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Sample records for late austral winter

  1. Thermohaline circulation in the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIB) during austral summer and winter periods of 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshBabu, V.; Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.

    -79 degrees E; 9 degrees-14 degrees S) during austral summer (January 1997) from the Indian research vessel ORV Sagar Kanya, while during the austral winter season (June-July 1997), hydrographical stations were occupied by Russian research vessel RV...

  2. Clarifying ambiguity in intraseasonal Southern Hemisphere climate modes during austral winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthewman, N. Joss; Magnusdottir, Gudrun

    2012-02-01

    The relative importance of annular and nonannular characteristics in the wintertime Southern Hemisphere circulation is investigated using reanalysis data between 1978 and 2010. Weekly averaged data are chosen to capture the typically short time scale of intraseasonal atmospheric variability. In existing studies, the southern annular mode (SAM) has been shown to exhibit significant nonannular behavior in the western Southern Hemisphere during austral winter. Variability in this region is also characterized by wave-like disturbances, and this "overlap" in nonannular behavior between different climate modes has led to a lack of consensus when defining and measuring impact from these wave-like disturbances. A number of approaches are adopted, including empirical orthogonal function analysis, teleconnection correlation analysis, and the application of a vector autoregression model to isolate directions of causality and wave propagation. Austral winter variability is shown to be dominated by nonannular wave-like disturbances, rather than a seesaw pattern between high and middle latitudes. The wave-like disturbances have the largest amplitude in the western Southern Hemisphere, are quasi-stationary, and exhibit eastward propagation of information. This suggests that the dominant pattern of western Southern Hemisphere intraseasonal variability during austral winter, which is commonly associated with the SAM, is, in fact, a wave-like mode of variability.

  3. Nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean during late austral summer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, WR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Bonus-GoodHope (BGH) campaign, 15N-labelled nitrate, ammonium and urea uptake measurements were made along the BGH transect from Cape Town to ~60° S in late austral summer, 2008. Our results are categorised according to distinct...

  4. Occurrence of Magellanic Penguins along the Northeast Brazilian Coast during 2008 Austral Winter

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    Renato Ramos da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During the austral winter of 2008, thousands of penguins traveled to low latitudes along the South Atlantic coast of South America. The atmospheric and oceanic conditions from April to July 2008 may account for the penguins' unusual geographic distribution. During that period, South Atlantic coastal waters were cooler; the wind anomalies had northward and onshore components; the ocean's coastal region presented northward currents that favored the penguins to travel toward lower latitudes. This anomalous climate regime resulted from extreme meteorological frontal systems that occurred mainly during June 2008. Three consecutive extreme midlatitude cyclones produced strong wind shear that resulted in the northward oceanic flow along the South American eastern shoreline favoring the penguins to be spotted in northern tropical waters.

  5. Top predators in relation to bathymetry, ice and krill during austral winter in Marguerite Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, C.A.; Chapman, E.; Fraser, William R.; Lawson, G.L.; Wiebe, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    A key hypothesis guiding the US Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (US SO GLOBEC) program is that deep across-shelf troughs facilitate the transport of warm and nutrient-rich waters onto the continental shelf of the Western Antarctic Peninsula, resulting in enhanced winter production and prey availability to top predators. We tested aspects of this hypothesis during austral winter by assessing the distribution of the resident pack-ice top predators in relation to these deep across-shelf troughs and by investigating associations between top predators and their prey. Surveys were conducted July-August 2001 and August-September 2002 in Marguerite Bay, Antarctica, with a focus on the main across-shelf trough in the bay, Marguerite Trough. The common pack-ice seabird species were snow petrel (Pagodroma nivea, 1.2 individuals km-2), Antarctic petrel (Thalassoica antarctica, 0.3 individuals km-2), and Ade??lie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae, 0.5 individuals km-2). The most common pack-ice pinniped was crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophagus). During both winters, snow and Antarctic petrels were associated with low sea-ice concentrations independent of Marguerite Trough, while Ade??lie penguins occurred in association with this trough. Krill concentrations, both shallow and deep, also were associated with Ade??lie penguin and snow petrel distributions. During both winters, crabeater seal occurrence was associated with deep krill concentrations and with regions of lower chlorophyll concentration. The area of lower chlorophyll concentrations occurred in an area with complex bathymetry close to land and heavy ice concentrations. Complex or unusual bathymetry via its influence on physical and biological processes appears to be one of the keys to understanding how top predators survive during the winter in this Antarctic region. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature decrease in the extratropics of South America in response to a tropical forcing during the austral winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, G.V. [Centro de Investigaciones Cientificas y Transferencia de Tecnologia a la Produccion (CICYTTP-CONICET), Diamante, Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2010-07-01

    This paper focuses on the dynamic mechanisms that create favorable conditions for the occurrence of frosts that affect large areas of Argentina and are denominated generalized frosts (GF). The hemispheric teleconnection patterns linked to extreme cold events affecting central and northeastern Argentina during winter are identified. The objective is to determine whether the conditions found in previous studies for the composite of winters with extreme (maximum and minimum) frequency of GF occurrence respond to typical characteristics of the austral winter or they are inherent to those particular winters. Taking the mean winter as basic state in the 1961-1990 period, a series of numerical experiments are run using a primitive equation model in which waves are excited with a thermal forcing. The positions of the thermal forcing are chosen according to observed convection anomalies in a basic state given by the austral winters with extreme frequency of GF occurrence. The wave trains excited by anomalous convection situated in specific regions may propagate across the Pacific Ocean and reach South America with the appropriate phase, creating the local favorable conditions for the occurrence of GF. However, the anomalous convection is, by itself, not sufficient since the response also depends on the basic state configuration. This is proved by placing the forcing over the region of significant anomalous convection for maximum and minimum frequency of GF occurrence and the response was very different in comparison to the mean winter. It is concluded that the conditions for a greater GF frequency of occurrence are inherent to these particular winters, so that such conditions are not present in the average winter. (orig.)

  7. Precipitation variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa during the last 1400 yr linked to the austral westerlies

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    J. C. Stager

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The austral westerlies strongly influence precipitation and ocean circulation in the southern temperate zone, with important consequences for cultures and ecosystems. Global climate models anticipate poleward retreat of the austral westerlies with future warming, but the available paleoclimate records that might test these models have been limited to South America and New Zealand, are not fully consistent with each other and may be complicated by influences from other climatic factors. Here we present the first high-resolution diatom and sedimentological records from the winter rainfall region of South Africa, representing precipitation in the equatorward margin of the westerly wind belt during the last 1400 yr. Inferred rainfall was relatively high ∼1400–1200 cal yr BP, decreased until ∼950 cal yr BP, and rose notably through the Little Ice Age with pulses centred on ∼600, 530, 470, 330, 200, 90, and 20 cal yr BP. Synchronous fluctuations in Antarctic ice core chemistry strongly suggest that these variations were linked to changes in the westerlies. Equatorward drift of the westerlies during the wet periods may have influenced Atlantic meridional overturning circulation by restricting marine flow around the tip of Africa. Apparent inconsistencies among some aspects of records from South America, New Zealand and South Africa warn against the simplistic application of single records to the Southern Hemisphere as a whole. Nonetheless, these findings in general do support model projections of increasing aridity in the austral winter rainfall zones with future warming.

  8. Major role of microbes in carbon fluxes during Austral winter in the Southern Drake Passage.

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    Maura Manganelli

    Full Text Available Carbon cycling in Southern Ocean is a major issue in climate change, hence the need to understand the role of biota in the regulation of carbon fixation and cycling. Southern Ocean is a heterogeneous system, characterized by a strong seasonality, due to long dark winter. Yet, currently little is known about biogeochemical dynamics during this season, particularly in the deeper part of the ocean. We studied bacterial communities and processes in summer and winter cruises in the southern Drake Passage. Here we show that in winter, when the primary production is greatly reduced, Bacteria and Archaea become the major producers of biogenic particles, at the expense of dissolved organic carbon drawdown. Heterotrophic production and chemoautotrophic CO(2 fixation rates were substantial, also in deep water, and bacterial populations were controlled by protists and viruses. A dynamic food web is also consistent with the observed temporal and spatial variations in archaeal and bacterial communities that might exploit various niches. Thus, Southern Ocean microbial loop may substantially maintain a wintertime food web and system respiration at the expense of summer produced DOC as well as regenerate nutrients and iron. Our findings have important implications for Southern Ocean ecosystem functioning and carbon cycle and its manipulation by iron enrichment to achieve net sequestration of atmospheric CO(2.

  9. Warm and Dry Spells (WDS in Austral Winter over Central South America

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    P. Satyamurty

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal and vertical structure of unusually warm and dry spells (WDS over the central parts of South America during the winter and post-winter months (JJAS are studied. During WDS the mean temperature and humidity anomalies over central Brazil are about +4.1°C and −13.2%, respectively. The mean duration of WDS is 11 days and their mean frequency is less than one per year during the months of JJAS. Apparently, WDS have no preference for the phase of ENSO. Widespread and persistent subsidence in the middle troposphere is observed in tropical Brazil during WDS, which renders the lower tropospheric air warm and dry. The negative anomalies of the specific humidity are observed to be associated with the subsidence regions. A strong, slow moving ridge in the eastern South Pacific and a low-pressure center in northern Argentina are important surface characteristics during the WDS. A more detailed investigation of two specific WDS events, a strong event (August–September 1999 and a moderate one (June 2002, shows a blocking-like situation in the 500-hPa geopotential and surface pressure fields in the Pacific. The South Atlantic subtropical high somewhat approaches the continent. Strong northerlies over the central and eastern parts of Brazil are also observed in the lower troposphere. During WDS the regional circulation acquires summertime characteristics, except for the absence of precipitation, and the circulation in the meridional plane is in the opposite sense from the Hadley circulation. A frontal system, supported by a 500-hPa trough, advances into central Brazil, causing the dissipation of the anomalous situation.

  10. Simulated austral winter response of the Hadley circulation and stationary Rossby wave propagation to a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana C. V.; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; O'Kane, Terence J.; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2017-07-01

    Ensemble simulations, using both coupled ocean-atmosphere (AOGCM) and atmosphere only (AGCM) general circulation models, are employed to examine the austral winter response of the Hadley circulation (HC) and stationary Rossby wave propagation (SRW) to a warming climate. Changes in the strength and width of the HC are firstly examined in a set of runs with idealized sea surface temperature (SST) perturbations as boundary conditions in the AGCM. Strong and weak SST gradient experiments (SG and WG, respectively) simulate changes in the HC intensity, whereas narrow (5°S-5°N) and wide (30°S-30°N) SST warming experiments simulate changes in the HC width. To examine the combined impact of changes in the strength and width of the HC upon SRW propagation two AOGCM simulations using different scenarios of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are employed. We show that, in contrast to a wide SST warming, the atmospheric simulations with a narrow SST warming produce stronger and very zonally extended Rossby wave sources, leading to stronger and eastward shifted troughs and ridges. Simulations with SST anomalies, either in narrow or wide latitude bands only modify the intensity of the troughs and ridges. SST anomalies outside the narrow latitude band of 5°S-5°N do not significantly affect the spatial pattern of SRW propagation. AOGCM simulations with 1 %/year increasing CO2 concentrations or 4 times preindustrial CO2 levels reveal very similar SRW responses to the atmospheric only simulations with anomalously wider SST warming. Our results suggest that in a warmer climate, the changes in the strength and width of the HC act in concert to significantly alter SRW sources and propagation characteristics.

  11. Simulated austral winter response of the Hadley circulation and stationary Rossby wave propagation to a warming climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Ana C. V.; Frederiksen, Jorgen S.; O'Kane, Terence J.; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-09-01

    Ensemble simulations, using both coupled ocean-atmosphere (AOGCM) and atmosphere only (AGCM) general circulation models, are employed to examine the austral winter response of the Hadley circulation (HC) and stationary Rossby wave propagation (SRW) to a warming climate. Changes in the strength and width of the HC are firstly examined in a set of runs with idealized sea surface temperature (SST) perturbations as boundary conditions in the AGCM. Strong and weak SST gradient experiments (SG and WG, respectively) simulate changes in the HC intensity, whereas narrow (5°S-5°N) and wide (30°S-30°N) SST warming experiments simulate changes in the HC width. To examine the combined impact of changes in the strength and width of the HC upon SRW propagation two AOGCM simulations using different scenarios of increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are employed. We show that, in contrast to a wide SST warming, the atmospheric simulations with a narrow SST warming produce stronger and very zonally extended Rossby wave sources, leading to stronger and eastward shifted troughs and ridges. Simulations with SST anomalies, either in narrow or wide latitude bands only modify the intensity of the troughs and ridges. SST anomalies outside the narrow latitude band of 5°S-5°N do not significantly affect the spatial pattern of SRW propagation. AOGCM simulations with 1 %/year increasing CO2 concentrations or 4 times preindustrial CO2 levels reveal very similar SRW responses to the atmospheric only simulations with anomalously wider SST warming. Our results suggest that in a warmer climate, the changes in the strength and width of the HC act in concert to significantly alter SRW sources and propagation characteristics.

  12. Contrasted geographical distribution of N2 fixation rates and nifH phylotypes in the Coral and Solomon Seas (southwestern Pacific) during austral winter conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sophie; Rodier, Martine; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.; Germineaud, Cyril; Menkes, Christophe; Ganachaud, Alexandre; Cravatte, Sophie; Raimbault, Patrick; Campbell, Ellen; Quéroué, Fabien; Sarthou, Géraldine; Desnues, Anne; Maes, Christophe; Eldin, Gerard

    2015-11-01

    Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation and the distribution of diazotrophic phylotypes were investigated during two cruises in the Coral Sea and the Solomon Sea (southwestern Pacific) during austral winter conditions. N2 fixation rates were measurable at every station, but integrated (0-150 m) rates were an order of magnitude higher in the Solomon Sea (30 to 5449 µmol N m-2 d-1) compared to those measured in the Coral Sea (2 to 109 µmol N m-2 d-1). Rates measured in the Solomon Sea were in the upper range (100-1000 µmol N m-2 d-1) or higher than rates compiled in the global MARine Ecosystem biomass DATa database, indicating that this region has some of the highest N2 fixation rates reported in the global ocean. While unicellular diazotrophic cyanobacteria from group A (UCYN-A1 and UCYN-A2) and the proteobacteria γ-24774A11 dominated in the Coral Sea and were correlated with N2 fixation rates (p Solomon Sea and were correlated (p Solomon Sea. The biogeographical distribution of diazotrophs is discussed within the context of patterns in measured environmental parameters.

  13. 与西澳州西南部冬季降水相联系的大气环流特征分析%The Characteristics of Atmospheric Circulation Associated with Austral Winter Rainfall in Southwest Western Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 李艳杰; 冯娟

    2011-01-01

    known modes, which may have impacts on the Australian rainfall, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), ENSO Modoki (EM), and Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode (SAM) on the SWR are analyzed. It is found that they all cannot explain the long term rainfall variation of the SWR in neither early (May to July, MJJ) nor late (August to October, ASO) austral winter. Particularly, the reported significant inverse relationship between the SAM and SWR is caused by an extreme year. Based on the investigation on rainfall distribution over SWWA, seasonal march of the circulation features, dynamical and thermal structures of the atmospheric circulation, and thermal contrast between land and sea over wider southwest Australia, the authors find that the circulation over SWWA shows strong seasonally, and exhibits monsoonal characteristics, that is, alternate wet and dry seasons, seasonal reversal of prevailing winds, and an evident land-sea thermal contrast. Taking account of these monsoonal characteristics, the authors propose the concept of monsoon-like southwest Australian circulation (SWAC), and discuss the relationship between the SWAC and the SWR. The result indicates that the variability of SWAC contributes to the variation of SWR, whose weakening is a possible reason for the SWR decreasing.

