components. Component PF, for which goethite is the identified remanence carrier, is thought to reflect a chemical remanent magnetization of recent origin. Component TR, held by haematite, has a palaeomagnetic pole consistent with the Tertiary segment of Australia's apparent polar wander path (APWP) and most probably was acquired as a consequence of prolonged weathering during this period. The...

  6. Taking tea in the parlour: middle-class formation and gender construction in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, 1760-1850


    Poole, Ann Judith


    Knowledge of tea etiquette was a significant marker of middle-class gentility and contributed to middle-class formation and gender construction in colonial Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Early middle-class settlers brought tea ware and employed the tea ritual to set standards of gentility that determined social inclusion or exclusion. Tea drinking shifted from a predominantly masculine activity in the late eighteenth century, as commercial and political men met in their parlours over tea, to ...

  7. Late Pliocene and Quaternary Eurasian locust infestations in the Canary Archipelago (United States)

    Meco, J.; Muhs, D.R.; Fontugne, M.; Ramos, A.J.; Lomoschitz, A.; Patterson, D.


    The Canary Archipelago has long been a sensitive location to record climate changes of the past. Interbedded with its basalt lavas are marine deposits from the principal Pleistocene interglacials, as well as aeolian sands with intercalated palaeosols. The palaeosols contain African dust and innumerable relict egg pods of a temperate-region locust (cf. Dociostaurus maroccanusThunberg 1815). New ecological and stratigraphical information reveals the geological history of locust plagues (or infestations) and their palaeoclimatic significance. Here, we show that the first arrival of the plagues to the Canary Islands from Africa took place near the end of the Pliocene, ca. 3Ma, and reappeared with immense strength during the middle Late Pleistocene preceding MIS (marine isotope stage) 11 (ca. 420ka), MIS 5.5 (ca. 125ka) and probably during other warm interglacials of the late Middle Pleistocene and the Late Pleistocene. During the Early Holocene, locust plagues may have coincided with a brief cool period in the current interglacial. Climatically, locust plagues on the Canaries are a link in the chain of full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes), early interglacial arid-sub-humid climate (African dust inputs and locust plagues), peak interglacial warm-humid climate (marine deposits with Senegalese fauna), transitional arid-temperate climate (pedogenic calcretes), and again full-glacial arid-cold climate (calcareous dunes) oscillations. During the principal interglacials of the Pleistocene, the Canary Islands recorded the migrations of warm Senegalese marine faunas to the north, crossing latitudes in the Euro-African Atlantic. However, this northward marine faunal migration was preceded in the terrestrial realm by interglacial infestations of locusts. ??? Locust plagues, Canary Islands, Late Pliocene, Pleistocene, Holocene, palaeoclimatology. ?? 2010 The Authors, Lethaia ?? 2010 The Lethaia Foundation.

  8. Climate and vegetational regime shifts in the late Paleozoic ice age earth. (United States)

    DiMichele, W A; Montañez, I P; Poulsen, C J; Tabor, N J


    The late Paleozoic earth experienced alternation between glacial and non-glacial climates at multiple temporal scales, accompanied by atmospheric CO2 fluctuations and global warming intervals, often attended by significant vegetational changes in equatorial latitudes of Pangaea. We assess the nature of climate-vegetation interaction during two time intervals: middle-late Pennsylvanian transition and Pennsylvanian-Permian transition, each marked by tropical warming and drying. In case study 1, there is a catastrophic intra-biomic reorganization of dominance and diversity in wetland, evergreen vegetation growing under humid climates. This represents a threshold-type change, possibly a regime shift to an alternative stable state. Case study 2 is an inter-biome dominance change in western and central Pangaea from humid wetland and seasonally dry to semi-arid vegetation. Shifts between these vegetation types had been occurring in Euramerican portions of the equatorial region throughout the late middle and late Pennsylvanian, the drier vegetation reaching persistent dominance by Early Permian. The oscillatory transition between humid and seasonally dry vegetation appears to demonstrate a threshold-like behavior but probably not repeated transitions between alternative stable states. Rather, changes in dominance in lowland equatorial regions were driven by long-term, repetitive climatic oscillations, occurring with increasing intensity, within overall shift to seasonal dryness through time. In neither case study are there clear biotic or abiotic warning signs of looming changes in vegetational composition or geographic distribution, nor is it clear that there are specific, absolute values or rates of environmental change in temperature, rainfall distribution and amount, or atmospheric composition, approach to which might indicate proximity to a terrestrial biotic-change threshold.

  9. Late Archaean-early Proterozoic source ages of zircons in rocks from the Paleozoic orogen of western Galicia, NW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijper, R P; Priem, H N.A. [Laboratorium voor Isotopen-Geologie, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Den Tex, E [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands). Inst. voor Aardwetenschappen


    U-Pb data are reported for nine suites of zircons and three monazites from the Paleozoic orogen in western Galicia: one paragneiss and six orthogneisses from the early Paleozoic basement, and two Carboniferous (ca. 310 Ma old) intrusions of two-mica granite. New whole-rock Rb-Sr analyses, along with earlier data, indicate an age of ca. 470-440 Ma (Ordovician) for the emplacement of the granitic precursors of the orthogneisses. Monazite from the paragneiss also yields an U-Pb age of ca. 470 Ma. From the high initial /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr ratios an involvement of Precambrian continental crust material is evident in the generation of the early Paleozoic suite of granites, while the zircon U-Pb data give evidence of the presence of about 3.0-2.0 Ga old (late Archaean-early Proterozoic) components in the source material. Zircons from the oldest sedimentary rocks in the area, now present as catazonal paragneisses and a likely source for the granites, likewise reveal a provenance age of 3.0-2.0 Ga.

  10. Hyperdense middle cerebral artery CT sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastianello, S.; Pierallini, A.; Colonnese, C.; Brughitta, G.; Angeloni, U.; Antonelli, M.; Fantozzi, L.M.; Fieschi, C.; Bozzao, L.


    The early CT finding of an hyperdensity of a portion of the middle cerebral artery Hyperdense Middle Cerebral Artery Sign (HMCAS), in patients with supratentorial stroke, is often indicative of an embolic occlusion. Aim of this study was to verify the incidence and reliability of the HMCAS and its possible correlation with early CT findings and with the extent of late brain damage. We studied 36 patients presenting with symptoms of stroke in the MCA territory, by means of CT and angiography performed respectively within 4 and 6 hours. Follow-up CT scans were then obtained after one week and three months from the ischemic event. The HMCAS was present in 50% of our patients and in this group it always correlated positively with the angiographic finding of occlusion. The same group presented a high incidence of early CT hypodensity (88%). Finally the presence of HMCAS might be considered a negative prognostic sign for the development of extensive brain damage. (orig.)

  11. Metallogenic relationships to tectonic evolution - the Lachlan Orogen, Australia (United States)

    Bierlein, Frank P.; Gray, David R.; Foster, David A.


    Placing ore formation within the overall tectonic framework of an evolving orogenic system provides important constraints for the development of plate tectonic models. Distinct metallogenic associations across the Palaeozoic Lachlan Orogen in SE Australia are interpreted to be the manifestation of interactions between several microplates and three accretionary complexes in an oceanic back-arc setting. In the Ordovician, significant orogenic gold deposits formed within a developing accretionary wedge along the Pacific margin of Gondwana. At the same time, major porphyry Cu-Au systems formed in an oceanic island arc outboard of an evolved magmatic arc that, in turn, gave rise to granite-related Sn-W deposits in the Early Silurian. During the ongoing evolution of the orogen in the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, sediment-hosted Cu-Au and Pb-Zn deposits formed in short-lived intra-arc basins, whereas a developing fore-arc system provided the conditions for the formation of several volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits. Inversion of these basins and accretion to the Australian continental margin triggered another pulse of orogenic gold mineralisation during the final consolidation of the orogenic belt in the Middle to Late Devonian.

  12. Failure to Recover from Proactive Semantic Interference and Abnormal Limbic Connectivity in Asymptomatic, Middle-Aged Offspring of Patients with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease. (United States)

    Sánchez, Stella M; Abulafia, Carolina; Duarte-Abritta, Barbara; de Guevara, M Soledad Ladrón; Castro, Mariana N; Drucaroff, Lucas; Sevlever, Gustavo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Vigo, Daniel E; Loewenstein, David A; Villarreal, Mirta F; Guinjoan, Salvador M


    We have obtained previous evidence of limbic dysfunction in middle-aged, asymptomatic offspring of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) patients, and failure to recover from proactive semantic interference has been shown to be a sensitive cognitive test in other groups at risk for LOAD. To assess the effects of specific proactive semantic interference deficits as they relate to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neocortical and limbic functional connectivity in middle aged offspring of individuals with LOAD (O-LOAD) and age-equivalent controls. We examined 21 O-LOAD and 20 controls without family history of neurodegenerative disorders (CS) on traditional measures of cognitive functioning and the LASSI-L, a novel semantic interference test uniquely sensitive to the failure to recover from proactive interference (frPSI). Cognitive tests then were correlated to fMRI connectivity of seeds located in entorhinal cortex and anterodorsal thalamic nuclei among O-LOAD and CS participants. Relative to CS, O-LOAD participants evidenced lower connectivity between entorhinal cortex and orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, and anterior temporal cortex. In the offspring of LOAD patients, LASSI-L measures of frPSI were inversely associated with connectivity between anterodorsal thalamus and contralateral posterior cingulate. Intrusions on the task related to frPSI were inversely correlated with a widespread connectivity network involving hippocampal, insular, posterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, along with precunei and anterior thalamus in this group. Different patterns of connectivity associated with frPSI were observed among controls. The present results suggest that both semantic interference deficits and connectivity abnormalities might reflect limbic circuit dysfunction as a very early clinical signature of LOAD pathology, as previously demonstrated for other limbic phenotypes, such as sleep and circadian alterations.

  13. Monumental Architecture of Late Intermediate Period Cuzco: Continuities of Ritual Reciprocity and Statecraft between the Middle and Late Horizons


    McEwan, Gordon; Gibaja, Arminda; Chatfield, Melissa


    The culture history of the valley of Cuzco prior to the rise of the Incas is being revealed by twelve years of fieldwork at the site of Chokepukio. Located in the Lucre Basin at the eastern end of the valley, Chokepukio contains the only surviving monumental architecture of Late Intermediate Period Cuzco. Excavations in a series of large niched structures on the site reveals that they functioned as feasting halls. Quantities of polychrome ceramic serving and feasting vessels and high quality ...

  14. Levels And Patterns Of Violence During The Transition Into The Middle Horizon On The Central Coast Of Peru


    Vega, María del Carmen


    This article examines the patterns and prevalence of trauma in 256 Late Lima individuals. is assemblage of human remains comes from the sites of Huaca 20 and Copacabana and was compared to 45 Middle Lima individuals from thesite of Cerro Culebra, as well as 30 individuals from the Middle Horizon 2 and 4 (Miramar). Other investigators have proposed that social and political changes during the transition into the Middle Horizon on the Central Coast of Perumight have caused an increase in episod...

  15. Treponemal disease in the middle Archaic to early Woodland periods of the western Tennessee River Valley. (United States)

    Smith, Maria Ostendorf


    The high frequency of late prehistoric New World treponemal disease is attributable to the demographic changes concomitant with the adoption of agriculture. However, these demographic changes in group mobility and site density episodically preceded intensive plant domestication, suggesting possible staggered temporal change in observed treponemal disease case frequency. Thirteen convincing and an additional two probable (N = 581) cases of treponemal disease were identified in an eight-site skeletal sample spanning the Middle (6,000-3,000 BCE) to Late (2,500-ca. 1,000 to 500 BCE) Archaic and Early Woodland (500 BCE-0 CE) periods from the western Tennessee River Valley. Treponemal disease cases are infrequent in both the Middle (3/115, 2.6%) and Late (2 to 4 cases, subsistence economy across the Archaic-Woodland temporal boundary in the western Tennessee River Valley remained, as elsewhere, based on intensive hunting and collecting, the demographic corollaries of treponemal disease would apparently not be met. However, the traditional horizon marker of the Woodland period is the adoption of pottery, an activity associated with sedentism.

  16. Absolute dating of the Aegean Late Bronze Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, P.M.


    A recent argument for raising the absolute date of the beginning of the Aegean Late Bronze (LB) Age to about 1700 B.C. is critically examined. It is argued here that: (1) the alabaster lid from Knossos did have the stratigraphical context assigned to it by Evans, in all probability Middle Minoan IIIA, c. 1650 B.C.; (2) the attempt to date the alabastron found in an early Eighteenth Dynasty context at Aniba to Late Minoan IIIA:1 is open to objections; (3) radiocarbon dates from Aegean LB I contexts are too wide in their calibrated ranges and too inconsistent both within and between site sets to offer any reliable grounds at present for raising Aegean LB I absolute chronology to 1700 B.C. Other evidence, however, suggests this period began about 1600 B.C., i.e. some fifty years earlier than the conventional date of 1550 B.C. (author)

  17. Paleoecological evaluation of Late Eocene biostratigraphic zonations of the Pacific Coast of North America (United States)

    McDougall, Kristin


    The late Eocene zonal criteria of the west coast of North America are to a large extent controlled by paleoecology and, therefore, the correlation of coeval but environmentally different benthic foraminiferal faunas cannot be achieved before paleoecological control of the biostratigraphy is understood. The faunal trends, morphology, characteristic occurrences and estimated upper depth limits of the benthic foraminifers and associated microfossils in the Oregon and Washington study sections lead to the recognition of paleoecologic facies. The interpretation of these late Eocene facies as bathymetric and low-oxygen facies is based on analogous late Eocene and Holocene assemblages. The paleoecologic facies criteria are often identical to the stage and zonal criteria. In the California zonal schemes, the Narizian zones are identified by lower and middle bathyal faunas whereas the Refugian zones are identified by outer neritic and upper bathyal faunas. The Washington late Eocene zones are identified by middle bathyal and transported neritic faunas. Modifications of the existing zonal schemes such that time and not paleoecology is the controlling factor results in a zonation that synthesizes the existing zonal schemes, recognizes regional stratigraphic ranges of diagnostic species, and removes paleoecologically controlled species occurrences. The late Narizian encompasses a bathyal and a neritic facies. The bathyal facies is correlative with a modified Bulimina corrugata Zone of California and the Uvigerina cf. U. yazooensis Zone of Washington. The neritic late Narizian facies corresponds to a modified Bulimina schencki-Plectofrondicularia cf. P. jenkinsi Zone of Washington and a modified Amphimorphina jenkinsi Zone of California. The Refugian can also be divided into a neritic and a bathyal facies. Although the early and late subdivisions of this stage are tentative, the early Refugian is equivalent to the modified versions of the Cibicides haydoni and the Uvigerina

  18. Late Paleogene reticulate Nummulites of the Western Tethys (United States)

    Less, G.; Kertész, B.; Özcan, E.


    positions. The inner cross-diameter of the proloculus has been proven to be the most reliable evolutionary parameter. Beside, the evolution of surface characteristics (not detailed here) is also usable in this sense, although it shows great intrapopulational variation partly because of the ontogeny. The increase of the average length of chambers (accompanied by general flattening) in the third whorl is of secondary importance in recognizing the evolution of the group because it is affected also by ecological factors. Finally, the tightness/laxity of the spire and the relative width of the spiral cord in the third whorl are clearly the functions of the actual paleoenvironment. As a result, the Nummulites fabianii-fichteli group is proven to form a single but rather variable evolutionary lineage within the early Bartonian to early Chattian development of which six evolutionary stages (considered as species) could be recognized (we could not study the middle-late Lutetian precursor forms). The safety of identification of these evolutionary stages with particular species names is of different degree. The six species are defined primarily on the basis of the average inner cross-diameter of the proloculus (Pmean) and secondarily by the surface characteristics as follows: - Nummulites bullatus (late Lutetian to basal Bartonian, SBZ 16 to early SBZ 17 zone): Pmean = 65-100 µm; granules, no reticulation. - N. garganicus (early to middle late Bartonian, late SBZ 17 to SBZ 18B): Pmean = 100-140 µm; heavy granules + reticulation. - N. hormoensis (late Bartonian, SBZ 18): Pmean = 140-200 µm; heavy granules + umbo + reticulation. - N. fabianii (Priabonian to early Rupelian, SBZ 19-21): Pmean = 200-320 µm; heavy reticulation + umbo + weak granules. - N. fichteli (late Priabonian to early Rupelian, SBZ 20-21): Pmean = 200-300 µm, weak reticulation to irregular mesh. - N. bormidiensis (late Rupelian, SBZ 22A): Pmean = 300-450 µm; irregular mesh. This research was supported by the

  19. Geological investigation of shaft mine in Devonian limestone in Kansas City, Missouri and other potentially dry excavated subsurface space in part of the Forest City Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, E.D.


    A high quality limestone is currently being mined from a deep shaft mine (1072 feet) in Middle Devonian rocks (Callaway) within the city limits of Kansas City, Missouri. About 15 acres of essentially dry space (room and pillar) with up to 14-foot ceilings have been developed. There are few natural joints observable in the rock within the mine. Some of these are periodically damp. More than 80% of the mine is dry. Saltwater from aquifers (Pennsylvanian) cut by the shaft accumulates behind the shaft at the pump station at 850 feet and at the bottom of the shaft (Devonian-Ordovician rocks). As long as the pumps lift the water to the surface, the mine can be kept relatively dry. Grouting of the aquifer's rocks in the shaft may seal off that source of water. The Burlington limestone of the Mississippian System is potentially mineable on the property now developed. The Burlington limestone, the Middle Devonian limestone, and the Kimmswick (Middle Ordovician) limestone are all potentially mineable by shaft mining in the northern part of Greater Kansas City and northward into the Forest City Basin.

  20. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Shallow marine syn-rift sedimentation: Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation, Jameson Land, East Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkilde, Michael


    Full Text Available The Middle Jurassic Pelion Formation – Fossilbjerget Formation couplet of Jameson Land, East Greenland, is a well-exposed example of the Middle Jurassic inshore–offshore successions characteristicof the rifted seaways in the Northwest European – North Atlantic region. Early Jurassic deposition took place under relatively quiet tectonic conditions following Late Permian – earliest Triassic and Early Triassic rift phases and the Lower Jurassic stratal package shows an overall layer-cake geometry. A long-term extensional phase was initiated in Middle Jurassic (Late Bajocian time, culminated in the Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian–Volgian, and petered out in the earliest Cretaceous (Valanginian. The Upper Bajocian – Middle Callovian early-rift succession comprises shallow marine sandstones of the Pelion Formation and correlative offshore siltstones of theFossilbjerget Formation. Deposition was initiated by southwards progradation of shallow marine sands of the Pelion Formation in the Late Bajocian followed by major backstepping in Bathonian–Callovian times and drowning of the sandy depositional system in the Middle–Late Callovian. Six facies associations are recognised in the Pelion–Fossilbjerget couplet, representing estuarine, shoreface, offshore transition zone and offshore environments. The north–southtrendingaxis of the Jameson Land Basin had a low inclination, and deposition was sensitive to even small changes in relative sea level which caused the shorelines to advance or retreat over tens to several hundreds of kilometres. Eight composite sequences, termed P1–P8, are recognised and are subdivided into a total of 28 depositional sequences. The duration of the two orders of sequences was about 1–2 Ma and 360,000 years, respectively. The Upper Bajocian P1–2 sequencesinclude the most basinally positioned shallow marine sandstones, deposited during major sealevel lowstands. The lowstands were terminated by significant marine

  1. Is the Palaeozoic of Istanbul a part of Gondwana-Land or Laurasia, or both? (United States)

    Lom, Nalan; Ülgen, Semih Can; Özgül, Necdet; Celal Şengör, A. M.


    The Istanbul Zone, northwestern Turkey, located along the southwestern Black Sea coast, consists of a Neoproterozoic (almost entirely Ediacaran) middle to high-grade crystalline basement with relicts of oceanic lithosphere, volcanic arc and continental crust of unknown affinity and it is overlain by a continuous, well-developed transgressive sedimentary sequence extending from the late Ordovician to the Carboniferous. The Palaeozoic sequence was folded and thrust-faulted during the Carboniferous Hercynian orogeny, and is unconformably overlain by Lower Triassic and younger sedimentary strata. The Istanbul Zone is separated from the Sakarya Zone by the Intra- Pontide suture of early to medial Eocene and from the Strandja Massif by an inferred right-lateral strike-slip West Black Sea Fault. The Sakarya and Strandja fragments exhibit late Triassic and late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous metamorphism and deformation, respectively, which are not observed in the Istanbul Zone. The Palaeozoic sequences of Istanbul and Zonguldak have been compared and correlated with similar sequences in Europe, including the Moesian platform in Romania and Bulgaria, Moravo-Silesia (Brunovistulian) in the Czech Republic and the Rhenohercynian zone in Germany and Belgium, all deposited on the northern passive margin of the Rheic ocean. However, these correlations are based on insufficient knowledge of the correlated rock sequences. By contrast, the İstanbul sequence resembles the Carnic Alps, the Montaigne Noir, the Bohemian (Saxo-Thuringian), the Morocco, the Pyrenean sequences and thus northern Gondwana-Land of the Palaeozoic times. Istanbul Zone thus combines the characteristics of both the north and south Hercynian margins! The Istanbul Zone shows characteristics of graben-facies deposits during the Ordovician-early Silurian followed by Atlantic-type continental margin sediments of late Silurian- late Devonian age. Since the arc is missing, the ocean facing İstanbul must have been consumed

  2. Energiemarkten en energiehandel in Holland in de late middeleeuwen


    Cornelisse, Charles Louis Eduard


    This study analyses the economical and commercial development of Holland in the late Middle Ages, focusing on the fuel market and fuel trade. Energy was of vital importance to this society in which industry, trade and export were expanding rapidly. The brisk commercial and industrial development of Holland between the 13th and 16th centuries coincided with demographic growth and increasing urbanisation. Fuel markets in Holland developed in the 15th and 16th century from local to regional and ...

  3. Groundwater/surface-water interaction in central Sevier County, Tennessee, October 2015–2016 (United States)

    Carmichael, John K.; Johnson, Gregory C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the central part of Sevier County, Tennessee, from October 2015 through October 2016. Stream base flow was surveyed in December 2015 and in July and October 2016 to evaluate losing and gaining stream reaches along three streams in the area. During a July 2016 synoptic survey, groundwater levels were measured in wells screened in the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer to define the potentiometric surface in the area. The middle and lower reaches of the Little Pigeon River and the middle reaches of Middle Creek and the West Prong Little Pigeon River were gaining streams at base-flow conditions. The lower segments of the West Prong Little Pigeon River and Middle Creek were losing reaches under base-flow conditions, with substantial flow losses in the West Prong Little Pigeon River and complete subsurface diversion of flow in Middle Creek through a series of sinkholes that developed in the streambed and adjacent flood plain beginning in 2010. The potentiometric surface of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer showed depressed water levels in the area where loss of flow occurred in the lower reaches of West Prong Little Pigeon River and Middle Creek. Continuous dewatering activities at a rock quarry located in this area appear to have lowered groundwater levels by as much as 180 feet, which likely is the cause of flow losses observed in the two streams, and a contributing factor to the development of sinkholes at Middle Creek near Collier Drive.

