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Sample records for late devonian age

  1. Palynological evidence concerning the Devonian age of the dingle group, Southwest Ireland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, C.J. van der

    1980-01-01

    From the Dingle Group, southwest Ireland, generally considered to be of Downtonian age, a presumed Late Emsian palynological assemblage is described, which supports a considerably younger age of the group, viz. late Early Devonian-Middle Devonian. The species Cymbosporites hornei n.sp. is described

  2. Mid-Late Devonian assemblages of herbaceous lycophytes from northern Argentina and Bolivia: Age assessment with palynomorphs and invertebrates and paleobiogeographic importance

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    Di Pasquo, Mercedes; Noetinger, Sol; Isaacson, Peter; Grader, George; Starck, Daniel; Morel, Eduardo; Folnagy, Heidi Anderson

    2015-11-01

    Implications of a new collection of lycophytes of the genera Haplostigma Seward and Paleostigma Kräusel and Dolianiti from southern Bolivia and northern Argentina are presented. Fragmented herbaceous stems of lycophytes preserved as compressions, impressions and casts come from the Middle and Late Devonian Pescado (Huamampampa), Los Monos and Iquiri formations at Mataral, Yesera, Angosto del Pescado and Balapuca. The interbedded shales and siltstones bearing the lycophytes were also examined for palynology. They yielded mostly terrestrial palynomorphs with Grandispora pseudoreticulata and other Eifelian to Givetian species and fewer microplanktonic species (i.e., acritarchs, prasinophytes, chitinozoans). At Yesera, diagnostic spores and elements of the microplankton suggest a Givetian-Frasnian up to early Famennian age for the Haplostigma beds. Moreover, presence of the same brachiopod taxon in the Haplostigma intervals at Yesera Dique (palynologically barren) and Yesera Centro supports their correlation. This new information supports terrestrial connections between these Bolivian and Argentine areas and other regions of South America in the Eifelian - Givetian Afrosouthamerican Subrealm, which extended up to the early Famennian.

  3. LATE DEVONIAN-CARBONIFEROUS CONODONTS FROM EASTERN IRAN

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    MEHDI YAZDI

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodont data from acid-leaching 110 samples from two Late Devonian-Carboniferous areas in the Shotori Range (Tabas region of eastern Iran are presented. At Howz-e-Dorah, a section (88 samples commencing high in the Bahram Formation (Givetian-early Frasnian extended through the Shishtu Formation (Frasnian, Early hassi Zone or older, to latest Tournaisian, anchoralis-latus Zone and the Sardar Formation (earliest Visean, texanus Zone, to late Namurian, sinuatus-corrugatus-sulcatus Zone and into the Jamal Formation (Permian. Four less exhaustively sampled sections (22 samples show the Kale Sardar area to be tectonically more complicated than the Howz-e-Dorah area. Useful marker horizons in the Howz-e-Dorah section, well constrained by conodont data, are: the early Frasnian (no older than Early hassi Zone biostromal beds of the Shishtu Formation, an early Famennian (Late triangularis to Early crepida interval of oolitic limestone, a cyclothem sequence straddling the Early Carboniferous-Late Carboniferous boundary, and an Early Permian interval of siliceous sand ("the white quartzite" of previous authors. Additionally, several iron-rich horizons, readily traceable from locality to locality, are well constrained by conodont ages. Eighty-five conodont species/subspecies are documented representing 24 genera.. Two new species, Polygnathus capollocki and Polygnathus ratebi and one new subspecies, Icriodus alternatus mawsonae are described. 

  4. Late Devonian conodonts and event stratigraphy in northwestern Algerian Sahara

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    Mahboubi, Abdessamed; Gatovsky, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Conodonts recovered from the Late Devonian South Marhouma section comprise 5 genera with 31 species (3 undetermined). The fauna establishes the presence of MN Zones 5, undifferentiated 6/7, 8/10 for the Middle Frasnian, the MN Zones 11, 12, 13 for the Upper Frasnian as well as the Early through Late triangularis Zones in the basal Famennian. The outcropping lithological succession is one of mostly nodular calcilutites alternating with numerous marly and shaly deposits, which, in the lower and upper part, comprise several dysoxic dark shale intervals. Among these the Upper Kellwasser horizon can be precisely dated and as such the presence of the terminal Frasnian Kellwasser Event is recognized for the first time in Algeria. Both the Middlesex and Rhinestreet Events cannot yet be precisely located, but supposedly occur among the dark shale horizons in the lower part of the section. However, their assignment to a precise level has so far not been established. Though poor in conodont abundance the South Marhouma section provides first evidence of the presence of several Montagne Noire conodont zones within the so far widely unstudied Frasnian of the Ougarta Chain. As such it is considered representative for the northwestern Algerian Saoura region.

  5. LATE DEVONIAN CONODONTS FROM THE HOJEDK SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTERN IRAN

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    HOSSEIN GHOLAMALIAN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts (34 species and subspecies from the Hojedk section north of Kerman span the late Givetian to early Famennian. The new data suggest that Devonian biostromes in central and eastern Iran were deposited on differing levels, and that the currently accepted ranges of Icriodus excavatus, Polygnathus subincompletus and P. mosquensis are late Givetian - late Frasnian, early to late Frasnian, and middle to late Frasnian. Polygnathus ashourii n. sp. is proposed. 

  6. The impact of precession and obliquity on the Late-Devonian greenhouse climate

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    De Vleeschouwer, D.; Crucifix, M.; Bounceur, N.; Claeys, P. F.

    2012-12-01

    To date, only few general circulation model (GCM) have been used to simulate the extremely warm greenhouse climate of the Late-Devonian (~370 Ma). As a consequence, the current knowledge on Devonian climate dynamics comes almost exclusively from geological proxy data. Given the fragmentary nature of these data sources, the understanding of the Devonian climate is rather limited. Nonetheless, the Late-Devonian is a key-period in the evolution of life on Earth: the continents were no longer bare but were invaded by land plants, the first forests appeared, soils were formed, fish evolved to amphibians and 70-80% of all animal species were wiped out during the Late Devonian extinction (~376 Ma). In order to better understand the functioning of the climate system during this highly important period in Earth's history, we applied the HadSM3 climate model to the Devonian period under different astronomical configurations. This approach provides insight into the response of Late-Devonian climate to astronomical forcing due to precession and obliquity. Moreover, the assessment of the sensitivity of the Late-Devonian climate to astronomical forcing, presented here, will allow cyclostratigraphers to make better and more detailed interpretations of recurring patterns often observed in Late-Devonian sections. We simulated Late-Devonian climates by prescribing palaeogeography, vegetation distribution and pCO2 concentration (2180 ppm). Different experiments were carried out under 31 different astronomical configurations: three levels for obliquity (ɛ = 22°; 23.5° and 24.5°) and eccentricity (e = 0; 0.03 and 0.07) were chosen. For precession, 8 levels were considered (longitude of the perihelion= 0°; 45°; 90°; 135°; 180°; 235°; 270°). First results suggest that the intensity of precipitation on the tropical Euramerican continent (also known as Laurussia) is highly dependent on changes in precession: During precession maxima (= maximal insolation in SH during winter

  7. Invasive species and biodiversity crises: testing the link in the late devonian.

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    Alycia L Stigall

    Full Text Available During the Late Devonian Biodiversity Crisis, the primary driver of biodiversity decline was the dramatic reduction in speciation rates, not elevated extinction rates; however, the causes of speciation decline have been previously unstudied. Speciation, the formation of new species from ancestral populations, occurs by two primary allopatric mechanisms: vicariance, where the ancestral population is passively divided into two large subpopulations that later diverge and form two daughter species, and dispersal, in which a small subset of the ancestral population actively migrates then diverges to form a new species. Studies of modern and fossil clades typically document speciation by vicariance in much higher frequencies than speciation by dispersal. To assess the mechanism behind Late Devonian speciation reduction, speciation rates were calculated within stratigraphically constrained species-level phylogenetic hypotheses for three representative clades and mode of speciation at cladogenetic events was assessed across four clades in three phyla: Arthropoda, Brachiopoda, and Mollusca. In all cases, Devonian taxa exhibited a congruent reduction in speciation rate between the Middle Devonian pre-crisis interval and the Late Devonian crisis interval. Furthermore, speciation via vicariance is almost entirely absent during the crisis interval; most episodes of speciation during this time were due to dispersal. The shutdown of speciation by vicariance during this interval was related to widespread interbasinal species invasions. The lack of Late Devonian vicariance is diametrically opposed to the pattern observed in other geologic intervals, which suggests the loss of vicariant speciation attributable to species invasions during the Late Devonian was a causal factor in the biodiversity crisis. Similarly, modern ecosystems, in which invasive species are rampant, may be expected to exhibit similar shutdown of speciation by vicariance as an outcome of the

  8. Biotic recovery from the Late Devonian F-F mass extinction event in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖卫华

    2002-01-01

    The Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) mass extinction is one of the five great extinctions of marine life during the Phanerozoic. The F-F event killed most of the Devonian reefs, the characteristic Devonian corals, stromatoporoids, bryozoans, nearly all tentaculites, a few superfamilies of brachiopods, such as Atrypacea and Pentameracea and some important elements of goniatites, such as Manticoceras.``The end-Frasnian was a phase of mass extinction. A large number of shelly benthos were killed by the F-F event. Early and middle Famennian was the survival interval. The marine faunas were very rare at that time. The late Famennian was the recovery interval. There appeared to have many new taxa in the Strunian stage. It lacked a radiation interval in Late Devonian Famennian because another event (the D-C mass extinction) happened at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary.``Several causes for the F-F mass extinction have been proposed by some geologists, which have been grouped into two broad types, terrestrial and extraterrestrial. The former is related to sea level changes, climate changes and anoxic water event. The latter is linked with some forms of meteorite impact.``A large-scale eustatic change of sea level and black shales representing an anoxic environment has been invoked to explain one of the causes for the F-F mass extinction.``

  9. Causes of the great mass extinction of marine organisms in the Late Devonian

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    Barash, M. S.

    2016-11-01

    The second of the five great mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic occurred in the Late Devonian. The number of species decreased by 70-82%. Major crises occurred at the Frasnian-Famennian and Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. The lithological and geochemical compositions of sediments, volcanic deposits, impactites, carbon and oxygen isotope ratios, evidence of climate variability, and sea level changes reflect the processes that led the critical conditions. Critical intervals are marked by layers of black shales, which were deposited in euxinic or anoxic environments. These conditions were the main direct causes of the extinctions. The Late Devonian mass extinction was determined by a combination of impact events and extensive volcanism. They produced similar effects: emissions of harmful chemical compounds and aerosols to cause greenhouse warming; darkening of the atmosphere, which prevented photosynthesis; and stagnation of oceans and development of anoxia. Food chains collapsed and biological productivity decreased. As a result, all vital processes were disturbed and a large portion of the biota became extinct.

  10. The first direct evidence of a Late Devonian coelacanth fish feeding on conodont animals

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    Zatoń, Michał; Broda, Krzysztof; Qvarnström, Martin; Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Ahlberg, Per Erik

    2017-04-01

    We describe the first known occurrence of a Devonian coelacanth specimen from the lower Famennian of the Holy Cross Mountains, Poland, with a conodont element preserved in its digestive tract. A small spiral and phosphatic coprolite (fossil excrement) containing numerous conodont elements and other unrecognized remains was also found in the same deposits. The coprolite is tentatively attributed to the coelacanth. Although it is unclear whether the Late Devonian coelacanth from Poland was an active predator or a scavenger, these finds provide the first direct evidence of feeding on conodont animals by early coelacanth fish, and one of the few evidences of feeding on these animals known to date. It also expands our knowledge about the diet and trophic relations between the Paleozoic marine animals in general.

  11. Paleomagnetism of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran

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    Wensink, H.

    1983-01-01

    Paleomagnetic results are reported from 13 sites of red beds of Early Devonian age from Central Iran. Detailed paleomagnetic analyses were carried out. Two types of partial progressive demagnetization were applied, one using alternating magnetic fields, the other heating.

  12. Late Devonian spermatophyte diversity and paleoecology at Red Hill, north-central Pennsylvania, USA

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    Cressler, Walter L. III. [Francis Harvey Green Library, 29 West Rosedale Avenue, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, 19383 (United States); Prestianni, Cyrille [Universite de Liege, Boulevard du Rectorat B18, Liege 4000 (Belgium); LePage, Ben A. [The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA, 19103 and PECO Energy Company, 2301 Market Avenue, S9-1, Philadelphia, PA 19103 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Early spermatophytes have been discovered at Red Hill, a Late Devonian (Famennian) fossil locality in north-central Pennsylvania, USA. The Red Hill locality contains an Archaeopteris-dominated flora within an outcrop of the Duncannon Member of the Catskill Formation. Palynological analyses of the plant fossil-bearing horizons within the Red Hill outcrop indicate deposition within the VCo palynozone. This is the earliest time horizon known to contain evidence for spermatophytes, and is contemporaneous with well-known spermatophyte-bearing deposits in West Virginia and Belgium. Some of the spermatophyte material from Red Hill compares well with Aglosperma sp., previously known as isolated ovules from the latest Devonian of South Wales and England, thus extending its geographic and stratigraphic range. Red Hill specimens of Aglosperma sp. occur both as isolated ovules and attached to dichotomously forking axes. Additional spermatophyte cupules discovered at Red Hill are morphologically similar to those of the previously described Late Devonian spermatophytes Elkinsia Rothwell, Scheckler, et Gillespie, Moresnetia Stockmans, and Xenotheca Arber et Goode. Some of the Red Hill cupule complexes are distinct from the aforementioned taxa in consisting of slender dichotomously forking axes terminating in paired cupules with highly fused and symmetric cupule quadrant lobes. The distinctive nature of these Red Hill specimens warrants the creation of Duodimidia pfefferkornii Cressler, Prestianni, et LePage gen. et sp. nov. Plant fossil remains with sphenopteroid foliage are also present at Red Hill, possibly attributable to the spermatophytes. Previous systematic sampling of the rich plant-fossil bearing layer at Red Hill and analysis of its floristic diversity and abundance as well as the presence and absence of charcoal suggests a pattern of floral turnover from a local-scale Rhacophyton-dominated community to spermatophyte colonization following disturbance by wildfires

  13. Evolution process of the Late Silurian–Late Devonian tectonic environment in Qimantagh in the western portion of east Kunlun, China: Evidence from the geochronology and geochemistry of granitoids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nana Hao; Wanming Yuan; Aikui Zhang; Yunlei Feng; Jianhui Cao; Xiaoning Chen; Xueqin Cheng; Xuanxue Mo

    2015-02-01

    The East Kunlun Orogenic Belt has undergone a composite orogenic process consisting of multiple orogenic cycles and involving many types of magmatic rocks spread over the whole district. However, due to bad natural geographical conditions and complex superimposed orogenic processes, most of the Caledonian orogenic traces were modified by the late tectonic uplift and denudation, so these rocks are poorly studied. Multiperiodic magmatic activity during the Late Silurian (approximately 420 Ma)–Late Devonian (approximately 380 Ma) exists in the Qimantagh area. We obtained 5 zircon U–Pb ages from the Late Silurian–Late Devonian granitoids in the Qimantagh area. Those ages are 420.6 ± 2.6 Ma(Nalingguole biotite monzogranite), 421.2 ± 1.9 Ma (Wulanwuzhuer potassium granite), 403.7 ± 2.9 Ma (Yemaquan granodiorite), 391.3 ± 3.2 Ma (Qunli granite porphyry), and 380.52 ± 0.92 Ma (Kayakedengtage granodiorite). These granitoids belong to the sub-alkaline, high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous or weakly or strongly peraluminous series. The rocks are right oblique types, having overall relative LREE enrichment and HREE depletion, though rocks from different times may exhibit different degrees of Eu anomalies or overall moderate Eu depletion. The rocks are rich in large ion lithophile elements (LILE), such as Rb, Th, and K, and high field strength elements (HFSE), such as Zr and Hf, and are depleted in Ba, Nb, Ta, Sr, P, Eu, and Ti. The rocks have complex composition sources. The Late Silurian granitoids are mainly crust-derived. Most of the Devonian granitoids are crust-mantle mixed-source and only some parts of them are crust-derived, especially the Middle Devonian granitoids. Those mid-acidic and acidic intrusive rocks are formed in a post-collision tectonic setting, lithosphere delamination may have occurred in the Early Devonian (407 Ma), and the study area subsequently experienced an underplating of the mantle-derived magma at least until the Late Devonian (380 Ma).

  14. 青海祁漫塔格晚泥盆世侵入岩锆石U-Pb年龄、地球化学特征及其地质意义%U-Pb age of zircons of Qimantage late-Devonian intrusive rocks, geochemical characteristics and its geological significance, Qinghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国良; 任二峰; 保广普; 李建放; 常有英

    2013-01-01

    Based on the field geological investigation study from the regional mapping programme at the scale of 1∶50,000 in the Kabul Jacques Tage area (5 map sheets),in combination of the petrological,temporal and spatial distribution and isotope age data,the magma intrusion event occurred in the Late-Devonian period was identified,the magmatic rocks consist of the dark fine grain diorite,flesh red fine grain syenogranite and shallow flesh red porphyritic syenogranite.The intrusive rocks belongs to the a series of moderate-rich potassic and calcium,and aluminum and aluminum-saturated rock.The ages of 206Pb/238 U of zircon from these three types of intrusive are (363 ± 3) Ma,(370 ± 3) Ma,(357 ± 2) Ma respectively,which are explained to the aging of the intrusive emplacement.Through the comprehensive analysis,it is concluded that the Qimantage intrusive rocks of Late-Devonian period were formed in the stretching tectonic environment of the early Paleozoic orogenic period.%基于对青海1∶5万喀雅克登塔格地区五幅区域地质调查项目的野外地质调查研究,综合其岩石学、时空分布和同位素年龄资料,确定了晚泥盆世的岩浆侵入事件,其岩性组合为暗色细粒闪长岩、肉红色细粒正长花岗岩、浅肉红色似斑状正长花岗岩等3类岩石组成.岩石系列属中—高钾钙性系列偏铝质—过铝质.暗色细粒闪长岩、肉红色细粒正长花岗岩、浅肉红色似斑状正长花岗岩3个侵入体中锆石的206Pb/238U年龄分别为(363±3)Ma、(370 ±3)Ma、(357±2)Ma,这些年龄数值被解释为岩体的侵位年龄.通过综合分析,认为祁漫塔格晚泥盆世侵入岩形成于早古生代造山后伸展崩塌的构造环境.

  15. Late Devonian palaeomagnetism of the North Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan: can secular variation vary on a short timescale?

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    Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Van der Voo, Rob; Levashova, Natalia M.; Dominguez, Ada R.

    2013-05-01

    We studied more than 80 lava flows from a ˜600-m-thick pile of Upper Devonian (Frasnian) basalts and andesites of the Aral Formation in the North Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia). With the aid of stepwise thermal demagnetization, a high-temperature, dual-polarity component was reliably isolated from most flows. The primary origin of the high-temperature component is demonstrated by positive reversal, conglomerate and fold tests. The most prominent and intriguing feature of this Late Devonian data set involves a clear distinction in angular dispersion between the lower and upper parts of the studied section. A rather low concentration parameter (k = 13) and several directional anomalies characterize the lower section; in contrast, a much better grouping (k = 46) and a lack of directional outliers is observed for the dual-polarity vectors from the upper flow sequence of the formation. We analysed different mechanisms to account for this directional pattern and found that it is possible in just two ways. One is to assume that secular variation (SV) in the upper sequence is strongly underrepresented, and it is a coincidence that the mean directions of both polarities are statistically antipodal, and the corresponding concentration parameters are statistically equal. The other explanation is to hypothesize that the magnitude of SV can vary several-fold at the same palaeolatitude and over time intervals estimated as 105-106 yr. This is in sharp contrast with other models of SV, where this magnitude has been assumed to be rather time-independent (for a given latitude). Our hypothesis accounts for the observed irregularities in palaeomagnetic data, but makes attempts to establish a correlation between SV and other parameters (geographic latitude, reversal frequency, age, etc.) more difficult. We are aware, however, that more data are needed to refute or confirm it.

  16. Disintegration of the continental margin of northwestern Gondwana: Late Devonian of the eastern Anti-Atlas (Morocco)

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    Wendt, Jobst

    1985-11-01

    The Devonian early Carboniferous sequence in the eastern Anti-Atlas represents a complete record of the last stage of the depositional and tectonic evolution along the northwestern margin of Gondwana. As a consequence of early Variscan block faulting, a platform and basin topography was established during the Middle and Late Devonian. Platforms were covered by condensed cephalopod limestones; sedimentation in the basins was mainly argillaceous with calcareous and turbiditic intercalations. In the latest Famennian/early Tournaisian the whole area was covered by delta deposits in the south passing into turbidites and olistostromes toward a continental slope farther north. This sedimentary and structural evolution reflects the gradual foundering and disintegration of the northwestern continental margin of Gondwana prior to the collisional stage in the late Visean/late Carboniferous.

  17. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental margin of the East European Platform, tracers of a single heterogeneous lithospheric mantle source

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    Chalot-Prat, Françoise; Tikhomirov, Petr; Saintot, Aline

    2007-12-01

    In Late Devonian and Early-to-Late Triassic times, the southern continental margin of the Eastern European Platform was the site of a basaltic volcanism in the Donbas and Fore-Caucasus areas respectively. Both volcanic piles rest unconformably upon Paleoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic units respectively, and emplaced during continental rifting periods some 600 km away from expected locations of active oceanic subduction zones. This paper reports a comparative geochemical study of the basaltic rocks, and views them as the best tracers of the involved mantle below the Eastern European Platform. The Late Devonian alkaline basic rocks differ from the calc-alkaline Triassic basic rocks by their higher alkali-silica ratio, their higher TiO2, K2O, P2O5 and FeO contents, their higher trace element contents, a higher degree of fractionation between the most and the least incompatible elements and the absence of Ta-Nb negative anomalies. These general features, clearly distinct from those of partial melting and fractional crystallization, are due to mantle source effects. With similar Nd and Sr isotopic signatures indicating mantle-crust mixing, both suites would originate from the melting of a same but heterogeneous continental mantle lithosphere (refertilized depleted mantle). Accordingly the Nd model ages, the youngest major event associated with mantle metasomatism occurred during Early Neoproterozoic times (˜650Ma).

  18. Late Devonian and Triassic basalts from the southern continental margin of the East European Platform, tracers of a single heterogeneous lithospheric mantle source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Françoise Chalot-Prat; Petr Tikhomirov; Aline Saintot

    2007-12-01

    In Late Devonian and Early-to-Late Triassic times, the southern continental margin of the Eastern European Platform was the site of a basaltic volcanism in the Donbas and Fore-Caucasus areas respectively. Both volcanic piles rest unconformably upon Paleoproterozoic and Late Paleozoic units respectively, and emplaced during continental rifting periods some 600 km away from expected locations of active oceanic subduction zones. This paper reports a comparative geochemical study of the basaltic rocks, and views them as the best tracers of the involved mantle below the Eastern European Platform. The Late Devonian alkaline basic rocks differ from the calc-alkaline Triassic basic rocks by their higher alkali-silica ratio, their higher TiO2, K2O, P2O5 and FeO contents, their higher trace element contents, a higher degree of fractionation between the most and the least incompatible elements and the absence of Ta-Nb negative anomalies. These general features, clearly distinct from those of partial melting and fractional crystallization, are due to mantle source effects. With similar Nd and Sr isotopic signatures indicating mantle-crust mixing, both suites would originate from the melting of a same but heterogeneous continental mantle lithosphere (refertilized depleted mantle). Accordingly the Nd model ages, the youngest major event associated with mantle metasomatism occurred during Early Neoproterozoic times (∼650Ma).

  19. Late Devonian glacial deposits from the eastern United States signal an end of the mid-Paleozoic warm period

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    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Stamm, R.

    2008-01-01

    A Late Devonian polymictic diamictite extends for more than 400??km from northeastern Pennsylvania across western Maryland and into east-central West Virginia. The matrix-supported, unbedded, locally sheared diamictite contains subangular to rounded clasts up to 2??m in diameter. The mostly rounded clasts are both locally derived and exotic; some exhibit striations, faceting, and polish. The diamictite commonly is overlain by laminated siltstone/mudstone facies associations (laminites). The laminites contain isolated clasts ranging in size from sand and pebbles to boulders, some of which are striated. The diamictite/laminite sequence is capped by massive, coarse-grained, pebbly sandstone that is trough cross-bedded. A stratigraphic change from red, calcic paleo-Vertisols in strata below the diamictite to non-calcic paleo-Spodosols and coal beds at and above the diamictite interval suggests that the climate became much wetter during deposition of the diamictite. The diamictite deposit is contemporaneous with regressive facies that reflect fluvial incision during the Late Devonian of the Appalachian basin. These deposits record a Late Devonian episode of climatic cooling so extreme that it produced glaciation in the Appalachian basin. Evidence for this episode of climatic cooling is preserved as the interpreted glacial deposits of diamictite, overlain by glaciolacustrine varves containing dropstones, and capped by sandstone interpreted as braided stream outwash. The Appalachian glacigenic deposits are contemporaneous with glacial deposits in South America, and suggest that Late Devonian climatic cooling was global. This period of dramatic global cooling may represent the end of the mid-Paleozoic warm interval that began in the Middle Silurian. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Latisemenia longshania, gen. et sp. nov., a new Late Devonian seed plant from China.

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    Wang, De-Ming; Basinger, James F; Huang, Pu; Liu, Le; Xue, Jin-Zhuang; Meng, Mei-Cen; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Deng, Zhen-Zhen

    2015-10-22

    The earliest known ovules in the Late Devonian (Famennian) are borne terminally on fertile branches and are typically enclosed in a cupule. Among these ovules are some that have terete integumentary lobes with little or no fusion. Here, we report a new taxon, Latisemenia longshania, from the Famennian of South China, which bears cupulate ovules that are terminal as well as opposite on the fertile axis. Each ovule has four broad integumentary lobes, which are extensively fused to each other and also to the nucellus. The cupule is uniovulate, and the five flattened cupule segments of each terminal ovule are elongate cuneate and shorter than the ovule. Associated but not attached pinnules are laminate and Sphenopteris-like, with an entire or lobate margin. Latisemenia is the earliest known plant with ovules borne on the side of the fertile axis and may foreshadow the diverse ovule arrangements found among younger seed plant lineages that emerge in the Carboniferous. Following the telome theory, Latisemenia demonstrates derived features in both ovules and cupules, and the shape and fusion of integumentary lobes suggest effective pollination and protection to the nucellus. Along with other recent discoveries from China, Latisemenia extends the palaeogeographic range of the earliest seed plants. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. The ammonoids from the Three Forks Shale (Late Devonian of Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna from the Late Devonian Three Forks Shale of Montana is revised. Six taxa were recognised, which belong to the genera Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia, and Carinoclymenia. The ammonoid assemblage suggests a stratigraphic position within the middle Famennian, most probably the Platyclymenia annulata Zone. The ammonoids display extreme septal crowding in intermediate as well as adult growth stages, which can be regarded as evidence for instable palaeoecological conditions during lifetime of the animals. Die Ammonoideenfauna aus dem oberdevonischen Three Forks Shale von Montana wird revidiert. Sechs Taxa werden unterschieden; sie gehören zu den Gattungen Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia und Carinoclymenia. Die Ammonoideen-Vergesellschaftung spricht für eine stratigraphische Position im mittleren Famennium, wahrscheinlich in der Platyclymenia annulata Zone. Die Ammonoideen zeigen auffällige Drängung der Septen in intermediären und adulten Wachstumsstadien, die als Hinweis auf instabile Lebensbedingungen für die Tiere gewertet werden kann. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600008

  2. Intergrated study of the Devonian-age black shales in eastern Ohio. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, J.D.; Struble, R.A.; Carlton, R.W.; Hodges, D.A.; Honeycutt, F.M.; Kingsbury, R.H.; Knapp, N.F.; Majchszak, F.L.; Stith, D.A.

    1982-09-01

    This integrated study of the Devonian-age shales in eastern Ohio by the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geological Survey is part of the Eastern Gas Shales Project sponsored by the US Department of Energy. The six areas of research included in the study are: (1) detailed stratigraphic mapping, (2) detailed structure mapping, (3) mineralogic and petrographic characterization, (4) geochemical characterization, (5) fracture trace and lineament analysis, and (6) a gas-show monitoring program. The data generated by the study provide a basis for assessing the most promising stratigraphic horizons for occurrences of natural gas within the Devonian shale sequence and the most favorable geographic areas of the state for natural gas exploration and should be useful in the planning and design of production-stimulation techniques. Four major radioactive units in the Devonian shale sequence are believed to be important source rocks and reservoir beds for natural gas. In order of potential for development as an unconventional gas resource, they are (1) lower and upper radioactive facies of the Huron Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, (2) upper Olentangy Shale (Rhinestreet facies equivalent), (3) Cleveland Shale Member of the Ohio Shale, and (4) lower Olentangy Shale (Marcellus facies equivalent). These primary exploration targets are recommended on the basis of areal distribution, net thickness of radioactive shale, shows of natural gas, and drilling depth to the radioactive unit. Fracture trends indicate prospective areas for Devonian shale reservoirs. Good geological prospects in the Devonian shales should be located where the fracture trends coincide with thick sequences of organic-rich highly radioactive shale.

  3. The palaeogeographical background of Late Devonian storm events in the western part of the Holy Cross Mountains (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierek, Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    Late Devonian coarse-grained carbonate deposits in the Holy Cross Mountains were studied for possible storm depositional systems and catastrophic tsunami events, as it must be assumed that the investigated area was strongly affected by tropical hurricanes generated in the open ocean North of Gondwana. This assumption appears consistent with diagnostic features of carbonate tempestites at several places in the Holy Cross Mountains. Sedimentary structures and textures that indicate so are, among other evidence, erosional bases with sole marks, graded units, intra- and bioclasts, different laminations and burrowing at the tops of tempestite layers. It has been suggested before that a tsunami occurred during the Late Devonian, but the Laurussian shelf had an extensional regime at the time, which excludes intensive seismic activity. The shelf environment also excluded the generation of tsunami waves because the depth was too shallow. Additionally, the Holy Cross Mountains region was surrounded in the Devonian by shallow-marine and stable elevated areas: the Nida Platform, the Opatkowice Platform and the Cracow Platform to the South, and the elevated Lublin-Lviv area to the NE. Thus, tsunami energy should have been absorbed by these regions if tsunamites would have occurred.

  4. Mid to late Devonian back-arc rift basins in the Brooks Range, AK, and across the Arctic: a possible paleogeographic piercing point for Arctic reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoiland, C. W.; Miller, E. L.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2013-12-01

    The westernmost Brooks Range, Alaska, is underlain by basement of probable Baltic or Timanian affinity (e.g. Miller et al., 2011; Amato et al., 2009), while the eastern Brooks Range is underlain by Laurentian affinity basement (e.g. Strauss et al., 2013). A post-Timanian and pre-Mississippian suture or contact is thus required based on continuity of late Devonian and younger strata across the Brooks Range (e.g. Dumoulin et al., 2002). This inferred juxtaposition has been proposed as the distal and diachronous (though possibly non-collisional) continuation of the Caledonian orogen (e.g. Moore et al., 2012) but the actual location and character of this suture within basement rocks of the Brooks Range remain speculative. New laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb single grain detrital zircon (DZ) geochronology of basement rocks from the Cosmos Hills, Slate Creek, and Wiseman regions suggest that metamorphic rocks in these regions are Devonian, not pre-Devonian. New SHRIMP-RG analyses of the Kogoluktuk orthogneiss (Cosmos) (zircon: 383 Ma × 5 Ma, 2-sigma errors, consistent with Dillon et al. 1980) revealed no inherited cores from which to infer basement affinity. DZ spectra from metasedimentary and metavolcanic wall rock contain youngest detrital zircon populations with ages (390 Ma) just barely older than the cross-cutting intrusive age, providing tight bracketing of depositional age. These zircon ages are noticeably younger than Caledonian magmatic ages (430-420 Ma) suggesting deposition in a volcanically and tectonically active setting (likely extensional) as originally suggested by Hitzman et al (1986). Zircon spectra (Cosmos) contain notable amounts of "Timanian" age zircons (c. 700-550 Ma), and a spread of zircons from 1-2 Ga (including 1.5-1.6 Ga ages of the Laurentian "magmatic gap', e.g. Grove et al. 2008) more typical of derivation from Baltic rather than Laurentian sources. East in the Wiseman and Slate Creek localities

  5. Late Devonian carbonate magnetostratigraphy from the Oscar and Horse Spring Ranges, Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansma, Jeroen; Tohver, Eric; Yan, Maodu; Trinajstic, Kate; Roelofs, Brett; Peek, Sarah; Slotznick, Sarah P.; Kirschvink, Joseph; Playton, Ted; Haines, Peter; Hocking, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The Late Devonian was a time of major evolutionary change encompassing the fifth largest mass extinction, the Frasnian-Famennian event. In order to establish a chronological framework for global correlation before, during, and following the Frasnian-Famennian mass extinction, we carried out a coupled magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic study of two stratigraphic sections in the Upper Devonian carbonate reef complexes of the Lennard Shelf, in the Canning Basin, Western Australia. Magnetostratigraphy from these rocks provides the first high-resolution definition of the Late Devonian magnetic polarity timescale. A 581-m-reference section and an 82-m overlapping section through the marginal slope facies (Napier Formation) of the Oscar Range as well as a 117-m section at Horse Spring (Virgin Hills Formation) were sampled at decimeter to meter scale for magnetostratigraphy. Conodont biostratigraphy was used to correlate both sections, and link magnetostratigraphic polarity zones to a globally established biostratigraphy. A stable, Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM) with dual polarities (NE, shallowly upward and SW, shallowly downward) is recovered from ∼ 60% of all samples, with magnetite inferred to be the chief magnetic carrier from thermal demagnetization characteristics. These directions define a geomagnetic pole at 49.5°S/285.8°E and α95 = 2.4 (n = 501), placing the Canning Basin at 9.9°S during the Late Devonian, consistent with carbonate reef development at this time. A conservative interpretation of the magnetostratigraphy shows the recovery of multiple reversals from both sections, not including possible cryptochrons and short duration magnetozones. Field tests for primary remanence include positive reversal tests and matching magnetozones from an overlapping section in the Oscar Range. A strong correlation was found between magnetic polarity stratigraphies of the Oscar Range and Horse Spring sections, and we correlate 12

  6. A global cyclostratigraphic framework constrains the timing and pacing of environmental changes over the Late Devonian (Frasnian - Famennian) mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vleeschouwer, David; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Day, James E.; Whalen, Michael; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Milankovitch cycles (obliquity, eccentricity and precession) result in changes in the distribution of solar energy over seasons, as well as over latitudes, on time scales of ten thousands of years to millions of years. These changing patterns in insolation have induced significant variations in Earth's past climate over the last 4.5 billion years. Cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology utilize the geologic imprint of such quasi-cyclic climatic variations to measure geologic time. In recent years, major improvements of the Geologic Time Scale have been proposed through the application of cyclostratigraphy, mostly for the Mesozoic and Cenozoic (Gradstein et al., 2012). However, the field of Paleozoic cyclostratigraphy and astrochronology is still in its infancy and the application of cyclostratigraphic techniques in the Paleozoic allows for a whole new range of research questions. For example, unraveling the timing and pacing of environmental changes over the Late Devonian mass extinction on a 105-year time-scale concerns such a novel research question. Here, we present a global cyclostratigraphic framework for late Frasnian to early Famennian climatic and environmental change, through the integration of globally distributed sections. The backbone of this relative time scale consists of previously published cyclostratigraphies for western Canada and Poland (De Vleeschouwer et al., 2012; De Vleeschouwer et al., 2013). We elaborate this Euramerican base by integrating new proxy data -interpreted in terms of astronomical climate forcing- from the Iowa basin (USA, magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope data) and Belgium (XRF and carbon isotope data). Next, we expand this well-established cyclostratigraphic framework towards the Paleo-Tethys Ocean, using magnetic susceptibility and carbon isotope records from the Fuhe section in South China (Whalen et al., 2015). The resulting global cyclostratigraphic framework implies an important refinement of the late Frasnian to

  7. Nitrate levels and the age of groundwater from the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer in Fife, Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, G W; Anderson, J; Elliot, T

    2003-03-01

    The tritium concentrations in 13 groundwater samples from boreholes throughout the Upper Devonian sandstone aquifer of Fife have been measured. Due to atmospheric variations in tritium concentrations over the last century, this radioactive tracer can be used as a groundwater age indicator. In this study, the groundwater tritium concentrations have allowed for the area to be divided into three zones, and the variable chemistry of the groundwater samples, including the problem of recent elevated nitrate levels in the Fife Aquifer, has been interpreted in terms of their relative ages.

  8. Permineralized Callixylon woods from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, U.S.A. and that of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitaley, S; Cai, C

    2001-03-01

    Two permineralized woods are described in this paper, one from the Late Devonian Cleveland Shale of Ohio, USA and the other from the Late Devonian Huron Shale of Kettle Point, Ontario, Canada. Both samples of wood are satisfactorily preserved with primary and secondary xylem but without cortex and bark. Both are identified as Callixylon. They differ in specific characters from each other and from other described species. Hence two new species are designated, Callixylon beckii and Callixylon huronensis, respectively, to accommodate them in the class Progymnospermopsida (Progymnospermophyta) under the group Archaeopteridales.

  9. A Middle-Late Devonian fish fauna from the Sierra de Perijá, western Venezuela, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Young

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Devonian fossil fish fauna from the region of Caño Colorado between the Rio Palmar and Rio Socuy, Sierra de Perijá, Venezuela, comes from two localities and several horizons within the Campo Chico Formation, dated on plants and spores as Givetian-Frasnian in age. Placoderms are most common, with the antiarch Bothriolepis perija n. sp., showing affinity with species from the Aztec fish fauna of Victoria Land, Antarctica. A second antiarch, Venezuelepis mingui n.g. n.sp., is also closely related to an Antarctic species, which is reassigned to this new genus. Fragmentary remains of a phyllolepid placoderm show similarity to the genus Austrophyllolepis from southeastern Australia. Chondrichthyan spines are provisionally referred to the Antarctilamnidae, and acanthodian remains include spines of the widespread taxon Machaeracanthus. Osteichthyans are represented by osteolepid and dipnoan scales and teeth, and scales lacking cosmine which may belong to another major taxon. This fauna has provided the first Devonian record from South America of three major fish groups: antiarch and phyllolepid placoderms, and dipnoans. These are widely distributed on most other continents. Although invertebrates and plants from the same sequence closely resemble those of eastern North America, the endemic elements in the fish fauna indicate Gondwana affinities. Phyllolepid placoderms are common in Givetian-Frasnian strata of Australia and Antarctica, but are only known from the Famennian in the Northern Hemisphere. The new phyllolepid occurrence extends their range across the northern margin of Palaeozoic Gondwana. The age and affinities of this new fish fauna are consistent with a model of biotic dispersal between Gondwana and Euramerica at or near the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. A narrow marine barrier separating northern and southern continental landmasses is indicated, in contrast to the wide equatorial ocean for the Late Devonian postulated from

  10. The Late Devonian Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia: Exceptional Early Vertebrate Preservation and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, John A.; Trinajstic, Kate

    2010-05-01

    The Gogo Formation of Western Australia preserves a unique Late Devonian (Frasnian) reef fauna. The exceptional three-dimensional preservation of macrofossils combined with unprecedented soft-tissue preservation (including muscle bundles, nerve cells, and umbilical structures) has yielded a particularly rich assemblage with almost 50 species of fishes described. The most significant discoveries have contributed to resolving placoderm phylogeny and elucidating their reproductive physiology. Specifically, these discoveries have produced data on the oldest known vertebrate embryos; the anatomy of the primitive actinopterygian neurocranium and phylogeny of the earliest actinopterygians; the histology, radiation, and plasticity of dipnoan (lungfish) dental and cranial structures; the anatomy and functional morphology of the extinct onychodonts; and the anatomy of the primitive tetrapodomorph head and pectoral fin.

  11. Coupling relationships between brachiopods and Girvanella during the Late Devonian F-F transition in Guilin,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ran; GONG YiMing; ZENG JianWei

    2008-01-01

    The abundance curves derived from area proportions of brachiopods and Girvanella in the thin sections from the Yangdi section,South China,exhibits complex relationships during the Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition.The living activity of brachiopods such as grazing and borrowing did great damage to the growth of Girvanella.However,there was more to just a mere a survival competing relationship between them,Girvanella actually improved marine environments by oxygenating the dysoxic ambient sea-water through photosynthesis in the lower KeUwasser Horizon.Profited from this improvement brachiopods' abundance increased subsequently and suppressed Girvanella again.Nonetheless,without Girvanella's photosynthesis,brachiopods were wiped out by the farther anoxic environments in the upper Kellwasser Horizon.The complex relationships between Girvanella and brachiopods may be a key to unlocking the relationships between geomicrobes and metazoans in the geological overturn periods.

  12. Coupling relationships between brachiopods and Girvanella during the Late Devonian F-F transition in Guilin, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The abundance curves derived from area proportions of brachiopods and Girvanella in the thin sections from the Yangdi section, South China, exhibits complex relationships during the Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition. The living activity of brachiopods such as grazing and borrowing did great damage to the growth of Girvanella. However, there was more to just a mere a survival competing relationship between them, Girvanella actually improved marine environments by oxygenating the dysoxic ambient sea-water through photosynthesis in the lower Kellwasser Horizon. Profited from this improvement brachiopods’ abundance increased subsequently and suppressed Girvanella again. Nonetheless, without Girvanella’s photosynthesis, brachiopods were wiped out by the farther anoxic environments in the upper Kellwasser Horizon. The complex relationships between Girvanella and brachiopods may be a key to unlocking the relationships between geomicrobes and metazoans in the geological overturn periods.

  13. High-temperature metamorphism of the Yushugou ophiolitic slice: Late Devonian subduction of seamount and mid-oceanic ridge in the South Tianshan orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jin, Zhenmin

    2016-12-01

    The South Tianshan Orogenic Belt (STOB), representing the southern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), underwent a long-lived and subduction-related accretionary orogenic process. Revealing the petrogenesis of high-pressure (HP) metamorphic ophiolitic slices within this orogen is of crucial importance to understanding the geodynamic evolution of the STOB. In this study, we carry out a petrological, geochemical and geochronological study of HP mafic granulites from the Yushugou ophiolitic slice within the South Tianshan Accretionary Complex. Our results combined with previously published data suggest that the Yushugou mafic granulites, including garnet-clinopyroxene granulite, garnet two-pyroxene granulite and garnet-orthopyroxene granulite, are generally subalkaline to alkaline basalts, and show geochemical characteristics of MORB and OIB. The nominally anhydrous minerals of the mafic granulites contain certain but trace amounts of water in the manner of structural OH and sub-microscopic fluid inclusions. The granulites have a possible protolith age of ca. 400 Ma and metamorphic age of 390-360 Ma, and underwent HP and high-temperature (HT) granulite-facies metamorphism under conditions of 12-14 kbar and 840-950 °C and low H2O activity. Our study indicates that the Yushugou ophiolitic slice was probably derived from seamount that formed at mid-oceanic ridge closing to the oceanic trench and subduction zone during the Early Devonian, and then underwent metamorphism and deformation as a result of the subduction of the seamount and associated spreading ridge during the Middle to Late Devonian. Therefore, the Yushugou HP ophiolitic slice provides an important information of the Paleozoic tectonic evolutionary of the STOB.

  14. Archaeopteris halliana from the Late Devonian(Famennian) of Anhui Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Yun; WANG Deming

    2009-01-01

    New materials from the Upper Devonian(Famennian)Wutong Formation of Chizhou District,Anhui Province,South China,allow description of fertile and sterile characters of Archaeopteris halliana.This plant has penultimate axes attached by sterile leaves and paired ultimate branches in the same ontogenetic spiral.Sterile leaves are narrowly cuneate in shape and bear distal margins dissected deeply.These leaves are spirally arranged on sterile ultimate axes.Non-laminated sporophyllls occur spirally on the ultimate axes and bifurcate once or twice.Elongate sporangia with longitudinal dehiscence are borne adaxially below or above the dividing points of the sporophylis.Despite the leaf shape resembling that of Archaeopteris macilenta,our plant is assigned to A.halliana because of its non-laminated sporophylls.Fertile characters should be given priority or enough consideration in identifying species of Archaeopteris.

  15. Early and Late Diagenetic Origins of the widespread middle Devonian Purcell/Cherry Valley Limestone in the Appalachian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Arthur, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Isotopic geochemistry, lithofacies characteristics and fluid inclusion microthemometry are investigated to evaluate the deposition and diagenesis of the thin, basin-wide Purcell/Cherry Valley carbonate member within the Middle Devonian Marcellus Formation. This carbonate interval is fine-grained and sparsely fossiliferous, with abundant nodular and disseminated pyrite, which distinguish it from normal lowstand carbonate units. A process that involves upward or lateral migration of methane with oxidation at or near the seafloor by sulfate-reduction, precipitating pyrite and 13C-depleted carbonate (commonly less than -10‰) could be responsible for the origin of this unusual carbonate layer. Samples of Purcell/Cherry Valley carbonate within Marcellus black shale collected from both shallow well core from the basin margin and core from producing wells in the basin center exhibit depleted carbon isotopic (δ13C=-10.2 to -2‰) and highly depleted oxygen isotopic signatures (δ18O=-13.2 to -8.7‰). The oxygen isotope values may indicate strong late diagenetic overprint. Primary fluid inclusions in calcite precipitates within tectonically induced fractures in this carbonate member mainly consist of three different types: aqueous brine inclusions, methane inclusions and light hydrocarbon inclusions. The petrologic analysis of fluid inclusions shows that hydrocarbons migrated with the brine. The homogenization temperatures of fluid inclusions suggest mineral trapping occurred at fluid temperatures of 90-98°C. Moreover, with constrains of isotopic composition of Devonian oilfield brine (δ18O =+2 to -3‰) and veins (δ18O=-12 to -11‰, δ13C=-3.0 to 1‰), the calculated diagenetic temperature should also be relatively high (~ 100°C). Lithofacies characteristics, isotopic compositions and fluid inclusion microthermometries are all consistent with the conclusion that this carbonate member partially originated from methane oxidation and then underwent a high degree of

  16. Rare earth element geochemistry of Late Devonian reefal carbonates, Canning Basin, Western Australia: confirmation of a seawater REE proxy in ancient limestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, Luke D.; Webb, Gregory E.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2004-01-01

    Rare earth element and yttrium (REE+Y) concentrations were determined in 49 Late Devonian reefal carbonates from the Lennard Shelf, Canning Basin, Western Australia. Shale-normalized (SN) REE+Y patterns of the Late Devonian samples display features consistent with the geochemistry of well-oxygenated, shallow seawater. A variety of different ancient limestone components, including microbialites, some skeletal carbonates (stromatoporoids), and cements, record seawater-like REE+Y signatures. Contamination associated with phosphate, Fe-oxides and shale was tested quantitatively, and can be discounted as the source of the REE+Y patterns. Co-occurring carbonate components that presumably precipitated from the same seawater have different relative REE concentrations, but consistent REE+Y patterns. Clean Devonian early marine cements ( n = 3) display REE+Y signatures most like that of modern open ocean seawater and the highest Y/Ho ratios (e.g., 59) and greatest light REE (LREE) depletion (average Nd SN/Yb SN = 0.413, SD = 0.076). However, synsedimentary cements have the lowest REE concentrations (e.g., 405 ppb). Non-contaminated Devonian microbialite samples containing a mixture of the calcimicrobe Renalcis and micritic thrombolite aggregates in early marine cement ( n = 11) have the highest relative REE concentrations of tested carbonates (average total REE = 11.3 ppm). Stromatoporoid skeletons, unlike modern corals, algae and molluscs, also contain well-developed, seawater-like REE patterns. Samples from an estuarine fringing reef have very different REE+Y patterns with LREE enrichment (Nd SN/Yb SN > 1), possibly reflecting inclusion of estuarine colloidal material that contained preferentially scavenged LREE from a nearby riverine input source. Hence, Devonian limestones provide a proxy for marine REE geochemistry and allow the differentiation of co-occurring water masses on the ancient Lennard Shelf. Although appropriate partition coefficients for quantification of

  17. Middle and Late Devonian brachiopod assemblages,sea level change and paleogeography of Hunan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Givetian through middle Famennian brachiopods of Hunan are used to define five biozones,comprising,in ascending order,the Stringocephalus Abundance Zone,the Ambocoeliid-Leiorhynchid Assemblage Zone,the Cyrtospiriferid Assemblage Zone,the Yunnanellina-Sinospirifer Assemblage Zone,and the Yunnanella-Hunanospirifer Assemblage Zone.They correspond approximately to the Po.hemiansatus Zone to Po.varcus Zone,S.hermanni Zone to Pa.punctata Zone,Pa.hassi Zone to Pa.linguiformis Zone,Pa.triangularis Zone to Upper Pa.crepida Zone,and Uppermost Pa.crepida Zone to Pa.marginifera Zone,respectively.Intensified rifting activity in South China during the Devonian began in the middle of the Lower Po.varcus Zone(a level marked by the first appearance of Po.rhenanus),which is consistent with the Lower-Middle Givetian substage boundary suggested by the International Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy(SDS).This assumed that rifting activity in the Lower Po.varcus Zone was signified by the deposition of the Baqi Formation in Guangxi and was marked largely by the extensive deposition of the Qiziqiao Formation in central Hunan,which probably led to an opposite pattern of relative sea level change-rising in deeper water trough areas and lowering in carbonate platform areas.The previously recognized S.hermanni Zone sea level rise in platform margin areas of Guangxi can be identified not only in the trough areas but also in platform areas,which probably indicates an overall marine transgression at this time,rather than tectonically induced sea level change.Similarly,this level coincides with the Middle-Upper Givetian substage boundary suggested by the SDS.Although the sea level rise may have occurred in the deeper water trough areas of South China towards the end of the Givetian,platformal areas experienced uplifting at various degrees,especially in the central and northern regions of Hunan where Early Frasnian deposits were apparently absent in many places.Similarly,the end

  18. Evolutionary Significance of Pylentonemid Radiolarians and Their Late Devonian Species from Southwestern Tianshan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yu; HAO Shougang

    2006-01-01

    A group of radiolarian fossils with a complete morphological gradient of increasing polarization are reported from upper Devonian successions in southwestern Tianshan,China.Specifically, the important transitional mophotypes, Pylentonema transitorum sp. nov., Archocyrtium medium sp. nov. and Quadrapesus transitivus sp. nov., were found. Based on the fact that the new transitional radiolarian fossils resemble more closely to pylentonemids (cyrtoid nassellarians) than to entactinids (spumellarians) in morphology, they are assigned to pylentonemids. Pylentonemids share characters of both the Nassellaria (e.g., horned cephalis, basal opening with pylome) and Spumellaria (e.g., system of trabecular spicules), and they are thus of evolutionary significance. The evolutionary trend from spumellarians to nassellarians is characterized by (1) internal spicule: from simple trabecular spicules to complicate components (A;lr,ll;D;V;Lr,Li;MB); (2) polarization of the radiolarian tests due to rearrangment of spine, from radial to an axial symmetry; (3) the gradual formation of a basal opening (aperture, pylome, or podome); and the transition from a pseudopylome,a primative pylome with a narrow margin on the outer shell, to a true pylome rimmed with a narrow,elevated impermite wall.

  19. High-Resolution Magnetic Susceptibility Stratigraphy Spanning Late Devonian Global Change from a New Scientific Drillcore in Canning Basin, Northwest Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, M. R.; Raub, T. D.; Kirschvink, J. L.; Playton, T. E.; Hocking, R. M.; Haines, P.; Tulipani, S.

    2010-12-01

    New shallow scientific drillcore has been recovered through the Frasnian-Famennian extinction boundary in northwest Australia’s Canning Basin. Previous work in the McWhae Ridge outcrop belt has identified patterns of turnover in trilobites and other fauna, change from sponge- and coral-dominated reefs to post-extinction microbial-dominated reefs, apparent sea level changes, and carbon isotopic evidence of late Devonian crisis. Continuous magnetic susceptibility (MS) stratigraphy yields highly structured oscillations spanning ~42 m of reef-slope carbonate. These oscillations appear to identify late Frasnian “Kellwasser” events and they may record sedimentary response to orbital variations, establishing a high-resolution relative chronostratigraphy of late Devonian global change. Magnetic susceptibility stratigraphy has been proposed as a generally useful chronometer for late Devonian time. Most of fifteen published MS stratigraphies crossing the Frasnian-Famennian boundary appear to share major excursions with the new McWhae Ridge result. Although upland tectonism in Canning Basin may be a caveat to straightforward eustatic interpretation of magnetic susceptibility variations, we suggest the higher-resolution and fresh drillcore context of this result prioritizes it as a standard for Frasnian-Famennian magnetic susceptibility variation.

  20. Statistical reconstruction of the Palmatolepis apparatus (Late Devonian conodontophorids) at the generic, sub-generic, and specific level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, van den M.; Kuhry, B.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive frequency data are used for a reconstruction of Devonian cunodont apparatuses. Correspondence analysis and a related clustering method are selected as statistical tools, and are used as informal methods for testing a priori hypotheses rather than as search mechanisms. In our view, the Palm

  1. Leaf evolution in early-diverging ferns: insights from a new fern-like plant from the Late Devonian of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Ming; Xu, Hong-He; Xue, Jin-Zhuang; Wang, Qi; Liu, Le

    2015-06-01

    With the exception of angiosperms, the main euphyllophyte lineages (i.e. ferns sensu lato, progymnosperms and gymnosperms) had evolved laminate leaves by the Late Devonian. The evolution of laminate leaves, however, remains unclear for early-diverging ferns, largely represented by fern-like plants. This study presents a novel fern-like taxon with pinnules, which provides new insights into the early evolution of laminate leaves in early-diverging ferns. Macrofossil specimens were collected from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation of Anhui and Jiangsu Provinces, South China. A standard degagement technique was employed to uncover compressed plant portions within the rock matrix. A new fern-like taxon, SHOUGANGIA BELLA GEN ET SP NOV: , is described and represents an early-diverging fern with highly derived features. It has a partially creeping stem with adventitious roots only on one side, upright primary and secondary branches arranged in helices, tertiary branches borne alternately or (sub)oppositely, laminate and usually lobed leaves with divergent veins, and complex fertile organs terminating tertiary branches and possessing multiple divisions and numerous terminal sporangia. Shougangia bella provides unequivocal fossil evidence for laminate leaves in early-diverging ferns. It suggests that fern-like plants, along with other euphyllophyte lineages, had independently evolved megaphylls by the Late Devonian, possibly in response to a significant decline in atmospheric CO2 concentration. Among fern-like plants, planate ultimate appendages are homologous with laminate pinnules, and in the evolution of megaphylls, fertile organs tend to become complex. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Paleoposition of the northern margin of Armorica in Late Devonian times: Paleomagnetic and rock magnetic results from the Frankenstein Intrusive Complex (Mid-German Crystalline Rise)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwing, Alexander; Bachtadse, Valerian

    2000-09-01

    A detailed rockmagnetic and paleomagnetic study of the Frankenstein Intrusive Complex (FIC, 363±7 Ma in age), southwestern Germany, has been carried out in order to test whether the paleomagnetic declinations within the internal parts of the European Variscides follow a common trend controlled by the structural grain of the orogen or whether the distribution of declinations follows a random pattern. In addition, new paleomagnetic data will contribute to further refine the drift history of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage during late Paleozoic times. The unmetamorphosed Frankenstein Igneous Complex forms part of the Mid-German Crystalline Rise within the Armorican Terrane Assemblage, amalgamated to Avalonia and Baltica during the Variscan orogeny, Stepwise thermal and alternating field (AF) demagnetization experiments identify four components (A, B, Cn, and Cr) of magnetization. Component A is a recent viscous overprint that parallels the present-day geomagnetic field. The high unblocking temperatures of A in some samples can be explained by the presence of multidomain magnetite. Component B is carried by hematite and is considered to be a late Carboniferous remagnetization. Components Cr and Cn, found in 110 samples from 20 sites, are antiparallel and pass a class C reversal test. Their primary origin is further supported by a contact test. Cr and Cn have maximum unblocking temperatures of up to 580°C and occasionally above over 600°C, indicating magnetite and hematite to carry the characteristic remanent magnetization. Ore microscopy revealed that primary hematite lamellae in ilmenite carry Cr and Cn and that a secondary generation of hematite is the carrier of B. The overall site mean direction of Cr and Cn (20 sites) based on endpoints and remagnetization circle analysis of 198°/40° (declination/inclination) with a 95% confidence limit (α95) of 4.9° and a precision parameter (k) of 45.0 defines a paleopole at 15°S, 9°W. When comparing to the apparent

  3. The Devonian Lower Carboniferous succession in Northwest Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meor, Hakif Hassan; Lee, Chai Peng

    2005-03-01

    A new stratigraphic nomenclature is proposed for the approximately 600 m thick, mainly clastic transitional sequence between the underlying Mempelam Limestone and overlying Kubang Pasu/Singa Formation in northwest Peninsular Malaysia. This sequence represents shallow marine deposits of the continental margin of the Sibumasu Terrane during the Middle Palaeozoic (Devonian-Carboniferous). It is separated into several formations. The Timah Tasoh Formation is an approximately 76 m sequence consisting of 40 m of laminated tentaculitid shales at the base, containing Monograptus yukonensis Jackson and Lenz and Nowakia (Turkestanella) acuaria Alberti, giving an Early Devonian (Pragian-Emsian) age, and about 36 m of rhythmically interbedded, light coloured argillo-arenites. The Chepor Formation is about 90 m thick and consists mainly of thick red mudstone interbedded with sandstone beds, of Middle to Late Devonian age. A new limestone unit is recognized and named the Sanai Limestone, which contains conodonts of Famennian age. The Binjal Formation consists of red and white mudstone interbedded with sandstone beds showing Bouma sequences. The Telaga Jatoh Formation is 9 m thick and consists mainly of radiolarian chert. The Wang Kelian Formation is composed of thick red mudstone beds interbedded with silty sandstone, and contain fossils indicative of an Early Carboniferous (Visean) age. The succession was deposited on the outer shelf, with depositional environments vertically fluctuating from prodelta to basinal marine. The Devonian-Carboniferous boundary is exposed at Hutan Aji and Kampung Guar Jentik, and indicates a major regressive event during the latest Devonian.

  4. First shark from the Late Devonian (Frasnian Gogo Formation, Western Australia sheds new light on the development of tessellated calcified cartilage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Long

    Full Text Available Living gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates comprise two divisions, Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes, including euchondrichthyans with prismatic calcified cartilage, and extinct stem chondrichthyans and Osteichthyes (bony fishes including tetrapods. Most of the early chondrichthyan ('shark' record is based upon isolated teeth, spines, and scales, with the oldest articulated sharks that exhibit major diagnostic characters of the group--prismatic calcified cartilage and pelvic claspers in males--being from the latest Devonian, c. 360 Mya. This paucity of information about early chondrichthyan anatomy is mainly due to their lack of endoskeletal bone and consequent low preservation potential.Here we present new data from the first well-preserved chondrichthyan fossil from the early Late Devonian (ca. 380-384 Mya Gogo Formation Lägerstatte of Western Australia. The specimen is the first Devonian shark body fossil to be acid-prepared, revealing the endoskeletal elements as three-dimensional undistorted units: Meckel's cartilages, nasal, ceratohyal, basibranchial and possible epibranchial cartilages, plus left and right scapulocoracoids, as well as teeth and scales. This unique specimen is assigned to Gogoselachus lynnbeazleyae n. gen. n. sp.The Meckel's cartilages show a jaw articulation surface dominated by an expansive cotylus, and a small mandibular knob, an unusual condition for chondrichthyans. The scapulocoracoid of the new specimen shows evidence of two pectoral fin basal articulation facets, differing from the standard condition for early gnathostomes which have either one or three articulations. The tooth structure is intermediate between the 'primitive' ctenacanthiform and symmoriiform condition, and more derived forms with a euselachian-type base. Of special interest is the highly distinctive type of calcified cartilage forming the endoskeleton, comprising multiple layers of nonprismatic subpolygonal tesserae separated by a cellular matrix

  5. Upper Devonian radiolarians separated from chert of the Ford Lake Shale, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdsworth, Brian K.; Jones, D.L.; Allison, C.

    1978-01-01

    Leaching of black bedded chert from the Ford Lake Shale, Kandik Basin, Alaska, with dilute hydrofluoric acid resulted in the complete separation of moderately well preserved radiolarians. Preliminary study of an assemblage obtained from the lower half of the formation revealed six to eight forms apparently identical to specimens previously known from the Tournaisian of southern France and northwestern Turkey, including four genera not previously described from North America. Sparse, poorly preserved conodonts in the same sample are of Late Devonian age. We conclude that certain radiolarian species, hitherto known only from the early Carboniferous, span the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary. The radiolarian assemblage of the Ford Lake Shale sample contrasts markedly with Late Devonian assemblages known from the Canol Shale of northern Canada and the Huron Member of the Ohio Shale; the Ford Lake Shale fauna may reflect greater oceanic influences than these other localities, which lie farther inland from the Devonian continental margin.

  6. Aspects of late devonian and early carboniferous palynology of southern Ireland. III. Palynology of devonian—carboniferous transition sequences with special reference to the bantry bay area, co. cork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwan, C.J. van der

    1980-01-01

    The present paper provides: (1) an analysis of the qualitative and quantitative compositional development of Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous palynological assemblages from the Bantry Bay and other sections of southern Ireland; (2) a scheme of successive phases, (inter) regionally recognizable in t

  7. Middle and Late Devonian microbial carbonates, reefs and mounds in Guilin, South China and their sequence stratigraphic, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jianwei; TENG Jianbin; Pedoja Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Microbial precipitation of calcium carbonate has played a major role in formation of carbonate platforms since the Archean. Also, microbial carbonates and biologically induced cement are important contributors to reef framework volume and rigidity in carbonate platform systems during times of significant environmental change including transgressive events in platform environments and the recovery interval following the major biotic crisis. The stratigraphic distribution of different types of microbial carbonates appears to vary within the sequence stratigraphic framework. Reefs and mounds within the Late Devonian carbonate platforms in Guilin, South China are formed primarily by calcimicrobes and biologically induced cement, representing the microbe-dominated and characteristic carbonate buildups within a reefal ecosystem that nearly all reef-building metazoans were absent after the Frasnian/Famennian biotic crisis. Microbial community and microbialite seem to be linked with specific palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimate, suggesting that they could be used as indicators of environmental change and biotic events.

  8. Mass balance and fluid flow constraints on regional-scale dolomitization, Late Devonian, Western Canada Sedimentary Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machel, H.G. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Mountjoy, E.M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Amthor, J.E. [Shell Internationale Research Maatschappij NV, The Hague (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    Flow mechanisms that resulted in regionally pervasive, replacive dolomitization of the Upper Devonian carbonates in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB), were discussed. In critiquing the hydrogeological model proposed by Shields and Brady (1995), these interveners noted three major problems: (1) brine recharge area not isotropic or homogeneous, (2) hydrogeologic model does not match the conceptual geological model, (3) the aspect ratio of the hydrogeologic model is inconsistent with other explanations of brine reflux flushing. While these authors agree that seepage reflux of evaporite brines account for some of the dolomites in the basin, they believe that available geological, petrographic, paragenetic, and geochemical evidence invalidate regional brine reflux as the mechanism of basin-wide pervasive dolomitization, as proposed by Shields and Brady. (A response to this critique from Shields and Brady is presented on pages 572-573 of this issue of the Bulletin). 27 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Devonian and Mississippian rocks of the northern Antelope Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Armstrong, A.K.; Harris, A.G.; Mamet, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    Lower through Upper Devonian rocks of the northern Antelope Range, Nev., consist of four formational rank units more than 800 m thick, separated from Mississippian units by an unconformity. The lower three Devonian units, the Beacon Peak Dolomite, McColley Canyon Formation, and Denay Limestone are known in other areas; the top unit, the Fenstermaker Wash Formation, is new. The Mississippian units, more than 280 m thick, are divisible into three units which are unlike coeval units elsewhere, and are herein named the Davis Spring Formation, Kinkead Spring Limestone, and Antelope Range Formation. Systematic sampling of the Devonian sequence has yielded relatively abundant conodonts containing several biostratigraphic ally significant taxa. The Mississippian units contain redeposited conodonts of chiefly Late Devonian and Early Mississippian (Kinderhookian) age together with indigenous Osagean foraminifers and algae in the Kinkead Spring Limestone.

  10. Conodont-bearing formations of Devonian and Lower Carboniferous age in northern León and Palencia (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrichem Boogaert, van H.A.

    1965-01-01

    Conodonts have been extracted from calcareous units of the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous sequence from 3 areas in the S. part of the Cantabrian Mountains. There can be distinguished Emsian, Givetian, Frasnian, Famennian and Viséan faunas.

  11. Detrital zircon age distribution from Devonian and Carboniferous sandstone in the Southern Variscan Fold-and-Thrust belt (Montagne Noire, French Massif Central), and their bearings on the Variscan belt evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Li, Xian-hua; Chu, Yang; Ji, Wenbin; Xue, Zhenhua

    2016-05-01

    In the Southern French Massif Central, the Late Paleozoic sedimentary sequences of the Montagne Noire area provide clues to decipher the successive tectonic events that occurred during the evolution of the Variscan belt. Previous sedimentological studies already demonstrated that the siliciclastic deposits were supplied from the northern part of the Massif Central. In this study, detrital zircon provenance analysis has been investigated in Early Devonian (Lochkovian) conglomerate and sandstone, and in Carboniferous (Visean to Early Serpukhovian) sandstone from the recumbent folds and the foreland basin of the Variscan Southern Massif Central in Montagne Noire. The zircon grains from all of the samples yielded U-Pb age spectra ranging from Neoarchean to Late Paleozoic with several age population peaks at 2700 Ma, 2000 Ma, 980 Ma, 750 Ma, 620 Ma, 590 Ma, 560 Ma, 480 Ma, 450 Ma, and 350 Ma. The dominant age populations concentrate on the Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic. The dominant concordant detrital zircon age populations in the Lochkovian samples, the 480-445 Ma with a statistical peak around 450 Ma, are interpreted as reflecting the rifting event that separated several continental stripes, such as Armorica, Mid-German Crystalline Rise, and Avalonia from the northern part of Gondwana. However, Ediacaran and Cambrian secondary peaks are also observed. The detrital zircons with ages at 352 - 340 Ma, with a statistical peak around 350 Ma, came from the Early Carboniferous volcanic and plutonic rocks similar to those exposed in the NE part of the French Massif Central. Moreover, some Precambrian grains recorded a more complex itinerary and may have experienced a multi-recycling history: the Archean and Proterozoic grains have been firstly deposited in Cambrian or Ordovician terrigenous rocks, and secondly re-sedimented in Devonian and/or Carboniferous formations. Another possibility is that ancient grains would be inherited grains, scavenged from an underlying but not

  12. Sedimentary responses to sub-aerial felsic volcanism from the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous northern Macalister Synclinorium, southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, G. J.; Gaul, A. J.