  14. Late Winter Population and Distribution of Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) in the Bering Sea

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted aerial surveys in the northern Bering Sea in late winter 1995, 1996 and 1997 to estimate the population of spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri)...

  15. Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lawanna Holt

    2009-01-01

    Winter is snowy and cold season. Christmas iS in winter. Winter is when you get out for Christmas break. Winter is when you have hot chocolate with marshal mallows. `Winter is the season for colds and sinus problems.

  16. Strong winter monsoon wind causes surface cooling over India and China in the Late Miocene

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    H. Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern Asian winter monsoon characterised by the strong northwesterly wind in East Asia and northeasterly wind in South Asia, has a great impact on the surface temperature of the Asian continent. Its outbreak can result in significant cooling of the monsoon region. However, it is still unclear whether such an impact existed and is detectable in the deep past. In this study, we use temperature reconstructions from plant and mammal fossil data together with climate model results to examine the co-evolution of surface temperature and winter monsoon in the Late Miocene (11–5 Ma, when a significant change of the Asian monsoon system occurred. We find that a stronger-than-present winter monsoon wind might have existed in the Late Miocene due to the lower Asian orography, particularly the northern Tibetan Plateau and the mountains north of it. This can lead to a pronounced cooling in southern China and northern India, which counteracts the generally warmer conditions in the Late Miocene compared to present. The Late Miocene strong winter monsoon was characterised by a marked westerly component and primarily caused by a pressure anomaly between the Tibetan Plateau and Northern Eurasia, rather than by the gradient between the Siberian High and the Aleutian Low. As a result, the close association of surface temperature with winter monsoon strength on inter-annual scale as observed at present may not have established in the Late Miocene.

  17. Sources of anions in aerosols in northeast Greenland during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Marlene Fenger; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Kristensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    ), respectively. The aerosols in late winter/early spring, after polar sunrise, are found to be a mixture of long-range transported and regional to local originating aerosols. Fine particles, smaller than 1 μm, containing SO2−4 , Cl− and NO− 3 , are hypothesized to originate from long-range transport, where SO2...

  18. Predicting Late Winter Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Arctic Lakes Using Morphology and Landscape Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppi, Jason C.; Arp, Christopher D.; Whitman, Matthew S.

    2016-02-01

    Overwintering habitat for Arctic freshwater fish is essential, such that understanding the distribution of winter habitat quality at the landscape-scale is warranted. Adequate dissolved oxygen (DO) is a major factor limiting habitat quality in the Arctic region where ice cover can persist for 8 months each year. Here we use a mixed-effect model developed from 20 lakes across northern Alaska to assess which morphology and landscape attributes can be used to predict regional overwintering habitat quality. Across all lakes, we found that the majority of the variations in late winter DO can be explained by lake depth and littoral area. In shallow lakes (cover duration, and snow depth were associated with DO regimes. Low DO regimes were most typical of shallow lakes with large littoral areas and lakes that had high DO regimes often were lakes with limited littoral areas and deeper water. Our analysis identifies metrics that relate to late winter DO regimes in Arctic lakes that can aid managers in understanding which lakes will likely provide optimum DO for overwintering habitat. Conversely, lakes which predicted to have marginal winter DO levels may be vulnerable to disturbances that could lower DO below critical thresholds to support sensitive fish. In regions where lakes are also used by humans for industrial winter water supply, such as ice-road construction for oil and gas development, these findings will be vital for the management of resources and protection of Arctic fish.

  19. Estimating the daily dry matter intake of Svalbard reindeer in late winter

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    Nicholas Tyler

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus store large reserves of subcutaneous fat during summer and autumn which, it has been suggested, might be sufficient to meet a substantial part of their energy requirements during winter. An alternative suggestion, however, is that fat is not their main source of energy after all and, moreover, that the principal role of their fat reserves is for enhancing reproductive success rather than for substituting for forage (Tyler, in press. Is it realistic to suggest that these high arctic herbivores could meet the greater part of their energy requirements in winter by feeding, given that the aerial biomass of available forage in Svalbard in late winter is very low? This question was investigated by using a simple model to predict what rate of food intake Svalbard reindeer would have to achieve to maintain energy balance in late winter. The results were surprisingly low: pregnant and nonpregnant females could mett their daily energy demands by consuming 3.1 and 1.7 g dry matter per grazing minute, respectively. This supports the suggestion that Svalbard reindeer could live principally off forage in winter.

  20. Uptake of water via branches helps timberline conifers refill embolized xylem in late winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Stefan; Schmid, Peter; Laur, Joan; Rosner, Sabine; Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Dämon, Birgit; Hacke, Uwe G

    2014-04-01

    Xylem embolism is a limiting factor for woody species worldwide. Conifers at the alpine timberline are exposed to drought and freeze-thaw stress during winter, which induce potentially lethal embolism. Previous studies indicated that timberline trees survive by xylem refilling. In this study on Picea abies, refilling was monitored during winter and spring seasons and analyzed in the laboratory and in situ experiments, based on hydraulic, anatomical, and histochemical methods. Refilling started in late winter, when the soil was frozen and soil water not available for the trees. Xylem embolism caused up to 86.2% ± 3.1% loss of conductivity and was correlated with the ratio of closed pits. Refilling of xylem as well as recovery in shoot conductance started in February and corresponded with starch accumulation in secondary phloem and in the mesophyll of needles, where we also observed increasing aquaporin densities in the phloem and endodermis. This indicates that active, cellular processes play a role for refilling even under winter conditions. As demonstrated by our experiments, water for refilling was thereby taken up via the branches, likely by foliar water uptake. Our results suggest that refilling is based on water shifts to embolized tracheids via intact xylem, phloem, and parenchyma, whereby aquaporins reduce resistances along the symplastic pathway and aspirated pits facilitate isolation of refilling tracheids. Refilling must be taken into account as a key process in plant hydraulics and in estimating future effects of climate change on forests and alpine tree ecosystems.

  1. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

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    C. Träger-Chatterjee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture–atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958–2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with

  2. Analysis of extreme summers and prior late winter/spring conditions in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träger-Chatterjee, C.; Müller, R. W.; Bendix, J.

    2013-05-01

    Drought and heat waves during summer in mid-latitudes are a serious threat to human health and agriculture and have negative impacts on the infrastructure, such as problems in energy supply. The appearance of such extreme events is expected to increase with the progress of global warming. A better understanding of the development of extremely hot and dry summers and the identification of possible precursors could help improve existing seasonal forecasts in this regard, and could possibly lead to the development of early warning methods. The development of extremely hot and dry summer seasons in central Europe is attributed to a combined effect of the dominance of anticyclonic weather regimes and soil moisture-atmosphere interactions. The atmospheric circulation largely determines the amount of solar irradiation and the amount of precipitation in an area. These two variables are themselves major factors controlling the soil moisture. Thus, solar irradiation and precipitation are used as proxies to analyse extreme sunny and dry late winter/spring and summer seasons for the period 1958-2011 in Germany and adjacent areas. For this purpose, solar irradiation data from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis dataset, as well as remote sensing data are used. Precipitation data are taken from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project. To analyse the atmospheric circulation geopotential data at 850 hPa are also taken from the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast 40-yr and interim re-analysis datasets. For the years in which extreme summers in terms of high solar irradiation and low precipitation are identified, the previous late winter/spring conditions of solar irradiation and precipitation in Germany and adjacent areas are analysed. Results show that if the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is not very intensely developed, extremely high solar irradiation amounts, together with extremely low precipitation

  3. Increasing late winter-early spring fire activity in Northern Spain: climate change or human footprint?

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    Carracedo Martín, Virginia; García Codron, Juan Carlos; Rasilla Álvarez, Domingo

    2016-04-01

    Most of the fire activity across Spain concentrates during the summer months, but a secondary peak appears also during late winter and early spring (February and March). This peak represents a tiny fraction of the burned surface but in northern Spain becomes the main fire season, representing up to 60 % of the total burned surface. Moreover, the impact of this "unseasonal" fire regime is becoming more relevant; an analysis of the temporal evolution of the burned surface since 2005 shows that the suppression efforts of summer forest fires have apparently succeeded, while the opposite has occurred with late winter-early spring forest fires. For example, during March 2012 more than 22,000 ha were burned in the Spanish provinces of Asturias and Cantabria, while about 14,000 suffers the effects of fires in Northern Portugal. Anthropogenic factor (mostly linked to an extensive cattle farming in the mountains) are the main cause of such fire activity, but atmospheric factors also play a relevant role in the spread of this fires. Consequently, the main aim of this poster is to explore if the recent evolution of forest fires in the study area are consequence of an aggravation of the atmospheric conditions driving to more fire risk conditions, or other factor could also explain the increase in fire activity. Burned surface data obtained from official statistics since 1971 were compared with atmospheric data at two temporal scales: daily fire risk values calculated from synoptic records and long term drought indices (SPI and SPEI). The results show a long term increase in both daily fire risk and drought conditions, but this trend can be related to the background warming of the area, rather to an increase in the frequency and magnitude of the extreme fire weather events. Thus, we consider that the regional atmospheric evolution cannot explain by itself the recent increase in late winter-early spring fire activity. Additional anthropogenic factors, such as recent changes in

  4. Spatial distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, S; Ajisaka, T; Lahbib, S; Kokubu, Y; Alabsi, M N; Komatsu, T

    2014-01-01

    Floating seaweeds play an important role as a habitat for many animals accompanying or attaching to them in offshore waters. It was in 2000 that the first report described abundant distributions of floating seaweeds in offshore waters in the East China Sea in spring. Young individuals of the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata are captured for aquaculture purposes from floating seaweeds in the East China Sea. Therefore, a sound understanding of the distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea is needed. Detailed information is especially important during the late winter to early spring, which corresponds to the juvenile period of the yellowtail. Thus, field surveys using R/V Tansei-Maru were conducted in the Japanese Exclusive Economic Zone in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring in 2010 and 2011. We obtained positions of the vessel by GPS and transversal distances from the vessel to a raft by visual observation. Distance sampling method (Thomas et al. 2010) was applied to estimation of floating seaweed densities (rafts km(-2)). Seaweed rafts were also randomly sampled using nets during the research cruises. In the East China Sea, seaweed rafts were distributed mainly on the continental shelf west of the Kuroshio, especially in waters between 26° N and 30° N. Collected rafts consisted of only one species, Sargassum horneri (Turner) C. Agardh. Taking into account surface currents and geographical distribution of S. horneri, it is estimated that these floating seaweeds originated from natural beds along the coast between mid and south China. Considering the approximate travel times, it is suggested that floating patches are colonized by yellowtails early on during their trips, i.e., close to the Chinese coast.

  5. [Comparison of red edge parameters of winter wheat canopy under late frost stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yong-feng; Hu, Xin; Lü, Guo-hua; Ren, De-chao; Jiang, Wei-guo; Song, Ji-qing

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, late frost experiments were implemented under a range of subfreezing temperatures (-1 - -9 degrees C) by using a field movable climate chamber (FMCC) and a cold climate chamber, respectively. Based on the spectra of winter wheat canopy measured at noon on the first day after the frost experiments, red edge parameters REP, Dr, SDr, Dr(min), Dr/Dr(min) and Dr/SDr were extracted using maximum first derivative spectrum method (FD), linear four-point interpolation method (FPI), polynomial fitting method (POLY), inverted Gaussian fitting method (IG) and linear extrapolation technique (LE), respectively. The capacity of the red edge parameters to detect late frost stress was explicated from the aspects of the early, sensitivity and stability through correlation analysis, linear regression modeling and fluctuation analysis. The result indicates that except for REP calculated from FPI and IG method in Experiment 1, REP from the other methods was correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.05). Thereinto, significant levels (P) of POLY and LE methods all reached 0.01. Except for POLY method in Experiment 2, Dr/SDr from the other methods were all significantly correlated with frost temperatures (P < 0.01). REP showed a trend to shift to short-wave band with decreasing temperatures. The lower the temperature, the more obvious the trend is. Of all the REP, REP calculated by LE method had the highest correlation with frost temperatures which indicated that LE method is the best for REP extraction. In Experiment 1 and 2, only Dr(min) and Dr/Dr(min), calculated by FD method simultaneously achieved the requirements for the early (their correlations with frost temperatures showed a significant level P < 0.01), sensitivity (abso- lute value of the slope of fluctuation coefficient is greater than 2.0) and stability (their correlations with frost temperatures al- ways keep a consistent direction). Dr/SDr calculated from FD and IG methods always had a low sensitivity

  6. Influence of the late winter bloom on migrant zooplankton metabolism and its implications on export fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzeys, S.; Yebra, L.; Almeida, C.; Bécognée, P.; Hernández-León, S.

    2011-12-01

    Studies on carbon active fluxes due to diel migrants are scarce and critical for carbon flux models and biogeochemical estimates. We studied the temporal variability and vertical distribution of biomass, indices of feeding and respiration of the zooplanktonic community north off the Canary Islands during the end of the late winter bloom, in order to assess vertical carbon fluxes in this area. Biomass distribution during the day presented two dense layers of organisms at 0-200 m and around 500 m, whereas at night, most of the biomass concentrated in the epipelagic layer. The gut pigment flux (0.05-0.18 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) represented 0.22% of the estimated passive export flux (POC flux) while potential ingestion represented 3.91% of the POC (1.24-3.40 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ). The active respiratory flux (0.50-1.36 mgC·m - 2 ·d - 1 ) was only 1.57% of the POC flux. The total carbon flux mediated by diel migrants (respiration plus potential ingestion) ranged between 3.37 and 9.22% of the POC flux; which is three-fold higher than calculating ingestion fluxes from gut pigments. Our results suggest that the fluxes by diel migrants play a small role in the downward flux of carbon in the open ocean during the post-bloom period.

  7. Short-term cropland responses to temperature extreme events during late winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. De Simon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, several studies have focused on terrestrial ecosystem response to extreme events. Most of this research has been conducted in natural ecosystems, but few have considered agro-ecosystems. In this study, we investigated the impact of a manipulated warmer or cooler late winter-early spring on the carbon budget and final harvest of a soybean crop (Glycine max (L. Merr.. Soil temperature was altered by manipulating soil albedo by covering the soil surface with a layer of inert silica gravel. We tested three treatments: cooling (Co, warming (W, mix (M and control (C. An automated system continuously measured soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh, soil temperature profiles, and soil water content across the entire year in each plot. Phenological phases were periodically assessed and final harvest was measured in each plot. Results showed that treatments had only a transient effect on daily Rh rates which did not result in a total annual carbon budget significantly different from control, even though cooling showed a significant reduction in final harvest. We also observed anticipation in seed germination in both W and M treatments and a delay in germination for Co. Moreover, plant density and growth increased in W and M and decreased in Co.