  4. The Apuseni Mountains, Romania, a Variscan Collage of Ordovician Gondwanan Terranes (United States)

    Balintoni, I. C.; Balica, C.; Zaharia, L.; Chen, F.; Cliveti, M.; Hann, H. P.; Ghergari, L.


    The basement of the Apuseni Mountains, Romania, consists of three pre-Variscan terranes, sutured during an Early Variscan amalgamation around 351 Ma (Balintoni et al., this volume). The northern Someş Terrane (ST) is predominantly gneissic, while the southern Baia de Arieş Terrane (BAT) is dominated by the presence of large carbonate lenses, although metagranites and other types of orthogneisses can be found. These two terranes are sutured through the Biharia terrane, probably an accreted island arc. LA-ICP-MS datings on zircons extracted from orthogneisses and metagranites were performed in order to constrain the age of ST and BAT. A number of previously CL-imaged crystals were ablated at the China's University of Geosciences, Wuhan. From ST we dated an orthogneiss occurring in structurally lowermost position, a metatuff situated in the upper strongly retrogressed part and a twenty detrital crystal population sampled from a metasandstone. The 206Pb/238U apparent ages were projected using the weighted average plots.A magmatic crystallization age of 472.8±5.0 Ma (Upper Early Ordovician) resulted for one of the orthogneiss samples, besides several older ages at 505.7, 566.3 and 708.2 Ma corresponding to inherited cores. Another sample from the same rock appeared strongly affected by lead loss during a later thermotectonic event, most of the apparent ages grouping around 352±14 Ma. This age is similar with the age of the suture between ST and BT (Balintoni et al., this volume). The main zircon population of one metatuff sample furnished an averaged age of 423±7.2 Ma, also found in two additional samples, but their significance is obscure for the moment. Two primary magmatic ages arise at 464.2 and 473.8 Ma, an older value of 758.7 Ma corresponding to an inherited core. Detrital zircon ages range between 534.8 and 2596.8 Ma. The younger value represents an upper age constraint for the protolith age of ST-rocks. From BAT we dated the Lupşa metaporphyroid and the

  5. Mourning Child Grief Support Group Curriculum: Middle Childhood Edition, Grades 3-6. (United States)

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    The Mourning Child Early Childhood grief support curriculum is intended for use with late elementary and middle school-aged children, specifically children in grades three through six, who have experienced the death of someone special to them. It is designed for use by professionals who work in schools, hospitals, hospices, mental health agencies,…

  6. Corrigendum to "Decadal to millennial variations in water column parameters in pelagic marine environments of the Western Tethys (Carpathian realm) during Middle-Late Jurassic - Evidence from the radiolarian record" [Glob. Planet. Chang. 162 (2018) 148-162 (United States)

    Bąk, Marta; Bąk, Krzysztof; Michalik, Mariola


    The authors regret (Abstract. The causal link between changes in Middle-Late Jurassic radiolarian habitat group abundances, microfacies and water column conditions in the Western Tethys was studied based on the examination of siliceous limestones and cherts from the Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathians. Deposition occurred on a morphological high with incised pelagic sedimentation within a tropical zone. High-resolution quantitative analyses of millimetre-thick microlaminae show changes in microfacies constituents that most likely record the fluxes of nutrients and biological activity in superficial waters. Variability of radiolarian assemblages that are classified to represent (i) upwelling and (ii) stratified water taxa suggest successive changes in water conditions that fluctuated between periods of upwelling and periods of formation of a thick, stratified, warm superficial layer above a deep thermocline during middle Bajocian-late Oxfordian time. Such variations would be strongly influenced by ocean-atmosphere global circulation patterns, which are caused by pressure gradients and are the result of Walker circulation along the equatorial part of the Tethys and the Panthalassa Ocean, including the duration of El Niño-like and La Niña-like cycles, which affect sea surface temperature trends on decadal scales. The fluctuations in radiolarian assemblages in the sediments indicate that long-term palaeoceanographic changes occurred on multi-decadal to centennial-scales during the Bajocian, but lengthened in duration to millennial-scale during the Bathonian through the Oxfordian.)

  7. Early Middle Formative Occupation in the Central Maya Lowlands: Recent Evidence from Cahal Pech, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Awe


    Full Text Available After more than half a century of intensive archaeological research the early Middle Formative (or Middle Preclassic period (1000-600 B.C. continues to be one of the most enigmatic eras in the study of Lowland Maya prehistory. While several factors contribte to this situation, the primary cause for this obscurity lies in the fact that few sites have produced either contextual or stratigraphic evidence of occupation during this phase (Rice 1976; Andrews 1988. Concsequently, any new site with evidence of Middle Formative occupation can contribute substantially to our limited knowledge of this pioneering stage of the lowland Maya. This paper introduces one such site, Cahal Pech, where recent investigations have uncovered a stratigraphic sequence that tentatively spans the early Middle Formative to the Late Classic period. It provides a preliminary description, of the site's early Middle Formative configuration and briefly discusses its possible regional affiliation.

  8. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton E. Brett


    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  9. A rhinocerotid-dominated megafauna at the MIS6-5 transition: The late Middle Pleistocene Coc Muoi assemblage, Lang Son province, Vietnam (United States)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Huong, Nguyen Thi Mai; Westaway, Kira; Tuan, Nguyen Anh; Duringer, Philippe; Zhao, Jian-xin; Ponche, Jean-Luc; Dung, Sam Canh; Nghia, Truong Huu; Minh, Tran Thi; Son, Pham Thanh; Boyon, Marc; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Kim; Blin, Amandine; Demeter, Fabrice


    Little is known about the ecosystems in the north of the Indochinese peninsula at the Middle-Late Pleistocene transition. In this paper, we analyzed the new fauna from Coc Muoi cave, Lang Son province, northeast Vietnam. In comparison with other well-documented faunas from the region, that of Coc Muoi is distinguished by the predominance of rhinoceroses among diverse large-bodied herbivores. The results of the OSL and pIR-IRSL dating of the cave sediments and U-series dating of flowstones indicate a potential age range of 148-117 ka for the fauna (MIS6-5). The analysis of age-at-death distributions of rhinoceroses, wild cattle, sambar deer, and wild pig, does not show any apparent selectivity of age classes. We also focused our study on rhinoceroses, tapirs, and wild cattle by analyzing the prevalence of hypoplastic defects on deciduous and permanent teeth, in an attempt to assess the health status of the taxa during their first years of growth. The health status of large-bodied herbivores (kouprey and rhinoceros) reveals the importance of stressors (biotic and abiotic) in the rainforest environment during a period of marked climatic transition (MIS6-5) in comparison with other MIS5-4 well-documented faunas from the region.

  10. The effects of solar particle events on the middle atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackman, C.H.; Douglass, A.R.; Meade, P.E.


    Solar particle events (SPEs) have been investigated since the late 1960's for possible effects on the middle atmosphere. Solar protons from SPEs produce ionizations, dissociations, dissociative ionizations, and excitations in the middle atmosphere. The production of HO(x) and NO(x) and their subsequent effects on ozone can also be computed using energy deposition and photochemical models. The effects of SPE-produced HO(x) species on the odd nitrogen abundance of the middle atmosphere as well as the SPE-produced long term effects on ozone. Model computations indicate fairly good agreement with ozone data for the SPE-induced ozone depletion caused by NO(y) species connected with the August 1972 SPE. The model computations indicate that NO(y) will not be substantially changed over a solar cycle by SPEs. The changes are mainly at high latitudes and are on time scales of several months, after which the NO(y) drifts back to its ambient levels

  11. Recent Geomorphological Evolution in the Southern Part of the Middle Russian Upland (Russia) (United States)

    Romanovskaya, Maria; Sukhanova, Tatyana; Krilkov, Nikita


    The Middle Russian Upland occupies the central part of the East European Plain. Our structural and geomorphological study of the Upland's southern segment (mostly of the Ostrogozhsk Uplift) exposed the presence of differently aged erosion-shaped denudational, erosion-shaped accumulational and purely accumulational surfaces, each with its own complex of recent deposits. The entire landscape is a system of altitudinal 'steps', or 'levels', which we believe were formed by uneven neotectonic movements and also influenced by climate fluctuations. The highest (220 - 230 m above sea level) and the oldest day light surface of the Ostrogozhsk Uplift lies on Poltava- and Shapkino-type deposit suites and dates from the Late Miocene. A surface at about 200 m dates from the Late Miocene and the Pliocene. Surfaces at 180 m and 150 m date from the Eopleistocene and the Early Pleistocene, respectively. The former lies on Kiev-type deposits, and the latter - on fluvioglacial deposits from the time of the maximum Dnepr (or Don) Glaciations. The valleys of the rivers Don and Tikhaya Sosna have fluvial terraces above their floodplains all formed under the influence of the Don, Dnepr, Moscow and, Valdai Glaciations. Terrace IV (at about 60 m above river level) formed in the opening half of the Middle Neopleistocene. Terrace III (40 m), formed in the closing half of the Middle Neopleistocene. Terrace II (30 m), formed in the opening half of the Late Neopleistocene. Terrace II (at 10 to 12 m), formed in the closing half of the Late Neopleistocene. The floodplain (at 2 to 4 m), formed in the Holocene. There is ample evidence of neotectonic activity in the surveyed area, namely: changes in the flow direction of the rivers Don and Tikhaya Sosna, forced to bypass the growing upland forming tectonic meanders; instances of damming up, which have led to waterlogging in floodplains; increase in the density of the erosion grid; fall of the groundwater table; intensification of erosion and slope

  12. Secular distribution of highly metalliferous black shales corresponds with peaks in past atmosphere oxygenation (United States)

    Johnson, Sean C.; Large, Ross R.; Coveney, Raymond M.; Kelley, Karen D.; Slack, John F.; Steadman, Jeffrey A.; Gregory, Daniel D.; Sack, Patrick J.; Meffre, Sebastien


    Highly metalliferous black shales (HMBS) are enriched in organic carbon and a suite of metals, including Ni, Se, Mo, Ag, Au, Zn, Cu, Pb, V, As, Sb, Se, P, Cr, and U ± PGE, compared to common black shales, and are distributed at particular times through Earth history. They constitute an important future source of metals. HMBS are relatively thin units within thicker packages of regionally extensive, continental margin or intra-continental marine shales that are rich in organic matter and bio-essential trace elements. Accumulation and preservation of black shales, and the metals contained within them, usually require low-oxygen or euxinic bottom waters. However, whole-rock redox proxies, particularly Mo, suggest that HMBS may have formed during periods of elevated atmosphere pO2. This interpretation is supported by high levels of nutrient trace elements within these rocks and secular patterns of Se and Se/Co ratios in sedimentary pyrite through Earth history, with peaks occurring in the middle Paleoproterozoic, Early Cambrian to Early Ordovician, Middle Devonian, Middle to late Carboniferous, Middle Permian, and Middle to Late Cretaceous, all corresponding with time periods of HMBS deposition. This counter-intuitive relationship of strongly anoxic to euxinic, localized seafloor conditions forming under an atmosphere of peak oxygen concentrations is proposed as key to the genesis of HMBS. The secular peaks and shoulders of enriched Se in sedimentary pyrite through time correlate with periods of tectonic plate collision, which resulted in high nutrient supply to the oceans and consequently maximum productivity accompanying severe drawdown into seafloor muds of C, S, P, and nutrient trace metals. The focused burial of C and S over extensive areas of the seafloor, during these anoxic to euxinic periods, likely resulted in an O2 increase in the atmosphere, causing short-lived peaks in pO2 that coincide with the deposition of HMBS. As metals become scarce, particularly Mo

  13. Factors associated with union time of acute middle-third scaphoid fractures: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao H


    Full Text Available Hongfang Zhao,* Siyu Tian,* Lingde Kong,* Jiangbo Bai,* Jian Lu, Bing Zhang, Dehu Tian Department of Orthopedics, The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050051, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the union time of acute middle-third scaphoid fractures following treatments and to analyze the effect of different factors on late union.Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients with acute middle-third scaphoid fracture at our institution between January 2013 and December 2017. Patient demographics, fracture characteristics, and treatment strategy, such as age, gender, body mass index, habit of smoking, sides of injury, dominant hand, ulnar variance, multiple fractures, and treatment methods, were investigated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify possible predictive factors.Results: A total of 132 patients with scaphoid fracture were included in our study. Operation was performed in 67 patients (50.8%, and conservative treatment was performed in the other 65 patients (49.2%. The union time was 7.2±0.5 weeks. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, late diagnosis (odds ratio, 1.247; 95% CI, 1.022–1.521 and conservative treatment method (odds ratio, 1.615; 95% CI, 1.031–2.528 were identified as 2 independent predictors of late union in scaphoid fractures patients. Other parameters were not demonstrated to be predictive factors.Conclusion: Late diagnosis and conservative treatment were two factors associated with late union. Long time of follow-up is necessary for patient with these factors. Keywords: predictive factors, union time, nonunion, scaphoid fractures, multivariable analysis

  14. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution (United States)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong


    The basic tectonic framework of continental East Asia was produced by a series of nearly contemporaneous orogenic events in the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Commonly, the Late Mesozoic orogenic processes were characterized by continent-continent collision, large-scale thrusting, strike-slip faulting and intense crustal shortening, crustal thickening, regional anatexis and metamorphism, followed by large-scale lithospheric extension, rifting and magmatism. To better understand the geological processes, this paper reviews and synthesizes existing multi-disciplinary geologic data related to sedimentation, tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism and geochemistry, and proposes a two-stage tectono-thermal evolutionary history of East Asia during the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (ca. 170-120 Ma). In the first stage, three orogenic belts along the continental margins were formed coevally at ca. 170-135 Ma, i.e., the north Mongol-Okhotsk orogen, the east paleo-Pacific coastal orogen, and the west Bangong-Nujiang orogen. Tectonism related to the coastal orogen caused extensive intracontinental folding and thrusting that resulted in a depositional hiatus in the Late Jurassic, as well as crustal anatexis that generated syn-kinematic granites, adakites and migmatites. The lithosphere of the East Asian continent was thickened, reaching a maximum during the latest Jurassic or the earliest Cretaceous. In the second stage (ca. 135-120 Ma), delamination of the thickened lithosphere resulted in a remarkable (>120 km) lithospheric thinning and the development of mantle-derived magmatism, mineralization, metamorphic core complexes and rift basins. The Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous subduction of oceanic plates (paleo-Pacific, meso-Tethys, and Mongol-Okhotsk) and continent-continent collision (e.g. Lhasa and Qiangtang) along the East Asian continental margins produced broad coastal and intracontinental orogens. These significant tectonic activities, marked by

  15. The influence of late Miocene exhumation on the petroleum systems of the greater Caucasus foreland basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andy, A.; Colin, D.; Sally, H.; Simon, O.


    Full text: Northwards impingement of Arabia during the Cenozoic led to the inversion of the Mesozoic Greater Caucasus Basin and the associated development of areas of enhanced subsidence. However, there is great debate regarding the timing of initiation of thrusting and uplift in the Caucasus region.Traditionally, ages ranging from Middle Eocene through to Middle Miocene have been proposed.More recently. It has become clear that although deformation and flexural subsidence may have initiated during the Late Miocene to Pliocene.The potential causative mechanisms for this late uplift and exhumation did not begin until the Late Miocene to Pliocene.The potential causative mechanisms for this late uplift event have been identified.The late Miocene to Pliocene event influenced a broad region and had important implications for reservoir rock deposition and the generation,migration,trapping and preservation of hydrocarbons in the surrounding basins (e.g. Indolo-Kuban,Terek-Caspian, South Caspian, Kura-Kartli, Rion, Black Sea).One area of particular interest is the development of the Stavropol Arch through time,since foreland basins are presently restricted to the Indolo-Kuban and Terek-Caspian Sub-basins.The Stavropol Arch lies immediately north of the central, most elevated parts of the Caucasus Mountains and separates the main areas of enhanced foreland subsidence.Although in most palaeogeographic reconstructions of the area, the Stavropol Arch is shown as an uplifted massif during much of the Mesozoic and Lower Cenozoic, it seems likely from recent studies that it is a feature of Late Miocene to Pliocene exhumation.One major potential implication is that an Oligocene to Miocene (foreland) succession developed in a major basin across the whole region north of the Greater Caucasus.Much of this was subsequently eroded from the Stavropol Arch during uplift and exhumation, separating the Indolo-Kuban and Terek-Caspian foreland basins.From qualitative section balancing we

  16. Secondary Malignancy As A Manifestation Of Late Toxicity Of Curative Treatment For Testicular Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.; Kakalejcik, M.; Beniak, J.; Boljesikova, E.


    The case presents the patient with a diagnosis of bladder carcinosarcoma. He was diagnosed 42 years after adjuvant middle abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy for testicular seminoma. We discuss the problem of late toxicity of oncology treatment in patients with potentially curative germ cell tumors of testes together with diagnosis and treatment of patients with bladder carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. (author)

  17. Low-grade metamorphism of Cambro-Ordovician successions in the Famatina belt, Southern-Central Andes: Burial-inversion history linked to the evolution of the proto-Andean Gondwana margin Metamorfismo de bajo grado de sucesiones cambro-ordovícicas en el cinturón del Famatina, Andes Centrales de Argentina: Historia de enterramiento-exhumación ligada a la evolución del margen proto-andino de Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilda Collo


    Full Text Available The metamorphic P-T conditions of low-grade units from the Famatina belt, Central Andes of Argentina, were estimated through petrography, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy. For the Middle-Upper Cambrian Negro Peinado Formation a tectono-metamorphic event associated with intense intrafoliar folding, with estimated temperatures between 290 and 400°C (KIcis: 0.16-0.27A°29, biotite blastesis and compositional homogeneity in dioctahedral micas and intermediate pressure conditions (white mica b parameter: 9.010Á-9.035Á, was recognized. The Achavil Formation (Middle-Upper Cambrian presents a main metamorphic event associated with temperatures between 200 and 290°C (KIcis: 0.26-0.41A°29 and intermediate- to low-pressure conditions (white mica b parameter values: 8.972Á-9.017Á. Some illitic substitution in dioctahedral micas also indicates lower metamorphic grade than the Negro Peinado Formation. For Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician sequences a burial metamorphic pattern, with a progressive decrease in metamorphic grade from Volcancito Formation to Cerro Morado Group (ca. 490-465 Ma; KIcis: 0.31-0.69A°29 and absence of tendency changes linked to strati-graphic discontinuities was proposed. Mica and chlorite are the main phyllosilicates in the oldest units, while Ilt/ Sme (R3 mixed-layer is almost the only one in the youngest. White mica b parameter indicates intermediate- to low-pressure conditions for all these sequences. This burial metamorphic pattern presents a marked break as the youngest Ordovician unit (La Aguadita Formation, after ca. 452 Ma records higher metamorphic conditions (IKcis: 0.28-0.19A°29 than units from the Ordovician arc, with estimated temperatures between 270 and 330°C and intermediate-pressure conditions. Our results indicate that basin contraction and inversion processes related to the Ordovician Ocloyic Orogeny involved at least two well-discriminated and not superposed metamorphic episodes in this region

  18. "The Luxurious Daughters of Artificial Life": Female "Delicacy" and Pain in Late-Victorian Advice Literature. (United States)

    Wood, Whitney


    The second half of the 19th century marked the rise of obstetrics as a legitimate physician-dominated medical specialty. In this period of transition, distanced from traditional cultures of social childbirth but not yet embracing hospital deliveries, many middle-class North American women turned to prescriptive literature to fill a crucial gap. In the medical advice they directed at young wives and expectant mothers, physicians consistently emphasized the middle-class woman's heightened sensitivity to the pain of giving birth, relying on arguments that resonated with the class, gender, and racial tensions of the late-Victorian period while consistently reaffirming physicians' expanding authority.

  19. Geology of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago and the North Kara Terrane in the Russian high Arctic (United States)

    Lorenz, Henning; Männik, Peep; Gee, David; Proskurnin, Vasilij


    The Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago is located at 80°N near the continental shelf break, between the Kara and Laptev seas. Sedimentary successions of Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic age dominate the bedrock geology. Together with Northern Tajmyr, Severnaya Zemlya constitutes the main land areas of the North Kara Terrane (NKT), which is inferred here to have been a part of the Timanide margin of Baltica, i.e. an integral part of Baltica at least since the Vendian. Vendian turbidites derived from the Timanide Orogen are inferred to have been deposited on Neoproterozoic greenschist facies, granite-intruded basement. Shallow-water siliclastic deposition in the Early to Mid-Cambrian was followed by highly organic-rich shales in the Late Cambrian and influx of more turbidites. An episode of folding, the Kan’on River deformation, separates these formations from the overlying Tremadocian conglomerates and sandstones. In the Early Ordovician, rift-related magmatic rocks accompanied the deposition of variegated marls, sandstones, carbonates and evaporites. Dark shales and gypsiferous limestones characterise the Mid-Ordovician. Late Ordovician quartz-sandstones mark a hiatus, followed by carbonate rocks that extend up into and through most of the Silurian. The latter give way upwards into Old Red Sandstones, which are inferred to have been deposited in a Caledonian foreland basin. Deformation, reaching the area in the latest Devonian or earliest Carboniferous and referred to as the Severnaya Zemlya episode, is thought to be Caledonian-related. The dominating E-vergent structure was controlled by décollement zones in Ordovician evaporite-bearing strata; detachment folds and thrusts developed in the west and were apparently impeded by a barrier of Ordovician igneous rocks in the east. Below the décollement zones, the Neoproterozoic to Early Ordovician succession was deformed into open to close folds. The exposed strata in the lower structural level have been juxtaposed with

  20. Accelerated middle Miocene exhumation of the Talesh Mountains constrained by U-Th/He thermochronometry: Evidence for the Arabia-Eurasia collision in the NW Iranian Plateau (United States)

    Madanipour, Saeed; Ehlers, Todd A.; Yassaghi, Ali; Enkelmann, Eva


    The Talesh Mountains at the NW margin of the Iranian Plateau curve around the southwestern corner of the South Caspian Block and developed in response to the collision of the Arabian-Eurasian Plates. The timing, rates, and regional changes in late Cenozoic deformation of the Talesh Mountains are not fully understood. In this study, we integrate 23 new apatite and zircon bedrock U-Th/He ages and structurally restored geologic cross sections with previously published detrital apatite fission track data to reconstruct the deformation history of the Talesh Mountains. Our results reveal that slow rock exhumation initiated during the late Oligocene ( 27-23 Ma) and then accelerated in the middle Miocene ( 12 Ma). These events resulted in the present-day high-elevation and curved geometry of the mountains. The spatial and temporal distribution of cooling ages suggest that the Oligocene bending of the Talesh Mountains was earlier than in the eastern Alborz, Kopeh Dagh, and central Alborz Mountains that initiated during the late Cenozoic. Late Oligocene and middle Miocene deformation episodes recorded in the Talesh Mountains can be related to the collisional phases of the Arabian and Eurasian Plates. The lower rate of exhumation recorded in the Talesh Mountains occurred during the initial soft collision of the Arabian-Eurasian Plates in the late Oligocene. The accelerated exhumation that occurred during final collision since the middle Miocene resulted from collision of the harder continental margin.