    1997-04-01

    Active sub-aerial volcanism has the capability to rapidly alter both the topographic and drainage characteristics of a landscape, and thus fundamentally influence resulting sedimentary facies. Relationships between sedimentation and volcanism are explored in this paper, via an investigation of the stratigraphy and early depositional history of the Upper Devonian volcano-sedimentary units of the northern Macalister Synclinorium, east-central Victoria. Complex interfingering relationships exist between sub-aerial felsic volcanic successions (Rose River Volcanics) and alluvial, fluvial and lacustrine sedimentary units (the Bindaree and Howitt Spur Formations). A depositional model is presented for these units, in which the Rose River Volcanics, an outflow (ignimbritic plateau) facies of the Tolmie caldera complex to the north, co-existed with a series of volcaniclastic alluvial fans and freshwater lakes. A dacitic volcanic centre (Refrigerator Gap Dacite) appears to have developed somewhat separately to the south, in the Jamieson River area. These lower successions of the northern Macalister Synclinorium record an episode of sedimentation in close proximity to an active felsic volcanic terrain, and in a landscape of significant topographic relief. The conglomerates of the Bindaree Formation, in particular, record the supply of abundant felsic volcanic detritus via high-gradient proximal alluvial stream systems. Comparisons can be made with sedimentological processes operating during deposition of overlying sedimentary successions, where influences by primary volcanic activity were less important. Well defined channel geometry successions and a diversification in clast and grain types within these younger units indicate ongoing headward erosion into metasedimentary basement rocks, and deposition within lower-gradient, higher-order stream systems.

  13. Spatial and temporal correlation of water quality parameters of produced waters from devonian-age shale following hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbot, Elise; Vidic, Natasa S; Gregory, Kelvin B; Vidic, Radisav D

    2013-03-19

    The exponential increase in fossil energy production from Devonian-age shale in the Northeastern United States has highlighted the management challenges for produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells. Confounding these challenges is a scant availability of critical water quality parameters for this wastewater. Chemical analyses of 160 flowback and produced water samples collected from hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale gas wells in Pennsylvania were correlated with spatial and temporal information to reveal underlying trends. Chloride was used as a reference for the comparison as its concentration varies with time of contact with the shale. Most major cations (i.e., Ca, Mg, Sr) were well-correlated with chloride concentration while barium exhibited strong influence of geographic location (i.e., higher levels in the northeast than in southwest). Comparisons against brines from adjacent formations provide insight into the origin of salinity in produced waters from Marcellus Shale. Major cations exhibited variations that cannot be explained by simple dilution of existing formation brine with the fracturing fluid, especially during the early flowback water production when the composition of the fracturing fluid and solid-liquid interactions influence the quality of the produced water. Water quality analysis in this study may help guide water management strategies for development of unconventional gas resources.

  14. The Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) biotic crisis: Insights from δ13C carb, δ13C org and 87Sr / 86Sr isotopic systematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daizhao; Qing, Hairuo; Li, Renwei

    2005-06-01

    A severe biotic crisis occurred during the Late Devonian Frasnian-Famennian (F/F) transition (± 367 Myr). Here we present δ13C carb, δ13C org and 87Sr / 86Sr isotopic systematics, from identical samples of two sections across F/F boundary in South China, which directly demonstrate large and frequent climatic fluctuations (˜200 kyr) from warming to cooling during the F/F transition. These climate fluctuations are interpreted to have been induced initially by increased volcanic outgassing, and subsequent enhanced chemical weathering linked to the rapid expansion of vascular plants on land, which would have increased riverine delivery to oceans and primary bioproductivity, and subsequent burial of organic matter, thereby resulting in climate cooling. Such large and frequent climatic fluctuations, together with volcanic-induced increases in nutrient (e.g., biolimiting Fe), toxin (sulfide) and anoxic water supply, and subsequent enhanced riverine fluxes and microbial bloom, were likely responsible for the stepwise faunal demise of F/F biotic crisis.

  15. Certain features in the lithogenesis and formation of rock-reservoirs of Devonian Age in the Pripyat trough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, L.A.

    1977-06-01

    An examination is made of lithogenetic characteristics, zones of abnormally high collector properties are identified, and the formation time of reservoirs and oil deposits in Devonian layers of the Pripyat trough are established on the basis of studying the reflective capability of vitrinite, reservoir parameters and post-sedimentation processes. 2 tables, 1 figure, 5 references.

  16. Devonian brachiopods of southwesternmost laurentia: Biogeographic affinities and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucot, A.J.; Poole, F.G.; Amaya-Martinez, R.; Harris, A.G.; Sandberg, C.A.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Three brachiopod faunas discussed herein record different depositional and tectonic settings along the southwestern margin of Laurentia (North America) during Devonian time. Depositional settings include inner continental shelf (Cerros de Los Murcielagos), medial continental shelf (Rancho Placeritos), and offshelf continental rise (Rancho Los Chinos). Ages of Devonian brachiopod faunas include middle Early (Pragian) at Rancho Placeritos in west-central Sonora, late Middle (Givetian) at Cerros de Los Murcielagos in northwestern Sonora, and late Late (Famennian) at Rancho Los Chinos in central Sonora. The brachiopods of these three faunas, as well as the gastropod Orecopia, are easily recognized in outcrop and thus are useful for local and regional correlations. Pragian brachiopods dominated by Acrospirifer and Meristella in the "San Miguel Formation" at Rancho Placeritos represent the widespread Appohimchi Subprovince of eastern and southern Laurentia. Conodonts of the early to middle Pragian sulcatus to kindlei Zones associated with the brachiopods confirm the ages indicated by the brachiopod fauna and provide additional information on the depositional setting of the Devonian strata. Biostratigraphic distribution of the Appohimchi brachiopod fauna indicates continuous Early Devonian shelf deposition along the entire southern margin of Laurentia. The largely emergent southwest-trending Transcontinental arch apparently formed a barrier preventing migration and mixing of many genera and species of brachiopods from the southern shelf of Laurentia in northern Mexico to the western shelf (Cordilleran mio-geocline) in the western United States. Middle Devonian Stringocephalus brachiopods and Late Devonian Orecopia gastropods in the "Los Murcielagos Formation" in northwest Sonora represent the southwest-ernmost occurrence of these genera in North America and date the host rocks as Givetian and Frasnian, respectively. Rhynchonelloid brachiopods (Dzieduszyckia sonora) and

  17. Morphology and Syntax in Late Talkers at Age 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Turner, Hannah L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study reports age 5 morphology and syntax skills in late talkers identified at age 2 (n = 34) and typically developing comparison children (n = 20). Results: The late talkers manifested significant morphological delays at ages 3 and 4 relative to comparison peers. Based on the 14 morphemes analyzed at age 5, the only significant…

  18. Evolution of Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, J.R.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    The north-trending, 550-km-long Nevada segment of the Devonian carbonate-shelf margin, which fringed western North America, evidences the complex interaction of paleotectonics, eustasy, biotic changes, and bolide impact-related influences. Margin reconstruction is complicated by mid-Paleozoic to Paleogene compressional tectonics and younger extensional and strike-slip faulting. Reports published during the past three decades identify 12 important events that influenced development of shelf-margin settings; in chronological order, these are: (1) Early Devonian inheritance of Silurian stable shelf inargin, (2) formation of Early to early Middle 'Devonian shelf-margin basins, (3) propradation of later Middle Devonian shelf margin, (4) late Middle Devonian Taghanic ondap and continuing long-term Frasnian transgression, (5) initiation of latest Middle Devonian to early Frasnian proto-Antler orogenic forebulge, (6) mid-Frasnian Alamo Impact, (7) accelerated development of proto-Antler forebulge and backbulge Pilot basin, (8) global late Frasnian sentichatovae sea-level rise, (9) end-Frasnian sea-level fluctuations and ensuing mass extinction, (10) long-term Famennian regression and continept-wide erosion, (11) late Famennian emergence: of Ahtler orogenic highlands, and (12) end-Devonian eustatic sea-level fall. Although of considerable value for understanding facies relationships and geometries, existing standard carbonate platform-margin models developed for passive settings else-where do not adequately describe the diverse depositional and, structural settings along the Nevada Devonian platform margin. Recent structural and geochemical studies suggest that the Early to Middle Devonian-shelf-margin basins may have been fault-bound and controlled by inherited Precambrian structure. Subsequently, the migrating latest Middle to Late Devonian Antler orogenic forebulge exerted a dominant control on shelf-margin position, morphology, and sedimentation. ??Geological Society of

  19. Rb-Sr middle Devonian age of cordierite bearing migmatites from Lyonnais area (French Massif Central). Age Rb-Sr, Devonien moyen des migmatites a cordierite du Lyonnais (Massif central Francais)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duthou, J.L. (Clermont-Ferrand-2 Univ., 63 - Aubiere (France)); Chenevoy, M.; Gay, M. (Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France))

    1994-10-01

    On the basis of Rb-Sr whole rock data, a middle Devonian age (384[+-]16 Ma) is ascribed to the cordierite bearing migmatites (gneiss d'Aubusson) in the Lyonnais area. In the barrovian domain, this anatexis is therefore synchronous throughout the northern part of the french ''Massif Central''. Rb and Sr concentrations were determined by X-ray fluorescence analysis, and isotopic compositions by mass spectrometry. (A.B.). 28 refs., 2 figs. 1 tab.

  20. Paleo—Latitude Variation of Guizhou Terrain from Devonian to Cretaceous

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊达; 李华梅

    1998-01-01

    Over 800 paleomagnetic samples were collected from 79 sample localities,ranging in age from Devonian,Carboniferous,Permian to Jurassic for paleo-latitude research on the Guizhou terrain,The area sampled covers 13 couties with an area of about 50000km2.The paleomagnetic results obtained indicate that the Guizhou terrain was at 11.4°S in Devonian,4.5°-9.3°S in Carboniferous,2.6°-4.5°S in Permian,14.8°N in Triassic and 24.5°-26.0°N in Jurassic,In the Cretaceous period.the paleo-latitude of the area was at 22.4-23.6°N. Therefore ,a variation curve of paleo-latitude is established in this paper for the Guizhou terrain from late Devoian to Late Cretaceous time.

  1. Upper Devonian microvertebrates from the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Brett; Playton, Ted; Barham, Milo; Trinajstic, Kate

    2015-03-01

    A diverse microvertebrate fauna is described from the Virgin Hills and Napier formations, Bugle Gap Limestone Canning Basin, Western Australia. Measured sections at Horse Spring and Casey Falls (Virgin Hills Formation) and South Oscar Range (Napier Formation) comprise proximal to distal slope carbonates ranging in age from the Late Devonian Frasnian to middle Famennian. A total of 18 chondrichthyan taxa are identified based on teeth, including the first record of Thrinacodus tranquillus, Cladoides wildungensis, Protacrodus serra and Lissodus lusavorichi from the Canning Basin. A new species, Diademodus dominicus sp. nov. is also described and provides the first record of this genus outside of Laurussia. In addition, the upper range of Australolepis seddoni has been extended to Late Devonian conodont Zone 11, making it the youngest known occurrence for this species. The Virgin Hills and Napier formations microvertebrate faunas show close affinities to faunas recovered from other areas of Gondwana, including eastern Australia, Iran, Morocco and South China, which is consistent with known conodont and trilobite faunas of the same age.

  2. Telomere length is longer in women with late maternal age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagan, Erin; Sun, Fangui; Bae, Harold

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: Maternal age at birth of last child has been associated with maternal longevity. The aim of this study was to determine whether older women with a history of late maternal age at last childbirth had a longer leukocyte telomere length than those with maternal age at last childbirth of ...

  3. Researches on Plants from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation in the Qujing District, Eastern Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王德明; 郝守刚; 刘振锋

    2002-01-01

    Fossil plants Hedeia sinica Hao et Gensel 1998, Huia gracilis Wang et Hao 2001 andGuangnania cuneata Wang et Hao are described from the Lower Devonian Xujiachong Formation, the Qujingdistrict, eastern Yunnan, China. They contribute to our knowledge of the flora in this district. Based on theoccurrence of common plants (Hedeia, Huia, Guangnania and Zosterophyllum australianum) and their horizons,it is proved for the first time that the mid-lower assemblage of the Xujiachong flora is comparable with theEarly Devonian ((late) Pragian) Posongchong flora of southeastern Yunnan and the upper Baragwanathia floraof Australia. In view of this fact and the stratigraphic sequence, the mid-lower part of the Xujiachong Formationis considered to be of (late) Pragian age. Through comprehensive analyses of plant, bivalve and fishassemblages and the lithology, the upper part of the Xujiachong Formation is dated to be of early Emsian age.The Xujiachong flora belonged to the northeastern Gondwana palaeophytogeographic unit during the EarlyDevonian. The early Emsian assemblage of this flora inherited the characters of the Posongchong flora and alsoexhibited the endemic elements. Belonging to different phytogeographic units, the Xujiachong and Posongchongfloras differ from the coeval flora of the Laurussian palaeocontinent. The Xujiachong flora is comparativelysimple in composition, while the Posongchong flora has abundant and highly diversified endemics. Thedisparity between them has resulted from the different environments.

  4. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project

  5. Occupational cognitive requirements and late-life cognitive aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Lindsay R.; Weuve, Jennifer; Wilson, Robert S.; Bultmann, Ute; Evans, Denis A.; de Leon, Carlos F. Mendes

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether occupational cognitive requirements, as a marker of adulthood cognitive activity, are associated with late-life cognition and cognitive decline.Methods:Main lifetime occupation information for 7,637 participants aged >65 years of the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHA

  6. Zircon U-Pb ages and geochemistry of Devonian A-type granites in the Iraqi Zagros Suture Zone (Damamna area): New evidence for magmatic activity related to the Hercynian orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulzahra, Imad Kadhim; Hadi, Ayten; Asahara, Yoshihiro; Azizi, Hossein; Yamamoto, Koshi

    2016-11-01

    The Damamna granite (DG) is located in the Shalair Valley area in northeast Iraq within the Sanandaj Sirjan Zone (SSZ). The zircon U-Pb ages for the DG rocks are 364-372 Ma, indicating crystallization of the granitic body. The DG rocks are A-type granites, hypersolvus and peraluminous. They are enriched in SiO2, alkalis, Ga/Al, Ga, Zr and Rb/Sr and depleted in CaO, MgO, Sr, P, and Ti. These rocks show steep REE patterns, with LREE enrichment relative to HREE ((La/Yb)N = 5.7-42.5) and pronounced negative Eu anomalies reflecting feldspar fractionation. The geochemical characteristics and relationships suggest that the DG rocks are anorogenic and were emplaced in an extensional tectonic regime having an OIB-like magma affinity. The DG rocks are characterized by low Y/Nb ratios (0.2-1.5) and positive εNd (371 Ma) values (+ 1.6 to + 4.2), which indicate a mantle origin. In the Y/Nb-Yb/Ta diagram, the DG rocks plot in the A1-type granite field, with slightly higher Y/Nb values and a tendency of transitioning from A1 to the nearby A2 field, which possibly indicates a slight crustal contamination effect. The isotopic and geochemical data suggest that a combination of enriched mantle source magma with crustal contamination and fractional crystallization contributed to the generation of the magma for the DG. The geochemical and geochronological results for the DG rocks in the SSZ suggest an extensional zone that probably represents an early stage of Neo-Tethys opening during the Late Devonian or earlier, and this was associated with the Hercynian orogeny and tectono-magmatic activity in northern Arabia and northwestern Iran.

  7. Formation of the Devonian Fengtai Hydrothermal Brine Basin and the Metallogeny of Gold and Lead-Zinc Mineralizations in Shaanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The study of the relationships between the hydrothermal sedimentary formations and the gold and lead-zinc mineralizations in the Devonian Fengtai basin in Shaanxi shows that there was a hydrothermal brine sedimentary event which was inserted into the normal sedimentary background from the late Middle Devonian to the early Late Devonian. This event is closely related to gold and lead-zinc mineralizations in this area.

  8. Two Late Iron Age warrior burials discovered in Kent

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    Casper Johnson

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Excavations by the Institute’s Field Archaeology Unit of a Late Iron Age and Early Romano-British site at Brisley Farm south of Ashford in Kent have revealed a pair of warrior burials (inhumations with weapons within square-ditch enclosures dated to AD 10–50. Here the excavation director describes this surprising discovery and discusses its significance.

  9. Age Differences in Loneliness from Late Adolescence to Oldest Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…

  10. Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian) fish from the Lower Bokkeveld Group (Ceres Subgroup), South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. E.; Almond, J. E.; Evans, F. J.; Long, J. A.

    1999-07-01

    Four major groups of fish are represented by fragmentary remains from South Africa's Lower Bokkeveld Group of Early to Middle Devonian age: the Acanthodii, Chondrichthyes, Placodermi and Osteichthyes. These represent the oldest known occurrences of these groups in southern Africa, as well as an important addition to the very meagre record of earlier Devonian fish from the Malvinokaffric Province of southwestern Gondwana. Bokkeveld fish material comes from the Gydo (Late Emsian) and Tra Tra (Middle Eifelian) Formations of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape Provinces. The cosmopolitan marine acanthodian Machæracanthus is represented only by isolated fin spines which may belong to two different species on the basis of their external ornamentation, cross-sectional outline and internal histology. The elasmobranchs are represented by four elements: (1) a flattened chondrocranium which bears affinity to the Late Devonian-Carboniferous symmoriid (protacrodont) 'cladodont' sharks. It is probably the earliest known (Emsian) shark chondrocranium; (2) an isolated, primitive scapulocoracoid with a very short coracoidal ridge; (3) ankylosed and isolated radials, interpreted as parts of pterygial plates of a paired fin of an unknown chondrichthyan bearing affinity to the Middle Devonian Zamponiopteron from Bolivia; and (4) isolated barlike structures, perhaps gill arch or a jaw elements, thought to be from the same taxon as (3). The placoderms are represented by an incomplete trunk armour and fragmentary, finely ornamented plates of a primitive antiarch. The Osteichthyes are represented by a single large scale of an unidentified dipnoan from the Eifelian of the Cedarberg range, as well as a probable sarcopterygian dermal plate from the Emsian of the Prince Albert area. These are among the earliest sarcopterygian remains recorded from the Malvinokaffric Province.

  11. Devonian tides: a driver for the evolution of terrestrial vertebrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Hannah; Green, Mattias

    2017-04-01

    The Devonian era saw one of the biggest evolutionary phases for Vertebrates, branching off from lobed-finned fish (sarcopterygians) to develop limbs enabling the transition from a marine to a terrestrial life. It has recently been suggested that the evolutionary pressure came from unusually large semidiurnal tides at the time, leaving individuals stranded in rock pools for up to a fortnight. It was therefore advantageous if the organism had some form of mechanism to transition between these pools, and so brought about the development of limbs. Here, we simulate the tides from the Devonian using the dedicated tidal model OTIS and a series of Devonian plate reconstructions. The reconstructions span the entire Devonian era (410 Mya - 340 Mya) and comprise of Classic and Alternative models of the Devonian. The results shows that as Gondwana and Laurasia collided, the ocean basin between them did go through several resonances, indeed producing unusually large local tides and associated spring-neap cycles. This not only support the idea that tides produced the pressure for the evolution of tetrapods, but can also have contributed to the vast areas of anoxia implied by the sediments from the period which led to mass extinction events during the late Devonian.

  12. Where Is ELSA? The Early to Late Shift in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Dobbins, Ian G.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cognitive and neural aging have recently provided evidence of a shift from an early- to late-onset cognitive control strategy, linked with temporally extended activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It has been uncertain, however, whether this age-related shift is unique to PFC and executive control tasks or whether the functional location might vary depending on the particular cognitive processes that are altered. The present study tested whether an early-to-late shift in aging (ELSA) might emerge in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during a protracted context memory task comprising both anticipatory cue (retrieval preparation) and retrieval probe (retrieval completion) phases. First, we found reduced MTL activity in older adults during the early retrieval preparation phase coupled with increased MTL activity during the late retrieval completion phase. Second, we found that functional connectivity between MTL and PFC regions was higher during retrieval preparation in young adults but higher during retrieval completion in older adults, suggesting an important interactive relationship between the ELSA pattern in MTL and PFC. Taken together, these results critically suggest that aging results in temporally lagged activity even in regions not typically associated with cognitive control, such as the MTL. PMID:22114083

  13. Late preterm infants’ motor development until term age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Viviane Martins; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; de Mello, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; Leone, Cléa Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the motor development of late preterm newborn infants (LPI) from birth to term-corrected age using the Test of Infant Motor Performance (TIMP) and to compare the obtained results with those of term infants at birth. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, 29 late preterm newborn infants were evaluated by the TIMP at birth and every two weeks until term-corrected age. The TIMP was administered to 88 term infants at birth. RESULTS: The mean TIMP score of late preterm newborn infants was 51.9±5.8 at 34–35 weeks and 62.6±5.2 at 40 weeks. There was a significant increase at 38–39 weeks in the LPI group (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in the motor evaluations between term infants at birth and LPI at the equivalent age. CONCLUSION: The LPI presented a gradual progression of motor development until the term-corrected age, but differences with term infants at birth were not detected.

  14. Open system sulphate reduction in a diagenetic environment - Isotopic analysis of barite (δ34S and δ18O) and pyrite (δ34S) from the Tom and Jason Late Devonian Zn-Pb-Ba deposits, Selwyn Basin, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnall, J. M.; Gleeson, S. A.; Stern, R. A.; Newton, R. J.; Poulton, S. W.; Paradis, S.

    2016-05-01

    Highly positive δ34S values in sulphide minerals are a common feature of shale hosted massive sulphide deposits (SHMS). Often this is attributed to near quantitative consumption of seawater sulphate, and for Paleozoic strata of the Selwyn Basin (Canada), this is thought to occur during bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) in a restricted, euxinic water column. In this study, we focus on drill-core samples of sulphide and barite mineralisation from two Late Devonian SHMS deposits (Tom and Jason, Macmillan Pass, Selwyn Basin), to evaluate this euxinic basin model. The paragenetic relationship between barite, pyrite and hydrothermal base metal sulphides has been determined using transmitted and reflected light microscopy, and backscatter electron imaging. This petrographic framework provides the context for in-situ isotopic microanalysis (secondary ion mass spectrometry; SIMS) of barite and pyrite. These data are supplemented by analyses of δ34S values for bulk rock pyrite (n = 37) from drill-core samples of un-mineralised (barren), siliceous mudstone, to provide a means by which to evaluate the mass balance of sulphur in the host rock. Three generations of barite have been identified, all of which pre-date hydrothermal input. Isotopically, the three generations of barite have overlapping distributions of δ34S and δ18O values (+22.5‰ to +33.0‰ and +16.4‰ to +18.3‰, respectively) and are consistent with an origin from modified Late Devonian seawater. Radiolarian tests, enriched in barium, are abundant within the siliceous mudstones, providing evidence that primary barium enrichment was associated with biologic activity. We therefore propose that barite formed following remobilisation of productivity-derived barium within the sediment, and precipitated within diagenetic pore fluids close to the sediment water interface. Two generations of pyrite are texturally associated with barite: framboidal pyrite (py-I), which has negative δ34S values (-23‰ to -28

  15. Platform margins, reef facies, and microbial carbonates; a comparison of Devonian reef complexes in the Canning Basin, Western Australia, and the Guilin region, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian-Wei; Webb, Gregory E.; Jell, John S.

    2008-05-01

    Devonian reef complexes were well developed in Western Australia and South China, but no detailed direct comparison has been made between reef building in the two regions. The regions differ in several respects, including tectonic, stratigraphic and palaeoceanographic-palaeogeographic settings, and the reef building styles reflect minor differences in reef builders and reef facies. Similarities and differences between the two reef complexes provide insights into the characteristics of platform margins, reef facies and microbial carbonates of both regions. Here we present a comparison of platform margin types from different stratigraphic positions in the Late Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin, Western Australia and Middle and Late Devonian margin to marginal slope successions in Guilin, South China. Comparisons are integrated into a review of the reefal stratigraphy of both regions. Reef facies, reef complex architecture, temporal reef builder associations, 2nd order stratigraphy and platform cyclicity in the two regions were generally similar where the successions overlap temporally. However, carbonate deposition began earlier in South China. Carbonate complexes were also more widespread in South China and represent a thicker succession overall. Platforms in the Canning Basin grew directly on Precambrian crystalline basement or early Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks, but in South China, carbonate complexes developed conformably on older Devonian siliciclastic strata. Pre-Frasnian reef facies in South China had more abundant skeletal frameworks than in Canning Basin reefs of equivalent age, and Famennian shoaling margins containing various microbial reefs may have been more common and probably more diverse in South China. However, Late Devonian platform margin types have been documented more completely in the Canning Basin. Deep intra-platform troughs (deep depressions containing non-carbonate pelagic sediments — Nandan-type successions) that developed along

  16. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Guiot, Joël; Le Burel, Sabine; Otto, Thierry; Baeteman, Cecile

    2013-01-01

    The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th) century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  17. Environmental roots of the late bronze age crisis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kaniewski

    Full Text Available The Late Bronze Age world of the Eastern Mediterranean, a rich linkage of Aegean, Egyptian, Syro-Palestinian, and Hittite civilizations, collapsed famously 3200 years ago and has remained one of the mysteries of the ancient world since the event's retrieval began in the late 19(th century AD/CE. Iconic Egyptian bas-reliefs and graphic hieroglyphic and cuneiform texts portray the proximate cause of the collapse as the invasions of the "Peoples-of-the-Sea" at the Nile Delta, the Turkish coast, and down into the heartlands of Syria and Palestine where armies clashed, famine-ravaged cities abandoned, and countrysides depopulated. Here we report palaeoclimate data from Cyprus for the Late Bronze Age crisis, alongside a radiocarbon-based chronology integrating both archaeological and palaeoclimate proxies, which reveal the effects of abrupt climate change-driven famine and causal linkage with the Sea People invasions in Cyprus and Syria. The statistical analysis of proximate and ultimate features of the sequential collapse reveals the relationships of climate-driven famine, sea-borne-invasion, region-wide warfare, and politico-economic collapse, in whose wake new societies and new ideologies were created.

  18. Water governement and inland navigation. Veneto in Late Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Orlando

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on rivers and navigable canals of  Veneto in the Late Middle Ages as trade and transport routes: they covered a main and hegemonic role in the traffic of the region, guaranteeing communication and providing the backbone for the communication network of that time. In particular, the contribution seeks to analyze the policies of the greatest communes of Veneto concerning government and guardianship of the rivers and discipline of navigation. The sources are primarily normative and legal sources, particularly the abundant production of communal statutes and pacts, the series of international agreements and privileges established between the communes in terms of traffic, communication networks and transport.

  19. Devonian and carboniferous arcs of the oyu tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, South Gobi region, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Forster, C.N.; Kirwin, D.J.; Lewis, P.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Central Asian orogenic belt consists of microcontinental blocks and mobile belts positioned between the Siberian craton and the Tarim and North China cratons. Extending across Asia for 5000 km, the belt consists of terranes that decrease in age southward away from the Siberian craton. A time-stratigraphic-structural sequence for the rocks is critical to defining the tectonic evolution of the belt. In the Oyu Tolgoi area of the South Gobi Desert (Mongolia), Devonian and Carboniferous rocks record the construction of multiple arcs, formation of a giant porphyry Cu-Au system, exhumation, and polyphase deformation. The oldest rocks are basaltic volcanic and subvolcanic rocks of the Devonian Alagbayan Group intruded by Late Devonian quartz monzodiorite stocks and dikes, which host giant porphyry Cu-Au deposits. The rocks were exhumed, overlain by pyroclastic rocks, and then tectonically buried by marine mafic supracrustal rocks prior to the youngest Devonian granodiorite intrusions. The postmineral Carboniferous Gurvankharaat Group unconformably overlying the deformed terrane consists of effusive, pyroclastic, subvolcanic and volcaniclastic rocks, as well as sedimentary units. The supracrustal rocks underwent polyphase shortening after 330 Ma and prior to 290 Ma. Variations in stratigraphic sequences suggest that the region is underlain by a submarine arc that became emergent during the Upper Devonian and remained subaerial to shallow subaqueous through much of the Carboniferous. Xenocrystic zircons in igneous rocks suggest that the offshore arcs were sufficiently close to ancient crust to have interacted with detritus shed into marine basins, most likely from the Siberian craton and fringing early Paleozoic terranes. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  20. Oldest coelacanth, from the Early Devonian of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Zerina; Long, John A; Talent, John A; Janvier, Philippe; Warren, James W

    2006-09-22

    Coelacanths are well-known sarcopterygian (lobe-finned) fishes, which together with lungfishes are the closest extant relatives of land vertebrates (tetrapods). Coelacanths have both living representatives and a rich fossil record, but lack fossils older than the late Middle Devonian (385-390 Myr ago), conflicting with current phylogenies implying coelacanths diverged from other sarcopterygians in the earliest Devonian (410-415 Myr ago). Here, we report the discovery of a new coelacanth from the Early Devonian of Australia (407-409 Myr ago), which fills in the approximately 20 Myr 'ghost range' between previous coelacanth records and the predicted origin of the group. This taxon is based on a single lower jaw bone, the dentary, which is deep and short in form and possesses a dentary sensory pore, otherwise seen in Carboniferous and younger taxa.

  1. HANDICRAFT IN LATE BRONZE-EARLY IRON AGE IN NAKHCHIVAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toğrul HALİLOV

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The article handicraft have been learnt in the Nakhchivan late bronze-early iron age. It was defined that pottery wasone of the ancient craftsmanship areas in Nakhichivan. At that time Nakhichivan, as well as the other regions of Azerbaijan, was an important centre of craftsmanship. The pottery products differed from one another in their size, shape, ornaments on them, the material the were made of and the technology. The pottery products made by Nakhichivan potters were divided into two groups-welfare and kitchen ceramics. Their similar monuments in the South Caucasus and the Middle East in the same period, the archaeological materials found in the Urmia basin and Eastern Anatolia. As a result of comparative investigation it is defined that oldest labour tools producted from bone and stone in Nakchivan. New type of labour tools are producted connecting to treatmen of metal in following period. Stone and bone tools are used little in iron and bronz period. It is defined that daggers, arrow and spear heads, jewelry founded in archaeological monument belong to epoch late bronze-early iron age in the Nakhchivan have got peculiarity of culture of Khojalı-Gadabay in Azerbaijan. Some of daggers belong to culture Near East.

  2. Late Devonian red tide and mass extinction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular stratigraphical, carbonate carbon isotopic, stratigraphical and paleontological data show that algal booming, eutrophication, anoxia, hypersalinity, positive ( 13C excursion and biomass decreasing occurred in the offshore carbonate environments of the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) transition, which hints that red tide might frequently take place in the F-F transition of Guangxi, South China. We suggest that the mass extinction of the reef ecosystems and the shallow-water marine organisms in the F-F transition of the lower-middle latitudes may be related to the frequent occurrence of red tide in that time.

  3. PALEOMAGNETISM OF SILURIAN AND DEVONIAN VOLCANICS FROM THE CHINGIZ ISLAND ARC, KAZAKHSTAN, AND ITS BEARING ON TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE URAL-MONGOL BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Levashova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The tectonic and paleogeographic evolution of the Ural-Mongol belt between the cratons of Baltica, Siberia, and Tarim is the key to the formation of the Eurasian supercontinent during Paleozoic time, but the views on this complicated process remain very disparate and sometimes controversial. Three volcanic formations of the Middle Silurian, LowertoMiddle Devonian and Middle Devonian age from the southwestern boundary of the Chingiz Range (NE Kazakhstan yields what are interpreted as primary paleomagnetic directions that help clarify the evolution of the belt. A singlepolarity characteristic component in midSilurian andesites yields a positive intraformational conglomerate test, whereas dualpolarity prefolding components are isolated from the two Devonian collections. These new data were evaluated together with previously published paleomagnetic results from Paleozoic rocks in the Chingiz Range, and allow us to establish with confidence the hemisphere in which the area was located at a given time. We conclude that NE Kazakhstan was steadily moving northward crossing the equator in Silurian time. These new paleomagnetic data from the Chingiz range also agree with and reinforce the hypothesis that the strongly curved volcanic belts of Kazakhstan underwent oroclinal bending between Middle Devonian and Late Carboniferous time. A comparison of the Chingiz paleolatitudes with those of Siberia shows similarities between the northward motion and rotational history of the Chingiz unit and those of Siberia, which imposes important constraints on the evolving paleogeography of the Ural-Mongol belt.

  4. Nordic and Celtic: religion in southern Scandinavia during the late bronze age and early iron age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Görman

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of modern archeological research it is today possible to gain much information even from non-written material, This paper covers the late bronze age and early iron age, ca. 1000 B.C. —O. It is based on material from Denmark, the Southwest of Sweden, and the Southeast of Norway. This region formed a cultural unity since the sea bound the area together. Our main sources of knowledge of Nordic religion during this time span are votive offerings and rock-carvings. During the bronze age and early iron age the Nordic peasant population had intensive contacts with the Southeastern and Centralparts of Europe. A great quantity of imported objects bear evidence of widespread connections. The inhabitants of the Nordic area not only brought home objects, but also ideas and religious conceptions. This is clearly reflected in the iconography. The cultures with which connections were upheld and from which ideas were introduced were those of Hallstatt and La Tène. They were both Celtic iron age cultures prospering in Central Europe at the same time as the late bronze age and early iron age in the Nordic area. This means that the new symbols in the Nordic area come from a Celtic environment. Consequently, Celtic religion such as it may be found in the pre-Roman period, can clarify the meaning of the conceptions, linked with these symbols.

  5. U-Pb zircon ages and geochemistry of the Wuguan complex in the Qinling orogen, central China: Implications for the late Paleozoic tectonic evolution between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longyao; Liu, Xiaochun; Qu, Wei; Hu, Juan

    2014-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogen, central China, is the key to understanding the assembly of the Sino-Korean and Yangtze cratons. The Wuguan complex, between the early Paleozoic North Qinling and Mesozoic South Qinling tectonic belts, can provide important constraints on the late Paleozoic evolutionary processes in the Qinling orogen. U-Pb zircon analyses, using laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, reveal protolith ages of 446 ± 2 Ma for a garnet amphibolite, 368 ± 3 Ma for a meta-andesite, and 351 ± 2 Ma for a mylonitized granitic dike from the Wuguan complex. Elemental geochemistry indicates typical island arc affinities for all the above rocks, but some amphibolites of unknown age have E-MORB signatures. Detrital zircons from a metaquartzite have an age spectrum with a major peak at 462 Ma, two subordinate peaks at 828 and 446 Ma, and a youngest weighted mean age of 423 ± 5 Ma. This suggests that at least some of metasedimentary rocks from the Wuguan complex belong to the part of the Devonian turbidite sequence of the Liuling Group, which was deposited in a fore-arc basin along the southern accreted margin of the Sino-Korean craton, whereas the late Ordovician precursors of the amphibolite might be derived from the Danfeng Group. The occurrence of late Devonian-early Carboniferous arc-related rocks in the Wuguan complex implies penecontemporaneous oceanic subduction, and therefore the Paleo-Qinling Ocean was not finally closed until the early Carboniferous. On the other hand, metamorphic zircon grains from two amphibolites yielded ages of 321 ± 2 and 318 ± 3 Ma. Hence, the Wuguan complex in the Qinling orogen and the Guishan complex in the Tongbai orogen constitute a medium-pressure Carboniferous metamorphic belt that is more than 500 km long, and which was formed in the hanging wall of a subduction zone.

  6. Ars Moriendi: Coping with death in the Late Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espi Forcén, Fernando; Espi Forcén, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The Ars moriendi was a book written in the early 15th century with the goal of assisting friars in their work of helping the dying. The aim of our study was to review the current literature on the Ars Moriendi concerning the field of medicine, to analyze the psychological mechanisms for coping with death anxiety within Ars Moriendi, and to explore parallels between the strategies used in the medieval book and in contemporary literature about death and dying. A review of literature using Pubmed, EMBASE, JSTOR, Project MUSE, and the New York Public Library was undertaken first. The primary source was then interpreted from a medical/psychological point of view. Seven articles were selected by literature review. These works comment on the importance of the Ars Moriendi in its historical context and explore the possibility of retrieving the principles of the text in contemporary society. The original text of Ars Moriendi, the primary source, presents death as a relief from the sufferings of earthly life and a gateway to eternal glory. According to the author, a good death implied the triumph over five demonic temptations in agonizing people: a lack of faith, despair, impatience, pride and greed. Analyzed from a modern psychiatric perspective, the Ars Moriendi offers descriptions of behavioral manifestations compatible with delirium, mood and anxiety disorders that characterize people with terminal illnesses. Moreover, we also explored parallels between the strategies used to cope with death anxiety in the Late Middle Ages and in contemporary society.

  7. Gold and gold working in Late Bronze Age Northern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavelidis, M.; Andreou, S.

    2008-04-01

    Numerous objects of gold displaying an impressive variety of types and manufacturing techniques are known from the Late Bronze Age (LBA) contexts of Mycenaean Greece, but very little is known about the origin and processing of gold during the second millennium b.c. Ancient literature and recent research indicate that northern Greece is probably the richest gold-bearing region in Greece, and yet, very little evidence exists regarding the exploitation of its deposits and the production as well as use of gold in the area during prehistory. The unusual find of a group of small stone crucibles at the prehistoric settlement of Thessaloniki Toumba, one with visible traces of gold melting, proves local production and offers a rare opportunity to examine the process of on-site gold working. Furthermore, the comparison of the chemical composition of prehistoric artefacts from two settlements with those of gold deposits in their immediate areas supports the local extraction of gold and opens up the prospect for some of the Mycenaean gold to have originated in northern Greece. The scarcity of gold items in northern Greek LBA contexts may not represent the actual amount of gold produced and consumed, but could be a result of the local social attitudes towards the circulation and deposition of artefacts from precious metals.

  8. The 40Ar/39Ar age record of formation and uplift of the blueschists and eclogites in the western Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the eclogite facies rocks of the Hasiate slice in the western Tianshan Mountains were formed at the early stage of Devonian (401 Ma) and had been uplifted to the greenschist facies tectonic level in the middle stage of Devonian (381 Ma). The formation and uplift of the blueschists of the Akesayi slice are constrained to the late stage of Devonian (370─364 Ma). The different tectonic slices in the high-pressure metamorphic belt have experienced the different uplift history.

  9. 18 CFR 270.306 - Devonian shale wells in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... has been filed; (e) A mud log from the well for which the determination is sought, with a detailed... Devonian Age Antrim shale through: (i) A well the surface drilling of which began after December 31, 1979... drilling of which began after December 31, 1979, but before January 1, 1993; or (iii) A recompletion...

  10. Devonian and Lower Carboniferous conodont biostratigraphy, Spanish Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.

    1973-01-01

    Conodont faunas were collected from the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous in an area ranging from the Rio Fsera (prov. of Huesca) in the west to the Rio Llobregat (prov. of Barcelona) in the east. Most conodont zones and -Faunas recognized in Germany and Spain could be distinguished. The ages of the

  11. Materials and building techniques in Mugello from the Late Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Arrighetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mugello is a medium-high seismic risk area situated on the Italian Apennine mountain range, between Tuscany and Emilia Romagna. The territory is characterized by a large presence of long duration settlements characterized by well-preserved historic buildings, most of which are religious’ architectonical complexes. An area of Mugello, between 2010 and 2014, was characterized by the project “Archaeology of Buildings and seismic risk in Mugello”, a research focused on testing the potential information of the process of archaeological analysis of buildings as a form of knowledge, prevention and protection of medieval seismic risk settlements. Among the results that have emerged from the archaeoseismological investigation have played a central role the considerations pertaining to the supplying and use of building materials for the construction and modification of architectural structures, in a period between the late Middle Ages and the Modern Age.

  12. Evidence for long-term climate change in Upper Devonian strata of the central Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezinski, D.K.; Cecil, C.B.; Skema, V.W.; Kertis, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The highest 1 to 200 m of the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Catskill and equivalent Hampshire formations exhibit a noticeable vertical or stratigraphic change in color and a shift in lithologic character. The lower part of the unit is characterized by typically red, channel-phase sandstones and overbank siltstone and mudstone containing thin calcareous paleosols. These lithologies give way to greenish gray sandstone containing abundant coaly plant fragments, coalified logs, and pyrite, interbedded with thick intervals of non-calcareous paleo-vertisols. The increase in the prominence of preserved terrestrial organic matter suggests that there was a corresponding increase in the abundance of plants in terrestrial ecosystems. The stratigraphic change in lithology within the upper part of the Catskill-Hampshire succession suggests the onset of environmental conditions that became increasingly wet in response to elevated humid climatic conditions during the final stages of Catskill alluvial plain deposition. The sedimentological signature suggesting increased climatic wetness within the uppermost Catskill and Hampshire formations is nearly contemporaneous with the initiation of Late Devonian Gondwanan glaciation in the paleo-high-latitudes. The Appalachian climate record indicates that this change began during the Fa2c and continued through the latest Famennian, reaching its peak during the Fa2d when glacial deposits are recorded in the paleo-mid-latitudes of the Appalachian basin. Evidence of this late Famennian increase in precipitation also is recorded in the adjacent marine environments. Equivalent-age marine units in Ohio and Kentucky record progressive increases in both total organic carbon and the percentage of terrestrially-derived organic carbon. This suggests that there was a late Famennian increase in terrestrial organic matter productivity, and that during the late Famennian, there were elevated levels of runoff produced by the interpreted increase in

  13. Late Eocene impact microspherules - Stratigraphy, age and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, G.; D'Hondt, S. L.; Orth, C. J.; Gilmore, J. S.; Oliver, P. Q.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Molina, E.

    1987-03-01

    The stratigraphy, faunal changes, and geochemistry of deep-sea sediments associated with late Eocene microtektite and microspherule layers are reported. Microprobe analyses of major element compositions of microspherules show that, although there is some compositional overlap in all three late Eocene layers as well as with the Pleistocene Australasian and Ivory Coast microtektites, each microspherule population has characteristic compositional features. All three microspherule layers are associated with decreased carbonate, possibly due to a sudden productivity change, increased dissolution as a result of sea-level and climate fluctuations, or impact events. A discovery of microtektites in the Gl. cerroazulensis Zone off the New Jersey coast extends the North American strewn field from the Caribbean to the northwest Atlantic.

  14. Portraits of Aging Men in Late Medieval Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Roisin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This essay examines the human experience of aging in the distant past by investigating a group of aging men during the 14th century in an Italian city, Bergamo, using notarial "documents of practice" from that community. Studying the aging process and its effects on the lives of people in the medieval era has three-fold…

  15. Portraits of Aging Men in Late Medieval Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Roisin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This essay examines the human experience of aging in the distant past by investigating a group of aging men during the 14th century in an Italian city, Bergamo, using notarial "documents of practice" from that community. Studying the aging process and its effects on the lives of people in the medieval era has three-fold significance: it…

  16. Portraits of Aging Men in Late Medieval Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossar, Roisin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This essay examines the human experience of aging in the distant past by investigating a group of aging men during the 14th century in an Italian city, Bergamo, using notarial "documents of practice" from that community. Studying the aging process and its effects on the lives of people in the medieval era has three-fold…

  17. Late Devonian Conodonts and Chondrichthyes from Taketai Formation in Western Junggar,NW China%晚泥盆世牙形刺及软骨鱼类在西准噶尔塔克台组中的发现及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志宏; 纵瑞文; 龚一鸣; 王成源

    2015-01-01

    新疆西准噶尔哈拉也门地区原有一套地层划分为下石炭统和布克河组,岩性组合与标准剖面差异较大,因此,新建塔克台组.在该组参考剖面 TK01第3层含化石的灰岩透镜体中,发现了少量非常重要的浅水相牙形刺,包括3属6种1未定种:Icriodus alternatus alternatus 、Icriodus cornutus 、Icriodus expansus 、Polygnathus krestovnikovi 、Polygnathus procerus 、Polyg-nathus makhlinae 、Ancyrognathus sp.,与这些牙形刺共生的还有软骨鱼类化石 Protacrodus sp.和 Phoebodus sp..该化石组合表明,新建的塔克台组的时代为晚泥盆世法门期早期.%The Devonian Famennian conodont and chondrichthy have been found from the newly established Taketai Formation which previously was assigned to the Early Carboniferous Hebukehe Formation in Halayemen region,western Junggar.Cono-dont fossils include 3 genera,6 species and 1 indeterminate species:Icriodus alternatus alternatus ,Icriodus cornutus ,Icriodus expansus,Icriodus sp.1,Icriodus sp.2,Polygnathus krestovnikovi ,Polygnathus procerus ,Polygnathus makhlinae ,Polyg-nathus sp.1,Polygnathus sp.2,Polygnathus sp.3,Ancyrognathus sp..Chondrichthyes include 2 genera:Protacrodus sp. and Phoebodus sp..It indicates that Taketai Formation belongs to early Famennian of Late Devonian.

  18. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  19. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  20. Functional impairments at school age of preterm born children with late-onset sepsis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ree, Meike; Tanis, Jozien C.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Bos, Arend F.; Roze, Elise

    2011-01-01

    Background: Late-onset sepsis is a relatively common complication particularly of preterm birth that affects approximately a quarter of very low birth weight infants. Aim: We aimed to determine the motor, cognitive, and behavioural outcome at school age of preterm children with late-onset sepsis com

  1. Earliest known coelacanth skull extends the range of anatomically modern coelacanths to the Early Devonian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Yu, Xiaobo; Lu, Jing; Qiao, Tuo; Zhao, Wenjin; Jia, Liantao

    2012-04-10

    Coelacanths are known for their evolutionary conservatism, and the body plan seen in Latimeria can be traced to late Middle Devonian Diplocercides, Holopterygius and presumably Euporosteus. However, the group's early history is unclear because of an incomplete fossil record. Until now, the only Early Devonian coelacanth is an isolated dentary (Eoactinistia) from Australia, whose position within the coelacanths is unknown. Here we report the earliest known coelacanth skull (Euporosteus yunnanensis sp. nov.) from the Early Devonian (late Pragian) of Yunnan, China. Resolved by maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses as crownward of Diplocercides or as its sister taxon, the new form extends the chronological range of anatomically modern coelacanths by about 17 Myr. The finding lends support to the possibility that Eoactinistia is also an anatomically modern coelacanth, and provides a more refined reference point for studying the rapid early diversification and subsequent evolutionary conservatism of the coelacanths.

  2. The roles of cellular and organismal aging in the development of late-onset maladies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalhal Marques, Filipa; Volovik, Yuli; Cohen, Ehud

    2015-01-01

    Numerous disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer, manifest late in life. This common feature raises the prospect that an aging-associated decline in the activity of cellular and organismal maintenance mechanisms enables the emergence of these maladies in late life stages. Accordingly, the alteration of aging bears the promise of harnessing the mechanisms that protect the young organism to prevent illness in the elderly. The identification of aging-regulatory pathways has enabled scrutiny of this hypothesis and revealed that the alteration of aging protects invertebrates and mammals from toxic protein aggregation linked to neurodegeneration and from cancer. Here we review the current knowledge on the regulation of aging at the cellular and organismal levels, delineate the mechanistic links between aging and late-onset disorders, describe efforts to develop compounds that protect from these maladies by selectively manipulating aging, and discuss future research directions and possible therapeutic implications of this approach.

  3. Autonomy and Citizenship in the Late Third Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppi, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this paper is focused on the concept of active citizenship in the third age. This topic has been investigated within a group of elderly people in the second phase of the third age. The research was monitored by the social services of Bologna (Italy) in a support-care project. The results gathered led to considerations on…

  4. A survey of European astronomical tables in the late middle ages

    CERN Document Server

    Chabás, José

    2012-01-01

    This is a survey of the numerous astronomical tables compiled in the late Middle Ages, which represent a major intellectual enterprise. Such tables were often the best way available at the time for transmitting precise information to the reader.

  5. Early and late talkers: school-age language, literacy and neurolinguistic differences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Jonathan L; Frost, Stephen J; Mencl, William Einar; Fulbright, Robert K; Landi, Nicole; Grigorenko, Elena; Jacobsen, Leslie; Pugh, Kenneth R

    2010-01-01

    .... In this study, 174 elementary school-age children whose parents reported that they started forming sentences 'early', 'on-time' or 'late' were evaluated with standardized measures of language, reading and spelling...

  6. Insulin resistance, brain atrophy, and cognitive performance in late middle-aged adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Willette, Auriel A; Xu, Guofan; Johnson, Sterling C; Birdsill, Alex C; Jonaitis, Erin M; Sager, Mark A; Hermann, Bruce P; La Rue, Asenath; Asthana, Sanjay; Bendlin, Barbara B

    2013-01-01

    .... Insulin resistance may play a role in Alzheimer disease etiopathogenesis. This longitudinal study examined whether insulin resistance among late middle-aged, cognitively healthy individuals was associated with 1...

  7. Climate effects caused by land plant invasion in the Devonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hir guillaume, Le; yannick, Donnadieu; yves, Goddéris; brigitte, Meyer-Berthaud; gilles, Ramstein

    2017-04-01

    Land plants invaded continents during the Mid-Paleozoic. Their spreading and diversification have been compared to the Cambrian explosion in terms of intensity and impact on the diversification of life on Earth. Whereas prior studies were focused on the evolution of the root system and its weathering contribution, here we investigated the biophysical impacts of plant colonization on the surface climate through changes in continental albedo, roughness, thermal properties, and potential evaporation using a 3D-climate model coupled to a global biogeochemical cycles associated to a simple model for vegetation dynamics adapted to Devonian conditions. From the Early to the Late Devonian, we show that continental surface changes induced by land plants and tectonic drift have produced a large CO2 drawdown without being associated to a global cooling, because the cooling trend is counteracted by a warming trend resulting from the surface albedo reduction. If CO2 is consensually assumed as the main driver of the Phanerozoic climate, during land-plant invasion, the modifications of soil properties could have played in the opposite direction of the carbon dioxide fall, hence maintaining warm temperatures during part of the Devonian.

  8. The oldest articulated chondrichthyan from the Early Devonian period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Randall F; Cloutier, Richard; Turner, Susan

    2003-10-01

    Chondrichthyans (including living sharks, skates, rays and chimaeras) have a fossil record of scales and dermal denticles perhaps dating back to the Late Ordovician period, about 455 million years ago. Their fossil tooth record extends to the earliest Devonian period, almost 418 million years ago, whereas the oldest known articulated shark remains date from the Early Devonian period, about 394 million years ago. Here we report the discovery of an articulated shark that is almost 409 million years old from the Early Devonian (early Emsian) period of New Brunswick, Canada. The specimen, identified as Doliodus problematicus (Woodward), sheds light on the earliest chondrichthyans and their interrelationships with basal jawed vertebrates. This species has been truly problematic. Previously known only from isolated teeth, it has been identified as an acanthodian and a chondrichthyan. This specimen is the oldest shark showing the tooth families in situ, and preserves one of the oldest chondrichthyan braincases. More notably, it shows the presence of paired pectoral fin-spines, previously unknown in cartilaginous fishes.

  9. Maternal Body Weight and Inflammation Among Offspring in Late Middle Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    ) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) concentrations of male offspring in late middle age. The study is based on 598 Danish males from the Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (mean age, 55.2 years) with comprehensive historical data from birth. Path analysis is employed to estimate direct and indirect effects. A 10 % higher...

  10. Cosmosperma polyloba gen. et sp. nov., a seed plant from the Upper Devonian of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deming; Liu, Le; Meng, Meicen; Xue, Jinzhuang; Liu, Tuo; Guo, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Seed plants with ovules were abundant in the Late Devonian of Euramerica and they contribute significantly to our understanding of their early history. However, coeval ovules have been scarce in other regions of the world. Specimens of the seed plant Cosmosperma polyloba gen. et sp. nov. Wang et al. were recently obtained from the Upper Devonian (Famennian) Wutong Formation, at Fanwan Village, Changxing County, Zhejiang Province, China. This new seed plant has cupulate ovules, the uniovulate cupules with up to 16 distal segments and with minute spines on the outer surface, synangiate pollen organs bearing six to eight microsporangia fused only at the base, and planate and highly dissected pinnules in alternate arrangement. It differs from other Devonian seed plants mainly in the organization and position of the uniovulate and ornamented cupule, and in the highly dissected pinnules. Cosmosperma Wang et al. represents the first Devonian ovules recovered from China or eastern Asia and further illustrates the diversity of early spermatophytes. As for the Late Devonian seed plants, it is suggested that the pollen organs are synangiate and simple in organization, and the branches and leaves are generally planate.

  11. Late-life anxiety is coming of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, A.T.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Pachana, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    Anxiety is an adaptive human experience that may occur at all ages and serves to help draw attention to, avoid or cope with immanent threat and danger. Given its evolutionary importance, it has strong genetic and biological underpinnings, and when it serves that adaptive function for the organism, a

  12. The Upper Devonian deposits in the northern part of Leon (Cantabrian Mountains, Northwestern Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loevezijn, van G.B.S.; Raven, J.G.M.

    1983-01-01

    During the Late Devonian, deposition in the Cantabrian Mountains was largely controlled by movements along faults. By way of intermitting subsidence of the area south of the Sabero-Gordón line and the connected progradation of the coast during the Frasnian and early Famennian, three regressive seque

  13. Provenance through the limit: integrated provenance from the Devonian sedimentary and basement rocks from the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of the Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Agustin; Valencia, Victor; Lotero, Andrea; Villafañez, Yohana; Augustsson, Carita; Bayona, German; Ibañez, Mauricio

    2013-04-01

    The provenance record of sedimentary rocks is sometimes the only available archive of the geological evolution in continuously active continental margins where continuous exhumation, erosion and along strike fragmentation of continental margins destroy geological evidences. New integrated provenance constraints from segmented exposures of Devonian rocks of the northern segment of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia are used to reconstruct overimposed Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic paleogeographic scenarios of the northern Andes. Sandstones from deltaic to platform environments are characterized by very high quartz contents, stable to ultrastable heavy minerals and mostly angular fragments. U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology reveals prominent Silurian to Ordovician and Mesoproterozoic (Grenvillian) age populations with minor Devonian zircons. Tourmaline geochemistry and detrital quarz characterization suggest prominent low grade metamorphic sources. These provenance fingerprints can be related to the erosion of the older metasedimentary basement exposed in the same region and record the transition from a terrane collisional event to the formation of a new subduction zone before the final Late Paleozoic events that end in the agglutination of Pangea. The U-Pb detrital record of the Devonian and basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera are also comparable with Early to Middle Paleozic Paleozoic rocks form the Northern segment of the eastern Peruvian Andes re-inforcing the view of along strike terrane thousand of kilometer transport along the Mesozoic proto-Andean margin. Petrographic and heavy mineral petrofacies and stratigraphic correlation between Devonian localities are also used as piercing points to document Cenozoic ten of kilometers strike slip displacements along the northern termination of the Eastern Cordillera.

  14. The Serbian family in the late Middle ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Mišić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Marriage in Serbia in the middle ages was conducted only between persons belonging to the same social class. It was arranged and the woman would bring a dowry which would be controlled by the husband as long as the marriage lasted. Male children would inherit their father. Daughters played a significant role in connecting families through marriage. A man, unlike a woman would not bear any consequences in case of adultery. The consequence of this was a large number of extramarital children. In the Serbian state in the middle ages the family, or the “home” (kuća as it is named in sources, was the basic unit of society. The family could be nuclear or cooperative. Through the analysis of diplomatic data, as well as the first Turkish books – defters, one can see that one quarter of the population lived in nuclear families. More than half of the families which lived in cooperative arrangements were made up of small cooperatives numbering no more than two or three members. Almost all cooperative families were made up of father-son or brotherly cooperatives. The type of cooperative was largely influenced by the length of life or the capability of giving birth. The source material shows a small number of large cooperatives. Nuclear families and cooperative families are present in both the nobility and the small folk (dependents. There is no difference in the family structure with regard to social status. Nuclear families are omnipresent, and the characteristics of cooperative families are the same in nobility, serfs, sokalniks (a class a little above the serfs, who were most often servants, with certain privileges, priests, repairmen or fishermen. The difference is seen only within the Vlach population where in the cooperative there are more sons in law than in other populations. This is the result of an attempt of an agrarian population to move toward the status of herdsmen which was more favorable for them.

  15. The Odivelas Limestone: evidence for a Middle Devonian reef system in western Ossa-Morena Zone (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Gil; Hladil, Jindřich; Koptíková, Leona; Fonseca, Paulo E.; Rocha, Fernando T.; Galle, Arnošt

    2009-04-01

    The Odivelas Limestone constitutes one of the few records of Middle Devonian sedimentation in the western Ossa-Morena Zone. Although deformed and metamorphosed the limestones have an abundant fossil content which allows their positioning as late Eifelian/early Givetian in age and to relate the reef fauna with the typical Rhenish facies for the same time period. Magnetic susceptibility analysis was attempted and is in agreement with the biostratigraphy, but the limited extent of sections and the metamorphism precludes firm correlations. The field evidence, petrographic and geochemical analysis point to a close paleogeographical relation and dependence of the reef system on volcanic structures which are included in the Beja Igneous Complex. The age of part of the volcanic and sub-volcanic suite of this complex is thus constrained.

  16. Unsuspected functional disparity in Devonian fishes revealed by tooth morphometrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauchey, Samuel; Girard, Catherine; Adnet, Sylvain; Renaud, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    The shape of features involved in key biological functions, such as teeth in nutrition, can provide insights into ecological processes even in ancient time, by linking the occupation of the morphological space (disparity) to the occupation of the ecological space. Investigating disparity in radiating groups may provide insights into the ecological diversification underlying evolution of morphological diversity. Actinopterygian fishes initiated their radiation in the Devonian, a period characterized by the diversification of marine ecosystem. Although a former morpho-functional analysis of jaw shape concluded to conservative and poorly diversified morphologies in this early part of their history, fish tooth disparity evidenced here an unsuspected diversity of possible functional significance in the pivotal period of the Late Devonian (Famennian). All teeth being caniniforms, some were stocky and robust, in agreement with expectations for active generalist predators. More surprisingly, elongated teeth also occurred at the beginning of Famennian. Their needle-like shape challenges morpho-functional interpretations by making them fragile in response to bending or torsion. The occurrence of both types of fish teeth during the beginning of the Famennian points to a discrete but real increase in disparity, thus testifying a first burst of feeding specialization despite overall conservative jaw morphology. The disappearance of these needle-like teeth in the Late Famennian might have been related to a relay in dental diversity with abundant co-occurring groups, namely conodonts and chondrichthyans (sharks).

  17. Devonian/Carboniferous boundary glacioeustatic fluctuations in a platform-to-basin direction: A geochemical approach of sequence stratigraphy in pelagic settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bábek, Ondrej; Kumpan, Tomáš; Kalvoda, Jiří; Matys Grygar, Tomáš

    2016-05-01

    We investigated high-resolution stratigraphic distribution of selected major and trace elements and gamma-ray spectra of fourteen Devonian/Carboniferous (D/C) boundary sections of Europe located in the late Palaeozoic Laurussia and Gondwana. The aim was to trace the geochemical signature of a marked forced and normal regressive interval which was associated with rapid progradation of siliciclastics into the marine carbonate systems (Rhenish Massif) and a prominent hiatus in shallow-water ramp settings (Namur-Dinant Basin). This interval represents the late Devonian Hangenberg event (HBE) sensu lato (middle praesulcata conodont zone) as defined by previous authors. This regressive interval (FSST to LST) correlates with thin shale layers (HBE shale) sandwiched between monotonous nodular calcilutite/calcisiltite successions at five pelagic sections of Moravia, Carnic Alps, Montagne Noire, and Pyrenees. In all sections with continuous D/C sedimentation (i.e., except those of the Namur-Dinant Basin), the HBE s.l. interval is accompanied by elevated percentages of detrital proxies (Al, K, Rb, Zr) and changes in their ratios (Zr/Rb, K/Al, Rb/K) which are normally interpreted as indicators of increased siliciclastic input, provenance, and grain size. Zr/Rb and other proxies are traceable even without apparent lithological evidence and can, therefore, facilitate stratigraphic correlation. Paleoredox and productivity proxies (U/Th and Ni/Rb enrichment factors) only rarely show elevated values in the Hangenberg black shale interval, indicating that the associated water dysoxia/anoxia was a local rather than global phenomenon. Global correlations based on the HBE black shales should therefore be dropped in favor of the HBE s.l. interval. Moreover, analysis of sedimentation rates in the upper expansa to kockeli zone interval using the published radiometric ages suggests that the HBE s.l. was a time of significant increase in the rate of siliciclastic supply into the ocean, even

  18. Perceptions of successful aging among diverse elders with late-life disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Rafael D; Wallhagen, Margaret I; Yourman, Lindsey; Yeung, Christie C; Eng, Catherine; Micco, Guy; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Smith, Alexander K

    2013-12-01

    Researchers often use the term "successful aging" to mean freedom from disability, yet the perspectives of elders living with late-life disability have not been well described. The purpose of this study was to explore the meaning of successful aging among a diverse sample of community-dwelling elders with late-life disability. Using qualitative grounded theory methodology, we interviewed 56 African American, White, Cantonese-speaking Chinese, and Spanish-speaking Latino disabled elders who participate in On Lok Lifeways, a Program of All-inclusive Care for the Elderly. Through semi-structured interviews with open-ended questions, we explored the elders' perceptions of what successful aging and being old meant to them. Despite experiencing late-life disability, most participants felt they had aged successfully. An overarching theme was that aging results in Living in a New Reality, with two subthemes: Acknowledging the New Reality and Rejecting the New Reality. Participants achieved successful aging by using adaptation and coping strategies to align their perception of successful aging with their experiences. Themes were common across race/ethnic groups but certain strategies were more prominent among different groups. Across race and ethnic groups, most of these participants with late-life disability felt they had aged successfully. Thus, successful aging involves subjective criteria and has a cultural context that is not captured in objective measurements. Understanding elders' perception will help establish common ground for communication between clinicians and elders and identify the most appropriate interventions to help elders achieve and maintain the experience of successful aging.

  19. Age 13 language and reading outcomes in late-talking toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescorla, Leslie

    2005-04-01

    Language and reading outcomes at 13 years of age were examined in 28 children identified at 24 to 31 months as late talkers, all of whom came from middle- to upper-class socioeconomic status (SES) families and had normal nonverbal ability and age-adequate receptive language at intake. Late talkers were compared with a group of 25 typically developing children matched at intake on age, SES, and nonverbal ability. As a group, late talkers performed in the average range on all standardized language and reading tasks at age 13. However, they scored significantly lower than SES-matched peers on aggregate measures of vocabulary, grammar, and verbal memory, as well as on reading comprehension. They were similar to comparison peers in reading mechanics and writing aggregates. Intercorrelations between outcome measures were moderately high, suggesting considerable shared variance. Regression analyses indicated that age 2 Language Development Survey vocabulary score was a significant predictor of age 13 vocabulary, grammar, verbal memory, and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that slow language development at age 2-2 1/2 is associated with a weakness in language-related skills into adolescence relative to typically developing peers.

  20. BMI percentile-for-age overestimates adiposity in early compared with late maturing pubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kaspar; Juul, Anders

    2015-01-01

    .041) was found with early compared with late maturation, despite similar BIA-estimated body fat percentage (BIA-BF%). Neither BMI nor BIA-BF% differed for a given stage of maturation. BMI percentile-for-age and prevalence of overweight/obesity were higher in the early compared with late matured pubertal children......OBJECTIVE: Early pubertal timing is consistently associated with increased BMI percentile-for-age in pubertal girls, while data in boys are more ambiguous. However, higher BMI percentile-for-age may be a result of the earlier puberty per se rather than vice versa. The aim was to evaluate markers...... of adiposity in relation to pubertal timing and reproductive hormone levels in healthy pubertal boys and girls. STUDY DESIGN: Population-based cross-sectional study (The Copenhagen Puberty Study). Eight-hundred and two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents (486 girls) aged 8.5-16.5 years participated. BMI...

  1. Oral Narrative Skills of Late Talkers at Ages 8 and 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhardt, Joan; Rescorla, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Compared the oral narrative skills of 31 school-aged children diagnosed at 24 to 31 months with expressive language delay with those of 23 typically-developing peers. Suggests that the use of narrative structure may be a specific area of underachievement for late talkers, in addition to their continuing weakness in syntactic and lexical abilities,…

  2. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    To improve methods used to study prehistoric cremation rituals, cremation urns from the Danish late Bronze Age were examined using Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography (Digital X-ray). During microexcavation, the digital images were used as registration tool. Our results suggest...

  3. Parenthood, Stress, and Mental Health in Late Midlife and Early Old Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2009-01-01

    Using 2 waves of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I examine psychological consequences of potentially stressful, non-normative, or "off-time" aspects of the parental role in late midlife and early old age, including coresidence with adult children, stepparenthood, and parental bereavement. Additionally, I analyze gender differences in…

  4. Onset and ending of the late Palaeozoic ice age triggered by tectonically paced rock weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddéris, Yves; Donnadieu, Yannick; Carretier, Sébastien; Aretz, Markus; Dera, Guillaume; Macouin, Mélina; Regard, Vincent

    2017-04-01

    The onset of the late Palaeozoic ice age about 340 million years ago has been attributed to a decrease in atmospheric CO2 concentrations associated with expansion of land plants, as plants both enhance silicate rock weathering--which consumes CO2--and increase the storage of organic carbon on land. However, plant expansion and carbon uptake substantially predate glaciation. Here we use climate and carbon cycle simulations to investigate the potential effects of the uplift of the equatorial Hercynian mountains and the assembly of Pangaea on the late Palaeozoic carbon cycle. In our simulations, mountain uplift during the Late Carboniferous caused an increase in physical weathering that removed the thick soil cover that had inhibited silicate weathering. The resulting increase in chemical weathering was sufficient to cause atmospheric CO2 concentrations to fall below the levels required to initiate glaciation. During the Permian, the lowering of the mountains led to a re-establishment of thick soils, whilst the assembly of Pangaea promoted arid conditions in continental interiors that were unfavourable for silicate weathering. These changes allowed CO2 concentrations to rise to levels sufficient to terminate the glacial event. Based on our simulations, we suggest that tectonically influenced carbon cycle changes during the late Palaeozoic were sufficient to initiate and terminate the late Palaeozoic ice age.