  8. NH3 Volatilization from Aboveground Plants of Winter Wheat During Late Growing Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhao-hui; LI Sheng-xiu

    2003-01-01

    Ammonia volatilized from aboveground parts of winter wheat was collected with an enclosuregrowth chamber and measured from jointing to maturing stage. The results showed that ammonia releasedfrom unfertilized plants grown in high and low fertility soils remained at low rates of 2.3 and 0.9 μg NH3 40plant-1 h-1 respectively at late filling stage. However, fertilized plants rapidly increased the rates to 43.4 and52.2 μg NH3 40 plant-1 h-1 in the high and low fertility soils, respectively, at the same period. The released a-mount was different in different parts of plants. At filling stage, lower senescing stems and leaves volatilizedmore ammonia than upper parts, i.e. , ears and flag leaves that grew normally, with an average of 1.4 and0.7 μg NH3 20 plant-1 h-1 respectively, strongly suggesting that it was the senile organs that released largeamounts of ammonia. At the grain filling stage, shortage of water supply (drought stress) reduced ammoniavolatilization. The average rate of ammonia released under water stress was 0.9 μg NH3 40 plant-1 h-1 , but 1.2μg NH3 40 plant-1 h-1 with moderate water supply. Application of N together with P fertilizer resulted in ahigher ammonia volatilization than N fertilization alone at the maturing stage. The average rate released was135.3 μg NH3 40 plant-1 h-1 when 0.4 g N and 0.13 g P had been added to per kg soil, while 33.7 μg when0.4 g N added alone. Ammonia volatilization from plants was closely related with plant biomass and N up-take; P fertilization increased plant biomass and N uptake and therefore increased its release.

  9. The possible mechanism of the "stratospheric bridge" modulation by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in early winter and the QBO, 11-year solar cycle in late winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadin, Evgeny; Wei, Ke; Chen, Wen; Wang, Lin

    Questions of the interannual variations of the extra-tropical stratospheric dynamics, its rela-tionship with the sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the North Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation -PDO) in early winter (November-December), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) (Holton-Tan relations), a decadal modulation by the 11-year Solar Cycle (SC) (Labitzke, van Loon -LvL correlations) in late winter (January-February) are discussed. In early winter, the interannual changes of the planetary wave activity define partly the variations of the strato-spheric circulation in subsequent January [Zyulyaeva and Jadin, 2009]. The interannual and decadal variations of the stratospheric wave activity appear to be associated with those of the PDO [Jadin et al. 2009]. A decadal period from the mid-1970s to mid-1990s of the violation of the Holton-Tan (HT) relationship corresponds well to that of the positive PDO phase (anoma-lously cold SSTs in the central North Pacific). Using the NCEP and ERA-40 monthly mean reanalysis datasets, the three-dimensional Eliassen-Palm fluxes are calculated. The results of the analysis of relations between the upward/downward propagation of planetary waves in the lower stratosphere ("stratospheric bridge"), their interaction with the zonal wind and the HT and LvL correlations for January-February are presented. In contrast with early winter, the large role in the wave-zonal flow interaction plays the downward propagation of planetary waves from the stratosphere to the troposphere over Canada and North Atlantic ("stratospheric wave hole") responsible for the sink of the eddy energy from the stratosphere. One can suggest that there are two dominant regimes in the stratosphere-troposphere coupling in late winter: 1) the "ventilation regime" with the strong penetration of planetary waves from the troposphere over north Eurasia and their strong downward propagation over Canada and North Atlantic, and 2) the "blocking regime" with the weak those

  10. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter: e0127586

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle Joly; Samuel K Wasser; Rebecca Booth

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  11. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    .... We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress...

  12. Uptake of water via branches helps timberline conifers refill embolized xylem in late winter

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Xylem embolism is a limiting factor for woody species worldwide. Conifers at the alpine timberline are exposed to drought and freeze-thaw stress during winter, which induce potentially lethal embolism. Previous studies indicated that timberline trees survive by xylem refilling. In this study on Picea abies, refilling was monitored during winter and spring seasons and analyzed in the laboratory and in situ experiments, based on hydraulic, anatomical, and histochemical methods. Refilling starte...

  13. Inverse relation between summer and winter monsoon strength during late Holocene: continental molecular isotopic record from the Indian subcontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, P.; Basu, S.; Pillai, A.; Singh, P.; Ratnam, J.; Sankaran, M.; Amibili, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Indian monsoon shapes the livelihood of ca. 40% of world's population. Despite dedicated efforts, comprehensive picture of monsoon variability has proved elusive largely due to the absence of long-term qualitative high-resolution record from key climatic zones and variability of monsoon with respect to various forcing mechanisms (e.g., solar insolation) and teleconnections (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, Indian Ocean Dipole). In this study, high-resolution molecular (n-alkane) isotopic (δD and δ13C ratios) reconstruction of mid-late Holocene (~5.0 cal ka) climate has been undertaken using lacustrine sediments from two climatically sensitive regions; (i) Arid Banni grasslands, western India with dominant moisture source derived from Indian summer monsoon (June-September) and (ii) Semi-arid Ennamangalam lake, south India with significant fraction of rainfall received during winter period (October to December) from Northeast (NE) monsoon. The climate reconstruction from western India based on δDn-alkane values shows prevalence of intensified monsoon until ca. 3 cal ka followed by gradual decrease in the precipitation. In contrast, climate reconstruction from south India is characterized by more negative δDn-alkane (intensified precipitation) values during late Holocene (~2.5 cal ka). The compilation of paleoclimate records shows that the precipitation pattern in Banni region responded linearly to gradually changing insolation and additionally amplified by climate systems like ENSO. However, intensified monsoon in South India shows strengthened NE monsoonal precipitation during late Holocene. The spatial inhomogeneity in the palaeohydrological record can be attributed to the persistence of inverse relationship between summer and winter monsoon. In addition, strong positive correlation between δDn-alkane and δ13Cn-alkane values from both region shows that the relative abundance of C3-C4 plants in the contemporary ecosystems are governed by rainfall

  14. The evolution of ozone observed by UARS MLS in the 1992 late winter southern polar vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manney, G.L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J.W.; Elson, L.S.; Fishbein, E.F.; Zurek, R.W. (California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States)); Harwood, R.S.; Lahoz, W.A. (Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-06-18

    This paper presents initial data analysis of ozone distributions in the southern polar vortex region during the winter of 1992. The data comes from the microwave limb sounder on the upper atmosphere research satellite. The data provides never before available coverage of the polar stratosphere, and reveals the development of an ozone hole from column ozone data, changes in ozone mixing ratios in the lower stratosphere consistent with ozone destruction processes in the stratosphere, and evidence to support the transport of ozone toward the pole by tidal wave activity in the stratosphere. The ozone measurements are compared with the development of the polar vortex derived from national meteorological center data.

  15. Late Holocene stable-isotope based winter temperature records from ice wedges in the Northeast Siberian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno; Laepple, Thomas; Dereviagin, Alexander Yu.

    2016-04-01

    approaches as well as the stratigraphic context of the studied ice wedges in terms of suitability for reconstruction of high-quality records. Our Mid to Late Holocene ice-wedge δ18O records show a marked variability with long-term increasing trends and an unprecedented recent maximum. The derived winter temperature records are discussed considering other Arctic paleoclimate records, climate forcing factors as well as climate-model results. We show that ice-wedge δ18O records contribute unique and highly relevant winter information on past Arctic temperatures. However, the generation of high-quality reconstructions depends on careful selection of study sites and ice wedges, the availability of suitable organic matter for AMS radiocarbon dating, a high sampling resolution and suitable chronological approaches.

  16. The Impact of the East Atlantic/Western Russia Pattern on the Hydroclimatology of Europe from Mid-Winter to Late Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Ionita

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the influence of the East Atlantic/Western Russia teleconnection pattern on the hydroclimatology of Europe, from mid-winter to late spring, is investigated. The influence of EAWR on the variability of precipitation (PP, temperature (TT and standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI is investigated on the base of correlation and stability maps. It is shown that EAWR has a strong impact on the coupling between the sub-tropical Atlantic Jet and the African Jet, which in turn affects the climate variability over Europe from mid-winter to late spring. The strongest impact of the mid-winter EAWR over the European precipitation is found to be in mid-winter and early spring over the northern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula and the central and eastern part of Europe; while the influence of the mid-winter EAWR on European temperature persists from mid-winter to late spring, giving the possibility of a potential predictability for spring temperature over extended European regions.

  17. Late winter biogeochemical conditions under sea ice in the Canadian High Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen S. Findlay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the Arctic summer sea-ice extent in decline, questions are arising as to how changes in sea-ice dynamics might affect biogeochemical cycling and phenomena such as carbon dioxide (CO2 uptake and ocean acidification. Recent field research in these areas has concentrated on biogeochemical and CO2 measurements during spring, summer or autumn, but there are few data for the winter or winter–spring transition, particularly in the High Arctic. Here, we present carbon and nutrient data within and under sea ice measured during the Catlin Arctic Survey, over 40 days in March and April 2010, off Ellef Ringnes Island (78° 43.11′ N, 104° 47.44′ W in the Canadian High Arctic. Results show relatively low surface water (1–10 m nitrate (<1.3 µM and total inorganic carbon concentrations (mean±SD=2015±5.83 µmol kg−1, total alkalinity (mean±SD=2134±11.09 µmol kg−1 and under-ice pCO2sw (mean±SD=286±17 µatm. These surprisingly low wintertime carbon and nutrient conditions suggest that the outer Canadian Arctic Archipelago region is nitrate-limited on account of sluggish mixing among the multi-year ice regions of the High Arctic, which could temper the potential of widespread under-ice and open-water phytoplankton blooms later in the season.

  18. Impacts of extraordinary warm and cold late-winter temperatures on observed and modelled plant phenology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutishauser, This; Stöckli, Reto

    2010-05-01

    The impact of gradual change in the climate system during the second half of the 20th century left a strong imprint on the timing of seasonal events in biotic and biotic systems such as e.g. plant development stages and the greenness of the Earth's surface. Temporal trends in seasonal events largely correspond to the effects expected from the increases in temperature. The impact of extraordinary temperature and precipitation events on plant phenology in spring is less understood. For example a strong early-spring frost event in the USA in April 2007 lead to reduced greenness and freeze damage to leaves and fruits of natural and horticultural species whereas a winter warming event in northern Scandinavia in December 2007 caused considerable damage to sub-Arctic dwarf shrub vegetation and reduced vegetation activity (26% reduced maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index NDVI relative to the previous year) in the following summer. In Germany and Switzerland, the effects of the extraordinary warm temperature anomalies of autumn 2006, winter 2006/2007 and spring 2007 showed strong impacts on selected plant phenological phases back to 1951 and 1702. Common hazel and snowdrop flowered up to 35 days earlier in Germany and beech and fruits tree were two weeks earlier in Switzerland. This contribution presents empirical evidence of extraordinary warm and cold late-winter temperatures on species-specific plant phenology and modelled landscape-scale phenology in Switzerland in the period 1958-2008. Species-specific observations were extracted from the Swiss Plant Phenological Network of MeteoSwiss for 23 low-altitude stations and 12 stations that report to the Global Climate Observation System (GCOS). Observations cover all climate regions and altitudes. For each GCOS station we also estimated daily Leaf Area Index with a prognostic phenology model. The model's empirical parameter space was constrained by assimilated Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation

  19. Flavonoids as chemotaxonomic markers for Erythroxylum australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Emanuel L; Schmidt, Walter F

    2004-01-01

    Methanolic leaf extracts of Erythroxylum australe F. Muell. produced eight O-conjugated flavonoids. Six of the flavonoid aglycones were dihydroisoflavones (all dihydro-orobol derivatives), one a flavanone, eriodictyol, and one a flavonol, quercetin. The major glycosides of the flavonoids included mono-glucosyl-rhamnosyls and dirhamnosyl-glucosides with either 3, 5, 7 or 3', 4' linkage or a combination thereof The array of flavonoids present in E. australe suggests kinship to E. ulei and linkage to the four cultivated alkaloid-bearing Erythroxylum, especially the ancestral E. coca var. coca. Because of the uniqueness of the flavonoids present in leaf tissue of E. australe they are unambiguously useful as chemotaxonomic markers for the taxon.

  20. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle; Wasser, Samuel K; Booth, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68%) but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1%) of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80%) were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100) were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  1. Remote Sensing and Geologic Studies of Mare Australe: The North Australe Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Stopar, J. D.; Ostrach, L. R.; van der Bogert, C. H.; Hiesinger, H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Giguere, T. A.; Sato, H.; Robinson, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    A key goal of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is to investigate volcanic processes at different temporal and physical scales, with one emphasis being the characterization of ancient (meaning, greater than 3.9 Ga) volcanic units. One such ancient volcanic terrain is Mare Australe, a loosely-circular collection of mare basalts centered at approximately 38.9 deg S, 93 deg E (Fig. 1). Mare Australe is a complex, extensive, and poorly understood volcanic region.

  2. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  3. Non-Invasive Assessment of the Interrelationships of Diet, Pregnancy Rate, Group Composition, and Physiological and Nutritional Stress of Barren-Ground Caribou in Late Winter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    Full Text Available The winter diet of barren-ground caribou may affect adult survival, timing of parturition, neonatal survival, and postpartum mass. We used microhistological analyses and hormone levels in feces to determine sex-specific late-winter diets, pregnancy rates, group composition, and endocrine-based measures of physiological and nutritional stress. Lichens, which are highly digestible but contain little protein, dominated the diet (> 68% but were less prevalent in the diets of pregnant females as compared to non-pregnant females and males. The amount of lichens in the diets of pregnant females decreased at higher latitudes and as winter progressed. Pregnancy rates (82.1%, 95% CI = 76.0 - 88.1% of adult cows were within the expected range for a declining herd, while pregnancy status was not associated with lichen abundance in the diet. Most groups (80% were of mixed sex. Male: female ratios (62:100 were not skewed enough to affect the decline. Levels of hormones indicating nutritional stress were detected in areas of low habitat quality and at higher latitudes. Levels of hormones indicated that physiological stress was greatest for pregnant cows, which faced the increasing demands of gestation in late winter. These fecal-based measures of diet and stress provided contextual information for the potential mechanisms of the ongoing decline. Non-invasive techniques, such as monitoring diets, pregnancy rates, sex ratios and stress levels from fecal samples, will become increasingly important as monitoring tools as the industrial footprint continues to expand in the Arctic.

  4. Phytoplankton abundance and community structure in the Antarctic polar frontal region during austral summer of 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHRAMIK Patil; RAHUL Mohan; SUHAS Shetye; SAHINA Gazi

    2013-01-01

    The Antarctic polar front region in the Southern Ocean is known to be most productive.We studied the phytoplankton community structure in the Indian sector at this frontal location during late austral summer (February,2009) onboard R/V Akademic Boris Petrov.We used the phytoplankton and microheterotrophs abundance,as also the associated physico-chemical parameters to explain the low phytoplankton abundance in the study region.This study emphasizes the shift of phytoplankton,from large (>10 μm) to small (<10 μm) size.The phytoplankton abundance appears to be controlled by physical parameters and by nutrient concentrations and also by the microheterotrophs (ciliates and dinoflagellates) which exert a strong grazing pressure.This probably reduces small (<10 μm) and large (>10 μm)phytoplankton abundance during the late austral summer.This study highlights the highly productive polar front nevertheless becomes a region of low phytoplankton abundance,due to community shifts towards pico-phytoplankton (<10 μm) during late austral summer.