  1. North-south patterning of millet agriculture on the Loess Plateau: Late Neolithic adaptations to water stress, NW China. (United States)

    Sheng, P.; Shang, X.; Yang, L.; Jones, M.


    Abstract: Water availability and climatic condition profoundly affect agricultural system in different areas. The Loess Plateau, which lies on the marginal area of the East Asian monsoonal climatic zone, is one of the most ideal region to study the agricultural decision-making by ancient farm communities to adapt to different water stress level in same geographic region. Here we report new results of archaeobotanical research on the analysis of charred seeds from two late Neolithic sites on the northern Loess Plateau and review many contemporaneous archaeobotanical data recovered from the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau. It is indicative of that common millet-based millet agriculture was developed in the arid northern Loess Plateau from the late Yangshao to Longshan periods (3000 1800 BC). Yet, there is a clear preference of foxtail millet farming with rice and wheat production as a supplement in the south and middle parts of the Loess Plateau during the same period. The north-south patterns of millet farming preferring by ancient farmers certainly promoted the social diversity and different evolutionary trajectories of human culture in both areas during the Mid-Late Holocene.

  2. Compound-specific isotope records of late-quaternary environmental change in southeastern North Carolina (United States)

    Lane, Chad S.; Taylor, Audrey K.; Spencer, Jessica; Jones, Kaylee B.


    Reconstructions of late Quaternary paleohydrology are rare from the U.S. Atlantic coastal plain (ACP). Here we present compound-specific hydrogen (δ2Halkane) and carbon (δ13Calkane) isotope analyses of terrestrially-derived n-alkanes from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake in eastern North Carolina spanning the last ∼50,000 years. Combined with pollen, charcoal, and bulk geochemical analyses, the δ2Halkane data indicate arid conditions during the late-Pleistocene, but differing edaphic conditions at the sites perhaps related to differing water table depths. The δ13Calkane data indicate a significant C4 plant component during the late Pleistocene, but other proxies indicate a sparsely-vegetated landscape. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is marked by rapid fluctuations in δ2Halkane values that are similar to the patterns of Bølling Allerød and Younger Dryas isotope data from Greenland indicating sensitivity of the regional climate to short-lived, high-amplitude climatic events. The δ2Halkane data indicate a mesic early Holocene that supported colonization by Quercus-dominated ecosystems. Evidence of middle Holocene aridity in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina contrasts with evidence of mesic conditions on the ACP, a geographic pattern similar to modern teleconnected precipitation responses to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. A transition to Pinus-dominated ecosystems ∼5500 cal yr B.P. is accompanied by a large increase charcoal, but is not coincident with any large changes in δ2Halkane values, indicating that hydrologic change was likely not responsible for sustained late-Holocene dominance of Pinus. The lack of a change in middle Holocene hydrology and the spatiotemporally heterogeneous nature of the Quercus-Pinus transition on the ACP indicate prehistoric anthropogenic land management practices may represent the most parsimonious explanation for the regionally pervasive ecological change.

  3. Late Paleozoic to Triassic magmatism in the north-central High Andes, Chile: New insights from SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and O-Hf isotopic signatures in zircon (United States)

    Hernández González, Álvaro; Deckart, Katja; Fanning, Mark; Arriagada, César


    The Chilean High Andes (28o- 31oS) comprises a vast number of late Paleozoic - Triassic granitoids which give information about the last stages of Gondwana assemblage. Particularly, previous studies determined two tectonic configurations during this time: subduction related compressional setting (late Carboniferous - Late Permian) and non-subduction post-collisional extensional setting (Late Permian - Triassic), as the last stage of Gondwana assemblage. However, new O-Hf isotopic data along new U-Pb SHRIMP ages in zircon have shown that this model should be modified and updated to the new analytical data available. δ18O values indicate a strong change in the tectonic configuration approximately 270 Ma (earliest middle Permian) and thus, units can be divided into 2 mayor groups: late Carboniferous to earliest middle Permian and middle Permian to Triassic. The oldest group shows slightly low values of ɛHfi (ca. +1 to -4) with high δ18O (ca. >6.5 o/oo), indicating an elevated supracrustal component and the addition of less radiogenic continental-like material, which along significant residence time (TDM2: Mesoproterozoic) can be interpreted as magmas formed at depth in a subduction-related continental arc, and contaminated with supracrustal material and/or oceanic sediments transported through the subducted slab to the mantle-wedge. Subsequently, middle Permian - Triassic rocks show a wider range of ɛHfi values (ca. +3 to -3) with relatively low, mantle-like δ18O (ca. 4.5-6.5 o/oo), indicating a source of magmas without the addition of supracrustal material for some plutons, whilst for others, a slight input. The higher positive values of ɛHfi can be related to the influence of new juvenile material in the source of some magmas. This isotopic data can be interpreted as rocks formed as the result of melting of an old thinned mafic crust (with mantle-like δ18O values characteristic of this type of rocks) with limited addition of supracrustal material; in

  4. Rabi Rashidi (Rashidi Quarters): a late thirteen to early fourteenth century Middle Eastern Medical School. (United States)

    Abbasnejad, Feridoon; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Agutter, Paul S; Alakbarli, Farid; Loukas, Marios; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R Shane


    Following the Mongolian invasion of the Middle East in the thirteenth century, a regional power called the Ilkhanid emerged and was ruled by the heirs of Temujin from Mongolia. Embracing present-day Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, areas of Russia, Turkey, and Pakistan, and nearby Middle Eastern territories, the Ilkhanid state patronized medicine and various other professions. Centered in Tabriz (Tauris), a city in the northwest of present-day Iran, was a non-profit-making educational and medical complex founded by Grand Minister Rashid al-Din Fazlollah Hamadani. This paper reviews the literature regarding the rise and fall of the thirteenth century university and the Rabi Rashidi, emphasizing the structure of its medical school. The background training of Rashid al-Din and his keen interest in science turned this complex, Rabi Rashidi (literally meaning the Rashidi Quarters), into a cosmopolitan university that freely trained medical scholars nationally and internationally. The possibility that Rashid al-Din was inspired by university developments in Europe is discussed.

  5. Shallow marine event sedimentation in a volcanic arc-related setting: The Ordovician Suri Formation, Famatina range, northwest Argentina (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.


    The Loma del Kilome??tro Member of the Lower Ordovician Suri Formation records arc-related shelf sedimentation in the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina. Nine facies, grouped into three facies assemblages, are recognized. Facies assemblage 1 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) locally punctuated by normally graded or parallel-laminated silty sandstones (facies B] records deposition from suspension fall-out and episodic storm-induced turbidity currents in an outer shelf setting. Facies assemblage 2 [massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A) interbedded with rippled-top very fine-grained sandstones (facies D)] is interpreted as the product of background sedimentation alternating with distal storm events in a middle shelf environment. Facies assemblage 3 [normally graded coarse to fine-grained sandstones (facies C); parallel-laminated to low angle cross-stratified sandstones (facies E); hummocky cross-stratified sandstones and siltstones (facies F); interstratified fine-grained sandstones and mudstones (facies G); massive muddy siltstones and sandstones (facies H); tuffaceous sandstones (facies I); and interbedded thin units of massive and parallel-laminated mudstones (facies A)] is thought to represent volcaniclastic mass flow and storm deposition coupled with subordinated suspension fall-out in an inner-shelf to lower-shoreface setting. The Loma del Kilo??metro Member records regressive-transgressive sedimentation in a storm- and mass flow-dominated high-gradient shelf. Volcano-tectonic activity was the important control on shelf morphology, while relative sea-level change influenced sedimentation. The lower part of the succession is attributed to mud blanketing during high stand and volcanic quiescence. Progradation of the inner shelf to lower shoreface facies assemblage in the middle part represents an abrupt basinward shoreline migration. An erosive-based, non-volcaniclastic, turbidite unit at the base of this package suggests a sea

  6. Differential risk for late adolescent conduct problems and mood dysregulation among children with early externalizing behavior problems. (United States)

    Okado, Yuko; Bierman, Karen L


    To investigate the differential emergence of antisocial behaviors and mood dysregulation among children with externalizing problems, the present study prospectively followed 317 high-risk children with early externalizing problems from school entry (ages 5-7) to late adolescence (ages 17-19). Latent class analysis conducted on their conduct and mood symptoms in late adolescence revealed three distinct patterns of symptoms, characterized by: 1) criminal offenses, conduct disorder symptoms, and elevated anger ("conduct problems"), 2) elevated anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidal ideation ("mood dysregulation"), and 3) low levels of severe conduct and mood symptoms. A diathesis-stress model predicting the first two outcomes was tested. Elevated overt aggression at school entry uniquely predicted conduct problems in late adolescence, whereas elevated emotion dysregulation at school entry uniquely predicted mood dysregulation in late adolescence. Experiences of low parental warmth and peer rejection in middle childhood moderated the link between early emotion dysregulation and later mood dysregulation but did not moderate the link between early overt aggression and later conduct problems. Thus, among children with early externalizing behavior problems, increased risk for later antisocial behavior or mood dysfunction may be identifiable in early childhood based on levels of overt aggression and emotion dysregulation. For children with early emotion dysregulation, however, increased risk for mood dysregulation characterized by anger, dysphoric mood, and suicidality--possibly indicative of disruptive mood dysregulation disorder--emerges only in the presence of low parental warmth and/or peer rejection during middle childhood.

  7. A morphological intermediate between eosimiiform and simiiform primates from the late middle Eocene of Tunisia: Macroevolutionary and paleobiogeographic implications of early anthropoids. (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Essid, El Mabrouk; Marzougui, Wissem; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Adnet, Sylvain; Marandat, Bernard; Merzeraud, Gilles; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Tabuce, Rodolphe; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Yans, Johan


    Although advanced anthropoid primates (i.e., Simiiformes) are recorded at the end of the Eocene in North Africa (Proteopithecidae, Parapithecidae, and Oligopithecidae), the origin and emergence of this group has so far remained undocumented. The question as to whether these primates are the result of a monophyletic radiation of endemic anthropoids in Africa, or several Asian clades colonizing Africa, is a current focus of paleoprimatology. In this article, we report the discovery of a new anthropoid from Djebel el Kébar in central Tunisia, dating from the late middle Eocene (Bartonian). This taxon, Amamria tunisiensis, new genus and species, currently known by only one isolated upper molar, is among the most ancient anthropoids to be recorded in Africa thus far. Amamria displays a suite of dental features that are primarily observed in Eosimiiformes (stem Anthropoidea). However, it is not allocated to any known family of that group (i.e., Asian Eosimiidae and Afro-Asian Afrotarsiidae) inasmuch as it develops some dental traits that are unknown among eosimiiforms, but can be found in African simiiform anthropoids such as proteopithecids and oligopithecids. With such a mosaic of dental traits, Amamria appears to be a structural intermediate, and as such it could occupy a key position, close to the root of the African simiiforms. Given its antiquity and its apparent pivotal position, the possibility exists that Amamria could have evolved in Africa from Asian eosimiiform or Asian "proto"-simiiform ancestors, which would have entered Africa sometime during the middle Eocene. Amamria could then represent one of the earliest offshoots of the African simiiform radiation. This view would then be rather in favor of the hypothesis of a monophyletic radiation of endemic simiiform anthropoids in Africa. Finally, these new data suggest that there must have been at least two Asian anthropoid colonizers of Africa: the afrotarsiids and the ancestor of Amamria. © 2014 Wiley

  8. Use of cycle stacking patterns to define third-order depositional sequences: Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation, southern Great basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanez, I.P.; Droser, M.L. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))


    The Middle to Late Cambrian Bonanza King Formation (CA, NV) is characterized by superimposed scales of cyclicity. Small-scale cycles (0.5 to 10m) occur as shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles that repeat at high frequencies (10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5}). Systematic changes in stacking patterns of meter-scale cycles define several large-scale (50-250 m) third-order depositional sequences in the Bonanza King Formation. Third-order depositional sequences can be traced within ranges and correlated regionally across the platform. Peritidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation are both subtidal- and tidal flat-dominated. Tidal flat-dominated cycles consist of muddy bases grading upward into thrombolites or columnar stromatolites all capped by planar stromatolites. Subtidal cycles in the Bonanza King Formation consist of grainstone bases that commonly fine upward and contain stacked hardgrounds. These are overlain by digitate-algal bioherms with grainstone channel fills and/or bioturbated ribbon carbonates with grainstone lenses. Transgressive depositional facies of third-order depositional sequences consist primarily of stacks of subtidal-dominated pertidial cycles and subtidal cycles, whereas regressive depositional facies are dominated by stacks of tidal flat-dominated peritidal cycles and regoliths developed over laminite cycle caps. The use of high frequency cycles in the Bonanza King Formation to delineate regionally developed third-order depositional sequences thus provides a link between cycle stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy.

  9. Trilobites and biofacies in the Early–Middle Ordovician of Baltica and a brief comparison with the Yangtze Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Bergström †


    Full Text Available Baltica except for Baltoscandia was subject to an early Tremadocian immigration of trilobites similar to that on other plates. In Baltoscandia the Olenid biofacies lingered on until it was replaced by the late Tremadocian Ceratopyge biofacies. For the rest of the time (Floian to mid-Darriwilian, Baltoscandia had fairly monotonous lithologies and faunas, constituting a single Asaphid biofacies with lateral variations expressed as differences largely in the relative abundance of species. In the South Urals immigration started in the earliest Tremadocian with fairly rich deep-water faunas. A poorer fauna is known from the Polar Urals. A slightly younger, sparse fauna is known from Paj-Khoj. Over most of the Ural border north of the South Urals there was a further development of first a Ceratopyge biofacies, then an eastern Asaphid biofacies, together with more siliciclastic input to the lithofacies and with fewer asaphids than in Baltoscandia. In the South Urals there was a development in the Darriwilian of a Cheirurid biofacies following the Ceratopyge biofacies. By contrast, the shelf part of the South China Plate shows a development of fifteen biofacies distinguished on the genus level, and the number of species for each biofacies is notably small. The major difference in the pattern of distribution of the biofacies probably reflects the faunal development in rather different climatic conditions, suggesting that the Yangtze block is supposedly positioned rather distant from Baltica, but still close enough to share genera inhabiting the outer shelf.

  10. On the Unruly Power of Pain in Middle English Drama. (United States)

    Nakley, Susan


    Late medieval culture tends to value pain highly and positively. Accordingly, much medievalist scholarship links pain with fear and emphasizes their usefulness in the period's philosophy, literature, visual art, and drama. Yet, key moments in The York Play of the Crucifixion, The Second Shepherds' Play, and The Tretise of Miraclis Pleyinge trouble the significance of pain and its relationships with punishment and performance; these works admit the unreliability of pain and fear, even as they harness the formidable power pain holds throughout Middle English literature. This essay analyzes passages from all three texts to demonstrate their deep skepticism about the signifying power of pain alongside their abiding investments in pain's utility. I argue that these texts ultimately challenge Middle English drama's dominant discourses of patriarchy and empire by way of their representations of pain.

  11. Zpráva o předběžné geologické dokumentaci dočasných odkryvů stavby metra linky A na Červeném vrchu v Praze-Vokovicích

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kraft, P.; Budil, P.; Steinová, M.; Hroch, T.; Tasáryová, Z.; Peršín, J.; Mikuláš, Radek; Kozák, V.


    Roč. 2010, - (2011), s. 20-25 ISSN 0514-8057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1521 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Middle Ordovician * graptolites * ichnofossils * Šárka Formation * Praha-Vokovice Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  12. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael


    Social trust (i.e., belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies, and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1,535 adolescents collected over 2 years, we find that middle and late adolescents had…

  13. The Early Ordovician trilobite distribution and zonation of the East Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pärnaste, Helje


    Full Text Available Biozones of the East Baltic Early Ordovician trilobites were studied based on the trilobite distribution in northwestern Russia, Estonia, and Sweden. New data on trilobite distribution reveal the diachroneity of the lowest calcareous sediments of the Mäeküla Member, which forms the upper part of the Leetse Formation in the East Baltic. Trilobites of the Tremadoc Apatokephalus serratus and Megistaspis (Ekeraspis armata biozones are missing in the East Baltic, in contradiction to the suggestion of Balashova (Vopr. Paleontol., 1966, 5, 3–22. Some poorly preserved specimens probably belonging to Megistaspis (Paramegistaspis planilimbata (Angelin and also records of Pliomerops? linnarssoni (Wiman indicate that the Arenig Megistaspis (P. planilimbata Biozone of the Hunneberg Stage may be represented in some localities. The final delimitation of biozones in the Mäeküla and Päite members should improve when the ontogenetic and phylogenetic variation of the M. (Paramegistaspis lineage has been fully documented. Until then the Evropeites lamanskii Biozone is used in the East Baltic following Balashova, as indicated by the appearance of that taxon in most studied localities, marking the beginning of the Billingen Age. The succeeding Megalaspides (Megalaspides dalecarlicus Biozone is represented by the occurrence of at least its upper part in the Vassilkovo Beds in the St. Petersburg region, where Megalaspides paliformis Tjernvik occurs together with the index taxon (these taxa co-occur in the upper part of this zone in Sweden. The Päite Member in the East Baltic is correlated with the Megistaspis (P. estonica Biozone of the upper part of the Billingen Stage in Sweden.

  14. Stratigraphy and paleogeographic significance of a Late Pennsylvanian to Early Permian channeled slope sequence in the Darwin Basin, southern Darwin Hills, east-central California (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.; Ritter, Scott M.


    The complex stratigraphy of late Paleozoic rocks in the southern Darwin Hills consists of regionally extensive Mississippian and Early to Middle Pennsylvanian rocks overlain by latest Pennsylvanian to Early Permian rocks, herein called the Darwin Hills sequence. Deposition of this latter sequence marked the beginning of the Darwin Basin. In Mississippian time, a carbonate platform prograded westward over slightly older slope deposits. In the Late Mississippian this platform was exposed to erosion and siliciclastic sediments were deposited. In Early to Middle Pennsylvanian time the area subsided, forming a west-facing ramp that was subjected to deformation and erosion in Middle or early Late Pennsylvanian time. Later this area was tilted westward and deep-water sediments were deposited on this slope. In latest Pennsylvanian to earliest Permian time, a major channel was cut through the older Pennsylvanian rocks and into the Upper Mississippian strata. This channel was gradually filled with increasingly finer grained, deep-water sediment as the area evolved into a basin floor by Early Permian (Sakmarian) time. Expansion of the Darwin Basin in Artinskian time led to a second phase of deposition represented by strata of the regionally extensive Darwin Canyon Formation. The geology in this small area thus documents tectonic events occurring during the early development of the Darwin Basin.

  15. ) Organic Facies Variations in the Middle Cretaceous Black Shales of the Abakaliki Fold Belt, South-East, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinola, O. A.; Badejoko, T.A.; Ekweozor, C.M.; Adebowale, K. O.


    An assessment, based on organic facies characteristics, have been carried out on the middle Cretaceous black shales, in order to determine their hydrocarbon source potential, thermal maturity, and depositional environments. The methods employed include evaluation of organic carbon content, rockeval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter, maceral composition and biomarker distributions.Organic facies criteria such as TOC, HI, Tmax, liptinite content, SOMIFOC and SHC/AHC indicate that Albian to middle Cenomanian shales are could only generate gas. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian shales are characterized by Type I/II kerogen, mature and could generate both oil and characterized by Type III kerogen, immature and could generate gas with little oil. The biomarker distributions indicate immature to mature source rock, moderately biodegraded and with reduced marine environment prevailing during the deposition of the lack shales. The late Cenomanian to early Turonian black shales show the highest source-rock potential

  16. Isotopic composition of late neogene K-Na alkaline basalts of eastern Kamchatka: indicators of the heterogeneity of the Mantle magma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volynets, O.N.; Karpenko, S.F.; Kehj, R.U.; Gorring, M.


    Isotopic composition of Sr, O, Nd, and Pb was determined in K-Na alkaline gabbroids and basaltoids that formed in eastern Kamchatka during Middle Miocene (gabbroids of the sub volcanic complex) and Late Miocene (basaltoids of the volcanic complex) time, before the origin of the Eastern Kamchatka Volcanic Belt. Isotopic data provide further evidence that the sources of the late Cenozoic volcanics of the within-plate and island-arc geochemical types were different

  17. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction. (United States)

    Yuan, Kai; Cheng, Ping; Dong, Tao; Bi, Yanzhi; Xing, Lihong; Yu, Dahua; Zhao, Limei; Dong, Minghao; von Deneen, Karen M; Liu, Yijun; Qin, Wei; Tian, Jie


    Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18) and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18) were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  18. Snowpack Variation and Hydrologic Impacts across the Middle East and North Africa (United States)

    Robinson, D. A.; Ward, M. N.


    The Middle East is a region historically sensitive to climate variability and change, and contains snowpacks that have been shown to be important inputs to key regional water resources, including the Tigris-Euphrates river system. Focusing on the Middle East (and the smaller snowpacks of northwestern Africa), this presentation aims to (i) quantify each year's snowpack development and recession over recent decades, highlighting interannual to decadal variability, and (ii) advance understanding on the connection between the snowpack variations and aspects of regional hydrology. The presentation draws on satellite-based products, station data, and model reanalyses. Variation is summarized using space-time statistical techniques, as well as simpler regional indices: Northwestern Iran / Southern Caucasus (NWIC, includes Zagros Mountains); Eastern Turkey (ETKY, includes Taurus Mountains); and smaller scale indices for Lebanon and the Atlas Mountains. The Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System archives daily snow cover extent at 24 km resolution for 1999-present (primarily from visible satellite imagery). These data show that for both NWIC and ETKY, the mean snow extent peaks in late January with substantial coverage ( 300,000 km2 in each region), contracting to near zero by late June. A very large mid-winter interannual variance is also shown, implying substantial variation in hydrologic impacts during spring melt. Variability and decadal trends are compared with station snow depth reports (Global Historical Climatology Network - Daily). Strong agreement gives confidence in data quality, as well as, indicating high covariation of depth and extent. The connection with hydrologic impacts is investigated using reanalysis products, including the Global Land Data Assimilation System V2, which for the Middle East, shows broad agreement with observed maximum snow extent and spring retreat. The connections internal to the reanalysis between snow cover, melt and

  19. Multiple states in the late Eocene ocean circulation (United States)

    Baatsen, M. L. J.; von der Heydt, A. S.; Kliphuis, M.; Viebahn, J.; Dijkstra, H. A.