  5. Knowledge of late-life depression: an empirical investigation of aged care staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Tanya E; McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Karantzas, Gery; George, Kuruvilla

    2009-07-01

    This study examined knowledge of late-life depression among staff working in residential and community aged care settings, as well as their previous training in caring for older people with depression. A sample of 320 aged care staff (mean age = 42 years) completed a survey questionnaire. Participants included direct care staff, registered nurses and Care Managers from nursing and residential homes and community aged care services. Less than half of the participating aged care staff had received any training in depression, with particularly low rates in residential care. Although aware of the importance of engaging with depressed care recipients and demonstrating moderate knowledge of the symptoms of depression, a substantial proportion of staff members saw depression as a natural consequence of bereavement, aging or relocation to aged care. Experience in aged care appears to be insufficient for staff to develop high levels of knowledge of depression. Specific training in depression is recommended for staff working in aged care settings in order to improve the detection and management of late-life depression, particularly among direct carers, who demonstrated least knowledge of this common disorder.

  6. Biostratigraphical significance of the Devonian Sinoleperditiini (Ostracoda)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shangqi; PENG Jinlan

    2005-01-01

    The Tribe Sinoleperditiini (Ostracoda), which is mainly distributed in South China and its adjacent areas, is a single natural group of the Leperditiidae, characterized by the development of a trailing chevron muscle scar. This tribe is known only from the Devonian and ranges through most of the Devonian. The evolutionary trends within the Sinoleperditiini have been well documented and are exemplified by changes in the trailing chevron muscle scar. The main evolutionary change is a tendency of the trailing chevron muscle scar to extend ventrally through time, as demonstrated by the increasing ratio (th/ah) of the vertical height of the trailing chevron muscle scar (th) to that of the adductor muscle scar (ah). The recent discovery of a sinoleperditiine assemblage (th/ah values available) in the middle-upper Lower Emsian Shanglun Formation allows to propose a sinoleperditiine biostratigraphical sequence for the Devonian. This sequence contains 11 assemblages (th/ah value available for each assemblage), which cover all the 7 Devonian stages and some substages. This sequence is particularly useful for correlating and dating Devonian rocks in the littoral clastic, lagoonal and restricted or semirestricted carbonate platform facies where these ostracodes are most abundant and other fossils are uncommon.

  7. The north-subducting Rheic Ocean during the Devonian: consequences for the Rhenohercynian ore sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Raumer, Jürgen F.; Nesbor, Heinz-Dieter; Stampfli, Gérard M.

    2016-11-01

    Base metal mining in the Rhenohercynian Zone has a long history. Middle-Upper Devonian to Lower Carboniferous sediment-hosted massive sulfide deposits (SHMS), volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits (VHMS) and Lahn-Dill-type iron, and base metal ores occur at several sites in the Rhenohercynian Zone that stretches from the South Portuguese Zone, through the Lizard area, the Rhenish Massif and the Harz Mountain to the Moravo-Silesian Zone of SW Bohemia. During Devonian to Early Carboniferous times, the Rhenohercynian Zone is seen as an evolving rift system developed on subsiding shelf areas of the Old Red continent. A reappraisal of the geotectonic setting of these ore deposits is proposed. The Middle-Upper Devonian to Early Carboniferous time period was characterized by detrital sedimentation, continental intraplate and subduction-related volcanism. The large shelf of the Devonian Old Red continent was the place of thermal subsidence with contemporaneous mobilization of rising thermal fluids along activated Early Devonian growth faults. Hydrothermal brines equilibrated with the basement and overlying Middle-Upper Devonian detrital deposits forming the SHMS deposits in the southern part of the Pyrite Belt, in the Rhenish Massif and in the Harz areas. Volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits (VHMS) formed in the more eastern localities of the Rhenohercynian domain. In contrast, since the Tournaisian period of ore formation, dominant pull-apart triggered magmatic emplacement of acidic rocks, and their metasomatic replacement in the apical zones of felsic domes and sediments in the northern part of the Iberian Pyrite belt, thus changing the general conditions of ore precipitation. This two-step evolution is thought to be controlled by syn- to post-tectonic phases in the Variscan framework, specifically by the transition of geotectonic setting dominated by crustal extension to a one characterized by the subduction of the supposed northern slab of the Rheic Ocean

  8. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous polyphase metamorphic evolution of the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome (NE Bohemian Massif, Poland): evidence from Th-U-total Pb monazite dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzyń, Bartosz; Jastrzębski, Mirosław; Stawikowski, Wojciech

    2014-05-01

    The Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome, located in the NE part of the Bohemian Massif, mainly consists of Cambro-Ordovician orthogneisses and the metavolcano-sedimentary Młynowiec and Stronie Formations. This study constrains electron microprobe Th-U-total Pb ages of monazite in (1) orthogneisses, (2) paragneisses of the Młynowiec Formation (MF), (3) mica schists of the Stronie Formation (SF) and (4) light quartzites. The latter light quartzites form a continuous 'horizon' between two metavolcano-sedimentary formations, however, they are traditionally treated as the lowest member of the Stronie Formation (SF). Our field and structural studies conducted along the transects crossing the boundaries between the above-mentioned rocks indicate that there is a stratigraphic and structural continuity between the Młynowiec and Stronie Formations. Samples for the monazite dating were collected at different distances from the contact between orthogneisses and metasediments. The aim of this study was to provide a new data to verify a hypothesis of Cambro-Ordovician contact or regional metamorphism of the Młynowiec-Stronie Group and to constrain age of the Variscan metamorphic events in the Orlica-Śnieżnik Dome. Monazite from medium-grained orthogneiss yield dates ranging from 546 to 322 Ma, while three age domains of ca. 481 Ma, ca. 421 Ma and ca. 370 Ma are defined in fine-grained orthogneiss. Monazite in two porphyroblastic paragneisses (MF) yields two age domains of 369-361 Ma and 340-336 Ma. It should be noted that the older ages are recorded by inclusions of monazite in staurolite and plagioclase, as well as by matrix monazite. Monazite in leucosome of the migmatized paragneiss (MF) yields ca. 337 Ma age, while matrix monazite in melanosome yields ages of ca. 331 Ma age and a faint record of ca. 355 Ma. In two K-feldspar bearing light quartzites (SF), older spectrum of ages within 524-463 Ma, as well as younger ages of ca. 358 Ma and 347 Ma are obtained. On the other hand, only

  10. Associations between time spent in green areas and physical activity among late middle-aged adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Dewulf

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is an important facilitator for health and wellbeing, especially for late middle-aged adults, who are more susceptible to cardiovascular diseases. Physical activity performed in green areas is supposed to be particularly beneficial, so we studied whether late middle- aged adults are more active in green areas than in non-green areas and how this is influenced by individual characteristics and the level of neighbourhood greenness. We tracked 180 late middle-aged (58 to 65 years adults using global positioning system and accelerometer data to know whether and where they were sedentary or active. These data were combined with information on land use to obtain information on the greenness of sedentary and active hotspots. We found that late middle-aged adults are more physically active when spending more time in green areas than in non-green areas. Spending more time at home and in non-green areas was found to be associated with more sedentary behaviour. Time spent in non-green areas was found to be related to more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA for males and to less MVPA for females. The positive association between time spent in green areas and MVPA was the strongest for highly educated people and for those living in a green neighbourhood. This study shows that the combined use of global positioning system and accelerometer data facilitates understanding of where people are sedentary or physically active, which can help policy makers encourage activity in this age cohort.

  11. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannì, Maria Lorella; Consonni, Dario; Liotto, Nadia; Roggero, Paola; Morlacchi, Laura; Piemontese, Pasqua; Menis, Camilla; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-10-23

    (1) Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2) Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3) Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = -47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -95.7; -0.18; p = 0.049; β = -89.6, 95% CI = -131.5; -47.7; p milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  12. Does Human Milk Modulate Body Composition in Late Preterm Infants at Term-Corrected Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lorella Giannì

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Late preterm infants account for the majority of preterm births and are at risk of altered body composition. Because body composition modulates later health outcomes and human milk is recommended as the normal method for infant feeding, we sought to investigate whether human milk feeding in early life can modulate body composition development in late preterm infants; (2 Methods: Neonatal, anthropometric and feeding data of 284 late preterm infants were collected. Body composition was evaluated at term-corrected age by air displacement plethysmography. The effect of human milk feeding on fat-free mass and fat mass content was evaluated using multiple linear regression analysis; (3 Results: Human milk was fed to 68% of the infants. According to multiple regression analysis, being fed any human milk at discharge and at  term-corrected and being fed exclusively human milk at term-corrected age were positively associated with fat-free mass content(β = −47.9, 95% confidence interval (CI = −95.7; −0.18; p = 0.049; β = −89.6, 95% CI = −131.5; −47.7; p < 0.0001; β = −104.1, 95% CI = −151.4; −56.7, p < 0.0001; (4 Conclusion: Human milk feeding appears to be associated with fat-free mass deposition in late preterm infants. Healthcare professionals should direct efforts toward promoting and supporting breastfeeding in these vulnerable infants.

  13. Devonian sand injections and volcanism in the Murzuq Basin (south-west Libya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Ghienne, Jean-Francois

    The highly prolific Murzuq basin in SW Libya was considered devoid of large sand injection system and volcanic activity during the Lower Palaeozoic. This study identified numerous evidences of kilometre-scale sand injections in association with volcanism of Lower Devonian age. The sand injection...... system is original by its interaction with volcanism and its situation in an epicontinental intracratonic basin. The sand injections form a seal-bypass system between the Ordovician-Cambrian reservoirs and the Lower Devonian sandstones, breaching through the Silurian shale seal (and source rock...

  14. Regional cerebellar volume and cognitive function from adolescence to late middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A; Leopold, Daniel R; Calhoun, Vince D; Mittal, Vijay A

    2015-03-01

    Cerebellar morphology and function have been implicated in a variety of developmental disorders, and in healthy aging. Although recent work has sought to characterize the relationships between volume and age in this structure during adolescence, young, and older adulthood, there have been no investigations of regional cerebellar volume from adolescence through late middle age. Middle age in particular has been largely understudied, and investigating this period of the lifespan may be especially important for our understanding of senescence. Understanding regional patterns of cerebellar volume with respect to age during this portion of the lifespan may provide important insight into healthy aging and cognitive function as well as pathology from adolescence into later life. We investigated regional cerebellar volume using a highly novel lobular segmentation approach in conjunction with a battery of cognitive tasks in a cross-sectional sample of 123 individuals from 12 to 65 years old. Our results indicated that regional cerebellar volumes show different patterns with respect to age. In particular, the more posterior aspect of the neocerebellum follows a quadratic "inverse-U" pattern while the vermis and anterior cerebellum follow logarithmic patterns. In addition, we quantified the relationships between age and a variety of cognitive assessments and found relationships between regional cerebellar volumes and performance. Finally, exploratory analyses of sex differences in the relationships between regional cerebellar volume, age, and cognition were investigated. Taken together, these results provide key insights into the development and aging of the human cerebellum, and its role in cognitive function across the lifespan.

  15. Survey for late-onset hypogonadism among old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Sun; Guo-Qing Liang; Xiang-Feng Chen; Ping Ping; Wen-Liang Yao; Shi-Jun Zhang; Bo Wang; Ying-Hao Sun; Zheng Li

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) in old and middle-aged males in Shanghai communities,using symptom score evaluation systems and measurements of sex hormone levels.One thousand cases of males aged 40-70 years were investigated.The aging male symptoms (AMS) scale and androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM) questionnaire were used at the beginning of the investigation,followed by measurement of the sex hormone-related factors (total testosterone (TT),free testosterone (fT),sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and bioavailability of testosterone (Bio-T)).There were 977 valid questionnaires.The LOH-positive rates shown by AMS and ADAM were 59.88% and 84.65%,respectively; values increased with the age of the patients.There were 946 results related to sex hormone measurements,which showed the following results:TT was not related to aging (P>0.05); levels of SHBG increased with age; and fT and Bio-T decreased with age.There was a significant difference in fT between LOH-positive and LOH-negative patients,as shown by the ADAM.In summary,TT levels were not related to aging,even though SHBG did increase while fT and Bio-T decreased with aging.Clinically,the diagnosis of LOH cannot be based on serum TT level.

  16. Silurian and Devonian source rocks and crude oils from the western part of Libya: Organic geochemistry, palynology and carbon stratigraphy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkelani, Mohamed M.A.

    2015-01-01

    The Early Silurian “hot” shales and Late Devonian black shales are major regional oil and gas source rocks in North Africa. Their deposition probably played a major role in global carbon cycling in general because of the large areas of the ocean affected. Comparing the Libyan δ13C record with record

  17. Significance of detrital zircons in Siluro-Devonian rocks from Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Johnston, S. T.; Linnemann, U.; Hofmann, M.; Shaw, J.; Colmenero, J. R.; Hernández, P.

    2015-01-01

    Seven samples of Siluro-Devonian sedimentary rocks from the Cantabrian and Central Iberian zones of the Iberian Variscan belt have been investigated for provenance and contain four main age populations in variable relative proportion: Ediacaran–Cryogenian (c. 0.55–0.8 Ga), Tonian–Stenian (0.85–1.2

  18. Devonian sand injections and volcanism in the Murzuq Basin (south-west Libya)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreau, Julien; Ghienne, Jean-Francois

    The highly prolific Murzuq basin in SW Libya was considered devoid of large sand injection system and volcanic activity during the Lower Palaeozoic. This study identified numerous evidences of kilometre-scale sand injections in association with volcanism of Lower Devonian age. The sand injection...

  19. Analysis of frailty and survival from late middle age in the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Zhe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty in individuals can be operationalized as the accumulation of health deficits, for which several trends have been observed in Western countries. Less is known about deficit accumulation in China, the country with the world's largest number of older adults. Methods This study analyzed data from the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging, to evaluate the relationship between age and deficit accumulation in men and women and to evaluate the impact of frailty on mortality. Community dwelling people aged 55+ years at baseline (n = 3275 were followed every two to three years between 1992 and 2000, during which time 36% died. A Frailty Index was constructed using 35 deficits, drawn from a range of health problems, including symptoms, disabilities, disease, and psychological difficulties. Results Most deficits increased the eight-year risk of death and were more lethal in men than in women, although women had a higher mean level of frailty (Frailty Index = 0.11 ± 0.10 for men, 0.14 ± 0.12 for women. The Frailty Index increased exponentially with age, with a similar rate in men and women (0.038 vs. 0.039; r > 0.949, P Conclusions A Frailty Index employed in a Chinese sample, showed properties comparable with Western data, but deficit accumulation appeared to be more lethal than in the West.

  20. A Study of Devonian Reefs from Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three Devonian reefs (bioherms) from Yunnan and Guangxi, southern China, are studied in detail.Six microfacies types are differentiated. Colonial rugose corals (Columnaria, Disphyllum and Hexagonaria) at Qujing, tabulate corals (Alveolites) with massive stromatoporoids (Actinostroma and Stromatoporella) and sponges at Panxi, and massive stromatoporoids (Actinostroma, Trupetostroma and Stromatoporella) at Yangshuo belong to the most important reef builders. All the three reefs studied clearly reveal a successive evolution history. They developed on the carbonate banks, shallow carbonate platforms and platform margins in the Late Givetian and terminated in the Frasnian due to sea-level falls related to local uplifts of platforms. This coincides with a eustatic fall of relative sea level at the Frasnian/Famennian transition.

  1. Devonian Stromatoporoids of the Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleumer, B.H.G.

    1969-01-01

    In the Cantabrian Mountains stromatoporoids only have been found up to now in Devonian formations. They occur together with tabulate and rugose corals and brachiopods. Together with these organisms they form biostromes or just biogenetic layers of brecciated and overturned colonies. Four primary mic

  2. Late Riphean age of the crystalline basement of the carbonate cover of the Dzabkhan microcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakov, I. K.; Kirnozova, T. I.; Kovach, V. P.; Terent'eva, L. B.; Tolmacheva, E. V.; Fugzan, M. M.; Erdenezhargal, Ch.

    2015-05-01

    The Dzabkhan microcontinent was earlier considered as a fragment of an ancient craton in the structure of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Deposits of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation were included in the shelf zone, under the assumption that they were related to the regional unconformity between the Early-Late Precambrian crystal formations. The carbonate sequence of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation overlaps crystalline rocks only in the eastern part of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, where dolomites lie unconformably on high-grade metamorphic rocks intruded by granitoids of the Bogdyngol massif. The latter were included in the composition of both the Early Precambrian basement and the Middle Riphean intrusive complex. We have determined the U-Pb zircon age of these granitoids at 717 ± 5 Ma and the Nd model ages of granitoids and gneisses of the basement of the Tsagaan Oloom Formation at 2.0-1.9 Ga at ɛNd = -10.0...-6.6. Recent geochronological and Nd and Pb-Pb isotopic and geochemical data indicate that intrusive and high-grade metamorphic complexes are absent in the crystalline basement of the Dzabkhan microcontinent, similar to those in ancient cratons. One can assume that the Late Riphean carbonate cover (Tsagaan Oloom Formation) deposited on the Late Precambrian continental block.

  3. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  4. Physical activity patterns in patients with early and late age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subhi, Yousif; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2016-01-01

    best-corrected visual acuity in the best-seeing and the worse-seeing eye was associated with less engagement in physical activities that would work up sweat and a lower number of steps taken daily. Patients with bilateral vision loss from late AMD engaged in physical activities that were more......INTRODUCTION: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to visual impairment that affects visual functioning and thereby the ability to be physically active. We investigated physical activity patterns in patients with AMD. METHODS: Patients with early and late AMD and elderly controls were...... recruited for this hospital-based cross-sectional study. All participants had their best-corrected visual acuity measured and were interviewed about their physical activity based on questions that covered regular physical activity, physical activity that would work up sweat, climbing the stairs and time...

  5. Orogenesis and Basin Development: U-Pb Detrital Zircon Age Constraints on Evolution of the Late Paleozoic St. Marys Basin, Central Mainland Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy; Hamilton

    2000-01-01

    The St. Marys Basin, along the southern flank of the composite Late Paleozoic Magdalen Basin in the Canadian Appalachians and along the Avalon-Meguma terrane boundary, contains Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous continental clastic rocks of the Horton Group that were deposited in fluvial and lacustrine environments after the peak of the Acadian orogeny. SHRIMP II (Geological Survey of Canada) data on approximately 100 detrital zircons from three samples of Horton Group rocks from the St. Marys Basin show that most of the zircons have been involved in a multistage history, recycled from clastic rocks in the adjacent Meguma and Avalonian terranes. Although there is a minor contribution from Early Silurian (411 Ma) and Late Devonian suites (ca. 380-370 Ma), Neoproterozoic (ca. 700-550 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.0-2.2 Ga) zircon populations predominate, with a minor contribution from ca. 1.0-, 1.2-, and 1.8-Ga zircons. Published U-Pb single-zircon analyses on clastic sedimentary rocks indicate that the Meguma and Avalon terranes have different populations of detrital zircons, sourced from discrete portions (Amazonian and West African cratons) of the ancient Gondwanan margin. Both terranes contain Neoproterozoic and Late Archean populations. The SHRIMP data, in conjunction with published sedimentological and geochemical data, indicate that the Horton Group basin-fill sediments are largely the result of rapid uplift and erosion of Meguma terrane metasedimentary and granitoid rocks immediately to the south of the St. Marys Basin during the waning stages of the Acadian orogeny. Regional syntheses indicate that this uplift occurred before and during deposition and was a consequence of dextral ramping of the Meguma terrane over the Avalon terrane along the southern flank of the Magdalen Basin.

  6. Late-Emerging and Resolving Dyslexia: A Follow-Up Study from Age 3 to 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torppa, Minna; Eklund, Kenneth; van Bergen, Elsje; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2015-10-01

    This study focuses on the stability of dyslexia status from Grade 2 to Grade 8 in four groups: (a) no dyslexia in either grade (no-dyslexia, n = 127); (b) no dyslexia in Grade 2 but dyslexia in Grade 8 (late-emerging, n = 18); (c) dyslexia in Grade 2 but not in Grade 8 (resolving, n = 15); and (d) dyslexia in both grades (persistent-dyslexia, n = 22). We examined group differences from age 3.5 to age 14 in (a) reading, vocabulary, phonology, letter knowledge, rapid naming, IQ, verbal memory; (b) familial and environmental risk and supportive factors; and (c) parental skills in reading, phonology, rapid naming, verbal memory, and vocabulary. Our findings showed group differences both in reading and cognitive skills of children as well as their parents. Parental education, book-reading frequency, and children's IQ, however, did not differentiate the groups. The children in the persistent-dyslexia group exhibited widespread language and cognitive deficits across development. Those in the resolving group had problems in language and cognitive skills only prior to school entry. In the late-emerging group, children showed clearly compromised rapid naming. Additionally, their parents had the most severe difficulties in rapid naming, a finding that suggests strong genetic liability. The findings show instability in the diagnosis of dyslexia. The members of the late-emerging group did not have a distinct early cognitive profile, so late-emerging dyslexia appears difficult to predict. Indeed, these children are at risk of not being identified and not receiving required support. This study suggests the need for continued monitoring of children's progress in literacy after the early school years.

  7. Trepanation in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Armenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudaverdyan, A Yu

    2016-12-01

    In this study, trepanations in ancient Armenia are discussed. In total, 10 cases were studied. Seven were male, 1 female and 2 were children. Age of the individuals ranged from 6 to 65 years. Among nine cases of surgical trepanations four had possible healing signs. In these cases the individuals showed evidence of previous trauma to the skull or infection (mastoiditis, tuberculosis), suggesting that the operation had been carried out for therapeutic purposes. This provides further support for the suggestion that trepanation (or trephination) was performed primarily for therapeutic purposes, and because of cranial infection or injury. In one case, a symbolic trepanation could imitate real penetration into the skull cavity. This study shows that archaeological sites of Armenia and anthropological materials have a potential to supply essential information on ancient history of the Armenian people and the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. 晚泥盆世弗拉斯期—法门期之交海水 温度变化的同位素证据%Isotopic Evidence for the Temperature Change of the Paleo-Ocean between Late Devonian Fransnian Period and Famennian Period in South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王大锐; 马学平; 董爱正; 朱德升

    2001-01-01

    The shallow platform sedimentary facies is well-developed along the Laojiangchong section in Xikuangshan mine,Lengshuijiang area,Hunan Province,which includes the well-known Upper Devonian Fransian-Famennian(Fr/Fa) boundary.Long period of field studies and researches led the authors to reveal the palaeotnology as well as sedimentary associations and characteristics.The shells of brachiopod Cyrospirifer vernemili were analysed isotopically and by SEM in this study.The carbon and oxygen isotopic analyses (δ18O:-8.4‰~-9.6‰; δ13C: -2.2‰~0.5‰) show an abnormal shift around the boundary of Fr/Fa in South China,which can serve as a standard of regional tratigraphic correlation.Depending on the calculation of oxygen isotopes within the well preserved brachiopods,the authors drew the inference about temperature decreasing from late Fransian to early Famennian.%位于我国湖南省冷水江地区锡矿山矿区的老江冲剖面为发育良好的浅水台地相沉积,出露著名的上泥盆统弗拉斯—法门阶(Fr/Fa)界线,多年的地层古生物学工作已详细地了解了该区的古生物面貌。本研究采用了基本保存完好的腕足动物Cyrospirifer vernemili 壳体进行了稳定C、O同位素地球化学分析,δ18O值为-8.4‰~-9.6‰;δ13C值为-2.2‰~0.5‰,二值在弗拉斯—法门阶交界处均发生了异常波动,将此值与其他地区的研究结果进行比较,可以认为,弗拉斯—法门期交界时所发生的剧烈而大范围的事件所造成的同位素波动可以作为大区域地层对比的标志。经过计算,推断从弗拉斯期末至法门期初,我国华南地区的古海洋发生了降温事件。

  9. Saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers in oils of Late Precambrian age from Eastern Siberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, M.G.; Douglas, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Large quantities of petroleum derived from source rocks of Late Precambrian-Early Cambrian age have been discovered in the Lena-Tunguska region of Eastern Siberia over the last twenty-five years. The authors have examined three oils, with presumed Late-Precambrian (Vendian) source rocks, from this region for C/sub 15/ + saturated hydrocarbon biomarkers using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results show these oils to have many characteristics in common with other oils of similar age from Eastern Siberia and Oman. Amongst the compounds detected in the three oils analyzed were: (1) n-alkanes which show a marine-derived distribution, (2) centrally branched monomethyl alkanes, (3) acyclic isoprenoids (pr/ph < 1), (4) tricyclic and tetracyclic terpanes, (5) hopanes, (6) C/sub 29/ unrearranged steranes, and (7) C/sub 30/ nuclear methylated steranes. All of these compounds with the exception of the 4-methylsteranes (which on current biochemical knowledge are unexpected in oils of this age), can be assigned a prokaryotic source. This and other evidence such as the lack of diasteranes suggest microorganisms were the major contributors to organic matter deposited as part of a carbonate source rock.

  10. A guidebook for the Jerusalem Pilgrimage in the late Middle Ages. A case for computer-aided textual criticism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brefeld, Sophia Johanna Geertruida

    1994-01-01

    During the late Middle Ages thousands and thousands of pilgrims from all over Western Europe travelled to Jerusalem. Hundreds of accounts describing that journey have come down to us. If one now reads these reports one finds that a fresh and original piece of writing on that late mediaeval Jerusalem

  11. Ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS

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    Ketevan Beltadze

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS particularly is increased in adolescents. Very few longitudinal follow-up for assessment of ovarian reserve in women of late reproductive age with previously confirmed PCOS have been conducted, especially after its diagnosis and treatment in adolescence. Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age by the method of treatment of PCOS in adolescence. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study in an unselected population was conducted from January to June 2014. A total of 123 women of late reproductive age were included. They had been diagnosed with PCOS between 1984 and 1990 when they were 13-18 yr. From these, first group of the study was consisted of 67 participants who underwent conservative treatment with antiandrogens and combined oral contraceptives and second group of the study was consisted of 56 participants after surgery (34-bilateral ovarian drilling and 22- ovarian wedge resection. At the time of investigation patients were 35-45 yr. The participants were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the investigation analyses of reproductive hormones were conducted. Data were compared between the groups. Results: After conservative treatment PCOS women had higher levels of anti- mullerian hormone and lower follicle-stimulating hormone levels (p=0.02 and p=0.04, respectively. The number of antral follicles and mean ovarian volume were significantly greater also, than in women who underwent surgical treatment (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Conclusion: Our data suggest that PCOS patients who underwent conservative treatment have the better ovarian reserve than women who underwent surgical treatment of PCOS in adolescence.

  12. The technical processes of quarrying in the Late Iron Age of Western Iberia

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    Jesús RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the technical processes involved in producing the stone works made by the communities of Western Iberia during the Late Iron Age. For this study, we use both archaeological and ethnographic data. We analyze the characteristics of granite, the extraction process in the quarry, the available means of transport, the tools used and the carving process, focusing analysis on the zoomorphic sculptures known as “verracos”. Assessment of these technical aspects is essential for the analysis of the finished products and constitutes a first step in better understanding the status of stonemasons within the protohistoric societies of the Western Iberian Peninsula.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence age controls on late Pleistocene and Holocene coastal lithosomes, North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinson, D.; Burdette, K.; Mahan, S.; Brook, G.

    2008-01-01

    Luminescence ages from a variety of coastal features on the North Carolina Coastal Plain provide age control for shoreline formation and relative sea-level position during the late Pleistocene. A series of paleoshoreline ridges, dating to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5a and MIS 3 have been defined. The Kitty Hawk beach ridges, on the modern Outer Banks, yield ages of 3 to 2??ka. Oxygen-isotope data are used to place these deposits in the context of global climate and sea-level change. The occurrence of MIS 5a and MIS 3 shorelines suggests that glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA) of the study area is large (ca. 22 to 26??m), as suggested and modeled by other workers, and/or MIS 3 sea level was briefly higher than suggested by some coral reef studies. Correcting the shoreline elevations for GIA brings their elevation in line with other sea-level indicators. The age of the Kitty Hawk beach ridges places the Holocene shoreline well west of its present location at ca. 3 to 2??ka. The age of shoreline progradation is consistent with the ages of other beach ridge complexes in the southeast USA, suggesting some regionally contemporaneous forcing mechanism. ?? 2007 University of Washington.

  14. [Association between neontal morbidity, gestational age and developmental delays in moderate to late preterm children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonhaut, Luisa; Pérez, Marcela; Muñoz, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that children born moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) have a higher risk of hospitalisation, neonatal morbidity, and developmental delay (DD). To determine the association between DD, gestational age, and neonatal morbidity in MLP children. A case control study design nested in a cohort of MLP children born between 2006 and 2009 at a private hospital located in the Metropolitan area of Santiago. The children were assessed with the Bayley-III Scales of Infant Development at 8 or 18 months corrected age, or at 30 months of chronological age. Neonatal records were retrospectively reviewed. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the effect of neonatal morbidity on development. A total of 130 MLP children, 25 cases and 105 controls, were studied. Most of them (83.8%) were hospitalised during the neonatal period. Significant differences between cases and controls regarding maternal age and symptomatic hypoglycaemia were observed (crude OR 3.5, adjusted OR 8.18). It was concluded that the variables that negatively affect the rate of development are male gender, being a twin, and gestational age. Symptomatic hypoglycaemia is the main risk factor for DD, while being a twin, male gender, and gestational age influenced the total development rate obtained. It is essential to develop strategies for prevention, screening, and early management of this metabolic disorder to prevent future DD. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered Gray Matter Volume and School Age Anxiety in Children Born Late Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Cynthia E; Barch, Deanna M; Sylvester, Chad M; Pagliaccio, David; Harms, Michael P; Botteron, Kelly N; Luby, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if late preterm (LP) children differ from full term (FT) children in volumes of the cortex, hippocampus, corpus callosum, or amygdala and whether these differences are associated with anxiety symptoms at school-age. Study design LP children born between 34 and 36 weeks gestation and FT children born between 39 and 41 weeks gestation from a larger longitudinal cohort had MRI scans at school-age. Brain volumes, cortical surface area and thickness measures were obtained. Anxiety symptoms were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview annually beginning at preschool-age and following the MRI. Results LP children (n=21) had a smaller percentage of total, right parietal, and right temporal lobe gray matter volume than FT children (n=87). There were no differences in hippocampal, callosal, or amygdala volumes or cortical thickness. LP children also had a relative decrease in right parietal lobe cortical surface area. LP children had greater anxiety symptoms over all assessments. The relationship between late prematurity and school-age anxiety symptoms was mediated by the relative decrease in right temporal lobe volume. Conclusion LP children, comprising 70% of preterm children, are also at increased risk for altered brain development particularly in the right temporal and parietal cortices. Alterations in the right temporal lobe cortical volume may underlie the increased rate of anxiety symptoms among these LP children. These findings suggest that LP delivery may disrupt temporal and parietal cortical development that persists until school-age with the right temporal lobe conferring risk for elevated anxiety symptoms. PMID:25108541

  16. A New Lycopsid, Zhenglia radiata gen. et sp. nov., from the Lower Devonian Posongchong Formation of Southeastern Yunnan, China,and Its Evolutionary Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new plant, Zhenglia radiata gen. et sp. nov., from the Posongchong Formation (Early Devonian, Pragian age) of the Wenshan District of southeastern Yunnan Province, China is a small herbaceous lycopsid. The aerial branches divide into foliar and fertile stems. The arrangement of the leaf bases on the stem shows lepidodendroid-like phyllotaxy. Possibly the leaf base bears a ligulate pit.The microphyll consists of a swollen, decurrent base, and an entire, linear lamina. The fertile axis is composed of sporophylls arranged helically, forming a compact area similar to cone-like structure.Each sporophyll consists of a widened lateral extension and a distal lamina. The ovoid-elongate sporangia are attached adaxially on the surface of sporophylls. Based on morphological similarities,especially the undivided microphylls, the style of phyllotaxy, the form of the cone-like structures and sporangia, the new lycopsid Zhenglia radiata is placed in the order Protolepidodendrales and a possible evolutionary relationship with the arborescent lycopsids of the Late Devonian and Carboniferous is considered.

  17. DEVONIAN RUGOSE CORALS FROM THE KARAKORUM MOUNTAINS (NORTHERN PAKISTAN

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    STEFAN SCHRÖDER

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The Karakorum Block is regarded as a microplate of "Gondwanan" origin and was part of the Cimmerian continent ("Mega Lhasa" which rifted away from the northern margin of Gondwana during the Late Palaeozoic/Early Mesozoic. From the Northern Karakorum Range (Yarkhun and Karambar River Valleys: structurally belonging to the Northern Sedimentary Belt an Upper Givetian to Lower Frasnian rugose coral fauna of the Shogram Formation is described. The fauna is dominated by cosmopolitan genera such as Hexagonaria, Disphyllum, Macgeea and the Temnophyllum/Spinophyllum group, generally showing a geographically wide distribution, although being absent from the Eastern Americas Realm in the Upper Givetian/Lower Frasnian. Therefore its components are of little use for biogeographical deductions at sub-realm level, and in explaining the relation between the Karakorum Range and other Cimmerian crustal blocks. A remarkable exception is the first record of the genus Pseudopexiphyllum outside of Turkey, indicating a connection to the western part of the Cimmerides. On species level, the coral fauna of the Shogram Formation is characterized by the development of a diverse and rather unique fauna including about 35 taxa, that differs from the faunas known from neighbouring crustal blocks. So far, faunistic links to the Central Iranian Microcontinent (Yazd-, and Tabas-Block, the northwest Iranian Plate (Elburz, Central Pamir, the Lhasa Block and Western Qiangtang are not clear, and although each of these fragments are believed to be closely connected they were apparently not in direct contact during the Devonian. However, the Karakorum fauna is remarkably close to one known from the Helmand Block in Afghanistan, showing a very similar generic composition that includes numerous morphologically closely related, although not identical species. Accordingly, the restricted faunal exchange led to the development of new taxa. Distribution of the new species of Spinophyllum

  18. Midlife and Late-Life Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Brain Volume Changes in Late Adulthood: Results From the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studenski, Stephanie A.; Resnick, Susan M.; Davatzikos, Christos; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is cross-sectionally associated with more conserved brain volume in older age, but longitudinal studies are rare. This study examined whether higher midlife CRF was prospectively associated with slower atrophy, which in turn was associated with higher late-life CRF. Methods. Brain volume by magnetic resonance imaging was determined annually from 1994 to 2003 in 146 participants (M baseline age = 69.6 years). Peak oxygen uptake on a treadmill yielded estimated midlife CRF in 138 and late-life CRF in 73 participants. Results. Higher midlife CRF was associated with greater middle temporal gyrus, perirhinal cortex, and temporal and parietal white matter, but was not associated with atrophy progression. Slower atrophy in middle frontal and angular gyri was associated with higher late-life CRF, independent of CRF at baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions. Higher midlife CRF may play a role in preserving middle and medial temporal volumes in late adulthood. Slower atrophy in middle frontal and angular gyri may predict late-life CRF. PMID:25896993

  19. Age and petrology of the Late-Pleistocene brown tuffs on Lipari, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisci, G. M.; Delibrias, G.; de Rosa, R.; Mazzuoli, R.; Sheridan, M. F.

    1983-12-01

    Late-Pleistocene volcanic products on Lipari consist mainly of pyroclastic surge deposits (Monte Guardia sequence) and fine-grained brown tuffs. Radiometric age determination on carbon from thin soils at the top of the tuffs indicate that they have several ages of emplacement ranging from more than 35,000 to 16,800 years ago. Chemical and microprobe data on glass and mineral fragments from these tuffs show that they belong to a shoshonite or high-K series. This composition is compatible with an origin related to the magma system of Vulcano, but not with the magma system on Lipari. These tuffs have a widespread distribution on several of the Aeolian islands as well as on the northern part of Sicily. They have features typical of ash-flow tuffs of hydromagmatic origin. We propose that they originated from submarine eruptions from the Vulcanello vent before this volcano emerged above sea level.

  20. An optical age chronology of Late Pleistocene fluvial deposits in the northern lower Mississippi valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenour, Tammy M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Blum, Michael D.

    2003-05-01

    The lower Mississippi valley (LMV) contains many large braided channel belts that are preserved west of the Holocene floodplain. Previous efforts to establish geochronologic control on channel-belt construction have been hindered by the lack of organic material for radiocarbon dating. Luminescence techniques provide a burial date for the sediment itself and may prove useful in this context. Samples from three channel belts in the northern LMV were analyzed using the single aliquot-regenerative technique on 90-125 μm quartz. Optical ages (19.7-17.8, 16.1-15.0 and 12.5-12.1 ka) are consistent with geomorphic relationships and indicate that channel belts were formed in the late Pleistocene under glacial conditions. These optical ages provide the first detailed chronology of LMV channel-belt formation and are the first step towards developing a chronology for the entire LMV.

  1. Technical note: Late Pliocene age control and composite depths at ODP Site 982, revisited

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    N. Khélifi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 982 provided a key sediment section at Rockall Plateau for reconstructing northeast Atlantic paleoceanography and monitoring benthic δ18O stratigraphy over the late Pliocene to Quaternary onset of major Northern Hemisphere glaciation. A renewed hole-specific inspection of magnetostratigraphic reversals and the addition of epibenthic δ18O records for short Pliocene sections in holes 982A, B, and C, crossing core breaks in the δ18O record published for Hole 982B, now imply a major revision of composite core depths. After tuning to the orbitally tuned reference record LR04, the new composite δ18O record results in a hiatus, where the Kaena magnetic subchron might have been lost, and in a significant age reduction for all proxy records by 130 to 20 ky over the time span 3.2–2.7 million years ago (Ma. Our study demonstrates the general significance of reliable composite-depth scales and δ18O stratigraphies in ODP sediment records for generating ocean-wide correlations in paleoceanography. The new concept of age control makes the late Pliocene trends in SST (sea surface temperature and atmospheric pCO2 at Site 982 more consistent with various paleoclimate trends published from elsewhere in the North Atlantic.

  2. TREPOSTOME BRYOZOANS FROM THE LOWER - MIDDLE DEVONIAN OF NW SPAIN

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    ANDREJ ERNST

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents descriptions of 11 trepostome bryozoan species from the material deposited at the Geological Centrum Göttingen, Germany, and Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum (Naturalis, Leiden, Netherlands. The studied material comes from the Lower to Middle Devonian (Emsian-Eifelian deposits of different localities in Cantabrian Mountains, NW Spain. Three species are new: Leptotrypella maculata n. sp., Anomalotoechus tabulatus n. sp. and Eifelipora tenuis n. sp. The genus Mongoloclema is reported for the first time from the Devonian of Europe. The described fauna displays palaeobiogeographic relations to the Lower Devonian (Pragian of Bohemia and to the Middle Devonian of Kazakhstan and Michigan (USA. 

  3. Late Bronze Age in Alcáçova de Santarém (Portugal

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    Arruda, Ana Margarida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The field work that took place in the restaurant area in Jardim das Portas do Sol (Alcáçova de Santarém recovered well-preserved archaeological layers dated to the Late Bronze Age, lying directly underneath the Iron Age phase. The excavation made it possible to collect an important set of ceramics that incorporate printed and incised decoration, which can be easily decoration related to the Cogotas 1 cultural background. Burnished decorations, with grooves on the inner surface and outer strips, are less common. The formal repertoire does not deviate from what is known about the Late Bronze Age in central and southern Iberian Peninsula. The data allow us to propose a chronology centered in the early 1st millennium BCE for this occupation.Durante los trabajos de campo, realizados en el área del restaurante del Jardim das Portas do Sol, se documentaron, por primera vez en Alcáçova de Santarém, niveles conservados del final de la Edad del Bronce, inmediatamente infrapuestos a los de la Edad del Hierro. Su excavación permitió recoger un conjunto de materiales cerámicos que incorpora varios fragmentos decorados por impresión e incisión, que pueden ser fácilmente relacionados con el universo cultural de Cogotas 1. Las decoraciones bruñidas con surcos en la superficie interna y con franjas al exterior son mucho menos frecuentes. El repertorio formal no difiere del conocido para el Bronce Final del centro y sur de la Península Ibérica. Los datos permiten proponer una cronologia del inicio del 1 milenio a.n.e. (siglo IX para esta ocupación.

  4. The efficiency of attentional networks in early and late bilinguals: the role of age of acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Lily; Marzecová, Anna; Taft, Marcus; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Wodniecka, Zofia

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a bilingual advantage in the efficiency of executive attention. A question remains, however, about the impact of the age of L2 acquisition and relative balance of the two languages on the enhancement of executive functions in bilinguals, and whether this is modulated by the similarity of the bilingual's two languages. The present study explores these issues by comparing the efficiency of attentional networks amongst three groups of young adults living in Australia: English monolinguals and early and late Chinese-English bilinguals. We also address the impact of bilingualism on hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions, which is of interest since a recent study on early bilinguals revealed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in attentional functioning. In the present study, participants performed a modified version of the lateralized attention network test. Both early and late bilinguals were found to have more efficient executive network than monolinguals. The late bilinguals, who were also reported to be more balanced in the proficiency and usage of their two languages, showed the greatest advantage in conflict resolution, whereas early bilinguals seemed to show enhanced monitoring processes. These group differences were observed when controlling for non-verbal intelligence and socioeconomic status. Such results suggest that specific factors of language experience may differentially influence the mechanisms of cognitive control. Since the bilinguals had distinct language sets, it seems that the influence of bilingualism on executive functions is present regardless of the similarity between the two languages. As for hemispheric lateralization, although the results were not clear-cut, they suggest the reduced lateralization in early bilinguals.

  5. The efficiency of attentional networks in early and late bilinguals: the role of age of acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily eTao

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated a bilingual advantage in the efficiency of executive attention. A question remains, however, about the impact of the age of L2 acquisition and relative balance of the two languages on the enhancement of executive functions in bilinguals, and whether this is modulated by the similarity of the bilingual’s two languages. The present study explores these issues by comparing the efficiency of attentional networks amongst three groups of young adults living in Australia: English monolinguals and early and late Chinese-English bilinguals. We also address the impact of bilingualism on hemispheric lateralization of cognitive functions, which is of interest since a recent study on early bilinguals revealed reduced hemispheric asymmetry in attentional functioning. In the present study, participants performed a modified version of the lateralized attention network test (LANT. Both early and late bilinguals were found to have more efficient executive network than monolinguals. The late bilinguals, who were also reported to be more balanced in the proficiency and usage of their two languages, showed the greatest advantage in conflict resolution, whereas early bilinguals seemed to show enhanced monitoring processes. These group differences were observed when controlling for nonverbal intelligence and socioeconomic status. Such results suggest that specific factors of language experience may differentially influence the mechanisms of cognitive control. Since the bilinguals had distinct language sets, it seems that the influence of bilingualism on executive functions is present regardless of the similarity between the two languages. As for hemispheric lateralization, although the results were not clear-cut, they suggest the reduced lateralization in early bilinguals.

  6. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Ye Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, total glycerin (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c. Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05. HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However

  7. The Effects of Intensive Nutrition Education on Late Middle-Aged Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Xu, Meihong; Fan, Rui; Ma, Xiaotao; Gu, Jiaojiao; Cai, Xiaxia; Liu, Rui; Chen, Qihe; Ren, Jinwei; Mao, Ruixue; Bao, Lei; Zhang, Zhaofeng; Wang, Junbo; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with type 2 diabetes find it difficult to maintain good glycemic control. Undesirable glycemic control occurs greatly due to deficiencies of nutritional knowledge and difficulty in obtaining dietary prescriptions. The late middle-aged and elder individuals are the main populations that are affected by type 2 diabetes. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether intensive nutrition education would make benefits for late middle-aged patients with type 2 diabetes. Method: 196 patients between 50 to 65 years old meeting type 2 diabetes criteria and eligible for the program were included in a single-blinded, 30-day centralized management of an education program in China. Participants in the program were randomly divided into a usual nutrition education group or an intensive nutrition education group. The usual nutrition education group was used as a control group and received only basic health advice and principles of diabetic diets at the beginning and the end of the study. Participants in the intensive nutrition education group were arranged to receive intensive nutritional lectures about diabetes for 30 days. The primary outcomes were the changes in weight, body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h postprandial plasma glucose (PG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total glycerin (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Results: After 30 days of intervention, FPG, PG, and HbA1c in the treatment group decreased significantly than the control group (p < 0.05). HbA1c reduced significantly by 0.6% in the intervention group. No significant differences in the change of blood lipids were observed between groups. However, TG, TC, and HDL-c made improvements compared with the baseline in the experimental group. Both groups had a reduction in weight and BMI within groups, especially in intensive nutrition education group. However, there was

  8. Earthquake and the Catastrophic End of the Late Bronze Age in the Eastern Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, A.

    2009-04-01

    The reasons for the catastrophic and wide spread political as well as physical collapse in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean areas that define the end of the Bronze age ca. 1225 BC to 1175 BC remain a major enigma. It has been attributed by historian to attacks by outsiders with the most favored group being the (enigmatic) so-called sea people. Unfortunately there is no real evidence for this. However combined geological, geophysical and archaeological evidence suggests that earthquakes may have played a key role in this extraordinary collapse during the late 13th and early 12th centuries . Based on the instrumentally recorded earthquakes occurring in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean region during the 20th century, several events that have clear historical information, and the geography of seismically active faults it is obvious that numerous earthquakes of magnitude 6·5 or greater (enough to destroy modern buildings, let alone those of antiquity) occurred here frequently in the past. Furthermore major earthquakes often occur in this region in groups, known as ‘‘sequences'' or ‘‘storms'', in which one large quake is followed days, months, or a few years later by others elsewhere on the plate boundary fault lines. When a map of the areas in the Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean region shaken by 20th century  earthquakes of magnitude 6·5 and greater and with an intensity of VII or greater is overlaid on Robert Drews' map of sites destroyed in these same regions during the so-called ‘‘Catastrophe'' near the end of the Late Bronze Age, it is readily apparent that virtually all of these LBA sites lie within the affected (‘‘high-shaking'') areas. This would suggest that a major ‘‘earthquake storm'' may have occurred in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Eastern Mediterranean during the years 1225-1175 . This ‘‘storm'' may have interacted with societal, political and economic forces at work in these areas c. 1200  and

  9. A mineralogical study of Late Bronze Age ceramics from Palatca (Transylvania, Romania

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    Lucretia Ghergari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper studies the mineralogical and petrographical characteristics of 28 ceramic fragments that were excavated in the village of Palatca, Transylvania (Romania. Optical microscopy, X-Ray powder diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, grain size analyses, and porosity measurements were used to investigate the samples. Our objective was to describe or reconstruct the corresponding products and to elucidate the manufacturing process, the firing techniques, and the transformation pathways. Based on our results, we conclude that the Late Bronze Age ceramics (1600-1300 BC were produced from clay and temper material such as river sand and ceramoclasts. It has been modeled by hand and fired between 800 and 950°C. For most samples, we can narrow the temperature range to 850-900°C. We interpret the data further from a geoarchaeological point of view with respect to the historical evolution of the local culture.

  10. Representation of Motherhood and Age Characteristics of Infants in Girls in their Late Teens

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    Krys’ko A.A.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe and analyze data on changes in the representations of motherhood and age characteristics of infants under the influence of pregnancy and motherhood experiences with girls in their late teens (we studied three groups: having no children, pregnant women and young mothers. We used questionnaire “Representations of characteristics of children in each period of their development” (designed by M.E. Lantsburg, A.A. Krys’ko, pictorial projective test, “Me and my child”, projective technique “Mothers TAT”, with 5 reproductions of paintings “Motherhood” by S. Krasauskas representing parenting, motherhood and childbirth, selected as stimulus material. The results of analysis were used to identify the main trends for each of the three groups of subjects.

  11. Late-Onset Hypogonadism in Male Patients Over 60 Years of Age with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Kara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine serum androgen levels and the frequency of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in patients over 60 years of age with metabolic syndrome (MS and its correlation with parameters of MS. Material and Method: Men over 60 years of age who were diagnosed with MS according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III criteria in the internal medicine outpatient clinics at Cerrahpasa Medical School (n=30 and healthy controls (n=30 were included in the study. Total testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels were analysed. Bioavailable and free testosterone levels were calculated. The participants filled up the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and Aging Male Symptoms (AMS questionnaire forms themselves without any help of the physician. Results: LOH rates were 30% and 13.3% in the MS group and healthy control group, respectively (p=0.11. Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were significantly lower in the MS group compared to controls (p=0.004 and p=0.003, respectively. A negative correlation was found between total testosterone and MS components. BDI and AMS questionnaire scores in the two groups were not significantly different.Discussion: Serum total testosterone and SHBG levels were lower in the MS group, and inversely proportional to this, insulin resistance and intensity of MS components were increased. Turk Jem 2013; 17: 22-7

  12. Age-rotation relationship for late-type main-sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, T. N.

    1984-01-01

    With advancing spectral type and increasing age, late main-sequence stars exhibit monotonic decrease in rotational velocity. It is of great interest to extend the rotation-age relationship to stars of later spectral type. In recent times it has become possible to measure directly the rotational periods from the photometric modulation by Ca II H and K line emission. There have also been successful attempts to relate the chromospheric activity as manifested through Ca II H and K lines to the rotation period, and it was shown that the fraction of total stellar luminosity in Ca II H and K lines, corrected for photospheric contribution, is a function of a single parameter related to P and B-V. In the present investigation, this rotation-activity relation is utilized to infer the rotation periods as a function of spectral type. The period versus B-V plot is employed as a basis to infer that the rotational period of main-sequence stars is a single-valued function of mass (B-V color) and age.

  13. A new age model for the Late Ordovician bentonites in Oslo, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk Ballo, Eirik; Eivind Augland, Lars; Hammer, Øyvind; Svensen, Henrik

    2017-04-01

    During the Late Ordovician, explosive volcanic eruptions led to the deposition of worldwide bentonites. Some of the largest of these eruptions took place in the Sandbian and produced the Milbrig and Deicke K-bentonites of North America and the Kinnekulle K-bentonite of Scandinavia. We have studied the classic locality of Hagemann and Spjeldnæs (1955) - one of the most complete sections of Ordovician bentonites in Europe. The bentonites are present in the Arnestad Formation comprising dark shale with carbonate nodule beds grading into an increasingly more carbonate rich environment. Through a 50-meter interval we have identified 33 bentonites of which 10 have not previously been reported from this locality. The bentonites have an average thickness of 4.9 cm with a few exceptions such as the Kinnekulle K-bentonite (35 cm) and the Grimstorp B (13 cm). We have measured magnetic susceptibility of two 2-3 meter intervals with a sampling distance of 5 cm, using a handheld magnetic susceptibility meter in the field. These data show significant periodicity peaks that correlate well with Milankovitch cycles and are suggested to represent astronomically forced changes in sediment supply. This study further presents high-precision U-Pb zircon ages of five bentonites from the section, including the Kinnekulle K-bentonite and Grimstorp B. These two beds were previously dated by Svensen et al. (2015) from a locality south of Oslo. Our new data improves the precision of the ages of these two key beds, and constrain the duration of the entire interval and thus the onset and termination of the late Ordovician volcanic system that deposited these tephras. We conclude that the Oslo section provides a high-resolution age model to understand one of the most intense volcanic periods of the Paleozoic by combining radiometric and cyclostratigraphic data. BIBLIOGRAPHY Hagemann, F. and Spjeldnæs, N. (1955). "The Middle Ordovician of the Oslo region, Norway. 6. Notes on bentonites (K

  14. Stratigraphic architecture of Devonian lacustrine basins of northern Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thorben; Moreau, Julien; Andrews, Steven D.

    In Northeastern Scotland, the Orcadian Basin hosted large lacustrine systems which developed during Devonian times (c. 400 Ma). The pre-Devonian metamorphic basement unconformity is only exposed in a small number of places around the basin margin and therefore the characterization of the nature o...

  15. U-Pb (zircon) and geochemical constraints on the age, origin, and evolution of Paleozoic arc magmas in the Oyu Tolgoi porphyry Cu-Au district, southern Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, A.J.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.; Mazdab, F.K.; Friedman, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Uranium-Pb (zircon) ages are linked with geochemical data for porphyry intrusions associated with giant porphyry Cu-Au systems at Oyu Tolgoi to place those rocks within the petrochemical framework of Devonian and Carboniferous rocks of southern Mongolia. In this part of the Gurvansayhan terrane within the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, the transition from Devonian tholeiitic marine rocks to unconformably overlying Carboniferous calc-alkaline subaerial to shallow marine volcanic rocks reflects volcanic arc thickening and maturation. Radiogenic Nd and Pb isotopic compositions (??Nd(t) range from +3.1 to +7.5 and 206Pb/204Pb values for feldspars range from 17.97 to 18.72), as well as low high-field strength element (HFSE) contents of most rocks (mafic rocks typically have rocks are dominantly medium- to high-K calc-alkaline and characterized by a decrease in Sr/Y ratios through time, with the Carboniferous rocks being more felsic than those of Devonian age. Porphyry Cu-Au related intrusions were emplaced in the Late Devonian during the transition from tholeiitic to calc-alkaline arc magmatism. Uranium-Pb (zircon) geochronology indicates that the Late Devonian pre- to syn-mineral quartz monzodiorite intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au deposits are ~372Ma, whereas granodiorite intrusions that post-date major shortening and are associated with less well-developed porphyry Cu-Au mineralization are ~366Ma. Trace element geochemistry of zircons in the Late Devonian intrusions associated with the porphyry Cu-Au systems contain distinct Th/U and Yb/Gd ratios, as well as Hf and Y concentrations that reflect mixing of magma of distinct compositions. These characteristics are missing in the unmineralized Carboniferous intrusions. High Sr/Y and evidence for magma mixing in syn- to late-mineral intrusions distinguish the Late Devonian rocks associated with giant Cu-Au deposits from younger magmatic suites in the district. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, E., E-mail: elin@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Departamento de Conservacao e Restauro, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Araujo, M.F. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciencia dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Senna-Martinez, J.C. [Centro de Arqueologia (Uniarq), Faculdade de Letras, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal); Ines Vaz, J.L. [Departamento de Letras, Universidade Catolica, Estrada da Circunvalacao, 3504-505 Viseu (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction. - Highlights: > EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography in cultural heritage studies. > Archaeometallurgical study of a Late Bronze Age artefact collection from Portugal. > Practise of a specific and traditional bronze metallurgy. > Appearance of technological innovations as the casting-on technique.

  17. Age of the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale in the Appalachian and Michigan basins, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The suggestion by Sanford (1967, p. 994) that the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale of the Michigan basin are of Late Devonian age because these strata contain Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo is invalid for these formations in the Appalachian basin, the area of their type localities. Endosporites lacunosus Winslow, a synonym of Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo, occurs in upper Chautauqua (Upper Devonian) rocks through much of the Kinderhook (Lower Mississippian) strata in Ohio. The Sunbury Shale, the Sunbury Member of the Orangeville Shale in part of northern Ohio, contains a Siplionodella fauna which clearly demonstrates the Kinderhook age of the unit. The basal strata of the Bedford Shale contain Spathoffnathodus anteposlcornis which suggests a very Late Devonian or very Early Mississippian age for this part of the Bedford. Except for the basal fossil zone, most of the Bedford Shale and the younger Berea Sandstone overlie the Murrysville sand, which along the Allegheny Front in central Pennsylvania contains an Adiantites flora of Early Mississippian (Kinderhook) age. The presence of Adiantites in the Murrysville sand indicates that most of the Bedford Shale and all the Berea Sandstone are of Early Mississippian age. Lithostratigraphic evidence suggests that the Berea Sandstone of Ohio may be a temporal equivalent of the basal Beckville Member of the Pocono Formation of the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania. The clearly demonstrable Kinderhook age of the Sunbury, Berea, and most of the Bedford in the Appalachian basin strongly indicates a similar age for the same units in the Michigan basin.

  18. Fish and other faunal remains from a Late Iron Age site on the Letaba River, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Plug

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Fish remains from Late Iron Age sites in the Transvaal are relatively scarce. It seems as if the people did not utilize the riverine resources extensively. Therefore the unique assemblage of large numbers of fish bones on a Late Iron Age site, provides some insight into the fish population of a section of the Letaba River a few hundred years ago. The presence of other faunal remains provides some information on prehistoric utilization of the environment in general. Hunting strategies and aspects of herding can also be deduced from the faunal remains.

  19. Analysis of the structural parameters that influence gas production from the Devonian shale. Annual progress report, 1979-1980. Volume III. Data repository and reports published during fiscal year 1979-1980: production, unsponsored research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negus-De Wys, J.; Dixon, J. M.; Evans, M. A.; Lee, K. D.; Ruotsala, J. E.; Wilson, T. H.; Williams, R. T.

    1980-10-01

    This document consists of the following papers: inorganic geochemistry studies of the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; lithology studies of upper Devonian well cuttings in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; possible effects of plate tectonics on the Appalachian Devonian black shale production in eastern Kentucky; preliminary depositional model for upper Devonian Huron age organic black shale in the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field; the anatomy of a large Devonian black shale gas field; the Cottageville (Mount Alto) Gas Field, Jackson County, West Virginia: a case study of Devonian shale gas production; the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field: a geological study of the relationships of Ohio Shale gas occurrences to structure, stratigraphy, lithology, and inorganic geochemical parameters; and a statistical analysis of geochemical data for the Eastern Kentucky Gas Field.

  20. Age specificity of inbreeding load in Drosophila melanogaster and implications for the evolution of late-life mortality plateaus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Rose M; Temiyasathit, Sara; Reedy, Melissa M; Ruedi, Elizabeth A; Drnevich, Jenny M; Leips, Jeff; Hughes, Kimberly A

    2007-09-01

    Current evolutionary theories explain the origin of aging as a byproduct of the decline in the force of natural selection with age. These theories seem inconsistent with the well-documented occurrence of late-life mortality plateaus, since under traditional evolutionary models mortality rates should increase monotonically after sexual maturity. However, the equilibrium frequencies of deleterious alleles affecting late life are lower than predicted under traditional models, and thus evolutionary models can accommodate mortality plateaus if deleterious alleles are allowed to have effects spanning a range of neighboring age classes. Here we test the degree of age specificity of segregating alleles affecting fitness in Drosophila melanogaster. We assessed age specificity by measuring the homozygous fitness effects of segregating alleles across the adult life span and calculated genetic correlations of these effects across age classes. For both males and females, we found that allelic effects are age specific with effects extending over 1-2 weeks across all age classes, consistent with modified mutation-accumulation theory. These results indicate that a modified mutation-accumulation theory can both explain the origin of senescence and predict late-life mortality plateaus.

  1. Osmium isotopes and the Upper Devonian "Kellwasser" event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauns, M.

    2001-12-01

    The Upper Devonian "Kellwasser" horizon at the Frasnian/Famennian boundary (~367 Ma) records one of the most severe world-wide catastrophic bio-events in Earth's history. Current theories for the causes of mass extinction include (e.g. Schindler 1990) (i) meteoritic impact, (ii) sea-level changes, shifts of the sedimentary realm and generation of anoxic milieus, (iii) enhanced clastic input and modification of sea water chemistry, and, possibly, (iv) a combination of (ii) and (iii). The time-integrated Os isotopic composition of Kellwasser limestones appears to be a suitable tool to shed light on these options and possibly place constraints on the Os isotopic evolution of Upper Devonian sea water. We present complete Re-Os analyses of limestone and shale whole rock samples, and some biogenic/diagenetic constituents (conodonts, Fe oxides). The results indicate extreme Re and Os compositional variations between different limestone and shale sublayers (Re = 0.1 - 40 ppb, Os 26 - 830 ppt, Re/Os = 4 - 240). The present Os isotopic ratios of the rocks were found to be very radiogenic (187Os/186Os = 9,865 - 388,35). For the first time, conodont samples extracted from the Kellwasser sequence were tested as potential tracers for the Os isotopic composition of Upper Devonian sea water. Their Os contents are in the range of 210 - 112 ppt, which required analysis of about 15.000 specimens per sample to obtain sufficient Os for mass spectrometry. The Os of the conodonts (187Os/186Os = 14,35 - 67,89) is significantly less radiogenic compared to their complementary host rocks. Their 187Re/186Os, however, exceed the 187Re/186Os ratios of the host limestones by at least 1-2 orders of magnitude. Recalculation of the 187Re/186Os ratios of all rock and conodont samples for an age of 367 Ma yielded in all cases unrealistic and very contrasting values with respect to any hypothetical Os isotopic composition of Upper Devonian sea water. Our Re-Os isotopic data do establish several points

  2. Pre-Devonian tectonic evolution of the eastern South China Block:Geochronological evidence from detrital zircons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Using the U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analysis technique we analyzed geochronological features of detrital zircons from Devonian and Ordovician coarse sandstone in southern Jiangxi Province,northern Cathaysia Block.Abundant ancient crustal information was obtained.The 350 groups of U-Pb age center on five ranges:2600-2300 Ma(peak at 2470 Ma),1100-900 Ma(peak at 980 Ma),900-700 Ma(peak at 800 Ma),650-520 Ma(peak at 600 Ma) and 450-400 Ma(peak at 440 Ma).We also found a detrital zircon of ~3.5 Ga.This is the oldest age in northern Cathaysia Block obtained so far.From the analysis we concluded that:(1) the 2600-2300 Ma period,characterized by a global continent-building,records late Neoarchean magmatism that did not occur in the neighboring area of Cathaysia;(2) the marked peak at 1100-900 Ma corresponds with the assembly time of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent,Rodinia,suggesting that the Cathaysia Block was once a part of Rodinia,and numerous euhedral zircons with similar ages likely resulted from the Grenville event;(3) the peak at 900-700 Ma corresponds to the breakup of Rodinia,as evidenced by wide occurrence of Neoproterozoic granite,basic dyke swarms and continental rift-type deposition;(4) the 650-520 Ma period is the typical time of the Pan-African event,but as yet no associated magmatic rock has been reported in this area;and(5) the peak at 450-400 Ma,representing the early Paleozoic orogeny,was recorded in various igneous rocks.Abundant Silurian-Lower Devonian granitic plutons,orthogneisses and their zircon U-Pb dating ages(450-400 Ma) are important evidence of an early Paleozoic orogenic event.Geological data support the interpretation of an Early Paleozoic tectonic heat event in Cathaysia,which was likely to be caused by intracontinental collision.

  3. Discovery and implication of shock metamorphic unloading microfractures in Devonian bedrock of Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Erkang(王尔康); WAN; Yuqiu(万玉秋); XU; Shijin(徐士进)

    2002-01-01

    Sphenoidal tensile microfractures with particular patterns have been discovered in the Late Devonian quartzose sandstone in islands and peninsula of the Taihu Lake area. Microfractures present a '人'-shape collective pattern, occurring in a single row or multiple rows. The quartz crystals in the inner acute angle area of some '人'-shape microfractures have severely been non-crystallized, showing the feature of diaplectic glass. The studies show that these special microfractures were formed during the unloading process after the compression was up to the peak of an impact event.

  4. Bacterial mediation, red matrices diagenesis, Devonian, Montagne Noire (southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Préat, Alain; Mamet, Bernard; Bernard, Alain; Gillan, David

    1999-07-01

    Two Devonian red carbonate rock sections are studied in the Montagne Noire, at Coumiac (Frasnian/Famennian) and at the Pic de Vissou (Eifelian/Givetian). The sediments are grey-red mudstones and wackestones rich in pelagic fossils. They are characteristic of an outer ramp. The Coumiac sequence is condensed with numerous hardgrounds and hiatuses. The Pic de Vissou succession is more complete and of shallower origin. In both cases, the origin of the red coloration of the micritic matrix is probably linked to bacterial activity which produced submicronic hematite. Both iron and manganese concentrations are low (average 0.2%). Bacteria form ferruginous microstromatolites, blisters, microtufts, `hedgehogs' filling sponge perforations and thin continuous mineralized films (probably biofilms). Hardgrounds are underlined by ferruginous microstromatolites. The origin of the matrix color is probably related to the destruction of these bacterial constructions, the submicronic hematite ultimately coating the crystal faces of the calcite mosaic. During early lithification, microfissures appeared and were invaded by microbial colonies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that these colonies are composed of spheroidal beads. This suggests continuity of the bacterial activity during early diagenesis. Later on, these early fissures were cut by burrows. Subsequently a secondary fissure network transected all the previously mentioned sedimentary structures. This late fissure network is characterized by diagenetically remobilized hematite and/or calcite. The latest alterations are stylolites and ultimate tectonic fractures.

  5. Metamorphic conditions and CHIME monazite ages of Late Eocene to Late Oligocene high-temperature Mogok metamorphic rocks in central Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maw Maw Win; Enami, Masaki; Kato, Takenori

    2016-03-01

    The high temperature (T)/pressure (P) regional Mogok metamorphic belt is situated in central Myanmar, and is mainly composed of pelitic gneisses, amphibolites, marbles, and calc-silicate rocks. The garnet-biotite-plagioclase-sillimanite-quartz assemblage and its partial system suggest equilibrium P/T conditions of 0.6-1.0 GPa/780-850 °C for the peak metamorphic stage, and 0.3-0.5 GPa/600-680 °C for the exhumation and hydration stage. Monazite grains show complex compositional zoning consisting of three segments-I, II, and III. Taking into consideration the monazite zoning and relative misfit curves, the calculated chemical Th-U-total Pb isochron method (CHIME) monazite age data (284 spot analyses) indicated four age components: 49.3 ± 2.6-49.9 ± 7.9, 37.8 ± 1.0-38.1 ± 1.7, 28.0 ± 0.8-28.8 ± 1.6, and 23.7 ± 1.3 Ma (2σ level). The ages of the Late Eocene and Late Oligocene epochs were interpreted as the peak metamorphic stage of upper-amphibolite and/or granulite facies and the postdated hydration stage, respectively.