  5. A late Holocene winter monsoon record inferred from the palaeo-aeolian sand dune in the southeastern Mu Us Desert, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Liu; HeLing Jin; Fan Yang

    2016-01-01

    The variation of the Asian winter monsoonal strength has seriously affected the climate and environmental conditions in the Asian monsoonal region, and even in marginal islands and the ocean in the East Asian region. However, relevant under-standing remains unclear due to the lack of suitable geological materials and effective proxies in the key study areas. Here, we present a grain-size record derived from the palaeo-aeolian sand dune in the southeastern Mu Us Desert, together with other proxies and OSL dating, which reflect a relatively detailed history of the winter monsoon and abrupt environmental events during the past 4.2 ka. Our grain-size standard deviation model indicated that>224μm content can be considered as an indicator of the intensity of Asian winter monsoon, and it shows declined around 4.2–2.1 ka, enhanced but unstable in 2.1–0.9 ka, and obviously stronger since then. In addition, several typical climate events were also documented, forced by the periodic variation of winter monsoonal intensity. These include the cold intervals of 4.2, 2.8, 1.4 ka, and the Little Ice Age (LIA), and relatively warm sub-phases around 3.0, 2.1, 1.8 ka, and the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), which were roughly accordant with the records of the aeolian materials, peat, stalagmites, ice cores, and sea sediments in various lat-itudes of the Northern Hemisphere. Combined with the previous progresses of the Asian summer monsoon, we prelimi-narily confirmed a millennial-scale anti-correlation of Asian winter and summer monsoons in the Late Holocene epoch. This study suggests that the evolution of the palaeo-aeolian sand dune has the potential for comprehending the history of Asian monsoon across the desert regions of the modern Asian monsoonal margin in northern China.

  6. Galaxias australes con núcleo doble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, G.; Díaz, R.; Carranza, G.

    Se estudia una muestra de galaxias australes con núcleo doble a partir de una búsqueda extensiva en la literatura. Se analizan las características morfológicas, fotométricas y espectroscópicas de la muestra. Para algunas galaxias se han realizado observaciones con el espectrógrafo multifunción (EMF) de la Estación Astrofísica de Bosque Alegre a partir de las cuales se determinaron parámetros cinemáticos.

  7. Relevamiento de HI en el Hemisferio Austral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Bajaja, E.; Morras, R.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Un nuevo relevamiento de HI de todo el Hemisferio Austral, comprendido entre -90o base de datos será corregida por efectos de ``stray radiation''. Al presente se ha observado ~70% del total del relevamiento. El mismo es complementario de uno similar realizado en el Hemisferio Norte por Hartman y Burton (1996), con cubrimiento espacial, sensibilidad, resoluciones espaciales y en velocidad, similares a los del IAR. El objetivo final de ambos relevamientos es disponer de una base de datos uniforme en todo el cielo.

  8. GEM in the marine atmosphere and air-sea exchange of Hg during late autumn and winter cruise campaigns over the marginal seas of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Liu, Ruhai; Li, Yanping; Cui, Xueqing; Zhou, Jianping; Liu, Shixuan; Zhang, Yuqing

    2017-07-01

    East Asia is one of the primary sources of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) among the world. In this study, GEM concentrations were measured during two cruises in late autumn and winter of 2012 and 2013 which passed through the marginal seas of China. The results show that the mean GEM concentration was 1.65 ng/m3 from the South China Sea to the Yellow Sea during the 2012 cruise. While the mean GEM concentration was 2.38 ng/m3 in the South Yellow Sea, and 1.75 ng/m3 in the North Yellow and Bohai Seas during the 2013 cruise. High GEM contents were detected when the steering wind was offshore. There is a significant positive relationship between GEM and air temperature for these two cruises. Low GEM content was presented when the cold northerly monsoon prevailed while air masses mainly came from the clean northern oceanic region. Dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentration in the surface water of the south Yellow and Bohai seas were 74.4 ± 28 pg/L. DGM concentrations were correlated with water temperature (r = 0.244, p polluted air and low wind speed. High flux values were caused by the northerly monsoon which carried remote clean air to the sea, with large wind speeds. The northerly monsoon is an important factor affecting the GEM transport offshore to marginal sea and the cycle of mercury in the sea in late autumn and winter.

  9. Structure andevolution of the austral basin fold-thrust belt, Southern Patagonian Andes Estructura y evolución de la faja plegada y corrida dela cuenca Austral, Andes Patagónicos Australes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías C. Ghiglione

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This study focuseson the evolution of the Southern Patagonian Andes fold-thrust belt and theadjacent non-deformed foreland of the Austral basin between 49°45' and52°00'SL. This sector involves mainly Late Cretaceous sequences of the firstregressive cycle (Lago Viedma Cycle of the Austral basin foreland stage, andCampanian to Paleogene sequences associated with tectonic uplift of its westernboundary. From a stratigraphic-sedimentary point of view, a first-orderincrease in the fillthickness and depth to the basement exists from north tosouth including the presence of deeper depositional environments in the samedirection. Furthermore, there are strong along-strike variations in width andlateral position of the structural domains following the same trend. Based uponprevious interpretations, is concluded that the distribution of extensionaldepocenters from the early extensional phase of the basin controlled theseimportant sedimentary and structural N-S contrasts. Furthermore, in ourpresented model, East-west oriented transition zones are interpreted asaccommodation zones separating synrift sub-basins.Este estudio se concentra en la evolución de la fajaplegada y corrida de los Andes Patagónicos Australes y del antepaís adyacenteno deformado de la cuenca Austral entre los 49°45' y 52°00'SL. Este sectorinvolucra principalmente secuencias cretácicas superiores del primer cicloregresivo (Ciclo Lago Viedma de la etapa de antepaís de la cuenca Austral, ysecuencias campanianas a paleógenas asociadas con el levantamiento tectónico desu límite occidental. Desde el punto de vista estratigráfico sedimentario,existe un incremento de primer orden de norte a sur en el espesor del relleno yla profundidad del basamento incluyendo la presencia de ambientesdeposicionales más profundos en la misma dirección. Se han detectado fuertes variacionesa lo largo del rumbo en el ancho y la posición lateral de los dominiosestructurales en la misma direcci

  10. Chasma Australe Mars: Structural Framework for a Catastrophic Outflow Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguita, F.; Babin, R.; Benito, G.; Collado, A.; Gomez, D.; Rice, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    Chasma Australe is the most remarkable of the martian south pole erosional reentrants carved in the polar layered deposits. Ms chasma originates near the south pole and runs across the polar troughs over a distance of about 500 km. Its width varies between 20 and 80 km and, with a depth up to 1000 m, it reaches the bedrock. Following an idea put forward originally for Chasma Boreale, we propose for the genesis of Chasma Australe a mechanism of catastrophic outflow preceded by a tectonically induced powerful sapping process. A detailed geomorphological analysis of Chasma Australe shows erosional and depositional features that can be interpreted as produced by the motion of a fluid. Like other polar reentrants, Chasma Australe is clearly assymetric, with a steep eastern margin where basal and lateral erosion prevailed, and a gentler western side, where the stepped topography and bedrock spurs favored deposition.

  11. Late winter under ice pelagic microbial communities in the high Arctic Ocean and the impact of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monier, Adam; Findlay, Helen S; Charvet, Sophie; Lovejoy, Connie

    2014-01-01

    Polar Oceans are natural CO2 sinks because of the enhanced solubility of CO2 in cold water. The Arctic Ocean is at additional risk of accelerated ocean acidification (OA) because of freshwater inputs from sea ice and rivers, which influence the carbonate system. Winter conditions in the Arctic are of interest because of both cold temperatures and limited CO2 venting to the atmosphere when sea ice is present. Earlier OA experiments on Arctic microbial communities conducted in the absence of ice cover, hinted at shifts in taxa dominance and diversity under lowered pH. The Catlin Arctic Survey provided an opportunity to conduct in situ, under-ice, OA experiments during late Arctic winter. Seawater was collected from under the sea ice off Ellef Ringnes Island, and communities were exposed to three CO2 levels for 6 days. Phylogenetic diversity was greater in the attached fraction compared to the free-living fraction in situ, in the controls and in the treatments. The dominant taxa in all cases were Gammaproteobacteria but acidification had little effect compared to the effects of containment. Phylogenetic net relatedness indices suggested that acidification may have decreased the diversity within some bacterial orders, but overall there was no clear trend. Within the experimental communities, alkalinity best explained the variance among samples and replicates, suggesting subtle changes in the carbonate system need to be considered in such experiments. We conclude that under ice communities have the capacity to respond either by selection or phenotypic plasticity to heightened CO2 levels over the short term.

  12. Late winter under ice pelagic microbial communities in the high Arctic Ocean and the impact of short-term exposure to elevated CO2 levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eMonier

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Polar Oceans are natural CO2 sinks because of the enhanced solubility of CO2 in cold water. The Arctic Ocean is at additional risk of accelerated ocean acidification (OA because of freshwater inputs from sea ice and rivers, which influence the carbonate system. Winter conditions in the Arctic are of interest because of both cold temperatures and limited CO2 venting to the atmosphere when sea ice is present. Earlier OA experiments on Arctic microbial communities conducted in the absence of ice cover, hinted at shifts in taxa dominance and diversity under lowered pH. The Catlin Arctic Survey provided an opportunity to conduct in situ, under-ice, OA experiments during late Arctic winter. Seawater was collected from under the sea ice off Ellef Ringnes Island, and communities were exposed to three CO2 levels for 6 days. Phylogenetic diversity was greater in the attached fraction compared to the free-living fraction in situ, in the controls and in the treatments. The dominant taxa in all cases were Gammaproteobacteria but acidification had little effect compared to the effects of containment. Phylogenetic net relatedness indices suggested that acidification may have decreased the diversity within some bacterial orders, but overall there was no clear trend. Within the experimental communities, alkalinity best explained the variance among samples and replicates, suggesting subtle changes in the carbonate system need to be considered in such experiments. We conclude that under ice communities have the capacity to respond either by selection or phenotypic plasticity to heightened CO2 levels over the short term.

  13. Late winter larval fish assemblage in the southern East China Sea, with emphasis on spatial relations between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Chiyuki; Konishi, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    We examined larval fish assemblages in the southern East China Sea during late winter where large spawning grounds of several commercial pelagic fishes are formed. Our samples include a total of 187 species or taxa of larval fish belonging to 118 genera, 96 families, and 18 orders. Mesopelagic fish larvae, mainly Stomiiformes, Aulopiformes, and Myctophiformes, accounted for 66.5% of the total catch, while commercial species such as Trachurus japonicus, Scomber spp., and Trichiurus japonicus for 16.6%. Based on the species composition, three assemblages were recognized: Kuroshio (KUR), Shelf-Break (BRE), and Shelf (SHE) assemblages. KUR assemblage was mainly characterized by various mesopelagic fishes such as Sigmops gracilis, Diaphus spp., and Myctophum asperum, BRE assemblage by both commercial pelagic and mesopelagic species, SHE assemblage by demersal species such as Lepidotrigla spp. and Gobiidae spp. Both abundance and diversity were highest in KUR assemblage, although food availability for the larvae would be poorest. The combination of variables of sea surface temperature-chlorophyll a concentrations best explained the larval distribution. Except for Benthosema pterotum, the center of distribution of mesopelagic fish larvae was clearly separated from that of the commercial species by the Kuroshio front. However, a northward intrusion of the Kuroshio transported mesopelagic fish larvae onto the shelf, forming the BRE assemblage. Competition for prey between mesopelagic and commercial pelagic fish larvae would potentially occur if the intrusion is strong.

  14. Winter Weather: Outdoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If you must travel by car, use tire chains and take a mobile phone with you. If you must travel, let someone know your destination and when you expect to arrive. Ask them to notify authorities if you are late. Check and restock the winter emergency supplies in your car before you leave. Never pour ...

  15. Winter MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Castellón Gadea, Pasqual

    2013-01-01

    Winter MVC és un framework de presentació basat en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodologia de configuracions. Winter MVC es un framework de presentación basado en Spring MVC que simplifica la metodología de configuraciones. Winter MVC is a presentation framework that simplifies Spring MVC configuration methodology.

  16. « This, I told myself, was really Africa ».Des territoires et des femmes. Récits féminins de voyage en Afrique Australe à la fin du XIXe siècle “This, I told myself, was really Africa”. Of Territories and Women.Women’s Travel Narratives in Late 19th Century Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Ommundsen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In Victorian Britain, travel writing was informed by an unprecedented colonial expansion — in particular, the “scramble for Africa”— and the rise of the women’s movement in the late 19th century. Fuelled by the notions of motherhood and domesticity that characterized late imperial society, the presence of women in colonies served the purpose of domesticating the South. Yet, as geographical conquest merges with sexual conquest, the narratives of some female travellers in Southern Africa unveil unexpected territories that manifest specific territorialities. Although conjuring up feminist utopias, weren’t these female writers trying to construct a conspicuous literary ghetto?

  17. Surface meteorological conditions at benthic disturbance experiment site - INDEX area during austral winter 1997

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suryanarayana, A.; Murty, V.S.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Beena, B.S.

    Benthic Disturbance Experiment surveys in the Central Indian Ocean Basin yielded baseline data on surface meteorological conditions during June and August, 1997 together with sea surface temperature (SST) and could data to estimate the air-sea heat...

  18. Winter Flings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nicole Sy

    2012-01-01

    Summer flings.Those summer days of fun under the sun,careless and worryfree,drifting away into those breezy summer nights.It's a concept somewhat romanticized by the media but still pretty common in Western societies,and seemingly other cultures infiltrated by Western media.One can only imagine my surprise when my friend told me there were such things as winter flings too.That's right,winter flings.Strange as it seems,this was introduced to me by a friend from Toronto,a city on the east coast of Canada.I'm from the west coast of the country,so we cower in our homes when it hits -15℃.Our pipes freeze,we have no running water,and sometimes we have no electricity.Toronto lies on the east so it gets pretty nasty winters,sometimes dipping to -40℃.I'm a winter wuss.

  19. Winter Havoc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN YUAN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Heavy snowfall that triggered avalanches on January 1-8 in northwest China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region increased the number of fatalities and damages that have already accrued over this year's extreme winter weather.

  20. Conservation challenges for the Austral and Neotropical America section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Vale, Mariana M; Bonacic, Cristian; Calvo-Alvarado, Julio; List, Rurik; Bynum, Nora; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Simonetti, Javier A; Rodríguez, Jon Paul

    2009-08-01

    The Austral and Neotropical America (ANA) section of the Society for Conservation Biology includes a vast territory with some of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in the world. With more than 573 million people, the economic growth of the region still depends strongly on natural resource exploitation and still has high rates of environmental degradation and biodiversity loss. A survey among the ANA section membership, with more than 700 members, including most of the section's prominent ecologists and conservationists, indicates that lack of capacity building for conservation, corruption, and threats such as deforestation and illegal trade of species, are among the most urgent problems that need to be addressed to improve conservation in the region. There are, however, strong universities and ecology groups taking the lead in environmental research and conservation, a most important issue to enhance the ability of the region to solve conservation and development conflicts.

  1. The microwave emissivity variability of snow covered first-year sea ice from late winter to early summer: a model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Willmes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Satellite observations of microwave brightness temperatures between 19 GHz and 85 GHz are the main data source for operational sea-ice monitoring. However, the sea ice microwave emissivity is subject to pronounced seasonal variations and shows significant hemispheric contrasts that mainly arise from differences in the rate and strength of snow metamorphism and melt. We use the thermodynamic snow model SNTHERM and the microwave emission model MEMLS to identify the contribution of regional patterns in atmospheric energy fluxes to surface emissivity variations on Arctic and Antarctic sea ice between 2000 and 2009. The obtained emissivity data reveal a pronounced seasonal cycle with a large regional variability. The emissivity variability increases from winter to early summer and is more pronounced in the Antarctic. In the pre-melt period (January–May, July–November the variations in surface microwave emissivity due to diurnal, regional and inter-annual variability of atmospheric forcing reach up to 3.4%, 4.3%, and 9.7% for 19 GHz, 37 GHz and 85 GHz channels, respectively. Small but significant emissivity trends can be observed in the Weddell Sea during November and December as well as in Fram Strait during February. The obtained emissivity data lend themselves for an assessment of sea-ice concentration and snow-depth algorithm accuracies.