    The Eocene-Oligocene Transition (EOT) marks a major step within the Cenozoic climate in going from a greenhouse into an icehouse state, with the formation of a continental-scale Antarctic ice sheet. The roles of steadily decreasing CO2 concentrations versus changes in ocean circulation at the EOT are still debated and the threshold for Antarctic glaciation is obscured by uncertainties in global geometry. Here, a detailed study of the late Eocene ocean circulation is carried out using an ocean general circulation model under two slightly different geography reconstructions of the middle-to-late Eocene (38 Ma). Using the same atmospheric forcing, both geographies give a profoundly different equilibrium ocean circulation state. The underlying reason for this sensitivity is the presence of multiple equilibria characterised by either North or South Pacific deep water formation. A possible shift from a southern towards a northern overturning circulation would result in significant changes in the global heat distribution and consequently make the Southern Hemisphere climate more susceptible for significant cooling and ice sheet formation on Antarctica.

  20. Early functional and morphological brain disturbances in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction. (United States)

    Starčević, Mirta; Predojević, Maja; Butorac, Dražan; Tumbri, Jasna; Konjevoda, Paško; Kadić, Aida Salihagić


    To determine whether the brain disturbances develop in late-onset intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) before blood flow redistribution towards the fetal brain (detected by Doppler measurements in the middle cerebral artery and umbilical artery). Further, to evaluate predictive values of Doppler arterial indices and umbilical cord blood gases and pH for early functional and/or morphological brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR. This cohort study included 60 singleton term pregnancies with placental insufficiency caused late-onset IUGR (IUGR occurring after 34 gestational weeks). Umbilical artery resistance index (URI), middle cerebral artery resistance index (CRI), and cerebroumbilical (C/U) ratio (CRI/URI) were monitored once weekly. Umbilical blood cord samples (arterial and venous) were collected for the analysis of pO2, pCO2 and pH. Morphological neurological outcome was evaluated by cranial ultrasound (cUS), whereas functional neurological outcome by Amiel-Tison Neurological Assessment at Term (ATNAT). 50 fetuses had C/U ratio>1, and 10 had C/U ratio≤1; among these 10 fetuses, 9 had abnormal neonatal cUS findings and all 10 had non-optimal ATNAT. However, the total number of abnormal neurological findings was much higher. 32 neonates had abnormal cUS (53.37%), and 42 (70.00%) had non-optimal ATNAT. Furthermore, Doppler indices had higher predictive validity for early brain disturbances than umbilical cord blood gases and pH. C/U ratio had the highest predictive validity with threshold for adverse neurological outcome at value 1.13 (ROC analysis), i.e., 1.18 (party machine learning algorithm). Adverse neurological outcome at average values of C/U ratios>1 confirmed that early functional and/or structural brain disturbances in late-onset IUGR develop even before activation of fetal cardiovascular compensatory mechanisms, i.e., before Doppler signs of blood flow redistribution between the fetal brain and the placenta. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd

  1. The Economy of Charity in Late Medieval Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Teresa Colesanti


    Full Text Available The study focuses on the financial management of the Hospital of the Annunziata in Naples and aims for a food for thought on the origins of the gift economy in Southern Italy during the Late Middle Ages. Thanks to the copious historical documentation, it has been possible to reconstruct and analyse: the remarkable financial assets, and the economic impact of the hospital, both in the city and in the kingdom; the economic and management competences of the hospital governors, their social class and geographical origin; the role played by the Royal Court and the Church in the construction process of a “Southern model” of charity network.

  2. Preliminary chronostratigraphy of the Tetagouche and Fournier groups in northern New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.W.; VanStaal, C.R.


    Seven U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic rocks from northern New Brunswick are reported and a preliminary stratigraphy of the middle Ordovician Tetagouche and Fournier groups is presented. Deposition of the Tetagouche Group started with calcareous rocks of the Vallee Lourdes Formation in the Late Arenig (>470 Ma). Quartz- and feldspar-phyric felsic volcanic rocks of the immediately overlying Nepisiquit Falls Formation yielded U-Pb zircon ages between ca. 471 and 469 Ma. These volcanic rocks are time stratigraphic equivalents of the feldspar-phyric dacites of the Spruce Lake Formation, which yielded a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 470 Ma, and tholeiitic and alkalic pillow basalts of the structurally overlying Canoe Landing Lake Formation. The final phase of rhyolitic to dacitic volcanism is marked by the emplacement of distinct quartz- and feldspar-phyric dacitic porphyries at ca. 465 Ma, thus limiting silicic volcanism to the Late Arenig and llanvim. During the Ilandeilo and Caradoc (ca. 464-457 Ma) volcanic activity in the Tetagouche Group was characterized by extrusion of alkali basalts and minor comendites, interlayered with dark shales and siltstones of the Boucher Brook Formation. Oceanic crust of the Fournier Group was also formed during this period. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs

  3. Preliminary chronostratigraphy of the Tetagouche and Fournier groups in northern New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R W; VanStaal, C R [Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Seven U-Pb zircon ages of volcanic rocks from northern New Brunswick are reported and a preliminary stratigraphy of the middle Ordovician Tetagouche and Fournier groups is presented. Deposition of the Tetagouche Group started with calcareous rocks of the Vallee Lourdes Formation in the Late Arenig (>470 Ma). Quartz- and feldspar-phyric felsic volcanic rocks of the immediately overlying Nepisiquit Falls Formation yielded U-Pb zircon ages between ca. 471 and 469 Ma. These volcanic rocks are time stratigraphic equivalents of the feldspar-phyric dacites of the Spruce Lake Formation, which yielded a U-Pb zircon age of ca. 470 Ma, and tholeiitic and alkalic pillow basalts of the structurally overlying Canoe Landing Lake Formation. The final phase of rhyolitic to dacitic volcanism is marked by the emplacement of distinct quartz- and feldspar-phyric dacitic porphyries at ca. 465 Ma, thus limiting silicic volcanism to the Late Arenig and llanvim. During the Ilandeilo and Caradoc (ca. 464-457 Ma) volcanic activity in the Tetagouche Group was characterized by extrusion of alkali basalts and minor comendites, interlayered with dark shales and siltstones of the Boucher Brook Formation. Oceanic crust of the Fournier Group was also formed during this period. (author). 29 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  4. A proposed global stratotype for the second series of the Ordovician system: Cow Head Peninsula, western Newfoundland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, S H [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NF (Canada); Barnes, C R [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Boyce, W D [Newfoundland Dept. of Mines and Energy, St. John' s, NF (Canada); O' Brien, F H C


    The first occurrence of Tetragraptus approximatus approximatus is now taken to mark the base of the second (Arenig) series of the Ordovician System. It is proposed that the Cow Head Peninsula, western Newfoundland, be adopted for Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP), with the boundary placed at the base of the T. approximatus Zone, 2.9 m above the base of the Factory Cove Member, Shallow Bay Formation of the Cow Head Group. The well-preserved graptolite fauna occurs in association with abundant conodonts, demonstrating this level to correspond closely with the base of the Prionodus elegans conodont Zone. Immediately underlying strata yield bithecate graptoloid assemblages, generally taken as indicating the latest part of the previous (Tremadoc) series. Neighbouring sections also yield typically Tremadoc deep-water trilobites from this level, permitting correlation between the three fossil groups. Other fossils including acritarchs, are also present in the Cow Head sections, which are structurally simple, of low thermal maturity (CAI 1.5 or less) and suitable for chemo- and magnetostratigraphic studies. 80 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Palynology of the middle jurassic lower graben sand formation of the U-1 well, Danish Central Trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelstad, T.


    Twenty-one sidewall core samples from the lower 56 metres of the Lower Graben Sand Formation in the U-1 well are described with respect to their kerogen content and microflora in order to gain a better understanding of the depositional environment and the age relations. Based on e.g. the inconsistent dinoflagellate cyst occurrences, marginal marine conditions are concluded. The dinoglagellate cyst Pareodinia prolongata, Acanthaulax senta, Scriniodinium crystallinum, Energlynia acollaris, Wanaea thysanota and Hystrichogonyaulax cladophora and the recovered playnomorph assemblage in general permit an age determination as follows: 21 m Collovian undifferentiated, 7.9 latest Middle Callovian - earliest Late Callovian, 6.1 m latest Late Callovian and 21 m latest Late Callovian. - earliest Early Oxfordian.

  6. Late Frasnian-Famennian climates based on palynomorph analyses and the question of the Late Devonian glaciations (United States)

    Streel, Maurice; Caputo, Mário V.; Loboziak, Stanislas; Melo, José Henrique G.


    Palynomorph distribution in Euramerica and western Gondwana, from the Latest Givetian to the Latest Famennian, may be explained, to some extent, by climatic changes. Detailed miospore stratigraphy dates accurately the successive steps of these changes. Interpretation is built on three postulates which are discussed: Euramerica at slightly lower latitudes than generally accepted by most paleomagnetic reconstructions; a conodont time-scale accepted as the most used available subdivision of time; and Late Devonian sea-level fluctuations mainly governed by glacio-eustasy. The Frasnian-Famennian timescale is also evaluated. The comparison, based on conodont correlations, between Givetian and most of the Frasnian miospore assemblages from, respectively, northern and southern Euramerica demonstrates a high taxonomic diversity in the equatorial belt and much difference between supposed equatorial and (sub) tropical vegetations. On the contrary, a similar vegetation pattern and therefore probably compatible climatic conditions were present from tropical to subpolar areas. A rather hot climate culminated during the Latest Frasnian when equatorial miospore assemblages reached their maximum width. The miospore diversity shows also a rather clear global Late Frasnian minimum which is also recorded during the Early and Middle Famennian but only in low latitude regions while, in high latitude, very cold climates without perennial snow may explain the scarcity of miospores and so, of vegetation. The Early and Middle Famennian conspicuous latitudinal gradient of the vegetation seems to attenuate towards the Late and Latest Famennian but this might be above all the result of the development, of cosmopolitan coastal lowland vegetations (downstream swamps) depending more on the moisture and equable local microclimates than on the probably adverse climates of distant hinterland areas. During that time, periods of cold climate without perennial snow cover and with rare vegetation may

  7. Distribution of Early, Middle, and Late Noachian cratered surfaces in the Martian highlands: Implications for resurfacing events and processes (United States)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Robbins, Stuart J.


    Most of the geomorphic changes on Mars occurred during the Noachian Period, when the rates of impact crater degradation and valley network incision were highest. Fluvial erosion around the Noachian/Hesperian transition is better constrained than the longer-term landscape evolution throughout the Noachian Period, when the highland intercrater geomorphic surfaces developed. We interpret highland resurfacing events and processes using a new global geologic map of Mars (at 1:20,000,000 scale), a crater data set that is complete down to 1 km in diameter, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography. The Early Noachian highland (eNh) unit is nearly saturated with craters of 32-128 km diameter, the Middle Noachian highland (mNh) unit has a resurfacing age of ~4 Ga, and the Late Noachian highland unit (lNh) includes younger composite surfaces of basin fill and partially buried cratered terrain. These units have statistically distinct ages, and their distribution varies with elevation. The eNh unit is concentrated in the high-standing Hellas basin annulus and in highland terrain that was thinly mantled by basin ejecta near 180° longitude. The mNh unit includes most of Arabia Terra, the Argyre vicinity, highland plateau areas between eNh outcrops, and the Thaumasia range. The lNh unit mostly occurs within highland basins. Crater depth/diameter ratios do not vary strongly between the eNh and mNh units, although crater losses to Noachian resurfacing appear greater in lower lying areas. Noachian resurfacing was spatially non-uniform, long-lived, and gravity-driven, more consistent with arid-zone fluvial and aeolian erosion and volcanism than with air fall mantling or mass wasting.

  8. Application of small intestine decompression combined with oral feeding in middle and late period of malignant small bowel obstruction. (United States)

    Li, Dechun; Du, Hongtao; Shao, Guoqing; Guo, Yongtuan; Lu, Wan; Li, Ruihong


    The application value of small intestine decompression combined with oral feeding in the middle and late period of malignant small bowel obstruction was examined. A total of 22 patients with advanced malignant small bowel obstruction were included in the present study. An ileus tube was inserted via the nose under fluoroscopy into the obstructed small intestine of each patient. At the same time, the insertion depth the of the catheter was adjusted. When the catheter was blocked, small bowel selective angiography was performed to determine the location and cause of the obstruction and the extent of the obstruction, and to determine the length of the small intestine in the site of obstruction, and to select the variety and tolerance of enteral nutrition. We observed the decompression tube flow and ease of intestinal obstruction. In total, 20 patients were treated with oral enteral nutrition after abdominal distension, and 22 cases were treated by the nose to observe the drainage and the relief of intestinal obstruction. The distal end of the catheter was placed in a predetermined position. The symptoms of intestinal obstruction were relieved 1-4 days after decompression. The 22 patients with selective angiography of the small intestine showed positive X-ray signs: 18 patients with oral enteral nutrition therapy had improved the nutritional situation 2 weeks later. In 12 cases, where there was anal defecation exhaust, 2 had transient removal of intestinal obstruction catheter. In conclusion, this comprehensive treatment based on small intestine decompression combined with enteral nutrition is expected to become a new therapeutic approach and method for the treatment of patients with advanced tumor small bowel obstruction.

  9. Palaeohydrological corridors for hominin dispersals in the Middle East ∼250-70,000 years ago (United States)

    Breeze, Paul S.; Groucutt, Huw S.; Drake, Nick A.; White, Tom S.; Jennings, Richard P.; Petraglia, Michael D.


    The timing and extent of palaeoenvironmental connections between northeast Africa, the Levant and the Arabian Peninsula during the Middle and Late Pleistocene are critical to debates surrounding dispersals of hominins, including movements of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Although there is evidence that synchronous episodes of climatic amelioration during the late Middle and Late Pleistocene may have allowed connections to form between northern Africa and western Asia, a number of palaeoclimate models indicate the continued existence of an arid barrier between northern Arabia and the Levant. Here we evaluate the palaeoenvironmental setting for hominin dispersals between, and within, northeast Africa and southwest Asia during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 7-5 using reconstructions of surface freshwater availability as an environmental proxy. We use remotely sensed data to map palaeohydrological features (lakes, wetlands and rivers) across the presently hyper-arid areas of northern Arabia and surrounding regions, integrating these results with palaeoclimate models, palaeoenvironmental proxy data and absolute dating to determine when these features were active. Our analyses suggest limited potential for dispersals during MIS 7 and 6, but indicate the formation of a palaeohydrological corridor (the 'Tabuk Corridor') between the Levant and the Arabian interior during the MIS 6-5e glacial-interglacial transition and during MIS 5e. A recurrence of this corridor, following a slightly different route, also occurred during MIS 5a. These palaeohydrological and terrestrial data can be used to establish when proposed routes for hominin dispersals became viable. Furthermore, the distribution of Arabian archaeological sites with affinities to Levantine assemblages, some of which are associated with Homo sapiens fossils, and the relative density of Middle Palaeolithic assemblages within the Tabuk Corridor, are consistent with it being utilised for dispersals at various times.

  10. Origin and radiation of the earliest vascular land plants. (United States)

    Steemans, Philippe; Hérissé, Alain Le; Melvin, John; Miller, Merrell A; Paris, Florentin; Verniers, Jacques; Wellman, Charles H


    Colonization of the land by plants most likely occurred in a stepwise fashion starting in the Mid-Ordovician. The earliest flora of bryophyte-like plants appears to have been cosmopolitan and dominated the planet, relatively unchanged, for some 30 million years. It is represented by fossilized dispersed cryptospores and fragmentary plant remains. In the Early Silurian, cryptospore abundance and diversity diminished abruptly as trilete spores appeared, became abundant, and underwent rapid diversification. This change coincides approximately with the appearance of vascular plant megafossils and probably represents the origin and adaptive radiation of vascular plants. We have obtained a diverse trilete spore occurrence from the Late Ordovician that suggests that vascular plants originated and diversified earlier than previously hypothesized, in Gondwana, before migrating elsewhere and secondarily diversifying.

  11. Late Paleocene-middle Eocene benthic foraminifera on a Pacific seamount (Allison Guyot, ODP Site 865): Greenhouse climate and superimposed hyperthermal events (United States)

    Arreguín-Rodríguez, Gabriela J.; Alegret, Laia; Thomas, Ellen


    We investigated the response of late Paleocene-middle Eocene (~60-37.5 Ma) benthic foraminiferal assemblages to long-term climate change and hyperthermal events including the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 on Allison Guyot, a seamount in the Mid-Pacific Mountains. Seamounts are isolated deep-sea environments where enhanced current systems interrupt bentho-pelagic coupling, and fossil assemblages from such settings have been little evaluated. Assemblages at Site 865 are diverse and dominated by cylindrical calcareous taxa with complex apertures, an extinct group which probably lived infaunally. Dominance of an infaunal morphogroup is unexpected in a highly oligotrophic setting, but these forms may have been shallow infaunal suspension feeders, which were ecologically successful on the current-swept seamount. The magnitude of the PETM extinction at Site 865 was similar to other sites globally, but lower diversity postextinction faunas at this location were affected by ocean acidification as well as changes in current regime, which might have led to increased nutrient supply through trophic focusing. A minor hyperthermal saw less severe effects of changes in current regime, with no evidence for carbonate dissolution. Although the relative abundance of infaunal benthic foraminifera has been used as a proxy for surface productivity through bentho-pelagic coupling, we argue that this proxy can be used only in the absence of changes in carbonate saturation and current-driven biophysical linking.

  12. A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist- to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Sunal, Gürsel; Altherr, Rainer; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.


    The Eastern Mediterranean region within the Tethyan belt is characterised by two main pulses of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation during the Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Despite vast exposures of the Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes, related suprasubduction-zone ophiolites and the timing of subduction initiation leading to the formation of Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes are unknown so far. Here we report on a 40 km long and 0.3 to 1.8 km wide metaophiolite fragment within transitional greenschist- to blueschist-facies oceanic rocks from NW Turkey. The metaophiolite fragment is made up mainly of serpentinite and minor dykes or stocks of strongly sheared metagabbro with mineral assemblages involving actinolite/winchite, chlorite, epidote, albite, titanite and phengite. The metagabbro displays (i) variable CaO and MgO contents, (ii) anomalously high Mg# (= 100 ∗ molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot)) of 75-88, and (iii) positive Eu anomalies, together with low contents of incompatible elements such as Ti, P and Zr, suggesting derivation from former plagioclase cumulates. The serpentinites comprise serpentine, ± chlorite, ± talc, ± calcite and relict Cr-Al spinel surrounded by ferrichromite to magnetite. Relict Cr-Al spinels are characterised by (i) Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios of 0.45-0.56 and Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) ratio of 0.76-0.22, (ii) variable contents of ZnO and MnO, and (iii) extremely low TiO2 contents. Zn and Mn contents are probably introduced into Cr-Al spinels during greenschist- to blueschist metamorphism. Compositional features of the serpentinite such as (i) Ca- and Al-depleted bulk compositions, (ii) concave U-shaped, chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns (REE) with enrichment of light and heavy REEs, imply that serpentinites were probably derived from depleted peridotites which were refertilised by light rare earth element enriched melts in a suprasubduction-zone mantle wedge. U-Pb dating on igneous zircons from three metagabbro

  13. U-Pb SHRIMP-RG zircon ages and Nd signature of lower Paleozoic rifting-related magmatism in the Variscan basement of the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Martinez, F.J.; Iriondo, A.; Dietsch, C.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Peucat, J.J.; Cires, J.; Reche, J.; Capdevila, R.


    The ages of orthogneisses exposed in massifs of the Variscan chain can determine whether they are part of a pre-Neoproterozoic basement, a Neoproterozoic, Panafrican arc, or are, in fact, lower Paleozoic, and their isotopic compositions can be used to probe the nature of their source rocks, adding to the understanding of the types, distribution, and tectonic evolution of peri-Gondwanan crystalline basement. Using SHRIMP U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd isotopic analysis, pre-Variscan metaigneous rocks from the N??ria massif in the Eastern Pyrenean axial zone and the Guilleries massif, 70km to the south, have been dated and their Nd signatures characterized. All dated orthogneisses from the N??ria massif have the same age within error, ~457Ma, including the Ribes granophyre, interpreted as a subvolcanic unit within Caradocian sediments contemporaneous with granitic magmas intruded into Cambro-Ordovician sediments at deeper levels. Orthogneisses in the Guilleries massif record essentially continuous magmatic activity during the Ordovician, beginning at the Cambro-Ordovician boundary (488??3Ma) and reaching a peak in the volume of magma in the early Late Ordovician (~460Ma). Metavolcanic rocks in the Guilleries massif were extruded at 452??4Ma and appear to have their intrusive equivalent in thin, deformed veins of granitic gneiss (451??7Ma) within metasedimentary rocks. In orthogneisses from both massifs, the cores of some zircons yield Neoproterozoic ages between ~520 and 900Ma. The age of deposition of a pre-Late Ordovician metapelite in the Guilleries massif is bracketed by the weighted average age of the youngest detrital zircon population, 582??11Ma, and the age of cross-cutting granitic veins, 451??7Ma. Older detrital zircons populations in this metapelite include Neoproterozoic (749-610Ma; n=10), Neo- to Mesoproterozoic (1.04-0.86Ga; n=7), Paleoproterozoic (2.02-1.59Ga; n=5), and Neoarchean (2.74-2.58Ga; n=3). Nd isotopic analyses of the N??ria and Guilleries

  14. A new early brachyuran (Crustacea, Decapoda) from the Middle Jurassic of northwest France, epibionts and ecological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robin, N.; Bakel, van B.W.M.; Hondt, d' J.-L.; Charbonnier, S.


    The earliest known crabs are of Early and Middle Jurassic age; in general, they are rare. Here we describe a new species of homolodromioid from the late Bathonian of Sarthe (France), based on a single dorsal carapace, Tanidromites raboeufi n. sp. This specimen has mostly well-preserved cuticle, and

  15. Auditory Middle Latency Responses in Chronic Smokers Compared to Nonsmokers: Differential Effects of Stimulus and Age (United States)

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Beverly, Brenda L.