  6. EDXRF and micro-EDXRF studies of Late Bronze Age metallurgical productions from Canedotes (Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Pedro; Araújo, M. de Fátima; Canha, Alexandre

    2007-10-01

    Metallurgical production in Central Portugal during the Late Bronze Age was primarily based on copper-tin alloys, despite influences from the Atlantic area where copper-tin-lead alloys are common. Metallic artefacts from archaeological site of Canedotes (Central Portugal) were analysed by EDXRF to establish the type of alloys present. Polished spots in selected artefacts were also analysed by micro-EDXRF to determine the major and minor elemental composition of the original alloys. The collection constitutes 18 copper-tin artefacts and one unalloyed copper artefact with tin and arsenic as minor constituents. Artefacts that require a thermomechanical finishing process, such as tools and weapons, seem to have improved control over the tin content. The composition of two buttons, one cramp and one metallic droplet suggest that some of the copper sources were rich in arsenic. Finally, the low iron content of the artefacts seems to agree well with the smelting of copper ores in crucible furnaces, a smelting process used in certain areas of the Iberian Peninsula until pre-Roman times.

  7. Higher Education Is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…

  8. Late Stone Age human remains from Ishango (Democratic Republic of Congo): New insights on Late Pleistocene modern human diversity in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crevecoeur, I; Brooks, A; Ribot, I; Cornelissen, E; Semal, P

    2016-07-01

    Although questions of modern human origins and dispersal are subject to intense research within and outside Africa, the processes of modern human diversification during the Late Pleistocene are most often discussed within the context of recent human genetic data. This situation is due largely to the dearth of human fossil remains dating to the final Pleistocene in Africa and their almost total absence from West and Central Africa, thus limiting our perception of modern human diversification within Africa before the Holocene. Here, we present a morphometric comparative analysis of the earliest Late Pleistocene modern human remains from the Central African site of Ishango in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The early Late Stone Age layer (eLSA) of this site, dated to the Last Glacial Maximum (25-20 Ky), contains more than one hundred fragmentary human remains. The exceptional associated archaeological context suggests these remains derived from a community of hunter-fisher-gatherers exhibiting complex social and cognitive behaviors including substantial reliance on aquatic resources, development of fishing technology, possible mathematical notations and repetitive use of space, likely on a seasonal basis. Comparisons with large samples of Late Pleistocene and early Holocene modern human fossils from Africa and Eurasia show that the Ishango human remains exhibit distinctive characteristics and a higher phenotypic diversity in contrast to recent African populations. In many aspects, as is true for the inner ear conformation, these eLSA human remains have more affinities with Middle to early Late Pleistocene fossils worldwide than with extant local African populations. In addition, cross-sectional geometric properties of the long bones are consistent with archaeological evidence suggesting reduced terrestrial mobility resulting from greater investment in and use of aquatic resources. Our results on the Ishango human remains provide insights into past African modern

  9. Late Cenozoic exhumation of New Zealand: inversion from bedrock thermochronological ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ruohong; Herman, Frédéric; Seward, Diane

    2016-04-01

    In the SW Pacific, the present subaerial land area of New Zealand straddles the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. This margin has been converging since the mid-Eocene-late Oligocene, leading to a period of widespread crustal deformation and exhumation. During the past decades, the exhumation of the New Zealand basement has been the basis of many thermochronological studies, resulting in a large number of data from the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic bedrocks. We compiled the cooling ages from multiple thermochronological systems (i.e. apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He, apatite and zircon fission-track, K-feldspar, muscovite, biotite and hornblende 40Ar/39Ar or K-Ar) that yielded cooling events younger than 25 Ma, and formally inverted this data set to estimate the large-scale temporal and spatial variations in the exhumation rates of New Zealand during the late Cenozoic. The exhumation results show good agreement with the predicted off-shore sedimentation rates, while the thermal model used in the inversion is in part constrained by the present-day observed surface heat flow. The modelling results indicate crustal exhumation from the earliest Miocene (just prior to 20 Ma). But from ~10 Ma, a moderate acceleration of exhumation is observed at most sites, coincident with an important change in the orientation of the Pacific motion relative to the Australian Plate. Since the Quaternary, rapid exhumation has occurred in the Southern Alps along the west coast of South Island, with the highest rates in the central part of range. In this region, our estimates of the million-year-scale exhumation rates are in general coincidence with those previously estimated over shorter (i.e. 0.1 Ma and 10 ka) time scales, as well as with the contemporary rock uplift rates derived from GPS data, confirming exhumational steady-state in the orogeny. In contrast in eastern North Island, the predicted Quaternary exhumation rates are much lower than the recent rock uplift rates measured

  10. Linking Biogeochemical Cycles of Nitrogen and Oxygen in Euxinic Devonian Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuite, M. L.; Macko, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    Berner’s 2009 reconstruction of Phanerozoic atmospheric pO2 (1) features an approximately 30% decline in O2 spanning the Lower to Upper Devonian, a period characterized by the emergence and expansion of terrestrial forest ecosystems and episodic high organic matter deposition now found as epicontinental basinal black shales. There is an apparent contradiction between high rates of organic matter burial coupled with an increasing areal extent of photosynthetic O2 production and declining levels of atmospheric O2. This study sought to resolve that contradiction by examining the role of terrestrial nitrgen in the development of anoxygenic photosynthetic ecosystems in euxinic Devonian basins utilizing stable isotope and biomarker analyses. By fixing C into biomass without producing O2 as a byproduct, sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis can serve to moderate the flux of O2 to the atmosphere generated by oxygenic photosynthesis (2). Sulfur isotope values indicate temporally and spatially widespread euxinia in Middle and Upper Devonian epeiric seas and the presence of isorenieratane, a biomarker for green sulfur bacteria, indicating that anoxygenic photosynthesis was also widespread. High levels of marine primary productivity and the consequent development a sulfidic water column in Middle and Upper Devonian epeiric basins were likely the result of the emergence of a substantial new source of fixed N. Modern lowland tropical forests are net exporters of N to aquatic systems and it is likely that warm, moist Devonian lowland forests featured a similar N biogeochemistry. Riverine and atmospheric deposition of terrestrial fixed N facilitated an increase in the relative contribution of anoxygenic photosynthesis to total global C fixation, resulting in the 30% pO2 decline over a period of about 30 million years. The Upper Devonian expansion of forests into upland and temperate environments, where the N excess seen in modern forests is uncommon, reversed the O2 decline

  11. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  12. Age assessment and implications of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland, based on Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Peter; Matthews, John A.

    2016-10-01

    Schmidt-hammer exposure-age dating (SHD) was applied to a variety of late Quaternary periglacial and paraglacial landforms composed of coarse rock debris on Muckish Mountain, northwest Ireland. Landform ages were determined using a linear high-precision age-calibration curve, derived from young and old control surfaces of known age on the same rock type. The SHD ages represent maximum estimates of the time elapsed since the boulders stabilised and the landforms became inactive. Most ages are also minimum estimates for the start of landform development because older boulders are buried beneath the sampled surface boulders. Ages and 95% confidence intervals obtained for blockfield, boulder lobes and talus indicate these features were likely active during several of the early Holocene cold events evidenced in Greenland ice cores and North Atlantic sediment records. Activity ceased at different times ~ 9-7 ka BP. These landforms are the first indication of a geomorphological response to early Holocene cooling in the oceanic mountains of Ireland. Late Holocene ages, obtained for rock-slope failure run-out debris and debris cone boulders, overlap with shifts to cooler and/or wetter conditions, including the Little Ice Age. Geomorphological impacts associated with these changes in climate have not previously been recorded in the Irish uplands. The SHD results indicate that previously implied timings for the stabilisation of some accumulations of coarse rock debris on mountain slopes are in need of revision.

  13. Age-specific epigenetic drift in late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Chong Wang

    Full Text Available Despite an enormous research effort, most cases of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD still remain unexplained and the current biomedical science is still a long way from the ultimate goal of revealing clear risk factors that can help in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of the disease. Current theories about the development of LOAD hinge on the premise that Alzheimer's arises mainly from heritable causes. Yet, the complex, non-Mendelian disease etiology suggests that an epigenetic component could be involved. Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in post-mortem brain samples and lymphocytes, we have performed an analysis of DNA methylation across 12 potential Alzheimer's susceptibility loci. In the LOAD brain samples we identified a notably age-specific epigenetic drift, supporting a potential role of epigenetic effects in the development of the disease. Additionally, we found that some genes that participate in amyloid-beta processing (PSEN1, APOE and methylation homeostasis (MTHFR, DNMT1 show a significant interindividual epigenetic variability, which may contribute to LOAD predisposition. The APOE gene was found to be of bimodal structure, with a hypomethylated CpG-poor promoter and a fully methylated 3'-CpG-island, that contains the sequences for the epsilon4-haplotype, which is the only undisputed genetic risk factor for LOAD. Aberrant epigenetic control in this CpG-island may contribute to LOAD pathology. We propose that epigenetic drift is likely to be a substantial mechanism predisposing individuals to LOAD and contributing to the course of disease.

  14. Stable isotope paleoecology of Late Pleistocene Middle Stone Age humans from the Lake Victoria basin, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Nicole D; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Faith, J Tyler; Peppe, Daniel J; Van Plantinga, Alex; Tryon, Christian A

    2015-05-01

    Paleoanthropologists have long argued that environmental pressures played a key role in human evolution. However, our understanding of how these pressures mediated the behavioral and biological diversity of early modern humans and their migration patterns within and out of Africa is limited by a lack of archaeological evidence associated with detailed paleoenvironmental data. Here, we present the first stable isotopic data from paleosols and fauna associated with Middle Stone Age (MSA) sites in East Africa. Late Pleistocene (∼100-45 ka, thousands of years ago) sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands in eastern Lake Victoria (Kenya) preserve a taxonomically diverse, non-analog faunal community associated with MSA artifacts. We analyzed the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of paleosol carbonate and organic matter and fossil mammalian tooth enamel, including the first analyses for several extinct bovids such as Rusingoryx atopocranion, Damaliscus hypsodon, and an unnamed impala species. Both paleosol carbonate and organic matter data suggest that local habitats associated with human activities were primarily riverine woodland ecosystems. However, mammalian tooth enamel data indicate that most large-bodied mammals consumed a predominantly C4 diet, suggesting an extensive C4 grassland surrounding these riverine woodlands in the region at the time. These data are consistent with other lines of paleoenvironmental evidence that imply a substantially reduced Lake Victoria at this time, and demonstrate that C4 grasslands were significantly expanded into equatorial Africa compared with their present distribution, which could have facilitated dispersal of human populations and other biotic communities. Our results indicate that early populations of Homo sapiens from the Lake Victoria region exploited locally wooded and well-watered habitats within a larger grassland ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hypersaline and anoxia in the Devonian Frasnian-Famennian transition :Molecular fossil and mineralogical evidence from Guangxi ,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Yiming; XU Ran; FENG Qi; ZHANG Lijun; MA Huizhen; ZENG Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    Abundant normal alkanes,isoprenoid hydrocarbons,terpanes and steranes were detected in 23 samples taken from the carbonate platform to basin facies in the Devonian Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) transition of Guangxi,South China.They were mainly derived from the phytoplankton or bacteria and algae.Molecular stratigraphic parameters,abundant micron gypsums and pyrite framboids show that hypersaline and anoxia prevailed in the F-F transition,the highly stressed environments occurred near the F-F boundary.Orbital cyclostratigraphic studies indicate that the hypersaline and anoxia prevailed in the F-F transition spanned an interval at least from the Palmatolepis linguiformis conodont Zone to the Middle Palmatolepis triangularis conodont Zone and lasted about 1.2 Ma.The Devonian marine ecosystem underwent Early Devonian gradual optimization,Middle Devonian to the F-F transitional stepwise deterioration and late Famennian recovery.A positive feedback among higher surface ocean temperatures,hypersaline,water column anoxia, enhanced nutrient regeneration,phytoplankton productivity and eutrophication was probably substantial in the F-F transition in Guangxi,South China,even in other regions of the world,such as Holy Cross Mountains of Poland,Montagne Noire in southern France,Alberta in Canada.The point that should be emphasized is that the decisive and direct causes of the F-F transitional mass extinction would be the stepwise deterioration of the marine ecosystem since the Middle Devonian other than a bolide impact on the earth.The hypersaline and anoxia prevailed in the F-F transition favor the formation and preservation of hydrocarbon source rocks in South China.

  16. {sup 14}C dating of the Early to Late Bronze Age stratigraphic sequence of Aegina Kolonna, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, E.M., E-mail: Eva.Maria.Wild@univie.ac.a [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Gauss, W. [Austrian Archaeological Institute at Athens, Leof. Alexandras 26, Gr10683 Athens (Greece); Forstenpointner, G. [University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Dept. of Pathobiology, Institute of Anatomy, Unit on Archaeozoology and Comparative Morphology, Veterinaerplatz 1, A-1210 Vienna (Austria); Lindblom, M. [Dept. of Archaeology and Ancient History Uppsala, University Box 626, SE-751 26 Uppsala (Sweden); Smetana, R. [Altertumswissenschaften, University of Salzburg, Residenzplatz 1/I, A-5020 Salzburg (Austria); Steier, P. [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Thanheiser, U. [Vienna Institute for Archaeological Science (VIAS), Althanstrasse 14, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Weninger, F. [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics - Isotope Research, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2010-04-15

    Aegina Kolonna, located in the center of the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Mediterranean (Greece), is one of the major archaeological sites of the Aegean Bronze Age with a continuous stratigraphic settlement sequence from the Late Neolithic to the Late Bronze Age. Due to its position next to the maritime cross roads between central mainland Greece, the northeast Peloponnese, the Cyclades and Crete, the island played an important role in the trade between these regions. In the course of new excavations, which focused on the exploration of the Early, Middle and Late Bronze Age at Kolonna, several short lived samples from different settlement phases have been {sup 14}C-dated with the AMS method at the VERA laboratory. Bayesian sequencing of the {sup 14}C data according to the stratigraphic position of the samples in the profile was performed to enable estimates of the transition time between the cultural phases. The Aegina Kolonna {sup 14}C sequence is one of the longest existing so far for the Aegean Bronze Age, and therefore of major importance for the absolute Bronze Age chronology in this region. Preliminary results indicate that the Middle Helladic period seems to have started earlier and lasted longer than traditionally assumed. Further, at the present stage of our investigation we can give also a very tentative time frame for the Santorini volcanic eruption which seems to be in agreement with the science derived VDL date.

  17. Ovarian reserve in the women of late reproductive age after conservative treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltadze, K; Barbakadze, L

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess of the ovarian reserve of the women of late reproductive age after the conservative treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome in adolescence. A total of 67 women of late reproductive age with confirmed primary PCOS in adolescence and 70 age-matched controls were included in the study. The patients with PCOS underwent clinical investigation and conservative treatment with antiandrogens and oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) between 1984 and 1990y. and at the time of original diagnosis they were 13-18 years. The patients were collected via analysis of histories at primary diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence and at the time of the follow-up investigation of reproductive hormones was conducted. Data were compared between the study and control groups. After conservative treatment PCOS patients had higher levels of anti-Müllerian hormone and greater number of antral follicles than controls (рadolescence have the better ovarian reserve in late reproductive age compared with age-matched controls.

  18. Early Forest Soils and Their Role in Devonian Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallack

    1997-04-25

    A paleosol in the Middle Devonian Aztec Siltstone of Victoria Land, Antarctica, is the most ancient known soil of well-drained forest ecosystems. Clay enrichment and chemical weathering of subsurface horizons in this and other Devonian forested paleosols culminate a long-term increase initiated during the Silurian. From Silurian into Devonian time, red clayey calcareous paleosols show a greater volume of roots and a concomitant decline in the density of animal burrows. These trends parallel the decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide determined from isotopic records of pedogenic carbonate in these same paleosols. The drawdown of carbon dioxide began well before the Devonian appearance of coals, large logs, and diverse terrestrial plants and animals, and it did not correlate with temporal variation in volcanic or metamorphic activity. The early Paleozoic greenhouse may have been curbed by the evolution of rhizospheres with an increased ratio of primary to secondary production and by more effective silicate weathering during Silurian time.

  19. [46-OR] : Early and late onset preeclampsia versus small for gestational age risks in subsequent pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardes, Thomas P; Mol, Ben W; Ravelli, Anita C; van den Berg, Paul P; Stolk, Ronald P; Groen, Henk

    OBJECTIVES: Current literature suggests that early and late onset preeclampsia should be treated as distinct entities and that early onset preeclampsia shares pathophysiology aspects with intrauterine growth restriction. Our objective was to investigate whether 5th percentile small for gestational

  20. Baseline Scotland : the Lower Devonian aquifer of Strathmore

    OpenAIRE

    O Dochartaigh, B.E.; Smedley, P. L.; MacDonald, A M; Darling, W. G.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the groundwater chemistry of the Devonian sedimentary aquifer in Strathmore, eastern Scotland. The area covered by this study extends from Perth in the southwest to Stonehaven in the northeast. The survey forms part of the ongoing Baseline Scotland project. The Devonian sedimentary rocks of Strathmore form an important regional aquifer in an area of some of the most fertile agricultural land in Scotland, with a number of major urban settleme...

  1. Anatomical reinvestigation ofArchaeopteris macilenta from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian) of South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun GUO; De-Ming WANG

    2011-01-01

    Archaeopteris macilenta is one of the most widespread plants in the Late Devonian.Based on fossils from the Frasnian Huangjiadeng Formation,Yichang District of Hubei Province,for the first time we study in detail the anatomy of this progymnosperm plant in South China.Ultimate axes are protostelic with three xylem sympodia and lack secondary tissue.Penultimate axes are eustelic,bearing eight sympodia and a thin band of secondary xylem.Radially symmetrical sympodia of mesarch primary xylem produce traces of appendages in a spiral arrangement.Archaeopteris macilenta and A.halliana (A.roemeriana) are dominant in the Frasnian and Famennian,respectively.Comparisons with these two species from other tectonic plates indicate consistent stelar architectures.Global spread,continuous occurrence,and identical anatomy during the Late Devonian indicate that Archaeopteris survived the Frasnian-Famennian extinction event.In this time,endemic genera and cosmopolitan taxa,including Archaeopteris,suggest the palaeogeographic isolation of South China and certain associations with other plates.

  2. Onset age of L2 acquisition influences language network in early and late Cantonese-Mandarin bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojin; Tu, Liu; Wang, Junjing; Jiang, Bo; Gao, Wei; Pan, Ximin; Li, Meng; Zhong, Miao; Zhu, Zhenzhen; Niu, Meiqi; Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Ling; Chen, Xiaoxi; Liu, Chang; Lu, Zhi; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-11-01

    Early second language (L2) experience influences the neural organization of L2 in neuro-plastic terms. Previous studies tried to reveal these plastic effects of age of second language acquisition (AoA-L2) and proficiency-level in L2 (PL-L2) on the neural basis of language processing in bilinguals. Although different activation patterns have been observed during language processing in early and late bilinguals by task-fMRI, few studies reported the effect of AoA-L2 and high PL-L2 on language network at resting state. In this study, we acquired resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI) data from 10 Cantonese (L1)-Mandarin (L2) early bilinguals (acquired L2: 3years old) and 11 late bilinguals (acquired L2: 6years old), and analyzed their topological properties of language networks after controlling the language daily exposure and usage as well as PL in L1 and L2. We found that early bilinguals had significantly a higher clustering coefficient, global and local efficiency, but significantly lower characteristic path length compared to late bilinguals. Modular analysis indicated that compared to late bilinguals, early bilinguals showed significantly stronger intra-modular functional connectivity in the semantic and phonetic modules, stronger inter-modular functional connectivity between the semantic and phonetic modules as well as between the phonetic and syntactic modules. Differences in global and local parameters may reflect different patterns of neuro-plasticity respectively for early and late bilinguals. These results suggested that different L2 experience influences topological properties of language network, even if late bilinguals achieve high PL-L2. Our findings may provide a new perspective of neural mechanisms related to early and late bilinguals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The silurian and devonian vertebrates of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1986-01-01

    formas de amplia repartición (Rhenanidos, algunos Acanthodios, Actinopterygios de tipo Moythomasia, formas con afinidades transpacíficas (Acanthodios próximos de Sinacanthus y formas tal vez endémicas (Pucapampella, Zamponiopteron. Silurian and Devonian vertebrate remains are described from various localities in Bolivia. Most of the material occurs in concretions in the marine Devonian of the Altiplano and Subandean area, and some isolated specimens have been found in sandstones and lutites. The jawless vertebrates are known only from isolated thelodont scales which occur in the Uppermost Silurian or Lower Devonian of Seripona, Chuquisaca. All the other vertebrate remains belong to gnathosthomes, in particular to the acanthodians, placoderms, chondrichthyans and actinopterygians. The acanthodians are represented by some ischnacanthid dentigerous jaw bones and climatiid spines and shoulder girdles. They are fairly abundant and show no marked differences from acanthodian remains known elsewhere in the Siluro-Devonian of Europe and North America. However, some isolated spines are suggestive of the genus Sinacanthus, known from the Lower Devonian of China The placoderms are represented only by the rhenanid Bolivosteus chacomensis Goujet et al, known from two well preserved braincases. This genus closely resembles Gemuendina (Lower Devonian of Germany with respect to the overall shape of the braincase, but its shoulder girdle differs substantially. The chondrichthyans are the most abundant vertebrates in the Devonian of Bolivia They are represented by isolated spines and endoskeletal elements lined with prismatic calcified cartilage Among them, some peculiar occipital regions of braincases are referred here to Pucapampella rodrigae n.g , n sp. These brain-cases differ from all other known Devonian chondrichthyan braincases in showing a ventrally continuous occipital fissure which completely separates the occiput from the rest of the brain-case. The strongly vaulted

  4. No late effect of ionizing radiation on the aging-related oxidative changes in the mouse brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Beom Su; Kim, Seol Wha; Jung, U Hee; Jo, Sung Kee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Radiation-induced late injury to normal tissue is a primary area of radiation biology research. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the late effect of the ionizing radiation appears as an age-related oxidative status in the brain. Three groups of 4-month old C57BL/6 mice that were exposed to {sup 137}Cs {gamma}-rays at a single dose (5 Gy) or fractionated doses (1 Gy x 5 times, or 0,2 Gy x 25 times) at 2 months old were investigated for the oxidative status of their brains with both young (2-month) and old (24-month) mice. A significant (page-matched control group mice. SOD activity and MDA content were observed within good parameters of brain aging and there no late effects on the age-related oxidative level in the {gamma}-ray irradiated mice brains.

  5. Risk factors for late-life cognitive decline and variation with age and sex in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren M Lipnicki

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: An aging population brings increasing burdens and costs to individuals and society arising from late-life cognitive decline, the causes of which are unclear. We aimed to identify factors predicting late-life cognitive decline. METHODS: Participants were 889 community-dwelling 70-90-year-olds from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study with comprehensive neuropsychological assessments at baseline and a 2-year follow-up and initially without dementia. Cognitive decline was considered as incident mild cognitive impairment (MCI or dementia, as well as decreases in attention/processing speed, executive function, memory, and global cognition. Associations with baseline demographic, lifestyle, health and medical factors were determined. RESULTS: All cognitive measures showed decline and 14% of participants developed incident MCI or dementia. Across all participants, risk factors for decline included older age and poorer smelling ability most prominently, but also more education, history of depression, being male, higher homocysteine, coronary artery disease, arthritis, low health status, and stroke. Protective factors included marriage, kidney disease, and antidepressant use. For some of these factors the association varied with age or differed between men and women. Additional risk and protective factors that were strictly age- and/or sex-dependent were also identified. We found salient population attributable risks (8.7-49.5% for older age, being male or unmarried, poor smelling ability, coronary artery disease, arthritis, stroke, and high homocysteine. DISCUSSION: Preventing or treating conditions typically associated with aging might reduce population-wide late-life cognitive decline. Interventions tailored to particular age and sex groups may offer further benefits.

  6. Characterisation of Late Bronze Age large size shield nails by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, E; Araújo, M F; Silva, R J C; Senna-Martinez, J C; Vaz, J L Inês

    2011-09-01

    In the present study six exceptional large size metallic nails, a dagger and a sickle from the Late Bronze Age archaeological site of Figueiredo das Donas (Central Portugal) have been analysed by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF and X-ray digital radiography for the study of material composition and technology of fabrication. The combination of these analytical and examination techniques showed that all artefacts are made of bronze with As, Sb and Pb impurities, and that the nails were most likely manufactured using the casting-on technique. These results reinforce the use of binary bronze by Late Bronze Age in the region, and the incorporation of new fabrication technologies that resulted from ancient spheres of interaction.

  7. Influence of Additional Ankle Weights on Kinematic Variables of Late Preterm Infants Aged 3-4 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Jadiane; Santos, Gabriela Lopes Dos; Tudella, Eloisa

    2017-01-01

    The authors analyzed and compared the effect of additional weight on the spatiotemporal parameters of the kicking movement of late preterm and full-term infants. The experiment was divided into 4 conditions: training, baseline, weight, and postweight. In the W condition, a weight of one third the lower limb mass was added to the infant's ankle. During the baseline and postweight conditions, the ankle weight was removed. Late preterm infants do not differ from full-term infants in relation to spatiotemporal variables at 3 and 4 months. However, during the weight condition, the straightness index and the hip-ankle and knee-ankle correlations decreased in the preterm infants at both ages. In contrast, the straightness index increased in the postweight condition compared to the baseline values at both ages.

  8. The Rhynie hot-spring system: implications for the Devonian timescale, development of Devonian biota, gold mineralization, evolution of the atmosphere and Earth outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, D.; Rice, C.; Stuart, F.; Trewin, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Rhynie cherts are hot spring sinters that contain world-renowned plant and animal remains and anomalously high quantities of heavy metals, including gold. The biota in several beds is preserved undeformed with plants in life positions thus establishing that they and the indurating hydrothermal fluids were coeval. Despite the international importance of the Rhynie cherts their age has been poorly constrained for three reasons: (1) lack of a precise radio-isotopic age, (2) low resolution of spore biostratigraphic schemes for Devonian terrestrial deposits, with only one to a few zones per stage, and (3) poor resolution of the early Devonian timescale. Wellman (2004) assigned a Pragian-?earliest Emsian age to the Rhynie cherts on the basis of the spore assemblage. An 40Ar/39Ar dating study targeting Rhynie chert yielded an age of 395 ± 12 Ma (1σ) (Rice et al., 1995). This contribution discusses a new high-precision 40Ar/39Ar age (407.1 ± 2.2 Ma, 2σ) for the Devonian hot-spring system at Rhynie (Mark et al., 2011) and demonstrates that a proposed U-Pb age (411.5 ± 1.1 Ma, 2σ) for the Rhynie cherts (Parry et al., 2011) is inconsistent with both field evidence and our interpretation of the U-Pb data. The 40Ar/39Ar age provides a robust marker for the polygonalis-emsiensis Spore Assemblage Biozone within the Pragian-?earliest Emsian. It also constrains the age of a wealth of flora and fauna preserved in life positions as well as dating gold mineralization. Furthermore, we have now determined the Ar isotope composition of pristine samples of the Rhynie chert using an ARGUS multi-collector mass spectrometer and a low blank laser extraction technique. 40Ar/36Ar are systematically lower than the modern air value (Lee et al., 2006), and are not accompanied by non-atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar ratios. We conclude that the Rhynie chert captured and has preserved Devonian atmosphere-derived Ar. The data indicate that the 40Ar/36Ar of Devonian atmosphere was at least 3 % lower

  9. Identification of ancient paths within the Late Bronze Age enclosure Corneşti-Iarcuri, western Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykamp, Moritz; Heeb, Bernhard S.; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Knitter, Daniel; Krause, Jan; Krause, Rüdiger; Szentmiklosi, Alexandru; Schütt, Brigitta

    2016-04-01

    This study applies a landscape archaeological approach, combining geoscientific and archaeological data, to shed light into the Holocene landscape development in the environs of the Late Bronze Age enclosure of Corneşti-Iarcuri, Romania. Corneşti-Iarcuri is located at the eastern edge of the Great Hungarian Plain and represents with its four earth-filled wooden ramparts the largest known prehistoric enclosure in Europe. Late Bronze Age settlements are documented for the two innermost enclosures. However, the settlement history in its environs started already in the Copper Age. The aims of this study are i) to link hydro-morphological relief anomalies to evidences of settlement occurrence and ii) to document the variations of Holocene geomorphic activity and stability in a selected sub-catchment. The spatio-temporal relation between unnaturally bending tributaries and settled areas is uncovered and the involved formation processes are discussed. The morphometric analyses of the tributaries in the built-up area of Iarcuri show a clear tendency: unnaturally bending tributaries most often occur in the central valley and tend to cluster in the central part between the two innermost enclosures. By comparison of the locations of the strongly bending tributaries and the locations of the most densely settled areas it appears that both are related. It is well known that such linear features form in relation to settlements as a consequence of repeated passage of humans. Due to soil compaction along regular footpaths and the resulting reduced infiltration capacity gully erosion tends to occur forming hollow ways. Usually these hollow ways form contemporaneously with or subsequent to the occupation period of the site. As a consequence alluvial fans form at the outlet of the tributaries documenting former settlement and geomorphic activities. A sediment core obtained from the alluvial fan dumped by the tributary sourcing in the densely settled southern part of enclosure II

  10. Astronomical age constraints and extinction mechanisms of the Late Triassic Carnian crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, C.S.; Peterse, F; Da Silva, A.-C.; Baranyi, V.; Reichart, G.J.; Kürschner, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The geological record contains evidence for numerous pronounced perturbations in the global carboncycle, some of which are associated with mass extinction. In the Carnian (Late Triassic), evidence fromsedimentology and fossil pollen points to a significant change in climate, resulting in biotic

  11. [46-OR] : Early and late onset preeclampsia versus small for gestational age risks in subsequent pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardes, Thomas P; Mol, Ben W; Ravelli, Anita C; van den Berg, Paul P; Stolk, Ronald P; Groen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Current literature suggests that early and late onset preeclampsia should be treated as distinct entities and that early onset preeclampsia shares pathophysiology aspects with intrauterine growth restriction. Our objective was to investigate whether 5th percentile small for gestational a

  12. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., belief that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies, and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1,535 adolescents collected over 2 years, we find that middle and late adolescents had…

  13. Trajectories of Language Delay from Age 3 to 5: Persistence, Recovery and Late Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Imac Maria; Pons, Francisco; Eadie, Patricia; Ystrom, Eivind

    2014-01-01

    Background: Knowledge is scarce on what contributes to whether children with early language delay (LD) show persistent, recovering or sometimes late-onset LD without a prior history of early LD in subsequent preschool years. Aims: To explore whether an integrative model of vital risk factors, including poor early communication skills, family…

  14. Longitudinal Growth and Neuropsychological Functioning at Age 7 in Moderate and Late Preterms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dotinga, Baukje M.; Eshuis, Milou S.; Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger F.; Kerstjens, Jorien M.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Bos, Arend F.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between longitudinal growth measures (height, abstract weight, head circumference, and extent of catch-up growth) and neuropsychological functioning at 7 years in moderately and late preterm children. METHODS: This study was part of a prospective, community-ba

  15. Clustering and age of onset in familial late onset Alzheimer`s disease are determined at the apoliopoprotein E locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlden, H.; Rossor, M. [St. Mary`s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    1994-09-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype is of great importance in the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Thus, inheritance of the ApoE4 allele predisposes to the occurrences of late onset disease and decreases the onset age in families with pathogenic mutations in the amyloid precursor protein gene. We analysed ApoE genotypes in 35 families multiply affected by AD and confirm that familial clustering in late onset AD is associated with the ApoE4 allele. This allele occurs in the great majority (82%) of late onset familial Alzheimer cases. Elderly unaffected sibs (80-90 years) have an allele frequency that is not significantly different to that of normal controls. Data presented from our family sets together previously published data is suggestive that the effect of a single ApoE4 allele is to increase the risk of developing AD by an amount equivalent to 5 years and that the effect of ApoE4 homozygosity is to increase the risk of developing AD by an amount equivalent to 10 years of age. Data shows significant difference between the frequency of the ApoE4 allele in the familial AD probands and controls and in both sets of unaffected sibs, p<0.01.

  16. Negative Selection on BRCA1 Susceptibility Alleles Sheds Light on the Population Genetics of Late-Onset Diseases and Aging Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Pavard; C. Jessica E. Metcalf

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of negative selection on alleles involved in age-specific mortality decreases with age. This is the foundation of the evolutionary theory of senescence. Because of this decrease in negative selection with age, and because of the absence of reproduction after menopause, alleles involved in women's late-onset diseases are generally considered evolutionarily neutral. Recently, genetic and epidemiological data on alleles involved in late onset-diseases have become available. It is t...

  17. Rammed earth walls in the late middle age castles in the actual province of Soria, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gil Crespo, Ignacio Javier

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzed the building techniques based in the use of rammed earth in the Late Medieval fortifications in the province of Soria, Spain. The manorial castles of Serón de Nágima and Yanguas were built completely with rammed earth. However, these techinques are different. Through the study of the constructive signals, we can reconstruct the constructive process and made an hypothesis of the auxiliary scaffolding necessary for the construction. After, other four cases in which there is ...

  18. Perceptions of Successful Ageing and Implications for Late-Life Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon a small-scale investigation to shed light on the perceptions of successful ageing by a group of senior adults in Hong Kong. It also identifies attributes that are associated with ageing well and examines the extent to which education or learning is perceived as important in the ageing process. To this end, the research has…

  19. Is Old Age Depressing? Growth Trajectories and Cohort Variations in Late-Life Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang

    2007-01-01

    Findings in previous research on the association of old age and depression are inconsistent due to a confounding of age changes and cohort differences. Using data from an accelerated longitudinal design from the National Institute of Aging Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly, this study addresses three questions: (1)…

  20. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    . In fresh rock, bluish-white opaline-like silica (chalcedonic quartz) fills microfractures, and is believed to have originated by diagenetic mobilization of opaline silica from radiolarian tests and sponge spicules. As revealed by microscopic study, the Gibellini facies originally consisted of siliceous muds, slimes, and oozes high in organic constituents. The organic matter is amorphous flaky and stringy sapropel, and probably includes remains of bacteria, phytoplankton, zooplankton, and minor higher plants. Recognizable organic remnants include radiolarian tests, sponge spicules, conodonts, brachiopod shells, algae, and humic debris. Diagnostic radiolarians indicate a Late Devonian age for the Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation. Some pyrite is disseminated through the rock and may be primary (syngenetic) but significant pyrite and marcasite occur in chalcedonic quartz veinlets and appear to be diagenetic. In fresh rock, black solid bitumen and liquid oil fill voids and microfractures. These early phase hydrocarbons probably were released during diagenesis from complex nonhydrocarbon molecular structures originating from living organisms, and formed without any major thermal degradation of the kerogen. Gas chromatographic analysis of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction indicates a very complex mixture dominated by branched and cyclic compounds. Conodont and palynomorph color alteration, vitrinite reflectance, and other organic geochemical data suggest that the organic matter in the rock is thermally immature and has not been subjected to temperatures greater than 60?C since deposition in Devonian time. All of these characteristics are consistent with the interpretation of a relatively low temperature and a shallow-burial history for the Gibellini facies on ridge 7129.

  1. Two Zosterophyll Plants from the Lower Devonian(Lochkovian)Xitun Formation of Northeastern Yunnan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Jinzhuang

    2009-01-01

    Two zosterophyll plants are described from the Lower Devonian(Lochkovianl Xitun Formation of Qujing,Yunnan,China.Xitunia spinitheca gen.et sp.nov.has stalked sporangia laterally attached on the axis in a helical arrangement.Sporangia are dorsoventrally flattened and composed of two unequal valves;the adaxial valve is round in face view,while the abaxial valve is larger than the former,triangular or wedge-shaped,and radially bears long spiny appendages along the distal margin.Xitunia shows new variation of sporangial morphology within the zosterophylls.Zosterophyllum minorstachynm sp.nov.has K-shaped branchings at the basal parts and small-sized terminal spikes,which consist of round to elliptical sporangia arranged helically.This paper provides new data on the diversity of plant types during Lochkovian when rare vascular plants were reported.As for various species of Zosterophyllum in South China,their apparent evolutionary trend of features from the Late Silurian to Early Devonian (Emsian) is discussed.

  2. Carbon isotopic record from Upper Devonian carbonates at Dongcun in Guilin, southern China, supporting the world-wide pattern of carbon isotope excursions during Frasnian-Famennian transition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Two positive δ13C excursions are presented in records from the Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) marine carbonate sediments in Europe, America, Africa, and Australia, having been considered as a worldwide pattern, and attributed to enhanced organic carbon burial during the F-F biological mass extinction. However, this worldwide pattern has not been revealed from the well-deposited Late Devonian sequences in southern China. In this paper, a detailed investigation has been made on the Late Devonian section at Dongcun, Guilin, southern China to constrain perturbations in δ13C of carbonates in the F-F deposited sequence. The result from this section also indicates two positive δ13C excursions during the F-F transition. The first excursion with an amplitude of 1.5‰ occurred at the bottom of linguiformis Zone, later than the early excursion existing in the Late rhenana Zone of the Late Devonian profiles in other continents, especially, in central Europe. This difference has been expected to be a result as conodont Palmatolepis linguiformis occurred earlier in southern China than other sites. The second excursion with an amplitude of 2.1‰ is located at the F-F boundary, same as the records from other continents. This result strongly supports the view that two carbon isotope positive excursions during the F-F transition are common in carbonate sediments, resulting from worldwide increases of organic carbon burial intensity.

  3. THE NUSPLINGEN LITHOGRAPHIC LIMESTONE - A "FOSSIL LAGERSTAETTE" OF LATE KIMMERIDGIAN AGE FROM THE SWABIAN ALB (GERMANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GERD DIETL

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A short overview is given on the actual excavations within a fossiliferous lithographic limestone site near Nusplingen (western Swabian Alb, SW Germany. In contrast to the better known Early Tithonian Solnhofen Lithographic Limestone, it is much richer in fossils and 0.5 my older (Late Kimmeridgian, Beckeri Zone, Ulmense Subzone. Many of the fossils exhibit an excellent preservation, sometimes even of the organic matter. More than 7.000 specimens have been recorded belonging to almost 300 taxa (plants, microfossils, invertebrates, ichnofossils, and vertebrates.

  4. Late Cretaceous volcanic arc system in Southwest Korea: Occurrence, lithological characteristics, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age, and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hee Jae; Kwon, Chang Woo

    2017-04-01

    In the southwest region of the Korean Peninsula, four large volcanoes, the Buan, Seonunsan, Wido, and Beopseongpo, with a maximum diameter of ca 20 km, form a distinct topographic undulation along the NE-SW-trending Hamyeol Fault. These volcanics comprise various types of pyroclastic, sedimentary, and lava/intrusive rocks, and are interpreted as remnants of calderas resulting from various volcanic eruptions, indicating that Hamyeol Fault, together with crustal extension, played an important role in volcano formation in this region. SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircon isolated from each volcanics are as follows. For Buan Volcanics, Cheonmasan Tuff 87.23 ±0.92 Ma, Udongje Tuff 86.79 ±0.71 Ma, Seokpo Tuff 87.30 ±0.99 Ma and Yujeongje Tuff 86.66 ±0.93 Ma. For Seonunsan Volcanics, Gyeongsusan Tuff 84.9 ±1.1 Ma and Yeongije Tuff 86.61 ±0.67 Ma. These ages indicate that the four volcanics were formed in the Late Cretaceous. The ages are comparable to those of the volcanic rocks of the Aioi and Arima groups in Southwestern Japan, suggesting that the Late Cretaceous volcanic arc systems developed in a NE-SW direction from the Japanese Islands to the southwestern part of the Korean Peninsula caused by regional magmatism together with crustal deformation as reflected by occurrence of the volcanic rocks along the Hamyeol Fault.

  5. Isotopic Evidence For The Primary Production, Provenance And Trade Of Late Bronze Age Glass In The Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J.; Evans, J.; Nikita, K.

    The earliest known man made glass comes from Mesopotamia and dates to the 23rd century BC. By the 16th century BC the first glass vessels appear in Mesopotamia, but the earliest evidence for the fusion of glass from raw materials has been found at the 13th century BC Egyptian site of Qantir. Chemical analyses of this elite Late Bronze Age material have produced compositional distinctions between glasses found in Mesopotamia and Egypt. It is however debatable whether trace element concentrations provide a (geological) provenance for the glasses. By using neodymium and strontium isotopes to fingerprint well-dated chemically analysed 15th to 11th century BC glass samples, we show that independent primary production probably occurred in both Egypt and Mesopotamia in the 14th century BC, and that both of these areas exported glass to Greece. We also discuss the technological implications for glass manufacture and colouring that these new data provide. The results add significant new scientific evidence for glass trade between Late Bronze Age palatial societies. Moreover, it is the first time that this methodology has been used to investigate Bronze Age glass.

  6. Hot executive function following moderate-to-late preterm birth: altered delay discounting at 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, Amanda S; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Morris, Alyssa R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm children have almost exclusively assessed EF in affectively neutral contexts in high-risk preterm children (birth remains uninvestigated, despite evidence that preterm children show differential development of neural circuitry subserving hot EF, including reduced orbitofrontal cortex volume. The present study is the first to examine whether low-risk, healthy children born moderate-to-late preterm exhibit impairments in the development of hot EF. Preterm children at age 4.5 years were less likely to choose larger, delayed rewards across all levels of reward magnitude on a delay discounting task using tangible rewards, but performed more similarly to their full-term peers on a delay aversion task involving abstract rewards and on measures of cool EF. The relationship between gestational age at birth and selection of delayed rewards extended across the entire gestational age range of the sample (32-42 weeks), and remained significant after controlling for intelligence and processing speed. Results imply that there is not a finite cut-off point at which children are spared from potential long-term neurodevelopmental effects of PT birth. Further investigation of reward processing and hot EF in individuals with a history of PT birth is warranted given the susceptibility of prefrontal cortex development to early environmental variations.

  7. Testing portable luminescence reader signals against late Pleistocene to modern OSL ages of coastal and desert dunefield sand in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Porat, Naomi; López, Gloria I.

    2017-04-01

    Rapid assessment of luminescence signals of poly-mineral samples by a pulsed-photon portable OSL reader (PPSL) is useful for interpreting sedimentary sections during fieldwork, and can assist with targeted field sampling for later full OSL dating and prioritize laboratory work. This study investigates PPSL signal intensities in order to assess its usefulness in obtaining relative OSL ages from linear regressions created by interpolating newly generated PPSL values of samples with existing OSL ages from two extensive Nilotic-sourced dunefields. Eighteen OSL-dated sand samples from two quartz-dominated sand systems in Israel were studied:(1) the Mediterranean littoral-sourced coastal dunefields that formed since the middle Holocene; and (2) the inland north-western Negev desert dunefield that rapidly formed between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Holocene. Samples from three coastal dune profiles were also measured. Results show that the PPSL signals differ by several orders of magnitude between modern and late Pleistocene sediments. The coastal and desert sand have different OSL age - PPSL signal ratios. Coastal sand show better correlations between PPSL values and OSL ages. However, using regression curves for each dunefield to interpolate ages is less useful than expected as samples with different ages exhibit similar PPSL signals. The coastal dune profiles yielded low luminescence signal values depicting a modern profile chronology. This study demonstrates that a rapid assessment of the relative OSL ages across different and extensive dunefields is useful and may be achieved. However, the OSL ages obtained by linear regression are only a very rough age estimate. The reasons for not obtaining more reliable ages need to be better understood, as several variables can affect the PPSL signal such as mineral provenance, intrinsic grain properties, micro-dosimetry and moisture content.

  8. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children.

  9. The influence of paleogeography in epicontinental seas: A case study based on Middle Devonian strata from the MacKenzie Basin, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, Hilary; Jones, Brian

    2011-08-01

    The history of Middle Devonian sea level changes are recorded in the Chinchaga Formation, Lonely Bay Formation, Horn Plateau Formation, and the Horn River Formations that originated in the MacKenzie Basin, which is located in the southern Northwest Territories, Canada. These strata record an almost consistent sea-level rise throughout the Middle Devonian with punctuated deepenings. Deposition began in the MacKenzie Basin in the Eifelian with restricted shallow water evaporites and dolomites of the Chinchaga Formation. Overlying the Chinchaga Formation are the open-marine carbonates belonging to the Lonely Bay Formation, which were overlain by the Horn Plateau Formation buildups. Pelagic shales of the Horn River Formation in the Late Givetian/Early Frasnian later covered these buildups. During the Early and Middle Devonian many continental basins in North America had limited interactions with open ocean waters. These restricted shallow-water basins were vulnerable to the effects of clastic shedding and evaporitic drawdown that commonly caused local lowstands. Several of these shallow basins, including the MacKenzie Basin, have been used to construct Devonian sea-level curves. Comparison of the Middle Devonian strata that formed in the MacKenzie Basin with well-established sea level curves shows that the Late-Givetian regression interpreted from some of those successions is not evident in the succession found in the MacKenzie Basin. This probably reflects the fact that the Mackenzie Basin was directly linked to the open ocean and was not influenced by the changes in sea level that affected many of the enclosed basins.

  10. UPPER FRASNIAN (UPPER DEVONIAN POLYGNATHUS AND ICRIODUS CONODONTS FROM THE BAHRAM FORMATION, HUR SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAYEBEH AHMADI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodont fauna from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian Bahram Formation at the Hur section, north of Kerman, southeast Iran, is dominated by species of Icriodus and Polygnathus. This fauna allowed discrimination of two biointervals from the Lower rhenana Zone to an Upper rhenana-linguiformis interval. The age of the lower part of the studied section is tentatively considered to be older than the Lower rhenana Zone. 

  11. 新疆东准泥盆系卡拉麦里组研究新进展%New Progress on the Study of Kalamaili Formation of Devonian in Dongzhun,Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡雄飞; 樊光明; 王富明; 廖全安; 田键

    2015-01-01

    Kalamaili Formation in the past has been a quasi-Devonian East synonymous,a long time no one involved.The Devonian is the key period of the collision with Cara.In the chronology,based mainly on coral and brachiopod ancient fos-sils and detrital zircon geochronology also indicates the age for the next,Middle Devonian;sedimentary characteristics, according to the macro and micro (microscopic)combined with the method of Cara,found in the wheat group gravity flow channel facies in lower part of gravity flow turbidite sequence and,the micro with gravel,sand and granule structure,de-termination of sedimentary environment for slope facies and semi deep sea sedimentary environment,change the past long thought that “Binhai traditional understanding”.Bottom Kalamaili Formation opposed by deep shallow facies evolution. This Kalamaili Formation tectonic and sedimentary evolution of closely related early and mid relatively active,gravity flow relatively large,there are many unstable components,mainly feldspar and tuffaceous component based.Late feldspar,tuf-faceous component gradually reduced to a final component to stabilize the marked increase in quartz.Kalamaili Formation biology,sedimentology series of new discoveries in the table Minka Lamech collision zone in the next,Middle Devonian period,oceanic basin system does not turn off,and the completion time of the collision should be in the middle,between the Late Devonian,After the deposition stage into the board.%泥盆纪是新疆卡拉麦里碰撞带的关键时期,在碰撞带南侧广泛发育的泥盆系地层是卡拉麦里组,因此对其研究具有十分重要的意义。本文报道了近年来作者对卡拉麦里组研究的一些主要成果,包括:根据珊瑚和腕足类化石结合以及所测定的碎屑锆石年龄,指示其沉积时期为下、中泥盆世;根据沉积学研究,推断卡拉麦里组下段为重力流浊流沉积序列以及重力流水道相沉积类型,沉积环境为

  12. Autosomal resequence data reveal Late Stone Age signals of population expansion in sub-Saharan African foraging and farming populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray P Cox

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major unanswered question in the evolution of Homo sapiens is when anatomically modern human populations began to expand: was demographic growth associated with the invention of particular technologies or behavioral innovations by hunter-gatherers in the Late Pleistocene, or with the acquisition of farming in the Neolithic? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigate the timing of human population expansion by performing a multilocus analysis of > or = 20 unlinked autosomal noncoding regions, each consisting of approximately 6 kilobases, resequenced in approximately 184 individuals from 7 human populations. We test the hypothesis that the autosomal polymorphism data fit a simple two-phase growth model, and when the hypothesis is not rejected, we fit parameters of this model to our data using approximate Bayesian computation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data from the three surveyed non-African populations (French Basque, Chinese Han, and Melanesians are inconsistent with the simple growth model, presumably because they reflect more complex demographic histories. In contrast, data from all four sub-Saharan African populations fit the two-phase growth model, and a range of onset times and growth rates is inferred for each population. Interestingly, both hunter-gatherers (San and Biaka and food-producers (Mandenka and Yorubans best fit models with population growth beginning in the Late Pleistocene. Moreover, our hunter-gatherer populations show a tendency towards slightly older and stronger growth (approximately 41 thousand years ago, approximately 13-fold than our food-producing populations (approximately 31 thousand years ago, approximately 7-fold. These dates are concurrent with the appearance of the Late Stone Age in Africa, supporting the hypothesis that population growth played a significant role in the evolution of Late Pleistocene human cultures.

  13. Ages and inferred causes of late Pleistocene glaciations on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigati, J.S.; Zreda, M.; Zweck, C.; Almasi, P.F.; Elmore, D.; Sharp, W.D.

    2008-01-01

    Glacial landforms on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i, show that the summit area of the volcano was covered intermittently by ice caps during the Late Pleistocene. Cosmogen 36Cl dating of terminal moraines and other glacial landforms indicates that the last two ice caps, called Older Makanaka and Younger Makanaka, retreated from their maximum positions approximately 23ka and 13ka, respectively. The margins and equilibrium line altitudes of these ice caps on the remote, tropical Pacific island were nearly identical, which would seem to imply the same mechanism for ice growth. But modelling of glacier mass balance, combined with palaeotemperature proxy data from the subtropical North Pacific, suggests that the causes of the two glacial expansions may have been different. Older Makanaka airatop Mauna Kea was likely wetter than today and cold, whereas Younger Makanaka times were slightly warmer but significantly wetter than the previous glaciation. The modelled increase in precipitation rates atop Mauna Kea during the Late Pleistocene is consistent with that near sea level inferred from pollen data, which suggests that the additional precipitation was due to more frequent and/ or intense tropical storms associated with eastward-moving cold fronts. These conditions were similar to modern La Ni??a (weak ENSO) conditions, but persisted for millennia rather than years. Increased precipitation rates and the resulting steeper temperature lapse rates created glacial conditions atop Mauna Kea in the absence of sufficient cooling at sea level, suggesting that if similar correlations existed elsewhere in the tropics, the precipitation-dependent lapse rates could reconcile the apparent difference between glacial-time cooling of the tropics at low and high altitudes. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Age-Related Enhancement of a Protein Synthesis-Dependent Late Phase of LTP Induced by Low Frequency Paired-Pulse Stimulation in Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-You; Kandel, Eric R.

    2006-01-01

    Protein synthesis-dependent late phase of LTP (L-LTP) is typically induced by repeated high-frequency stimulation (HFS). This form of L-LTP is reduced in the aged animal and is positively correlated with age-related memory loss. Here we report a novel form of protein synthesis-dependent late phase of LTP in the CA1 region of hippocampus induced by…

  15. The Lower Devonian of Ouled Abbou (Morocco. Sedimentary organization; diagenetic modes and impact on porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razouani, A.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The region of Ouled Abbou is characterized by the intercalation of carbonated beds in Silurian-Devonian pelite-sandstones. The series is organized into a succesion of three deposition sequences: SD1, SD2, SD3 of Silurian-Lochkovian, Praguian and Emsian age, respectively, developed in a monoclynal platform-type ramp. The hydrodynamics, in relation to variations in sea level, controlled the formation and distribution of the carbonated facies (bioclastic deposits, slope deposits, etc.. In the carbonate beds, diagenetic analysis reveals the sequence of development of the diagenetic transformations: It is essentially the result of multiple phases of cementing and recrystallization, mainly affecting the granular facies that define the diagenetic history leading to an almost complete lithification, hence their low potential as a possible reservoir. Early dolomitisation appears at the summit of sequences SD2 and SD3, leading to the formation of a crystalline rock (dolomicrosparite followed by a remplacement-recristallisation of calcareous mud. These transformations are later affected by compaction, cracking and tectonic phases of late dolomitisation.La región de Ouled Abbou se caracteriza por la intercalación de niveles carbonatados en pelitas silurico-devónicas. Esta serie está estructurada en una secuencia de tres niveles de depósitos: SD1, SD2, SD3, que son respectivamente de edad siluro-lochkoviense, praguiense y emsiense, desarrollados en una plataforma mixta de typo rampa monoclinal. La hidrodinámica, en relación con las variaciones del nivel del mar, controló la formación y distribución de las facies carbonatadas (depósitos bioclásticos, de pendiente, etc.. El análisis de los niveles carbonatados ha permitido establecer la secuencia de desarrollo de las tranformaciones diagenéticas. Éstas son esencialmente el resultado de múltiples fases de cementación y recristalización, que afectan principalmente a las facies granulares. La

  16. Cleft deformities in adults and children aged over six years in Nigeria: Reasons for late presentation and management challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasiu L Adeyemo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Wasiu L Adeyemo1, Mobolanle O Ogunlewe1, Ibironke Desalu2, Akinola L Ladeinde1, Bolaji O Mofikoya3, Michael O Adeyemi4, Adegbenga A Adepoju4, Olufemi O Hassan41Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, 2Department of Anaesthesia, 3Department of Surgery, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria; 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, NigeriaAbstract: In developing countries, untreated cleft lips and palates are found with increasing frequency and patients often present to the surgeon far past the optimal time for closure of the cleft deformities. A prospective study was conducted between March 2007 and September 2009, to identify the reasons and treatment challenges of delayed presentation of cleft lip and palate deformities at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Out of a total of 150 patients with cleft defects during the period, 43 (28.7% were adults and children aged over six years. The mean age of these patients at the time of presentation was 17.3 years. The most common reasons for late presentation were lack of money (56.7%, lack of health care services nearby (18.4%, and lack of awareness of treatment availability (13.3%. Common challenges in these patients included surgical, orthodontic, speech, anesthetic, and psychological. Although adult clefts were significantly enlarged in three dimensions the anatomic landmarks were easier to discern than in an infant. However, extensive soft tissue dissection in adult cleft lip repair resulted in significant postoperative edema. Closure of wide palatal cleft often required the use of adjunct intraoral flaps. Despite late presentation, surgical outcome of these patients was satisfactory and comparable to cleft repair in infants.Keywords: cleft deformities, adults, adolescents, late presentation, management, challenges

  17. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease

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    Nagesh Adluru

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: APOE4 genotype, parental family history of AD, age, and sex are all associated with microstructural white matter differences in late middle-aged adults. In participants at risk for AD, alterations in diffusion characteristics—both expected and unexpected—may represent cellular changes occurring at the earliest disease stages, but further work is needed. Higher mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were observed in participants who are more likely to be experiencing later stage preclinical pathology, including participants who were both older and carried APOE4, or who were positive for both APOE4 and parental family history of AD.

  18. Depositional history and diagenesis of quartz-sand bars and lime-mud environments in the Devonian Basibé Formation (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habermehl, M.A.

    1970-01-01

    The Basibé Formation, of Lower Devonian age (Emsian) according to conodonts, consists, in the area between the Esera River and Mañanet River, of nodular weathering limestones, dolomites, silty to sandy argillaceous dolomites, quartzites and limestones. Thickness variations of the lower member (nodul

  19. Age estimates and uplift rates for late Pleistocene marine terraces: Southern Oregon portion of the Cascadia forearc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, D.R.; Whelan, J.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Kelsey, H.M.; McInelly, G.W. (Western Washington Univ., Bellingham (United States)); Miller, G.H. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder (United States)); Kennedy, G.L. (Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History, CA (United States))

    1990-05-10

    Interest in the Cascadia subduction zone has increased because recent investigations have suggested that slip along plates at certain types of convergent margins is characteristically accompanied by large earthquakes. In addition, other investigations have suggested that convergent margins can be broadly classified by the magnitude of their uplift rates. The authors generated new uranium series, amino acid, and stable isotope data for southern Oregon marine terrace fossils. These data, along with terrace elevations and two alternative estimates of sea level at the time of terrace formation, allow one to determine terrace ages and uplift rates. Uranium series analysis of fossil coral yields an age of 83 {plus minus} 5 ka for the Whisky Run terrace at Coquille Point in Bandon, Oregon. A combination of amino acid and oxygen isotope data suggest ages of about 80 and 105 ka for the lowest two terraces at Cape Blanco. These ages indicate uplift rates of 0.45-1.05 and 0.81-1.49 m/kyr for Coquille Point and Cape Blanco, respectively. In order to assess the utility of the southern Oregon uplift rates for predicting the behavior of the Cascadia subduction zone, the authors compared late Quaternary uplift rates derived from terrace data from subduction zones around the world. On the basis of this comparison the southern Oregon rates of vertical deformation are not usually high or low. Furthermore, late Quaternary uplift rates show little relationship to the type of convergent margin. In the case of the southern Oregon coast, variability in uplift rate probably reflects local structures in the overriding plate, and the rate of uplift cannot be used as a simple index of the potential for great earthquakes along the southern Cascadia subduction zone.

  20. Geochemical constraints on the depositional environment of Upper Devonian radiolarian cherts from Loei,north-eastern Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mongkol UDCHACHON; Hathaithip THASSANAPAK; Qinglai FENG; Chongpan CHONGLAKMANI

    2011-01-01

    Late Devonian radiolarian chert sequences in the Indochina block of north-eastern Thailand are exposed in a narrow belt located to the east of Loei province.The analyzed radiolarian cherts were collected from Chiang Klom,Sumnoi and Pha Samyod localities.They are characterized by high silica content (> 90wt.%),high aluminum content and low iron content (Al2O3/(Al2O3 + Fe2O3):geomeans 0.91,0.88 and 0.92).The Al/(A1 + Fe +Mn) values are high in both cherts and interbedded shales (geomean 0.89).High Si/(Si + Al+ Fe) ratios are observed in cherts (geomean 0.97) and slightly low in shales (geomean 0.69),whereas Fe2O3/TiO2 values are low (geomean 5.91).For rare earth element (REE) analysis,the cherts exhibit low La abundances (geomean 4.31,3.59 and 4.22),slightly negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*:geomean 0.81,0.76 and 0.93),intermediate ratios of North American Shale Composite (NASC) normalized Lan/Cen (geomean 1.33,1.37 and 1.12) and intermediate Lan/Ybn values (0.79,0.94 and 1.22).In the interbedded shales,REE characteristics are more or less equal to the cherts.The results indicate that these late Devonian radiolarian cherts were deposited in a continental margin environment.High Si/(Si + Al + Fe) values indicate a biogenic origin of the cherts,however,additional silica content in the cherts could be the result of diagenetic alteration.Intermediate positive Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*:geomean 1.32,1.25 and 1.44) are interpreted as the result of detrital feldspar contribution corresponding to the distinctive low content of Fe.Geological evidences from the field support volcanic activities during the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous.Weathered materials and fragments of basalts and andesites would possibly be supplied to the basin during chert sedimentation.These geochemical constraints indicate that,in western portion of Indochina,deep marine basin was closed before Late Devonian which was followed by the incursion of Early Carboniferous orogeny.

  1. Age-specific measles mortality during the late 19th-early 20th centuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, G D; Waller, M; Briem, H; Gottfredsson, M

    2015-12-01

    Measles mortality fell prior to the introduction of vaccines or antibiotics. By examining historical mortality reports we sought to determine how much measles mortality was due to epidemiological factors such as isolation from major population centres or increased age at time of infection. Age-specific records were available from Aberdeen; Scotland; New Zealand and the states of Australia at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. Despite the relative isolation of Australia, measles mortality was concentrated in very young children similar to Aberdeen. In the more isolated states of Tasmania, Western Australia and Queensland adults made up 14-15% of measles deaths as opposed to 8-9% in Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales. Mortality in Iceland and Faroe Islands during the 1846 measles epidemic was used as an example of islands isolated from respiratory pathogens. The transition from crisis mortality across all ages to deaths concentrated in young children occurred prior to the earliest age-specific mortality data collected. Factors in addition to adult age of infection and epidemiological isolation such as nutritional status and viral virulence may have contributed to measles mortality outcomes a century ago.

  2. Zircon U-Pb SHRIMP Ages from the Late Paleozoic Turpan-Hami Basin, NW China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Mao; Jianghai Li; Huatian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Permian volcanic rocks are widely distributed in the Turpan-Hami Basin, which is part of the Central Asian orogenic belt. Here we present SHRIMP zircon data for the rhyolite in Well Baocan 1, one of the deepest wells in the basin. The 283.9±2.7 Ma reported in our study provides the best precise age determination for the Yierxitu Formation, the oldest Permian layer of Hami Depression, one of the three substructural units of the Turpan-Hami Basin, and a potential hydrocarbon reservoir in this ba-sin. Our data refines earlier imprecise39Ar-40Ar ages and shows that the volcanic rocks both inside the Turpan-Hami Basin and along its margin are almost coeval. We delineate a collisional orogenesis, and the new age of 283.9±2.7 Ma may limit the latest time of the collision orogenesis.

  3. Devonian-Carboniferous unconformity in Argentina and its relation to the Eo-Hercynian orogeny in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gamundí, O. R.; Rossello, E. A.

    1993-04-01

    The Devonian-Carboniferous contact in southern South America, characterized by a sharp unconformity, has been related to the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous Eo-Hercynian orogeny. The Calingasta-Uspallata basin of western Argentina and the Sauce-Grande basin (Ventana Foldbelt) of eastern Argentina have been selected to characterize this unconformity. The Eo-Hercynian movements were accompanied in western Argentina by igneous activity related to a Late Devonian—Early Carboniferous magmatic arc mainly exposed today along the Andean Cordillera. This magmatic activity is partly reflected also in eastern Argentina (Ventana Foldbelt), where isotopic dates suggest a thermal event also related to the intrusions present to the west in the North Patagonian Massif and Sierras Pampeanas. The scarcity of Lower Carboniferous deposits in the stratigraphic record of southern South America suggests that the Early Carboniferous was a time interval dominated by uplift and erosion followed by widespread subsidence during the Middle and Late Carboniferous. The origin of the Eo-Hercynian orogeny can be linked with the convergence between the Arequipa Massif, and its southern extension, and the South American continent. Its effects are best represented along the ‘Palaeo-Pacific’ margin, although distant effects are discernible in the cratonic areas of eastern South America.

  4. Devonian brachiopods from the sillimanite zone, mount moosilauke, new hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucot, A J; Rumble, D

    1978-07-28

    Devonian brachiopods, identifiable at the generic level, have been recovered from calc-silicate rocks more intensely metamorphosed and metasomatized than any other known fossil occurrence. The fossils are a key stratigraphic link between granulite facies rocks of central New Hampshire and fossiliferous rocks of western New Hampshire and Maine.

  5. Late or later? A sibling analysis of the effect of maternal age on children's schooling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmijn, Matthijs; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2005-01-01

    Many studies have found that children born to young mothers face handicaps in their educational career. Considerable debate exists as to whether these effects are real age effects, or whether they are due to measured and unmeasured family background effects that are correlated with having children a

  6. Computed Tomography and Computed Radiography of late Bronze Age Cremation Urns from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvig, Lise Lock; Lynnerup, Niels; Amsgaard Ebsen, Jannie

    2012-01-01

    that osteological ageing and sexing are more accurate when combining CT-images with excavated remains. Digital volume rendering further enables a compromised estimation of original cremation weight. Microexcavation is clearly a primary cause of bone fragmentation. Cremated remains affected by lower cremation...

  7. Age estimates and uplift rates for Late Pleistocene marine terraces: Southern Oregon portion of the Cascadia Forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Miller, Gifford H.; Kennedy, George L.; Whelan, Joseph F.; McInelly, Galan W.

    1990-05-01

    Marine terraces are prominent landforms along the southern Oregon coast, which forms part of the forearc region of the Cascadia subduction zone. Interest in the Cascadia subduction zone has increased because recent investigations have suggested that slip along plates at certain types of convergent margins is characteristically accompanied by large earthquakes. In addition, other investigations have suggested that convergent margins can be broadly classified by the magnitude of their uplift rates. With these hypotheses in mind, we generated new uranium series, amino acid, and stable isotope data for southern Oregon marine terrace fossils. These data, along with terrace elevations and two alternative estimates of sea level at the time of terrace formation, allow us to determine terrace ages and uplift rates. Uranium series analysis of fossil coral yields an age of 83±5 ka for the Whisky Run terrace at Coquille Point in Bandon, Oregon. A combination of amino acid and oxygen isotope data suggest ages of about 80 and 105 ka for the lowest two terraces at Cape Blanco. These ages indicate uplift rates of 0.45-1.05 and 0.81-1.49 m/kyr for Coquille Point and Cape Blanco, respectively. Late Quaternary uplift rates of marine terraces yield information about deformation in the overriding plate, but it is unclear if such data vary systematically with convergent margin type. In order to assess the utility of the southern Oregon uplift rates for predicting the behavior of the Cascadia subduction zone, we compared late Quaternary uplift rates derived from terrace data from subduction zones around the world. On the basis of this comparison the southern Oregon rates of vertical deformation are not unusually high or low. Furthermore, late Quaternary uplift rates show little relationship to the type of convergent margin. These observations suggest that local structures may play a large role in uplift rate variability. In addition, while the type of convergent margin may place an

  8. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine

    2014-01-01

    included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising...... = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking......The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were...

  9. Late Burdigalian sea retreat from the North Alpine Foreland Basin: new magnetostratigraphic age constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant, K.; Kirscher, U.; Reichenbacher, B.; Pippèrr, M.; Jung, D.; Doppler, G.; Krijgsman, W.