  2. Species Diversity and Abundance Distribution of Pelagic Siphonophores in Nan Wan Bay of Taiwan, China, in Late Autumn and Early Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Zooplankton surveys were carried out on November 2-3 and December 8-10, 2001at 12 stations in the Nan Wan Bay of Taiwan, China. Altogether 92 quantitative zooplankton samples were collected from subsurface water and bottom water layers with two conical plankton nets (180 cm in length, 45 cm in opening diameter, 333 μm and 200 μm in mesh size).A total of 31 species of Siphonophores were identified, among them 7 species are new records in the waters around Taiwan Island, of which Rocacea cymbiformis is a new record in China.Dominated by Chelophyes appendiculata, Bassia bassensis, Diphyes bojani, Diphyes dispar,Abylopsis eschscholtzi and Chelophyes contorta, these species accounted for over 76 % and 63 % of the total abundance in November and December. The species number and Siphonophores abundance in December (25 species, 1.99 inds/m3) were more than those in November (19 species, 0.438 inds/m3), and they were more in the surface water layer than in the bottom layer at most sampling stations. In early winter, the offshore high salinity water mass was a main factor influencing the distribution. The sampling efficiency for two plankton nets is discussed and the seasonal variation of species number and abundance in the Nan Wan Bay is compared with that in the neighboring waters.

  3. Seismo-stratigraphic evolution of the northern Austral Basin and its possible relation to the Andean tectonics, onshore Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, Victoria; Anka, Zahie; Pagan, Facundo; Kohler, Guillermina; Cagnolatti, Marcelo; di Primio, Rolando; Rodriguez, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The Austral Basin is situated in a formerly and recently high active tectonic zone in southern Argentina. The opening of the South Atlantic to the east, the opening of the Drake Passage in the south, and the subduction related to the rise of the Andes to the west, had major influence on the study area. To identify the impact of the tectonic events on basin geometry, sediment thickness and depocenter migration through time, 2D seismic interpretation was performed for an area of approx. 180.000 km² covering the onshore northern Austral Basin. A total of 10 seismic horizons were mapped and tied to the stratigraphy from well reports, representing 9 syn- and post- rift sequences. The main units are: Basement (U1), Jurassic Tobifera Formation (U2), Early Cretaceous (U3), Late Cretaceous (U4), sub-unit Campanian (U4A), Paleocene (U5), Eocene (U6), Oligocene (U7), Miocene (U8), and Plio-Pleistocene (U9). Main tectonic events are identified representing the break-up phase forming graben systems and the evolution from the ancient backarc Rocas Verdes Basin to the foreland Austral Basin. Inversion and changes in the tectonic regime are concomitant with onlapping and thinning of the base of the Upper Cretaceous to Campanian sediments, while the Top of the Upper Cretaceous represents a Maastrichtian unconformity. Units depth maps show a triangular geometry since the Jurassic, tracing the north-eastern basement high and deepening to the south. Since the Campanian the former geometry of basin fill changed and deepening to the south stopped. Beginning of the foreland phase is assigned to this time as well as changes in the stress regime. Paleogene times are marked by a relatively high sedimentation rate coupled with enduring thermal subsidence, on-going rise of the Andes and changes in the convergence rates of the Nazca relative to the South American plate. Onset of sediment supply from the Andes (Incaic phase) resulted in enhanced sedimentation rates during the Paleocene

  4. FERROCARRILES EN LA ZONA AUSTRAL DE CHILE, 1869-1973

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Martinic B.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se entrega una visión completa acerca de los ferrocarriles construidos y explotados en la región austral de Chile y se ofrece asimismo una explicación sobre su modesta expresión hist��rica, cosa notable en un territorio como la Patagonia chilena en cuya colonización y desarrollo ulterior fue importante la utilización de la tecnología industrial moderna. Se dan a conocer también algunas interesantes iniciativas ferrocarrileras que no llegaron a materializarseIn spite of the important development in Chilean Patagonia between circa 1870 an 1973, particulary in the old Magellan Territory, an almost surprising fact was that in between many incorporated industrial technology the railroad, a paradigm of modernity, had a scarce representation. In this paper, a complete review about railroads settled and exploted in southernmost Chile is done and a explanation of its modest expression and some interesting projects that necer became materialized which explains the emptiness in the historical information on the subject

  5. [The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School: a regional commitment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, C

    1997-07-01

    The Universidad Austral de Chile Medical School was created in 1966. Its general goal was to train a general physician with capacities to integrate biological, psychological and social issues, to deal with prevalent diseases as well as with the non referable casualties, to analyze health situations and to manage health teams. From its beginning, it incorporated anthropological and the public health contents to medical curriculum. Moreover, the formal teaching formation was reduced to 5 years, increasing the internship cycle to 2 years, with an important practice on primary health care in regional hospitals, that included a research project on health administration. A revision of the School curriculum showed the need of a better horizontal and vertical integration of medical education. Consequently, global courses were organized to gather knowledge that, until now, was delivered in a fragmented form. Our Medical School has a major impact in the southern region of the country and over 60% of its graduates have settled in this zone, improving its physician/inhabitant relationship and the number of specialists.

  6. Supercooled water in austral summer in Prydz Bay,Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jiuxin; CHENG Yaoyao; JIAO Yutian; HOU Jiaqiang

    2011-01-01

    Supercooled water with temperatures below freezing point, was identified from hydrographic data obtained by Chinese and Australian expeditions to Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during the austral summer. The study shows that most supercooled waters occurred at depths of 63-271 m in the region north of the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) front. The maximum supercooling was 0.16℃ below the in-situ freezing point. In temperature and salinity ranges of-2.14 - -1.96℃ and 34.39--34.46, respectively,the water was colder and fresher than peripheral shelf water. The supercooled water had less variability in the vertical profiles compared to shelf water. Based on analysis of their thermohaline features and spatial distribution, as well as the circulation pattern in Prydz Bay, we conclude that these supercooled waters originated from a cavity beneath the AIS and resulted from upwelling just outside of the AIS front. Water emerging from the ice shelf cools to an extremely low temperature (about -2.0℃) by additional cooling from the ice shelf, and becomes buoyant with the addition of melt water from the ice shelf base. When this water flows out of the ice shelf front, its upper boundary is removed, and thus it rises abruptly. Once the temperature of this water reaches below the freezing point, supercooling takes place. In summer, the seasonal pycnocline at ~100 m water depth acts as a barrier to upwelling and supercooling. The upwelling of ice shelf outflow water illuminates a unique mid-depth convection of the polar ocean.

  7. Upper limits for chlorophylla changes with brine volume in sea ice during the austral spring in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhijun; LI Runling; WANG Zipan; HAAS Christian; DIECKMANN Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    During the winter and spring of 2006, we investigated the sea ice physics and marine biology in the northwest Weddell Sea, Antarctica aboard R/VPolarstern. We determined the texture of each ice core and 71 ice crystal thin sections from 27 ice cores. We analyzed 393 ice cores, their temperatures, 348 block density and salinity samples, and 311 chlorophylla (Chla) and phaeophytin samples along the cruise route during the investigation. Based on the vertical distributions of 302 groups of data for the ice porosity and Chla content in the ice at the same position, we obtained new evidence that ice physical parameters influence the Chla content in ice. We collected snow and ice thickness data, and established the effects of the snow and ice thickness on the Chla blooms under the ice, as well as the relationships between the activity of ice algae cells and the brine volume in ice according to the principle of environmental control of the ecological balance. We determined the upper limits for Chla in the brine volume of granular and columnar ice in the Antarctica, thereby demonstrating the effects of ice crystals on brine drainage, and the contributions of the physical properties of sea ice to Chla blooms near the ice bottom and on the ice-water interface in the austral spring. Moreover, we found that the physical properties of sea ice affect ice algae and they are key control elements that modulate marine phytoplankton blooms in the ice-covered waters around Antarctica.

  8. Features of physical oceanography in the oceans near the Prydz Bay during the 1998/1999 austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shuzhen; HU Xiaomin; DONG Zhaoqian; XIANG Baoqiang; YU Weidong

    2006-01-01

    Thermohaline features, spatial extensions, and depths of the antarctic circumpolar deep water, the antarctic bottom water, and the upper layer water near the Prydz Bay (including the Prydz Bay summer surface water, the antarctic winter water, and the Prydz Bay shelf water) are analyzed and studied by use of the full depth CTD data obtained in the Southern Ocean near the Prydz Bay during the 1998/1999 austral summer. The northward extension of the shelf water, the thickness of the temperature inversion layer, the minima in the vertical temperature profile and the vertical temperature gradient are interpreted. On the basis of analysis of gravitational potential field, the geostrophic current and the geostrophic volume transport are calculated to determine the location of the strongest current in the zonal circulation near the Prydz Bay and to find the spatial variability of the volume transport in the 64°~66.5°S zone. In addition, the central location, the frontal strength, the vertical depth and thickness of the continental water boundary (CWB) are estimated from the CTD data to expound the spatial variability of CWB in the study area (64°~66.5°S,70°~75°E).

  9. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  10. WINTER SAECULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Mihalina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Accumulated imbalances in the economy and on the markets cause specific financial market dynamics that have formed characteristic patterns kept throughout long financial history. In 2008 Authors presented their expectations of key macroeconomic and selected asset class markets developments for period ahead based on Saeculum theory. Use of term Secular describes a specific valuation environment during prolonged period. If valuations as well as selected macro variables are considered as a tool for understanding business cycles then market cycles become much more obvious and easily understandable. Therefore over the long run, certain asset classes do better in terms of risk reward profile than others. Further on, there is no need for frequent portfolio rebalancing and timing of specific investment positions within a particular asset class market. Current stage in cycle development suggests a need for reassessment of trends and prevailing phenomena due to cyclical nture of long lasting Saeculums. Paper reviews developments in recognizable patterns of selected metrics in current Winter Saeculum dominated with prevailing forces of delivering, deflation and decrease in velocity of money.

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Virulent Strain AUSTRAL-005 of Piscirickettsia salmonis, the Etiological Agent of Piscirickettsiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Cristian; Haro, Ronie E.; Sanchez, Patricio; Isla, Adolfo; Mendoza, Julio; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Trombert, Annette; Silva, Andrea X.; Cárcamo, Juan G.; Figueroa, Jaime; Polanco, Victor; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a lethal pathogen of farmed salmonids, Piscirickettsia salmonis strain AUSTRAL-005. This virulent strain was isolated in 2008 from Oncorhynchus mykiss farms, and multiple genes involved in pathogenicity, environmental adaptation, and metabolic pathways were identified. PMID:25323708

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of Virulent Strain AUSTRAL-005 of Piscirickettsia salmonis, the Etiological Agent of Piscirickettsiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yañez, Alejandro J.; Molina, Cristian; Haro, Ronie E.; Sanchez, Patricio; Isla, Adolfo; MENDOZA, JULIO; Rojas-Herrera, Marcelo; Trombert, Annette; Silva, Andrea X.; Cárcamo, Juan G.; Figueroa, Jaime; Polanco, Victor; Manque, Patricio; Maracaja-Coutinho, Vinicius; Olavarría, Víctor H.

    2014-01-01

    We report here the draft genome sequence of a lethal pathogen of farmed salmonids, Piscirickettsia salmonis strain AUSTRAL-005. This virulent strain was isolated in 2008 from Oncorhynchus mykiss farms, and multiple genes involved in pathogenicity, environmental adaptation, and metabolic pathways were identified.

  13. Austral Summer Sea Ice Melt Revealed in Antarctic ERS-1/2 and NSCAT Scatterometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, M.; Liu, X.

    1999-01-01

    The first in-situ field observations of Antarcic austral summer sea-ice melt were made in the Bellingshausen Sea by Arctowski (1908) on Belgica in 1899, and later by Wordie (1921) during the ill-fated drift of Endurance in the Weddell Sea from 1914-1916.

  14. Austral Summer Sea Ice Melt Revealed in Antarctic ERS-1/2 and NSCAT Scatterometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinkwater, M.; Liu, X.

    1999-01-01

    The first in-situ field observations of Antarcic austral summer sea-ice melt were made in the Bellingshausen Sea by Arctowski (1908) on Belgica in 1899, and later by Wordie (1921) during the ill-fated drift of Endurance in the Weddell Sea from 1914-1916.

  15. Experimental evidence of a stratospheric circulation influence on mesospheric temperatures and ice-particles during the 2010-2011 austral summer at 69°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ray J.; Höffner, Josef; Lübken, Franz-Josef; Viehl, Timo P.; Kaifler, Bernd; Klekociuk, Andrew R.

    2012-11-01

    A significant inter-annual decrease in polar mesosphere ice-particles, i.e., PMSE and PMC, during 2010-2011 is compared with earlier austral summers, in particular with 2009-2010. The first IAP iron lidar temperature measurement at Davis (68.6°S), Antarctica from 14 December 2010 are used to assess thermal effects of atmospheric processes on the mesopause region. We report low average temperatures of ˜125 K measured by Fe-lidar near 90 km when the PMSE season commenced, whereas temperatures were warmer in 2010-2011 compared to 2009-2010 at altitudes where PMSE normally occur (around 86 km). Summer mesopause region temperature anomalies are derived using Aura MLS records. We reveal that the late break-down of the Antarctic stratospheric polar vortex on 5 January 2010, coupled with enhanced early summer mesospheric zonal wind field, provide a barrier to upward propagation of atmospheric gravity waves to be the main mechanism for the observed warm early summer season below the mesopause. The mesopause in 2010-2011 was unusually high and cold. We conclude that the timing of the annual break-down of the southern polar stratospheric vortex as manifest in zonal winds at 30 hPa impacts mesosphere temperature and ice-particle formation early in the austral summer.

  16. Population distribution, structure and growth condition of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) during the austral summer in the Southern Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yongqiang; SUN Song; LI Chaolun; TAO Zhencheng

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba Dana) was collected using a High Speed Collector and an Isaac-Kidd midwater trawl (IKMT) net during the austral summer of 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 in the circumpolar and Prydz Bay regions of the Southern Ocean, respectively. Combined with the simultaneous recording of environmental factors, spatial distribution, population structure and growth condition of E. superba were studied. The abundance of E. superba in the Weddell Sea was higher than in Prydz Bay. However, the abundance of E. superba in both the Weddell Sea and Prydz Bay was lower than figures reported in previous krill surveys for the same time period. With respect to the total study area, E. superba displayed a normal growing state during the two expeditions. E. superba grew relatively poorly in some stations, which may be due to the late retreat of sea ice or lower chlorophyll a concentrations. The number of juvenile E. superba collected using the High Speed Collector was proportionally greater in stations located at the edge of the sea ice, while adults dominated in long-term non-ice regions. This phenomenon reflects the different distribution pattern between juvenile and adult krill. The population structure of E. superba differed between sea regions, which may affect recruitment.