    Purpose: Effects of clicks and tonebursts on early and late auditory middle latency response (AMLR) components were evaluated in young and older cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. Method: Participants ( n = 49) were categorized by smoking and age into 4 groups: (a) older smokers, (b) older nonsmokers, (c) young smokers, and (d) young nonsmokers.…

  16. Cortical thickness abnormalities in late adolescence with online gaming addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yuan

    Full Text Available Online gaming addiction, as the most popular subtype of Internet addiction, had gained more and more attention from the whole world. However, the structural differences in cortical thickness of the brain between adolescents with online gaming addiction and healthy controls are not well unknown; neither was its association with the impaired cognitive control ability. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging scans from late adolescence with online gaming addiction (n = 18 and age-, education- and gender-matched controls (n = 18 were acquired. The cortical thickness measurement method was employed to investigate alterations of cortical thickness in individuals with online gaming addiction. The color-word Stroop task was employed to investigate the functional implications of the cortical thickness abnormalities. Imaging data revealed increased cortical thickness in the left precentral cortex, precuneus, middle frontal cortex, inferior temporal and middle temporal cortices in late adolescence with online gaming addiction; meanwhile, the cortical thicknesses of the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, insula, lingual gyrus, the right postcentral gyrus, entorhinal cortex and inferior parietal cortex were decreased. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the cortical thicknesses of the left precentral cortex, precuneus and lingual gyrus correlated with duration of online gaming addiction and the cortical thickness of the OFC correlated with the impaired task performance during the color-word Stroop task in adolescents with online gaming addiction. The findings in the current study suggested that the cortical thickness abnormalities of these regions may be implicated in the underlying pathophysiology of online gaming addiction.

  17. Terpenoid Compositions and Botanical Origins of Late Cretaceous and Miocene Amber from China (United States)

    Shi, Gongle; Dutta, Suryendu; Paul, Swagata; Wang, Bo; Jacques, Frédéric M. B.


    The terpenoid compositions of the Late Cretaceous Xixia amber from Central China and the middle Miocene Zhangpu amber from Southeast China were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to elucidate their botanical origins. The Xixia amber is characterized by sesquiterpenoids, abietane and phyllocladane type diterpenoids, but lacks phenolic abietanes and labdane derivatives. The molecular compositions indicate that the Xixia amber is most likely contributed by the conifer family Araucariaceae, which is today distributed primarily in the Southern Hemisphere, but widely occurred in the Northern Hemisphere during the Mesozoic according to paleobotanical evidence. The middle Miocene Zhangpu amber is characterized by amyrin and amyrone-based triterpenoids and cadalene-based sesquiterpenoids. It is considered derived from the tropical angiosperm family Dipterocarpaceae based on these compounds and the co-occurring fossil winged fruits of the family in Zhangpu. This provides new evidence for the occurrence of a dipterocarp forest in the middle Miocene of Southeast China. It is the first detailed biomarker study for amber from East Asia. PMID:25354364

  18. Multiple-stage diagenetic alteration and fluid history of Ordovician carbonate-hosted barite mineralization, Southern Quebec Appalachians (United States)

    Paradis, Suzanne; Lavoie, Denis


    Lower Ordovician bioclastic limestone of the Upton Group, southern Quebec Appalachians, hosts stratabound Ba-Zn-Pb mineralization. The Upton Group, a mixed platform carbonate-siliciclastic-volcanic succession, is exposed as windows within the tectonically overlying Cambrian siliciclastics of the Granby Nappe. Mineralization consists mostly of barite and minor amounts of sulfides (sphalerite, pyrite, galena, and chalcopyrite), in addition to calcite, quartz and bitumen cements. It is hosted by a bioclastic limestone which is interbedded with and capped by a black calcareous shale, and underlain by a mudstone-siltstone-volcanic succession and a lower poorly fossiliferous limestone. The lower limestone recorded early extensive dolomitization followed by meteoric alteration (dedolomitization, sulphate dissolution, vadose cements, soil pisoids, etc.), and burial diagenesis (recrystallization, fracturation, and cementation). The vadose gravitational calcite cements yield δ 18O PDB values of -8.4 to -11.0‰ andδ 13C PDB values of +2.4 to +2.8‰. The thin soil profiles with pisoids have a δ 18O PDB value of -8.2‰ and a δ 13C PDB value of +2.0‰. These data suggest an evaporative 18O-enrichment of near-surface trapped soil moisture (vadose water) in a rock-dominated diagenetic system. The recrystallized limestone hasδ 18O PDB values of -11.4 to -15.5‰ and near Early Ordovician marine δ 13C PDB values of -0.2 to +2.5‰. These data suggest a final stabilization of the limestone from high temperature fluids in a rock-dominated diagenetic system. The mineralized bioclastic limestone shows rare evidence of early submarine cementation which is overprinted by significant post-depositional recrystallization and hydrothermal alteration. The latter resulted in the generation of secondary porosity and precipitation of a subhedral barite cement, a bladed barite cement, and fracture-filling barite. Fracture- and void-filling calcite, sulfides, quartz and bitumen

  19. 14C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.M.; Gauss, W.; Forstenpointner, G.; Lindblom, M.; Smetana, R.; Steier, P.; Thanheiser, U.; Weninger, F.


    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been 14 C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the 14 C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna 14 C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  20. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of the Lopingian (Late Permian) coal measures in southwestern China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hao [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Shao, Longyi; Hao, Liming; Zhang, Pengfei [School of Geosciences and Surveying Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China); Glasspool, Ian J. [Department of Geology, Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Wheeley, James R.; Hilton, Jason [School of Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Wignall, Paul B. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds (United Kingdom); Yi, Tongsheng [Guizhou Bureau of Coal Geological Exploration, Guiyang, Guizhou (China); Zhang, Mingquan [Coal Geology and Prospecting Institute of Yunnan Province, Kunming, Yunnan (China)


    The Lopingian coal measures of southwestern China were deposited within a range of facies associations spanning a spectrum of settings from fluvial to marine carbonate platform. The transitional to terrestrial coal measures are dominated by siliciclastics, but they also contain fifteen laterally extensive marine bands (limestone beds and mudstone). These bands act as marker horizons that enable correlation between fully marine and terrestrial facies. Examination of this range of facies and their sedimentology has enabled the development of a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic framework. Set against the established backdrop of second-order Lopingian transgression, sixteen fourth-order sequences and three composite sequences (third-order) are recognized. Results show that, in the composite sequences, peat accumulation in the seaward parts of the study area predominantly correlates with early transgressive sequence sets (TSS), while in more landward areas it correlates with the middle TSS to late highstand sequence sets (HSS). Differences in peat-accumulation regimes within the sequence stratigraphic framework are attributed to variations in subsidence and background siliciclastic input rates in different depositional settings, with these combining to produce differences in the rate of accommodation change. The preservation of coal resources in the middle to late HSS in this area was most likely related to the rise of the regional base level throughout the Lopingian. (author)

  1. Metre-scale cyclicity in Middle Eocene platform carbonates in northern Egypt: Implications for facies development and sequence stratigraphy (United States)

    Tawfik, Mohamed; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Moussa, Mahmoud


    The shallow-water carbonates of the Middle Eocene in northern Egypt represent a Tethyan reef-rimmed carbonate platform with bedded inner-platform facies. Based on extensive micro- and biofacies documentation, five lithofacies associations were defined and their respective depositional environments were interpreted. Investigated sections were subdivided into three third-order sequences, named S1, S2 and S3. Sequence S1 is interpreted to correspond to the Lutetian, S2 corresponds to the Late Lutetian and Early Bartonian, and S3 represents the Late Bartonian. Each of the three sequences was further subdivided into fourth-order cycle sets and fifth-order cycles. The complete hierarchy of cycles can be correlated along 190 km across the study area, and highlighting a general "layer-cake" stratigraphic architecture. The documentation of the studied outcrops may contribute to the better regional understanding of the Middle Eocene formations in northern Egypt and to Tethyan pericratonic carbonate models in general.

  2. Subduction and exhumation of a continental margin in the Scandinavian Caledonides: Insights from ultrahigh pressure metamorphism, late orogenic basins and 3D numerical modelling (United States)

    Cuthbert, Simon


    The Scandinavian Caledonides (SC) represents a plate collision zone of Himalayan style and scale. Three fundamental characteristics of this orogen are: (1) early foreland-directed, tectonic transport and stacking of nappes; (2) late, wholesale reversal of tectonic transport; (3) ultrahigh pressure metamorphism of felsic crust derived from the underthrusting plate at several levels in the orogenic wedge and below the main thrust surface, indicating subduction of continental crust into the mantle. The significance of this for crustal evolution is the profound remodeling of continental crust, direct geochemical interaction of such crust and the mantle and the opening of accommodation space trapping large volumes of clastic detritus within the orogen. The orogenic wedge of the SC was derived from the upper crust of the Baltica continental margin (a hyper-extended passive margin), plus terranes derived from an assemblage of outboard arcs and intra-oceanic basins and, at the highest structural level, elements of the Laurentian margin. Nappe emplacement was driven by Scandian ( 430Ma) collision of Baltica with Laurentia, but emerging Middle Ordovician ages for diamond-facies metamorphism for the most outboard (or rifted) elements of Baltica suggest prior collision with an arc or microcontinent. Nappes derived from Baltica continental crust were subducted, in some cases to depths sufficient to form diamond. These then detached from the upper part of the down-going plate along major thrust faults, at which time they ceased to descend and possibly rose along the subduction channel. Subduction of the remaining continental margin continued below these nappes, possibly driven by slab-pull of the previously subducted Iapetus oceanic lithosphere and metamorphic densification of subducted felsic continental margin. 3D numerical modelling based upon a Caledonide-like plate scenario shows that if a continental corner or promontory enters the subduction zone, the continental margin

  3. Medieval virtues as public values? The burgeoning public sector and the articulation of public values in Late Medieval Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenberg, J.


    Public values research is a major topic in public administration science, but little attention has been given to the origin of public values. This article traces the origin of public values to the development of the public sphere and public offices in the late Middle Ages, a period often dismissed

  4. Hyperextension in the Caledonian margin of Baltica and its bearing on the structural and metamorphic evolution of Scandinavian Caledonides (Invited) (United States)

    Andersen, T. B.


    The Scandinavian segment (~2000 km) of the Caledonian-Appalachian orogen formed by a head-on collision of Baltica and Laurentia. The collision followed rapid (>10 cm/yr) convergence, subduction and closure of the Iapetus Ocean in the Ordovician to the Middle Silurian. The collision culminated in a Himalayan type continental collision at 430 Ma, after which the continental subduction/convergence continued for 20 Myr. The terminal stage was characterized by syn- and post-orogenic extension and exhumation, which produced a template used in opening of the present-day Norwegian Sea. The Scandian collision produced a 'layer-cake' tectono-stratigraphy, but correlation of individual nappe units along strike is not trivial. The vestiges of the Iapetus can, however, be traced along the entire Scandinavian Peninsula and constitute the Iapetus suture. Rocks of assumed Laurentian origin structurally overlie the suture. The outboard units underwent several orogenic events that pre-date the Scandian collision and which took place outboard of Baltica. These will not be discussed further here. The Caledonian passive margin of Baltica was very wide, consisting of non-volcanic hyperextended segments as well as passive volcanic margin domains. Basement-cover pairs, in places with mafic dyke-swarms constitute most of these units. The Baltican and assumed Baltican units below the suture have evidence of diachronous and relatively locally developed pre-Scandian deformation and metamorphic events. In S. Norway large basement-cover units are separated by a melange with numerous solitary mantle peridotites and a number of detrital serpentinites. The melange can be traced along strike across S. Norway. Locally, an island-type ';Celtic' fauna is preserved in detrital serpentinite. Some mantle rocks were structurally emplaced, exhumed, eroded and juxtaposed with continental clastics and crust before the Early Ordovician. The melange was recently interpreted to represent an oceanic to

  5. Compound-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Evidence of Late Quaternary Paleohydrologic Change from the Atlantic Coastal Plain, North Carolina, USA (United States)

    Lane, C.; Taylor, A. K.; Spencer, J.; Jones, K.


    Reconstructions of late Quaternary paleohydrology are rare from the U.S. Atlantic coastal plain (ACP). Here we present compound-specific hydrogen isotope analyses of terrestrially-derived n-alkanes (δ2Halkane) from Jones Lake and Singletary Lake in eastern North Carolina spanning the last 50,000 years. Combined with prior pollen, charcoal, and bulk sediment geochemical analyses, the δ2Halkane data indicate arid conditions during the late-Pleistocene, but marked differences in edaphic conditions at the two sites likely due to differing water table depths. The Pleistocene-Holocene transition is marked by rapid fluctuations in δ2Halkane values that resemble the Bølling Allerød and Younger Dryas climatic events indicating potential sensitivity of regional hydrology to rapid climate change. The δ2Halkane data indicate a generally mesic Holocene that supported colonization by Quercus-dominated ecosystems during the early to middle Holocene. Evidence of increased aridity on the in eastern Tennessee and western North Carolina contrasts with evidence of mesic conditions in eastern North Carolina during the middle to late Holocene, a geographic pattern similar to modern teleconnected precipitation responses to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. This pattern may be indicative of a stronger Pacific basin influence on regional paleoprecipitation patterns than the distally-closer Atlantic. A transition from Quercus-to Pinus-dominated ecosystems 5500 cal yr B.P. is accompanied by a large increase in charcoal abundance, but is not coincident with any high-amplitude changes in the δ2Halkane record, indicating that precipitation variability was not likely the mechanism responsible for this ecological transition. While further development of regional paleohydrological records is necessary, the lack of a clear change in middle Holocene precipitation dynamics and the temporally-heterogeneous nature of the Quercus-Pinus transition in the region indicate prehistoric anthropogenic

  6. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine


    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...... expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group...... included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...

  7. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages. (United States)

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier


    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  8. Relationship between marijuana and other illicit drug use and depression/suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults. (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y


    Despite growing numbers of older-adult illicit drug users, research on this topic is rare. This study examined the relationship between marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and major depressive episode (MDE) and serious suicidal thoughts among those aged 50+ years in the USA. The public use files of the 2008 to 2012 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provided data on 29,634 individuals aged 50+ years. Logistic regression analysis was used to test hypothesized associations between past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and MDE and serious suicidal thoughts. Nearly 6% of the 50+ years age group reported past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use. Compared to non-users of any illicit drug, the odds of past-year MDE among those who used marijuana only, other illicit drugs only, and marijuana and other illicit drugs were 1.54 (95% CI = 1.17-2.03), 2.75 (95% CI = 1.75-4.33), and 2.12 (95% CI = 1.45-3.09), respectively. Those who used marijuana and other drugs also had higher odds (2.44, 95% CI = 1.58-3.77) of suicidal thoughts than non-users of any illicit drug. However, among users of any illicit drug, no difference was found among users of marijuana only, marijuana and other illicit drugs, and other illicit drugs only. Among marijuana users, marijuana use frequency was a significant correlate of suicidal thoughts only among those with MDE. Health and mental health (MH) service providers should pay close attention to the potential reciprocal effects of marijuana and other illicit drug use and MDE and suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

  9. Globacrochordiceras gen. nov. (Acrochordiceratidae, late Early Triassic and its significance for stress-induced evolutionary jumps in ammonoid lineages (cephalopods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Monnet


    Full Text Available Globacrochordiceras transpacificum gen. et sp. nov. is an ammonoid (Ammonoidea, Cephalopoda with a shell characterized by plicate ribbing (rounded and undulating ribs strengthening on the venter without interruption, increasing involution through ontogeny, overhanging and deep umbilical wall, absence of tuberculation, subtriangular whorl section, globose adult shape with a closed umbilicus followed by an abrupt egressive coiling, and a subammonitic adult suture line. This new taxon occurs in Nevada (USA and in Guangxi (South China. It has its typical occurrence within the Neopopanoceras haugi Zone of late Spathian age (Early Triassic. The plicate ribbing, suture line and general shell shape are diagnostic of the family Acrochordiceratidae. The large adult size, high degree of involution and subammonitic suture line of Globacrochordiceras markedly contrast with the next younger genus of the family (Paracrochordiceras of early Anisian age, Middle Triassic, which is evolute and displays a ceratitic suture shape. Shell coiling and suture line of Globacrochordiceras are closer to that of the youngest member of the family: Acrochordiceras carolinae (late middle Anisian. The latter is the end-member of a long-term morphological evolutionary trend of the family during the early and middle Anisian. This trend composed of classical increases in adult size (Cope's rule, shell involution and suture indentation, lasted ca. four Myr. The sudden morphological evolutionary jump between Globacrochordiceras and Paracrochordiceras at the Spathian/Anisian (Early/Middle Triassic boundary may correspond to a generalized morphological reset of long-term trends, a process that differs from classic paedomorphic transformations. A dramatic global sea level change and carbon isotope positive excursion at the Early/Middle Triassic boundary both indicate stressful environmental changes that may have triggered this evolutionary jump. doi:10.1002/mmng.201300010

  10. Cervical cancer prevention: new guidelines in the United States and new opportunities for low- and middle-income countries. (United States)

    Waxman, Alan G


    Developments from late 2011 to early 2013, including consensus conferences and the introduction of low-cost, rapid-turnaround testing of human papillomavirus, will change prevention strategies for cervical cancer in the United States and in low- and middle-income countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Late Miocene onset of the Amazon River and the Amazon deep-sea fan: Evidence from the Foz do Amazonas Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figueiredo, J.; Hoorn, C.; van der Ven, P.; Soares, E.


    New biostratigraphic, isotopic, and well log data from exploration wells on the outer continental shelf and uppermost Amazon deep-sea fan, Brazil, reveal that the Amazon River was initiated as a transcontinental river between 11.8 and 11.3 Ma ago (middle to late Miocene), and reached its present

  12. A new long-proboscid genus of Pseudopolycentropodidae (Mecoptera from the Middle Jurassic of China and its plant-host specializations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChungKun Shih


    Full Text Available We describe a new genus and species of Mecoptera with siphonate mouthparts, Sinopolycentropus rasnitsyni gen. et sp. n., assigned to the family Pseudopolycentropodidae Handlirsch, 1925. The specimen was collected from late middle Jurassic nonmarine strata of the Jiulongshan Formation in Inner Mongolia, northeastern China. The new material provides additional evidence for an early diversification of pseudopolycentropodids that was ongoing during the middle Jurassic. This diversity also adds to the variety of known pseudopolycentropodids with tubular proboscides that apparently fed on ovulate fluids produced by Mesozoic gymnosperms.

  13. Ordovician of the Sauk megasequence in the Ozark region of northern Arkansas and parts of Missouri and adjacent states: Chapter 11 (United States)

    Ethington, Raymond L.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.


    Exposures of Ordovician rocks of the Sauk megasequence in Missouri and northern Arkansas comprise Ibexian and lower Whiterockian carbonates with interspersed sandstones. Subjacent Cambrian strata are exposed in Missouri but confined to the subsurface in Arkansas. The Sauk-Tippecanoe boundary in this region is at the base of the St. Peter Sandstone. Ulrich and associates divided the Arkansas section into formations early in the 20th century, principally based on sparse collections of fossil invertebrates. In contrast, the distribution of invertebrate faunas and modern studies of conodonts will be emphasized throughout this chapter. Early workers considered many of the stratigraphic units to be separated by unconformities, but modern analysis calls into question the unconformable nature of some of their boundaries. The physical similarity of the several dolomites and sandstones, complex facies relations, and lack of continuous exposures make identification of individual formations difficult in isolated outcrops.

  14. Predicting transitions in low and high levels of risk behavior from early to middle adolescence: the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.; Harakeh, Z.; Lugtig, P.; Huizink, A.; Creemers, H.E.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; van Oort, F.; Ormel, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.


    The present study examined the joint development of substance use and externalizing problems in early and middle adolescence. First, it was tested whether the relevant groups found in previous studies i.e., those with an early onset, a late onset, and no onset or low levels of risk behavior could be

  15. Family Perspectives on Siblings' Conflict Goals in Middle Childhood: Links to Hierarchical and Affective Features of Sibling Relationships (United States)

    Recchia, Holly E.; Witwit, Ma-ab


    This study examined parents' and children's descriptions of older and younger siblings' conflict goals in the late preschool and middle childhood years, and how these attributions were related to sibling relationship quality. Parents and 4- to 10-year-old children from 62 families were interviewed separately about siblings' motivations in two…

  16. Ancient DNA from South-East Europe Reveals Different Events during Early and Middle Neolithic Influencing the European Genetic Heritage. (United States)

    Hervella, Montserrat; Rotea, Mihai; Izagirre, Neskuts; Constantinescu, Mihai; Alonso, Santos; Ioana, Mihai; Lazăr, Cătălin; Ridiche, Florin; Soficaru, Andrei Dorian; Netea, Mihai G; de-la-Rua, Concepcion


    The importance of the process of Neolithization for the genetic make-up of European populations has been hotly debated, with shifting hypotheses from a demic diffusion (DD) to a cultural diffusion (CD) model. In this regard, ancient DNA data from the Balkan Peninsula, which is an important source of information to assess the process of Neolithization in Europe, is however missing. In the present study we show genetic information on ancient populations of the South-East of Europe. We assessed mtDNA from ten sites from the current territory of Romania, spanning a time-period from the Early Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. mtDNA data from Early Neolithic farmers of the Starčevo Criş culture in Romania (Cârcea, Gura Baciului and Negrileşti sites), confirm their genetic relationship with those of the LBK culture (Linienbandkeramik Kultur) in Central Europe, and they show little genetic continuity with modern European populations. On the other hand, populations of the Middle-Late Neolithic (Boian, Zau and Gumelniţa cultures), supposedly a second wave of Neolithic migration from Anatolia, had a much stronger effect on the genetic heritage of the European populations. In contrast, we find a smaller contribution of Late Bronze Age migrations to the genetic composition of Europeans. Based on these findings, we propose that permeation of mtDNA lineages from a second wave of Middle-Late Neolithic migration from North-West Anatolia into the Balkan Peninsula and Central Europe represent an important contribution to the genetic shift between Early and Late Neolithic populations in Europe, and consequently to the genetic make-up of modern European populations.

  17. Effects of irregular basement structure on the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the Quebec Appalachians: Interpretations from well and seismic reflection data (United States)

    Konstantinovskaya, E.; Malo, M.; Badina, F.