    2017-05-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the final sea retreat from the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) during the Burdigalian (Early Miocene) is hampered by a lack of reliable age constraints. In this high resolution magnetostratigraphic study we try to solve a significant age bias for the onset of the Upper Freshwater Molasse (OSM) deposition in the neighboring S-German and Swiss Molasse Basins. We measured > 550 samples from eleven drill cores covering the transition from marine to brackish to freshwater environments in the S-German Molasse Basin. Based on combined bio-, litho- and magnetostratigraphic constraints, the composite magnetostratigraphic pattern of these cores provides two reasonable age correlation options (model 1 and 2). In model 1, the base of the brackish succession lies within Chron C5Cr ( 16.7-17.2 Ma), and the onset of OSM deposition has an age of 16.5 Ma. Correlation model 2 suggests the transition to brackish conditions to be within C5Dr.1r ( 17.7-17.5 Ma), and yields an age around 16.7 Ma for the shift to the OSM. Most importantly, both models confirm a much younger age for the OSM base in the study area than previously suggested. Our results demonstrate a possible coincidence of the last transgressive phase (Kirchberg Fm) with the Miocene Climatic Optimum (model 1), or with the onset of this global warming event (model 2). In contrast, the final retreat of the sea from the study area is apparently not controlled by climate change. Supplementary material B. Profiles of the eleven studied drill cores including lithologies, all magnetostratigraphic data (inclinations), interpreted polarity pattern (this study and Reichenbacher et al., 2013) and magnetic susceptibility (this study). Legend for graphs on page 1. Samples without a stable direction above 200 °C or 20 mT are depicted as +-signs and plotted at 0° inclination. The interpreted normal (black), reversed (white) and uncertain (grey) polarity zones in the polarity columns are based on at least

  10. Neuropsychological Functioning and Attachment Representations in Early School Age as Predictors of ADHD Symptoms in Late Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Raziye; Bohlin, Gunilla; Rydell, Ann-Margret; Thorell, Lisa B

    2016-06-27

    This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more "at-risk" samples, these findings could also suggest that parent-child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

  11. Associations of Midlife to Late Life Fatigue With Physical Performance and Strength in Early Old Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    objective measures: grip strength, standing balance, chair rising, and timed get-up-and-go (TUG) tests. RESULTS: There were associations between reports of frequent fatigue at both ages and poorer grip strength, chair rise, and TUG performance at 60 to 64 years. Furthermore, individuals reporting frequent...... fatigue at both ages had weaker grip strength (β = -4.09 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -6.71 to -1.48) and slower chair rise (β = -4.65 repetitions/min, 95% CI = -6.65 to -2.64) and TUG (β = -4.22 cm/s, 95% CI = -12.16 to -2.28) speeds when compared with those who reported no fatigue at both time...

  12. [Development deficit risks in the late premature newborn: Evaluation at 48 months using the Ages & Stages Questionnaires®].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demestre, X; Schonhaut, L; Morillas, J; Martínez-Nadal, S; Vila, C; Raspall, F; Sala, P

    2016-01-01

    Lack of specific monitoring protocols hinders the knowledge of the impact of late prematurity on delayed psychomotor development. The objective of this study is to evaluate this at 48 months and compare it with those born at term. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 90 late preterm (PT) and 89 term (AT) healthy children at 48 months, assessed by the Ages & Stages Questionnaires® (ASQ-3). Continuous variables described using mean and standard deviation compared with the t Student t test for independent samples. The categorical variables were described as frequencies and proportions, compared with the Chi-square test of independence. A cut-off was determined for the total score of ASQ-3 able to discriminate the risk of developmental deficit by a ROC analysis. A step-wise logistic regression model identified the associated risk factors. The mean scores for each domain and overall ASQ-3 score showed no differences between groups. However, when analyzing the probability density for the ASQ-3 total score of ≤251 points, 15 PT (16.6%) and 4 AT (4.5%) showed risk of psychomotor deficits, and late prematurity and lack of breastfeeding were significantly associated factors. There is an increased prevalence of risk of development deficit in the PT, which justifies considering this population at risk and establishing effective monitoring programs. It should be further investigated whether this risk corresponds to the entire population, or if there are biological factors or perinatal history that makes them more vulnerable. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Heybridge: A late Iron Age and Roman settlement. Excavations at Elms Farm 1993-5. Volume 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Atkinson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Late Iron Age, Roman and early Saxon settlement at Elms Farm, Heybridge, Essex was excavated in the mid-1990s, in advance of the construction of a large housing estate by Bovis Homes Ltd. The total development area comprised c. 29 hectares, of which some 18ha were subject to varying degrees of investigation by the Essex County Council Field Archaeology Unit (ECC FAU. The large-scale of the excavations is matched by the substantial and important artefact assemblage recovered, which included 6.4 tonnes of Late Iron Age and Roman pottery, 2,910 Roman coins and over 9000 animal bones. Together this has enabled an appreciation of the development of the settlement over time and space, of the changing functions, status and economy of individual areas and the settlement as a whole, and the issues of transition, change and finally decline. The site revealed evidence for activity from the Bronze Age to the post-medieval period. The evidence for the earliest settlement dates to the Late Iron Age period (mid 1st century BC and is rather fragmentary in nature. However a centrally located shrine, with a series of strip-plots to the north and south were tentatively identified. This settlement was remodelled around the mid 1st century AD, with the creation of a formal infrastructure of metalled roads, as well as a new temple precinct on the earlier sacred site and a reworking of the strip-plots into enclosures. This remodelling spanned the Late Iron Age/early Roman transition period, although the new road network is tentatively dated to the decade or two preceding the Roman conquest. To the north of the settlement area were a number of burials, pyre sites and pyre debris dumps. Early Roman cremations were added to this area slightly later. Some of the pyre sites exhibit higher-status elements, and at least one may have been 'aristocratic', suggesting the presence of a local elite. Reconstruction of settlement at Heybridge by Roger Massey-Ryan The later 1st

  14. Constraint on radiocarbon age correction in Lake Biwa environment from the middle to late Holocene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Y., E-mail: miyata@nendai.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Minami, M. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Onbe, S. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Archaeological Heritage Management Office, Tokushima University, Tokushima 770-8503 (Japan); Sakamoto, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan); Nakamura, T. [Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Imamura, M. [National Museum of Japanese History, Sakura 285-8502 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Using data from previous studies and newly collected data, we compared the measured radiocarbon ages of molluscan shells, common reed (Phragmites australis) and pine needles (Pinus thunbergii) collected in 1966, 1970, 1990 and 2008 at Lake Biwa in Japan, and of archaeological samples, to examine radiocarbon reservoir effects at Lake Biwa. We also tested for differences in the radiocarbon reservoir effect between species and locations in the lake. The effects of nuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s are clear, the offset between atmospheric {sup 14}C and the Lake Biwa freshwater {sup 14}C is larger for this period because the atmospheric {sup 14}C is so high. The semiclosed Lake Biwa system is in dynamic equilibrium with the atmosphere, resulting in the {sup 14}C content of the water following the changes in atmospheric {sup 14}C caused by nuclear testing. The shells collected after 1990 had radiocarbon ages that were 330-450 {sup 14}C years older than those of the coeval atmosphere. The apparent differences in radiocarbon age (about 300 {sup 14}C years) between shell fossils and wood samples excavated from the same layer of the submerged Awazu shell midden at Lake Biwa suggest that the radiocarbon reservoir effect also existed in the middle Holocene (the Middle Jomon period, about 5000 years ago). Because the present-day average residence time of Lake Biwa water is 3-6 years, its direct influence on the radiocarbon reservoir effect is small, which suggests that old carbon has been supplied into Lake Biwa.

  15. LMNA-Associated Cardiocutaneous Progeria: a Novel Autosomal Dominant Premature Aging Syndrome with Late Onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Megan S.; Lindsay, Mark E.; Judge, Daniel P.; Barrowman, Jemima; Rhys, Colette Ap; Simonson, Lisa; Dietz, Harry C.; Michaelis, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a well-characterized premature aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA, the gene encoding the nuclear scaffold proteins lamin A and C. In HGPS and related progerias, processing of prelamin A is blocked at a critical step mediated by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24. Emerging evidence indicates that LMNA-linked progerias can be grouped into two classes: 1) the processing-deficient, early onset “typical” progerias (e.g. HGPS), and 2) the processing-proficient “atypical” progeria syndromes (APS) that are later in onset. Here we describe a novel progeria syndrome with prominent cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations belonging to the second class. We suggest the name LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria syndrome (LCPS) for this disorder. Affected patients are normal at birth but undergo progressive cutaneous changes in childhood and die in middle age of cardiovascular complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, calcific valve disease, and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the proband demonstrated cancer susceptibility, a phenotype rarely described for LMNA-based progeria disorders. The LMNA mutation that causes LCPS is a heterozygous missense mutation resulting in an amino acid substitution (D300G) in the coiled-coil domain of lamin A/C. In skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband, the processing and levels of lamin A and C are normal. However, nuclear morphology is aberrant and rescued by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs), as is also the case for HGPS and other laminopathies. Our findings advance knowledge of human LMNA progeria syndromes, and raise the possibility that typical and atypical progerias may converge upon a common mechanism to cause premature aging disease. PMID:23666920

  16. LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria: an inherited autosomal dominant premature aging syndrome with late onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Megan S; Lindsay, Mark E; Judge, Daniel P; Barrowman, Jemima; Ap Rhys, Colette; Simonson, Lisa; Dietz, Harry C; Michaelis, Susan

    2013-07-01

    Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in LMNA, which encodes the nuclear scaffold proteins lamin A and C. In HGPS and related progerias, processing of prelamin A is blocked at a critical step mediated by the zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24. LMNA-linked progerias can be grouped into two classes: (1) the processing-deficient, early onset "typical" progerias (e.g., HGPS), and (2) the processing-proficient "atypical" progeria syndromes (APS) that are later in onset. Here we describe a previously unrecognized progeria syndrome with prominent cutaneous and cardiovascular manifestations belonging to the second class. We suggest the name LMNA-associated cardiocutaneous progeria syndrome (LCPS) for this disorder. Affected patients are normal at birth but undergo progressive cutaneous changes in childhood and die in middle age of cardiovascular complications, including accelerated atherosclerosis, calcific valve disease, and cardiomyopathy. In addition, the proband demonstrated cancer susceptibility, a phenotype rarely described for LMNA-based progeria disorders. The LMNA mutation that caused LCPS in this family is a heterozygous c.899A>G (p.D300G) mutation predicted to alter the coiled-coil domain of lamin A/C. In skin fibroblasts isolated from the proband, the processing and levels of lamin A and C are normal. However, nuclear morphology is aberrant and rescued by treatment with farnesyltransferase inhibitors, as is also the case for HGPS and other laminopathies. Our findings advance knowledge of human LMNA progeria syndromes, and raise the possibility that typical and atypical progerias may converge upon a common mechanism to cause premature aging disease.

  17. Modeling of Late Blooming Phases and Precipitation Kinetics in Aging Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongfeng Zhang; Pritam Chakraborty; S. Bulent Biner

    2013-09-01

    The principle work at the atomic scale is to develop a predictive quantitative model for the microstructure evolution of RPV steels under thermal aging and neutron radiation. We have developed an AKMC method for the precipitation kinetics in bcc-Fe, with Cu, Ni, Mn and Si being the alloying elements. In addition, we used MD simulations to provide input parameters (if not available in literature). MMC simulations were also carried out to explore the possible segregation/precipitation morphologies at the lattice defects. First we briefly describe each of the simulation algorithms, then will present our results.

  18. Underemployment. An Ordinary Way of Life in Fields of Andalusia in the Late Middle Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes BORRERO FERNÁNDEZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the underemployment affecting the majority of the rural population of southern Castile in the final centuries of the Middle Ages. Firstly, we study the formation of the group demanding work in the fields: their characteristics and numerical significance in different economic regions. We analyze also the mechanisms and rates of the offer of temporary employment generated in large properties. The consequences of this system: a weak balance between supply and demand caused the impoverishment of the peasantry.

  19. [Late middle-aged schizophrenic patient in the family (social-psychological problems)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druz', V F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and sociopsychological studies of 28 families have shown that the familial status and role of elderly schizophrenics are usually higher than in young patients which depends not only on the clinical course, the age at the onset of the disease and its duration but also on the structure of the family and on how well the relatives understand the nature and manifestations of disease. On reaching middle age schizophrenic males become more adaptive in the family due to the fact that in the course of the disease their psychopathlike and asocial behaviour becomes less marked. Females both young and elderly usually have a higher status although in the course of disease it tends to show a gradual lowering. The field of communication becomes more definite and is typically restricted to the spouse or daughter. Depending on the dominant factors of relations, three types of families have been identified: integrated, partially integrated and disintegrated. Disintegrated families are less common as compared with integrated ones.

  20. A gigantic sarcopterygian (tetrapodomorph lobe-finned fish from the upper Devonian of Gondwana (Eden, New South Wales, Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Young

    Full Text Available Edenopteron keithcrooki gen. et sp. nov. is described from the Famennian Worange Point Formation; the holotype is amongst the largest tristichopterids and sarcopterygians documented by semi-articulated remains from the Devonian Period. The new taxon has dentary fangs and premaxillary tusks, features assumed to be derived for large Northern Hemisphere tristichopterids (Eusthenodon, Hyneria, Langlieria. It resembles Eusthenodon in ornament, but is distinguished by longer proportions of the parietal compared to the post-parietal shield, and numerous differences in shape and proportions of other bones. Several characters (accessory vomers in the palate, submandibulars overlapping ventral jaw margin, scales ornamented with widely-spaced deep grooves are recorded only in tristichopterids from East Gondwana (Australia-Antarctica. On this evidence Edenopteron gen. nov. is placed in an endemic Gondwanan subfamily Mandageriinae within the Tristichopteridae; it differs from the nominal genotype Mandageria in its larger size, less pointed skull, shape of the orbits and other skull characters. The hypothesis that tristichopterids evolved in Laurussia and later dispersed into Gondwana, and a derived subgroup of large Late Devonian genera dispersed from Gondwana, is inconsistent with the evidence of the new taxon. Using oldest fossil and most primitive clade criteria the most recent phylogeny resolves South China and Gondwana as areas of origin for all tetrapodomorphs. The immediate outgroup to tristichopterids remains unresolved - either Spodichthys from Greenland as recently proposed, or Marsdenichthys from Gondwana, earlier suggested to be the sister group to all tristichopterids. Both taxa combine two characters that do not co-occur in other tetrapodomorphs (extratemporal bone in the skull; non-cosmoid round scales with an internal boss. Recently both 'primitive' and 'derived' tristichopterids have been discovered in the late Middle Devonian of both

  1. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine;

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were....../internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N...... = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking...

  2. Apatite fission track thermochronology of Khibina Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia): Implications for post-Devonian Tectonics of the NE Fennoscandia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Thomson, Stuart N.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.; Zakharov, Vladimir S.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of the Kola Peninsula area of NE Fennoscandia remains almost fully unknown because of the absence of any thermochronological data such as apatite and/or zircon fission track or (Usbnd Th)/He ages. In order to fill this gap and to constrain the post-Devonian erosion and exhumation history of this region, we present the results of apatite fission track (AFT) dating of eleven samples selected from the cores taken from different depths of the northern part of the Khibina intrusive massif. The Rbsbnd Sr isochron age of this alkaline magmatic complex which is located at the center of Kola Peninsula is 368 + 6 Ma (Kramm and Kogarko, 1994). Samples were analyzed from depths between + 520 and - 950 m and yielded AFT ages between 290 and 268 Ma with an age uncertainty (1σ) of between ± 19 Ma (7%) and ± 42 Ma (15%). Mean track lengths (MTL) lie between 12.5 and 14.4 μm. Inverse time-temperature modeling was conducted on the age and track length data from seven samples of the Khibina massif. Thermal histories that best predict the measured data from three samples with the most reliable data show three stages: (1) 290-250 Ma-rapid cooling from > 110 °C to 70 °C/50 °C for lower/upper sample correspondingly; (2) 250-50 Ma-a stable temperature stage; (3) 50-0 Ma-slightly increased cooling rates down to modern temperatures. We propose that the first cooling stage is related to late-Hercynian orogenesis; the second cooling stage may be associated with tectonics accompanying with opening of Arctic oceanic basin. The obtained data show that geothermal gradient at the center of Kola Peninsula has remained close to the modern value of 20 °C/km for at least the last 250 Myr. AFT data show that the Khibina massif has been exhumed not more then 5-6 km in the last 290 Myr.

  3. Surveys of serum reproductive hormone levels and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism in Chinese aging males

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Shan-jie; Li Xian-kun; Lu Wen-hong; Liang Xiao-wei; Yuan Dong; Li Hong; Gu Yi-qun; Zhang Bao-long; Ji Yu-dang; Wang Can-gang

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the change patterns of reproductive hormones in serum of aging males and the difference among male age brackets and the prevalence rates of late onset of hypogonadism (LOH) in males in Chinese middle and aging males.Methods:Subjects included 1,498 men aged 40 to 69 from a county,and the serum reproductive hormones of 434 subjects were measured and calculated.In addition,the prevalence rates of LOH were analyzed by cut-off point of total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (cFT),and screening scales (a questionnaire of androgen deficiency in the aging males (ADAM) and a scale of aging males' symptoms (AMS)).TT,cFT,bio-available testosterone (Bio-T),luteinizing hormone (LH),sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG),testosterone secretion index (TSI),free testosterone index (FTI),the positive rates of LOH screening,androgen deficiency rates and the clinical prevalence rates of LOH were measured or calculated.Results:The serum TT levels did not change significantly with male aging while serum LH and SHBG levels gradually increased,but cFT,Bio-T,TSI and FTI levels gradually decreased with male aging.There was very significant difference in other six parameters of reproductive hormones (P<0.01),except for serum TT among the four age brackets(P>0.05).There was no correlation between serum TT levels and aging,LH levels(P>0.05).However,there was significantly a positive correlation between serum LH,SHBG and age (P<0.01),while there were negative correlation between cFT,Bio-T,TSI,FTI and age,LH levels (P<0.01).Moreover,SHBG level was positively correlated with LH level (P<0.01).Utilizing the Questionnaire of ADAM and AMS to screen subjects aged 40 to 69 years,mean positive rates of LOH screening were 80.77% and 32.34% respectively.Mean androgen deficiency rates were 14.02% and 43.69%by using TT and cFT cut-off point.In addition,mean LOH clinical prevalence rates of subjects on positive questionnaire results were 37.85% and 15.42

  4. USE OF ZINC IN HEALTH FROM EARLY CHILDHOOD TO LATE AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. C. SELOW

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of the present article is to make a brief approach of the literature about the benefi ts of the use of zinc and its infl uencion the organism. This element is a mineral that acts fixing the metabolic and physiological processes in all ages, mainly in pregnant women, elderly people and children. The first recommendation about the prescription of zinc was made by the National Academy of Sciences in the Dietary Reference Intakes – DRI´s.12 In this document, individual dosages of zinc consumption are recommended and established in different levels/quantities. The maximum level of zinc, in this case, is determined according to the patient´s gender and age rate. According to Bhatnalar & Natchu,2 it was seen that pregnant women who ingested supplements of zinc during the pregnancy had fetus with a stronger activity and a more robust heart, compared to the fetus whose mothers did not take the mineral. In children, it was verifi ed that the zinc helps in the early regeneration of the intestine with a therapeutic effect in cases of persistent diarrhea. In the oral cavity, according to Henkin et al.,7 the deficiency of zinc affects mainly the elderly, having associations with those who complain about mouth burning and dryness. Besides, another important change that has a larger incidence among the elderly is the halitosis, and the use of antiseptics made of zinc has been efficient in the treatment of this pathology. In patients undertreated with radiotherapy, in conformity to Ertekin et al.,5 agents with a biological activity similar to zinc (antioxidants have been used to treat mucositis.6 Due to its wide specter of infl uence, we may say that zinc is a fundamental mineral to the human organism, producing a great number of benefi ts when on the right concentration.

  5. A circulating microrna profile is associated with late-stage neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Grassmann

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the leading cause of severe vision impairment in Western populations over 55 years. A growing number of gene variants have been identified which are strongly associated with an altered risk to develop AMD. Nevertheless, gene-based biomarkers which could be dysregulated at defined stages of AMD may point toward key processes in disease mechanism and thus may support efforts to design novel treatment regimens for this blinding disorder. Circulating microRNAs (cmiRNAs which are carried by nanosized exosomes or microvesicles in blood plasma or serum, have been recognized as valuable indicators for various age-related diseases. We therefore aimed to elucidate the role of cmiRNAs in AMD by genome-wide miRNA expression profiling and replication analyses in 147 controls and 129 neovascular AMD patients. We identified three microRNAs differentially secreted in neovascular (NV AMD (hsa-mir-301-3p, pcorrected = 5.6*10-5, hsa-mir-361-5p, pcorrected = 8.0*10-4 and hsa-mir-424-5p, pcorrected = 9.6*10-3. A combined profile of the three miRNAs revealed an area under the curve (AUC value of 0.727 and was highly associated with NV AMD (p = 1.2*10-8. To evaluate subtype-specificity, an additional 59 AMD cases with pure unilateral or bilateral geographic atrophy (GA were analyzed for microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p. While we found no significant differences between GA AMD and controls neither individually nor for a combined microRNAs profile, hsa-mir-424-5p levels remained significantly higher in GA AMD when compared to NV (pcorrected<0.005. Pathway enrichment analysis on genes predicted to be regulated by microRNAs hsa-mir-301-3p, hsa-mir-361-5p, and hsa-mir-424-5p, suggests canonical TGFβ, mTOR and related pathways to be involved in NV AMD. In addition, knockdown of hsa-mir-361-5p resulted in increased neovascularization in an in vitro angiogenesis assay.

  6. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-11

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  7. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-02-10

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  8. ANALYSIS OF DEVONIAN BLACK SHALES IN KENTUCKY FOR POTENTIAL CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION AND ENHANCED NATURAL GAS PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon C. Nuttall

    2003-04-28

    Proposed carbon management technologies include geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. A possible, but untested, strategy is to inject CO{sub 2} into organic-rich shales of Devonian age. Devonian black shales underlie approximately two-thirds of Kentucky and are generally thicker and deeper in the Illinois and Appalachian Basin portions of Kentucky. The Devonian black shales serve as both the source and trap for large quantities of natural gas; total gas in place for the shales in Kentucky is estimated to be between 63 and 112 trillion cubic feet. Most of this natural gas is adsorbed on clay and kerogen surfaces, analogous to the way methane is stored in coal beds. In coals, it has been demonstrated that CO{sub 2} is preferentially adsorbed, displacing methane at a ratio of two to one. Black shales may similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}. If black shales similarly desorb methane in the presence of CO{sub 2}, the shales may be an excellent sink for CO{sub 2} with the added benefit of serving to enhance natural gas production. The concept that black, organic-rich Devonian shales could serve as a significant geologic sink for CO{sub 2} is the subject this research. To accomplish this investigation, drill cuttings and cores will be selected from the Kentucky Geological Survey Well Sample and Core Library. CO{sub 2} adsorption analyses will be performed in order to determine the gas-storage potential of the shale and to identify shale facies with the most sequestration potential. In addition, new drill cuttings and sidewall core samples will be acquired to investigate specific black-shale facies, their uptake of CO{sub 2}, and the resultant displacement of methane. Advanced logging techniques (elemental capture spectroscopy) will be used to investigate possible correlations between adsorption capacity and geophysical log measurements.

  9. Intelligence and Disability Pension in Swedish Men and Women Followed from Childhood to Late Middle Age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lundin

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between intelligence and disability pension due to mental, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and substance-use disorders among men and women, and to assess the role of childhood social factors and adulthood work characteristics.Two random samples of men and women born 1948 and 1953 (n = 10 563 and 9 434, and tested for general intelligence at age 13, were followed in registers for disability pension until 2009. Physical and psychological strains in adulthood were assessed using job exposure matrices. Associations were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models, with increases in rates reported as hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI per decrease in stanine intelligence.In both men and women increased risks were found for disability pension due to all causes, musculoskeletal disorder, mental disorder other than substance use, and cardiovascular disease as intelligence decreased. Increased risk was also found for substance use disorder in men. In multivariate models, HRs were attenuated after controlling for pre-school plans in adolescence, and low job control and high physical strain in adulthood. In the fully adjusted model, increased HRs remained for all causes (male HR 1.11, 95%CI 1.07-1.15, female HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.02-1.09 and musculoskeletal disorder (male HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.09-1.24, female HR 1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.14 during 1986 to 2009.Relatively low childhood intelligence is associated with increased risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorder in both men and women, even after adjustment for risk factors for disability pension measured over the life course.

  10. White matter microstructure in late middle-age: Effects of apolipoprotein E4 and parental family history of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adluru, Nagesh; Destiche, Daniel J.; Lu, Sharon Yuan-Fu; Doran, Samuel T.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Melah, Kelsey E.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Alexander, Andrew L.; Dowling, N. Maritza; Johnson, Sterling C.; Sager, Mark A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Little is still known about the effects of risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) on white matter microstructure in cognitively healthy adults. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of two well-known risk factors for AD, parental family history and APOE4 genotype. Methods This study included 343 participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention, who underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A region of interest analysis was performed on fractional anisotropy maps, in addition to mean, radial, and axial diffusivity maps, aligned to a common template space using a diffeomorphic, tensor-based registration method. The analysis focused on brain regions known to be affected in AD including the corpus callosum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, fornix, cingulum, and uncinate fasciculus. Analyses assessed the impact of APOE4, parental family history of AD, age, and sex on white matter microstructure in late middle-aged participants (aged 47–76 years). Results Both APOE4 and parental family history were associated with microstructural white matter differences. Participants with parental family history of AD had higher FA in the genu of the corpus callosum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus. We observed an interaction between family history and APOE4, where participants who were family history positive but APOE4 negative had lower axial diffusivity in the uncinate fasciculus, and participants who were both family history positive and APOE4 positive had higher axial diffusivity in this region. We also observed an interaction between APOE4 and age, whereby older participants (=65 years of age) who were APOE4 carriers, had higher MD in the superior longitudinal fasciculus and in the portion of the cingulum bundle running adjacent to the cingulate cortex, compared to non-carriers. Older participants who were APOE4 carriers also showed higher radial diffusivity in the genu compared to non-carriers. Across

  11. Differential associations between types of verbal memory and prefrontal brain structure in healthy aging and late life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, Melissa; Charlton, Rebecca; Zhang, Aifeng; Kumar, Anand

    2012-07-01

    Verbal memory deficits attributed to late life depression (LLD) may result from executive dysfunction that is more detrimental to list-learning than story-based recall when compared to healthy aging. Despite these behavioral dissociations, little work has been done investigating related neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in LLD. We compared list-learning to story-based memory performance in 24 non-demented individuals with LLD (age ~ 66.1 ± 7.8) and 41 non-demented/non-depressed healthy controls (HC; age ~ 67.6 ± 5.3). We correlated significant results of between-group analyses across memory performance variables with brain volumes of frontal, temporal and parietal regions known to be involved with verbal learning and memory. When compared to the HC group, the LLD group showed significantly lower verbal memory performance for spontaneous recall after repeated exposure and after a long-delay but only for the list-learning task; groups did not differ on story-based memory performance. Despite equivalent brain volumes across regions, only the LLD group showed brain associations with verbal memory performance and only for the list-learning task. Specifically, frontal volumes important for subjective organization and response monitoring correlated with list-learning performance in the LLD group. This study is the first to demonstrate neuroanatomical dissociations across types of verbal memory performance in individuals with LLD. Results provide structural evidence for the behavioral dissociations between list-learning and story-based recall in LLD when compared to healthy aging. More specifically, it points toward a network of predominantly anterior brain regions that may underlie the executive contribution to list-learning in older adults with depression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Emergence of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Late-Middle-Aged Adults in the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscik, Rebecca L.; Rue, Asenath La; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Hermann, Bruce P.; Sager, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Aim It is difficult to detect reliably the earliest signs of Alzheimer's-associated cognitive impairment. Our aim was to compare three psychometric methods of identifying amnestic MCI (aMCI) in a middle-aged longitudinal cohort enriched for AD risk. Methods Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer's Prevention (WRAP) participants with 3 waves of cognitive assessment over ~6 years were coded as meeting each of three psychometric aMCI definitions: a) ‘aMCI standard-baseline’ used published norms to establish cut-offs for baseline performance; b) ‘aMCI robust-baseline’ applied WRAP-specific robust norms to baseline; and c) ‘aMCI robust-multiwave’ applied these robust norms across 3 waves of assessment. Each group was compared to a cognitively healthy subset. Results Half the aMCI standard-baseline and one-third the aMCI robust-baseline group reverted to normal ranges at follow-up. Only the aMCI robust-multiwave method had an aMCI*age interaction showing significantly worse age-related memory declines in the aMCI group compared to the cognitively healthy group over six years of follow-up. Conclusion Both cross-sectional methods showed instability over time, with many reverting to normal performance post-baseline. The multiwave approach identified a group who showed progressive memory declines over 3 visits. Being able to detect progressive decline in late-middle-age is a critical step in improving prevention efforts. PMID:24556849

  13. Perceived consequences of ageing with late effects of polio and strategies for managing daily life: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödahl Hammarlund, Catharina; Lexell, Jan; Brogårdh, Christina

    2017-08-09

    New or increased impairments may develop several decades after an acute poliomyelitis infection. These new symptoms, commonly referred to as late effects of polio (LEoP), are characterised by muscular weakness and fatigue, generalised fatigue, pain at rest or during activities and cold intolerance. Growing older with LEoP may lead to increased activity limitations and participation restrictions, but there is limited knowledge of how these persons perceive the practical and psychological consequences of ageing with LEoP and what strategies they use in daily life. The aim of this qualitative study was therefore to explore how ageing people with LEoP perceive the their situation and what strategies they use for managing daily life. Seven women and seven men (mean age 70 years) were interviewed. They all had a confirmed history of acute poliomyelitis and new impairments after a stable period of at least 15 years. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed using systematic text condensation. The latent analysis resulted in three categories 'Various consequences of ageing with LEoP', 'Limitations in everyday activities and participation restrictions', and 'Strategies for managing daily life when ageing with LEoP' and 12 subcategories. The new impairments led to decreased physical and mental health. The participants perceived difficulties in performing everyday activities such as managing work, doing chores, partaking in recreational activities and participating in social events, thereby experiencing emotional and psychological distress. They managed to find strategies that mitigated their worries and upheld their self-confidence, for example finding practical solutions, making social comparisons, minimising, and avoidance. Ageing with LEoP affected daily life to a great extent. The participants experienced considerable impact of the new and increased impairments on their life situation. Consequently, their ability to participate in various social activities also

  14. Testing alternative tectonic models of Palaeotethys in the E Mediterranean region: new U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analyses of detrital zircons from Late Carboniferous and Late Triassic sandstones associated with the Anatolide and Tauride blocks (S Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustaömer, Timur; Ayda Ustaömer, Petek; Robertson, Alastair; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Alternative tectonic models of Palaeotethys during Late Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic time infer: 1. southward subduction beneath the north margin of Gondwana; 2. northward subduction beneath the south margin of Eurasia, or 3. double subduction (northwards and southwards), at least during Late Carboniferous. U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic analysis of detrital zircons, extracted from sandstones, can provide strong indications of age and identity of source terranes. Here, we consider the provenance of both Late Carboniferous and Late Triassic sandstones from both relatively allochthonous and relatively autochthonous units that are all spatially associated with the Anatolide and Tauride continental blocks. The relatively allochthonous units are sandstones (3 samples) from the Late Carboniferous Aladaǧ Nappe (Tauride; in the east), the Konya Complex (Anatolide; central area) and the Karaburun Mélange (Tauride-related; in the west). The relatively autochthonous units are Late Triassic sandstones (4 samples) from the Üzümdere Formation, the Kasımlar Formation (both western Taurides) and the Güvercinlik Formation (Karaburun Peninsula-Tauride related; far west). The Late Carboniferous sandstones from the three relatively allochthonous units are dominated by Precambrian zircon populations, the age distribution of which suggests derivation from two contrasting source regions: First, a NE African-type source (i.e. Saharan craton) for the sandstones of the Konya Mélange and the Aladaǧ Nappe because these sediments have prominent zircon populations dated at 0.5-0.7, 0.8 and 0.9-1.1 Ga. Palaeozoic zircons are minimal in the sandstones of the Aladaǧ Nappe and the Konya Complex (3 and 5% of the whole data, respectively) and are confined to Cambrian to Ordovician. Secondly, a contrasting NW African-type source is inferred for sandstone from the Karaburun Mélange because of the marked absence of Tonian-Stenian zircons and the predominance of ~2 Ga zircons over ~2.5 Ga zircons. In

  15. Evaluation of Devonian-shale potential in Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komar, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform interested oil and gas operators about EGSP results as they pertain to the Devonian gas shales of the Appalachian basin in eastern Ohio. Geologic data and interpretations are summarized, and areas where the accumulation of gas may be large enough to justify commercial production are outlined. Because the data presented in this report are generalized and not suitable for evaluation of specific sites for exploration, the reader should consult the various reports cited for more detail and discussion of the data, concepts, and interpretations presented. A complete list of EGSP sponsored work pertinent to the Devonian shales in Ohio is contained as an appendix to this report. Radioactive shale zones are also mapped.

  16. Was the Devonian geomagnetic field dipolar or multipolar? Palaeointensity studies of Devonian igneous rocks from the Minusa Basin (Siberia) and the Kola Peninsula dykes, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Biggin, A. J.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Hawkins, L.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Defining variations in the behaviour of the geomagnetic field through geological time is critical to understanding the dynamics of Earth's core and its response to mantle convection and planetary evolution. Furthermore, the question of whether the axial dipole dominance of the recent palaeomagnetic field persists through the whole of Earth's history is fundamental to determining the reliability of palaeogeographic reconstructions and the efficacy of the magnetosphere in shielding Earth from solar wind radiation. Previous palaeomagnetic directional studies have suggested that the palaeofield had a complex configuration in the Devonian period (419-359 Ma). Here we present new palaeointensity determinations from rocks aged between 408 and 375 Ma from the Minusa Basin (southern Siberia), and the Kola Peninsula to investigate the strength of the field during this enigmatic period. Palaeointensity experiments were performed using the thermal Thellier, microwave Thellier, and Wilson methods on 165 specimens from 25 sites. Six out of eight successful sites from the Minusa Basin and all four successful sites from the Kola Peninsula produced extremely low palaeointensities (uniformitarian view of the palaeomagnetic field: field intensities of nearly an order of magnitude lower than Neogene values (except during relatively rare geomagnetic excursions and reversals) together with the widespread appearance of strange directions found in the Devonian suggest that the Earth's field during this time may have had a dominantly multipolar geometry. A persistent, low intensity multipolar magnetic field and associated diminished magnetosphere would increase the impact of solar particles on the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere with potential major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere.

  17. New archaeomagnetic directions from Portugal and evolution of the geomagnetic field in Iberia from Late Bronze Age to Roman Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palencia-Ortas, A.; Osete, M. L.; Campuzano, S. A.; McIntosh, G.; Larrazabal, J.; Sastre, J.; Rodriguez-Aranda, J.

    2017-09-01

    This study presents new archaeomagnetic results from 33 combustion structures (kilns and hearths) from the archaeological sites of Castelinho, Crestelos, Olival Poço da Barca and Fonte do Milho in NE Portugal. The age of the investigated structures ranges from 1210 BC to 200 AD according to calibrated radiocarbon dating, thermoluminescence dating and archaeological constraints. Stepwise thermal and alternating field demagnetization isolate a single, stable, characteristic remanence component with very well defined directions. Rock magnetic analyses suggest low-Ti titanomagnetite/maghemite as the main magnetic carrier of the remanence. Mean directions are well grouped in most structures. The effect of thermoremanent anisotropy on mean directions has been evaluated and was found to be important. Inclination increases of between 2° and 13° after applying the anisotropy correction at specimen level. This highlights the requirement of evaluating this effect on the directions of small and flattened thin kilns and hearths. The 31 new directional data improve both the temporal and spatial distribution of the Iberian archaeomagnetic dataset from Late Bronze Age to Roman Times. Finally, a new directional palaeosecular variation curve for Iberia for the last twelve centuries BC is proposed. The curve has been computed using the bootstrap method and includes data coming from sites within 900 km of Madrid. The new palaeodirectional secular variation curve for Iberia is consistent with the Western European palaeosecular variation curve and with the prediction of regional European models.

  18. Personality and Reduced Incidence of Walking Limitation in Late Life: Findings From the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrucci, Luigi; Costa, Paul T.; Faulkner, Kimberly; Rosano, Caterina; Satterfield, Suzanne; Ayonayon, Hilsa N.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To examine the association between openness to experience and conscientiousness and incident reported walking limitation. Method. The study population consisted of 786 men and women aged 71–81 years (M = 75 years, SD = 2.7) participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition—Cognitive Vitality Substudy. Results. Nearly 20% of participants (155/786) developed walking limitation during 6 years of follow-up. High openness was associated with a reduced risk of walking limitation (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.69–0.98), independent of sociodemographic factors, health conditions, and conscientiousness. This association was not mediated by lifestyle factors and was not substantially modified by other risk factors for functional disability. Conscientiousness was not associated with risk of walking limitation (HR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.77–1.07). Discussion. Findings suggest that personality dimensions, specifically higher openness to experience, may contribute to functional resilience in late life. PMID:22437204

  19. Paleomagnetic Study of the Devonian Reef Complexes of the Canning Basin, Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, M.; Tohver, E.; Cawood, P. A.; Kirschvink, J.; Peek, S.; Playton, T.; Hocking, R.; Haines, P.; Montgomery, P.

    2008-12-01

    The reef systems in the Canning Basin, Western Australia perhaps are the best exposed and least deformed examples of ancient reef systems known in the world. The recently commenced multi-disciplinary research project in the Devonian reef complex of the Canning Basin is a broad investigation of the depositional history of a carbonate platform using paleomagnetic, stable isotope geochemistry (inorganic and organic), sedimentology, and biostratigraphy. By focusing on the world-class exposures in the Canning Basin, this project seeks to provide a global stratigraphic reference frame for key intervals in life history such as the Frasnian-Fammenian mass extinction event, as well as providing a useful analogue for resource models of other carbonate reef systems elsewhere in the world. This reference frame will consist of a high resolution magnetostratigraphic profile to supplement the presently-sparse Global Polarity Timescale (GPTS) for the Devonian, as well as a chemostratigraphic profile (chiefly carbon isotopes) to identify possible shifts in the global carbon budget associated with biotic crises and/or climate change. Additional goals include identification of the conditions leading up to, and possible causes of the mass extinction event, and testing for a possible mid-Paleozoic episode of True Polar Wander. We report here on a paleomagnetic study of two magnetostratigraphic sections in the Canning Basin to address the goals mentioned above. Paleomagnetic samples have been drilled on the Late Frasnian limestones in the north of the Windjana Gorge National Park, with a total number of 400 core samples. So far preliminary paleomagnetic analysis on pilot samples reveals two characteristic remanent components. One component has a blocking temperatures less than 400 degree Celsius, probably a component of secondary overprint; another component has a blocking temperature around 580 and around 680 degree Celsius, indicating the presence of magnetite and hematite

  20. Provenance and paleogeography of the Devonian Durazno Group, southern Parana Basin in Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, N. J.; Cingolani, C. A.; Basei, M. A. S.; Blanco, G.; Abre, P.; Portillo, N. S.; Siccardi, A.

    2016-03-01

    A succession of Devonian cover rocks occurs in outcrop and in the subsurface of central-northern Uruguay where they were deposited in an intracratonic basin. This Durazno Group comprises three distinct stratigraphic units, namely the Cerrezuelo, Cordobés and La Paloma formations. The Durazno Group does not exceed 300 m of average thickness and preserves a transgressive-regressive cycle within a shallow-marine siliciclastic shelf platform, and is characterized by an assemblage of invertebrate fossils of Malvinokaffric affinity especially within the Lower Devonian Cordobés shales. The sedimentary provenance of the Durazno Group was determined using petrography, geochemistry, and morphological studies of detrital zircons as well as their U-Pb ages. Sandstone petrography of Cerrezuelo and La Paloma sequences shows that they have a dominantly quartz-feldspathic composition with a minor contribution of other minerals. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that alteration was strong in each of the three formations studied; chondritic-normalized REE patterns essentially parallel to PAAS, the presence of a negative Eu-anomaly, and Th/Sc and La/Hf ratios point to an average source composition similar to UCC or slightly more felsic. Within the Cerrezuelo Formation, recycling of older volcano-metasedimentary sources is interpreted from Zr/Sc ratios and high Hf, Zr, and REE concentrations. U-Pb detrital zircon age populations of the Cerrezuelo and La Paloma formations indicate that the principal source terranes are of Neoproterozoic age, but include also minor populations derived from Mesoproterozoic and Archean-Paleoproterozoic rocks. A provenance from the Cuchilla Dionisio-Dom Feliciano, Nico Pérez and Piedra Alta terranes of Uruguay and southern Brazil is likely. This study establishes an intracratonic extensional tectonic setting during Durazno time. Considering provenance age sources, regional paleocurrent distributions and the established orogenic history recorded in SW

  1. Transcultural Experiences in the Late Middle Ages: The German Literary Discourse on the Mediterranean World—Mirrors, Reflections, and Responses

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    Albrecht Classen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As recent scholarship has demonstrated, the world of the Mediterranean exerted a tremendous influence not only on the societies and cultures bordering the Mediterranean Sea during the late Middle Ages, but had a huge influence on the mentality and culture of the world north of the Alps as well because it was here where East and West met, exchanged ideas and products, and struggled to find, despite many military conflicts, some kind of transcultural. The highly complex conditions in the Mediterranean realm represented significant challenges and promises at the same time, and no traveler from Germany or England, for instance, whether a merchant or a pilgrim, a diplomat or an artist, could resist responding to the allure of the Mediterranean cultures. The corpus of travelogues and pilgrimage accounts is legion, as scholars have noted already for quite some time. But we can also observe literary reflections on the Mediterranean especially during the fifteenth century. The emergence of the late medieval and early modern prose novel is often predicated on transcultural experiences, whether they entailed military conflicts or peaceful encounters between Christians and Muslims. These literary texts did not necessarily respond to the historical events, such as the fall of Constantinople in 1453, but they document an intriguing opening up of German, English, French, and Flemish, etc., society to the Mediterranean world. The prose novels discussed in this paper demonstrate that Germany, in particular, was a significant hinterland of the Mediterranean; somewhat farther apart, but still closely connected. The literary evidence will allow us to identify how those transcultural encounters were recognized and then dealt with.

  2. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Jurczak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05. Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05. There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1 The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2 A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3 AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve.

  3. An Analysis of the Influence of Selected Genetic and Hormonal Factors on the Occurrence of Depressive Symptoms in Late-Reproductive-Age Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurczak, Anna; Szkup, Małgorzata; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Karakiewicz, Beata; Dołęgowska, Barbara; Grochans, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of genetic and hormonal factors on incidences of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. Methods: The study was performed using the Beck Depression Inventory, the PCR, and genetic tests of 347 healthy late-reproductive-age Polish women. Results: The relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and depressive symptoms was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Increases in age and FSH levels were accompanied by a decrease in AMH level in a significant way (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the distribution of genotypes and the frequency of alleles of the investigated polymorphisms and depressive symptoms according to the Beck Depression Inventory. Conclusions: (1) The presence of the s/s genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the serotonin transporter promoter region and the 3/3 genotype of the 30-bp VNTR polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A promoter region does not contribute to the development of depressive symptoms in late-reproductive-age women. (2) A relationship between the level of anti-Müllerian hormone and depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the group of healthy late-reproductive-age women. (3) AMH level correlates negatively with FSH level and age, which confirms that AMH can be regarded as a factor reflecting the ovarian reserve. PMID:25826396

  4. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (≥75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ≥2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ≥3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ≥2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ≥3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ≥3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ≥2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ≥3 (P=.015) but not grade ≥2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  5. THE LEECH EXOPLANET IMAGING SURVEY: ORBIT AND COMPONENT MASSES OF THE INTERMEDIATE-AGE, LATE-TYPE BINARY NO UMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlieder, Joshua E. [NASA Ames Research Center, Space Science and Astrobiology Division, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip; Leisenring, Jarron; Defrère, Denis; Close, Laird M.; Eisner, Josh A. [Steward Observatory, Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122, Padova (Italy); Skrutskie, Michael F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 22904 (United States); Bailey, Vanessa [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Esposito, Simone [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Weber, Michael [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Biller, Beth A.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Buenzli, Esther; Henning, Thomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Crepp, Justin R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN, 46556 (United States); Hofmann, Karl-Heinz, E-mail: joshua.e.schlieder@nasa.gov [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany); and others

    2016-02-10

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, K{sub s}-, and L′-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.″09. The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ∼7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0 ± 0.5 primary and K6.5 ± 0.5 secondary are 0.83 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙} and 0.64 ± 0.02 M{sub ⊙}, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87 ± 0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ∼500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group, and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits.

  6. Particular ceramic forms in the central Balkan and northern shores of the Aegean sea in the late bronze age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Aleksandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the appearance and development of particular ceramic forms that were prevalent on the wider territory from the lower Danube to the northern shores of the Aegean sea during the middle and Late Bronze Age. These forms relate to globular beakers, pear shaped vessels with everted rims with arch shaped handles, cups with handles with plastic applications on their upper surface, etc. Particular attention is devoted to the phenomenon of globular beakers of the LBA in the valleys of Varder, Mesta and Struma rivers. All information collected primarily through analysis of stylistic-typological characteristics of ceramics of the middle and Late Bronze Age - that took into account ritual burials, layout of settlements, trade routes and climactic conditions during that period - points to population movements from the north to the south already by the LBA, i.e. in 15th century BC. These movements contributed to the creation of particular cultural groups in the LBA in the central Balkans, such as the Brnjica cultural group. However, these movements cannot be clearly linked to the so-called Aegean Migration, and for this reason their character and chronology are subject to debate. Ultimately it can be concluded that beakers of the Zimnicea -Cherkovna-Plovdiv type appeared in the late Bronze Age in the Vlasine depression and the Danube valley through the evolution of beaker forms of cultural groups of earlier periods. Almost contemporaneously, during LBA, a variant of this ceramic form, richly ornamented (mostly with spirals and similar in manner to the cultural group Dubovac-Žuto Brdo-Grla Mare- Krna, appeared in the LBA culture in northern Greece. Clearly this stylistic mannerism, with spirals as characteristic elements, spread relatively quickly through successive migrations in the period of 15th-14th century BC, toward the south of the Balkan Peninsula, thus covering the wider territory from the southern tip of the Carpathian mountains

  7. Negative selection on BRCA1 susceptibility alleles sheds light on the population genetics of late-onset diseases and aging theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pavard

    Full Text Available The magnitude of negative selection on alleles involved in age-specific mortality decreases with age. This is the foundation of the evolutionary theory of senescence. Because of this decrease in negative selection with age, and because of the absence of reproduction after menopause, alleles involved in women's late-onset diseases are generally considered evolutionarily neutral. Recently, genetic and epidemiological data on alleles involved in late onset-diseases have become available. It is therefore timely to estimate selection on these alleles. Here, we estimate selection on BRCA1 alleles leading to susceptibility to late-onset breast and ovarian cancer. For this, we integrate estimates of the risk of developing a cancer for BRCA1-carriers into population genetics frameworks, and calculate selection coefficients on BRCA1 alleles for different demographic scenarios varying across the extent of human demography. We then explore the magnitude of negative selection on alleles leading to a diverse range of risk patterns, to capture a variety of late-onset diseases. We show that BRCA1 alleles may have been under significant negative selection during human history. Although the mean age of onset of the disease is long after menopause, variance in age of onset means that there are always enough cases occurring before the end of reproductive life to compromise the selective value of women carrying a susceptibility allele in BRCA1. This seems to be the case for an extended range of risk of onset functions varying both in mean and variance. This finding may explain the distribution of BRCA1 alleles' frequency, and also why alleles for many late-onset diseases, like certain familial forms of cancer, coronary artery diseases and Alzheimer dementia, are typically recent and rare. Finally, we discuss why the two most popular evolutionary theories of aging, mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy, may underestimate the effect of selection on

  8. Negative selection on BRCA1 susceptibility alleles sheds light on the population genetics of late-onset diseases and aging theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavard, Samuel; Metcalf, C Jessica E

    2007-11-21

    The magnitude of negative selection on alleles involved in age-specific mortality decreases with age. This is the foundation of the evolutionary theory of senescence. Because of this decrease in negative selection with age, and because of the absence of reproduction after menopause, alleles involved in women's late-onset diseases are generally considered evolutionarily neutral. Recently, genetic and epidemiological data on alleles involved in late onset-diseases have become available. It is therefore timely to estimate selection on these alleles. Here, we estimate selection on BRCA1 alleles leading to susceptibility to late-onset breast and ovarian cancer. For this, we integrate estimates of the risk of developing a cancer for BRCA1-carriers into population genetics frameworks, and calculate selection coefficients on BRCA1 alleles for different demographic scenarios varying across the extent of human demography. We then explore the magnitude of negative selection on alleles leading to a diverse range of risk patterns, to capture a variety of late-onset diseases. We show that BRCA1 alleles may have been under significant negative selection during human history. Although the mean age of onset of the disease is long after menopause, variance in age of onset means that there are always enough cases occurring before the end of reproductive life to compromise the selective value of women carrying a susceptibility allele in BRCA1. This seems to be the case for an extended range of risk of onset functions varying both in mean and variance. This finding may explain the distribution of BRCA1 alleles' frequency, and also why alleles for many late-onset diseases, like certain familial forms of cancer, coronary artery diseases and Alzheimer dementia, are typically recent and rare. Finally, we discuss why the two most popular evolutionary theories of aging, mutation accumulation and antagonistic pleiotropy, may underestimate the effect of selection on survival at old ages.

  9. Neonatal morbidity associated with late preterm and early term birth: the roles of gestational age and biological determinants of preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Hilary K; Speechley, Kathy Nixon; Macnab, Jennifer; Natale, Renato; Campbell, M Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of gestational age in determining the risk of neonatal morbidity among infants born late preterm (34–36 weeks) and early term (37–38 weeks) compared with those born full term (39–41 weeks) by examining the contribution of gestational age within the context of biological determinants of preterm birth. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. The sample included singleton live births with no major congenital anomalies, delivered at 34–41 weeks of gestation to London-Middlesex (Canada) mothers in 2002–11. Data from a city-wide perinatal database were linked with discharge abstract data. Multivariable models used modified Poisson regression to directly estimate adjusted relative risks (aRRs). The roles of gestational age and biological determinants of preterm birth were further examined using mediation and moderation analyses. Results Compared with infants born full term, infants born late preterm and early term were at increased risk for neonatal intensive care unit triage/admission [late preterm aRR = 6.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.63, 6.71; early term aRR = 1.54, 95% CI 1.41, 1.68] and neonatal respiratory morbidity (late preterm aRR = 6.16, 95% CI 5.39, 7.03; early term aRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.29, 1.65). The effect of gestational age was partially explained by biological determinants of preterm birth acting through gestational age. Moreover, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia exacerbated the effect of gestational age on poor outcomes. Conclusions Poor outcomes among infants born late preterm and early term are not only due to physiological immaturity but also to biological determinants of preterm birth acting through and with gestational age to produce poor outcomes. PMID:24374829

  10. VOLUNTARY SURGICAL CONTRACEPTION OF WOMEN OF LATE REPRODUCTIVE AGE SUFFERING FROM PELVIC ORGAN PROLAPSE – FEATURES AND BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigina Nasimova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a noticeable "rejuvenation" of pelvic organ prolapse. Inconsistency of the pelvic floor muscles, including the omission of sexual organs, is extremely common pathology, observed almost a third of women of reproductive age. The search for effective, convenient methods of contraception for this category of patients is an important problem of modern gynecology.We proposed a method of transvaginal voluntary surgical contraception, produced in conjunction with surgical treatment of descent and prolapse of the vaginal walls. Studied the nearest and long-term results of surgery in 50 women to which, during the surgical treatment of genital prolapse at the same time was performed transvaginal occlusion of the fallopian tubes. Control groups consisted of 30 women to which in the first step before surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been performed minilaparotomy and voluntary surgical sterilization (VSS. Our method consists in penetrating into the abdominal cavity through the anterior vaginal vault, downgrading the fallopian tubes with a hook of Ramathibodi and tubal sterilization by Pomeroy method. Intra - and postoperative complications were not observed. In the late postoperative periods - the effectiveness of the method was 100%. Marked tendency to improve the quality of sexual life tells about the positive impact of elimination of genital prolapse with simultaneous DCA on the quality of life of women.

  11. Amyloid Burden Is Associated With Self-Reported Sleep In Non-Demented Late Middle-Aged Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Kate E.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Racine, Annie M.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; Christian, Bradley T.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Sager, Mark A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    Midlife may be an ideal window for intervention in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To determine whether sleep is associated with early signs of AD neuropathology (amyloid deposition) in late midlife, we imaged brain amyloid deposits using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [C-11]Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB), and assessed sleep with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Sleep Scale in 98 cognitively healthy adults (aged 62.4 ± 5.7 years) from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention. We used multiple regression to test the extent to which sleep scores predicted regional amyloid burden. Participants reporting less adequate sleep, more sleep problems and greater somnolence on the MOS had greater amyloid burden in AD-sensitive brain regions (angular gyrus, frontal medial orbital cortex, cingulate gyrus and precuneus). Amyloid was not associated with reported sleep amount, symptoms of sleep disordered breathing, trouble falling asleep or ESS. Poor sleep may be a risk factor for AD and a potential early marker of AD or target for preventative interventions in mid-life. PMID:26059712

  12. The age measures and its layer sequence tratigraphy of Late Quaternary sediment in Lushan Dajiaochang of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Dongsheng; Hu Rong; Li Xiaoyu; Hu Wenxuan; Wang Xulong; Tian Xingong; Liu Weiguo; Zhang Guowei

    2013-01-01

    Through the scientific investigation on Lushan for a long time,detailed studies have been carried out on the geologic stratum section of Late Quaternary in Dajiaochang. The series age data of complete stratigraphic section and full time formation since 400 kaBP were based on the results of the analyses using the dating methods with various instruments such as the ancient geomagnetism,electronics spin resonance (ESR),36Cl and lumines-cence dating,etc. Corresponding to these data,it identified the paleomagnetic polarity events including Biwa-Ⅲevent (320 kaBP),Biwa-Ⅱevent (260 kaBP),Biwa-Ⅰevent (180 kaBP,scarcity due to the disturbance of the iron dish),Blake event (100 kaBP) and Laschamp event (20 kaBP,didn’t grow due to the activities of the surface), etc. Combined with the sequence stratigraphy,layer type characteristics and its sediment environment,the strati-graphic can be divided into 4 stages of development respectively:StageⅠis the climate period of glacial epoch (200~400 kaBP);stageⅡis the climate period of interglacial epoch (100~200 kaBP);stageⅢis the climate peri-od of periglacial epoch (10~100 kaBP);stageⅣis the climate period of postglacial epoch (0~10 kaBP).

  13. Funeral sites of the beginning of the Late Bronze age in the estuarine Trans-Kama river area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyganov Anton V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers results of 2014 field research of the first stage of the late Bronze Age burial grounds in the Volga-Kama region –Novo-Mordovo II and Stary Kuybyshev VI. These burial grounds are located in the area of the abrasion escarpment of Kuybyshev dam lake, in the confluence of the Volga and the Kama rivers. The first burial ground was discovered by A.H. Khalikov in 1962, the second is a recent discovery. The authors believe that the funeral rite and the inventory of these sites are very similar. All inhumations were made in shallow sub-quadrangular pits, in a crouched position on the left side. The funeral rite and the inventory combine elements of the Pokrovskiy and the Potapovskiy cultural types, which makes the authors to suggest the origins of formation of the Zaymishche type sites here. Analogies revealed in the sites of the Pokrovskiy and Potapovskiy types date existence of Novo-Mordovo II and Stary Kuybyshev VI burial grounds to the period preceding the Srubnaya cultural-historical community, and overall can fit within 19th – 18th centuries BC.

  14. Sources of emotional distress associated with diarrhea among late middle-age and older HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Brown-Bradley, Courtney J; Lekas, Helen-Maria

    2010-09-01

    Although the experience of physical symptoms can adversely influence emotional well-being, the specific emotional reactions experienced in response to specific symptoms are not well understood. To examine the emotional impact of diarrhea among HIV+ late middle-age and older adults (i.e., age 50 years and older). In-depth interviews were conducted with 100 participants, of whom 29 had experienced diarrhea and spoke about the emotional impact it had had on them. Three principal themes emerged: 1) I don't control the diarrhea, the diarrhea controls me; 2) I feel ashamed, dirty, and tainted; and 3) I fear what the diarrhea is doing to me and what it means. Their inability to control when and where their diarrhea would occur was a great source of emotional distress for participants. Almost all feared the possibility of fecal incontinence while out in public and the humiliation it would bring. To avoid this, many greatly restricted their time outside the home or where they would go to ensure access to a restroom. Others felt shame and perpetually "dirty" even when not dealing with a bout of diarrhea. Many also worried about the effect the diarrhea would have on their health and whether it signaled progression to end-stage disease. The data strongly support the need to aggressively manage diarrhea in HIV-infected adults, as the social and emotional consequences can be profound. When it cannot be effectively controlled, physicians and social service agencies should address the isolation by providing home-based opportunities for social support and interaction. 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sites without stratigraphy: Devesa do Rei, a cultual site in Galician late Prehistory and the Iron Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aboal Fernández, Roberto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this text we explore a singular site that offers a series of important novelties, both in terms of its discontinuous pattern of use in different periods (covering a lengthy period from the Neolithic to the Iron Age, and its apparent use for ritual purposes in all of them, as well as the possible identification of a funerary structure from the Galician Iron Age. At the same time, this work is proposed as a case for study that makes it possible to define a procedure to reconstruct the sequence and function of open sites from Late Prehistory in Galicia characterized by a lack of vertical stratigraphy. This problem is solved by combining different analytical techniques, all based on a record of high quality excavation that makes use of analyses of material culture, radiocarbon dating, distribution patterns, as well as soil and sediment analysis.

    Se estudia en este texto un yacimiento singular que ofrece importantes novedades, tanto por su reocupación discontinua en épocas distintas (con una secuencia amplia que cubre desde el Neolítico a la Edad del Hierro, como por su aparente funcionalidad ritual en todas ellas, y la posible identificación de una estructura funeraria de la Edad del Hierro de Galicia. Al mismo tiempo, este trabajo se plantea como caso de estudio que permite definir un procedimiento para reconstituir la secuencia y función de yacimientos abiertos de la Prehistoria Reciente de Galicia caracterizados por no presentar estratigrafía vertical. Este problema se solventa con el entrecruzamiento de diferentes técnicas de análisis basadas todas ellas en un registro de excavación de calidad que se sirve de análisis de cultura material, radiocarbónicos, distributivos, sedimentológicos y edafológicos.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals the Trace of the Ancient Settlers of a Violently Devastated Late Bronze and Iron Ages Village.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Carolina; Baeta, Miriam; Cardoso, Sergio; Palencia-Madrid, Leire; García-Romero, Noemí; Llanos, Armando; M de Pancorbo, Marian

    2016-01-01

    La Hoya (Alava, Basque Country) was one of the most important villages of the Late Bronze and Iron Ages of the north of the Iberian Peninsula, until it was violently devastated around the 4th century and abandoned in the 3rd century B.C. Archaeological evidences suggest that descendants from La Hoya placed their new settlement in a nearby hill, which gave rise to the current village of Laguardia. In this study, we have traced the genetic imprints of the extinct inhabitants of La Hoya through the analysis of maternal lineages. In particular, we have analyzed the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region of 41 human remains recovered from the archaeological site for comparison with a sample of 51 individuals from the geographically close present-day population of Laguardia, as well as 56 individuals of the general population of the province of Alava, where the archaeological site and Laguardia village are located. MtDNA haplotypes were successfully obtained in 25 out of 41 ancient samples, and 14 different haplotypes were identified. The major mtDNA subhaplogroups observed in La Hoya were H1, H3, J1 and U5, which show a distinctive frequency pattern in the autochthonous populations of the north of the Iberian Peninsula. Approximate Bayesian Computation analysis was performed to test the most likely model for the local demographic history. The results did not sustain a genealogical continuity between Laguardia and La Hoya at the haplotype level, although factors such as sampling effects, recent admixture events, and genetic bottlenecks need to be considered. Likewise, the highly similar subhaplogroup composition detected between La Hoya and Laguardia and Alava populations do not allow us to reject a maternal genetic continuity in the human groups of the area since at least the Iron Age to present times. Broader analyses, based on a larger collection of samples and genetic markers, would be required to study fine-scale population events in these human groups.

  17. Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for obesity and diabetes type 2 in women at late reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grineva, E N; Karonova, T; Micheeva, E; Belyaeva, O; Nikitina, I L

    2013-07-01

    It was suggested that glucose metabolism and body fat content depend on serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. We studied 320 healthy women at late reproductive age of 40 to 52 years old (mean age 46.1±4.5) from St. Petersburg (North-West region of Russia). 25(ОН)D levels were from 19.4 to 134.0 nMol/L (mean 52.9±22.7). Vitamin D deficiency (lower than 50 nMol/L) and insufficiency (50-75 nMol/L) was revealed in 59.1% and 27.8% of women, respectively. The study showed that low 25(OH)D levels were associated with obesity (r=-0.35, p$#X003C0.01), increased plasma glucose levels after OGTT (r=-0.31, p$#X003C0.01) and decreased insulin sensitivity index (r=-0.28, p$#X003C0.01). We found that 25(OH)D levels below 50 nMol/L were associated with obesity risk (OR 2.25[1.05-3.95], CI 95%) but not with risk of impaired glucose metabolism (1.07[0.54-2.12],CI95%). Our results showed that vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent in the population of healthy women. Low 25(OH)D levels correlated with high body fat, glucose levels and decreased insulin sensitivity. We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is a potential risk factor for obesity and development of insulin resistance leading to diabetes type 2.

  18. The pots and potters of Assyria : technology and organization of production, ceramics sequence and vessel function at Late Bronze Age Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duistermaat, Kim

    2007-01-01

    “The Pots and Potters of Assyria” is a comprehensive discussion of all evidence relating to pottery production from the Late Bronze Age site of Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. Technological, morphological, stylistic and archaeological data are integrated into the understanding of pottery production and use.

  19. A high-resolution climatic change since the Late Glacial Age inferred from multi-proxy of sediments in Qinghai Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Ji; LIU Xingqi; Ryo Matsumoto; WANG Sumin; YANG Xiangdong

    2005-01-01

    Based on multi-proxy analysis of pollen, carbonate, TOC, TN and δ13C of organic matters, a high-resolution climatic evolution of Qinghai Lake since the Late Glacial Age is reconstructed. The results indicate that the boundary between the Last Glacial Maximum and the Late Glacial Age is at about 18.2 cal.ka BP. The warm and wet period, which began at about 15.4 cal.ka BP, culminated at 7.4 cal.ka BP and came to its end at about 4.5 cal.ka BP. After that, the climate gradually became cold and dry. The multi-proxy analysis indicates that the climate fluctuated greatly during the transitional period from the Late glacial Age to the Holocene, and this is in good accordance with that reflected by deep sea cores of North Atlantic, ice cores of Greenland, lake sediments in Europe, loess sequences and Guliya ice core in China. The climatic evolutional characteristic of the Qinghai Lake since the Late Glacial Age shows that the driving force of the East-Asia Monsoon correlates with solar radiation on the ten-thousand-year scale.

  20. Hot Executive Function Following Moderate-to-Late Preterm Birth: Altered Delay Discounting at 4 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Morris, Alyssa R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm…

  1. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller KL

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Katja Linda Waller,1,2 Erik Lykke Mortensen,2,3 Kirsten Avlund,2,3,†, Merete Osler,3,4 Birgitte Fagerlund,5 Martin Lauritzen,2,6 Steen Gammeltoft,7 Poul Jennum1,2 1Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, Clinic of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Center for Healthy Aging, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Research Center for Prevention and Health, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; 5Center for Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CNSR, Lundbeck Foundation Center for Clinical Intervention and Neuropsychiatric Schizophrenia Research (CINS, Mental Health Center Glostrup, Glostrup, Denmark; 6Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark; 7Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, Denmark †Kirsten Avlund passed away on June 15, 2012 Abstract: Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were recruited from a population-based cohort based on previous cognitive assessments in young adulthood and late midlife. The sample included 24 cognitively high-functioning and 26 cognitively impaired participants. Saliva samples were collected every 4 hours over a 24-hour period and analyzed for cortisol and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than in the high-functioning group (−4.6 pg/mL, 95% CI: −7.84, −1.36, P=0.006. The 24

  2. Devonian conodonts from the Foča–Prača Paleozoic complex (Durmitor Nappe, southeastern Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Jurkovšek

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conodont study of the Crna Rijeka borehole CR-17, positioned in the frontal part of the Durmitor Nappe (Foča – Prača Paleozoic complex, SE Bosnia and Herzegovina is presented. The obtained fauna indicates an Early-Middle Devonian age and due to poor preservation an identification at a generic level is possible only. The recovered conodont elements have a high Color Alteration Index (CAI = 6,5–7 indicating a degree of metamorphism corresponding to a temperature interval from 440 °C to 720 °C.

  3. The earliest records of internally stratified cyanobacterial and algal lichens from the Lower Devonian of the Welsh Borderland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honegger, Rosmarie; Edwards, Dianne; Axe, Lindsey

    2013-01-01

    Lichenization is assumed to be a very ancient mode of fungal nutrition, but fossil records are rare. Here we describe two fragments of exceptionally preserved, probably charred, lichen thalli with internal stratification. Cyanolichenomycites devonicus has a cyanobacterial and Chlorolichenomycites salopensis a unicellular, presumably green algal photobiont. Fruiting bodies are missing. Cyanolichenomycites devonicus forms asexual spores in a pycnidium. All specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy techniques. The fossils were extracted by maceration. Extant lichens and free-living cyanobacteria were either experimentally charcoalified for comparison or conventionally prepared. Based on their septate hyphal structure, both specimens are tentatively interpreted as representatives of the Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota). Their presence in 415 million yr (Myr) old rocks from the Welsh Borderland predates existing Late Cretaceous records of pycnidial conidiomata by some 325 Myr and Triassic records of lichens with broadly similar organization by some 195 Myr. These fossils represent the oldest known record of lichens with symbionts and anatomy as typically found in morphologically advanced taxa today. The latter does not apply to Winfrenatia reticulata, the enigmatic crustose lichen fossil from the Lower Devonian, nor to presumed lichen-like organisms such as the Cambrian Farghera robusta or to the Lower Devonian Spongiophyton minutissimum.

  4. A new euphyllophyte Kunia venusta gen.et sp.nov.from the Middle Devonian of Yunnan, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cong-Hui XIONG; De-Ming WANG; Qi WANG; Mei-Cen MENG

    2012-01-01

    Kunia venusta gen.et sp.nov.is reported from the late Middle Devonian (Givetian) Haikou Formation near Kunming City,Yunnan Province,China.This plant has three orders of naked axes that divide pseudomonopodially.The second- and third-order axes occur in a helix.Fertile appendages are distantly spaced and helically inserted to the third-order axis; they comprise equally dichotomous branches terminated by two clusters of paired and fusiform sporangia.Sterile appendages are dichotomous and distally recurved.A comparison is made with the basal euphyllophytes including the trimerophytes,cladoxylopsids,zygopterids,stauropterids,and some relevant genera of uncertain affinity.The new plant resembles them in dichotomous appendages with terminal elongated sporangia,but differs mainly in the three orders of pseudomonopodial axes bearing helical laterals.It is thus placed in the Euphyllophytina as incertae sedis.It is suggested that an evolutionary divergence in the branching pattern and appendage morphology might have occurred in the Middle Devonian euphyllophytes,that is,maintaining three dimensions versus yielding more or less planation.