  17. MIGRATION PATTERNS, USE OF STOPOVER AREAS, AND AUSTRAL SUMMER MOVEMENTS OF SWAINSON'S HAWKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochert, Michael N; Fuller, Mark R; Schueck, Linda S; Bond, Laura; Bechard, Marc J; Woodbridge, Brian; Holroyd, Geoff; Martell, Mark; Banasch, Ursula

    From 1995-1998, we tracked movements of adult Swainson's Hawks (Buteo swainsoni) using satellite telemetry to characterize migration, important stopover areas, and austral summer movements. We tagged 46 hawks from July - September on their nesting grounds in seven U.S. states and two Canadian provinces. Swainson's Hawks basically followed three routes south on a broad front, converged along the east coast of central Mexico, and followed a concentrated corridor to a communal austral summer area in central Argentina. North of 20° N, southward and northward tracks differed little for individuals from east of the Continental Divide but differed greatly (up to 1700 km) for individuals from west of the Continental Divide. Hawks left the breeding grounds mid-August to mid-October; departure dates did not differ by location, year, or sex. South migration lasted 42 to 98 days, and north migration took 51 to 82 days. On south migration, 36% of the Swainson's Hawks departed the nesting grounds nearly 3 weeks earlier than the other radio marked hawks and made stopovers 9.0 - 26.0 days long in seven separate areas, mainly in the southern Great Plains, southern Arizona and New Mexico, and north-central Mexico. The austral period lasted 76 to 128 days. All Swainson's Hawks used a core area in central Argentina within 23% of the 738800 km(2) austral summer range where they frequently moved long distances (up to 1600 km). Conservation of Swainson's Hawks must be an international effort that considers habitats used during nesting and non-nesting seasons including migration stopovers.

  18. In vitro effect of Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae extracts on Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC Castro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acanthamoeba is a free-living protozoan widely distributed in the environment, occurring in vegetative trophozoite and resistance cyst stages during its life cycle. It constitutes an etiological agent of Acanthamoeba keratitis, a disease that may cause severe ocular inflammation and blindness. New drugs can be developed from molecules found in plants and thus help in its difficult treatment. Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae, a plant used in folk medicine, had its effect tested on Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. austral were obtained from aerial parts for infusion and static maceration, respectively. Concentrations of 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 mg/ml of the extract were tested against Acanthamoeba polyphaga trophozoites. The cytotoxic effect of the extracts was tested in mammalian cells using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. RESULTS: The 10 mg/ml concentration of ethanolic extract was lethal to 100% of the A. polyphaga trophozoites in 24 h and both extracts presented cytotoxic effect against mammalian cells. These findings suggest that the A. austral ethanolic extract may have compounds with relevance to the development of new amoebicidal drugs.

  19. Seasonal prediction of the South Pacific Convergence Zone in the austral wet season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, A. N.; Brown, J. R.; Cottrill, A.; Shelton, K. L.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kuleshov, Y.

    2014-11-01

    The position and orientation of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), modulated by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), determine many of the potentially predictable interannual variations in rainfall in the South Pacific region. In this study, the predictability of the SPCZ in austral summer is assessed using two coupled (ocean-atmosphere) global circulation model (CGCM)-based seasonal prediction systems: the Japan Meteorological Agency's Meteorological Research Institute Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere General Circulation Model (JMA/MRI-CGCM) and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology's Predictive Ocean-Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA-M24). Forecasts of austral summer rainfall, initialized in November are assessed over the period 1980-2010. The climatology of CGCM precipitation in the SPCZ region compares favorably to rainfall analyses over subsets of years characterizing different phases of ENSO. While the CGCMs display biases in the mean SPCZ latitudes, they reproduce interannual variability in austral summer SPCZ position indices for forecasts out to 4 months, with temporal correlations greater than 0.6. The summer latitude of the western branch of the SPCZ is predictable with correlations of the order of 0.6 for forecasts initialized as early as September, while the correlation for the eastern branch only exceeds 0.6 for forecasts initialized in November. Encouragingly, the models are able to simulate the large displacement of the SPCZ during zonal SPCZ years 1982-1983, 1991-1992, and 1997-1998.

  20. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    possibilities exist for reducing seasonal variation in employment? In addition to a literature review related to winter construction, European and national employment and meteorological data were studied. Finally, ministerial acts, ministerial orders or other public policy documents related to winter...

  1. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  2. The Role of Katabatic Flows and Synoptic Forcing on the Export of NO-NOX from Antarctica in the Austral Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, William; Davis, Douglas

    2015-04-01

    The Antarctic Tropospheric Chemistry Investigation (ANTCI) carried out two major field programs at the South Pole from late November through December. The first of these was in 2003 [Davis et al., 2008] and the second occurred in 2005 [Slusher et al., 2010]. Both studies included small-aircraft measurements of key chemical constituents in the boundary layer several hundred km from the Pole which revealed that the high NO concentrations seen at the Pole were also ubiquitous in its immediate vicinity. In particular, the 2005 ANTCI aircraft probing of the high plateau, as reported by [Slusher et al., 2010], found high concentrations of NO over a much larger portion of the plateau where sampling reached nearly to Vostok Station. As part of both studies, a few of the flights probed portions of the katabatic outflow regions over Byrd and Reeves Glaciers, seeking evidence of export of NOx from the continent. On 11-27-2003, a flight was made in the drainage flow from Byrd Glacier during which very high concentrations of NO (~500 pptv) and NOy were observed. However, a second r flight one day later did not reveal a similar plume of NO suggesting that the export due to katabatic flow was intermittent. On 11-21/22-2005, flights were also made over Reeves and David Glaciers and on 12-12-2005 over Byrd Glacier. These observations and those for O3 showed smaller but still well-defined increases while traversing Reeves glacier at multiple heights. Similarly a single flight on 12-12-2005 above Byrd Glacier showed NO reaching 70 pptv over the center of the glacier with a well defined plume centered along the axis of the glacier. These results suggested a need for a closer examination of mechanisms controlling export of NOx and oxidants from the high plateau to coastal areas. Katabatic outflow from the high plateau of East Antarctic has been well documented during the Austral winter [Breckenridge et al., 1993] where satellite imagery provides highly visual images of cold air surges

  3. Abutilon ornamental (Abutilon sp. - Malvaceae mostrando pústulas de Synchytrium australe Pustules on stems, leaves and pods of ornamental abutilon (Abutilon sp. caused by Synchytrium australe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de abutilon recebidas para análise fitopatológica pelo Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, Brasil mostrando como sintomas pústulas semelhantes a ferrugem (Uredinales sobre folhas e caule foram estudadas para determinar o agente causal. Numerosos esporângios amarelos característicos de fungos zoospóricos pertencentes à Ordem Chytridiales foram encontrados no interior de galhas superficiais. Com base no estudo de KARLING (1955, o patógeno foi identificado como Synchytrium australe Speg. O material foi herborizado e armazenado no Herbário Micológico do Instituto Biológico sob o número IBI/SP 11975. Esta foi a primeira constatação desta espécie no Brasil.The genus Abutilon includes a large number of ornamental species with nice foliage and flowers. The different species are known under several common names as Indian mallow, China jute, butterprint, etc. Plants of abutilon received for phytopathological analysis by the Instituto Biologico, São Paulo, Brazil showing curious rust like symptoms (pustules on leaves, stems and pods were studied to determine the causal agent. Numerous yellow sporangia characteristic of zoosporic fungi belonging to the Order Chytridiales were found within the superficial intact galls. Based on KARLING (1955 paper the pathogen was identified as Synchytrium australe Speg. The voucher material was saved and settled in the Mycological Herbarium of the Institution under the number IBI/SP 11975. This was the first report of the occurrence of this species in Brazil.

  4. Un suelo referible al periodo calido medieval en Patagonia Austral y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina. Aspectos cronologicos y paleoclimaticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favier Dubois, C. M.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Geoarchaeological work done in Southernmost Patagonia and in the north of Tierra del Fuego, have revealed the recurrent presence of a paedogenesis interval represented by a soil of an A-AC-C profile, with a mollic epipedon, in the upper section of eolian and colluvial deposits of the late Holocene. This soil is today buried in the sites that have been analyzed, while it remains exposed in other areas of the landscape. Radiocarbon dates obtained on materials placed below it (maximum ages and those obtained by OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio in the AC horizon of this soil (minimum ages, indicate the beginning of its development around the year 1000 BP. Its chronology and environmental implications suggest a relationship with the medieval climatic fluctuations called Medieval Warm Period or Medieval Optimum in Europe. This period has correlates detected in Patagonia by dendroclimatic studies.Estudios geoarqueológicos realizados en 5 localidades de Patagonia austral y norte Tierra del Fuego han revelado la recurrente presencia de un suelo de perfil A-AC-C, de epipedon mólico, en depósitos eólicos y coluviales del Holoceno tardío. Este suelo se observa sepultado en los yacimientos arqueológicos analizados, mientras que permanece expuesto en otras posiciones del paisaje. Numerosas edades máximas y mínimas obtenidas por 14C y por la técnica de OCR (Oxidizable Carbon Ratio indican el comienzo de su desarrollo hacia el 1000 AP. Su cronología e implicancias ambientales permiten vincularlo con fluctuaciones climáticas desarrolladas durante el denominado Período Cálido Medieval u Optimo Medieval Europeo, con correlatos detectados en Patagonia a través de estudios dendroclimáticos.

  5. The long summer: pre-wintering temperatures affect metabolic expenditure and winter survival in a solitary bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgolastra, Fabio; Kemp, William P; Buckner, James S; Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; Maini, Stefano; Bosch, Jordi

    2011-12-01

    The impact of climate change on insect populations depends on specific life cycle traits and physiological adaptations. The solitary bee Osmia lignaria winters as a pre-emergent adult, and requires a period of cold temperature for winter diapause completion. It is a univoltine species, and diapause induction does not depend on photoperiod. To understand the potential effects of longer summers on O. lignaria populations, we exposed individuals to three treatments simulating early, mid and late winter arrivals, and measured respiration rates, metabolic expenditure, weight loss, fat body depletion, lipid levels and winter mortality. The early-winter treatment disrupted diapause development, but had no apparent negative effects on fitness. In contrast, late-winter bees had a greater energetic expenditure (1.5-fold), weight (1.4-fold) and lipid (2-fold) loss, greater fat body depletion, and a 19% increase in mortality compared to mid-winter bees. We also monitored adult eclosion and arrival of winter temperatures under natural conditions in four years. We found a positive correlation between mean degree-day accumulation during pre-wintering (a measure of asynchrony between adult eclosion and winter arrival) and yearly winter mortality. Individually, bees experiencing greater degree-day accumulations exhibited reduced post-winter longevity. Timing of adult eclosion in O. lignaria is dependent on the duration of the prepupal period, which occurs in mid-summer, is also diapause-mediated, and is longer in populations from southerly latitudes. In a global warming scenario, we expect long summer diapause phenotypes to replace short summer diapause phenotypes, effectively maintaining short pre-wintering periods in spite of delayed winter arrivals.

  6. Reproducción extemporánea inducida en borregas de raza Austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. HERVE

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizaron 84 borregas Austral de 14 meses, con peso promedio de 39.4 ± 3.4 kg, con el objeto de estudiar el efecto de un tratamiento destinado a inducir estro y ovulación extemporáneos, su respuesta reproductiva y productiva y la actividad reproductiva natural en el mes de noviembre. Inicialmente, los animales fueron asignados por muestreo aleatorio en dos grupos de 42 (G1 y G2. G1 fue tratado por 12 días con un dispositivo intravaginal con 0.3 gr. de progesterona y, en el momento de su retiro, se les aplicaron 250 UI de PMSG. 21.4% (9/42 de los animales perdieron el dispositivo y fueron descartados. G2 actuó como control. Al finalizar el tratamiento de inducción, las corderas se manejaron como un solo grupo, encastándose por 34 días con tres carneros Austral, provistos de arneses marcadores. Presentaron celo y fueron montadas 96.9% de las corderas de G1 (40/42 y 9.5% (4/42 de G2. En G1 parió el 75.7% (25/33 durante 7 días, con 159.3% de parición (42 corderos. En G2 no se presentaron partos. El tratamiento utilizado es un buen inductor de celo y ovulación en la época de anestro profundo. La diferencia entre grupos es altamente significativa (p ­ 0.01. La pérdida de dipositivos intravaginales fue extraordinariamente alta. En las condiciones de este experimento, las borregas Austral no presentan una actividad sexual importante en noviembre. No se observaron diferencias significativas en peso y condición corporal entre los animales que parieron 0, 1 ó 2 corderos.The effects of out of season oestrus-ovulation induction treatment were studied in eighty four fourteen month old Austral breed hoggets, weighing 39.4 ± 3.4 kg, through their reproductive and productive response and the natural reproductive activity during November (Spring. Initially, the animals were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 42 each. Group 1 was treated for 12 days with a 0.3 g progesterone intravaginal device and at the moment of withdrawal, injected with

  7. Winters fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  8. Composition of phytoplankton in the Bransfield Strait and Elephant Island during austral summer of 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sánchez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors inform about the composition and distribution of phytoplanktonic community between the first 75 m of depth in Bransfield Strait y around the Elephant island, during the ANTAR X expedition in the 1999 Austral Summer (22nd–29th January 1999. The higher cellular concentration (500 cel/mL was given by the autotrophic nanoplankton, with a high density mainly on the bay stations and down the first 25 m of depth. Among the most representative species we have Leucocryptos marina, Phaeocystis antarctica, the Monadas and the pennate diatoms.

  9. First record of the Austral Negrito (Aves: Passeriformes from the South Shetlands, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryz Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The order Passeriformes is the most successful group of birds on Earth, however, its representatives are rare visitors beyond the Polar Front zone. Here we report a photo-documented record of an Austral Negrito (Lessonia rufa, first known occurrence of this species in the South Shetland Islands and only the second such an observation in the Antarctic region. This record was made at Lions Rump, King George Island, part of the Antarctic Specially Protected Area No. 151 (ASPA 151. There is no direct evidence of how the individual arrived at Lions Rump, but ship assistance cannot be excluded.

  10. Estudios para la conservación de la pampa austral II: Herramientas para el Monitoreo

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, María Julia; Lavornia, Juan Manuel; Leber, Virginia; Pose, María Paula; Ale, Ariel; Retondo, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Se presentan resultados obtenidos en proyectos llevados a cabo por el Grupo de Estudios de Biodiversidad del CINEA (FCH, UNICEN), cuyo propósito es contribuir a la conservación y sustentabilidad de los ecosistemas del sudeste de Buenos Aires. El objetivo general fue proponer herramientas de monitoreo diversas que contribuyan a la calidad de vida de la población y a la conservación de los ecosistemas de la Pampa Austral. Los objetivos específicos surgen de analizar impactos de actividades antr...