    Irregular basement geometry may affect thrust propagation in foreland fold-thrust belts creating a perturbation in structural continuity of hydrocarbon fields. Here we investigate how the irregular pattern of normal faults, along with the presence of uplifts and transverse faults in the Grenvillian basement has influenced the geometry and emplacement of frontal thrusts and duplexes in the parautochthonous domain of the southern Quebec Appalachians during the middle-late Ordovician Taconian orogeny. Integration of data from surface geology, wells, and 2D and 3D seismic reflection surveys into a regional-scale structural model is used to reconstruct the 3D geometry and emplacement history of one- and two-horse duplexes in the Joly-Saint-Flavien gas storage area. The normal hinterland to foreland sequence of thrusting in this area is complicated by the differential emplacement of tectonic slices along strike of the orogenic front, starting in the SW and developing subsequently to the NE within each structural level. The shortening related to duplex emplacement decreases laterally over the distance of 20 km from - 49% in the SW (Joly area) to - 31% in the NE (Saint-Flavien area). Duplex emplacement resulted from the differential forward propagation, deflexion and vertical-axis rotation of the roof thrust (Logan's Line), which, in turn, has been induced by the presence of frontal uplift and transverse faults in the basement. The structural-lithological analysis of tectonic slices and restoration of their initial location allows us to consider the lower slice of the Joly duplex as a structural trap comparable to the fractured reservoir in lower Ordovician dolomites of the Saint-Flavien duplex.

  18. Fluvial system response to Late Devensian (Weichselian) aridity, Baston, Lincolnshire, England (United States)

    Briant, Rebecca M.; Coope, G. Russell; Preece, Richard C.; Keen, David H.; Boreham, Steve; Griffiths, Huw I.; Seddon, Mary B.; Gibbard, Philip L.


    Little is known about the impact of Late Devensian (Weichselian) aridity on lowland British landscapes, largely because they lack the widespread coversand deposits of the adjacent continent. The concentration of large interformational ice-wedge casts in the upper part of many Devensian fluvial sequences suggests that fluvial activity may have decreased considerably during this time. The development of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating enables this period of ice-wedge cast formation to be constrained for the first time in eastern England, where a marked horizon of ice-wedge casts is found between two distinctive dateable facies associations. Contrasts between this horizon and adjacent sediments show clear changes in environment and fluvial system behaviour in response to changing water supply, in line with palaeontological evidence. In addition to providing chronological control on the period of ice-wedge formation, the study shows good agreement of the radiocarbon and OSL dating techniques during the Middle and Late Devensian, with direct comparison of these techniques beyond 15 000 yr for the first time in Britain. It is suggested that aridity during the Late Devensian forced a significant decrease in fluvial activity compared with preceding and following periods, initiating a system with low peak flows and widespread permafrost development. Copyright


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    Full Text Available The biochron of the subfamily Megatheriinae, large to very large terrestrial sloths typified by Megatherium Cuvier, in Argentina extends from the middle Miocene of Patagonia to the late Pleistocene-early Holocene. Megatheriines reached their highest diversity in the lower levels (="conglomerado osífero", late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation in Entre Ríos Province, northeastern Argentina. Among the four megatheriines that occur in this unit, the genera Promegatherium Ameghino, Eomegatherium Kraglievich and Pliomegatherium Kraglievich represent relatively small to medium-sized taxa. Here we describe new material assigned to Pyramiodontherium, the largest of the four genera from the same bed and comparable in size to some Quaternary species of Megatherium. Three valid species of Pyramiodontherium have been recognized, all distributed mainly in northwestern Argentina, from the late Miocene in Catamarca Province (and probably also in Tucumán Province, and the late Pliocene in La Rioja Province. The presence of this genus in northeastern Argentina extends its known paleobiogeographical distribution. 

  20. The ''Gour de Tazenat'' and the Late Glacial to Boreal environmental changes in the northern Chaine des Puys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juvigne, E.; Bastin, B.


    A core taken from the lacustrine deposits of the ''Gour de Tazenat'', below 66 m of water, allowed us to describe the environmental changes from the early Late Glacial to the Boreal in the northern Chaine des Puys. The Middle Dryas is particularly well recorded and the Late Dryas can be subdivided into three cold sub-oscillations. The same sequence contains two tephra beds (volcanic ash): (i) one is mugearitic, dated at 10,280 a BP and within the Allerod; (ii) the other is trachytic, dated at about 8,220 a BP and within the Boreal. The Tazenat volcano erupted prior to 29,000 a BP. (authors). 20 refs., 5 figs

  1. Features of Parent-Child Relationship of Mothers with Teenage Children in the Conditions of Late Motherhood

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    Zakharova E.I.,


    Full Text Available The author's attention is attracted by one of the features of modern Russian family: the tendency to increase the frequency of childbirth by women of older reproductive age. The article presents the results of a comparative analysis of the mothers’ parent position, who had children at different periods of adulthood (middle, late. The aim of the study was to investigate the features of the parent-child relationship of mothers with teenage children in the conditions of late motherhood. Mothers of adolescents who participated in the study were divided into two groups: "young" mothers who gave birth to the first child before the age of 30 years, and "late" mothers who gave birth to their first child after being 30 years old. It turned out that the strategies of education and interaction between the "young" and "late" mothers, reflecting the value orientation of personality, are significantly different. Focusing on the emotional closeness with the child and creativity, education strategy of "late" mothers has a high emotional involvement, soft and inconsistent parenting. The features of maternal parenting strategies are adequately reflected by the teenagers who follow their mothers in priority of the values of family and work, or material well-being and the pursuit of hedonistic values.

  2. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter


    Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom...... of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple...

  3. Early and late onset depression in young and middle aged adults : Differential symptomatology, characteristics and risk factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, Nicole C. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Lamers, Femke; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Early onset depression (EOD) and late onset depression (LOD) may be different phenomena. In this study, differences between EOD and LOD in symptomatology, psychiatric characteristics and psychosocial/somatic factors were examined. Methods: Baseline data were from 1104 participants with a

  4. Early and late surgical site infections in ear surgery. (United States)

    Bastier, P L; Leroyer, C; Lashéras, A; Rogues, A-M; Darrouzet, V; Franco-Vidal, V


    A retroauricular approach is routinely used for treating chronic otitis media. The incidence of surgical site infections after ear surgery is around 10% in contaminated or dirty procedures. This observational prospective study describes surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery with the retroauricular approach and investigated their potential predictive factors. This observational prospective study included patients suffering from chronic otitis media and eligible for therapeutic surgery with a retroauricular approach. During follow-up, surgical site infections were defined as "early" if occurring within 30 days after surgery or as "late" if occurring thereafter. The data of 102 patients were analysed. Concerning early surgical site infections, four cases were diagnosed (3.9%) and a significant association was found with preoperative antibiotic therapy, wet ear at pre-operative examination, class III (contaminated) in the surgical wound classification, NNIS (National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance) index > 1, and oral post-operative antibiotic use. Seven late surgical site infections were diagnosed (7.1%) between 90 and 160 days after surgery and were significantly correlated to otorrhoea during the 6 months before surgery, surgery duration ≤60 minutes, canal wall down technique and use of fibrin glue. Surgical site infections after chronic otitis media surgery seem to be associated with factors related to the inflammatory state of the middle ear at the time of surgery in early infections and with chronic inflammation in late infections. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  5. Sedimentation and erosion processes in Middle to Late Pleistocene sequences exposed in the brickyard of Langenlois/Lower Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiel, Christine; Terhorst, Birgit; Jaburová, Iva


    The correlation of sedimentary and pedogenetic processes in Lower Austria is difficult due to significant discontinuities and local variability in soil formation. This hampers landscape reconstruction at a regional scale. However, at a local scale distinct landscape formation processes represented...... by a shift from fluvial to aeolian deposition can be observed in the brickyard of Langenlois, Lower Austria. Sedimentological and mineralogical analyses in combination with palaeontological finds suggest that the fluvial deposition took place during the Middle Pleistocene. This attribution is confirmed...... in Austria; it indicates a Middle Pleistocene interglacial period. The low degree of weathering as well as Cryosols found in the loess sequence point to loess accumulation during the Last Glacial; the dating results (35–55 ka) indicate prolonged loess deposition. No signs of pedogenesis could be found...

  6. Radiometric evidence of Middle Devonian inversion of the Hill End Trough, northeast Lachlan Fold Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakham, G.H.


    The publication of a new geological time-scale by the Australian Geological Survey Organisation and radiometric dates from the Hill End goldfield have prompted the re-examination of the timing of deformation of the Hill End Trough to determine whether it occurred in Middle Devonian or Early Carboniferous time. Palaeontological evidence from the western trough margin and the Capertee High dates the end of deposition in the trough as late Emsian or early Eifelian (385-382 Ma). After a mid-Devonian hiatus of at least 15 million years, paralic sedimentation commenced on the Molong and Capertee Highs in late Frasnian or early Famennian time (367-363 Ma). No Upper Devonian sedimentary formations occur in the Hill End Trough. Structural relationships indicate that the oldest mineral veins at Hill End preceded cleavage formation in the deformed trough sedimentary rocks. Early vein muscovites have Middle Devonian 40 Ar/ 39 Ar dates of 380-370 Ma. Regional metamorphic biotites from Hill End have well constrained 40 Ar/ 39 Ar closing ages of 360-358 Ma (mid-Famennian). The metamorphic (thermal) maximum which outlasted penetrative deformation. is estimated here by modelling to have been about 370 Ma (latest Givetian). This clearly places the earlier main deformation in the Middle Devonian. Deformation probably began by terminating trough deposition in latest Emsian to early Eifelian time and ended in early Givetian time at about 375 Ma ago. Published pressure and temperature data from the Hill End goldfield suggest that deformation thickened the 6 km sediment column to around 11 km. The thermal model suggests there was post-deformation erosion of about 4km and little if any further erosion occurred during Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous time. The shortening accompanying the inversion of the northern Hill End Trough may have been taken up in the region to the south, both east and west of the Copperhannia Thrust, and east of the southern termination of the Capertee High

  7. Middle Ordovician brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone, Amadeus Basin, central Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kristian Grube; Brock, Glenn A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj


    -water palaeoenvironment along the margin of northeastern Gondwana. The brachiopods from the Stairway Sandstone are of low diversity and represent ca 9% of the entire shelly fauna. Five brachiopod taxa are described from the Stairway Sandstone; all are endemic to the Amadeus Basin at species level. Two new species...

  8. Underemployment. An Ordinary Way of Life in Fields of Andalusia in the Late Middle Ages

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    Full Text Available This work deals with the underemployment affecting the majority of the rural population of southern Castile in the final centuries of the Middle Ages. Firstly, we study the formation of the group demanding work in the fields: their characteristics and numerical significance in different economic regions. We analyze also the mechanisms and rates of the offer of temporary employment generated in large properties. The consequences of this system: a weak balance between supply and demand caused the impoverishment of the peasantry.

  9. Oxygen isotope composition as late glacial palaeoclimate indicators of groundwater recharge in the Baltic Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokrik, R.; Mazeika, J.


    Several hypotheses were established to explain low δ 18 O values of groundwater which have been found in the Estonian Homocline. Traces of depleted groundwater were found also in other parts of the Baltic Basin near the shoreline. From data collected in this and previous studies, the δ 18 O values of groundwater in most aquifers are known to range from -7.7 to -13.9 per mille. However, the groundwater in Estonia in the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer system has significantly lower δ 18 O values, which vary mainly from -18 to -22.5 per mille. The overlying Ordovician-Cambrian aquifer is also depleted in 18 O, but, as a rule, the degree of depletion is several per mille less than in case of the Cambrian- Vendian aquifer. The thickness of the depleted water in Estonia reaches 450 m. At similar depths beneath Gotland Island (Sweden Homocline), groundwater has significantly higher δ 18 O values (from -5.7 to -6.1 per mille). A hydrogeologic model, depicting conditions during the pre Late Glacial, and accounting for hydraulic connections between the lake and river systems through taliks in permafrost, was developed to explain the observed groundwater isotope data. According to the adopted model, penetration of isotopically depleted surface waters could have reached depths of up to 500 m, with subsequent mixing between subglacial meltwater and old groundwater of Huneborg-Denekamp time. Traces of this penetration were discovered only near the shoreline, where δ 18 O values vary from -12 to -13.9 per mille and 14 C is below 4%. In the territory of the Estonian Homocline, the hydraulically close connection via the Cambrian-Vendian aquifer between talik systems of the Gulf of Riga and the Gulf of Finland existed through permafrost before the Late Glacial. This was due to subglacial recharge during the recessional Pandivere (12 ka BP) and Palivere (11.2 ka BP) phases, which is also associated with recharge of isotopically depleted groundwater. (author)

  10. Effect of general anesthesia and major versus minor surgery on late postoperative episodic and constant hypoxemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Oturai, P; Erichsen, C J


    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relative contribution of general anesthesia alone and in combination with the surgical procedure to the pathogenesis of late postoperative hypoxemia. DESIGN: Open, controlled study. SETTING: University hospital. PATIENTS: 60 patients undergoing major abdominal...... surgery and 16 patients undergoing middle ear surgery, both with comparable general anesthesia. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Patients were monitored with continuous pulse oximetry on one preoperative night and the second postoperative night. Significant episodic or constant hypoxemia did not occur...... on the second postoperative night following middle ear surgery and general anesthesia, but severe episodic and constant hypoxemia did occur on the second postoperative after major abdominal surgery and general anesthesia. CONCLUSIONS: General anesthesia in itself is not an important factor in the development...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duje Smirčić


    Full Text Available Middle Triassic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks have been recognized at several localities near Bosansko Grahovo, in southwestern part of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the External Dinarides. Peculiar types of autoclastic rocks were investigated. These are peperites and hyaloclastites. Regarding specific structures, mineral composition and micropetrographic characteristics it was possible to further differentiate hyaloclastites into in situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites that represent genetic succession. All rock types occurred in a deep sea troughs that formed as a consequence of Middle Triassic extensional tectonic and rift related wrench faulting. In situ hyaloclastites and slightly resedimented hyaloclastites were formed due to quenching at the contact of lava effusions with sea water. Genesis of peperites is related to lava emplacement in unconsolidated water saturated lime mudstones that were deposited in deep sea basin. All investigated rock types represent first findings of autoclastic deposits in the External Dinarides. Biostratigraphic constraints achieved by means of conodont species Neogondolella excentrica, Paragondolella excelsa, Paragondolella trammeri and Gladigondolella tethydis indicate Late Anisian to Early Ladinian interval of the autoclastic deposits from Bosansko Grahovo.

  12. Différenciation paléogéographique à l'Ordovicien supérieur dans le Tafilalt (Anti-Atlas oriental, Maroc) sous l'interaction de la glaciation et de la tectonique (United States)

    El Maazouz, Brahim; Hamoumi, Naima


    The Tafilalt domain, which corresponded, during the Lower and Middle Ordovician, to a storm and/or tide-dominated epeiric shelf with east-west- to ENE-WSW-trending isopachs, such as the whole 'Anti-Atlasic basin', recorded major palaeogeographical changes during the Upper Ordovician. An extensional tectonic event resulted in the individualization of two sub-basins: the 'Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin' and the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', where new environments developed under the interplay between tectonics and glaciation. In the northeastern Tafilalt sub-basin took place an isolated carbonate platform, where Bryozoan mounds nucleated, and a mixed siliciclastic carbonate high-energy peritidal littoral. In the 'western Tafilalt sub-basin', the siliciclastic shelf was structured in half-graben, where sediments from the Saharan glacier and the carbonate platform of the Khabt-El-Hejar sub-basin accumulated in fan deltas.

  13. Filling the Gondwanan gap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Selina R.; Ausich, William I.; Colmenar Lallena, Jorge


    ., and Ambonacrinus decorus n. gen. n. Sp.; the monobathrid camerate Eopatelliocrinus hispaniensis n. Sp.; and the cladid Picassocrinus villasi n. gen. n. Sp. A new occurrence of Heviacrinus melendezi Gil Cid, Domínguez Alonso, and Silván Pobes, 1996 is also documented from the Castillejo Formation (Darriwilian......A diverse crinoid fauna is described from the Upper Ordovician (Katian) Fombuena Formation from the eastern Iberian Chains of Spain. New crinoids include the diplobathrid camerates Fombuenacrinus nodulus n. gen. n. Sp., Goyacrinus gutierrezi n. gen. n. Sp., Dalicrinus hammanni n. gen. n. Sp......, Middle Ordovician) from the eastern Iberian Chains of Spain. The Fombuena Formation comprises a Gondwanan crinoid assemblage from a high paleolatitude and has the highest crinoid diversity of any currently known Katian Gondwanan fauna. This assemblage is compared to other Katian age faunas around...

  14. Lacustrine basin evolution and coal accumulation of the Middle Jurassic in the Saishiteng coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin, China

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    Meng Li


    Full Text Available Based on an extensive borehole survey of the Middle Jurassic coal-bearing sequences in the Saishiteng coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin (NQB, a total of 20 rock types and 5 sedimentary facies were identified, including braided river, meandering river, braided delta, meandering river delta, and lacustrine facies. The distribution of rock types and sedimentary facies contributed to the reconstruction of three periods' sedimentary facies maps of the Middle Jurassic in the Saishiteng coalfield, namely, the Dameigou age, the early Shimengou age and the late Shimengou age. That also provided the basis for the development of a three-stage depositional model of the Middle Jurassic in the NQB, indicating the lacustrine basin of the NQB in the Dameigou age and early Shimengou age were corresponding to an overfill basin, and that in the late Shimengou age was related to a balanced-fill basin. The analysis of the stability and structure of coal seams based on sedimentary facies maps showed that the preferred coal-forming facies in the Saishiteng coalfield were inter-delta bay and interdistributary bay of lower delta plain in the Dameigou age. In particular, the swamps that developed on the subaqueous palaeohigh favored the development of thick coal seams. Thus, minable coal seams may also be found along the Pingtai palaeohigh in the western part of the Saishiteng coalfield.

  15. A new miniaturized lizard from the late Eocene of France and Spain. (United States)

    Bolet, Arnau; Augé, Marc


    We report here a new lizard genus and species shared by two late Eocene localities situated at both versants of the present Pyrenees (South-Western Europe), one located in France (Escamps, MP19), and the other in Catalonia, Spain (Sossís, MP17a). The recovered specimens are remarkable because of their small size and peculiar morphology. Features of the dentary are interpreted as adaptations to a fossorial or semi-fossorial lifestyle, although such modifications obscure the exact phylogenetic relationships of the new taxon. We suggest that it might represent a further example of scincoid lizard that independently achieved adaptations for burrowing or surface-dwelling. This taxon reinforces the hypotheses that link the Southern Pyrenean assemblages to those from France rather than to those of the rest of the Iberian Peninsula, which are supposed to be somehow isolated and endemic to a certain degree during the middle and late Eocene, forming part of the so-called Western Iberian Bioprovince. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Reevaluation of the Piermont-Frontenac allochthon in the Upper Connecticut Valley: Restoration of a coherent Boundary Mountains–Bronson Hill stratigraphic sequence (United States)

    Rankin, Douglas W.; Tucker, Robert D.; Amelin, Yuri


    . Collectively, these features indicate that the large Piermont-Frontenac allochthon gravity slide of Silurian-Devonian strata, as previously proposed, cannot exist. Allochthonous rocks are restricted to a 25 km2 klippe, the Bean Brook slice, emplaced by hard-rock thrusting in the post-Emsian Devonian. The Albee Formation, the oldest unit in the study area, is older than the Late Cambrian tonalite at Bath. The correlation and apparent continuity along strike to the northeast of the Albee Formation with the Dead River Formation suggest that the Albee Formation, like the Dead River Formation, is of Ganderian affinity and that the Bronson Hill magmatic arc in the Upper Connecticut Valley was built on Ganderian crust. The Dead River Formation is unconformably overlain by Middle and Upper Ordovician volcanic units; the unconformity is attributed to the pre-Arenig Penobscottian orogeny. Some of the pre-Silurian deformation in the Upper Connecticut Valley may be Penobscottian rather than Taconian. New stratigraphic units defined herein include the pelitic Scarritt Member of the Albee Formation, the Ordovician Washburn Brook Formation consisting of synsedimentary breccia and coticule, chert, and ironstone, and the Devonian–Silurian Sawyer Mountain Formation, probably correlative with the Frontenac Formation. The Partridge Formation is partially coeval with the Ammonoosuc Volcanics.

  17. Paleokarst and reservoir porosity in the Ordovician Beekmantown Dolomite of the central Appalachian basin (United States)

    Smosna, R.; Bruner, K.R.; Riley, R.A.


    A karst-unconformity play at the top of the Ordovician Beekmantown Dolomite is judged to have great petroleum potential in Ohio and adjacent states; wells have high ultimate reserves and large areas remain untested. To better understand the origin, development, and distribution of Beekmantown porosity, we conducted a petrologic-stratigraphic study of cores and thin sections from 15 oil and gas wells. The massive dolomite, characterized by a hypidiotopic-idiotopic texture, formed by the replacement of stacked peritidal carbonate cycles. Secondary porosity occurs at two scales: (1) mesoscopic - breccia porosity, solution-enlarged fractures, large vugs, and caverns, and (2) microscopic - intercrystalline, intracrystalline, molds, small vugs, and microfractures. Mesoscopic pores (providing the major storage capacity in this reservoir) were produced by intrastratal solution and collapse of carbonate layers, whereas microscopic pores (connecting the larger pores) generally formed by the leaching of individual carbonate grains and crystals. Most pore types developed during periods of subaerial exposure across the carbonate bank, tied to either the numerous, though brief falls of relative sea level during Beekmantown deposition or more importantly the prolonged Knox unconformity at the close of sedimentation. The distribution of reservoir-quality porosity is quite heterogeneous, being confined vertically to a zone immediately below the unconformity and best developed laterally beneath buried hills and noses of this erosion surface. The inferred, shallow flow of ground water in the Beekmantown karst, primarily below topographic highs and above a diagenetic base level close to the water table, led to this irregular distribution of porosity.

  18. ["Historia animalium" compared to "Gynaecia" in the literature of the Middle Ages]. (United States)

    Thomasen, A L


    In her essay the author pictures the dominating role of Aristotle's doctrines as compared with the more progressive scientific achievements of the Alexandrian school of medicine during the Middle Ages. One of the consequences of this dominance was an almost total neglect of the special health problems of women who were-in contrast with men and according to the Aristotelian tradition of the Middle Ages-considered to be defective human beings: a nearly uneradicable opinion far into later centuries. In addition it was not only in accordance with Christian doctrines but with religious and social conceptions and habits of the Arabic tradition as well. The progressive efforts of some reasonable medieval physicians to improve the deplorable position of women were incapable to break through the bulwark of cooperating misjudgments and prejudices. It took a lot of time-from Hippocrates to Galen and the Arabs-and many errors were made till the teachings of Soranos of Ephesos, the first great gynaecologist, began to gain ground since the late Middle Ages, when his treatment of women's diseases and obstetrical instructions slowly prevailed the speculative perceptions of Aristotle and his epigones.