  5. Exhalites Associated with Pb-Zn Mineralization in Devonian System and Their Prospecting Implications,Qinling,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1991-01-01

    The exhalation origin of the ankerite-siliceous rocks associated with Pb-Zn mineralizations in the Devonian system of Qinling is discussed in the light of geologic setting,sedimentary-tectonic environment,lithological and chemical characteristics.On this basis,criteria for distinguishing them and their potential role as an indicator in prospecting are described.Ankerite-siliceous rocks are developed in the strata-bound Pb-Zn polymetallic belt in the Devonian system of Qinling.They are microcrystalline,dark grey and compact in appearance and are commonly carbonaceous,As a persistent ore-bearing horizon in the region,their genetic relation to the Pb-Zn deposits in generally accepted.However,a consensus has yet to be reached among geologists concerning their origein as a product of hydrothermal metasomtism at the late stage of sedimentation or as exhalite resulting from submarine exhalation.Accumulating evidence from direct observations on modern submarine hydrothermal systems strongly indicates that seafloor exhalation is a much more common geologic process than previously thought nd its metallogenic implications have long been overlooked.Characteristics of the ankerite-siliceous rocks as a product of exhalation and their significance as a guide in prospecting are described on the basis or geological setting,lithology,lithochemistry,REE,and isotopic and trace element features.

  6. 18 CFR 270.303 - Natural gas produced from Devonian shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Natural gas produced... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.303 Natural gas produced from Devonian shale. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is produced from Devonian...

  7. Sedimentology and facies analysis of Devonian Rocks, southern district of Mackenzie, North West Territories, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer Drees, N.C.

    1989-01-01

    The Devonian rock succession in the southern part of the District of Mackenzie consists of interbedded evaporites and carbonates, fossiliferous carbonates and shales. Inthe study areathe Devonian succession unconformably overlies LowerPaleozoic orPrecambrian strata and thins in a northeastward direc

  8. Cognitive ability in late adolescence and disability pension in middle age: follow-up of a national cohort of Swedish males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörberg, Alma; Lundin, Andreas; Allebeck, Peter; Melin, Bo; Falkstedt, Daniel; Hemmingsson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Low cognitive ability in late adolescence has previously been shown to be associated with disability pension (DP) in young adulthood. However, most DP's are granted later in working life, and the mechanisms of the association are not fully understood. We aimed to investigate the association between cognitive ability in late adolescence and DP at ages 40-59, and investigate the role of individual and socioeconomic factors. Information on cognitive ability, health status, personality aspects and health behaviours at age 18-20 was obtained from the 1969-70 conscription cohort, comprising 49,321 Swedish men. Data on DP's 1991-2008 was obtained from the Longitudinal Database of Education, Income and Employment. Information on socioeconomic and work-related factors in childhood and adulthood was obtained from national sociodemographic databases. Hazard ratios for DP during follow-up were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models. We found a graded relationship between cognitive ability in late adolescence and DP in middle age. One step decrease on the nine-point stanine scale of cognitive ability was associated with a crude hazard ratio of 1.26 (95% CI 1.24-1.27). Socioeconomic and work-related circumstances in adulthood explained much of the association, but factors measured already in late adolescence also showed importance. The findings suggest an accumulation of risks over the life course. Although attenuated, the graded relationship remained after adjusting for all factors.

  9. Cardiorespiratory Fitness is Associated with Executive Control in Late-Middle-Aged Adults: An Event-Related (De synchronization (ERD/ERS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to determine whether cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive function in late-middle-aged adults from event-related desynchronization (ERD and event-related synchronization (ERS perspectives. Late-middle-aged adults were categorized into either the high-fitness group or the low-fitness group based on their estimated cardiorespiratory fitness values. The participants completed the Stroop Test, which is comprised of incongruent and neutral conditions, while the brain activities were recoded. The alpha ERD and ERS values based on the equation proposed by Pfurtscheller (1977 were further calculated. The results revealed that the adults with higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness demonstrated superior Stroop performance, regardless of Stroop congruency. While these high-fitness adults had less positive upper alpha ERD values in the later epoch window compared to their lower-fitness counterparts, they had greater lower alpha ERD values in the early epoch window. Additionally, in the late epoch window, the high-fitness adults showed less positive lower alpha ERD values on neutral, but not incongruent condition, relative to their low-fitness counterparts. These findings suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness of the late-middle-aged adults is positively associated with cognitive functioning, especially the cognitive processes related to the inhibition of task-irrelevant information and those processes required the devotion of greater amounts of attentional resources to a given task.

  10. First record of Scelidotheriinae Ameghino (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae from the Chasicoan Stage/Age (late Miocene of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miño-Boilini, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available he subfamily Scelidotheriinae constitutes a group of mylodontids widely represented in the Quaternary of South America; however, the fossil record of the Neogene taxa is still scarce. In the present paper, a new specimen of this subfamily, corresponding to a right partial hemimandible with complete dental series, is reported. The material was recovered from the lower levels of the Arenisca Albardón Member of the Loma de Las Tapias Formation (San Juan Province, Argentina, assigned to the late Miocene. This finding represents the first record of a member of the Scelidotheriinae from the Chasicoan Stage/Age and provides new information about the anatomical characteristics and the geographic distribution of the Neogene representatives of this subfamily.La subfamilia Scelidotheriinae constituye un grupo de milodóntidos ampliamente representados en el Cuaternario de América del Sur. Sin embargo, el registro fósil de los taxa del Neógeno es aun escaso. En este trabajo se presenta un nuevo ejemplar de esta subfamilia, correspondiente a un fragmento de hemimandíbula derecha con la serie dentaria completa. El material fue recuperado de los niveles inferiores del Miembro Arenisca Albardón de la Formación Loma de Las Tapias (Provincia de San Juan, Argentina, asignados al Mioceno tardío. Este hallazgo representa el primer registro de un Scelidotheriinae para el Piso/Edad Chasiquense y aporta nueva información sobre las características anatómicas y la distribución geográfica de los representantes neógenos de esta subfamilia.

  11. The drowning of a carbonate platform: an example from the Devonian-Carboniferous of the southwestern Holy Cross Mountains, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczewski, M.; Belka, Z.; Skompski, S.

    1996-10-01

    The broad Middle Devonian carbonate platform of the Holy Cross Mountains was fragmented during the Frasnian and afterwards submerged as isolated blocks and transformed into a topographic depression. The section exposed in the Ostrowka quarry illustrates a well-documented drowning of the last small fragment (seamount) of this carbonate platform which submerged during Late Devonian and Early Carboniferous times. The recognized facies succession reflects a progressive, stepwise lowering of the sediment surface through time from a peritidal, lagoonal environment to a deep-water, anoxic basin. The Frasnian shallow-water carbonate platform is represented by lagoonal facies with peritidal sediments. Small-scale deepening-upward cycles punctuated with emersion surfaces are a feature of this stage. They resulted from a combination and continuous balance between carbonate production, subsidence and low-order, eustatic sea-level fluctuations. The carbonate platform aggraded at rates around 100-125 m/Ma. The shallow-water peritidal carbonates are separated from the post-platform deposits by an unconformity surface developed during subaerial exposure. The flooding of the faulted block of Galezice in the pre-late marginifera time and the subsequent initial drowning resulted primarily from a rapid sea-level rise. Small dimension of the seamount and its cemented upper surface were the most important factors that facilitated the sediment removal and thus suppressed the sediment accumulation. A condensed section was deposited on the top of the seamount. Its stratigraphic succession and rare cephalopod storm beds account for a model of redistribution of sediment over the swell, disintegrated by small-scale faulting. During drowning, the seamount traversed down through the photic zone at an average rate not higher than 20-25 m/Ma. Transformation of the swell into a basin accelerated in the late Tournaisian anchoralis Zone. It is manifested by an increase of deposition rate and by a

  12. Action Imitation at 1 ½ Years is Better Than Pointing Gesture in Predicting Late Development of Language Production at 3 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Imac M.; Ystrom, Eivind; Schjølberg, Synnve; Pons, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether poor pointing gestures and imitative actions at 18 months of age uniquely predicted late language production at 36 months, beyond the role of poor language at 18 months of age. Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were utilized. Maternal reports of the children’s nonverbal skills and language were gathered for 42,517 children aged 18 months and for 28,107 of the same children at 36 months. Panel analysis of latent variables revealed that imitative actions, language comprehension, and language production uniquely contributed to predicting late development of language production, while pointing gestures did not. It is suggested that the results can be explained by underlying symbolic representational skills at 18 months. PMID:23033814

  13. Metal finds at the Middle and Late Bronze Age settlement of Scoglio del Tonno (Taranto, Apulia: results of archaeometallurgical analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bietti Sestieri, Anna Maria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Scoglio del Tonno (Taranto is a settlement with a strategic location in one of the best natural harbours of the Italian Peninsula. During the Late Bronze Age it was an emporion, a privileged and permanent landing place for ships sailing between the Aegean and Italian Peninsulas. Crucibles and a number of metal artefacts were found during its excavation (1899, Quagliati 1900; Säflund 1939; this work reports the quantitative analysis of these metal artefacts by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. All are made of copper alloys except for one piece, an eyelet pin made of a gold-silver-copper alloy. The examination of these objects and the analytical data obtained help reconstruct the functions of this site. Metal was systematically accumulated at Scoglio del Tonno, presumably to be shipped towards the eastern Mediterranean. The site highlights the exponential increase in northern Italian metal production during the Recent Bronze Age (ca. 14th-13th c. BC.

    Scoglio del Tonno (Taranto es un yacimiento con una posición estratégica sobre uno de los mejores puertos naturales de la península italiana. Durante el Bronce Tardío fue un emporion, lugar permanente de contactos entre el Egeo y la península italiana. Crisoles y diversos objetos de metal recuperados en las antiguas excavaciones (1899 han sido recientemente analizados con ED-XRF. Excepto una pieza (una aguja de una aleación de oro, plata y cobre, todos los objetos son aleaciones de base cobre. El estudio de los objetos de metal, incluido los datos de su composición, aporta elementos útiles para una reconstrucción de las funciones de este lugar. En Scoglio del Tonno el metal era sistemáticamente almacenado, presumiblemente para ser enviado hacia el Mediterráneo oriental. El yacimiento ilustra también el aumento exponencial de la producción de metal en el norte de Italia durante el Bronce Reciente (siglos XIV y XIII a.C..

  14. Black Mats, Spring-Fed Streams, and Late-Glacial-Age Recharge in the Southern Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Forester, R.M.; Pratt, W.L.; Carter, C.

    1998-01-01

    Black mats are prominent features of the late Pleistocene and Holocene stratigraphic record in the southern Great Basin. Faunal, geochemical, and sedimentological evidence shows that the black mats formed in several microenvironments related to spring discharge, ranging from wet meadows to shallow ponds. Small land snails such as Gastrocopta tappaniana and Vertigo berryi are the most common mollusk taxa present. Semiaquatic and aquatic taxa are less abundant and include Catinellids, Fossaria parva, Gyraulus parvus, and others living today in and around perennial seeps and ponds. The ostracodes Cypridopsis okeechobi and Scottia tumida, typical of seeps and low-discharge springs today, as well as other taxa typical of springs and wetlands, are common in the black mats. Several new species that lived in the saturated subsurface also are present, but lacustrine ostracodes are absent. The ??13C values of organic matter in the black mats range from -12 to -26???, reflecting contributions of tissue from both C3 (sedges, most shrubs and trees) and C4 (saltbush, saltgrass) plants. Carbon-14 dates on the humate fraction of 55 black mats fall between 11,800 to 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. to modern. The total absence of mats in our sample between 6300 and 2300 14C yr B.P. likely reflects increased aridity associated with the mid-Holocene Altithermal. The oldest black mats date to 11,800-11,600 14C yr B.P., and the peak in the 14C black mat distribution falls at ???10,000 14C yr B.P. As the formation of black mats is spring related, their abundance reflects refilling of valley aquifers starting no later than 11,800 and peaking after 11,000 14C yrB.P. Reactivation of spring-fed channels shortly before 11,200 14C yr B.P. is also apparent in the stratigraphic records from the Las Vegas and Pahrump Valleys. This age distribution suggests that black mats and related spring-fed channels in part may have formed in response to Younger Dryas (YD)-age recharge in the region. However, the

  15. A Novel Method for Predicting Late Genitourinary Toxicity After Prostate Radiation Therapy and the Need for Age-Based Risk-Adapted Dose Constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Awad A. [Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Egleston, Brian [Department of Biostatistics, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Alcantara, Pino [Department of Radiation Oncology, Hospital Universitario Clínico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Li, Linna [Department of Radiation Oncology, Bryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania (United States); Pollack, Alan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Horwitz, Eric M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Background: There are no well-established normal tissue sparing dose–volume histogram (DVH) criteria that limit the risk of urinary toxicity from prostate radiation therapy (RT). The aim of this study was to determine which criteria predict late toxicity among various DVH parameters when contouring the entire solid bladder and its contents versus the bladder wall. The area under the histogram curve (AUHC) was also analyzed. Methods and Materials: From 1993 to 2000, 503 men with prostate cancer received 3-dimensional conformal RT (median follow-up time, 71 months). The whole bladder and the bladder wall were contoured in all patients. The primary endpoint was grade ≥2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity occurring ≥3 months after completion of RT. Cox regressions of time to grade ≥2 toxicity were estimated separately for the entire bladder and bladder wall. Concordance probability estimates (CPE) assessed model discriminative ability. Before training the models, an external random test group of 100 men was set aside for testing. Separate analyses were performed based on the mean age (≤ 68 vs >68 years). Results: Age, pretreatment urinary symptoms, mean dose (entire bladder and bladder wall), and AUHC (entire bladder and bladder wall) were significant (P<.05) in multivariable analysis. Overall, bladder wall CPE values were higher than solid bladder values. The AUHC for bladder wall provided the greatest discrimination for late bladder toxicity when compared with alternative DVH points, with CPE values of 0.68 for age ≤68 years and 0.81 for age >68 years. Conclusion: The AUHC method based on bladder wall volumes was superior for predicting late GU toxicity. Age >68 years was associated with late grade ≥2 GU toxicity, which suggests that risk-adapted dose constraints based on age should be explored.

  16. Aging, Disablement, and Dying: Using Time-as-Process and Time-as-Resources Metrics to Chart Late-Life Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis; Fauth, Elizabeth; Zarit, Steven; Malmberg, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Time is a vehicle that can be used to represent aging-related processes and to index the amount of aging-related resources or burdens individuals have accumulated. Using data on cognitive (memory) performance from two Swedish studies of the elderly (OCTO and OCTO-TWIN), we illustrate how time-as-process and time-as-resources/burdens time metrics can be articulated and incorporated within a growth curve modeling framework. Our results highlight the possibilities for representing the contributions of primary, secondary, and tertiary aspects of aging to late-life changes in cognitive and other domains of functioning.

  17. The Upper Devonian orbital cyclostratigraphy and numerical dating conodont zones from Guangxi,South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; Yiming; XU; Ran; TANG; Zhongdao; LI; Baohua

    2005-01-01

    The hierarchically organized laminae, bundles, bundlesets and superbundlesets which correspond to a sub-Milankovitch, obliquity or precession, eccentricity and long eccentricity cyclothems, respectively, have been distinguished from the Upper Devonian Frasnian-Famennian (F-F) transitional carbonate successions deposited in the carbonate-basin and slope facies of Guangxi, South China. The durations of cyclothems are 8000-10000a, 16667a or 33333a, 100000a and 400000a, respectively. The ratio of eccentricity to precession, eccentricity to obliquity, and long eccentricity to eccentricity is 1:6,1:3 and 1 : 4 in the Devonian,respectively. Orbital cyclostratigraphical studies show that the durations of the conodont falsiovalis Zone, transitans Zone, punctata Zone, Lower hassi Zone, Upper hassi Zone, jamieae Zone,Lower rhenana Zone, Upper rhenana Zone,linguiformis Zone, Lower triangularis Zone, Middle triangularis Zone and Upper triangularis Zone are 0.4, 0.4, 0.4, 0.3, 0.4, 0.2, 0.8, 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, 0.3and 0.3 Ma from bottom to top, respectively, and the duration of the Frasnian is 4.3 Ma. The conodont is the normal marine organism of the latest mass extinction (the latest linguiformis Zone)and the first recovery (including the whole Lower triangularis and Middle triangularis Zone) in the F-F transition. The conodont mass extinction and recovery lasted 200000-100000a and 0.6 Ma,respectively. We consider that average durations of the fossil zones calculated by reported numerical ages divided by fossil zone numbers within a stage or series or system cannot discovery complications and non-uniformity of evolutionary organisms and environments.

  18. Putative cryptoendolithic life in Devonian pillow basalt, Rheinisches Schiefergebirge, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, J; Bach, W; Behrens, K; Reitner, J

    2008-03-01

    Middle Devonian (Givetian) pillow basalt and inter-pillow breccia from the Rheinisches Schiefergebirge in Germany were found to contain putative biogenic filaments that indicate that life once proliferated within these volcanic rocks. Mineralized filaments are found in carbonate amygdules (vesicles filled by carbonate cement) in the volcanic rock, where they started to form on the internal surface of the once water-filled vesicles. Biogenicity of the filaments is indicated by (1) their size and shape resembling modern microorganisms including a constant diameter along the length of curved filaments, (2) their independence of crystal faces or cleavage planes, (3) branching patterns reminiscent of modern microorganisms, and (4) their spatial clustering and preferential occurrence close to the margin of pillows and in the inter-pillow breccias. A time lag between the deposition of pillow basalt and the activity of endoliths is revealed by the sequence of carbonate cements filling the amygdules. The putative filamentous microorganisms thrived after the formation of early fibrous rim cement, but before later equant calcite spar filled most of the remaining porosity. Microbial clay authigenesis analogous to the encrustation of prokaryotes in modern iron-rich environments led to the preservation of filaments. The filaments predominantly consist of the clay minerals chamosite and illite. Having dwelled in water-filled vesicles, the Devonian basalt-hosted filaments apparently represent cryptoendoliths. This finding suggests that a previously unrecognized niche for life exists within volcanic rock.

  19. New porcellioidean gastropods from early Devonian of Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory, Canada, with notes on their early phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.; Lenz, A.C.; Manda, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a description of new gastropods belonging to the superfamily Porcellioidea (Vetigastropoda) from the richly diverse Lower Devonian gastropod fauna of the Road River Formation in the Royal Creek area, Yukon Territory. This fauna belongs to Western Canada Province of the Old World Realm. The Pragian species Porcellia (Porcellia) yukonensis n. sp. and Porcellia (Paraporcellia) sp. represent the oldest presently known members of subgenera Porcellia (Porcellia) and Porcellia (Paraporcellia). Their simple shell ornamentation fits well with an earlier described evolutionary trend in shell morphology of the Porcellinae. Late Pragian to early Emsian Perryconcha pulchra n. gen. and n. sp. is the first member of the Porcellioidea bearing a row of tremata on adult teleoconch whorls. The occurrence of this shell feature in the Porcellioidea is additional evidence that the evolution of the apertural slit was much more complicated than has been proposed in classical models of Paleozoic gastropod evolution. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  20. Sex and age trends in Australia's suicide rate over the last decade: Something is still seriously wrong with men in middle and late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Richard A

    2016-11-30

    Despite significant investment in mental health and suicide intervention strategies in Australia, the extent of change in suicide rates over the last decade is unclear. This paper analyses sex and age trajectories in suicide rates over the last decade in Australia. Age Standardized Suicide Rates from 2004 to 2013 were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Statistics and reflect rates of suicide per 100,000 within age and sex cohorts. Age-related suicide rates were consistent over the last decade. For both males and females, there were increases in mid-life suicide rates before declining around 55-65 years of age. However, rates of suicide in men increased in late-life with rates for those aged 70-79 comparable with those in mid-life. Rates amongst men aged 85+ were consistently the highest rates over the decade. Positively, there was decline in suicide rates among younger men aged 20-34 years. However, more consistently, for both sexes across most age cohorts, there were either increases or no change in suicide rate. Apart from declines in younger-adult males, analysis of age-standardized suicide rates indicate no improvement in suicide rates. High suicide rates amongst middle-aged and older males remain a significant public health issue that needs to be addressed.

  1. The pots and potters of Assyria: technology and organization of production, ceramics sequence and vessel function at Late Bronze Age Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Duistermaat, Kim

    2007-01-01

    “The Pots and Potters of Assyria” is a comprehensive discussion of all evidence relating to pottery production from the Late Bronze Age site of Tell Sabi Abyad, Syria. Technological, morphological, stylistic and archaeological data are integrated into the understanding of pottery production and use. The pottery itself and its chronological sequence, the shaping and firing techniques, raw materials, wasters and unfired pottery are presented. In addition, workshops and their layout, tools, as w...

  2. Electron microprobe chemical ages of monazite from Qinling Group in the Qinling Orogen:Evidence for Late Pan-African metamorphism?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Qiang; CHEN Nengsong; WANG Qinyan; SUN Min; WANG Xinyu; LI Xiaoyan; SHU Guiming

    2006-01-01

    Electron microprobe chemical dating was carried out on monazites enclosed in two generations of mineral paragenesis of St + Ky + Grt and Sil + And + Grt + St, respectively, from the Qinling Group. Two different ages, 520±23 Ma and 435±9 Ma,were obtained from these monazites. This indicates that the Qinling Group experienced a metamorphism during the Early Cambrian, which is probably in response to the Late Pan-African subduction-accretion tectonothermal event.

  3. U-Pb Detrital Zircon Geochronologic Constraints on Depositional Age and Sediment Source Terrains of the Late Paleozoic Tepuel-Genoa Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, N. P.; Montanez, I. P.; Isbell, J.; Gulbranson, E. L.; Wimpenny, J.; Yin, Q. Z.; Cúneo, N. R.; Pagani, M. A.; Taboada, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) is the longest-lived icehouse of the Phanerozoic and the only time a metazoan dominated and vegetated world transitioned from an icehouse climate into a greenhouse. Despite several decades of research, the timing, extent of glaciation and the location of ice centers remain unresolved, which prohibits reconstruction of ice volume. The Permo-Carboniferous sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, Patagonia contains a near complete record of sedimentation from the lower Carboniferous through lower Permian. Outsized clasts, thin pebble-rich diamictites and slumps represent the last of the late Paleozoic glacially influenced deep-water marine sediments in the Mojón de Hierro Fm. and the Paleozoic of Patagonia. U-Pb analysis of detrital zircons separated from slope sediments reveal groupings (20 myr bins, n≥5 zircons) with peak depositional ages of 420, 540 to 660 and 1040 Ma. Zircon age populations recovered from the Mojón de Hierro Fm. compare well with bedrock ages of the Deseado Massif of SE Patagonia, suggesting this may be a potential source of sediments. The maximum depositional age of the sediments is 306.05 ± 3.7 Ma (2σ) as determined by the median age of the two youngest concordant zircons that overlap in error. The youngest zircon from the analysis yields a 238U/206Pb age of 301.3 ± 4.5 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 2.3). Younger zircons from the analysis compare well with the age of granite bedrock exposed along the basin margin to the E-NE suggesting they may reflect a more proximal source. These data, which indicate a maximum age of late Carboniferous for the Mojón de Hierro Fm, provide the first geochemical constraints for the timing of final deposition of glaciomarine sediments in the Tepuel-Genoa Basin, and contributes to the biostratigraphic correlation of the late Paleozoic succession in Patagonia with other key LPIA basins that has thus far been hindered by faunal provincialism.

  4. Thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Joseph A.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Repetski, John E.; Hayba, Daniel O.

    2012-01-01

    Much of the oil and gas in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins of eastern North America is thought to be derived from Devonian shale that is within these basins (for example, Milici and others, 2003; Swezey, 2002, 2008, 2009; Swezey and others, 2005, 2007). As the Devonian strata were buried by younger sediments, the Devonian shale was subjected to great temperature and pressure, and in some areas the shale crossed a thermal maturity threshold and began to generate oil. With increasing burial (increasing temperature and pressure), some of this oil-generating shale crossed another thermal maturity threshold and began to generate natural gas. Knowledge of the thermal maturity of the Devonian shale is therefore useful for predicting the occurrence and the spatial distribution of oil and gas within these three basins. This publication presents a thermal maturity map of Devonian shale in the Illinois, Michigan, and Appalachian basins. The map shows outlines of the three basins (dashed black lines) and an outline of Devonian shale (solid black lines). The basin outlines are compiled from Thomas and others (1989) and Swezey (2008, 2009). The outline of Devonian shale is a compilation from Freeman (1978), Thomas and others (1989), de Witt and others (1993), Dart (1995), Nicholson and others (2004), Dicken and others (2005a,b), and Stoeser and others (2005).

  5. Paired proglacial lake sediment and cosmogenic ages reveal the timing of Late Glacial and Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Huaguruncho Massif of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansell, Nathan; Rodbell, Donald; Licciardi, Joseph; Schweinsberg, Avriel; Huss, Elizabeth; Finkel, Robert; Zimmerman, Susan

    2015-04-01

    The pairing of cosmogenic ages on moraine boulders and radiocarbon-dated lake sediments provides a powerful tool for reconstructing past climates based on former ice positions. Surface exposure ages (10Be) and clastic sediment records from a proglacial lake at Nevado Huaguruncho, Peru, document the waxing and waning of tropical alpine glaciers in the Eastern Cordillera during the last ca. 15 ka. Moraine ages indicate that glaciers were advanced at ca. 14.1 ± 0.4 ka, a pattern that is consistent with cooling associated with the Antarctic Cold Reversal. Yanacocha is located immediately upvalley from this 14.1 ka moraine, and lake sediments and cosmogenic ages also suggest that glaciers advanced just prior to, or at the start of, the Younger Dryas from 13.1 to 12.5 ka. Lake sediments and cosmogenic ages then indicate that glaciers retreated after ca. 12.5 ka, and again advanced during the early Holocene between ca. 12 and 9 ka. Short-lived increases in clastic lake sediment values suggest that ice margins advanced briefly at times through the middle Holocene from ca. 8 to 4 ka, and the lack of moraine boulders dating to this interval suggest that glaciers were less extensive than during the late Holocene. Lake sediments suggest that glaciers experienced a relatively limited advance at the start of the late Holocene from ca. 4 to 2 ka, followed by retreat until the start of the Medieval Climate Anomaly at ca. 1.1 ka. Clastic sediment values in the lake sediments then suggest that ice began advancing during the MCA, and the most pronounced Holocene advance at Huaguruncho occurred during the Little Ice Age (ca. 0.4 to 0.2 ka) under colder and wetter conditions. The pattern of glacier variability in Huaguruncho during the Late Glacial and Holocene provides further evidence that tropical Atlantic Ocean conditions drove much of the observed temperature and precipitation changes along the Eastern Cordillera.

  6. A Devonian to Carboniferous intra-oceanic subduction system in Western Junggar, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Han, Chunming; Mao, Qigui; Ao, Songjian; Guo, Qianqian; Ma, Chong

    2011-07-01

    The Devonian and Carboniferous rock assemblages in Western Junggar, southern Altaids, include ophiolitic mélanges and coherent units. At Baijiantan, Yeyagou and Dagun Devonian gabbros and one group of volcanic rocks (type I lava) generally crop out as blocks in a matrix of ultramafic rocks and/or mudstone. They have a depleted light rare earth element (LREE) and mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-like signature with a small negative Nb anomaly, suggesting formation in a back-arc basin. Another group of volcanic rocks (type II lava) from Baijiantan, Yeyagou, Western Karamay and Maliya includes alkaline basalt, basanite, andesite, dacite and trachyte that contain microphenocrysts of clinopyroxene-plagioclase, amygdales filled with chalcedony and calcite, and accessory pyrite and ilmenite. The type II lavas are further subdivided into five sub-types: (1) Type II1 lava is strongly enriched in LREE with incompatible trace element ratios similar to oceanic island basalt (OIB), suggesting derivation from enriched mantle. (2) Type II2 lava and tuff are slightly LREE-enriched, with a marked negative Nb anomaly and Th/Yb-enrichment indicating that they were generated in a supra-subduction zone (SSZ). (3) Type II3 lava is also moderately enriched in LREE suggesting derivation from a more-enriched MORB mantle. (4) Type II4 lava is enriched in LREE and has high Nb/Yb values close to those of OIB. It is extensively depleted in Nb suggesting a source containing a mixture of enriched and SSZ mantle. (5) Type II5 lava has MORB-like REE patterns, and Nb/Yb and Th/Yb ratios. Based on field structural data, and the contemporaneity of the Baogutu adakite, a high-Mg diorite dike and the Miaoergou charnockite, these enriched and depleted magmatic features suggest generation in an intra-oceanic subduction zone influenced by ridge-trench interaction. The Altaids in Western Junggar are characterized by multiple intra-oceanic subduction systems, which may have continued to operate to the late

  7. Early and late onset depression in young and middle aged adults : Differential symptomatology, characteristics and risk factors?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korten, Nicole C. M.; Comijs, Hannie C.; Lamers, Femke; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Early onset depression (EOD) and late onset depression (LOD) may be different phenomena. In this study, differences between EOD and LOD in symptomatology, psychiatric characteristics and psychosocial/somatic factors were examined. Methods: Baseline data were from 1104 participants with a

  8. 西准噶尔玛依勒山一带早泥盆世生物化石的发现及其意义%Discovery and significance of Early Devonian fossils in the Mayileshan area,western Junggar,Xinjiang,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏荣珠; 董挨管; 李嵩; 王瑞军; 柴金钟

    2011-01-01

    新疆北部西准噶尔地区玛依勒山一带泥盆纪火山碎屑岩、陆源碎屑沉积岩建造较发育,以往资料一般将其划为中泥盆统.本次工作在该套地层中发现了大量属于早泥盆世的化石,为该套地层的时代确定提供了依据.根据岩石地层单位将该区泥盆系划分为下泥盆统马拉苏组和中泥盒统库鲁木迪组.%In the Mayileshan area, western Junggar, northern Xinjiang, Devonian volcaniclastic rocks and the construction of clastic sedimentary rocks are comparative development. In the previous data, they generally were classified as Middle Devonian. In this work, a large number of fossils belonged to Early Devonian were found in the strata, which provided the basis for the age determination of the strata. According to lithostratigraphic units, Devonian was divided into the Lower Devonian Malassu Formation and the Middle Devonian Kourou Moody Formation.

  9. Relationship between late preterm birth and expression of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children: clinical, neuropsychological, and neurobiochemical outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Amor L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available L Ben Amor,1,2 S Chantal,3 A Bairam41Department of Psychiatry, Hotel Dieu de Levis, 2Department of Psychiatry, Laval University, 3Enfant Jesus Hospital, 4Department of Paediatrics, Laval University, Quebec, CanadaAbstract: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in school-aged children, and prematurity is a recognized risk factor. Late-preterm birth, which represents 75% of premature births, is associated with ADHD symptoms, impaired cognitive performance, and behavior problems. However, little is known of the characteristics of ADHD associated with late prematurity. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical, neuropsychological, and neurobiochemical characteristics associated with late-preterm ADHD with those of at-term ADHD.Methods: Eighty-six children with ADHD, aged 5–13 years, were recruited. They included 20 late-preterm children with ADHD and 66 at-term children with ADHD. The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-IV and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT were used to evaluate their clinical and neuropsychological characteristics. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure the ratio of metabolites (glutamate, choline, and N-acetyl-aspartate to creatine in both the prefrontal and striatal regions as well as the left cerebellum.Results: The groups did not differ in regards to clinical outcomes. However, the ADHD late-preterm group had worse omissions and commissions T-scores on CPT (P ≤ 0.05 than the ADHD at-term group. The ADHD late-preterm group also had lower ratios of glutamate in the left prefrontal cortex than the ADHD at-term group (P ≤ 0.05.Conclusion: Among children with ADHD, those born at late preterm have lower attention scores as evaluated by CPT and are associated with lower relative concentrations of glutamate in the prefrontal region than those born at term. Etiological factors could play a role in the expression of ADHD

  10. STRONTIUM DISTRIBUTION IN UPPER DEVONIAN CONODONT ELEMENTS: A PALAEOBIOLOGICAL PROXY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREY V. ZHURAVLEV

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts are an extinct group of marine animals possessing debated affinities. The conodont elements are composed of calcium phosphate [apatite (CaF] and collagen-like proteins. Distribution of Sr in the bioapatite of albid, lamellar and paralamellar tissues of some Upper Devonian conodont element crowns from NW Russia was studied by microprobe. The calcium phosphate of the lamellar and paralamellar tissues demonstrates periodical oscillation of Sr contents across the lamellae (0.4-0.5 wt% in the outer part of lamella, and 0.2 wt% in the inner part. The albid tissue contains Sr of less than 0.4 wt%. It is suggested that oscillations of Sr concentrations reflect the periodic growth of the lamellae, and the average Ca/Sr ratio can be a proxy of the growth rate.

  11. Deltaic sedimentation in the Devonian of Western Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Richard G.

    1981-05-01

    Middle and Upper Devonian deposits from the Aouinet Ouenine Formation in the southern Ghadames Basin of western Libya provide a well exposed example of a deltaic complex containing both progradational and transgressive facies. Progradational facies comprise both laterally accreting and incised distributary channels overlying prodelta deposits. Also present is a progradational beach environment showing build-up from an offshore shelf through nearshore shelf to shoreface and foreshore sub-environments. Over-lying these progradational facies are transgressive tidal-flat, washover-fan, foreshore and nearshore deposits. The characteristics and interrelationships of the different facies are explained by two sedimentation models: progradational facies existed contemporaneously during phases of active sediment supply whereas the transgressive facies existed contemporaneously during periods of diminished or absent detrital influx.

  12. Taphofacies Models of Devonian in Longmenshan Area, Sichuan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Taphonomy refers primarily to the study of processes between death and final burial of an organism or a group of organisms, including both taphonomic loss and taphonomic gain. Taphofacies refers to the taphonomic traits, which include the taphonomic attributes of all fossils and the lithologic features of their enclosing rocks. Taphofacies is different from lithofacies; as a taphonomic environmental setting or taphonomic condition, it is more useful than the stratigraphic body of rock. Based on the features of fossil preservation integrated with stratigraphic, sedimentologic and paleontologic evidence from Devonian of Longmenshan area, it is distinguished and described 11 taphofacies models. For convenience in the field, the name of each taphofacies is divided into taphonomic and lithologic traits. The spatial relations between each taphofacies and the taphofacies with the benthic assemblages 1-6 are discussed.

  13. Physical parameters of late M-type members of Chamaleon I and TW Hydrae Association: Dust settling, age dispersion and activity

    CERN Document Server

    Bayo, A; Allard, F; Henning, T; Comeron, F; Morales-Calderon, M; Rajpurohit, A S; Ramırez, K Pena; Beamın, J C

    2016-01-01

    Although mid-to-late type M dwarfs are the most common stars in our stellar neighborhood, our knowledge of these objects is still limited. Open questions include the evolution of their angular momentum, internal structures, dust settling in their atmospheres, age dispersion within populations. In addition, at young ages, late-type Ms have masses below the hydrogen burning limit and therefore are key objects in the debate on the brown dwarf mechanism of formation. In this work we determine and study in detail the physical parameters of two samples of young, late M-type sources belonging to either the Chamaeleon I Dark Cloud or the TW Hydrae Association and compare them with the results obtained in the literature for other young clusters and also for older, field, dwarfs. We used multi-wavelength photometry to construct and analyze SEDs to determine general properties of the photosphere and disk presence. We also used low resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to study activity, accretion, gravity an...

  14. Effect of maternal lipid profile, C-peptide, insulin, and HBA1c levels during late pregnancy on large-for-gestational age newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruo-Lin Hou; Huan-Huan Zhou; Xiao-Yang Chen; Xiu-Min Wang; Jie Shao; Zheng-Yan Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Background: Large-for-gestational age (LGA) newborns can increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Previous studies have shown that the levels of maternal blood lipids, connecting peptide (C-peptide), insulin and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were significantly different between LGA and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) newborns. This study aimed to determine the effect of the levels of maternal lipids, C-peptide, insulin, and HbA1c during late pregnancy on LGA newborns. Methods: This study comprised 2790 non-diabetic women in late pregnancy. Among their newborns, 2236 (80.1%) newborns were AGA, and 554 (19.9%) newborns were LGA. Maternal and neonatal characteristics were obtained from questionnaires and their case records. The levels of maternal fasting serum apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), C-peptide, insulin and blood HbA1c were measured. The chi-square and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze categorical variables and continuous variables between the AGA and LGA groups, respectively. Binary logistic regression analysis was made to determine the independent risk factors for LGA newborns. Results: Maternal TG, C-peptide, insulin and HbA1c levels were signifi cantly higher in the LGA group than in the AGA group (P Conclusion: High maternal TG level during late pregnancy is signifi cantly associated with LGA newborns.

  15. Shrines and relics between Late Antiquity and Middle Ages: Christianization of the space or sacralization of the Christianity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Canetti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the importance of relics and sanctuaries against the backdrop of the sacralization of Christianity and the latter’s re-elaboration into a religious system that occurred in urban milieux in the late ancient times. The main steps of this process, which came to a climax in the 4th century, are the Christianization of time and space as well as the reinterpretation of Christ’s death in terms of a sacrifice.

  16. Armorican provenance for the mélange deposits below the Lizard ophiolite (Cornwall, UK): evidence for Devonian obduction of Cadomian and Lower Palaeozoic crust onto the southern margin of Avalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, Rob A.; Linnemann, Ulf; Jeffries, Teresa; Drost, Kerstin; Ulrich, Jens

    2014-07-01

    Devonian sedimentary rocks of the Meneage Formation within the footwall of the Lizard ophiolite complex in SW England are thought to have been derived from erosion of the over-riding Armorican microplate during collision with Avalonia and the closure of the Rheic Ocean. We further test this hypothesis by comparison of their detrital zircon suites with those of autochthonous Armorican strata. Five samples analysed from SW England (Avalonia) and NW France (Armorica) have a bimodal U-Pb zircon age distribution dominated by late Neoproterozoic to middle Cambrian (c. 710-518 Ma) and Palaeoproterozoic (c. 1,800-2,200 Ma) groupings. Both can be linked with lithologies exposed within the Cadomian belt as well as the West African craton, which is characterized by major tectonothermal events at 2.0-2.4 Ga. The detrital zircon signature of Avalonia is distinct from that of Armorica in that there is a much larger proportion of Mesoproterozoic detritus. The common provenance of the samples is therefore consistent with: (a) derivation of the Meneage Formation mélange deposits from the Armorican plate during Rheic Ocean closure and obduction of the Lizard Complex and (b) previous correlation of quartzite blocks within the Meneage Formation with the Ordovician Grès Armoricain Formation of NW France.

  17. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  18. Associated terrestrial and marine fossils in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation, southern Maine, USA, and the marine reservoir effect on radiocarbon ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W.B.; Griggs, C.B.; Miller, N.G.; Nelson, R.E.; Weddle, T.K.; Kilian, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    Excavations in the late-glacial Presumpscot Formation at Portland, Maine, uncovered tree remains and other terrestrial organics associated with marine invertebrate shells in a landslide deposit. Buds of Populus balsamifera (balsam poplar) occurred with twigs of Picea glauca (white spruce) in the Presumpscot clay. Tree rings in Picea logs indicate that the trees all died during winter dormancy in the same year. Ring widths show patterns of variation indicating responses to environmental changes. Fossil mosses and insects represent a variety of species and wet to dry microsites. The late-glacial environment at the site was similar to that of today's Maine coast. Radiocarbon ages of 14 tree samples are 11,907??31 to 11,650??5014C yr BP. Wiggle matching of dated tree-ring segments to radiocarbon calibration data sets dates the landslide occurrence at ca. 13,520+95/??20calyr BP. Ages of shells juxtaposed with the logs are 12,850??6514C yr BP (Mytilus edulis) and 12,800??5514C yr BP (Balanus sp.), indicating a marine reservoir age of about 1000yr. Using this value to correct previously published radiocarbon ages reduces the discrepancy between the Maine deglaciation chronology and the varve-based chronology elsewhere in New England. ?? 2011 University of Washington.

  19. Are the Aging Male's Symptoms (AMS) scale and the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire suitable for the screening of late-onset hypogonadism in aging Chinese men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Yong; Wang, Lin-Hui; Zeng, Qin-Song; Wang, Hui-Qing; Sun, Ying-hao

    2013-09-01

    The Aging Male's Symptoms (AMS) scale and the Androgen Deficiency in the Aging Male (ADAM) questionnaire have been widely used for screening men suspected of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH). We evaluated the consistency of the two questionnaires with sex hormone levels. A total of 985 men completed the two questionnaires, as well as an analysis of the serum levels of total testosterone (TT), bioavailable testosterone (BT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). No correlation was observed between any hormone level and the psychological or somatic section of the AMS score, whereas the sexual section was correlated with the levels of FT, LH, FSH, SHBG and BT. Significant correlations were observed between the result of the two questionnaires and these hormone levels. When LOH was defined as TT AMS scale were 54.0% and 41.2% compared with 78.7% and 14.8% for the ADAM questionnaire. Several sex hormone levels correlated with the two questionnaires, but neither of these questionnaires had sufficient sensitivity and specificity. It is necessary to provide a new questionnaire applicable to the Chinese population to screening LOH.

  20. Discovery and significance of microspherules at Lower-Middle Devonian boundary of Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白志强

    2000-01-01

    Microspherules are found in different fades at the Lower-Middle Devonian boundary, Guangxi, South China. There are more than 20 grains per kilogram rock sample. Composition and form of the microspherules are very similar to those of the microtektites from modern deposits of South Pacific Ocean and F-F boundary (Devonian). This may indicate that the microspherules from Guangxi are most likely the products of an extraterrestrial impact event that occurred at the end of Early Devonian Epoch. The event may be responsible for the biomass reduction and extinction of benthic organisms at the end of Early Devonian. The impact products (ejecta) can be used as a potential tool for stratigraphic correlation.

  1. Discovery and significance of microspherules at Lower-Middle Devonian boundary of Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Microspherules are found in different facies at the Lower-Middle Devonian boundary, Guangxi, South China. There are more than 20 grains per kilogram rock sample. Composition and form of the microspherules are very similar to those of the microtektites from modern deposits of South Pacific Ocean and F-F boundary (Devonian). This may indicate that the microspherules from Guangxi are most likely the products of an extraterrestrial impact event that occurred at the end of Early Devonian Epoch. The event may be responsible for the biomass reduction and extinction of benthic organisms at the end of Early Devonian. The impact products (ejecta) can be used as a potential tool for stratigraphic correlation.

  2. Palynostratigraphy of the Zorritas Formation, Antofagasta region, Chile: Insights on the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in western Gondwana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia V. Rubinstein

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Member of the Zorritas Formation in the Antofagasta region of northern Chile, yielded terrestrial and marine palynomorph assemblages which span the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary. The assemblages show a clear predominance of terrestrial palynomorphs with 70 miospore species, 18 marine phytoplankton species, two non-marine algae and one chitinozoan species, all coming from 15 productive levels. Palynomorphs are poorly preserved and most of them are reworked. Three palynological associations are recognized based on miospores. These are assigned to the Tournaisian–Visean, Tournaisian and probable latest Famennian. Age assignments are discussed in the frame of the spore zonal schemes established for Euramerica and western Gondwana. The stratigraphical distribution of spores allows the identification of the probable position of the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary within the Zorritas Formation. This system boundary is proposed for the first time in Palaeozoic sedimentary rocks of northern Chile. The presence of Gondwanan typical miospore species indicates affinities with this palaeocontinent even though the Tournaisian and Tournaisian–Visean miospore associations support the cosmopolitanism already suggested for the early Carboniferous flora. The significant number of reworked palynomorphs together with the sedimentological analysis of the studied sections, suggest that these deposits were severely impacted by the climatic change and major sea level fluctuations. Similar conditions were recorded in coeval western Gondwana basins.

  3. Assessment of environmental health and safety issues associated with the commercialization of unconventional gas recovery: Devonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify and examine potential public health and safety issues and the potential environmental impacts from recovery of natural gas from Devonian age shale. This document will serve as background data and information for planners within the government to assist in development of our new energy technologies in a timely and environmentally sound manner. This report describes the resource and the DOE eastern gas shales project in Section 2. Section 3 describes the new and developing recovery technologies associated with Devonian shale. An assessment of the environment, health and safety impacts associated with a typical fields is presented in Section 4. The typical field for this assessment occupies ten square miles and is developed on a 40-acre spacing (that is, there is a well in each 40-acre grid). This field thus has a total of 160 wells. Finally, Section 5 presents the conclusions and recommendations. A reference list is provided to give a greater plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  4. Cervicornus wenshanensis, gen. et sp. nov, a Pragian (Early Devonian) plant with forked leaves from Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li; Hueber

    2000-04-01

    Cervicornus wenshanensis gen. et sp. nov. is described from compressions of leaf-bearing, vegetative stems of Pragian age (Early Devonian). Stelar anatomy is not preserved. The plant is described as herbaceous with leaves arranged in openly spaced helices. The distal portion of each of the leaves is divided three times, resulting in eight segments resembling the antler of a deer. The arrangement and morphology of the leaves suggest a possible relationship with the lycopsid family Protolepidodendraceae in which, among the genera, the leaves are helically arranged and variously divided. Additionally, the members of the family are united on the basis of stelar anatomy and the presence of sporangia. Neither of the latter characteristics, which are essential to the unequivocal assignment to the family, are preserved in Cervicornus. The genus is a noteworthy morphological variant among Devonian plants, but the arrangement of the leaves and their morphology cannot be used alone to infer an affinity with a taxon of higher rank. As with many other fragmentary paleobotanical entities, lacking sufficient definitive characteristics and awaiting discovery and description of additional specimens, we have proposed a classification of this new genus and species as incertae sedis.

  5. A case-control study to examine the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy and risk of a small-for-gestational-age birth in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Rossina G; Marquis, Grace S; Penny, Mary E; Dixon, Philip M

    2015-04-01

    Excessive demands on maternal nutritional status may be a risk factor for poor birth outcomes. This study examined the association between breastfeeding during late pregnancy (≥ 28 weeks) and the risk of having a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborn, using a matched case-control design (78 SGA cases: birthweight <10th percentile for gestational age; 150 non-SGA controls: 50th percentile age). Between March 2006 and April 2007, project midwives visited daily three government hospitals in Lima, Peru and identified cases and matched controls based on hospital, gestational age, and inter-gestational period. Mothers were interviewed and clinical chart extractions were completed. Factors associated with risk of SGA were assessed by their adjusted odds ratios (aOR) from conditional logistic regression. Exposure to an overlap of breastfeeding during late pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of having a SGA newborn [aOR=0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.10-3.30]. However, increased risk was associated with having a previous low-birthweight birth (aOR=6.53; 95% CI: 1.43-29.70) and a low intake of animal source foods (<25th percentile; aOR=2.26; 95% CI: 1.01-5.04), and tended to be associated with being short (<150 cm; aOR=2.05; 95% CI: 0.92-4.54). This study found no evidence to support the hypothesis that breastfeeding during late pregnancy increases the risk for SGA; however, studies with greater statistical power are needed to definitively examine this possible association and clarify whether there are other risks to the new baby, the toddler and the pregnant woman. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Physical parameters of late M-type members of Chamaeleon I and TW Hydrae Association: dust settling, age dispersion and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayo, A.; Barrado, D.; Allard, F.; Henning, T.; Comerón, F.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Peña Ramírez, K.; Beamín, J. C.

    2017-02-01

    Although mid-to-late type M dwarfs are the most common stars in our stellar neighbourhood, our knowledge of these objects is still limited. Open questions include the evolution of their angular momentum, internal structures, dust settling in their atmospheres and age dispersion within populations. In addition, at young ages, late-type Ms have masses below the hydrogen burning limit and therefore are key objects in the debate on the brown dwarf mechanism of formation. In this work, we determine and study in detail the physical parameters of two samples of young, late M-type sources belonging to either the Chamaeleon I dark cloud or the TW Hydrae Association and compare them with the results obtained in the literature for other young clusters and also for older, field, dwarfs. We used multiwavelength photometry to construct and analyse SEDs to determine general properties of the photosphere and disc presence. We also used low-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to study activity, accretion, gravity and effective temperature sensitive indicators. We propose a Virtual Observatory-based spectral index that is both temperature and age sensitive. We derived physical parameters using independent techniques confirming the already common feature/problem of the age/luminosity spread. In particular, we highlight two brown dwarfs showing very similar temperatures but clearly different surface gravity (explained invoking extreme early accretion). We also show how, despite large improvement in the dust treatment in theoretical models, there is still room for further progress in the simultaneous reproduction of the optical and near-infrared features of these cold young objects.

  7. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  8. Sedimentology, conodonts, structure, and correlation of Silurian and Devonian metasedimentary rocks in Denali National Park, Alaska: A section in Geologic studies in Alaska by the U.S. Geological Survey, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Julie A.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Harris, Anita G.

    1998-01-01

    A sequence of metasedimentary rocks in Denali National Park (Mt. McKinley and Healy quadrangles), previously mapped by Csejtey and others (1992) as unit DOs (Ordovician to Middle Devonian metasedimentary sequence) and correlated with rocks of the Nixon Fork terrane, contains both deep- and shallow-water facies that correlate best with rocks of the Dillinger and Mystic sequences (Farewell terrane), respectively, exposed to the southwest in the McGrath quadrangle and adjacent areas.New conodont collections indicate that the deep-water facies are at least in part of Silurian age, and can be grouped into three broad subunits. Subunit A is chiefly very fine grained, thinly interbedded calcareous, siliceous, and siliciclastic strata formed mostly as hemipelagic deposits. Subunit B is characterized by abundant calcareous siliciclastic turbidites and may correlate with the Terra Cotta Mountains Sandstone in the McGrath quadrangle. Subunit C contains thin-bedded to massive calcareous turbidites and debris flows, locally intercalated with calcareous siliciclastic turbidites. Sedimentary features suggest that subunits B and C accumulated in a fan and (or) slope apron setting. All three subunits contain subordinate layers of altered tuff and tuffaceous sediment. Turbidites were derived chiefly from a quartz-rich continent or continental fragment and a carbonate platform or shelf, with subordinate input from volcanic and (possibly) subduction complex (accretionary prism) sources. Limited paleocurrent data from subunit B turbidites show generally southward transport. Stratigraphic relations between the three subunits are uncertain, although we believe that subunit A is probably the oldest. Shallow-water facies, at least in part of earliest Late Devonian (early Frasnian) age, are exposed locally and were deposited in intertidal to deeper subtidal settings.Reconnaissance structural studies indicate that the most significant of two generations of folds have northerly vergence and

  9. Late Pleistocene ages for the most recent volcanism and glacial-pluvial deposits at Big Pine volcanic field, California, USA, from cosmogenic 36Cl dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.; Woolford, Jeff M

    2015-01-01

    The Big Pine volcanic field is one of several Quaternary volcanic fields that poses a potential volcanic hazard along the tectonically active Owens Valley of east-central California, and whose lavas are interbedded with deposits from Pleistocene glaciations in the Sierra Nevada Range. Previous geochronology indicates an ∼1.2 Ma history of volcanism, but the eruption ages and distribution of volcanic products associated with the most-recent eruptions have been poorly resolved. To delimit the timing and products of the youngest volcanism, we combine field mapping and cosmogenic 36Cl dating of basaltic lava flows in the area where lavas with youthful morphology and well-preserved flow structures are concentrated. Field mapping and petrology reveal approximately 15 vents and 6 principal flow units with variable geochemical composition and mineralogy. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages for lava flow units from the top, middle, and bottom of the volcanic stratigraphy indicate eruptions at ∼17, 27, and 40 ka, revealing several different and previously unrecognized episodes of late Pleistocene volcanism. Olivine to plagioclase-pyroxene phyric basalt erupted from several vents during the most recent episode of volcanism at ∼17 ka, and produced a lava flow field covering ∼35 km2. The late Pleistocene 36Cl exposure ages indicate that moraine and pluvial shoreline deposits that overlie or modify the youngest Big Pine lavas reflect Tioga stage glaciation in the Sierra Nevada and the shore of paleo-Owens Lake during the last glacial cycle.

  10. A preliminary report on settlement layout and gold melting at Thula Mela, a Late Iron Age site in the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Kusel

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological investigations at a Late Iron Age stone-walled hill site, Thula Mela, near the Luvuvhu River in the Pafuri area of the Kruger National Park, have produced evidence of gold melting. The recovery of two fragments of pottery crucibles with the remains of slag and gold globules and three gold beads from a test trench in a midden at Thula Mela represents the first direct evidence of indigenous gold melting in South Africa. From radiocarbon dates it was established that this site was occupied between the fifteenth and early seventeenth century AD.

  11. 新疆南天山早泥盆世阿尔皮什麦布拉克组床板型珊瑚群及其生物地理意义%TABULATOMORPHIC CORALS FROM THE EARLY DEVONIAN ARPISHMEBULAQ FORMATION AND THEIR BIOGEOGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓占球

    2001-01-01

    In eastern South Tianshan, the age of the Arpishmebulaq Formation with Tabulata is defined again as Late Lochkovian, Early Devonian. The corals from the Arpishmebulaq Formation differ from those of the equivalent horizons in the Junggar-Hingan biogeographic region but are similar to those from the Shanjiang Formation in Lijiang County, Yunnan, the Xiaputonggou Formation in Zoige County, Sichuan, the Alugong Formation in Darhan Mumingan Joint Banner, Inner Mongolia and the Erhtaokou Formation near Jilin City, Jilin. During early Early Devonian in China, a big biogeogogphic region is situated to the south of the Junggar-Hingan biogegraphic region, and this region, including South Tianshan, Central Jilin, south Inner Mongolia, West Qiling Mountains and northwest Yunnan etc., should belong to the Palaeotethyan Province of the Old World Realm.%对床板珊瑚化石群的分析表明,南天山阿尔皮什麦布拉克组的地质时代为早泥盆世早期,所含珊瑚群与滇西北、西秦岭、内蒙古达尔罕茂明安联合旗、吉林二道沟的珊瑚群面貌相似,明确属于古特提斯生物地理区内;而与北天山、准噶尔、北山、大、小兴安岭等地区同期地层所产者存在明显差异。

  12. Floor-age constraining of a tectonic paroxysm of the Pyrenean orogen. Late Middle Eocene mammal age of a faulted karstic filling of the Quercy phosphorites, south-western France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astruc, Jean Guy; Escarguel, Gilles; Marandat, Bernard; Simon-Coinçon, Régine; Sigé, Bernard

    Breaking effects of a Pyrenean compressive tectonic phase are recognised in northern Pyrenean foreland, such as in the Quercy Jurassic limestone platform. The age of this phase still remains poorly constrained. In the so-called Quercy phosphorites area, within the Prajoux-Mémerlin paleokarst system near the city of Cajarc, a clay filling shows a strike slip fault effect, close to N-S direction. According to an analysis of the mammal fauna and inferred chronology of the polyphased paleokarst infilling, the age of the faulted clay is late Middle Eocene, with a mammal age estimate of 41.5 Ma. This provides reliable precise floor-age constraining for the involved sismo-tectonic paroxysm, seemingly related to the Pyrenean tectonic compressive phase.

  13. Variation in functional connectivity along anterior-to-posterior intraparietal sulcus, and relationship with age across late childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A. Vinette

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a region in the dorsal attention network (DAN, has been implicated in multi-sensory attention and working memory. Working memory and attention develop across childhood; changes in functional connectivity within the DAN may relate to this maturation. Previous findings regarding fronto-parietal intrinsic functional connectivity age-effects were mixed. Our study aimed to circumvent limitations of previous work using a large cross-sectional sample, 183 typically developing participants 6.5–20 years, from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange, and seed regions along the anterior-to-posterior axis of the IPS. These seeds, IPS0-4, were entered into functional connectivity models. Group-level models investigated differential connectivity along the IPS and relationships with age. Anterior IPS3/4 exhibited greater connectivity with sensorimotor/pre-motor regions. Posterior IPS0/1 demonstrated greater connectivity with dorsal and ventral visual regions. Positive age-effects were found between IPS3-4 and visual regions. Negative age-effects were found between IPS and superior parietal and medial orbitofrontal cortices. Follow-up region of interest analyses were used to estimate age-effects for DAN and anticorrelated default mode network regions. Results suggest age-effects on IPS functional connectivity are relatively modest, and may differ pre- and across-adolescence. Studying typical age-related connectivity variability within this network may help to understand neurodevelopmental disorders marked by impaired attention.

  14. Voluntary surgical contraception women of late reproductive age suffering from pelvic organ prolapse – features and benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigina Nasinova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed the method of transvaginal Voluntary Surgical Contraception, conducted in conjunction with surgical treatment of descent and prolapse of the vaginal walls. Were studied the early and late results of the surgery in 50 women to which during the surgical treatment of genital prolapse simultaneously was carries out transvaginal occlusion of the fallopian tubes. Control groups consisted of 30 women to which in the first step before surgical correction of pelvic organ prolapse have been performed minilaparotomy and DCA. Our method consists in penetrating into the abdominal cavity through the front vaginal vault, to downgrade the fallopian tubes with a hook Ramatibodi and tubal sterilization method Pomeroy. Intra - and postoperative complications were not recognized. In the long-term period after surgery - the effectiveness of the method was 100%. Marked tendency to improve the quality of sexual life tells about the positive impact of removing the genital prolapse with simultaneous DCA on the quality of life of women.

  15. Gesture and language in narratives and explanations: the effects of age and communicative activity on late multimodal discourse development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamillo, Asela Reig; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Guidetti, Michèle

    2013-06-01

    This article addresses the effect of communicative activity on the use of language and gesture by school-age children. The present study examined oral narratives and explanations produced by children aged six and ten years on the basis of several linguistic and gestural measures. Results showed that age affects both gestural and linguistic behaviour, supporting previous findings that multimodal discourse continues to develop during the school-age years. The task (narration vs. explanation) also had clear effects on the use of language and gesture: gestures and subordinate markers were more frequent in explanations than in narratives, whereas cohesion markers were more often used in narratives. Altogether, these results show partly distinctive developmental patterns between narrative monologic discourse behaviour and explanatory behaviour in the context of dialogue and question-answer exchanges.

  16. Subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: In an increasingly aged population, sleep disturbances and neurodegenerative disorders have become a major public health concern. Poor sleep quality and cognitive changes are complex health problems in aging populations that are likely to be associated with increased frailty, morbidity......) or cognitively impaired (N = 92). METHODS: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale measured subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, respectively. Depressive symptoms were determined using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI-II). A neuropsychological battery was administered...

  17. Revisions to the original extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Rouse, William A.; Trippi, Michael H.; Higley, Debra K.

    2016-04-11

    Technically recoverable undiscovered hydrocarbon resources in continuous accumulations are present in Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata in the Appalachian Basin Petroleum Province. The province includes parts of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian strata are part of the previously defined Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic Total Petroleum System (TPS) that extends from New York to Tennessee. This publication presents a revision to the extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS. The most significant modification to the maximum extent of the Devonian Shale-Middle and Upper Paleozoic TPS is to the south and southwest, adding areas in Tennessee, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi where Devonian strata, including potential petroleum source rocks, are present in the subsurface up to the outcrop. The Middle to Upper Devonian Chattanooga Shale extends from southeastern Kentucky to Alabama and eastern Mississippi. Production from Devonian shale has been established in the Appalachian fold and thrust belt of northeastern Alabama. Exploratory drilling has encountered Middle to Upper Devonian strata containing organic-rich shale in west-central Alabama. The areas added to the TPS are located in the Valley and Ridge, Interior Low Plateaus, and Appalachian Plateaus physiographic provinces, including the portion of the Appalachian fold and thrust belt buried beneath Cretaceous and younger sediments that were deposited on the U.S. Gulf Coastal Plain.

  18. Well test analysis for Devonian-shale wells. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, K.; Chen, C.C.; Yeh, N.S.; Ohaeri, C.; Reynolds, A.C.; Raghavan, R.

    1981-09-30

    This work presents broad interpretive rules for analyzing Devonian Shale Wells based on simulated drawdown and buildup tests. The report consists of four parts: (1) New Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, (2) Pressure Transient Analysis Methods for Bounded Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, (3) Pressure Response at Observation Wells in Fractured Reservoirs, and (4) Unsteady Flow to a Well Produced at a Constant Pressure in a Fractured Reservoir. Each of these sections is an independent unit; that is, knowledge of the other sections, even though desirable, is not necessary to understand the material in a given section. The principal contribution of this work is the identification of a new flow regime during the early transient period. The discovery of this flow regime represents a major advance in our ability to analyze pressure transient tests. The identification of the new flow regime also explains the response of wells in fractured reservoirs that until now have been considered anomalous. Systematic procedures to analyze single well (drawdown and buildup) tests and multiwell (interference) tests are discussed.

  19. Questioning hagfish affinities of the enigmatic Devonian vertebrate Palaeospondylus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Zerina; Smith, Moya; Sanchez, Sophie; Senden, Tim; Trinajstic, Kate; Pfaff, Cathrin

    2017-07-01

    Palaeospondylus gunni Traquair, 1890 is an enigmatic Devonian vertebrate whose taxonomic affinities have been debated since it was first described. Most recently, Palaeospondylus has been identified as a stem-group hagfish (Myxinoidea). However, one character questioning this assignment is the presence of three semicircular canals in the otic region of the cartilaginous skull, a feature of jawed vertebrates. Additionally, new tomographic data reveal that the following characters of crown-group gnathostomes (chondrichthyans + osteichthyans) are present in Palaeospondylus: a longer telencephalic region of the braincase, separation of otic and occipital regions by the otico-occipital fissure, and vertebral centra. As well, a precerebral fontanelle and postorbital articulation of the palatoquadrate are characteristic of certain chondrichthyans. Similarities in the structure of the postorbital process to taxa such as Pucapampella, and possible presence of the ventral cranial fissure, both support a resolution of Pa. gunni as a stem chondrichthyan. The internally mineralized cartilaginous skeleton in Palaeospondylus may represent a stage in the loss of bone characteristic of the Chondrichthyes.

  20. Coupling of Uranium and Thorium Series Isotope Systematics for Age Determination of Late Pleistocene Zircons using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, S.; Hirakawa, S.; Iwano, H.; Danhara, T.; Hirata, T.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon U-Th-Pb dating method is one of the most important tools for estimating the duration of magmatism by means of coupling of uranium, actinium and thorium decay series. Using U-Pb dating method, its reliability is principally guaranteed by the concordance between 238U-206Pb and 235U-207Pb ages. In case of dating Quaternary zircons, however, the initial disequilibrium effect on 230Th and 231Pa should be considered. On the other hands, 232Th-208Pb dating method can be a simple but powerful approach for investigating the age of crystallization because of negligible influence from initial disequilibrium effect. We have developed a new correction model for accurate U-Pb dating of the young zircon samples by taking into consideration of initial disequilibrium and a U-Pb vs Th-Pb concordia diagram for reliable age calibration was successfully established. Hence, the U-Th-Pb dating method can be applied to various zircons ranging from Hadean (4,600 Ma) to Quaternary (~50 ka) ages, and this suggests that further detailed information concerning the thermal history of the geological sequences can be made by the coupling of U-Th-Pb, fission track and Ar-Ar ages. In this presentation, we will show an example of U-Th-Pb dating for zircon samples from Sambe Volcano (3 to 100 ka), southwest Japan and the present dating technique using LA-ICP-MS.

  1. A Lateglacial to late Holocene glacial chronology for the Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland): effects of boulder inheritance and snow shielding on age distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkbride, Martin; Everest, Jez; Benn, Doug

    2014-05-01

    It is thought that British glaciers disappeared after the Younger Dryas Stadial (YDS, 12.9 - 11.7 k yr). We present cosmogenic 10Be ages of cirque moraines in the Cairngorm Mountains which include two Lateglacial advances, a speculative early Holocene advance, and a late Holocene moraine probably deposited by a Little Ice Age glacier ( 17th - 18th century AD). One cirque (CLE) contains evidence of a YDS advance peaking at c. 12.3 k yr, and a probable Little Ice Age (LIA) advance dated to cirque (CLW) has an outer moraine dated to between 15.3 and 12.0 k yr. An inner moraine, conventionally regarded as YDS in age, yields 10Be ages of 11.5 to 8.3 k yr (Lal/Stone time-dependent production model). The putative YDS moraines are well dated in cirque CLE, but appear too "young" in CLW. We consider how snow-shielding and boulder recycling may have affected age distributions. If these ages are minima from a YDS moraine, snow-shielding and delayed deposition from debris-covered ice may explain low 10Be concentrations, but this does not explain why similar adjustments are not needed in the neighbouring cirque. Alternatively, ages may be maxima from an early Holocene moraine which incorporated existing boulders. The LIA moraine in CLE contains a high proportion of inherited boulders, but the YDS moraine here contains few. Therefore the proportion of inherited boulders is estimated to be a function of the ratio of debris production during the glacial period and debris production during the preceding paraglacial period. The ratio describes the likelihood of sampling an inherited boulder if the geomorphological history is understood. By this reasoning, an alternative interpretation of the "YDS" moraine in CLW is that an early Holocene glacier (speculatively, the 8.2 k event?) incorporated post-YDS paraglacial rock fall debris.

  2. Late recurrence of medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brittney; Razzaqi, Faisal; Yu, Lolie; Craver, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with a cerebellar medulloblastoma, diagnosed at age three, treated with near total surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, that recurred 13 years after the initial diagnosis. This late recurrence exceeds the typical 10-year survival statistics that are in common use, and exceeds the Collins rule. Continued follow-up of these children is justified to increase the likelihood of detecting these late recurrences early and to learn more about these late recurrences.