  11. Real-Time Teleguidance of a Non-Surgeon Crew Medical Officer Performing Orthopedic Surgery at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station During Winter-Over

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The Amundsen-Scott South Pole Research station located at the geographic South Pole, is the most isolated, permanently inhabited human outpost on Earth. Medical care is provided to station personnel by a non-surgeon crew medical officer (CMO). During the winter-over period from February to October, the station is isolated, with no incoming or outgoing flights due to severe weather conditions. In late June, four months after the station had closed for the austral winter, a 31 year old meteorologist suffered a complete rupture of his patellar tendon while sliding done an embankment. An evacuation was deemed to be too risky to aircrews due to the extreme cold and darkness. A panel of physicians from Massachusetts General Hospital, Johns Hopkins University and the University of Texas Medical Branch were able to assess the patient remotely via telemedicine and agreed that surgery was the only means to restore mobility and prevent long term disability. The lack of a surgical facility and a trained surgical team were overcome by conversion of the clinic treatment area, and intensive preparation of medical laypersons as surgical assistants. The non-surgeon CMO and CMO assistant at South Pole, were guided through the administration of spinal anesthetic, and the two-hour operative repair by medical consultants at Massachusetts General Hospital. Real-time video of the operative field, directions from the remote consultants and audio communication were provided by videoconferencing equipment, operative cameras, and high bandwidth satellite communications. In real-time, opening incision/exposure, tendon relocation, hemostatsis, and operative closure by the CMO was closely monitored and guided and by the remote consultants. The patient s subsequent physical rehabilitation over the ensuing months of isolation was also monitored remotely via telemedicine. This was the first time in South Pole s history that remote teleguidance had been used for surgery and represents a model for

  12. Finding of a novel fungal immunomodulatory protein coding sequence in Ganoderma australe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea González Muñoz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the most common human diseases with immune system compromise are autoimmune diseases, cancer, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Many of these diseases still have no treatment or their therapies have undesirable side effects. This has aroused a great interest in the search for new natural products with therapeutic potential and scientifically proven effects, showing minimal side effects. Formal clinical and pharmacological investigation in various medicinal fungi of the genus Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae has shown immunomodulatory effects and tumor growth inhibition in mammals, attributable to the presence of immunomodulatory proteins and other secondary metabolites. To date, six fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs have been reported in Ganoderma. This paper seeks to advance in the discovery of immunomodulatory proteins present in Ganoderma australe, through mycelium transcriptome 454 Roche® pyrosequencing (RNA-seq and bioinformatics analyses. The results suggest the presence of gene sequences related to an immunomodulatory protein which has been reported only once in other fungal species Taiwanofungus camphoratus. The candidate gene sequences found in G. australe exhibit high identity values in their amino acid composition and predicted protein secondary structure with the protein reported for Tai. camphoratus. According to present knowledge about the action mechanisms of these proteins, it is possible to suggest that this is a promising molecule for the treatment and prevention of diseases associated with certain immune deficiencies, cancer, and other diseases with compromised immune systems. Future studies are proposed in order to determine its immunomodulatory potential using in vitro and in vivo assays.

  13. Cyclobotryoxide, a phytotoxic metabolite produced by the plurivorous pathogen Neofusicoccum australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andolfi, Anna; Maddau, Lucia; Cimmino, Alessio; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Serra, Salvatorica; Basso, Sara; Melck, Dominique; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-10-26

    Two isolates of Neofusicoccum australe belonging to ITS haplotypes H4 and H1 and associated with grapevine cordon dieback and branch dieback of Phoenicean juniper, respectively, have been shown to produce in vitro structurally different secondary metabolites. From the strain BOT48 of N. australe (haplotype H4) a new cyclohexenone oxide, namely, cyclobotryoxide, was isolated together with 3-methylcatechol and tyrosol. Cyclobotryoxide was characterized as (1S,5R,6S)-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4-methyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-en-2-one by spectroscopic, optical, and chemical methods. The strain BL24 (haplotype H1) produced tyrosol along with botryosphaerone D and (3S,4S)-3,4,8-trihydroxy-6-methoxy-3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone. The metabolites obtained from both strains were tested at four concentrations on leaves of grapevine cv. Cannonau, holm oak, and cork oak by the leaf puncture assay. Cyclobotryoxide proved to be the most phytotoxic compound. Tyrosol and cyclobotryoxide were also tested on detached grapevine leaves at concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 mg/mL. Only cyclobotryoxide was found to be active in this bioassay.

  14. Euphausiid community structure and population structure of Euphausia superba off Adélie Land in the Southern Ocean during austral summer 2003, 2005 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Atsushi; Moteki, Masato; Amakasu, Kazuo; Toda, Ryoji; Horimoto, Naho; Hirano, Daisuke; Ishimaru, Takashi; Hosie, Graham W.

    2011-08-01

    The distribution and community structure of euphausiids and the population structure of Euphausia superba were investigated mainly along 140°E off Adélie Land in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean during the austral summers of 2003, 2005 and 2008. Euphausiids were collected from six discrete depth layers, primarily between 0 and 2000 m, using an RMT 8 net. Euphausia frigida and Euphausia triacantha mainly occurred north of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SB) whereas E. superba was distributed south of the SB, and occurred abundantly in the continental slope area where Antarctic Winter Water was observed. E. frigida and E. triacantha occurred in the upper 200 m during the night whereas they were mainly found below 200 m during the daytime. Cluster analysis on stations suggested that the SB is an important biological boundary for euphausiid communities. The population structure of E. superba in 2003 was different from that of 2005 and 2008. While large mature individuals dominated in 2003, small immature krill (juveniles and subadult males) were more abundant in 2005 and 2008. Further sea-ice extension in the preceding winter in 2005 and 2008 likely provided favourable conditions for spawning and survival. A cluster analysis based on similarity of the maturity stages of E. superba revealed that mature males and gravid females (stage IIIC-E) were mainly distributed in the offshore area and mesopelagic zone, while juveniles and subadult males were found in the epipelagic zone of the continental slope area. Therefore, it is considered that E. superba migrates to the offshore area and mesopelagic zone as it grows.

  15. Exclusive wearing of shoes of impregnated cloth by an adolescent girl during a cold winter: late effects in osseous tomo-scintigraphy and in magnetic resonance imaging; Froid hivernal et port exclusif de chaussures de sport en tissu par une adolescente: effets tardifs en tomoscintigraphie osseuse et en resonance magnetique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Als, C.; Marugg, S. [Medical Imaging Luzern, Lucerne (Switzerland); Als, C. [Zithaklinic, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Grand-Duche de Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2009-10-15

    We present a rare clinical case of a 14-year-old adolescent girl from central Switzerland with an algoneurodystrophy of the left foot and leg 6 months after grade I frostbite(s) of the feet. After 6 months of constant pain of the digits, not attenuated by non steroid anti-inflammatory drugs, MRI of the feet reveals a predominantly left-sided and distal medullary edema, limited to the phalanges. Bone scintigraphy shows a predominantly left-sided diffuse feet hypoperfusion, coupled with an increased bone uptake of the left leg at late images. Inadequate life-style of adolescents, i.e., exclusively wearing shoes made of cloth and not of leather - even with temperatures below 0 Celsius degree in winter - might be a cause of chronic pain of foot digits. This is a rare demonstration of late effects of cold on foot digits by combined MRI and bone scintigraphy. Algoneurodystrophy in children and adolescents is an under diagnosed clinical entity. (authors)

  16. Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a nationwide effort to survey waterfowl in areas of major concentration on their wintering grounds and provide winter distribution...

  17. Avoiding Winter Nose Bleeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    WINTER is the best season for peopleto do cold-endurance exercises. But thedry, windy weather makes the moisturein the nasal mucosa evaporate quickly,reducing the elasticity of capillaries andmaking for frequent nose-bleeds.

  18. Winter Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Winter Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1992 and covered offshore areas from the Mid-Atlantic to Georges Bank. Inshore strata were covered...

  19. Deer Wintering Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Deer winter habitat is critical to the long term survival of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Vermont. Being near the northern extreme of the...

  20. Post-orogenic evolution of the Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes and links to the evolution of the eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin constrained by low temperature thermochronometry and 2D thermokinematic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollenz, Sebastian; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Rossello, Eduardo A.

    2013-04-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low-temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The first data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges. References: Renata Nela Tomezzoli and Juan Francisco Vilas (1999): Palaeomagnetic constraints on the age of deformation of the Sierras Australes thrust and

  1. La Colección Austral: 75 años de cultura en el bolsillo (1937-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Sánchez Vigil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The emblematic Austral Collection, a pioneer in pocket books, is celebrating its 75th anniversary in 2012, after having progressed from being a collection to a proper publishing company within the Planeta Group. Planeta acquired Austral when it took over the Espasa publishing company in the decade of the nineties. The goal of this article is to analyze Austral's significance, evolution and development since its creation in 1937 up to date, within the framework of the history of its publication, considering both the contents and the design. The methodology used has been that of studying the bibliography on the subject and in particular the collection itself in all of its models. A data base has been prepared with authors' names, titles and publication dates, for which it was necessary to consult several collections in public and private libraries in order to review all the volumes. Research was also carried out on all the variations found in the collection and six different models were found. The conclusion is that the Austral Collection can be considered a paradigm of pocket books and a leading promotional agent for culture in Latin America; a project which would be very difficult to repeat

  2. Generalised additive models to investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) spatial density in austral summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, Bas W.P.M.; Forcada, Jaume; Murphy, Eugene J.; Baar, de Hein J.W.; Bathmann, Ulrich V.; Fleming, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to characterise the physical environment associated with Antarctic minke whale density in order to understand long-term changes in minke whale distribution and density in open waters of the Southern Ocean during austral summer months. To investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic

  3. Generalised additive models to investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis) spatial density in austral summer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekmans, Bas W.P.M.; Forcada, Jaume; Murphy, Eugene J.; Baar, de Hein J.W.; Bathmann, Ulrich V.; Fleming, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need to characterise the physical environment associated with Antarctic minke whale density in order to understand long-term changes in minke whale distribution and density in open waters of the Southern Ocean during austral summer months. To investigate environmental drivers of Antarctic

  4. A política externa de Angola na África Austral (1975-1992)

    OpenAIRE

    Tchova, Daniel Chico

    2015-01-01

    Este trabalho se destina analisar a forma como se desenrolou a política externa de Angola na África Austral, no período de 1975 á 1992 e aferir que elementos terão concorrido para que um partido de orientação política e ideológica socialista de inspiração soviética lograsse conquistar o poder em Angola e conseguisse fazer vingar a linha da sua política externa na região, apesar de contar com a forte oposição de uma série de países mais fortes e com governos consolidados como a África do Sul e...

  5. Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae: a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Funk

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Bidens meyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia. This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidens saint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidens meyeri may be distinguished from B. saint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm, apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent, smaller leaves (2.0–2.3 cm vs. 5–6 cm, and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidens meyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française,

  6. Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae, Coreopsideae): a new critically endangered species from Rapa, Austral Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Vicki A; Wood, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Bidensmeyeri (Asteraceae/Compositae) is described and illustrated from Rapa, Austral Islands, (French Polynesia). This new species is presumed to be most closely related to Bidenssaint-johniana from nearby Marotiri Island. Bidensmeyeri may be distinguished from Bidenssaint-johniana based on the length of the peduncle (3 cm versus 10 cm), apex of the inner involucral bracts (glabrous vs. puberulent), smaller leaves (2.0-2.3 cm vs. 5-6 cm), and the general smaller size of the new species. Known from less than 50 individuals and restricted to one remote location, Bidensmeyeri falls into the IUCN Critically Endangered (CR) category. The new species is named in honor of Dr. Jean-Yves Meyer, Délégation à la Recherche, Polynésie Française.

  7. Nutrition for winter sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered.

  8. Relationship between volcanism and marine sedimentation in northern Austral (Aisén) Basin, central Patagonia: Stratigraphic, U-Pb SHRIMP and paleontologic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, M.; De La Cruz, R.; Aguirre-Urreta, B.; Fanning, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northernmost part of the oil-producing Austral Basin, known as Aisén Basin or Río Mayo Embayment (in central Patagonian Cordillera; 43-46°S), is a special area within the basin where the interplay between volcanism and the initial stages of its development can be established. Stratigraphic, paleontologic and five new U-Pb SHRIMP age determinations presented here indicate that the Aisén Basin was synchronous with the later phases of volcanism of the Ibáñez Formation for at least 11 m.yr. during the Tithonian to early Hauterivian. In this basin marine sedimentary rocks of the basal units of the Coihaique Group accumulated overlying and interfingering with the Ibáñez Formation, which represents the youngest episode of volcanism of a mainly Jurassic acid large igneous province (Chon Aike Province). Five new U-Pb SHRIMP magmatic ages ranging between 140.3 ± 1.0 and 136.1 ± 1.6 Ma (early Valanginian to early Hauterivian) were obtained from the Ibáñez Formation whilst ammonites from the overlying and interfingering Toqui Formation, the basal unit of the Coihaique Group, indicate Tithonian, early Berriasian and late Berriasian ages. The latter was a synvolcanic shallow marine facies accumulated in an intra-arc setting, subsequently developed into a retro-arc basin.

  9. Analysis of spatial and yearly variation in winter survival of winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, H. N.; Andrews, C. J.

    Four years of winter survival data for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were collected on a loam soil located on the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, Ontario (45° 23'N, 75° 43'W). The site was low-lying and subject to frequent winter flooding and ice sheet formation. It appeared level although there was microtopographic variation with a range in elevation of approximately 0.15 m. The objective of the study was to gain insight into factors which might affect winter survival. Two varieties, a soft white and a hard red winter wheat, were planted in September. Crop establishment was measured in late fall and the percentage survival was measured in April of the following year. We assumed the large spatial differences in survival were not totally random, but rather were affected by spatial variation in environmental factors such as snow and ice depth, soil moisture and temperature. Hourly measurements of soil temperature at a depth of 0.05 m were recorded throughout the fall, winter and spring. Fall and spring soil moisture at the same depth were measured on the plot, as well as snow and ice depth at selected times throughout the winter. Measurements were taken on a grid covering the plot to help explain spatial variation in survival. In addition, detailed measurements of elevation were taken on a grid. Meteorological data were available from the nearby weather site. While soil temperatures were never low enough to kill plants according to the CERES model, the spatial variation in winter survival was associated with differences in elevation and the resulting surface drainage patterns.

  10. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...

  11. Winter Flawers in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    IN the midst of a winter storm flowers still bloom in Beijing. In the greenhouses of Beijing Scriven Flower Co. Ltd., roses and lilies comtrast sharply with the bare fields and trees of early spring. Located 20 Km away in Xiaobailou Village, Daxing County, in suburban Beijing, the greenhouses were built in 1992 and have been expanded

  12. Severe European winters in a secular perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Andreas; Hänsel, Stephanie

    2017-04-01

    Temperature conditions during the winter time are substantially shaped by a strong year-to-year variability. European winters since the late 1980s - compared to previous decades and centuries - were mainly characterised by a high temperature level, including recent record-warm winters. Yet, comparably cold winters and severe cold spells still occur nowadays, like recently observed from 2009 to 2013 and in early 2017. Central England experienced its second coldest December since start of observations more than 350 years ago in 2010, and some of the lowest temperatures ever measured in northern Europe (below -50 °C in Lapland) were recorded in January 1999. Analysing thermal characteristics and spatial distribution of severe (historical) winters - using early instrumental data - helps expanding and consolidating our knowledge of past weather extremes. This contribution presents efforts towards this direction. We focus on a) compiling and assessing a very long-term instrumental, spatially widespread and well-distributed, high-quality meteorological data set to b) investigate very cold winter temperatures in Europe from early measurements until today. In a first step, we analyse the longest available time series of monthly temperature averages within Europe. Our dataset extends from the Nordic countries up to the Mediterranean and from the British Isles up to Russia. We utilise as much as possible homogenised times series in order to ensure reliable results. Homogenised data derive from the NORDHOM (Scandinavia) and HISTALP (greater alpine region) datasets or were obtained from national weather services and universities. Other (not specifically homogenised) data were derived from the ECA&D dataset or national institutions. The employed time series often start already during the 18th century, with Paris & Central England being the longest datasets (from 1659). In a second step, daily temperature averages are involved. Only some of those series are homogenised, but

  13. Myrtucommulone production by a strain of Neofusicoccum australe endophytic in myrtle (Myrtus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoletti, Rosario; Ferranti, Pasquale; Caira, Simonetta; Misso, Gabriella; Castellano, Maria; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Caraglia, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Myrtucommulones are acylphloroglucinol compounds reported from myrtle (Myrtus communis) and a few more plant species belonging in the Myrtaceae that have recently attracted the attention of pharmacologists for their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. An endophytic strain of Neofusicoccum australe recovered from a myrtle branch was selected based on the bioactivity of its culture extracts, and found to produce myrtucommulones A and D. A mixture of these compounds induced anti-proliferative effects on the human prostatic cancer cell lines DU145 and PC3, with a IC₅₀ of respectively 4.64 and 3.11 mg/l. Along the lines of recent evidences of the ability by endophytic fungi to produce bioactive compounds originally extracted from their host plants, this is the first report of myrtucommulones as secondary metabolites of an endophytic fungal strain. The availability of a microbial strain to be cultured in vitro may provide access to more substantial amounts of these products for further investigations in view of their possible pharmaceutical use.