  19. Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt, NW China: Constraints on the initiation of a magmatic arc in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (United States)

    Du, Long; Long, Xiaoping; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Yunying; Huang, Zongying; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Xiao, Wenjiao


    Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (ETOB) have been studied in order to constraint the initiation of a magmatic arc formed in this region. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that two dioritic plutons in the northern ETOB were generated in the Late Ordovician (452 ± 4 Ma) and the Early Silurian (442 ± 3 Ma), respectively. Diorites from the two plutons are characterized by enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and highly incompatible elements, with depletions in high field strength elements (HSFE) displaying typical geochemical features of a subduction-related origin. They have positive εNd(t) values (+5.08-+6.58), relatively young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.71-1.08 Ga), with Ta/Yb (0.05-0.09) and Nb/Ta ratios (12.06-15.19) similar to those of depleted mantle, suggesting a juvenile mantle origin. Their high Ba/La (13.3-35.9), low Th/Yb (0.72-2.02), and relatively low Ce/Th (4.57-14.7) and Ba/Th (47.8-235) ratios indicate that these diorites were probably produced by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by both subducted sediment-derived melts and slab-derived aqueous fluids. Zircon U-Pb dating of a granitic pluton in the northern ETOB yielded a Late Ordovician intrusion age of 447 ± 5 Ma. Granites from this pluton show calc-alkaline compositions with geochemical characteristics of I-type granites. They also show positive εNd(t) values (+6.49-+6.95) and young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.69-0.87 Ga), indicating that the granites were most likely derived from juvenile lower crust. Our new dating results on the dioritic and granitic plutons suggest that arc-type magmatism in the northern ETOB began prior to or at the Late Ordovician (452-442 Ma). In addition, north-dipping subduction of the Kangguertage oceanic lithosphere may account for the arc-type magmatism and the geodynamic process of the ETOB in the Early Paleozoic.

  20. 226Ra and 228Ra in ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System in northern Illinois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilkeson, R.H.; Holtzman, R.B.


    Over a large region of Illinois, ground water of the Cambrian-Ordovician Aquifer System exceeds the US EPA drinking water standard of 5 pCi/L for the combined concentration of 226 Ra and 228 Ra. 226 Ra concentrations range from 226 Ra is the geochemistry of uranium in the ground-water flow system, while the 228 Ra activity in ground water which ranges from 232 Th-bearing minerals in the aquifer strata. The comparison of recent analyses to historical data gathered over the last 20 years indicates that, with few exceptions, 226 Ra and 228 Ra activities in ground water have remained constant. The combined concentrations of the two nuclides in ground water of the aquifer system ranged from 226 Ra concentrations were high (greater than or equal to 10 pCi/L), those of 228 Ra were low (less than or equal to 2 pCi/L), but, with few exceptions, in regions where 228 Ra concentrations were high, those of 226 Ra were also high. The range of values raises questions concerning the validity of the US EPA regulation which requires analysis for 228 Ra only when the concentration of 226 Ra exceeds 3.0 pCi/L

  1. Early and Middle Jurassic climate changes: implications for palaeoceanography and tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korte, Christoph; Hesselbo, Stephen; Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz


    The occurrence of ‘ice ages’ within the overall warm Jurassic Period has been the subject of much discussion and not a little controversy. Recently it has been suggested on the basis of occurrence of glendonites in circum-Arctic basins that cold episodes took place in the Jurassic (Price, 1999; R...... by substantial changes in oceanic current patterns which were initiated by a major tectonic uplift that prevented the transport of heat to Polar Regions....... three pronounced oxygen isotope ‘Ice Age’ cycles, and the subsequent well known Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic ‘supergreenhouse’ Event is followed by very warm seawater temperatures in the late Toarcian. Moreover, a very pronounced and effective cooling occurred during the latest Toarcian and early Aalenian...... (Early-Middle Jurassic Boundary Event) resulted in substantial expansion of Arctic climates to palaeolatitudes as low as 45° and in distinctly cooler seawater temperatures in lower latitude European seas. At least the extensive cooling at the Early-Middle Jurassic Boundary Event was most likely driven...

  2. Ordovician A-type granitoid magmatism on the Ceará Central Domain, Borborema Province, NE-Brazil (United States)

    Castro, Neivaldo A.; Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E.; Basei, Miguel A. S.; Osako, Liliane S.; Nutman, Alan A.; Liu, Dunyi


    We present field relationships, major and trace element geochemistry and U-Pb SHRIMP and ID-TIMS geochronology of the A-type Ordovician Quintas pluton located in the Ceará Central Domain of the Borborema Province, in northeastern Brazil. This pluton presents a concentric geometry and is composed mainly of syenogranite, monzogranite, quartz syenite to quartz monzodiorite, monzogabbro and diorite. Its geochemical characteristics [SiO2 (52-70%), Na2O/K2O (1.55-0.65), Fe2O3/MgO (2.2-7.3), metaluminous to sligthly alkaline affinity, post-collisional type in (Y + Nb) × Rb diagram, and A-type affinity (Ga > 22 ppm, Nb > 20 ppm, Zn > 60 ppm), REE fractioned pattern with negative Eu anomaly] are coherent with post-collisional A2-type granitoids. However, the emplacement of this pluton is to some extent temporally associated with the deposition of the first strata of the Parnaíba intracratonic basin, attesting also to a purely anorogenic character (A1-type granitoid). The emplacement of this pluton is preceded by one of the largest known orogenesis of the planet (Neoproterozoic Pan-African/Brasiliano) and, if it is classified as an A2-type granitoid, it provides interesting constraints about how long can last A2-type magmatic activity after a major collisional episode, arguably triggered by disturbance of the underlying mantle, a topic extensively debated in the geoscience community.

  3. Carboniferous high-pressure metamorphism of Ordovician protoliths in the Argentera Massif (Italy), Southern European Variscan belt (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Ferrando, Simona; Compagnoni, Roberto; Lombardo, Bruno


    The age of high-pressure metamorphism is crucial to identify a suitable tectonic model for the vast Variscan orogeny. Banded H P granulites from the Gesso-Stura Terrain in the Argentera Massif, Italy, have been recently described (Ferrando et al., 2008) relicts of high-pressure metamorphism in the western part of the Variscan orogen. Bulk rock chemistry of representative lithologies reveals intermediate silica contents and calc-alkaline affinity of the various cumulate layers. Enrichment in incompatible elements denotes a significant crustal component in line with intrusion during Ordovician rifting. Magmatic zircon cores from a Pl-rich layer yield scattered ages indicating a minimum protolith age of 486 ± 7 Ma. Carboniferous zircons (340.7 ± 4.2 and 336.3 ± 4.1 Ma) are found in a Pl-rich and a Pl-poor layer, respectively. Their zoning, chemical composition (low Th/U, flat HREE pattern and Ti-in-zircon temperature) and deformation indicate that they formed during the high-pressure event before decompression and mylonitisation. The proposed age for high-pressure metamorphism in the Argentera Massif proves that subduction preceded anatexis by less than 20 Ma. The new data allow a first-order comparison with the Bohemian Massif, which is located at the eastern termination of the Variscan orogen. Similarities in evolution at either end of the orogen support a Himalayan-type tectonic model for the entire European Variscides.

  4. Longitudinal Trajectories of Cholesterol from Midlife through Late Life according to Apolipoprotein E Allele Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Downer


    Full Text Available Background: Previous research indicates that total cholesterol levels increase with age during young adulthood and middle age and decline with age later in life. This is attributed to changes in diet, body composition, medication use, physical activity, and hormone levels. In the current study we utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Original Cohort to determine if variations in apolipoprotein E (APOE, a gene involved in regulating cholesterol homeostasis, influence trajectories of total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and total: HDL cholesterol ratio from midlife through late life. Methods: Cholesterol trajectories from midlife through late life were modeled using generalized additive mixed models and mixed-effects regression models. Results: APOE e2+ subjects had lower total cholesterol levels, higher HDL cholesterol levels, and lower total: HDL cholesterol ratios from midlife to late life compared to APOE e3 and APOE e4+ subjects. Statistically significant differences in life span cholesterol trajectories according to gender and use of cholesterol-lowering medications were also detected. Conclusion: The findings from this research provide evidence that variations in APOE modify trajectories of serum cholesterol from midlife to late life. In order to efficiently modify cholesterol through the life span, it is important to take into account APOE allele status.

  5. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Y., E-mail: [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Minami, M. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onbe, S. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Archaeological Heritage Management Office, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Sakamoto, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Imamura, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan)


    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric {sup 14}C and the Lake Biwa freshwater {sup 14}C is larger for this period because the atmospheric {sup 14}C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the {sup 14}C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330-450 {sup 14}C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 {sup 14}C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3-6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  6. Late Cenozoic stable isotope stratigraphy and paleoceanography of DSDP sites from the East equatorial and central north Pacific Ocean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keigwin, L.D. Jr


    Stable isotopic analyses of Middle Miocene to Quaternary foraminiferal calcite from east equatorial and central north Pacific DSDP cores have provided much new information on the paleoceanography of the Pacific Neogene. The history of delta 18 O change in planktonic foraminifera reflects the changing isotopic composition and temperature of seawater at the time of test formation. Changes in the isotopic composition of benthonic foraminfera largely reflect changes in the volume of continental ice. Isotopic data from these cores indicates the following sequence of events related to continental galaciation: (1) A permanent Antarctic ice sheet developed late in the Middle Miocene (about 13 to 11.5 m.y. ago). (2) The Late Miocene (about 11.5 to 5 m.y. ago) is marked by significant variation in delta 18 O of about 0.5% throughout, indicating instability of Antarctic ice cap size or bottom-water temperature. (3) The early Pliocene (5 to about 3 m.y. ago) was a time of relative stability in ice volume and bottom-water temperature. (4) Growth of permanent Northern Hemisphere ice sheets is inferred to have begun about 3 m.y. ago. (5) The late Pliocene (3 to about 1.8 m.y. ago) is marked by one major glaciation or bottom-water cooling dated between about 2.1 to 2.3 m.y. (6) There is some evidence that the frequency of glacial-interglacial cycles increased at about 0.9 m.y. (Auth.)

  7. The SE sector of the Middle Weichselian Eurasian Ice Sheet was much smaller than assumed (United States)

    Räsänen, Matti E.; Huitti, Janne V.; Bhattarai, Saroj; Harvey, Jerry; Huttunen, Sanna


    Quaternary climatic and glacial history must be known in order to understand future environments. Reconstructions of the last Weichselian glacial cycle 117,000-11,700 years (kyr) ago propose that S Finland, adjacent Russia and the Baltic countries in the SE sector of the Eurasian Ice Sheet (EIS), were glaciated during the Middle Weichselian time [marine isotope stage (MIS) 4, 71-57 kyr ago] and that this glaciation was preceded in S Finland by an Early Weichselian interstadial (MIS 5c, 105-93 kyr ago) with pine forest. We apply glacial sequence stratigraphy to isolated Late Pleistocene onshore outcrop sections and show, that these events did not take place. The one Late Weichselian glaciation (MIS 2, 29-11 kyr ago) was preceded in S Finland by a nearly 90 kyr non-glacial period, featuring tundra with permafrost and probably birch forest. Our new Middle Weichselian paleoenvironmental scenario revises the configuration and hydrology of the S part of EIS and gives new setting for the evolution of Scandinavian biota. If future development during the coming glacial cycle proves to be similar, the high-level nuclear waste stored in the bedrock of SW Finland should be located deeper than currently planned, i.e. below any possible future permafrost.

  8. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction (United States)

    Torres Irribarra, D.; Freund, R.; Fisher, W.; Wilson, M.


    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting.

  9. Metrological traceability in education: A practical online system for measuring and managing middle school mathematics instruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irribarra, D Torres; Freund, R; Fisher, W; Wilson, M


    Computer-based, online assessments modelled, designed, and evaluated for adaptively administered invariant measurement are uniquely suited to defining and maintaining traceability to standardized units in education. An assessment of this kind is embedded in the Assessing Data Modeling and Statistical Reasoning (ADM) middle school mathematics curriculum. Diagnostic information about middle school students' learning of statistics and modeling is provided via computer-based formative assessments for seven constructs that comprise a learning progression for statistics and modeling from late elementary through the middle school grades. The seven constructs are: Data Display, Meta-Representational Competence, Conceptions of Statistics, Chance, Modeling Variability, Theory of Measurement, and Informal Inference. The end product is a web-delivered system built with Ruby on Rails for use by curriculum development teams working with classroom teachers in designing, developing, and delivering formative assessments. The online accessible system allows teachers to accurately diagnose students' unique comprehension and learning needs in a common language of real-time assessment, logging, analysis, feedback, and reporting

  10. A Study on Noun Suffixes: Accounting for the Vernacularisation of English in Late Medieval Medical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Crespo


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to contribute to the study of the vernacularisation process in late Middle English by measuring up to what an extent concrete and abstract noun suffixes (in line with Dalton-Puffer 1996 attach to either Germanic or Romance bases in the medical texts extracted from the MEMT (Middle English Medical Texts corpus. The findings obtained have been further described according to text type or genre and to target audience/readership. The description of these suffixes in relation to all the parameters already mentioned has confirmed the predominance of abstract suffixes of Romance origin although Germanic abstract suffixes are also abundant. More hybrid formations have been found with Germanic noun suffixes than with Romance ones which might be indicative of their versatility towards vernacularisation.

  11. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten


    Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were...... recruited from a population-based cohort based on previous cognitive assessments in young adulthood and late midlife. The sample included 24 cognitively high-functioning and 26 cognitively impaired participants. Saliva samples were collected every 4 hours over a 24-hour period and analyzed for cortisol...... and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than...

  12. Evolution of an intra-oceanic island arc during the late Silurian to late Devonian, New England fold belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offler, R.; Gamble, J.


    source. By contrast, basalts in the southeast part of the terrane have moderately high Ti/Zr and low Ti/V ratios and in some samples, exhibit depletion of HFSE, compositional features transitional between island arc and backarc basin basalts. The Lower to Middle Devonian mafic rocks in the Calliope Volcanic Assemblage show both LREE enriched and depleted chondrite normalised REE patterns. Further, the majority have high Ti/Zr ratios and low Zr contents as well as relatively high Th contents relative to MORB. These features are common to rocks of Middle Devonian age as well as those of Early Devonian age and are suggestive of eruption in an arc setting. Thus, the data from this study provide new evidence for the evolution of the New England Fold Belt from the Late Silurian to the Late Devonian and reveal a history more complicated than previously reported. Major and trace elements were determined by standard X-ray fluroescence (XRF) methods at the Victoria University of Wellington and the University of Newcastle, and rare-earth elements (REE), Hf and Th by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) at Becquerel Laboratories, Lucas Heights, New South Wales. All analyses were done on rock powders produced by grinding rock chips in a Tema WC mill. Samples 1855, 10197 10199 quoted in Offler (1982) have been reanalysed. Trace (Sc, V, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, Hf, Pb, Th, U) and REE (La-Lu) analyses of some samples were carried out by S. Eggins, Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using procedures outlined in Eggins et al. (1998a, b). Copyright (2002) Geological Society of Australia

  13. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.


    literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...

  14. Testing Proximate Cause Hypotheses for the End-Ordovician Mass Extinction: Do Patterns of Change in Biomarker Signatures Support a Linkage Between Graptolite and Phytoplankton Community Changes? (United States)

    Marshall, N.; Thomas, E.; Mitchell, C. E.; Aga, D.; Wombacher, R.


    The goal of our study is to analyze the biomarkers in the Vinini Creek section based on a set of samples in which graptolite community change has been identified. The study will test several competing hypotheses about the cause of the observed changes in the environmental proxies and the graptolite community structure and composition. The study interval in the Late Ordovician (444.7-443.4 Ma) was a glacial period with varying climate and sea level changes that are marked by geochemical signatures. Climate change drove changes in deep-ocean circulation and upwelling zones during the concomitant mass extinction and it appears that the graptolites inhabiting the mesopelagic zone were the most vulnerable during these events. Due to the high vulnerability of the graptolites in the Vinini Creek section, biomarkers in the section are especially important for interpreting changing ocean conditions. Changing productivity in the upwelling zones of modern oceans is reflected in the microbial community, which forms the base of the food chain and drives biogeochemical cycles. Moreover, microbes can be traced using organism-specific biomarkers. Steranes (C27-C29) are biomarkers for eukaryotic organisms (e.g., green algae) and hopanes (C27-C35) are biomarkers for bacteria. We will determine hopane-sterane ratios, which reflect measurable relative contributions of bacteria and eukaryotes to sedimentary organic matter as a result of fluctuations in the strength of the oxygen minimum zone and associated denitrification processes. Previous work at lower resolution in this section suggests a decrease in denitrification and increase in abundance of eukaryotes (e.g., green algae) relative to bacteria within the Hirnantian glacial lowstand interval, roughly synchronously with the mass extinction. These relationships suggest that climatically driven changes in nutrient cycling and phytoplankton communities drove the mass extinction. If this is so, then changes in graptolite community

  15. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice. (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E


    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  16. Slope-apron deposition in an ordovician arc-related setting: The Vuelta de Las Tolas Member (Suri Formation), Famatina Basin, northwest Argentina (United States)

    Mangano, M.G.; Buatois, L.A.


    The Ordovician Suri Formation is part of the infill of the Famatina Basin of northwest Argentina, which formed in an active setting along the western margin of early Paleozoic Gondwana. The lower part of this formation, the Vuelta de Las Tolas Member, records sedimentation on a slope apron formed in an intra-arc basin situated on a flooded continental arc platform. The coincidence of a thick Arenig-Llanvirn sedimentary succession and volcanic-plutonic arc rocks suggests an extensional or transtensional arc setting, and is consistent with evidence of an extensional regime within the volcanic arc in the northern Puna region. The studied stratigraphic sections consist of volcanic rocks and six sedimentary facies. The facies can be clustered into four facies associations. Association 1, composed of facies A (laminated siltstones and mudstones) and B (massive mudstones and siltstones), is interpreted to have accumulated from silty-muddy high-and low-density turbidity currents and highly fluid, silty debris flows, with subsequent reworking by bottom currents, and to a lesser extent, hemipelagic suspension in an open-slope setting. Facies association 2 is dominated by facies C (current-rippled siltstones) strata. These deposits are interpreted to record overbank sedimentation from fine-grained turbidity currents. Facies E (matrix-supported volcanic breccias) interbedded with andesitic lava units comprises facies association 3. Deposition was contemporaneous with subaqueous volcanic activity, and accumulated from cohesive debris flows in a coarse-grained wedge at the base of slope. Facies association 4 is typified by facies D (vitric fine-grained sandstones and siltstones) and F (channelized and graded volcanic conglomerates and breccias) deposits. These strata commonly display thinning-and fining-upward trends, indicating sedimentation from highly-concentrated volcaniclastic turbidity currents in a channelized system. The general characteristics of these deposits of fresh

  17. Prolonged Permian Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages. (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E; Bottjer, David J


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we analyze relative abundance counts of >33,000 fossil individuals from 24 silicified Middle and Late Permian paleocommunities, documenting a substantial ecological shift to numerical dominance by molluscs in the Late Permian, before the major taxonomic shift at the end-Permian mass extinction. This ecological change was coincident with the development of fluctuating anoxic conditions in deep marine basins, suggesting that numerical dominance by more tolerant molluscs may have been driven by variably stressful environmental conditions. Recognition of substantial ecological deterioration in the Late Permian also implies that the end-Permian extinction was the climax of a protracted environmental crisis. Although the Late Permian shift to molluscan dominance was a pronounced ecological change, quantitative counts of 847 Carboniferous-Cretaceous collections from the Paleobiology Database indicate that it was only the first stage in a stepwise transition that culminated with the final shift to molluscan dominance in the Late Jurassic. Therefore, the ecological transition from brachiopods to bivalves was more protracted and complex than their simple Permian-Triassic switch in diversity.

  18. Prolonged Permian–Triassic ecological crisis recorded by molluscan dominance in Late Permian offshore assemblages (United States)

    Clapham, Matthew E.; Bottjer, David J.


    The end-Permian mass extinction was the largest biotic crisis in the history of animal life, eliminating as many as 95% of all species and dramatically altering the ecological structure of marine communities. Although the causes of this pronounced ecosystem shift have been widely debated, the broad consensus based on inferences from global taxonomic diversity patterns suggests that the shift from abundant brachiopods to dominant molluscs was abrupt and largely driven by the catastrophic effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. Here we analyze relative abundance counts of >33,000 fossil individuals from 24 silicified Middle and Late Permian paleocommunities, documenting a substantial ecological shift to numerical dominance by molluscs in the Late Permian, before the major taxonomic shift at the end-Permian mass extinction. This ecological change was coincident with the development of fluctuating anoxic conditions in deep marine basins, suggesting that numerical dominance by more tolerant molluscs may have been driven by variably stressful environmental conditions. Recognition of substantial ecological deterioration in the Late Permian also implies that the end-Permian extinction was the climax of a protracted environmental crisis. Although the Late Permian shift to molluscan dominance was a pronounced ecological change, quantitative counts of 847 Carboniferous–Cretaceous collections from the Paleobiology Database indicate that it was only the first stage in a stepwise transition that culminated with the final shift to molluscan dominance in the Late Jurassic. Therefore, the ecological transition from brachiopods to bivalves was more protracted and complex than their simple Permian–Triassic switch in diversity. PMID:17664426

  19. Evolution of mineralizing brines in the east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type ore field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, S.E.; Gesink, J.A.; Haynes, F.M. (Univ. of Michingan, Ann Arbor (USA))


    The east Tennessee Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) ore field contains barite-fluorite and sphalterite deposits in a continuous paleoaquifer consisting of breccia zones in the Upper Cambrian-Lower Ordovician Knox Group. Paragenetic observations and fluid inclusion compositions in these deposits indicate that the Knox paleoaquifer was invaded first by Ca-rich brines (Ca:Na about 1) that deposited fluorite and barite, and later by Na-Ca brines (Ca:Na = 0.1 to 0.5) that deposited sphalerite. Geologic relation sindicate that these brines were derived from the southeast, in the area of the Middle Ordovician Servier foreland shale basin, and that imposed by fluorite solubility indicate further that all original connate water in the Sevier basin was required to deposit the estimated flourite reserves of the ore field.Thus, the later, sphalerite-depositing brines represent recycled meteoric water from the Sevier basin or connate brines from underlying (Cambrian) shales.