  3. Late Quaternary sedimentological and climate changes at Lake Bosumtwi Ghana: new constraints from laminae analysis and radiocarbon age modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Timothy M.; Beck, J. Warren; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; McKay, Nicholas P.; Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Peck, John A.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Heil, Clifford W.; King, John W.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Bosumtwi sediment record represents one of the longest and highest-resolution terrestrial records of paleoclimate change available from sub-Saharan Africa. Here we report a new sediment age model framework for the last ~ 45 cal kyr of sedimentation using a combination of high-resolution radiocarbon dating, Bayesian age-depth modeling and lamination counting. Our results highlight the practical limits of these methods for reducing age model uncertainties and suggest that even with very high sampling densities, radiocarbon uncertainties of at least a few hundred years are unavoidable. Age model uncertainties are smallest during the Holocene (205 yr) and the glacial (360 yr) but are large at the base of the record (1660 yr), due to a combination of decreasing sample density, larger calibration uncertainties and increases in radiocarbon age scatter. For portions of the chronology older than ~ 35 cal kyr, additional considerations, such as the use of a low-blank graphitization system and more rigorous sample pretreatment were necessary to generate a reliable age depth model because of the incorporation of small amounts of younger carbon. A comparison of radiocarbon age model results and lamination counts over the time interval ~ 15–30 cal kyr agree with an overall discrepancy of ~ 10% and display similar changes in sedimentation rate, supporting the annual nature of sediment laminations in the early part of the record. Changes in sedimentation rates reconstructed from the age-depth model indicate that intervals of enhanced sediment delivery occurred at 16–19, 24 and 29–31 cal kyr, broadly synchronous with reconstructed drought episodes elsewhere in northern West Africa and potentially, with changes in Atlantic meridional heat transport during North Atlantic Heinrich events. These data suggest that millennial-scale drought events in the West African monsoon region were latitudinally extensive, reaching within several hundred kilometers of the Guinea coast

  4. Refining the Early Devonian time scale using Milankovitch cyclicity in Lochkovian-Pragian sediments (Prague Synform, Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, A. C.; Hladil, J.; Chadimová, L.; Slavík, L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Bábek, O.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Devonian geological time scale (base of the Devonian at 418.8 ± 2.9 Myr, Becker et al., 2012) suffers from poor age control, with associated large uncertainties between 2.5 and 4.2 Myr on the stage boundaries. Identifying orbital cycles from sedimentary successions can serve as a very powerful chronometer to test and, where appropriate, improve age models. Here, we focus on the Lochkovian and Pragian, the two lowermost Devonian stages. High-resolution magnetic susceptibility (χin - 5 to 10 cm sampling interval) and gamma ray spectrometry (GRS - 25 to 50 cm sampling interval) records were gathered from two main limestone sections, Požár-CS (118 m, spanning the Lochkov and Praha Formations) and Pod Barrandovem (174 m; Praha Formation), both in the Czech Republic. An additional section (Branžovy, 65 m, Praha Formation) was sampled for GRS (every 50 cm). The χin and GRS records are very similar, so χin variations are driven by variations in the samples' paramagnetic clay mineral content, reflecting changes in detrital input. Therefore, climatic variations are very likely captured in our records. Multiple spectral analysis and statistical techniques such as: Continuous Wavelet Transform, Evolutive Harmonic Analysis, Multi-taper method and Average Spectral Misfit, were used in concert to reach an optimal astronomical interpretation. The Požár-CS section shows distinctly varying sediment accumulation rates. The Lochkovian (essentially equivalent to the Lochkov Formation (Fm.)) is interpreted to include a total of nineteen 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, constraining its duration to 7.7 ± 2.8 Myr. The Praha Fm. includes fourteen 405 kyr eccentricity cycles in the three sampled sections, while the Pragian Stage only includes about four 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, thus exhibiting durations of 5.7 ± 0.6 Myr and 1.7 ± 0.7 Myr respectively. Because the Lochkov Fm. contains an interval with very low sediment accumulation rate and because the Praha Fm. was

  5. Discovery of a Devonian mafic magmatism on the western border of the Murzuq basin (Saharan metacraton): Paleomagnetic dating and geodynamical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derder, M. E. M.; Maouche, S.; Liégeois, J. P.; Henry, B.; Amenna, M.; Ouabadi, A.; Bellon, H.; Bruguier, O.; Bayou, B.; Bestandji, R.; Nouar, O.; Bouabdallah, H.; Ayache, M.; Beddiaf, M.

    2016-03-01

    Intraplate deformation is most often linked to major stress applied on plate margins. When such intraplate events are accompanied by magmatism, the use of several dating methods integrated within a multidisciplinary approach can bring constraints on the age, nature and source mobilized for generating the magma and in turn on the nature of the intraplate deformation. This study focuses on the large gabbro Arrikine sill (35 km in extension) emplaced within the Silurian sediments of the western margin of the Murzuq cratonic basin in southeastern Algeria. Its emplacement is dated during the early Devonian (415-400 Ma) through the determination of a reliable paleomagnetic pole by comparison with the Gondwana Apparent Polar Wander Path (APWP). This age can be correlated with deep phreatic eruptions before Pragian time thought to be at the origin of sand injections and associated circular structures in Algeria and Libya. For the sill, the K-Ar age of 325.6 ± 7.7 Ma is related to a K-rich aplitic phase that has K-enriched by more than 20% the Devonian gabbro. Laser-ICP-MS U-Pb method dates only inherited zircons mostly at c. 2030 Ma with additional ages at c. 2700 Ma and younger ones in the 766-598 Ma age range. The Arrikine sill is a high-Ti alkaline gabbro having the geochemical composition of a hawaiite akin to several intraplate continental and oceanic provinces, including the contemporaneous Aïr ring complexes province in Niger, but also to the Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii. This peculiar composition akin to that of the contemporaneous Aïr province is in agreement with a lower Devonian age for the Arrikine sill. The lower Devonian Arrikine sill emplacement is related to a "Caledonian" transtensive reactivation of the western metacratonic boundary of the Murzuq craton. This event also generated in the Saharan platform the so-called "Caledonian unconformity" of regional extension, the Aïr ring complexes and magmatic rocks that produced sand injections. It could be

  6. Language and Social Competence in Typically Developing Children and Late Talkers between 18 and 35 Months of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longobardi, Emiddia; Spataro, Pietro; Frigerio, Alessandra; Rescorla, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the relation between language and social ability in a sample of 268 preschoolers aged 18-35 months. Expressive language was assessed with the Italian adaptation of the Language Development Survey (LDS), and Social Competence was assessed with the Questionnaire on Peer Interactions in the Kindergarten (QPI). Results…

  7. Elevated p16ink4a Expression in Human Labial Salivary Glands as a Potential Correlate of Cognitive Aging in Late Midlife.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Elisabeth Sørensen

    Full Text Available The cell-cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16ink4a, is one of the two gene products of the ink4a/ARF (cdkn2a locus on chromosome 9q21. Up-regulation of p16ink4a has been linked to cellular senescence, and findings from studies on different mammalian tissues suggest that p16ink4a may be a biomarker of organismal versus chronological age.The aim of this study was to examine the immunolocalization pattern of p16ink4a in human labial salivary gland (LSG tissue, and to analyze whether its expression level in LSGs is a peripheral correlate of cognitive decline in late midlife.The present study was a part of a study of causes and predictors of cognitive decline in middle-aged men in a Danish birth cohort. It is based on data from 181 male participants from the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, born in 1953, who were examined for age-associated alterations in cognition, dental health, and morphological and autonomic innervation characteristics of the LSGs. The participants were allocated to two groups based on the relative change in cognitive performance from young adulthood to late midlife. LSG biopsies were analyzed by qRT-PCR for the expression level of p16ink4a. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of LSGs.p16ink4a immunoreactivity was observed in LSG ductal, myoepithelial, and stromal cells, but not in acinar cells. The mean relative expression of p16ink4a in LSGs was higher in the group of participants with decline in cognitive performance. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the relative p16 expression was predictive of the participant's group assignment. A negative correlation was found between relative p16ink4a expression and the participant's standardized regression residuals from early adulthood to late midlife cognitive performance scores.p16ink4a expression in human LSGs may constitute a potential peripheral correlate of cognitive decline. Human labial

  8. Elevated p16ink4a Expression in Human Labial Salivary Glands as a Potential Correlate of Cognitive Aging in Late Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Tritsaris, Katerina; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    Background The cell-cycle inhibitor and tumor suppressor cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p16ink4a, is one of the two gene products of the ink4a/ARF (cdkn2a) locus on chromosome 9q21. Up-regulation of p16ink4a has been linked to cellular senescence, and findings from studies on different mammalian tissues suggest that p16ink4a may be a biomarker of organismal versus chronological age. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the immunolocalization pattern of p16ink4a in human labial salivary gland (LSG) tissue, and to analyze whether its expression level in LSGs is a peripheral correlate of cognitive decline in late midlife. Methods The present study was a part of a study of causes and predictors of cognitive decline in middle-aged men in a Danish birth cohort. It is based on data from 181 male participants from the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, born in 1953, who were examined for age-associated alterations in cognition, dental health, and morphological and autonomic innervation characteristics of the LSGs. The participants were allocated to two groups based on the relative change in cognitive performance from young adulthood to late midlife. LSG biopsies were analyzed by qRT-PCR for the expression level of p16ink4a. Immunohistochemistry was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of LSGs. Results p16ink4a immunoreactivity was observed in LSG ductal, myoepithelial, and stromal cells, but not in acinar cells. The mean relative expression of p16ink4a in LSGs was higher in the group of participants with decline in cognitive performance. A logistic regression analysis revealed that the relative p16 expression was predictive of the participant’s group assignment. A negative correlation was found between relative p16ink4a expression and the participant’s standardized regression residuals from early adulthood to late midlife cognitive performance scores. Conclusions p16ink4a expression in human LSGs may constitute a potential peripheral

  9. The Relationship Among Photoinhibition, Photooxidation and Early Aging at a Late Development Stage in Different Varieties with High Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO De-mao; LI Xia; HUANG Xue-qing; JI Ben-hua

    2002-01-01

    Using six high yield varieties from different ecological districts in China the parameters of Chl fluorescence, the performance of membrane lipid peroxidation and the reduction of Chl content in flag leaf under natural condition at the later developmental stages (from heading stage to mature stage). The results showed that Fv/Fm, decreased gradually, the excessive light energy led to the accumulation of active oxygen O2-, H2O2 and the product of membrane-lipid peroxidation, MDA, which resulted in the reduction of Chl content and early aging due to photooxidation during the course of senescence of flag leaf. This phenomenon varied obviously in rice varieties. When comparina japonica tolerant to photooxidation, Fv/Fm in indica shanyou 63 susceptible to photoxidation decreased significantly. An increase of active oxygen and a sharp drop of Chl content, resulted in "yellowish" early aging and influenced filling and setting of rice grain. The mechanism on early aging in indica was related to light and temperature conditions in filling stages. On a fine day (above 25℃ ), PS Ⅱ reaction center exhibited a dynamic change on revisable inactivation. Under strong midday light, PS Ⅱ function in indica exhibited obvious down-regulation and photoinhibition; Under strong light with low temperature, PS Ⅱ resulted in photodamage, showing early aging, which were related to the degradation of PS Ⅱ - D1 Protein and the inhibition of the endogenous protecting system such as Xanthophyll cycle and the enzymes of scavenging active oxygen. The results suggested that for a view of high-yield breeding, on the basis of a good type-plant, giving consideration to the utilization of heterosis and resistance to early aging, selecting japonica or a sterile line with japonice genotype as maternal was a breeding strategy worthy of being paid more attention.

  10. A review of the geological characteristics and geodynamic setting of Late Paleozoic porphyry copper deposits in the Junggar region, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Mao, Jingwen; Pirajno, Franco; Yan, Shenghao; Liu, Guoren; Zhou, Gang; Zhang, Zhixin; Liu, Feng; Geng, Xinxia; Guo, Chunli

    2012-04-01

    In this review, we describe the geological characteristics of porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region, Xinjiang, and place these into their metallogenic-tectonic context. These porphyry copper deposits are mainly found in four metallogenic belts: (1) a Late Silurian to Early Devonian Cu-Mo metallogenic belt in the Qiongheba area; (2) the Late Devonian Kalaxiange'er Cu metallogenic belt; (3) the Early Carboniferous Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo metallogenic belt; and (4) the Late Carboniferous Baogutu porphyry Cu metallogenic belt. The ages of mineralization can be divided into three broad intervals: copper deposits range mainly from 300 to 180 °C. Salinity ranges from 0.5 to 21.7 wt.% NaCl equiv and 28.9 to 66.76 wt.% NaCl equiv. Ore-forming fluids in the Baogutu and Yunyingshan deposits in the Baogutu and Qiongheba belts, were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, whereas those in the Halasu, Yulekenhalasu and Xilekuduke deposits in the Kalaxiange'er and Xilekuduke-Suoerkuduke belts were mainly derived from magmatic fluids, with some contributions from meteoric water. Sulfur isotope compositions of some porphyry copper deposits cluster around 0‰, indicating that the sulfur was probably derived from mantle-related magmas. The ore-forming processes in all porphyry copper deposits are closely related to the emplacement of intermediate, intermediate-felsic and felsic porphyry intrusions. Porphyry copper deposits in Junggar region developed in a range of tectonic regimes including continental arc, ocean island arc and post collisional settings.

  11. Sequence stratigraphy and a revised sea-level curve for the Middle Devonian of eastern North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Carlton E.; Baird, G.C.; Bartholomew, A.J.; DeSantis, M.K.; Ver Straeten, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    recognizes just one major transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycle in the early-mid Givetian (If) prior to the major late Givetian Taghanic unconformity (IIa, upper Tully-Geneseo Shale), we recognize four T-R cycles: If (restricted), Ig, Ih, and Ii. We surmise that third-order sequences record eustatic sea-level fluctuations of tens of meters with periodicities of 0.8-2. myr, while their medial-scale (fourth-order) subdivisions record lesser variations primarily of 405. kyr duration (long-term eccentricity). This high-resolution record of sea-level change provides strong evidence for high-order eustatic cycles with probable Milankovitch periodicities, despite the fact that no direct evidence for Middle Devonian glacial sediments has been found to date. ?? 2010.

  12. Late-onset temperature reduction can retard the aging process in aged fish via a combined action of an anti-oxidant system and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Chang, Qingyun; Wang, Yu; Su, Feng; Zhang, Shicui

    2014-12-01

    Two different mechanisms are considered to be related to aging. Cumulative molecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), the by-products of oxidative phosphorylation, is one of these mechanisms (ROS concept). Deregulated nutrient sensing by the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling (IIS) pathway is the second mechanism (IIS concept). Temperature reduction (TR) is known to modulate aging and prolong life span in a variety of organisms, but the mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here we first demonstrate that late-onset TR from 26 °C to 22 °C extends mean life span and maximum life span by approximately 5.2 and 3 weeks, respectively, in the annual fish Nothobranchius guentheri. We then show that TR is able to decrease the accumulation of the histological aging markers senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal) in the epithelium and lipofuscin (LF) in the liver and to reduce protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels in the muscle. We also show that TR can enhance the activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase, and stimulate the synthesis of SirT1 and FOXO3A/FOXO1A, both of which are the downstream regulators of the IIS pathway. Taken together, our findings suggest that late-onset TR, a simple non-intrusion intervention, can retard the aging process in aged fish, resulting in their life span extension, via a synergistic action of an anti-oxidant system and the IIS pathway. This also suggests that combined assessment of the ROS and IIS concepts will contribute to providing a more comprehensive view of the anti-aging process.

  13. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  14. Maternal and paternal genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Estonia from the Late Bronze Age to the post-medieval period and comparison with other regions in Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, E; Lõugas, L; Niemi, M; Kantanen, J; Maldre, L; Kadõrova, N; Saarma, U

    2016-04-01

    Sheep were among the first domesticated animals to appear in Estonia in the late Neolithic and became one of the most widespread livestock species in the region from the Late Bronze Age onwards. However, the origin and historical expansion of local sheep populations in Estonia remain poorly understood. Here, we analysed fragments of the hypervariable D-loop of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA; 213 bp) and the Y-chromosome SRY gene (130 bp) extracted from 31 archaeological sheep bones dated from approximately 800 BC to 1700 AD. The ancient DNA data of sheep from Estonia were compared with ancient sheep from Finland as well as a set of contemporary sheep breeds from across Eurasia in order to place them in a wider phylogeographical context. The analysis shows that: (i) 24 successfully amplified and analysed mtDNA sequences of ancient sheep cluster into two haplogroups, A and B, of which B is predominant; (ii) four of the ancient mtDNA haplotypes are novel; (iii) higher mtDNA haplotype diversity occurred during the Middle Ages as compared to other periods, a fact concordant with the historical context of expanding international trade during the Middle Ages; (iv) the proportion of rarer haplotypes declined during the expansion of sheep from the Near Eastern domestication centre to the northern European region; (v) three male samples showed the presence of the characteristic northern European haplotype, SNP G-oY1 of the Y-chromosome, and represent the earliest occurrence of this haplotype. Our results provide the first insight into the genetic diversity and phylogeographical background of ancient sheep in Estonia and provide basis for further studies on the temporal fluctuations of ancient sheep populations.

  15. Productive roles, gender, and depressive symptoms: evidence from a national longitudinal study of late-middle-aged Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Yoko; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shibata, Hiroshi; Harada, Ken

    2008-07-01

    Using three waves of panel data collected from a national sample of Japanese adults between the ages of 55 and 64 years, we examined the relationship between productive roles and depressive symptoms. Our particular emphasis was on multiple roles, role transitions, and gender differences. We found that, among men, engaging in more hours of paid or volunteer work was related to fewer depressive symptoms. Although men who lost their paid work role reported more depressive symptoms, volunteer work attenuated the negative effect of losing their paid work role. For women, none of the productive roles examined in this study were found to be independently linked with depressive symptoms. However, engaging in multiple productive roles, in comparison with doing only housework, was related to fewer depressive symptoms. These findings suggest the psychological benefits of paid and volunteer work for retirement-aged men in Japan, and the need to be attentive to gender differences in the impact of productive roles.

  16. Age of diagnosis in Rett syndrome: patterns of recognition among diagnosticians and risk factors for late diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tarquinio, DC; W Hou; Neul, JL; Lane, JB; Barnes, KV; O'Leary, HM; Bruck, NM; Kaufmann, WE; Motil, KJ; Glaze, DG; Skinner, SA; Annese, F.; Baggett, L; Barrish, JO; Geerts, SP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Purpose Diagnosis of Rett syndrome (RTT) is often delayed. We sought to determine the type of physician who typically makes the RTT diagnosis and to identify risk factors for delayed diagnosis. Methods A total of 1085 participants from the multicenter longitudinal RTT natural history study with classic and atypical RTT were recruited between 2006 and 2014. Age of diagnosis, diagnostician, diagnostic criteria, and clinical and developmental data were collected. Results Amo...

  17. Hyper-longevity, a late-modern paradigm for understanding longevity, ageing and their complexities in Western developed globalised countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzetta, Roberto; Cesario, Alfredo; Fini, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    If longevity is a biological and demographic indicator to determine human lifetime extension, hyper-longevity notion can represent a heuristic tool to better disentangle the complex bio-psycho-social implications of ageing and elderly in Western developed globalised countries. Departing from the assumption of a holistic approach to human condition understanding, it is possible to reveal the grounds and patterns of a multilayered and multidimensional structuring of longevity and ageing in our societies that would lead to a form of hyper-longevity. Socio-cultural processes, underlying hyper-longevity notion, rise the question of transition from modern/ latemodern societies to post-modern ones and it offers room for a cultural analysis of concepts, such as space time compression, digital capitalism, knowledge and mass information society. These are relevant ideas that can contribute to reshape and rethink the boundaries and traits of ageing experience in 21(st) century societies. To better catch the point emerging social category of Baby Boomers is presented and used to provide a concrete context related example on how hyper-longevity can better explain complex social evidences in many cultural respects and social domains. As a conclusive step some preliminary reflections, largely centered on the relation between Baby Boomers, hyper-longevity and bio-medical sciences are presented and discussed to provide a starting point for further future analyses within a trans and inter-disciplinary framework.

  18. Confirmation of a late middle Pleistocene age for the Omo Kibish 1 cranium by direct uranium-series dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Maxime; Pike, Alistair W G; Stringer, Chris; Bartsiokas, Antonis; Kinsley, Les; Eggins, Stephen; Day, Michael; Grün, Rainer

    2012-11-01

    While it is generally accepted that modern humans evolved in Africa, the specific physical evidence for that origin remains disputed. The modern-looking Omo 1 skeleton, discovered in the Kibish region of Ethiopia in 1967, was controversially dated at ~130 ka (thousands of years ago) by U-series dating on associated Mollusca, and it was not until 2005 that Ar-Ar dating on associated feldspar crystals in pumice clasts provided evidence for an even older age of ~195 ka. However, questions continue to be raised about the age and stratigraphic position of this crucial fossil specimen. Here we present direct U-series determinations on the Omo 1 cranium. In spite of significant methodological complications, which are discussed in detail, the results indicate that the human remains do not belong to a later intrusive burial and are the earliest representative of anatomically modern humans. Given the more archaic morphology shown by the apparently contemporaneous Omo 2 calvaria, we suggest that direct U-series dating is applied to this fossil as well, to confirm its age in relation to Omo 1. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Age constraints on the dispersal of dinosaurs in the Late Triassic from magnetochronology of the Los Colorados Formation (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Dennis V; Santi Malnis, Paula; Colombi, Carina E; Alcober, Oscar A; Martínez, Ricardo N

    2014-06-03

    A measured magnetozone sequence defined by 24 sampling sites with normal polarity and 28 sites with reverse polarity characteristic magnetizations was established for the heretofore poorly age-constrained Los Colorados Formation and its dinosaur-bearing vertebrate fauna in the Ischigualasto-Villa Union continental rift basin of Argentina. The polarity pattern in this ∼600-m-thick red-bed section can be correlated to Chrons E7r to E15n of the Newark astrochronological polarity time scale. This represents a time interval from 227 to 213 Ma, indicating that the Los Colorados Formation is predominantly Norian in age, ending more than 11 My before the onset of the Jurassic. The magnetochronology confirms that the underlying Ischigualasto Formation and its vertebrate assemblages including some of the earliest known dinosaurs are of Carnian age. The oldest dated occurrences of vertebrate assemblages with dinosaurs in North America (Chinle Formation) are younger (Norian), and thus the rise of dinosaurs was diachronous across the Americas. Paleogeography of the Ischigualasto and Los Colorados Formations indicates prolonged residence in the austral temperate humid belt where a provincial vertebrate fauna with early dinosaurs may have incubated. Faunal dispersal across the Pangean supercontinent in the development of more cosmopolitan vertebrate assemblages later in the Norian may have been in response to reduced contrasts between climate zones and lowered barriers resulting from decreasing atmospheric pCO2 levels.

  20. Melatonin and cortisol profiles in late midlife and their association with age-related changes in cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waller, Katja Linda; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between circadian disturbances and age-related cognitive impairment. The aim was to study the 24-hour profiles of melatonin and cortisol in relation to cognitive function in middle-aged male subjects. Fifty healthy middle-aged males born in 1953 were...... and melatonin levels by immunoassay. All participants exhibited clear circadian rhythms of salivary melatonin and cortisol. Salivary melatonin concentrations had a nocturnal peak at approximately 4 am. The median nocturnal melatonin response at 4 am was significantly lower in the cognitively impaired group than...... in the high-functioning group (-4.6 pg/mL, 95% CI: -7.84, -1.36, P=0.006). The 24-hour mean melatonin concentration (high-functioning group: 4.80±0.70 pg/mL, vs cognitively impaired group: 4.81±0.76 pg/mL; P>0.05) (or the area under the curve, AUC) was not significantly different between the two groups...

  1. A late-preterm, early-term stratified analysis of neonatal outcomes by gestational age in placenta previa: defining the optimal timing for delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayla, Jacques; Wo, Bi Lan; Bédard, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Though no official guidelines address the issue of the optimal timing of delivery in placenta previa, common practice is to conduct delivery between 36 and 37 weeks gestation. Given the rising concerns regarding unnecessary premature deliveries, the objective of this study was to compare neonatal outcomes among pregnancies complicated by placenta previa delivered at the late-preterm period (35, 36 weeks) relative to the early-term period (37 and 38 weeks). We conducted a retrospective, population-based, cohort study using the CDC’s Linked Birth-Infant Death data files from the U.S. for the year 2004. We stratified the cohort according to gestational age and placenta previa status. Using 38 weeks gestation as reference controls, the effect of delivery in a pregnancy with placenta previa at 35, 36 and 37 weeks gestation on the risk of several neonatal outcomes was estimated using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. We analyzed a total of 4 118 956 births, of which 5675 (0.1%) met inclusion criteria. Late-preterm delivery was associated with lower birthweight and increased adequacy of care. Relative to neonates born at 38 weeks, birth at 35, 36 and 37 weeks was associated with no greater odds of meconium passage, fetal distress, fetal anemia, neonatal seizures, increased ventilator needs, or infant death at 1 year. However, odds of 5-min APGAR scores placenta previa is associated with fewer complications and no greater risk than late-preterm delivery. This information may be helpful in the development of future guidelines, which are currently needed to guide the management of these pregnancies.

  2. The metamorphosis of Villena trade of gold, tin and salt during the Late Bronze Age I between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean (1625-1300 BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mederos Martín, Alfredo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Late Bronze Age I there was a clear process of population concentration in the regions around the Lower Segura, Middle and Upper Vinalopó (Alicante, Southeast Spain, in settlements as Laderas del Castillo, El Portitxol and Cabezo Redondo. Next to the last one, the hoard of Villena, ca. 1575-1400 BC, is the second most important hoard of golden vessels in Europe, after the Shaft Graves at Mycenae, during the Late Bronze Age. This hoard, which was made from alluvial gold, required the full time work of 130-150 people during, at least, 1 year and 3 months. Also during the Late Bronze Age I in Southeast Spain an increase in new coastal settlements, the use of bronze alloys (Sn, 8-12 % and horse breeding took place. The lion's share of this gold and tin had to be obtained by maritime trade with Northwest Iberia in exchange for salt, which Galicia lacks compared with other European Atlantic regions. The salt probably came from the lagoon of La Mata (Alicante, currently the largest saline complex of Europe.

    Durante el Bronce Final I se produjo un claro proceso de concentración poblacional en las comarcas del Bajo Segura, Medio y Alto Vinalopó (Alicante, en poblados como Laderas del Castillo, El Portitxol y Cabezo Redondo. Próximo a este último, el "tesoro" de Villena, ca. 1575-1400 AC, es el conjunto de vajilla áurea más importante de Europa durante el Bronce Final, después de las tumbas de fosa de Micenas. Este "tesoro", que exigió para su acumulación el trabajo a tiempo completo de 130-150 personas durante, al menos, 1 año y 3 meses, procede de oro aluvial. También durante el Bronce Final I se incrementan en el Sureste los poblados costeros, el uso del bronce (Sn, 8-12 % y la cría de caballos. La mayor parte de este oro y estaño debió obtenerse por comercio marítimo con el Noroeste Peninsular a cambio de sal, de la que Galicia es deficitaria como otras regiones atlánticas europeas. La sal procedería de la laguna de

  3. Late bone and soft tissue sequelae of childhood radiotherapy. Relevance of treatment age and radiation dose in 146 children treated between 1970 and 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerr, W. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Medical University / AKH Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kallfels, S. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology; Kinder- und Jugendmedizin, Chemnitz (Germany); Herrmann, T. [Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: The present retrospective study was initiated to characterize the effect of oncological treatments in children and adolescents on bone and soft tissues, and to assess their dependence on radiation dose and age at exposure. Patients and methods: The study included 146 patients treated between 1970 and 1997. All patients received external beam radiotherapy to the trunk or extremities, but no cranial irradiation. Median age at treatment was 8.8 years. Patients were screened at 18 years (median time interval since treatment 9.2 years, range 0.9-17.7 years) for pathological changes in the skeletal system and soft tissues (scoliosis, kyphosis, bony hypoplasia, soft tissue defects, asymmetries), which were classified as minor/moderate (grade 1) or substantial (grade 2). Results: Pathological findings were recorded in 75/146 patients (51 %). These were scored as minor in 44 (59 %) and substantial in 31 patients (41 %). Most pathological changes occurred in children treated under the age of 6 years. At 6 years and older, only doses > 35 Gy caused an effect, and no substantial changes were seen for treatment ages exceeding 12 years. Significant effects of radiation dose and age at exposure were observed for kyphoscoliosis (with vertebral body dose gradients < 35 Gy), hypoplasia and soft tissue defects and asymmetrical growth. Conclusion: Tolerance doses of 20 Gy need to be respected for growing bone, particularly in children treated under the age of 6 years. The late treatment sequelae analysed in the present study are largely avoided with the use of current therapeutic protocols. However, the systematic evaluation, documentation and continuous analysis of adverse events in paediatric oncology remains essential, as does the evaluation of novel radio(chemo)therapeutic approaches. (orig.)

  4. The Impact of Fear and Authority on Islamic and Baha’iModernisms in the Late Modern Age: A Liberal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey P. Nash

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Fear of the late modern world has been a major factor in the rise of authoritarianand violent religio-political movements. This article draws on Anthony Giddens andCharles Taylor’s conceptualisation of the self in the secular age, and applies this to twomodernist religious trends originating in the East in the later nineteenth century in thecontext of western global expansion. Endeavouring to rise to the challenge ofaccommodating Islam to modernity by adopting the tools of rationality and encouragingindependent inquiry, Islamic Modernism has become increasingly embattled. The Baha’ifaith, a movement that incorporates similar perspectives and also developed out of anIslamic context, proposes a theophanic transformation rather than renewal through reformof Islam. After a period of infusion of a progressive catalytic impulse into the Middle East,the Baha’i faith performed its own recalibration of modernism, enunciating apocalypticdenunciation of the modern world similar to that found in Muslim revivalist trends. Thearticle ends by making some suggestions for continuation of a progressive religiousapproach in late modernity.

  5. New Insights in the Ontogeny and Taphonomy of the Devonian Acanthodian Triazeugacanthus affinis From the Miguasha Fossil-Lagerstätte, Eastern Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Chevrinais

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Progressive biomineralization of a skeleton occurs during ontogeny in most animals. In fishes, larvae are poorly mineralized, whereas juveniles and adults display a progressively more biomineralized skeleton. Fossil remains primarily consist of adult specimens because the fossilization of poorly-mineralized larvae and juveniles necessitates exceptional conditions. The Miguasha Fossil-Lagerstätte is renowned for its Late Devonian vertebrate fauna, revealing the exceptional preservation of fossilized ontogenies for 14 of the 20 fish species from this locality. The mineralization of anatomical structures of the acanthodian Triazeugacanthus affinis from Miguasha are compared among larval, juvenile and adult specimens using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry. Chemical composition of anatomical structures of Triazeugacanthus reveals differences between cartilage and bone. Although the histology and anatomy is well-preserved, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry shows that the original chemical composition of bone is altered by diagenesis; the mineral phase of the bone (i.e., hydroxyapatite is modified chemically to form more stable carbonate-fluorapatite. Fluorination occurring in mineralized skeletal structures of adult Triazeugacanthus is indicative of exchanges between groundwater and skeleton at burial, whereas the preservation of larval soft tissues is likely owing to a rapid burial under anoxic conditions. The exceptional state of preservation of a fossilized ontogeny allowed us to characterize chemically the progressive mineralization of the skeleton in a Devonian early vertebrate.

  6. NEW DATA ON MIDDLE DEVONIAN CONODONTS FROM SW-SARDINIA:THE SU NUARGI II SECTION REVISITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOFIE GOUWY

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The conodont collection from the nodular limestone beds of the Su Nuargi II outcrop near Domusnovas in SW-Sardinia (Italy is restudied for the purpose of reassessing the outcrop and updating the conodont collection to the most recent taxonomy. Su Nuargi II is the most important outcrop in the SW of the island exposing Middle Devonian rocks. Forty-five conodont taxa have been identified in the collection, positioning the outcrop within the interval covering the timorensis to latifossatus zones (Lower to Middle Givetian slightly widening the interpretation of Olivieri (1985. A new morphotype of Polygnathus linguiformis linguiformis is described. The genera Tortodus and Schmidtognathus are identified for the first time in the Middle Devonian of Sardinia. Additionally, a second Middle Devonian outcrop is discovered in the SW of the Island. 

  7. New data on Upper Devonian stratigraphy of the northwestern Kuznetsk basin: Evidence from foraminifera and chondrichthyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhina, I. G.; Rodina, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    The thorough investigation of four Frasnian-Famennian (Upper Devonian) boundary sections along the right side of the Tom River northwest of Kemerovo yielded new data on the composition of their foraminiferal and ichthyofaunal assemblages. These data were used for development of the zonal foraminiferal scale for Upper Devonian deposits of the northwestern Kuznetsk coal basin and the first zonal scale for their subdivision on the basis of Elasmobranchii remains and for correlation of the examined sections between each other and with Upper Devonian sequences in other regions. The analysis of foraminiferal and ichthyofaunal assemblages, which are the most widespread in upper Frasnian sections of the northwestern Kuznetsk coal basin, made it possible to specify the regional stratigraphic model.

  8. Mid- to late-Holocene reservoir-age variability and isotope-based palaeoenvironmental reconstruction in the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Olsen, Jesper; Lewis, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    Palaeoenvironmental and 14C reservoir age variability in the Limfjord, a sound through northern Jutland, Denmark, was investigated for the period 7300 to 1300 cal yr BP. Shells and bulk sediment samples from a core from a former inlet, Kilen, were analysed by radiocarbon dating and stable isotope...... are no longer correlated. Before 4000 cal. yr BP, δ15N values vary by only 1‰ and do not reflect the changes in the marine environment. A δ15N increase between 3500 and 2000 cal. yr BP signifies enhanced organic productivity or a change in agricultural practices....... (C/N) measurements. A strong correlation between the C/N ratios and δ13C values verifies that these are good carbon source indicators and thus allow environmental reconstructions. Furthermore, δ13C values are correlated with salinity in the photic zone, inferred quantitatively from diatom assemblages...

  9. Zircon U-Pb age and Hf isotopic systematics of Late Paleozoic volcanic from the western margin of east Junggar and tectonic implication%东准噶尔西缘晚古生代火山岩的锆石U-Pb年龄和Hf同位素特征及构造意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史基安; 唐相路; 张顺存; 张宏福; 肖燕

    2012-01-01

    Two sections,namely Baijiangou and Zhangpenggo,in the western margin of east Junggar, where expose a large number of Paleozoic volcanic rocks, are the favorable areas to study the tectonic evolution of the east Junggar. LA-MC-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating and Hf isotopic systematics study of igneous rocks( basalt,basaltic andesite,rhyolite and keratophyre with minor tuff and syenite-porphyry) , using geochrony technology, suggests that they were formed during Early Devonian to Late Carboniferous (400 ~ 307 Ma). Basalts and basaltic andesites are more likely output as dikes, and they display age-range from 435 Ma to 300 Ma and show positive em(t) values(+0. 7 ~ +15.4) , which suggests that the east Junggar terrane is controled by juvenile crust and that the Precambrian crystalline rocks must be very limited, if there is any. The Zhangpenggou rhyolite and keratophyre, zircon U-Pb ages of 332 Ma and 336 Ma respectively, were formed in a volcanic arc environment or a environment which was mixed with part of island arc. The Baijiangou syenite-porphyries with positive sa((t) values in Late Carboniferous( 307 Ma and 315 Ma) indicate a vertical accretion of crustal materials. The Baijiangou rhyolites which show positive sH[(t) values and zircon U-Pb ages of 315 Ma and 323 Ma suggests a lateral accretion of crustal materials. Therefore, the east Junggar is mainly accretionary prism undering extensional settings of post-collisional period, and it's considered today to be a Paleozoic Mariana-type intra-oceanic island arc.%白碱沟和帐篷沟剖面位于东准噶尔西缘,出露有大量古生代火山岩,是研究东准噶尔古生代火山岩及构造演化的有利区域.本文利用LA-MC-ICP-MS锆石U-Pb定年法和Hf同位素系统对该区中的玄武岩、玄武质安山岩、流纹岩、角斑岩以及少量的凝灰岩和正长斑岩进行了地质年代学研究,认为它们形成于早泥盆世至晚石炭世之间(400~307 Ma).玄武岩和玄武质安山岩

  10. INFLUENCE OF AGE ON SURVIVAL, LATE HYPERTENSION, AND RECOARCTATION IN ELECTIVE AORTIC COARCTATION REPAIR - INCLUDING LONG-TERM RESULTS AFTER ELECTIVE AORTIC COARCTATION REPAIR WITH A FOLLOW-UP FROM 25 TO 44 YEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BROUWER, RMHJ; ERASMUS, ME; EBELS, T; EIJGELAAR, A

    1994-01-01

    The optimal age for elective repair of aortic coarctation is controversial. The optimal age should be associated with a minimal risk of recoarctation, late hypertension, and other cardiovascular disorders. The purpose of this retrospective study is to determine the actuarial survival after aortic co

  11. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia J Moisá

    Full Text Available In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW and normal weaned (NW Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW, 187 (NW and 354 (before slaughter days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG. However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167, especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase, NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef

  12. Maternal Plane of Nutrition during Late Gestation and Weaning Age Alter Angus × Simmental Offspring Longissimus Muscle Transcriptome and Intramuscular Fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisá, Sonia J; Shike, Daniel W; Shoup, Lindsay; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Loor, Juan J

    2015-01-01

    In model organisms both the nutrition of the mother and the young offspring could induce long-lasting transcriptional changes in tissues. In livestock, such changes could have important roles in determining nutrient use and meat quality. The main objective was to evaluate if plane of maternal nutrition during late-gestation and weaning age alter the offspring's Longissimus muscle (LM) transcriptome, animal performance, and metabolic hormones. Whole-transcriptome microarray analysis was performed on LM samples of early (EW) and normal weaned (NW) Angus × Simmental calves born to grazing cows receiving no supplement [low plane of nutrition (LPN)] or 2.3 kg high-grain mix/day [medium plane of nutrition (MPN)] during the last 105 days of gestation. Biopsies of LM were harvested at 78 (EW), 187 (NW) and 354 (before slaughter) days of age. Despite greater feed intake in MPN offspring, blood insulin was greater in LPN offspring. Carcass intramuscular fat content was greater in EW offspring. Bioinformatics analysis of the transcriptome highlighted a modest overall response to maternal plane of nutrition, resulting in only 35 differentially expressed genes (DEG). However, weaning age and a high-grain diet (EW) strongly impacted the transcriptome (DEG = 167), especially causing a lipogenic program activation. In addition, between 78 and 187 days of age, EW steers had an activation of the innate immune system due presumably to macrophage infiltration of intramuscular fat. Between 187 and 354 days of age (the "finishing" phase), NW steers had an activation of the lipogenic transcriptome machinery, while EW steers had a clear inhibition through the epigenetic control of histone acetylases. Results underscored the need to conduct further studies to understand better the functional outcome of transcriptome changes induced in the offspring by pre- and post-natal nutrition. Additional knowledge on molecular and functional outcomes would help produce more efficient beef cattle.

  13. STUDY OF THE DEVONIAN BRACHIOPOD GENERA YUNNANELLA AND NAYUNNELLA%论泥盆纪腕足动物Yunnanella和Nayunnella属

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈秀琴; 廖卓庭; 许汉奎

    2001-01-01

    is often lower than the beds involved Nayunnella. Nayunnella is much more than Yunnanella in beds and thickness, quantity and diversity. In the prerecent study, very abundant specimens of the genus Nayunnella were found from the Shashishan section in South Tianshan. It is proved again that South China and South Tianshan had a close relationship during Late Devonian depending on the existence of abundant Nayunnella in the two regions.   The specimens of the genus Yunnanella were first found from northern Xinjiang in 1973 and the exact location of the section yieding Yunnanella hanburii (Davidson) and Yunnanella sp. was confirmed at Tenglingsaka, about 5 km northwest of Yangzhuan, in Emin, northern Xinjiang in 2000. In North Xinjiang, only Yunnanella was found, but not any Nayunnella has been found until now. It is an opposite condition compared with South Xinjiang. It needs more evidences to prove what factors to cause these differences between South Xinjiang and North Xinjiang.   According to the data availabe, the Yunnanella-Nayunnella fauna has been known from such provinces in China as northern Guangdong, Guangxi, eastern Yunnan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Longmenshan of Sichuan, southwest Shaanxi, Gansu, southern Tianshan and western Junggar Basin of Xinjiang besides Kazakhstan and Novaya Zemlya, commonly occurring in the early and middle Famennian strata.

  14. Lower Devonian tentaculite bed in the Satun area, southern peninsular Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agematsu, Sachiko; Sashida, Katsuo; Salyapongse, Sirot; Sardsud, Apsorn

    2006-05-01

    A Lower Devonian (Emsian) tentaculite fauna including Nowakia acuaria [Richer, R., 1854. Thüringische Tentaculiten. Zeitschr. Deutsch. Geol. Gesellsch. 6, 275-290] occurs in black shale in the basal part of a siliciclastic sequence exposed north of Satun, southern peninsular Thailand. Similar tentaculite beds with Nowakia have been reported from several areas in the Fang, Sri Sawat, and Trang areas of Thailand, the Langkawi Islands and the Mahang-Baling areas of Malaysia. The depositional environments in which the tentaculite-bearing black shale accumulated extended from modern northern Thailand to northwestern Malaysia during the Early Devonian (Emsian).

  15. Metallogenetic Mechanism and Timing of Late Superimposing Fluid Mineralization in the Dongguashan Diplogenetic Stratified Copper Deposit, Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaowen; LU Xiancai; LING Hongfei; LU Jianjun; JIANG Shoyong; NIE Guiping; HUANG Shunsheng; HUA Ming

    2005-01-01

    An important diplogenetic mineralization event superimposed on pre-existing exhalation sediments in the Tongling area, Anhui province, was triggered by widespread granitic magmatism along the northeastern margin of the Yangtze Block during 140-135 Ma under extensional tectonic circumstances following the collision between the North China and Yangtze blocks. The main orebodies of the Dongguashan copper deposit, a typical diplogenetic stratified deposit among many polymetallic ore deposits in China, are hosted by strata between Upper Devonian sandstone and Carboniferous limestone, and its mineralization was genetically related to the Qingshanjiao intrusive. The Rb-Sr isotopic isochron of the Qingshanjiao intrusive yields an age of about 136.5±1.4 Ma. The ore-forming fluid reflected by the inclusion fluid in quartz veins is characterized by high temperature and high salinity, and its age was also determined by Rb-Sr isotope dating as 134±11 Ma. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition data suggest that the ore-forming fluid was derived mainly from magmatism. By integrating these isotopic dating data, characteristics of fluid inclusions and the geology of the deposit, the mineralization of the Dongguashan copper deposit is divided into two stages. First, a stratiform sedimentary deposit or protore layer formed in the Late Devonian to the Early Carboniferous, while in the second stage the pre-existing protore was superimposed by hydrothermal fluid that was derived from the Yanshanian magmatic activities occurring around 135 Ma ago. This two-stage mineralization formed the Dongguashan statiform copper deposit.Associated "porphyry" mineralization found in the bottom of and in surrounding intrusive rocks of the orebodies might have occurred in the same period as a second-stage mineralization of this deposit.

  16. From Flysch to Molasse-Sedimentary and Tectonic Evolution of Late Caledonian-Early Hercynian Foreland Basin in North Qilian Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The Late Caledonian to Early Hercynian North Qilian orogenic belt in northwestern China is an elongate tectonic unit situated between the North China plate in the north and the Qaidam plate in the south. North Qilian started in the latest Proterozoic to Cambrian as a rift basin on the southern margin of North China, and evolved later to an archipelagic ocean and active continental margin during the Ordovician and a foreland basin from Silurian to the Early and Middle Devonian. The Early Silurian flysch and submarine alluvial fan, the Middle to Late Silurian shallow marine to tidal flat deposits and the Early and Middle Devonian terrestrial molasse are developed along the corridor Nanshan. The shallowing-upward succession from subabyssal flysch, shallow marine, tidal flat to terrestrial molasse and its gradually narrowed regional distribution demonstrate that the foreland basin experienced the transition from flysch stage to molasse stage during the Silurian and Devonian time.

  17. The LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate Age, Late-Type Binary NO UMa

    CERN Document Server

    Schlieder, Joshua E; Maire, Anne-Lise; Desidera, Silvano; Hinz, Philip; Skrutskie, Michael F; Leisenring, Jarron; Bailey, Vanessa; Defrere, Denis; Esposito, Simone; Strassmeier, Klaus G; Weber, Michael; Biller, Beth A; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Buenzli, Esther; Close, Laird M; Crepp, Justin R; Eisner, Josh A; Hofmann, Karl-Heinz; Henning, Thomas; Morzinski, Katie M; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Woodward, Charles E

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. Our H, K$_s$, and L'-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.09". The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ~7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0$\\pm$0.5 primary and K6.5$\\pm$0.5 secondary are 0.83$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$ and 0.64$\\pm$0.02 M$_{\\odot}$, respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87$\\pm$0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ~500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa bi...

  18. Childhood socioeconomic status, adult socioeconomic status, and old-age health trajectories: Connecting early, middle, and late life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Zimmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper advances literature on earlier-life socioeconomic status (SES and later-life health in a number of ways, including conceptualizing later-life health as a developmental process and relying on objective rather than retrospective reports of childhood and adult SES and health. Methods: Data are from the Utah Population Database (N=75,019, which contains variables from Medicare claims, birth and death certificates, and genealogical records. The morbidity measure uses the Charlson Comorbidity Index. SES is based on converting occupation to Nam-Powers scores and then dividing these scores into quartiles plus farmers. Analyses are conducted in two steps. Group-based trajectory modeling estimates patterns of morbidity and survival and divides the sample into sex-specific groups ordered from least to most healthy. Multilevel ordered logistic regression incorporating Heckman selection predicts group trajectory membership by SES in adulthood conditioned upon childhood SES. Results: Higher SES in childhood is associated with membership in groups that have more favorable morbidity trajectories and survival probabilities. SES in adulthood has additive impact, especially for females. For example, if a female is characterized as being in the lowest SES quartile during childhood, her probability of having the most favorable health trajectory improves from 0.12 to 0.17 as her adult SES increases from the lowest to highest quartile. Conclusions: Results suggest both childhood and adult SES independently impact upon old-age health trajectories.

  19. Sedimentology, conodonts and ostracods of the Devonian - Carboniferous strata of the Anseremme railway bridge section, Dinant Basin, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casier, J.-G.; Mamet, B.; Preat, A.; Sandberg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Seven major carbonate microfacies are defined in the Devonian - Carboniferous (D/C) strata (50 m) of the Anseremme railway bridge section, south of Dinant. They permit recognition of several levels encompassing the Etroeungt and Hastie??re formations. "Bathymetric" sequences range from open marine, below the storm wave base, to semi-restricted lagoon. This sequence records a shallowing-upward trend of the relative sea level, from environments below the storm wave base to strongly eroded supraticial pre-evaporitic environments. Faunal components (echinoderms, brachiopods...) indicate open-marine domain for the first six microfacies located within the dysphoticeuphotic zone in relatively shallow waters. The textures of the rocks (mudstones to rudstones) associated with lamination characteristics indicate the position of the storm (SWB) and the fair-weather (FWWB) wave bases. Microfacies seven suggests a semi-restricted platform with salinity fluctuations from hypersaline brines to brackish waters. Thus, the boundary of the Etroeungt/Hastie??re formations is marked by an abrupt drop in sea level. Carbonate micro-conglomerates recording an important erosive phase and a sedimentary hiatus. The environment is again open marine in the upper part of the Hastie??re Formation. Our conclusion is that the Anseremme section is not a reliable continuous succession for the study of the D/C boundary. This confirms the VAN STEENWINKEL (1988, 1993 hypothesis based on other arguments. Conodont faunas demonstrate that the Devonian sequence spans the five youngest conodont zones, but that two of these zones are not represented. The Epinette Formation is dated as the youngest part of the Middle expansa Zone. Thus, the boundary with the Late praesulcata Zone probably coincides with the sharp sedimentological change at the base of the Etroeungt Formation, which is interpreted to belong entirely to this zone. The disconformably overlying basal bed 159 of the Hastie??re Formation is dated

  20. Angiogenic factors at diagnosis of late-onset small-for-gestational age and histological placental underperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triunfo, S; Lobmaier, S; Parra-Saavedra, M; Crovetto, F; Peguero, A; Nadal, A; Gratacos, E; Figueras, F

    2014-06-01

    This study was designed to explore the association between angiogenic factors levels at diagnosis of small-for-gestational age (SGA) and placental underperfusion (PUP). In a cohort of SGA singleton pregnancies, each delivered at >34 weeks, uterine (UtA), umbilical (UA), and middle cerebral (MCA) arteries were evaluated by Doppler upon diagnosis of SGA status. In addition, maternal circulating concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) were assayed by ELISA, and each placenta was evaluated for histologic signs of PUP using a hierarchical and standardized classification system. Logistic regression was applied to analyze independent relationships (at diagnosis) between angiogenic factors and Doppler parameters. A total of 122 suspected SGA pregnancies were studied, 70 (57.4%) of which ultimately met PUP criteria. In this group, 85 placental findings qualified as PUP. Both mean UtA pulsatility index z-values (1.26 vs. 0.84; p = 0.038) and PlGF multiples of normal median (0.21 vs. 0.55; p = 0.002) differed significantly in pregnancies with and without PUP, respectively. By logistic regression, PlGF alone was independently predictive of PUP (OR = 0.11 [95% CI 0.025-0.57]; p = 0.008). Histologic placental abnormalities in term SGA neonates reflect latent insufficiency in uteroplacental blood supply. The heightened risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in this context underscores a need for new Doppler or biochemical prenatal markers of placental disease. Angiogenic factors may be pivotal identifying SGA neonates. Diminished circulating levels of placental growth factor, determined upon discovery of SGA status, are associated with histologic evidence of PUP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Isotopic studies on detrital zircons of Silurian-Devonian siliciclastic sequences from Argentinean North Patagonia and Sierra de la Ventana regions: comparative provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriz, Norberto J.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Chemale, Farid; Macambira, Moacir B.; Armstrong, Richard

    2011-04-01

    The Silurian-Devonian siliciclastic sedimentary units known as Sierra Grande Formation and the upper part of the Ventana Group crop out in the eastern area of the North Patagonian Massif and in the Ventania system, toward the Atlantic border of Argentina. Both sequences show similar stratigraphical characteristics and were deposited in a shallow marine platform paleoenvironment. Previous contributions have provided evidence of an allochthonous Patagonia terrane that amalgamate to Gondwana during the Permian-Triassic. However, other lines of research support a crustal continuity southward, where the Pampean and Famatinian events extend into the northern Patagonia. In either case, the detrital input to the Eo-Mesopaleozoic basins generated along the passive margin tectonic setting should reflect the sedimentary sources. In this contribution, new age data on the sedimentary provenance of these units is provided by U-Pb and Lu-Hf isotopic studies on detrital zircons, using LA-ICP-MS and SHRIMP methodologies. The main sedimentary sources of detrital zircons for both regions are of Cambrian-Ordovician and Neoproterozoic age, while a secondary mode is Mesoproterozoic. Zircons from older cratonic sources (Mesoarchean-Paleoproterozoic ages) are scarcely recorded. The sample from the upper section of the Devonian Lolén Formation (Ventana Group) shows an important change in the sedimentary provenance, with a main mode of Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons. Detrital source areas considering the orogenic cycles known for southwest South America (Famatinian, Pampean-Brasiliano, Mesoproterozoic-`Grenvillian' and Paleoproterozoic-`Transamazonian') are proposed.

  2. The zircon evidence of temporally changing sediment transport—the NW Gondwana margin during Cambrian to Devonian time (Aoucert and Smara areas, Moroccan Sahara)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Andreas; Youbi, Nasrrddine; Villeneuve, Michel; Sagawe, Anja; Hofmann, Mandy; Mahmoudi, Abdelkader; Boumehdi, Moulay Ahmed; Linnemann, Ulf

    2017-03-01

    Detrital zircon provenance studies are an established tool to develop palaeogeographic models, mostly based on zircon of siliciclastic rocks and isotope data. But zircon is more than just istopes and features well definable morphological characteristics. The latter may indicate single grain transport histories independent of the individual grade of concordance. This additional tool for palaeogeoraphic reconstructions was tested on zircon from siliciclastic and carbonate sedimentary rocks of Palaeozoic age from the Aoucert and Smara areas of the Souttoufides, while findings of zircon in limestone generally open new archives for sedimentary provenance analysis. The morphologies—length, width, roundness, grain surfaces—of 834 detrital zircons from sediments of allochthonous Cambrian, and (par-)autochthonous Ordovician, and Devonian units were studied, while 772 of them were analysed for their U-Th-Pb isotopes by LA-ICP-MS. Mesoproterozoic zircon contents of more than 10% in the Cambrian sediments exclude the West African Craton (WAC) as exclusive source area. Thus, at least one additional external source is suggested. This is likely the western Adrar Souttouf Massif with its significant Mesoproterozoic zircon inheritance, or comparable, yet unknown sources. Decreasing Mesoproterozoic zircon age populations in Ordovician sediments are thought to be linked to the rifting of the terranes in the course of the Rheic Ocean opening and a predominant supply of WAC detritus. The Devonian sediments likely contain reworked material from the Cambrian siliciclastics, which is shown by the zircon age distribution pattern and the zircon morphologies. Therefore, multiple shifts in the direction of sedimentary transport are indicated.

  3. Relationship between marijuana and other illicit drug use and depression/suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; DiNitto, Diana M; Marti, C Nathan; Choi, Bryan Y

    2016-04-01

    Despite growing numbers of older-adult illicit drug users, research on this topic is rare. This study examined the relationship between marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and major depressive episode (MDE) and serious suicidal thoughts among those aged 50+ years in the USA. The public use files of the 2008 to 2012 US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) provided data on 29,634 individuals aged 50+ years. Logistic regression analysis was used to test hypothesized associations between past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use and MDE and serious suicidal thoughts. Nearly 6% of the 50+ years age group reported past-year marijuana and/or other illicit drug use. Compared to non-users of any illicit drug, the odds of past-year MDE among those who used marijuana only, other illicit drugs only, and marijuana and other illicit drugs were 1.54 (95% CI = 1.17-2.03), 2.75 (95% CI = 1.75-4.33), and 2.12 (95% CI = 1.45-3.09), respectively. Those who used marijuana and other drugs also had higher odds (2.44, 95% CI = 1.58-3.77) of suicidal thoughts than non-users of any illicit drug. However, among users of any illicit drug, no difference was found among users of marijuana only, marijuana and other illicit drugs, and other illicit drugs only. Among marijuana users, marijuana use frequency was a significant correlate of suicidal thoughts only among those with MDE. Health and mental health (MH) service providers should pay close attention to the potential reciprocal effects of marijuana and other illicit drug use and MDE and suicidal thoughts among late middle-aged and older adults.

  4. Effects of Water Deficit and Increased Nitrogen Application in the Late Growth Stage on Physiological Characters of Anti-aging of Leaves in Different Hybrid Rice Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    related to ABA content. [Conclusion] The rate of leaf aging, physiological activity of anti-aging, and response to water deficit varied in different hy- bried rice varieties. The activity of antioxidant enzymes were not all induced to improve by ABA. SOD activity can be an indicator of resistance to stress. Increasing nitrogen ap- plication significantly postponed leave senescence in the late growth stage of rice.

  5. Association of insulin resistance with cerebral glucose uptake in late middle-aged adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willette, Auriel A.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Starks, Erika J.; Birdsill, Alex C.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma C.; La Rue, Asenath; Hermann, Bruce P.; Koscik, Rebecca L.; Jonaitis, Erin M.; Sager, Mark A.; Asthana, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Importance Converging evidence suggests that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) involves insulin signaling impairment. AD patients and people at risk for AD show reduced glucose metabolism, as indexed by F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([F18]FDG-PET). Objective To determine if insulin resistance (IR) predicts AD-like global and regional glucose metabolism deficits in late middle-aged participants at risk for AD. A secondary objective was to examine if IR-predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was associated with worse cognitive performance. Setting A general community sample enriched for AD family history. Participants Population-based, cross-sectional study of 150 cognitively normal, late middle-aged (mean=60.67 years) adults from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention. Design Participants underwent cognitive testing, fasting blood draw, and an [F18]FDG-PET scan at baseline. The Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was used to assess peripheral insulin resistance. Regression analysis tested the statistical effect of HOMA-IR on global glucose metabolism. A voxel-wise analysis was used to determine if HOMA-IR predicted regional glucose metabolism. Finally, predicted variation in regional glucose metabolism was regressed against cognitive factors. Covariates included age, sex, body mass index, Apolipoprotein E genotype, AD family history status, and a reference region used to normalize regional uptake. Main Outcome Measures Regional glucose uptake determined using [F18]FDG-PET, and neuropsychological factors. Results Higher HOMA-IR was associated with lower global glucose metabolism (β=−0.29, p<.01) and lower regional glucose metabolism across large portions of frontal, lateral parietal, lateral temporal, and medial temporal lobe (MTL; p<.05, family-wise error corrected). The association was especially robust in left MTL (R2=0.178). Lower left MTL glucose metabolism predicted by HOMA-IR was significantly

  6. Meropenem vs standard of care for treatment of late onset sepsis in children of less than 90 days of age: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Cabre Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Late onset neonatal sepsis (LOS with the mortality of 17 to 27% is still a serious disease. Meropenem is an antibiotic with wide antibacterial coverage. The advantage of it over standard of care could be its wider antibacterial coverage and thus the use of mono-instead of combination therapy. Methods NeoMero-1, an open label, randomised, comparator controlled, superiority trial aims to compare the efficacy of meropenem with a predefined standard of care (ampicillin + gentamicin or cefotaxime + gentamicin in the treatment of LOS in neonates and infants aged less than 90 days admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 550 subjects will be recruited following a 1:1 randomisation scheme. The trial includes patients with culture confirmed (at least one positive culture from normally sterile site except coagulase negative staphylococci in addition to one clinical or laboratory criterion or clinical sepsis (at least two laboratory and two clinical criteria suggestive of LOS in subjects with postmenstrual age The study will start recruitment in September 2011; the total duration is of 24 months. Trial registration EudraCT 2011-001515-31

  7. Impact of late-stage CKD and aging on medical utilization in the elderly population: a closed-cohort study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yen; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Mau, Lih-Wen; Chen, Hung-Chun; Hwang, Su-Chen; Wu, Ling-Chu; Chiu, Herng-Chia

    2010-10-01

    Taiwan has the highest incidence and prevalence of end-stage renal disease globally, especially in the elderly population. The elderly with chronic kidney disease (CKD) also had high mortality. However, population-based research on how the elderly with CKD utilize medical services is still unexplored. We aimed to examine the effects of CKD severity and aging on medical utilizations in the elderly population. This retrospective closed cohort study analysed 7868 elderly residents of Kaohsiung City, who participated in the government-sponsored annual physical examination in 1997. The information of medical services and expenses were obtained from the claimed data of the National Health Insurance from 1996 to 1999. CKD was grouped into five stages according to the National Kidney Foundation Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF K-DOQI) criteria with modifications. Late-stage CKD was defined as CKD Stages 3 to 5 [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) below 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]. Those subjects with eGFR above 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were treated as the reference group. After adjusting all covariates, the odds ratios of hospitalization for elderly subjects with CKD stages 3a, 3b and 4/5 were 1.19 (95% CI = 1.08-1.32), 1.48 (95% CI = 1.26-1.73) and 1.68 (95% CI = 1.21-2.33) compared with the reference group, respectively (P < 0.001). The autoregressive generalized estimating equation analysis revealed that CKD stage had linear associations with medical expenditures during the study period, especially for those elderly subjects with later stage CKD. Increases in medical utilizations and expenses were demonstrated in elderly CKD subjects, especially those with late stage CKD. Early prevention of CKD is necessary to lessen the financial impact on medical health care.

  8. Climatic variability and human impact during the last 2000 years in western Mesoamerica: evidences of late Classic and Little Ice Age drought events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez-Ramírez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Results are presented from biological (diatoms and ostracodes and non-biological (Ti, Ca/Ti, total inorganic carbon, magnetic susceptibility proxy analyses from an 8.8 m long laminated, high resolution (~20 yr sample−1 sediment sequence from lake Santa María del Oro (SMO, in western Mexico. This lake is at a sensitive location between the dry climates of northern Mexico, under the influence of the north Pacific High Pressure Subtropical Cell and the moister climates of central Mexico, under the influence of the seasonal migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and the North American Monsoon (NAM. The sequence covers that last 2000 years and gives evidence of two periods of human impact in the lake, shown by increases in Achnanthidium minutissimum, the first related with the Shaft and Chamber Tombs Cultural Tradition from 100 BC to AD 300 and a second late Postclassic occupation from AD 1100 to 1300. Both periods correspond to relatively wet conditions. The sequence also gives evidence of three dry intervals with high carbonates, ostracodes and aerophilous Eolimna minima concentrations. The first, from AD 500 to 1000 (most intense from AD 600 to 800, correlates with the end of the Shaft and Chamber Tradition after ca. AD 600. This late Classic dry period is the most important climatic signal for the Mesoamerican region during the last 2000 years, as it has been recorded at several sites from Yucatan to the Pacific coast. In the Yucatan area this dry interval has been related with the demise of the Maya culture between AD 850 and 950. The last two dry events correspond with the onset and late Little Ice Age (1400 to 1550 and 1690 to 1770, and follow the Spörer and Maunder minima in solar radiation. The first of these intervals (1400–1550 shows the most intense signal over western Mexico, however this pattern changes at other sites. Dry/wet intervals in the SMO record are related with lower/higher intensity of the NAM over this region.

  9. Fracture system influence on the reservoirs rock formation of Ordovician-Devonian carbonates in West Siberia tectonic depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveshnikov, A. E.; Nesterova, A. C.; Dolgaya, T. F.

    2016-09-01

    During the Paleozoic period from the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the Carboniferous in the boundaries of the West Siberia tectonic depression there occurred the sea, where the carbonate platforms were formed by the limestones accumulation. All the area at the end of the Carboniferous period was turned to land. Resulting from Gertsynskaya folding in the times of Permian - Triassic the formed deposits were folded and denudated to a considerable extent. Besides, the reservoir rocks of the crust of weathering including redeposited one, were formed as a result of hypergenesis, during the continental stand of the area in the near-surface zone. A new geological prospecting unit has been suggested which underlies these crusts of weathering and formed during fracture tectonic processes with hydrothermal-metasomatic limestones reworking and the processes of hydrothermal leaching and dolomitization. So, in the carbonate platforms the system of fissure zones related to tectonic disturbance was formed. This has a dendrite profile where the series of tangential, more thinned fractures deviate from the stem and finish in pores and caverns. The carbonate platforms formation in the West Siberia tectonic depression has been analyzed, their dynamics and gradual increasing from the minimal in Ordovician and Silurian to maximal at the end of the Late Devonian has been shown.

  10. Society and economy in the Late Bronze Age and the early Iron Age in the Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula: an approach from the archaeological sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López Cachero, F. Javier

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    At the end of the Bronze Age, important changes took place among the communities of the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula. These changes continue during the seventh and sixth centuries B.C. and are characterized by a gradual formation of a warrior-type aristocracy. But this “elite” did not consolidate its power definitively until the early Iberian Period, establishing the social structure characteristic of the archaic states of the Iberian Period. Nevertheless, there are social differences among inland and coastal territories. In the inland areas (rivers Segre- Cinca, Guadalope and Matarraña-Algás these differences are the result of local development of societies and, in the coastal areas the main changes take place in parallel with a Phoenician trade, integrating them in the Mediterranean world-system. The local response to this phenomenon was not homogeneous. Differences include chronology, settlement processes and distribution of wealth. We analyze here recent studies on this subject, including the issue of the Urnfield Culture and give special emphasis to the main archaeological contributions of the last decade.  



    A finales de la Edad del Bronce comienzan a producirse importantes transformaciones en el seno de las comunidades del noreste peninsular que tendrán continuidad durante los siglos VII y VI ANE y que se caracterizarán por la paulatina formación de una clase aristocrática de

  11. Occurrence of oil and gas in Devonian shales and equivalents in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwietering, J. F.

    1981-03-01

    During the Devonian, an epicontinental sea was present in the Appalachian basin. The Catskill Clastic Wedge was formed in the eastern part of the basin by sediments derived from land along the margin of the continent. Three facies are recognized in the Catskill Clastic Wedge: (1) a red-bed facies deposited in terrestrial and nearshore marine environments; (2) a gray shale and sandstone facies deposited in a shallow- to moderately-deep marine environment; and (3) a dark-gray shale and siltstone facies deposited in the deepest part of the epicontinental sea. Oil and natural gas are being produced from Devonian shales in the western part of West Virginia and from upper Devonian sandstones and siltstones in the north-central part of the state. It is suggested that in addition to extending known areas of gas production, that drilling for natural gas be conducted in areas underlain by organic-rich shales and thick zones of interbedded siltstone and shale in the Devonian section in central, southern, and western West Virginia. The most promising areas for exploration are those areas where fractures are associated with folds, faults, and lineaments. 60 references.

  12. Upper Devonian block movements and sedimentation in the Asturo-Leonese Basin (Cantabrian Mountains, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loevezijn, van G.B.S.

    1983-01-01

    The Upper Devonian shelf of the studied area was divided into two platforms separated by a significant break in the slope, related to the deep-seated fault system of the Sabero-Gordón Line. As differentiated block movements influenced the depositional history of the area, an External Zone, an Interm

  13. Polyzygia Guerich (Ostracoda) in the Devonian of Asturias and Leon (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel, M.Ph.

    1972-01-01

    The Devonian ostracode genus Polyzygia Gürich has been defined anew and its systematical position has been revaluated. It is considered as a thlipsurid (bas-relief sculpture) metacope (tripartite hinge, contact groove). Eight species (one new, one with open nomenclature) and two subspecies are descr

  14. Karksilepis parva gen. et sp. nov. (Chondrichthyes from the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian of Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleesment, Anne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dermal scales of a new chondrichthyan were discovered in four levels in sandstones of the Härma Beds (lower part of the Burtnieki Regional Stage, Middle Devonian in the Karksi outcrop of South Estonia. The classification of Karksilepis parva gen. et sp. nov. Märss is still uncertain.

  15. Description of certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts of the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.

    1973-01-01

    Certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts are described from the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Of the Polygnathus foveolatus group, defined here, P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson, P. lenzi Klapper, P. pireneae n. sp., P. cf. P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson and P. cf. P. lenzi Klapper are described. P. pire

  16. A Middle Devonian atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Cantabrian Mountains, northwestern Spain, and its stratigraphic significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struve, W.; Mohanti, M.