  20. The Middle Triassic insect radiation revealed by isotopic age and iconic fossils from NW China (United States)

    Zheng, Daran; Chang, Su-Chin; Wang, He; Fang, Yan; Wang, Jun; Feng, Chongqing; Xie, Guwei; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Bo


    Following the end-Permian mass extinction, the Triassic represented an important period witnessing the recovery and radiation of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Terrestrial plants and vertebrates have been widely investigated; however the insects, the most diverse organisms on earth, remain enigmatic due to the rarity of Early-Middle Triassic fossils. Here we report new fossils from a Ladinian deposit dated at 238-237 Ma and a Carnian deposit in northwestern China, including the earliest definite caddisfly cases (Trichoptera) and water boatmen (Hemiptera), diverse polyphagan beetles (Coleoptera) and scorpionflies (Mecoptera). Our findings suggest that the Holometabola, comprising the majority of modern-day insect species, experienced an extraordinary diversification in the Middle Triassic and was already been dominant in some Middle and Late Triassic insect faunas, after the extinction of several ecologically dominant, Paleozoic insect groups in the latest Permian and earliest Triassic. This turnover is perhaps related to notable episodes of extreme warming and drying, leading to the eventual demise of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. The forest revival during the Middle Triassic probably stimulated the rapid radiation and evolution of insects including some key aquatic lineages which built new associations that persist to the present day. Our results provide not only new insights into the early evolution of insect diversity and ecology, but also robust evidence for the view that the Triassic is the "Dawn of the Modern World". Besides, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating initially gave a late Ladinian age for the Tongchuan entomnfauna after the results: 237.41 ± 0.91 Ma and 238 ± 0.97 Ma. The age is in agreement with that of the marine Ladinian-Carnian boundary, representing a novel age constraint for the terrestrial strata near this boundary. This age can provide a calibration for marine and terrestrial correlation near Ladinian

  1. Adaptation to disability among middle-aged and older adults: The role of assimilative and accommodative coping (United States)

    Boerner, Kathrin


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the links between coping, disability, and mental health among adults who are confronted with age-related vision loss. Drawing on the model of assimilative and accommodative coping (e.g., Brandtstädter, 1999), hierarchical regressions were designed to examine the effects of coping and disability on mental health. Participants were 55 middle-aged and 52 older adults who had been recruited from a community-based rehabilitation agency. Findings demonstrate a critical role of accommodative coping for adaptation, with beneficial effects on mental health that were more pronounced in the case of high disability for younger participants. Finally, findings suggest that dealing with disability may pose more of a mental health risk in middle than in late adulthood. PMID:14722337

  2. Middle Eastern rhinoplasty. (United States)

    Azizzadeh, Babak; Mashkevich, Grigoriy


    The ethnic appearance of the Middle Eastern nose is defined by several unique visual features, particularly a high radix, wide overprojecting dorsum, and an amorphous hanging nasal tip. These external characteristics reflect distinct structural properties of the osseo-cartilaginous nasal framework and skin-soft tissue envelope in patients of Middle Eastern extraction. The goal, and the ultimate challenge, of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients is to achieve balanced aesthetic refinement, while avoiding surgical westernization. Detailed understanding of the ethnic visual harmony in a Middle Eastern nose greatly assists in preserving native nasal-facial relationships during rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Esthetic alteration of a Middle Eastern nose follows a different set of goals and principles compared with rhinoplasties on white or other ethnic patients. This article highlights the inherent nasal features of the Middle Eastern nose and reviews pertinent concepts of rhinoplasty on Middle Eastern patients. Essential considerations in the process spanning the consultation and surgery are reviewed. Reliable operative techniques that achieve a successful aesthetic outcome are discussed in detail. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Invasive species and biodiversity crises: testing the link in the late devonian.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alycia L Stigall

    Full Text Available During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the

  4. Invasive species and biodiversity crises: testing the link in the late devonian. (United States)

    Stigall, Alycia L


    During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the modern biodiversity

  5. Sedimentologic and paleontologic study of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina: A late Pleistocene Holocene paleoenvironmental reconstruction (United States)

    Aramayo, S. A.; Téllez, B. Gutiérrez; Schillizzi, R. A.


    A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the southeast coast of Buenos Aires province, Argentina, is made mainly on the basis of paleontological and paleoichnological studies, supported by sedimentological analyses and radiocarbon dating. Continental late Pleistocene and continental, transitional, and marine Holocene stratigraphic units are identified. The former comprises fossil mammals and ichnites of 16000-12,000 BP. The continental early Holocene time, ca. 8100 BP, is represented by an interdune paleoenvironment in which shallow brackish ponds were colonized by diatoms, fish, rodents, and birds. A transitional paleoenvironment in the middle Holocene—6930-6570 BP—is recorded by deposits formed by estuarine crabs. During the late Holocene, between 5000 and 4800 BP, a marine transgression was recorded by a rich mollusc fauna.

  6. Late Paleogene-early Neogene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the eastern Equatorial Atlantic (United States)

    Awad, Walaa K.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca E.


    Six dinoflagellate cyst biozones (zone 1-zone 5, subzones 1a and 1b) are recognized in the late Paleogene-early Neogene interval of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 (Hole 959 A), Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin in the eastern Equatorial Atlantic. The biozones are based on palynological analysis of 30 samples covering a 273.2-m interval with generally fair preservation and good to poor recovery. We propose a new age of Late Eocene (Priabonian) for subunit IIB as opposed to the previously published mid-Early Oligocene age (middle Rupelian). This age assignment is mainly based on the presence of Late Eocene marker taxa, such as Hemiplacophora semilunifera and Schematophora speciosa in the lower part of the studied interval. We also document for the first time a hiatus event within dinoflagellate cyst zone 3, based on the last occurrences of several taxa. This interval is assigned to an Early Miocene age and is barren of other microfossils. Furthermore, we propose new last occurrences for two species. The last occurrence of Cerebrocysta bartonensis is observed in the late Aquitanian-early Burdigalian in this study vs. Priabonian-early Rupelian in mid and high latitude regions. Also, the last occurrence of Chiropteridium galea extends to the latest Early Miocene (Burdigalian) in ODP Hole 959 A; this event was previously identified in other studies as Chattian in equatorial regions, and Aquitanian in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. We suspect that these differences are due to physical (offshore vs. nearshore) and latitudinal locations of the areas studied.

  7. Late Sarmatian Elite Military Burial From the Southern Urals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krivosheev Mikhail Vasilyevich


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the burial of a warrior of Late Sarmatian time from the Southern Urals. The complex from mound no. 4 of the burial mound Taksai I is distinguished by large size of barrow and grave. The reconstructed height of the mound was less than 2 meters. The depth of the burial pit was more than 3 meters. For Late Sarmatian culture such dimensions of sepulchral structures are unique. Under the mound the ritual platform from mainland soil was discovered. The found inventory of a warrior-rider included: horse bridle, a set of bladed weapons consisting of a long sword, dagger and knife, as well as a small bronze cauldron. Analysis of inventory allows us to date this burial to the second half of the 3rd century A.D. This burial belongs to an elite funerary complexes of Late Sarmatian culture and is a burial of professional warriors. This social stratum was formed in Late Sarmatian society at the end of the 2nd - first half of the 3rd century A.D. Most of these graves are dating back to the first half of the 3rd century A.D and were found in the Low Don and in the Volga region. The situation in these regions changed in that period due to the invasion of the tribes of the North-Caucasian origin. Their occurrence is associated with the destruction of the Tanais in the Lower Don region and the spread of graves in the T-shaped catacombs in the steppe monuments. The tradition of burying warriors-horsemen of high social status almost disappears in the Volga-Don steppes after the middle of 3rd century A.D. In the Southern Urals where these processes had an indirect influence, the existence of traditional hierarchies of Late Sarmatian society could continue until the end of the 3rd century A.D. Among the parts of a horse bridle the researchers discovered bronze B-shape buckle. These buckles are widely distributed in the 4th-5th centuries A.D. in the basin of the Kama river and the Danube river. The found buckle is the earliest currently known

  8. What Is Middle Class about the Middle Classes around the World?


    Abhijit V. Banerjee; Esther Duflo


    We expect a lot from the middle classes. At least three distinct arguments about the special economic role of the middle class are traditionally made. In one, new entrepreneurs armed with a capacity and a tolerance for delayed gratification emerge from the middle class and create employment and productivity growth for the rest of society. In a second, perhaps more conventional view, the middle class is primarily a source of vital inputs for the entrepreneurial class: it is their "middle class...

  9. Ontario Power Generation's proposed L and ILW deep geologic repository : an overview of geoscientific studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M; Lam, T.; Luhowy, D.; McLay, J.; Semec, B.; Frizzell, R. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    This paper reported on a multi-disciplinary geoscientific study to confirm the suitability of storing low and intermediate level radioactive waste in a deep geologic repository (DGR). The study is being conducted by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization on behalf of Ontario Power Generation (OPG). The DGR would involve the excavation of waste emplacement rooms within the Ordovician age argillaceous limestones 680 m beneath OPG's Bruce site near Tiverton, Ontario. The repository would require the excavation of nearly 890,000 m{sup 3} of rock to accommodate 200,000 m{sup 3} of radioactive waste within a 28 Ha repository footprint. A concrete floor will be poured to provide a stable base for stacking the waste packages. The first phase of the geoscientific site characterisation plan (GSCP) was prepared in 2005. The GSCP provides a comprehensive and internationally peer-reviewed basis for DGR-related geoscientific studies. The GSCP describes surface and sub-surface site characterization activities required to evaluate the technical suitability of the proposed DGR concept. The GSCP also provides a geoscientific basis for the post-closure safety assessment and contributes to the development of an integrated DGR safety case describing the expected long-term safety and potential impacts of the DGR. Interim results have shown that the middle-upper Ordovician formations proposed to host and enclose the DGR comprise a stable, saline and extremely low permeability groundwater regime. This paper provided an overview of the coordinated site-specific and regional studies to characterize the Bruce site and support the DGR safety case. The work program is scheduled for completion in late 2010 in support of the submittal of an Environmental Impact Statement and regulatory site Preparation/Construction License application in early 2011. 17 refs., 8 figs.

  10. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria


    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg...

  11. The temporal bones from Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). A phylogenetic approach. (United States)

    Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L


    Three well-preserved crania and 22 temporal bones were recovered from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site up to and including the 1994 field season. This is the largest sample of hominid temporal bones known from a single Middle Pleistocene site and it offers the chance to characterize the temporal bone morphology of an European Middle Pleistocene population and to study the phylogenetic relationships of the SH sample with other Upper and Middle Pleistocene hominids. We have carried out a cladistic analysis based on nine traits commonly used in phylogenetic analysis of Middle and Late Pleistocene hominids: shape of the temporal squama superior border, articular eminence morphology, contribution of the sphenoid bone to the median glenoid wall, postglenoid process projection, tympanic plate orientation, presence of the styloid process, mastoid process projection, digastric groove morphology and anterior mastoid tubercle. We have found two autapomorphies on the Home erectus temporal bone: strong reduction of the postglenoid process and absence of the styloid process. Modern humans, Neandertals and the Middle Pleistocene fossils from Europe and Africa constitute a clade characterized by a convex superior border of the temporal squama. The European Middle Pleistocene fossils from Sima de los Huesos, Petralona, Steinheim, Bilzingsleben and Castel di Guido share a Neandertal apomorphy: a relatively flat articular eminence. The fossils from Ehringsdorf, La Chaise Suardi and Biache-Saint-Vaast also display another Neandertal derived trait: an anteriorly obliterated digastric groove. Modern humans and the African Middle Pleistocene fossils share a synapomorphy: a sagittally orientated tympanic plate.

  12. Functioning of the Primary Aquifer Relating to the Maider Basin, Morocco: Case of the Ordovician aquifer. (United States)

    Ben-said, E.; Boukdir, A.; Mahboub, A.; Younsi, A.; Zitouni, A.; Alili, L.; Ikhmerdi, H.


    The basin of Maider is limited northly by the vast ensemble Oriental Saghro-Ougnate, from the east by the Tafilalet plain, from the west by the oriental Jbel Bani, finally from the south and south-east by the Cretaceous Hamada of Kern-Kem. During last decades, groundwater in the basin of Maider, is confronting degradation in both cases: Quantitative and qualitative, as a result of the drought, the overexploitation and the salinization. The aim of this action research is to understand the current state of water resources in the area of stady. At the end of this work, we can get the following conclusions: the general flow of the ordovician aquifer is always directed from the north to the south-east of the basin by following the principal axes of the wadis:Taghbalt, Hssiya and Fezzou. The recharge of the aquifer is primarily done, either by the underground flow, or by the surface runoff of torrential waters from the upstream of Jbel Saghro. The piezometric anomaly noticed at the level of Ait Saàdane, explained by overexploitation linked to the needs of irrigation water. The physicochemical approach for the Maider basin identifies two essential factors of the salinisation of groundwater: the dissolution of the aquifer which is rich in minerals with high temperature on the one hand, and the decrease of the piezometric surface due to the overexploitation and drought on the other hand.

  13. New allocyclic dimensions in a prograding carbonate bank: Evidence for eustatic, tectonic, and paleoceanographic control (late Neogene, Bahamas) (United States)

    Lidz, B.H.; McNeill, D.F.


    The deep-sea record, examined recently for the first time in a shallow-depocenter setting, has unveiled remarkable evidence for new sedimentary components and allocyclic complexity in a large, well-studied carbonate bank, the western Great Bahama Bank. The evidence is a composite foraminiferal signature - Paleocene to early Miocene (allogenic or reworked) and late Miocene to late Pliocene (host) planktic taxa, and redeposited middle Miocene shallow benthic faunas. Ages of the oldest and youngest planktic groups range from ??? 66 to ??? 2 Ma. The reworked and redeposited taxa are a proxy for significant sediment components that otherwise have no lithofacies or seismic resolution. The composite signature, reinforced by a distinctive distribution of the reworked and redeposited faunas, documents a much more complex late Neogene depositional system than previously known. The system is more than progradational. The source sequences that supplied the constituent bank-margin grains formed at different water depths and over hundreds of kilometers and tens of millions of years apart. New evidence from the literature and from data obtained during Ocean Drilling Program (OOP) Leg 166 in the Santaren Channel (Bahamas) support early interpretations based on the composite fossil record and provide valuable new dimensions to regional allocyclicity. The middle Miocene taxa were confined to the lower part of the section by the latest Miocene-earliest Pliocene(?) lowstand of sea level. An orderly occurrence of the allogenic taxa is unique to the global reworked geologic record and appears to have been controlled by a combination of Paleogene-early Neogene tectonics at the source, eustatic changes, and late Neogene current activity at the source and across the bank. The allogenic taxa expand the spatial and temporal range of information in the northern Bahamas by nearly an order of magnitude. In essence, some of the major processes active in the region during ??? 64 m.y. of the

  14. Collision of the Tacheng block with the Mayile-Barleik-Tangbale accretionary complex in Western Junggar, NW China: Implication for Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of the western Altaids (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Yichao; Windley, Brian F.; Song, Dongfang; Han, Chunming; Safonova, Inna


    OIB/E-MORB to N-MORB lava geochemistry away from the Tacheng block. Comparisons with published data suggest that these positive isotopic values, stratigraphic, structural and geochemical relationships can be best understood as an analogue of the relationships between the Ontong Java oceanic plateau and the Pacific oceanic crust. Therefore we propose that the basement of the Tacheng block was an Early Paleozoic oceanic plateau. The southern part of the Tacheng block was an accretionary complex and the northern part was an oceanic basin in the Early Paleozoic, the configuration of which is similar to that of the present Ontong Java oceanic plateau situated on the Pacific oceanic crust, and its accretion into the Solomon accretionary complex. The presence of Ordovician SSZ-type ophiolites, early Paleozoic blueschist and Silurian SSZ-type intrusions in the BMTC, and Early-Middle Paleozoic continental arc-related intrusive rocks in the northern margin of the CBY provide further corroboration of a former subduction zone between the southern West Junggar and the northern margin of the CBY. Furthermore, consideration of the fact that the Kokchetav-North Tianshan range was collaged to the southern margin of the CBY in the Ordovician-Devonian indicates that both ranges were amalgamated synchronously with the CBY constructing the Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of western Altaids.

  15. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Part 1. Evaluation of Phase 2 CO2 Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2. Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowersox, Richard [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Hickman, John [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States); Leetaru, Hannes [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)


    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO2 in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO2 storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO2 were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO2 was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole – including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite – at 1152–2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO2 was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter.

  16. The Middle Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Khok Sung (Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand): biochronological and paleobiogeographical implications (United States)

    Suraprasit, Kantapon; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Chavasseau, Olivier; Yamee, Chotima; Tian, Pannipa; Panha, Somsak


    Abstract The fluviatile terrace deposits of Khok Sung, Nakhon Ratchasima province, have yielded more than one thousand fossils, making this the richest Pleistocene vertebrate fauna of Thailand. The excellent preservation of the specimens allows precise characterization of the faunal composition. The mammalian fauna consists of fifteen species in thirteen genera, including a primate, a canid, a hyaenid, proboscideans, rhinoceroses, a suid, cervids, and bovids. Most species correspond to living taxa but globally (Stegodon cf. orientalis) and locally (Crocuta crocuta ultima, Rhinoceros unicornis, Sus barbatus, and Axis axis) extinct taxa were also present. The identification of Axis axis in Khok Sung, a chital currently restricted to the Indian Subcontinent, represents the first record of the species in Southeast Asia. Three reptilian taxa: Crocodylus cf. siamensis, Python sp., and Varanus sp., are also identified. Faunal correlations with other Southeast Asian sites suggest a late Middle to early Late Pleistocene age for the Khok Sung assemblage. However, the Khok Sung mammalian fauna is most similar to that of Thum Wiman Nakin, dated to older than 169 ka. The Khok Sung large mammal assemblage mostly comprises mainland Southeast Asian taxa that migrated to Java during the latest Middle Pleistocene, supporting the hypothesis that Thailand was a biogeographic pathway for the Sino-Malayan migration event from South China to Java. PMID:27667928

  17. Preliminary comparative study of middle Anisian vertebrate ichnoassociation from South-Eastern Alps (United States)

    Valdiserri, D.; Todesco, R.; Avanzini, M.


    Pelsonian ichno-association seem to corroborate the hypothesis of two different ichoassemblages in the late Middle Triassic (Lucas, 2007). Further studies could allow a better understanding of the evolution of the Chirotherian tracks group and the systematics of the Rhynchosauroidae ichnofamily. References Abel, O. 1926. Der erste Fund einer Tetrapodenfährte in den unteren alpinen Trias. Paläontologische Zeitschrift, 7: 22-24. Avanzini, M., Mietto, P. 2008. Lower and Middle Triassic footprint-based Biochronology in the Italian Southern Alps. Oryctos, Vol. 8, 2008: 3-13. Avanzini, M., Wachtler, M., Dellantonio, E. & Todesco, R. 2007. A new Late Anisian vertebrate ichnosite from Dolomites (Val Duron, Val di Fassa). Geoitalia 2007, Abstract Vol. 10.1474/ Epitome 02.1081. Lucas, S. G. 2007. Tetrapod Footprint Biostratigraphy and Biochronology, Ichnos, 14,1:5-38 Todesco, R. 2007. Studio paleontologico delle orme di rettili triassici (Pelsonico) nel Conglomerato di Voltago (Valle di Prissiano, Trentino-Alto Adige). Degree thesis, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Todesco, R.; Wachtler, M; Kustatscher, E. & Avanzini, M. 2008. Preliminary reporton a new vertebrate track and flora site from Piz da Peres (Anisian-Illyrian): Olang Dolomites, Northern Italy. Geo. Alp, 5: 121-137 Valdiserri, D. & Avanzini, M. 2006: A tetrapod ichnoassociation from the Middle Triassic (Anisian, Pelsonian) of Northern Italy. Ichnos, 14: 105-116.

  18. A new basal hadrosauroid dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan and the early radiation of duck-billed dinosaurs. (United States)

    Sues, Hans-Dieter; Averianov, Alexander


    Levnesovia transoxiana gen. et sp. nov., from the Late Cretaceous (Middle-Late Turonian) of Uzbekistan, is the oldest well-documented taxon referable to Hadrosauroidea sensu Godefroit et al. It differs from a somewhat younger and closely related Bactrosaurus from Inner Mongolia (China) by a tall sagittal crest on the parietals and the absence of club-shaped dorsal neural spines in adult specimens. Levnesovia, Bactrosaurus and possibly Gilmoreosaurus represent the earliest radiation of Hadrosauroidea, which took place during the Cenomanian-Turonian and possibly in North America. The second, Santonian-age radiation of Hadrosauroidea included Aralosaurus, Hadrosauridae and lineages leading to Tanius (Campanian) and Telmatosaurus (Maastrichtian). Hadrosauridae appears to be monophyletic, but Hadrosaurinae and Lambeosaurinae originated in North America and Asia, respectively.

  19. Origin and implications of a thrust-bound gypsiferous unit along the western edge of Jabal Sumeini, northern Oman Mountains (United States)

    Cooper, David J. W.; Ali, Mohammed Y.; Searle, Michael P.


    The Oman Mountains comprise a series of thrust sheets of Neo-Tethyan oceanic rocks that were emplaced onto the Arabian continental margin during obduction of the Semail Ophiolite during the Late Cretaceous. Three separate groups of anomalous gypsiferous bodies intrude the allochthonous units along faults over a distance of about 150 km in the Hawasina Window, Jabal Qumayrah and Jabal Sumeini. The bodies at Jabal Sumeini form a band about 4 km long and up to 100 m wide along a late-stage thrust that restacks the allochthon over a post-emplacement Maastrichtian-Palaeogene sedimentary succession. The gypsum shows evidence of flow-folding and contains numerous clasts and rafts of a range of quartzose sandstones, but with only a minor component from carbonates from the Neo-Tethyan Sumeini Group in the hanging-wall. Palaeogene limestones from the footwall succession are essentially absent. Strontium isotope ratios are high and intersect with the open ocean-water reference curve for the Late Cambrian-Ordovician and Late Miocene-Pliocene. They are also noticeably higher than the ratios from the two other gypsiferous outcrop areas in the Oman Mountains and from outcrops of Ediacaran-Early Cambrian salt domes in central Oman. However, the regional stratigraphy points towards a source of the gypsum from either an Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group salt basin or from the Lower Fars Formation (Early-Middle Miocene), and derivation of the sandstone clasts and rafts from thick Lower Palaeozoic clastic sequences. The discrepancy with the ages inferred from the strontium isotope data can be attributed to deposition of the gypsum in restricted conditions not in equilibrium with the prevailing ocean water. Two models are presented, for an Ediacaran-Early Cambrian and an Early-Middle Miocene source. While the latter cannot be wholly discounted, the stratigraphic and structural context point more strongly towards an Ediacaran-Early Cambrian Ara Group source of the gypsum. This was