    1970-01-01

    This paper records for the first time a rich atrypid brachiopod fauna from the Middle Devonian of the Cantabrian Mountains, Spain. A comparison of the Spanish atrypid fauna with that of Germany reveals a close similarity between the two. Even though the species are not identical, yet a comparison an

  17. Effects of multiple genetic loci on age at onset in late-onset Alzheimer disease: a genome-wide association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naj, Adam C; Jun, Gyungah; Reitz, Christiane; Kunkle, Brian W; Perry, William; Park, Yo Son; Beecham, Gary W; Rajbhandary, Ruchita A; Hamilton-Nelson, Kara L; Wang, Li-San; Kauwe, John S K; Huentelman, Matthew J; Myers, Amanda J; Bird, Thomas D; Boeve, Bradley F; Baldwin, Clinton T; Jarvik, Gail P; Crane, Paul K; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Barmada, M Michael; Demirci, F Yesim; Cruchaga, Carlos; Kramer, Patricia L; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Hardy, John; Graff-Radford, Neill R; Green, Robert C; Larson, Eric B; St George-Hyslop, Peter H; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Evans, Denis A; Schneider, Julie A; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Kamboh, M Ilyas; Saykin, Andrew J; Reiman, Eric M; De Jager, Philip L; Bennett, David A; Morris, John C; Montine, Thomas J; Goate, Alison M; Blacker, Deborah; Tsuang, Debby W; Hakonarson, Hakon; Kukull, Walter A; Foroud, Tatiana M; Martin, Eden R; Haines, Jonathan L; Mayeux, Richard P; Farrer, Lindsay A; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Albert, Marilyn S; Albin, Roger L; Apostolova, Liana G; Arnold, Steven E; Barber, Robert; Barnes, Lisa L; Beach, Thomas G; Becker, James T; Beekly, Duane; Bigio, Eileen H; Bowen, James D; Boxer, Adam; Burke, James R; Cairns, Nigel J; Cantwell, Laura B; Cao, Chuanhai; Carlson, Chris S; Carney, Regina M; Carrasquillo, Minerva M; Carroll, Steven L; Chui, Helena C; Clark, David G; Corneveaux, Jason; Cribbs, David H; Crocco, Elizabeth A; DeCarli, Charles; DeKosky, Steven T; Dick, Malcolm; Dickson, Dennis W; Duara, Ranjan; Faber, Kelley M; Fallon, Kenneth B; Farlow, Martin R; Ferris, Steven; Frosch, Matthew P; Galasko, Douglas R; Ganguli, Mary; Gearing, Marla; Geschwind, Daniel H; Ghetti, Bernardino; Gilbert, John R; Glass, Jonathan D; Growdon, John H; Hamilton, Ronald L; Harrell, Lindy E; Head, Elizabeth; Honig, Lawrence S; Hulette, Christine M; Hyman, Bradley T; Jicha, Gregory A; Jin, Lee-Way; Karydas, Anna; Kaye, Jeffrey A; Kim, Ronald; Koo, Edward H; Kowall, Neil W; Kramer, Joel H; LaFerla, Frank M; Lah, James J; Leverenz, James B; Levey, Allan I; Li, Ge; Lieberman, Andrew P; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Lopez, Oscar L; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Mack, Wendy J; Martiniuk, Frank; Mash, Deborah C; Masliah, Eliezer; McCormick, Wayne C; McCurry, Susan M; McDavid, Andrew N; McKee, Ann C; Mesulam, Marsel; Miller, Bruce L; Miller, Carol A; Miller, Joshua W; Murrell, Jill R; Olichney, John M; Pankratz, Vernon S; Parisi, Joseph E; Paulson, Henry L; Peskind, Elaine; Petersen, Ronald C; Pierce, Aimee; Poon, Wayne W; Potter, Huntington; Quinn, Joseph F; Raj, Ashok; Raskind, Murray; Reisberg, Barry; Ringman, John M; Roberson, Erik D; Rosen, Howard J; Rosenberg, Roger N; Sano, Mary; Schneider, Lon S; Seeley, William W; Smith, Amanda G; Sonnen, Joshua A; Spina, Salvatore; Stern, Robert A; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Thornton-Wells, Tricia A; Trojanowski, John Q; Troncoso, Juan C; Valladares, Otto; Van Deerlin, Vivianna M; Van Eldik, Linda J; Vardarajan, Badri N; Vinters, Harry V; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Weintraub, Sandra; Welsh-Bohmer, Kathleen A; Williamson, Jennifer; Wishnek, Sarah; Woltjer, Randall L; Wright, Clinton B; Younkin, Steven G; Yu, Chang-En; Yu, Lei

    2014-11-01

    Because APOE locus variants contribute to risk of late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) and to differences in age at onset (AAO), it is important to know whether other established LOAD risk loci also affect AAO in affected participants. To investigate the effects of known Alzheimer disease risk loci in modifying AAO and to estimate their cumulative effect on AAO variation using data from genome-wide association studies in the Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium. The Alzheimer Disease Genetics Consortium comprises 14 case-control, prospective, and family-based data sets with data on 9162 participants of white race/ethnicity with Alzheimer disease occurring after age 60 years who also had complete AAO information, gathered between 1989 and 2011 at multiple sites by participating studies. Data on genotyped or imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms most significantly associated with risk at 10 confirmed LOAD loci were examined in linear modeling of AAO, and individual data set results were combined using a random-effects, inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis approach to determine whether they contribute to variation in AAO. Aggregate effects of all risk loci on AAO were examined in a burden analysis using genotype scores weighted by risk effect sizes. Age at disease onset abstracted from medical records among participants with LOAD diagnosed per standard criteria. Analysis confirmed the association of APOE with earlier AAO (P = 3.3 × 10(-96)), with associations in CR1 (rs6701713, P = 7.2 × 10(-4)), BIN1 (rs7561528, P = 4.8 × 10(-4)), and PICALM (rs561655, P = 2.2 × 10(-3)) reaching statistical significance (P Alzheimer disease risk variants on AAO are on the scale of, but do not exceed, the APOE effect. While the aggregate effects of risk loci on AAO may be significant, additional genetic contributions to AAO are individually likely to be small.

  18. Higher maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites in late pregnancy are associated with a lower risk of offspring atopic eczema at age 12 months

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Crozier, SR; Robinson, SM; Harvey, NC; Cooper, C; Inskip, HM; Godfrey, KM

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence that atopic eczema partly originates in utero is increasing, with some studies linking the risk of developing the condition with aspects of maternal diet during pregnancy. Nicotinamide, a naturally occurring nutrient that is maintained through the dietary intakes of vitamin B3 and tryptophan has been used in the treatment of some skin conditions including atopic eczema. Objective To examine the relation of maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related tryptophan metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. Methods Within the UK Southampton Women Survey, infantile atopic eczema at ages 6 and 12 months was ascertained (modified UK Working Party Criteria for the Definition of Atopic Dermatitis). Maternal serum levels of kynurenine, kynurenic acid, anthranilic acid, tryptophan, nicotinamide and N1-methylnicotinamide were measured in late pregnancy by mass spectrometry, n=497 and related to the odds ratio of infantile atopic eczema. Results Maternal nicotinamide and related metabolite concentrations were not associated with offspring atopic eczema at age 6 months. Higher concentrations of nicotinamide and anthranilic acid were, however, associated with a lower risk of eczema at age 12 months (odds ratios 0.69, 95% CI 0.53-0.91 /SD change, p=0.007 and 0.63, 0.48-0.83, p=0.001, respectively). The associations were robust to adjustment for potentially confounding variables. Conclusion and clinical relevance This is the first study linking maternal serum concentrations of nicotinamide and related metabolites to the risk of atopic eczema in the offspring. The findings point to potentially modifiable maternal influences on this complex and highly prevalent condition. PMID:27517618

  19. Ar-Ar and U-Pb geochronology of Late Paleozoic basalts in western Guangxi and its constraints on the eruption age of Emeishan basalt magmatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Weiming; WANG Yuejun; PENG Touping; MIAO Laicheng; GUO Feng

    2004-01-01

    The Late Paleozoic layered or stratoid-layered basalts in western Guangxi have similar elemental and isotopic compositions to Emeishan high-Ti basalts. Whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar and SHRIMP zircon U-Pb dating were carried out for the representative basalt samples in three typical profiles in the area. Three basalts from the upper segment of Yangxu profile and lower segment of Yufeng and Min'an profiles yield the 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 253.6±0.4 Ma (20BS-71),255.4±0.4 Ma (20BS-99) and 256.2±0.8 Ma (20BS-119), respectively. Twenty-three analyses on 23 zircons of the basalt from the upper segment of Yangxu profile give a weighted mean 206pb/238U age of 253.7±6.1 Ma with an MSWD = 2.8.These new and published geochronological data for Emeishan large igneous province (LIP) indicate that the Emeishan LIP was initiated at ~260 Ma, voluminously erupted between 253 and 256 Ma, and possibly ended at ~251-253Ma' The age (251-260 Ma) is generally consistent with that of the associated environmental deterioration and mass extinction events at the end-Guadalupian and Permo-Triassic boundary. These precise geochronological data provide important constraints on the dominantly eruptive time of the Emeishan LIP and understanding of the distribution of Emeishan high-Ti basalts and its mantle plume dynamics.

  20. N(50) Crater Retention Ages for an Expanded Inventory of Lunar Basins: Evidence for an Early Heavy Bombardment and a Late Heavy Bombardment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Burgess, Emily

    2012-01-01

    LOLA topography and LOLA-derived crustal thickness data provide evidence for a population of impact basins on the Moon that is likely a factor 2 larger than the classical lists based on photogeology. Frey (2012) determined N(50) crater retention ages (CRAs) for 83 candidate basins > 300 km in diameter by counting LOLA-identified craters superimposed over the whole area of the basins. For some basins identified in topography or model crustal thickness it is not possible to unambiguously identify the crater rim as is traditionally done. Also, Quasi-Circular Depressions (QCDs) > 50 km in diameter are recognizable in the mare-filled centers of many basins. Even though these are not apparent in image data, they likely represent buried impact craters superimposed on the basin floor prior to mare infilling and so should be counted in determining the age of the basin. Including these as well as the entire area of the basins improves the statistics, though the error bars are still large when using only craters > 50 km in diameter. The distribution of N(50) CRAs had two distinct peaks which did not depend on whether the basins were named (based on photogeology) or recognized first in topography or crustal thickness data. It also did not depend on basin diameters (both larger and smaller basins made up both peaks) and both peaks persisted even when weaker candidates were excluded. Burgess (2012, unpublished data) redid the counts for 85 basins but improved on the earlier effort by adjusting the counting area where basins overlap. The two peak distribution of N(50) ages was confirmed, with a younger peak at N(50) 40-50 and an older peak at N(50) 80-90 (craters > 50 km diameter per million square km). We suggest this could represent two distinct populations of impactors on the Moon: one producing an Early Heavy Bombardment (EHB) that predates Nectaris and the second responsible for the more widely recognized Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB).

  1. Conodont zonation and the Devonian/Carboniferous (Famennian/Tournaisian) boundary in the Naltaş section, eastern Taurides, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atakul-Özdemir, Ayşe

    2017-02-01

    Conodont faunas from the Devonian/Carboniferous Naltaş section (eastern Taurides, Turkey) are presented. The faunas include important marker species of the latest Devonian earliest Carboniferous interval, belonging to the genera Siphonodella, Bispathodus, Polygnathus, Pseudopolygnathus, Apatognathus and Branmehla. Four conodont zones, comparable to the standard conodont zonation, are established in the studied succession, from the oldest to the youngest: (1) Bispathodus ultimus, (2) Siphonodella praesulcata Zones (Upper Famennian), (3) Siphonodella sulcata and (4) Siphonodella bransoni Zones (Lower Tournaisian). The Devonian/Carboniferous boundary in the eastern Taurides is recognized by the first appearance of Siphonodella sulcata.

  2. Microfractures due to overpressures caused by thermal cracking in well-sealed Devonian reservoirs, deep Alberta basin, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez, X.M. [Dept. de Exploracion, Maraven, S.A., Caracas (Venezuela); Mountjoy, E.W. [McGill Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    Microfractures (< 1 mm in width) filled with reservoir bitumen crosscut all diagenetic phases in the upper 200 m of the partially to completely dolomitized Upper Devonian (Leduc Formation) Strachan buildup and other buildups in the deep Alberta basin. They display three patterns: (1) subhorizontal, extending from intraskeletal pores and perpendicular to sub-vertical fractures, (2) random in the matrix, and (3) radial around vugs and fossil molds. Subhorizontal microfracturing is most common and radial is the least common. Overpressuring caused by thermal cracking of crude oil to gas during burial can produce most of the characteristics exhibited by these microfractures: their association with all pore types, bitumen fillings and relatively late diagenetic timing. Microfractures are restricted to isolated buildups below depths of about 3800 m in the Alberta Basin. Thermal cracking of crude oil to gas during burial is also indicated by finely and coarsely deformed lamellar textures of the reservoir bitumen that fill the microfractures in the Strachan buildup. Also, the stress field was modified by tectonic compression during the Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary Laramide orogeny. Pressures generated during thermal cracking of oil together with tectonic compression probably created the microfractures in the isolated and effectively sealed reservoirs. The increased horizontal stresses resulted in subhorizontal microfractures, whereas rare radial and random microfractures formed under conditions of more uniform stress. The lack of microfractures in adjacent gas-bearing and updip buildups along the Rimbey-Meadowbrook reef trend is likely due to the connection of these buildups to a regional conduit system in the underlying Cooking Lake platform, preventing them from developing sufficient overpressures.

  3. Water governement and inland navigation. Veneto in Late Middle Ages Governo delle acque e navigazione interna. Il Veneto nel basso medioevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermanno Orlando

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on rivers and navigable canals of  Veneto in the Late Middle Ages as trade and transport routes: they covered a main and hegemonic role in the traffic of the region, guaranteeing communication and providing the backbone for the communication network of that time. In particular, the contribution seeks to analyze the policies of the greatest communes of Veneto concerning government and guardianship of the rivers and discipline of navigation. The sources are primarily normative and legal sources, particularly the abundant production of communal statutes and pacts, the series of international agreements and privileges established between the communes in terms of traffic, communication networks and transport.

    Oggetto del contributo sono i fiumi e i corsi d’acqua del Veneto bassomedievale nella loro accezione di vie di comunicazione e trasporto, ossia quali risorse imprescindibili del sistema viario locale e sovra-locale e quali elementi di coordinazione della viabilità del tempo. Sono in particolare materia di analisi le politiche dei maggiori comuni veneti in tema di governo e tutela delle acque fluviali e di disciplina della navigazione. Le fonti utilizzate sono principalmente fonti normative, in particolare l’abbondante produzione statutaria dei comuni veneti, e pattizie, ossia la serie di accordi e privilegi internazionali stabiliti tra i comuni in tema di traffici, viabilità e trasporti.

  4. Late onset of dietary restriction reverses age-related decline of malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes in the liver and kidney of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyary, Danswrang; Sharma, Ramesh

    2008-02-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) influences several physiological processes, retards the incidences and severity of various age-related diseases and extends lifespan of various animal species. The effect of DR on the activities of malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes, viz. cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (c- and m-AsAT) and malate dehydrogenase (c- and m-MDH) was investigated in the liver and kidney of adult (5-months) and old (21-months) male mice. The results show that the activity (U/mg protein) of both c- and m-MDH and AsAT is decreased significantly in the liver and kidney of old mice compared to adult ones. However, DR in old mice reverses significantly the enzyme activities to a level closer to adult animals. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and specific staining of c-AsAT, one of the selected isoenzymes of the shuttle, showed a similar pattern of activity expression as observed by activity measurements in both the tissues studied. Slot blot analysis of c-AsAT confirmed the lower protein content of this isoenzyme in old mice compared to adult ones and a higher level in old-dietary restricted mice. Thus, our results suggest that the late onset of DR in older mice reverses decline in malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes and that it may allow a better metabolic regulation in older animals.

  5. (UnResolved contradictions in the Late Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Southern Carpathians - new samples and recalculated cosmogenic radionuclide age estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia RUSZKICZAY-RÜDIGER

    2014-11-01

    recent constants for the exposure age calculations has not been considered in the most recent review on the timing of the LGM (Hughes et al., 2013.Main objective of our study is to utilize the potential offered by the cosmogenic in situ produced 10Be dating to disentangle the contradictions in the available Southern Carpathian Late Pleistocene glacial chronology (Kuhlemann et al, 2013a; Reuther et al, 2004, 2007. We recalculate 10Be data published by Reuther et al. (2007 in accordance with the new half-life and production rate of 10Be. Besides, a new sample set has been collected to establish a precise chronological framework supported by in-situ exposure dating of several additional moraine generations.

  6. Racial differences in periodontal disease and 10-year self-reported tooth loss among late middle-aged and older adults: the dental ARIC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naorungroj, S; Slade, G D; Divaris, K; Heiss, G; Offenbacher, S; Beck, J D

    2017-06-06

    To investigate racial differences in the associations between periodontitis and 10-year self-reported incident tooth loss in a biracial, community-based cohort of US late middle-aged and older adults. Subjects were 3,466 dentate men and women aged 53-74 who underwent dental examinations from 1996 to1998. In 2012-2013, telephone interviewers asked participants about tooth loss in the preceding 10 years. Separate multivariable ordinal logistic regression models were used to calculate proportional odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as estimates of association between periodontitis and tooth loss for Whites and African-Americans (AAs). The majority of participants were White (85 percent) and female (57 percent) with 23 teeth on average at enrollment. Approximately half the Whites (56 percent) and AAs (49 percent) had periodontitis. At follow-up, approximately 44 percent of AAs and 38 percent of Whites reported having lost ≥1 tooth. In multivariable models, severe periodontitis (OR = 3.03; 95% CI = 2.42-3.80) and moderate periodontitis (OR = 1.64; 95% CI= 1.39-1.94) were significant risk factors of incident tooth loss among Whites. For AAs, severe but not moderate periodontitis increased the odds of incident tooth loss (OR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.37-3.59). In the final model, education was inversely associated with incident tooth loss among AAs, while lower income was associated with greater odds of tooth loss among Whites. In this population-based cohort, there is racial heterogeneity in the association between periodontitis and tooth loss. Interventions to reduce the impact of periodontitis on tooth loss need to consider these differences. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. Effect of stone Spa bathing and hot-spring bathing on pulse wave velocity in healthy, late middle-aged females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Ikuharu; Izumi, Yurina; Inoue, Miyabi; Okada, Kanako; Sakaguchi, Kaho; Miyai, Natsuki

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of stone spa bathing (Ganban-yoku) and hot-spring bathing on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) in healthy, late middle-aged females. The subjects were 13 females (mean age, 47.3 years). The skin and tympanic temperatures, blood pressure, and baPWV were measured before and after stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing. For the stone spa bathing, the subjects lay down three times for approximately 10 min each time over warm stone beds. Although body weight showed no change after the hot-spring bathing, it significantly increased after the stone spa bathing. The increase was significantly related to the amount of water intake. The skin and tympanic temperatures increased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing than after the hot-spring bathing. The diastolic blood pressure decreased to a smaller degree after the stone spa bathing. BaPWV showed no significant change after bathing both in the stone spa and in the hot-spring. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that the factors significantly related to the change in baPWV after the stone spa bathing were the changes in skin and tympanic temperatures and habit of smoking, and that after the hot-spring bathing was the change in skin temperature. The results suggest that, compared with the hot-spring bathing, stone spa bathing causes less strain on the body. The stone spa bathing and hot-spring bathing showed no marked effect on baPWV. However, there is a possibility that the stone spa bathing may be used as a load for investigating arterial stiffness.

  8. Late middle-aged and older men living with HIV/AIDS: race differences in coping, social support, and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, T. G.; Kochman, A.; Sikkema, K. J.; Kalichman, S. C.; Masten, J.; Goodkin, K.

    2000-01-01

    Although AIDS mental health research has recently devoted more attention to the psychosocial needs of older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, studies of this population have typically combined older African-American and white participants into one large sample, thereby neglecting potential race differences. The current study examined race differences in stressor burden, ways of coping, social support, and psychological distress among late middle-aged and older men living with HIV/AIDS. Self-administered surveys were completed by 72 men living with HIV/AIDS in New York City and Milwaukee, WI (mean age = 53.4 years). Older African-American and white men experienced comparable levels of stress associated with AIDS-related discrimination, AIDS-related bereavement, financial dilemmas, lack of information and support, relationship difficulties, and domestic problems. However, in responses to these stressors, older African-American men more frequently engaged in adaptive coping strategies, such as greater positive reappraisal and a stronger resolve that their future would be better. Compared to their African-American counterparts, HIV-infected older white men reported elevated levels of depression, anxiety, interpersonal hostility, and somatization. African-American men also received more support from family members and were less likely to disclose their HIV serostatus to close friends. As AIDS becomes more common among older adults, mental health-interventions will increasingly be needed for this group. The development of intervention programs for this group should pay close attention to race-related differences in sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics. PMID:11052457

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea rather than diabetes or obesity associated with proteinuria in late mid-aged male workers: a decision tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Hua; Liou, Cher-Ming; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Huan; Chang, Shu-Yun; Chung, Ai-Hui; Lee, Jia-Fei; Wang, Lee; Huang, Ren-Jing; Lee, Shin-Da

    2015-12-01

    Both proteinuria and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with cardiovascular events and consequent mortality. To examine whether age, OSA, diabetes, and obesity are potential predictors of proteinuria, a data-driven analysis was performed to delineate a potential categorical classification algorithm. In this cross-sectional community-based cohort study, demographic data, blood pressure, serum biochemical analyses, proteinuria via single dipstick urinalysis, and overnight polysomnographies were measured in 300 males with sedentary work styles. Sixty-one (20.3 %) of all these participants had proteinuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), duration of arterial oxygen saturation proteinuria's presence. A decision tree analysis showed that subjects over 49 years old had a higher risk for proteinuria than those subjects of 49 years old, or less. In the over 49-year-old group, subjects with an AHI >21 events/h had a higher risk for proteinuria; whereas in the 49-year-old and less group, subjects with HbA1c >7 %, or with HbA1c ≤7, and body mass index (BMI) >27.4 kg/m(2) had a higher risk for proteinuria than their counterparts. AHI was the major determinant responsible for the presence of proteinuria in late mid-aged male workers, while HbA1c and BMI were found in the junior subgroup. By algorithmic analysis, this study provides a comprehensive hierarchical model for better understanding of the correlates of proteinuria and sleep apnea.

  10. Association of early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy with offspring body mass index at 4 to 5 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzeskowiak, L E; Hodyl, N A; Stark, M J; Morrison, J L; Clifton, V L

    2015-12-01

    The objective was to investigate the association between early and late maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring body mass index (BMI). We undertook a retrospective cohort study using linked records from the Women's and Children's Health Network in South Australia. Among a cohort of women delivering a singleton, live-born infants between January 2000 and December 2005 (n=7658), 5961 reported not smoking during pregnancy, 297 reported quitting smoking during the first trimester of pregnancy, and 1400 reported continued smoking throughout pregnancy. Trained nurses measured the height and weight of the children at preschool visits in a state-wide surveillance programme. The main outcome measure was age- and sex-specific BMI z-score. At 4 to 5 years, mean (s.d.) BMI z-score was 0.40 (1.05), 0.60 (1.07) and 0.65 (1.18) in children of mothers who reported never smoking, quitting smoking and continued smoking during pregnancy, respectively. Compared with the group of non-smokers, both quitting smoking and continued smoking were associated with an increase in child BMI z-score of 0.15 (95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.29) and 0.21 (0.13-0.29), respectively. A significant dose-response relationship was also observed between the number of cigarettes smoked per day on average during the second half of pregnancy and the increase in offspring BMI z-score (Psmoking in pregnancy, even if mothers quit, is associated with an increase in offspring BMI at 4 to 5 years of age.

  11. The ACE Gene Is Associated with Late-Life Major Depression and Age at Dementia Onset in a Population-Based Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Anna; Kern, Silke; Gustafson, Deborah; Gudmundsson, Pia; Sigström, Robert; Östling, Svante; Eriksson, Elias; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Skoog, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    Depression and dementia in the elderly have been suggested to share similar risk factors and pathogenetic background, and recently the authors reported that the APOEɛ4 allele is a risk factor for both disorders in the general population. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of the well-known polymorphisms rs1799752 in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and rs5186 in the angiotensin receptor II type 1 (AGTR1) on late-life depression and dementia in a population-based Swedish cohort of older individuals followed over 12 years. In 2000-2001, 900 individuals underwent neuropsychiatric and neuropsychological examinations. Follow-up evaluations were performed in 2005-2006 and 2009-2010, and register data on dementia to 2012 were included. Cross-sectional associations between genotypes/alleles and depression and dementia at baseline and between genotypes/alleles and depression on at least one occasion during the study period and dementia onset to 2012 were investigated. As previously found for rs1799752 in ACE, rs5186 in AGTR1 was associated with dementia at baseline (OR: 3.25 [CI: 1.42-7.06], z = 2.90, p = 0.004). These associations became substantially weaker, or disappeared, when dementia onset to 2012 was included. For rs1799752 this could be explained by a significant association with age at onset (mean: 79.5 [SD: 6.45] years for risk-genotype carriers and 81.7 [SD: 7.12] years for carriers of other genotypes, b = -2.43, t = -2.38, df = 192, p = 0.02). When individuals with major depression on at least one occasion were analyzed, a significant association (OR: 2.14 [95% CI: 1.13-4.20], z = 2.28, p = 0.02), remaining after exclusion of dementia, with rs1799752 in ACE was found. In this population-based sample of older individuals, genetic variations in ACE seem to be important both for late-life major depression and dementia. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by

  12. ‘The influence of gestational age and socioeconomic status on neonatal outcomes in late preterm and early term gestation: a population based study’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Chelsea A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infants born late preterm (34 + 0 to 36 + 6 weeks GA (gestational age are known to have higher neonatal morbidity than term (37 + 0 to 41 + 6 weeks GA infants. There is emerging evidence that these risks may not be homogenous within the term cohort and may be higher in early term (37 + 0 to 38 + 6 weeks GA. These risks may also be affected by socioeconomic status, a risk factor for preterm birth. Methods A retrospective population based cohort of infants born at 34 to 41 weeks of GA was assembled; individual and area-level income was used to develop three socioeconomic (SES groups. Neonatal morbidity was grouped into respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, other respiratory disorders, other complications of prematurity, admission to a Level II/III nursery and receipt of phototherapy. Regression models were constructed to examine the relationship of GA and SES to neonatal morbidity while controlling for other perinatal variables. Results The cohort contained 25 312 infants of whom 6.1% (n = 1524 were born preterm and 32.4% (n = 8203 were of low SES. Using 39/40 weeks GA as the reference group there was a decrease in neonatal morbidity at each week of gestation. The odds ratios remained significantly higher at 37 weeks for RDS or other respiratory disorders, and at 38 weeks for all other outcomes. SES had an independent effect, increasing morbidity with odds ratios ranging from 1.2–1.5 for all outcomes except for the RDS group, where it was not significant. Conclusions The risks of morbidity fell throughout late preterm and early term gestation for both respiratory and non-respiratory morbidity. Low SES was associated with an independent increased risk. Recognition that the morbidities associated with prematurity continue into early term gestation and are further compounded by SES is important to develop strategies for improving care of early term infants, avoiding iatrogenic

  13. Devonian alkaline magmatism in the northern North China Craton: Geochemistry, SHRIMP zircon U-Pb geochronology and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingling Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Wulanhada pluton is among the rare suite of Devonian alkaline plutons occurring along the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC. The intrusion is mainly composed of quartz-monzonite. Here we report zircon SHRIMP U-Pb data from this intrusion which shows emplacement age of ca. 381.5 Ma. The rock is metaluminous with high (Na2O + K2O values ranging from 8.46 to 9.66 wt.%. The REE patterns of the rocks do not show any Eu anomaly whereas the primitive-mantle-normalized spider diagram shows strong positive Sr and Ba anomalies. The Wulanhada rocks exhibit high initial values of (87Sr/86Srt = 0.70762–0.70809, low ɛNd(t = −12.76 to −12.15 values and negative values of ɛHf(t = −23.49 to −17.02 with small variations in (176Hf/177Hft (0.281873–0.282049. These geochemical features and quantitative isotopic modeling results suggest that the rocks might have been formed through the partial melting of Neoarchean basic rocks in the lower crust of the NCC. The Wulanhada rocks, together with the Devonian alkaline rocks and mafic-ultramafic complex from neighboring regions, constitute a post-collisional magmatic belt along the northern NCC.

  14. Testosterone replacement alters the cell size in visceral fat but not in subcutaneous fat in hypogonadal aged male rats as a late-onset hypogonadism animal model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhamed A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amr Abdelhamed,1,2 Shin-ichi Hisasue,1 Masato Shirai,3 Kazuhito Matsushita,1 Yoshiaki Wakumoto,1 Akira Tsujimura,1 Taiji Tsukamoto,4 Shigeo Horie1 1Department of Urology, Juntendo University, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Dermatology, Venereology and Andrology, Sohag University, Graduate School of Medicine, Sohag, Egypt; 3Department of Urology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Japan; 4Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Sapporo Medical University, Sapporo, Japan Background: Patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH benefit from testosterone replacement by improvement in the parameters of the metabolic syndrome, but fat cell morphology in these patients is still unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of testosterone replacement on the morphology of fat cells in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and on erectile function in hypogonadal aged male rats as a model of LOH. Methods: Ten male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 20–22 months were randomly allocated to two groups, ie, aged male controls (control group, n=5 and aged males treated with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT group, n=5. Testosterone enanthate 25 mg was injected subcutaneously every 2 weeks for 6 weeks. At 6 weeks, the intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP ratio was assessed. Visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue specimens were collected and analyzed using Image-J software. Results: Body weight at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after TRT was 800.0±35.4 g, 767.5±46.3 g, and 780±40.4 g, respectively (not statistically significant. The ICP/MAP ratio was 0.341±0.015 in the TRT group and 0.274±0.049 in the control group (not statistically significant. The median subcutaneous fat cell size was 4.85×103 (range 0.85–12.53×103 µm2 in the control group and 4.93×103 (range 6.42–19.7×103 µm2 in the TRT group (not statistically significant. In contrast, median visceral fat cell size was significantly

  15. The Odivelas Limestone: evidence for a Middle Devonian reef system in western Ossa-Morena Zone (Portugal)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Machado, Gil; Hladil, Jindřich; Koptíková, Leona; Fonseca, Paulo E; Rocha, Fernando T; Galle, Arnošt

    2009-01-01

    .... Although deformed and metamorphosed the limestones have an abundant fossil content which allows their positioning as late Eifelian/early Givetian in age and to relate the reef fauna with the typical...

  16. The recognition of multiple hydrocarbon generation episodes: an example from Devonian lacustrine sedimentary rocks in the Inner Moray Firth, Scotland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, J.E.A. [University of Southampton (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology

    1998-12-31

    Burmah well 12/27-1 drilled on a structural high in the Inner Moray Firth, penetrated over 3000 ft (914 m) of Lower Devonian, organic-rich sedimentary rocks. These have been analysed for source-rock potential, and contain a substantial proportion of oil-prone, thermally mature kerogen. A decompacted vitrinite reflectivity profile shows that the lower part of the Devonian section has a steeper thermal maturity gradient, which is interpreted as indicating a high Devonian geothermal gradient associated with basin extension. Solid bitumen reflectivities and organic petrography show that the most recent hydrocarbon generation occurred in the upper part of the Devonian interval during maximum Tertiary burial. Vitrinite reflectivity data from the Jurassic rocks in the Beatrice Field and onshore East Sutherland enable the position of the oil generation window to be predicted in relation to the depth of the top of the Devonian sequence. The main controls on Devonian source rock potential in the Inner Moray Firth are not the depth of Mesozoic and Tertiary burial but the distribution of source rocks, their degree of Permian truncation, and the pre-Permian thermal maturity level. (author)

  17. Suicides in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  18. Glacial-interglacial variability in Tropical Pangaean Precipitation during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age: simulations with the Community Climate System Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Heavens

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA, the Earth's penultimate "icehouse climate", was a critical time in the history of biological and ecological evolution. Many questions remain about the connections between high-latitude glaciation in Gondwanaland and low-latitude precipitation variability in Pangaea. We have simulated the Earth's climate during Asselian-Sakmarian time (299–284 Ma with the Community Climate System Model version 3 (CCSM3, a coupled dynamic atmosphere-ocean-land-sea-ice model. Our simulations test the sensitivity of the model climate to direct and indirect effects of glaciation as well as variability in the Earth's orbit. Our focus is on precipitation variability in tropical (30° S–30° N Pangaea, where there has been the most interpretation of glacial-interglacial climate change during the LPIA. The results of these simulations suggest that glacials generally were drier than interglacials in tropical Pangaea, though exceptional areas may have been wetter, depending on location and the mode of glaciation. Lower sea level, an indirect effect of changes in glacial extent, appears to reduce tropical Pangaean precipitation more than the direct radiative/topographic effects of high-latitude glaciation. Glaciation of the Central Pangaean Mountains would have greatly reduced equatorial Pangaean precipitation, while perhaps enhancing precipitation at higher tropical latitudes and in equatorial rain shadows. Variability evident in strata with 5th order stratigraphic cycles may have resulted from precipitation changes owing to precession forcing of monsoon circulations and would have differed in character between greenhouse and icehouse climates.

  19. Sedimentology of gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, P.E.; Maynard, J.B.; Pryor, W.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (1976-1981) of the US DOE has generated a large amount of information on Devonian shale, especially in the western and central parts of the Appalachian Basin (Morgantown Energy Technology Center, 1980). This report summarizes this information, emphasizing the sedimentology of the shales and how it is related to gas, oil, and uranium. This information is reported in a series of statements each followed by a brief summary of supporting evidence or discussion and, where interpretations differ from our own, we include them. We believe this format is the most efficient way to learn about the gas-bearing Devonian shales of the Appalachian Basin and have organized our statements as follows: paleogeography and basin analysis; lithology and internal stratigraphy; paleontology; mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry; and gas, oil, and uranium.

  20. Geochemistry of Upper Devonian Hydrothermal Mammilated Chert Guangxi,Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈先沛; 陈多福

    1990-01-01

    The mammilated chert(MC) studied in this paper is a kind of silica-rich concretion(SiO2 93%) occurring in the Upper Devonian argillaceous silicolites(SiO2≈88%)in Mugui,Guangxi.Impurity components in the MC are relatively low and show systematic variationhs as compared with the country rocks.Abundances of Mg,Si,Ti,Fe,Mn,U and Th are characteristically similar to those of recent and fossil hot-water sediments,Moreover,the MC is also characterized by low REE baundance,LREE>HREE,apparent negative Ce anomaly and moderate positive Eu anomaly,OXygen isotope data show that the formation temperature of the MC is about 20℃,higher than that of the host rock.The results of geochemical,geological and lithological studies suggest that the MC may have been formed through metasomatism,fillinn and crystallization beneath the sedimentary basin during the Devonian period.

  1. Style and age of late Oligocene-early Miocene deformation in the southern Stillwater Range, west central Nevada: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and field relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; John, David A.; Conrad, James E.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2000-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data combined with geologic mapping tightly restrict the timing and character of a late Oligocene to early Miocene episode of large magnitude extension in the southern Stillwater Range and adjacent regions of west central Nevada. The southern Stillwater Range was the site of an Oligocene to early Miocene volcanic center comprising (1) 28.3 to 24.3 Ma intracaldera ash flow tuffs, lava flows, and subjacent plutons associated with three calderas, (2) 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera silicic dikes and domes, and (3) unconformably overlying 15.3 to 13.0 Ma dacite to basalt lava flows, plugs, and dikes. The caldera-related tuffs, lava flows, and plutons were tilted 60°-70° either west or east during the initial period of Cenozoic deformation that accommodated over 100% extension. Directions of remanent magnetization obtained from these extrusive and intrusive, caldera-related rocks are strongly deflected from an expected Miocene direction in senses appropriate for their tilt. A mean direction for these rocks after tilt correction, however, suggests that they were also affected by a moderate (33.4° ± 11.8°) component of counterclockwise vertical axis rotation. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the episode of large tilting occurred during emplacement of 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera dikes and domes. In detail, an apparent decrease in rotation with decreasing age of individual, isotopically dated bodies of the postcaldera group indicates that most tilting occurred between 24.4 and 24.2 Ma. The onset of tilting immediately following after the final caldera eruptions suggests that the magmatism and deformation were linked. Deformation was not driven by magma buoyancy, however, because tilting equally affected the caldera systems of different ages, including their plutonic roots. It is more likely that regional extension was focused in the southern Stillwater Range due to magmatic warming and reduction of tensile strength of the brittle crust

  2. Devonian ichnofossils and their environmental significance of northern belt of Western Qinling Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李育慈; 晋慧娟

    1995-01-01

    It is beheved that the Shujiaba Formation belongs to a series of thick turbidites. 20 ichnogenera have been found in the formation, of which 14 genera were found in the Devonian System of China for the first time The ichnogenera are mostly of typical deep-water ones and belong to the Nereites ichnofacies A detailed study of morphology and behaviour of the trace fossils indicates that the Shujiaba Formation was deposited in a bathyal-abyssal environment.

  3. Geologic description of middle Devonian Chert Reservoir, Block 31 field, Crane County, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebanks, W.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Block 31 field is a large anticlinal structure that produces from six pay zones. The first miscible gas-injection enhanced oil recovery project has been operated by ARCO since 1952 in the middle Devonian reservoir, which is the main producing interval in the field. The middle Devonian unit was deposited as a siliceous, calcareous ooze in a basin-slope environment in the ancient Tobosa basin. Sedimentation buried earlier fault blocks, as the slope deposits aggraded and prograded mainly from the west and south. Subsequent diagenesis converted the ooze into calcareous chert. Reservoir quality of the chert depends on degree of compaction and quartz cementation. Gray, dense, glassy chert at the base of the sequence is nonporous except for small, incipient fractures in the brittle matrix. Creamy white, evenly laminated, microporous, calcareous chert, which alternates with and overlies the dense chert in the lower half of the middle Devonian interval, has porosity of 10-30% and permeability as great as 10 md. The upper half of the reservoir interval consists mainly of light-gray and white, partially porous, heterogeneous, calcareous chert. This rock type has porosity of 5-20%, but permeability is usually less than 3 md. Patchy silica cement, discontinuous low-permeability laminae, and thin beds of dense limestone reduce its effectiveness as a reservoir.

  4. Thermal maturity of northern Appalachian Basin Devonian shales: Insights from sterane and terpane biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Paul C.; Ryder, Robert T.; Trippi, Michael H.; Alimi, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    To better estimate thermal maturity of Devonian shales in the northern Appalachian Basin, eleven samples of Marcellus and Huron Shale were characterized via multiple analytical techniques. Vitrinite reflectance, Rock–Eval pyrolysis, gas chromatography (GC) of whole rock extracts, and GC–mass spectrometry (GCMS) of extract saturate fractions were evaluated on three transects that lie across previously documented regional thermal maturity isolines. Results from vitrinite reflectance suggest that most samples are immature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. However, bulk geochemical data and sterane and terpane biomarker ratios from GCMS suggest that almost all samples are in the oil window. This observation is consistent with the presence of thermogenic gas in the study area and higher vitrinite reflectance values recorded from overlying Pennsylvanian coals. These results suggest that vitrinite reflectance is a poor predictor of thermal maturity in early mature areas of Devonian shale, perhaps because reported measurements often include determinations of solid bitumen reflectance. Vitrinite reflectance interpretations in areas of early mature Devonian shale should be supplanted by evaluation of thermal maturity information from biomarker ratios and bulk geochemical data.

  5. Rise of the earliest tetrapods: an early Devonian origin from marine environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David George

    Full Text Available Tetrapod fossil tracks are known from the Middle Devonian (Eifelian at ca. 397 million years ago--MYA, and their earliest bony remains from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian at 375-385 MYA. Tetrapods are now generally considered to have colonized land during the Carboniferous (i.e., after 359 MYA, which is considered to be one of the major events in the history of life. Our analysis on tetrapod evolution was performed using molecular data consisting of 13 proteins from 17 species and different paleontological data. The analysis on the molecular data was performed with the program TreeSAAP and the results were analyzed to see if they had implications on the paleontological data collected. The results have shown that tetrapods evolved from marine environments during times of higher oxygen levels. The change in environmental conditions played a major role in their evolution. According to our analysis this evolution occurred at about 397-416 MYA during the Early Devonian unlike previously thought. This idea is supported by various environmental factors such as sea levels and oxygen rate, and biotic factors such as biodiversity of arthropods and coral reefs. The molecular data also strongly supports lungfish as tetrapod's closest living relative.

  6. Silurian to Devonian foreland basin in the south edge of Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the theory of plate tectonics, combining with the isotopic dating of ophiolite, igneous and volcanics, geochemical test, rare earth element analyze and seismic interpretation, this paper studies the pre-Carboniferous tectonics and sedimentary formation of the south edge of the Tarim Basin and proves that there exists the Kunlun Ocean under tensional tectonics during the Sinian and Cambrian in the south edge of the Tarim Plate. After that, due to the collision orogenesis, there formed the peripheral foreland basin in the south edge of Tarim. The Upper Silurian and Devonian molasses sedimentary system superposed on the Sinian and Middle Silurian passive margin flysch sedimentary system and formed the bivariate structure of the foreland basin. And at the same time, based on the field geology and seismic interpretation, we have identified that the formation of the Silurian and Devonian have the character of half deposit which shows thick in the south area and thin in the north, and the pre-Carboniferous thrust compression tectonics remained in the foreland thrust belt, which further demonstrates that there existed the Silurian and Devonian peripheral foreland basin on the south edge of the Tarim Basin.

  7. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  8. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  9. DOBRE-2000: Deep Reflection Seismic, Gravimetric and Surface Structural Controls Across a Devonian Failed Rift in the Southeastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Chowdhury, K.; Bayer, U.; Gajewski, D.; Huebscher, C.; Rabbel, W.; Saintot, A.; Starostenko, V. I.; Stephenson, R.; Stovba, S. M.; Tolkunov, A.; Thybo, H.

    2001-12-01

    Situated between the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Masif, the Pripyat-Dniepr-Donets Basin (PDD) is a crustal-scale geodynamic feature associated with the Late Devonian rifting of the East European Craton. The Donbas Foldbelt (DF), comprising the eastern part of the PDD, includes pre- & syn-rift deposits below a large thickness of post-rift successions. Later, DF has been inverted (elevated, eroded, deformed). With 20+ km of sediments, it has a large economic potential, but its tectonic history - and the cause for its isolated evolution - is not well understood. Recently, 130+ km multi-channel reflection seismic profiling data has been acquired across the southern part of the DF in the framework of an international industry-academic collaboration. Coincident gravity data has been collected along the profile too, and extensive structural studies have been carried out to understand the spatio-temporal distribution of the stress-regime in the area. The high-resolution seismic images reveal an extensive stair-step like fragmentation of the basement including faults with upto 2km offset. The typical size of these "steps" are influenced by the ambient conditions at the time of their formation. Combined use of the different datasets is expected to shed light on several intriguing features associated with DF. The presence/extent of salt, causing localization and/or partition of strain both laterally and vertically, may be studied by using its seismic and gravitational reponses simultaneously. The interaction between the lower crust and the upper mantle may also be studied in the same manner, which should result in a lithological interpretation at depth favoring in turn one of the causative mechanisms.

  10. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF UPPER DEVONIAN GORDON SANDSTONE, JACKSONBURG STRINGTOWN OIL FIELD, NORTHWESTERN WEST VIRGINIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Ameri; K. Aminian; K.L. Avary; H.I. Bilgesu; M.E. Hohn; R.R. McDowell; D.L. Matchen

    2001-07-01

    The Jacksonburg-Stringtown oil field contained an estimated 88,500,000 barrels of oil in place, of which approximately 20,000,000 barrels were produced during primary recovery operations. A gas injection project, initiated in 1934, and a pilot waterflood, begun in 1981, yielded additional production from limited portions of the field. The pilot was successful enough to warrant development of a full-scale waterflood in 1990, involving approximately 8,900 acres in three units, with a target of 1,500 barrels of oil per acre recovery. Historical patterns of drilling and development within the field suggests that the Gordon reservoir is heterogeneous, and that detailed reservoir characterization is necessary for understanding well performance and addressing problems observed by the operators. The purpose of this work is to establish relationships among permeability, geophysical and other data by integrating geologic, geophysical and engineering data into an interdisciplinary quantification of reservoir heterogeneity as it relates to production. Conventional stratigraphic correlation and core description shows that the Gordon sandstone is composed of three parasequences, formed along the Late Devonian shoreline of the Appalachian Basin. The parasequences comprise five lithofacies, of which one includes reservoir sandstones. Pay sandstones were found to have permeabilities in core ranging from 10 to 200 mD, whereas non-pay sandstones have permeabilities ranging from below the level of instrumental detection to 5 mD; Conglomeratic zones could take on the permeability characteristics of enclosing materials, or could exhibit extremely low values in pay sandstone and high values in non-pay or low permeability pay sandstone. Four electrofacies based on a linear combination of density and scaled gamma ray best matched correlations made independently based on visual comparison of geophysical logs. Electrofacies 4 with relatively high permeability (mean value > 45 mD) was

  11. Angiogenic factors vs Doppler surveillance in the prediction of adverse outcome among late-pregnancy small-for- gestational-age fetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, S M; Figueras, F; Mercade, I; Perello, M; Peguero, A; Crovetto, F; Ortiz, J U; Crispi, F; Gratacós, E

    2014-05-01

    To compare the value of Doppler surveillance with maternal blood angiogenic factors at diagnosis for the prediction of adverse outcome in late-pregnancy small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses. In a cohort of 198 SGA fetuses we evaluated the association of Doppler indices (mean uterine artery pulsatility index (UtA-PI) and cerebroplacental ratio (CPR)) and angiogenic factors (maternal serum levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) and placental growth factor (PlGF)) with the development of pre-eclampsia and adverse perinatal outcome (operative delivery for non-reassuring fetal status or neonatal metabolic acidosis). In SGA fetuses subsequently developing pre-eclampsia, mean UtA-PI (P < 0.001), sFlt-1 MoM (P < 0.001) and sFlt-1/PlGF MoM ratio (P < 0.001) were higher, while PlGF MoM was lower (P = 0.004). In SGA fetuses with adverse perinatal outcome, CPR (P < 0.002) and PlGF MoM (P < 0.001) were lower, and sFlt-1/PlGF MoM ratio was higher (P = 0.001). For predicting pre-eclampsia, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves for mean UtA-PI, sFlt-1 MoM and the combination of both were 0.852, 0.839 and 0.860, respectively. For adverse perinatal outcome, the areas under the ROC curves for CPR, PlGF MoM and the combination of both were 0.652, 0.656 and 0.684, respectively. The combination of Doppler indices and angiogenic factors did not significantly improve prediction of either pre-eclampsia (P = 0.851) or adverse outcome (P = 0.579). In SGA fetuses, angiogenic factors at diagnosis and follow-up with Doppler ultrasound both predict adverse outcome with a similar performance. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The rock-cut tomb of Bolores (Torres Vedras: an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the social landscape of the Late Neolithic/Copper Age of the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillios, Katina T.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the sociopolitical landscape of the Portuguese Estremadura during the Late Neolithic/Copper Age, interdisciplinary excavations were conducted at Bolores (Torres Vedras, in the Sizandro River Valley. Following a test season in 1986, a University of Iowa team conducted four campaigns between 2007 and 2012. Bolores is a rock-cut tomb used primarily between 2800-2600 cal BC for the burial of adults, adolescents, and children (MNI=36. The architectural, material cultural, and bioarchaeological evidence suggests that Bolores housed the remains of a distinctive group of local individuals who marked their difference from other burial populations in the Sizandro and Estremadura through material culture and tomb architecture. Social differences were denoted spatially and through offerings of material goods. No social stratification is evident, however, that would suggest a state-level society: there are no wealthy child burials and no significant health or dietary disparities within this population or between it and others in the region.Para comprender mejor el paisaje sociopolítico de la Extremadura portuguesa durante el Neolítico Final/Edad del Cobre se han llevado a cabo excavaciones interdisciplinares en Bolores (Torres Vedras, en el valle del río Sizandro. Tras una campaña de prueba en 1986, un equipo de la Universidad de Iowa realizó cuatro campañas entre 2007 y 2012. Bolores es una tumba hipogea que fue utilizada principalmente entre 2800 y 2600 cal BCE como enterramiento colectivo para adultos, adolescentes y niños (NMI=36. Los datos arquitectónicos, bioarqueológicos y de cultura material analizados hasta la fecha sugieren que Bolores albergó los restos de un grupo social distintivo compuesto de individuos locales que marcaban sus diferencias con otras poblaciones funerarias del Sizandro y Extremadura portuguesa mediante la cultura material y la arquitectura funeraria. Las diferencias sociales en la población de

  13. Late midlife C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in middle aged danish men in relation to body size history within and across generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jolene Lee Masters; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2016-01-01

    in adulthood is associated with low-grade inflammation in late midlife. CONCLUSIONS: Ponderal index at birth is associated with CRP in later life independently of adult BMI. The findings additionally suggest that preventing weight gain in early adulthood would be beneficial for inflammatory status in later...... offspring. A 10% higher ponderal index at birth was associated with 4% lower CRP in late midlife; this effect was only partially mediated by later growth. A 10% higher BMI in early adulthood was associated with 8% higher CRP and 4% higher IL-6 in late midlife. The findings suggest that weight gain......OBJECTIVE: The aim was to estimate the effects of ponderal index at birth and body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood on C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and to quantify the effects through subsequent measures of body size. In a subanalysis, the contributions of maternal BMI...

  14. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...... pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion. Quite the opposite pattern is disclosed for late motherhood....

  15. Improving global paleogeographic reconstructions since the Devonian using paleobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenchao; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon; Flament, Nicolas; Müller, Dietmar

    2017-04-01

    Paleogeographic reconstructions are important to understand past eustatic and regional sea level change, the tectonic evolution of the planet, hydrocarbon genesis, and to constrain and interpret the dynamic topography predicted by time-dependent global mantle convection models. Several global paleogeographic compilations have been published, generally presented as static snapshots with varying temporal resolution and fixed spatial resolution. Published paleogeographic compilations are tied to a particular plate motion model, making it difficult to link them to alternative digital plate tectonic reconstructions. In order to address this issue, we developed a workflow to reverse-engineer reconstructed paleogeographies to their present-day coordinates and link them to any reconstruction model. Published paleogeographic compilations are also tied to a given dataset. We used fossil data from the Paleobiology Database to identify inconsistencies between fossils paleoenvironments and paleogeographic reconstructions, and to improve reconstructed terrestrial-marine boundaries by resolving these inconsistencies. We used the improved reconstructed paleogeographies to estimate the surface areas of global paleogeographic features (shallow marine environments, landmasses, mountains and ice sheets), to investigate the global continental flooding history since the late Paleozoic, which has inherent links to global eustasy as well as dynamic topography. Finally, we discuss the relationships between our modeled emerged land area and total continental area through time, continental growth models, and strontium isotope (87Sr/86Sr) signatures in ocean water. Our study highlights the flexibility of digital paleogeographic models linked to state-of-the-art plate tectonic reconstructions in order to better understand the interplay of continental growth and eustasy, with wider implications for understanding Earth's paleotopography, ocean circulation, and the role of mantle convection in

  16. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age and later all-cause mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G D; Shipley, M J; Mortensen, L H;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the role of potential mediating factors in explaining the IQ-mortality relation. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 4316 male former Vietnam-era US army personnel with IQ test results at entry into the service in late adolescence/early adulthood in the 1960/1970s (...

  17. Tribes and territories in transition : the central east Jordan Valley and surrounding regions in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Eveline Johanna van der

    2002-01-01

    Inleiding De vroege IJzertijd in de zuidelijke Levant wordt vaak omschreven als de ‘donkere eeuwen’. Deze periode, die loopt vanaf het einde van de Late Bronstijd tot het begin van de koninkrijken van Juda, Israel, Moab en Ammon kent weinig tot geen literair/historische bronnen, en de bronnen die er

  18. Moderate and late preterm infants exhibit widespread brain white matter microstructure alterations at term-equivalent age relative to term-born controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, Claire E.; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Gabra Fam, Lillian; Leemans, Alexander; Seal, Marc L.; Doyle, Lex W.; Anderson, Peter J.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many studies documenting cerebral white matter microstructural alterations associated with very preterm birth (<32 weeks’ gestation), there is a dearth of similar research in moderate and late preterm infants (born 32–36 weeks’ gestation), who experience higher rates of neurodevelopmenta

  19. Tribes and territories in transition : the central east Jordan Valley and surrounding regions in the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, Eveline Johanna van der

    2002-01-01

    Inleiding De vroege IJzertijd in de zuidelijke Levant wordt vaak omschreven als de ‘donkere eeuwen’. Deze periode, die loopt vanaf het einde van de Late Bronstijd tot het begin van de koninkrijken van Juda, Israel, Moab en Ammon kent weinig tot geen literair/historische bronnen, en de bronnen die er

  20. Early Devonian back-arc extension in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from a bimodal volcanic sequence from Xilinhot, central Inner Mongolia (North China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wen; Xu, Bei; Wang, Yanyang; Zhao, Pan; Li, Qunsheng

    2017-08-01

    The Early Devonian bimodal volcanic sequence is firstly recognized in the Xilinhot area, central Inner Mongolia (North China). Zircon U-Pb dating of rhyolitic sample gives crystallization age of 407 ± 2 Ma, which is interpreted as the extrusive age of this bimodal volcanic sequence. Basaltic samples belong to tholeiite series whereas rhyolitic samples are peraluminous. Basaltic rocks show typical N-MORB-like REE and trace elemental patterns, with depletion of LREEs and negligible anomalies of Eu (δEu = 0.83-1.00). They have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios ranging from 0.7077 to 0.7086, and positive εNd(t) values from +7.5to +9.0. By contrast, rhyolitic rocks show enrichment in LREEs and LILEs but depletion in HFSEs, with negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.58-0.68). They have negative εNd(t) values from -6.7 to -7.7 and TDM2 (Nd) values from 1695 to 1771 Ma. These elemental and isotopic data indicate that basaltic rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source with input of slab-derived fluids, whereas rhyolitic rocks might have been derived from remelting of Paleoproterozoic crustal materials. From our data and previous geological studies in this region, a back-arc setting was proposed for the Early Devonian bimodal volcanic rocks in the Xilinhot region. Subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere caused opening of this back-arc basin and upwelling of mantle caused the formation of basalts and provided heat for remelting of crustal materials and formation of rhyolite.the

  1. Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueidan, C.; Ruibal, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schneider, H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineage

  2. Late Silurian–Early Devonian tessellated heterostracan Oniscolepis Pander, 1856 from the East Baltic and North Timan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Märss, Tiiu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Pander (1856, Monographie der fossilen Fische der silurischen Systems der Russisch–Baltischen Gouvernements. Obersilurische Fische. Buchdruckerei Kaiserlichen Akademie des Wissenschaften, St. Petersburg, 91 pp. first established four Oniscolepis and three Strosipherus species, which later, except O. magna, were referred to Oniscolepis dentata, the name fixed by Rohon (1893, Mémoires de l´Académie Impériale des Sciences de St.-Petersbourg, 41, 1–124 as the senior synonym. Using modern techniques, we redescribe and illustrate morphological and histological varieties of its platelets, tesserae, and scales. No articulated specimen of O. dentata has ever been found. Fragments of head platelets, two branchial plates, an orbital plate (or tessera, and body ridge elements are described for the first time. The microstructure of scales of O. dentata specimens from the East Baltic and North Timan differs only slightly from that of scales from the type locality, Saaremaa Island, Ohesaare Cliff, which has fewer and finer dentine tubules and Sharpey’s fibre tubules than the specimens from North Timan. Oniscolepis Pander and Kallostrakon Lankester are united into a new family Oniscolepididae fam. nov. with the type genus Oniscolepis Pander.

  3. Dolomitization and sedimentary cyclicity of the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian rocks in South Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallaste, Toivo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution and composition of dolomitized rocks and stoichiometry of dolomite in southern Estonia in the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian were studied on the background of the facies, sedimentary cyclicity (nine shallowing-up cycles, and evolution of the palaeobasins. The composition of rocks and lattice parameters of dolomite were investigated using the X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, titration and gravimetric analyses, and porosity measurements. The formation of dolostones is directly determined by the cyclic evolution of palaeobasins. Dolomitized rocks belong to the shallow-water inner shelf or tidal/lagoonal facies belt of regressive phases of sedimentary cycles. Sediments of the deep shelf/transitional environment and transgressive phases are not dolomitized. The most stoichiometric is secondary replacive dolomite of Silurian and upper Ordovician dolostones, formed during the early diagenesis of normal-marine (saline shallow-shelf calcitic sediments. The content of insoluble residue does not affect the stoichiometry. The changes in lattice parameters are induced by the Ca/Mg ratio in the dolomite lattice. The dolomite of the dolostones contacting limestone or containing calcite has an expanded lattice. The primary (syngenetic dolostone of the lagoonal or tidal flat belt has also an expanded lattice. No dolomitizing effect of the waters of the Devonian palaeobasin on the underlying rocks was revealed. The whole data set of the studied dolostones is consistent with the marine water environment in the palaeobasin at the corresponding time and shows no sign of the inflow of external fluids. It suggests that the microbial model of dolomite formation may characterize the Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian in southern Estonia. The occurrence of dolostones between undolomitized rocks limits the time of dolomitization to the early diagenetic stage.

  4. Devonian to Triassic Successions of the Changning-Menglian Belt,Western Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Xiaochi; WANG Yizhao; XIE Guanglian

    2003-01-01

    Phanerozoic strata are distributed in several north-south trending zones in the central part of the Changning-Menglian Belt. Four types of Devonian to Triassic stratigraphic successions can be identified: (1) clastics with limestonelenses in the mid-section, changing up-section into alternations of fine clastics and cherts; (2) clastics with chertintercalations and limestone lenses, and topped by Permian basic volcanics; (3) clastics-basicvolcanics-carbonates-clastics; and (4) limestones, dolomitic limestones-dark gray thin-bedded limestones, argillaceouslimestones, mudstones and siliceous mudstones. Devonian to Triassic cherts occur in different horizons and differentzones from east to west. These cherts are usually transitional to their neighboring clastics. There is no continuousDevonian to Middle Triassic chert sequence in the central zone of the Changning-Menglian Belt as Liu et al. (1991, 1993)reported. Volcanics and the overlying carbonates described by some workers as "seamount" sequences are more likely tohave formed in a marine environment on continental crust. Succession (4) is newly recognized in the area from Menglai toYong'an in Cangyuan County and further north to Padi of Gengma County. Basalts, cherts and clastics also appear in thisarea. Mid-Triassic (very probably Ladinian) radiolarians extracted from bedded cherts in the Ganzhejidi section indicatethat they are in higher stratigraphic positions. The change from bedded cherts via siltstones to thick-bedded sandstoneswith thin-bedded fine intercalations in the Ganzhejidi section and (some other outcrops along the road from Cangyuan toGengma) suggests a fundamental change of sedimentary environment caused by a rapid increase of a large quantity ofdetritus supply. These siliciclastic sediments are possibly syn-orogenic deposits.

  5. TREPOSTOME AND CRYPTOSTOME BRYOZOANS FROM THE KONĔPRUSY LIMESTONE (LOWER DEVONIAN, PRAGIAN OF ZLATÝ KŮŇ (CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREJ ERNST

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper presents descriptions of 10 bryozoan species from material deposited at the Geological Centrum Göttingen, Germany. The studied material comes from the Lower Devonian rocks (Konĕprusy Limestone, Pragian, exposed in a quarry near Zlatý Kůň in Central Bohemia. Described bryozoans comprise 8 trepostome and 2 cryptostome (rhabdomesine species. One genus and species is new: the cryptostome (rhabdomesine Paracuneatopora striata gen. n., n. sp., and 7 species are new: trepostomes Leioclema elegans n. sp., Atactotoechus divulgatus n. sp., Loxophragma fistulosum n. sp., Leptotrypella punctata n. sp., Microcampylus obscurus n. sp., Dyscritella bohemica n. sp., and the rhabdomesine Orthopora tenuis n. sp. Furthermore, two trepostomes Monotrypa bohemica Prantl, 1933 and Anomalotoechus cf. typicus Duncan, 1939 were identified in this material. The described fauna displays palaeozoogeographic relations to the Lower Devonian (Pragian of Morocco and the Middle Devonian of Michigan (USA. 

  6. On the graptolite schist's formation, Silurian-Lower Devonian, in the Carpatho-Balkanides of eastern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Branislav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The fabric of the Silurian and a part of the Lower Devonian in the Carpatho-Balkanides of eastern Serbia, i.e. in two large geotectonic units, the Kučaj Unit (Getic and the Luznica Unit (West Kraishte, is reviewed in this paper. Silurian sediments of the Serbian part of the Carpatho-Balkanides are made of the Graptolite Schists Formation, from the lower part of the acuminatus Zone at the Ordovician-Silurian boundary to the transgrediens Zone at the Silurian-Devonian boundary. The presence of all parts of the Silurian is proved on the basis of graptolite faunas: Llandovery (Rhuddnanian, Aeronian, Telychian, Wenlock (Sheinwoodian, Homerian, Ludlow (Gorstian, Ludfordian and Pridoli. Two Lower Devonian (Lochkovian zones (uniformis and hercynicus, with which the deposition of the Graptolite Schists Formation ended in eastern Serbia is also described. Data on the geochemical characteristics of the Graptolite Schists Formation are presented as well.

  7. Origins and relationships of colonial Heliophyllum in the upper Middle Devonian (Givetian) of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    Heliophyllum halli Milne-Edwards and Haime is common to abundant in many Lower and Middle Devonian stratigraphic units in New York. Most Heliophyllum are solitary, but both branching and massive colonies are known. Four 'populations' of colonial Heliophyllum in the Givetian part of the sequence are distinct, as is a fifth form that occurs through the section. Each of the colonial forms is interpreted as an independent derivative of solitary forms of H. halli. The relationships appear to range from infrasubspecific to specific, and it is suggested that the complex should be recognized as the Heliophyllum halli species group.

  8. Copper-bearing encrustations: a tool for age dating and constraining the physical-chemical regime during the late Quaternary in the Wadi Araba, southern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, H. G.; Techmer, A.; Botz, R.

    2013-07-01

    The alluvial-fluvial drainage system in the Wadi Araba, southern Jordan, incised into Cambrian clastic sedimentary and felsic igneous rocks giving rise to a disseminated Cu-(Mn) mineralization of diagenetic and epigenetic origin along the southern branch of the Dead Sea Transform Fault (=DSTF). During the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, the primary Cu sulfides were replaced by secondary minerals giving rise to hypogene to supergene encrustations, bearing Cu silicates, Cu carbonates, Cu oxychlorides and cupriferous vanadates. They occur in fissures, coat walls and developed even-rim/meniscus and blocky cements in the arenites near the surface. The first generation cement has been interpreted in terms of freshwater vadose hydraulic conditions, while the second-generation blocky cement of chrysocolla and malachite evolved as late cement. The Cu-Si-C fluid system within the Wadi Araba drainage system is the on-shore or subaerial facies of a regressive lacustrine regime called the "Lake Lisan Stage", a precursor of the present-day Dead Sea. Radiocarbon dating (younger than 27,740 ± 1,570 years), oxygen-isotope-based temperature determination (hot brine-related mineralization at 60-80 °C, climate-driven mineralization at 25-30 °C) and thermodynamical calculations let to the subdivision of this secondary Cu mineralization into four stages, whose chemical and mineralogical composition was controlled by the variation of the anion complexes of silica and carbonate and the chlorine contents. The acidity of the pore water positively correlates with the degree of oxidation. The highest aridity and most intensive evaporation deduced from the thermodynamical calculations were achieved during stage 3, which is coeval with late Lake Lisan. Geogene processes causing Cu-enriched encrustations overlap with man-made manganiferous slags. The smelter feed has been derived mainly from Cu ore which developed during Late Pleistocene in the region.

  9. The influence of sexual attitudes on mid- to late-life sexual well-being: age, not gender, as a salient factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Allyson S; Patrick, Julie Hicks

    2014-01-01

    The influence of sexual attitudes on sexual activity and expression has been relatively understudied in older populations. In the current study, we sought to understand the role sexual attitudes have on sexual well-being among middle-aged and young-old adults. Using a diverse sample of participants over the age of 45 (N = 384), a path model was analyzed to determine whether sexual attitudes contributed to sexual well-being. The model was then compared by gender. Results indicated: a) only age-relative sexual attitudes significantly contributed to sexual well-being; and b) the model was equally robust for both men and women, even though women held slightly more positive age-relative sexual attitudes than men. Therefore, among middle-aged and young-old adults, sexual well-being may be reduced by harboring negative ageist sexual attitudes. Efforts should be made to reduce stigma surrounding continued sexual activity and expression among the aged.

  10. Fluid inclusion and isotopic evidence on dolomitization, Devonian of Western Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulstead, K.L.; Spencer, R.J.; Krouse, H.R. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1988-05-01

    The Presqu'ile and Manetoe Facies are diagenetic features developed in Lower and Middle Devonian Formations of the Elk Point Basin (Presqu'ile) and the Mackenzie Shelf (Manetoe). Both facies contain coarsely crystalline dolomite and white sparry dolomite cement. Less extensive diagenetic phases, in order of paragenesis, include fluorite, anhydrite, barite, calcite, quartz, sphalerite and galena. Conditions of dolomitization are outlined from core and outcrop examination, thin section and cathodoluminescent petrography, fluid inclusion analyses, and C and O isotopic data. Fluid inclusion and stable isotope analyses from dolomite are combined to determine the isotopic composition of the dolomitizing fluids. Chemical analyses of fluid inclusion waters are compared with formation water analyses to derive a proposed origin for the diagenetic fluids. Dolomite formed from hot, high salinity fluids early in the diagenetic history of the basin. Limestone was dolomitized as a result of the same process that created white sparry dolomite cement in the Manetoe Facies. Remnants of the dolomitizing fluids are present as formation waters in some Devonian formations in Alberta. Subsequent invasion of meteoric waters produced more dilute diagenetic fluids which resulted in the precipitation of calcite and quartz cement in the Manetoe Facies. These fluids are present in fluid inclusions and are responsible for the low {sup 18}O content of the calcite cement. The temperatures of calcite and quartz formation differ as a function of burial depth within the Manetoe Facies during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, while the temperature of formation for dolomite does not.