  14. Ciguatera risk management in French Polynesia: the case study of Raivavae Island (Australes Archipelago).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinain, Mireille; Darius, H Taiana; Ung, André; Fouc, Mote Tchou; Revel, Taina; Cruchet, Philippe; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2010-10-01

    Based on epidemiological data available through long-term monitoring surveys conducted by both the Public Health Directorate and the Louis Malardé Institute, ciguatera is highly endemic in French Polynesia, most notably in Raivavae (Australes) which appears as a hot spot of ciguatera with an average incidence rate of 140 cases/10,000 population for the period 2007-2008. In order to document the ciguatera risk associated with Raivavae lagoon, algal and toxin-based field monitoring programs were conducted in this island from April 2007 to May 2008. Practically, the distribution, abundance and toxicity of Gambierdiscus populations, along with the toxicity levels in 160 fish distributed within 25 distinct species, were assessed in various sampling locations. Herbivores such as Scarids (parrotfish) and Acanthurids (unicornfish) were rated as high-risk species based on receptor-binding assay toxicity data. A map of the risk stratification within the Raivavae lagoon was also produced, which indicates that locations where both natural and man-made disturbances have occurred remained the most susceptible to CFP incidents. Our findings also suggest that, locally, the traditional knowledge about ciguatera may not be scientifically complete but is functionally correct. Community education resulted in self-regulating behaviour towards avoidance of high-risk fish species and fishing locations.

  15. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainhoa Magrach

    Full Text Available Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity. These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches. Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  16. Geographic variation and plasticity to water and nutrients in Pelargonium australe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Hermes, Jacob P; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D

    2007-01-01

    Here, patterns of phenotypic plasticity and trait integration of leaf characteristics in six geographically discrete populations of the perennial herb Pelargonium australe were compared. It was hypothesized that populations would show local adaptation in trait means, but similar patterns of plasticity and trait integration. Further, it was questioned whether phenotypic plasticity was positively correlated with environmental heterogeneity and whether plasticity for water-use traits in particular was adaptive. Seedlings were grown in a glasshouse at six combinations of water and nutrient availability. Leaf anatomical, morphological and gas exchange traits were measured. High amounts of plasticity in leaf traits were found in response to changes in growth conditions and there was evidence of local adaptation among the populations. While there were significant correlations between plasticity and environmental heterogeneity, not all were positive. Notably, patterns of plasticity and trait integration varied significantly among populations. Despite that variation, some of the observed plasticity was adaptive: fitness was correlated with conservative water use when water was limiting. Pelargonium arrived in Australia approximately 5 million yr ago. It is concluded here that high amounts of plasticity, in some cases adaptive, and weak integration among traits may be key to the spread and success of this species.

  17. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  18. Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, and GC-MS Studies on Castanospermum australe A. Cunn. & C. Fraser ex Hook.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankarajan Sajeesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%, the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P<0.001 at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments.

  19. 不同肥力下生育后期干旱对冬小麦产量及水分利用效率的影响%Effects of drought in late growth stages on yield and water use efficiency of winter wheat under different fertility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李杨; 王志强; 林同保; 范雯雯

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide a theoretical basis for water-saving agricultural development in arid and semi-arid areas, this test aimed to study the effect of water deficit in late growth stages on yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of wheat under different fertility in potted plant with rain proof shelter. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of winter wheat, 1 000-kernel weight, spike number,grain number per spike and the yield increased with the improving of soil fertility and water content,and compared with the full irrigation in all stages, sufficient irrigation with each drought stress of 1 000-kernel weight, spike number, grain number per spike and the yield, number of output declines linearly with the increase of soil fertility, which is the leading factor of soil water content. Water use efficiency of low water-stressed wheat was highest under high and moderate fertility conditions, and under low fertility conditions WUE was highest in high water stressed-wheat. In arid and semi-arid areas,improving soil fertility can be used to alleviate the adverse effects of drought on the yield of winter wheat.%采用防雨棚下池栽试验,研究了不同肥力下冬小麦生育后期水分亏缺对冬小麦产量及水分利用效率的影响.结果表明,冬小麦干物质积累量、千粒重、穗数、穗粒数、产量均随土壤肥力和含水量的提高而呈增加的趋势,且与全生育期充分灌溉相比,各干旱胁迫处理的干物质积累量、千粒重、穗数、穗粒数、产量的降幅均随土壤肥力的提高而减小,其中土壤水分含量是主导因素.水分利用效率在高肥力与中肥力条件下以轻中度水分胁迫较高,在重度干旱下以低肥力处理的最高.在干旱、半干旱地区可采用提高土壤肥力的方法缓解干旱对产量的不利影响.

  20. Editorial - The winter Atomiades

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    As we wrote in our previous editorial, the Staff Association gives direct support to sports events, such as the Atomiades, a section of the Association of Sports Communities of European Research Institutes, which brings together sportsmen and women from 38 European research centres in 13 countries (Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, United Kingdom, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Russia, and Switzerland). The summer Atomiades take place between the months of June and September every three years. Thirteen such events have taken place since 1973, the last one in June 2009 in Berlin. As far as the winter Atomiades are concerned, also organized every three years, and alternating with the summer Atomiades, there have been eleven since 1981, the last one at the end of January this year in neighbouring France. The following article tells the wonderful adventure of the CERN staff who took part in this event. A positive outcome for CERN skiers at the winter Atomiades The 11t...

  1. NS Pudarka: A new winter wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristov Nikola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The high-yielding, medium late winter wheat cultivar NS Pudarka was developed by crossing genetic divergent parents: line NMNH-07 and cv. NS 40S and Simonida. In cultivar NS Pudarka genes responsible for high yield potential, very good technological quality, resistance to lodging, low temperature and diseases, were successfully combined. It was registered by Ministry of agriculture, forestry and water management of Serbia Republic in 2013. This cultivar has wide adaptability and stability of yield that enable growing in different environments with optimal agricultural practice. On the base of technological quality this cultivar belongs to the second quality class, A2 farinograph subgroup and second technological group.

  2. Spectra, Winter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    oxygen from the atmosphere . This transition is referred to as the benthic redox gradient. As a result of this Fuel Cell NRL FEATURES WINTER 2014 21...coated for corrosion - proofing against the acidic environ- ment in the fuel cell and then welded together. Looking at the complexity of developing... forecasting for the fleet. His innovative spirit, involved leadership, and ability to surge technological solutions to short-fused, mission

  3. 5 EARLY EUROPEAN WINTERINGS IN THE ATLANTIC ARCTIC (1596-1635) - A COMPARISON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HACQUEBORD, L

    1991-01-01

    In the late 16th and early 17th century ten English and Dutch winterings took place in northern regions in less than 100 years. The first wintering occurred in 1553, when the ship of the Englishman Hugh Willoughby became frozen in the Arzina River in northern Russia, and the last in this period took

  4. Influence of Honey Bee Genotype and Wintering Method on Wintering Performance of Varroa destructor (Parasitiformes: Varroidae)-Infected Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Colonies in a Northern Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahreini, Rassol; Currie, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a cooperative breeding program designed to enhance winter survival of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) when exposed to high levels of varroa (Varroa destructor Anderson and Trueman) in outdoor-wintered and indoor-wintered colonies. Half of the colonies from selected and unselected stocks were randomly assigned to be treated with late autumn oxalic acid treatment or to be left untreated. Colonies were then randomly assigned to be wintered either indoors (n = 37) or outdoors (n = 40). Late autumn treatment with oxalic acid did not improve wintering performance. However, genotype of bees affected colony survival and the proportion of commercially viable colonies in spring, as indicated by greater rates of colony survival and commercially viable colonies for selected stock (43% survived and 33% were viable) in comparison to unselected stock (19% survived and 9% were viable) across all treatment groups. Indoor wintering improved spring bee population score, proportion of colonies surviving, and proportion of commercially viable colonies relative to outdoor wintering (73% of selected stock and 41% of unselected stock survived during indoor wintering). Selected stock showed better "tolerance" to varroa as the selected stock also maintained higher bee populations relative to unselected stock. However, there was no evidence of "resistance" in selected colonies (reduced mite densities). Collectively, this experiment showed that breeding can improve tolerance to varroa and this can help minimize colony loss through winter and improve colony wintering performance. Overall, colony wintering success of both genotypes of bees was better when colonies were wintered indoors than when colonies were wintered outdoors.

  5. Los Andes Fueguinos: el registro micropaleontológico de los mayores acontecimientos paleooceanográfícos australes del Campaniano al Mioceno The Fuegian Andes: the micropaleontological record of the major Campanian-Miocene paleocea-nographic austral events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Malumián

    2010-07-01

    ólita con abundante Chilo-guembelina, un efecto local de una fluctuación ambiental global. El límite Eoceno/Oligoceno y el Oi-1 parecen estar representados por una discordancia y/o el Conglomerado Tchat Chii. En el Oligoceno inicial (Capas de María Cristina irrumpen ambientes de antefosa por debajo de la LCC e indicadores de aguas profundas, que contrastan con los coevos altos valores globales de δ18O, y con una regresión eocena tardía-oligocena temprana en la Plataforma Patagónica, la cual sugiere una gran profundización de la antefosa debida solo a causas tectónicas que facilitaron la incursión de aguas antarticas. La anomalía cálida del Oligoceno Tardío-Mioceno Temprano corresponde a un período de constricción del Pasaje Drake: en los Andes Fueguinos dominan condiciones próximas a la lisoclina, y en la Plataforma Patagónica se produce una generalizada transgresión que incluye la penetración de una corriente de aguas antarticas corrosivas; hay discontinuidades menores coincidentes con el Mi-1 y una extendida discordancia anterior al pulso transgresivo del Mioceno Medio del óptimo climático del Neógeno.The succession of microfossil assemblages in the almost complete marine Late Cretaceous-Miocene stratigraphic column found in the Fuegian Andes, the orogenic margin of the Austral Basin, reveals a close relationship with the local tectonic events, the Atlantic transgressions-regressions on the Patagonian Platform, and the most relevant paleoceanographic global events. The Fuegian upper Campanian-lower Eocene sequence, dominated by flysch-type assemblages of agglutinated foraminifers and poorly oxygenated waters of fairly limited depth, is coherent with silled basins in a recently proposed cortical stretching period. The Maastrichtian (Policarpo Formation has a cosmopolitan agglutinated foraminiferal assemblage contrasting with the coeval austral endemic calcareous assemblages of Patagonia. In the Paleocene/Eocene transition the assemblages of calcareous

  6. Metabolic response to lipid infusion in fasting winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks (Aptenodytes patagonicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Tornos, Jérémy; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2013-05-01

    During the cold austral winter, king penguin chicks are infrequently fed by their parents and thus experience severe nutritional deprivation under harsh environmental conditions. These energetic constraints lead to a range of energy sparing mechanisms balanced by the maintenance of efficient thermogenic processes. The present work investigated whether the high thermogenic capacities exhibited by winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks could be related to an increase in lipid substrate supply and oxidation in skeletal muscle, the main site of thermogenesis in birds. To test this hypothesis, we examined i) the effect of an experimental rise in plasma triglyceride on the whole metabolic rate in winter-acclimatized (WA) and de-acclimatized king penguin chicks kept at thermoneutrality (TN), and ii) investigated the fuel preference of muscle mitochondria. In vivo, a perfusion of a lipid emulsion induced a small 10% increase of metabolic rate in WA chicks but not in TN group. In vitro, the oxidation rate of muscle mitochondria respiring on lipid-derived substrate was +40% higher in WA chicks than in TN, while no differences were found between groups when mitochondria oxidized carbohydrate-derived substrate or succinate. Despite an enhanced fuel selection towards lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, a rise of circulating lipids per se was not sufficient to fully unravel the thermogenic capacity of winter-acclimatized king penguin chicks.

  7. Possible External Forcing Factors for the Interdecadal Change in the East Asian Winter Monsoon around the Late 1990s%20世纪90年代末东亚冬季风年代际变化的外强迫因子分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖晓; 陈文; 范广洲; 周定文

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the effects of anomalous sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice, and snow cover in the interdecadal change in the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM) that occurred around the late 1990s by using reanalysis datasets from NCEP/NCAR, the Met Office Hadley Centre, the NOAA Climate Diagnostic Center, and the Northern Hemisphere snow cover reanalysis product from NOAA. Characteristics of and mechanisms for the interdecadal changes in the EAWM that occurred around mid-1980s (1976−1988) and late 1990s (1999−2012) are also compared. Results indicate that the interdecadal change in the EAWM that occurred around mid-1980s is characterized by negative temperature anomalies over the entire areas of China. The interdecadal change in the EAWM that occurred around mid-1980s is not related to external forcing including SST and sea ice anomalies. Instead, it is attributed to internal atmospheric dynamics. However, the interdecadal change in the EAWM that occurred around the late 1990s may be attributed to external forcing of SST, sea ice and snow cover anomalies in the preceding fall and winter. Particularly, the warmer SST in the late 1990s over the North Atlantic triggered an atmospheric wave train that propagated eastward and reached East Asia. This wave train intensified Siberian high, leading to a stronger EAWM and negative temperature anomalies over northern East Asia. The reduced sea ice anomalies in the Arctic Ocean and the increased snow cover over the Eurasian Continent in the preceding autumn is also a possible reason for the interdecadal change in the EAWM occurred around the late 1990s. In addition, positive SST anomalies over the tropical western Pacific can lead to convergence and enhanced convection over the maritime continent. As a result, cyclonic circulation anomalies over the tropical eastern Indian Ocean developed via a Gill type response. The anomalous southerly winds to the east of the cyclone eventually led to positive

  8. Monitoring austral and cyclonic swells in the "Iles Eparses" (Mozambique channel) from microseismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barruol, Guilhem; Davy, Céline; Fontaine, Fabrice R.; Schlindwein, V.; Sigloch, K.

    2016-04-01

    We deployed five broadband three-components seismic stations in the Iles Eparses in the south-west Indian Ocean and on Mayotte Island, between April 2011 and January 2014. These small and remote oceanic islands suffer the effects of strong ocean swells that affect their coastal environments but most islands are not instrumented by wave gauges to characterize the swells. However, wave action on the coast causes high levels of ground vibrations in the solid earth, so-called microseismic noise. We use this link between the solid earth and ocean wave activity to quantify the swells locally. Spectral analyses of the continuous seismic data show clear peaks in the 0.05-0.10 Hz frequency band (periods between 10 and 20 s), corresponding to the ocean wave periods of the local swells. We analyze an example of austral swell occurring in August 2013 and a cyclonic event (Felleng) that developed in January 2013, and quantify the ground motion at each station induced by these events. In both cases, we find a linear polarization in the horizontal plane with microseismic amplitude directly correlated to the swell height (as predicted by the global swell model WaveWatchIII), and a direction of polarization close to the predicted swell propagation direction. Although this analysis has not been performed in real time, it demonstrates that terrestrial seismic stations can be efficiently used as wave gauges, and are particularly well suited for quantifying extreme swell events. This approach may therefore provide useful and cheaper alternatives to wave buoys for monitoring swells and the related environmental processes such as beach erosion or coral reef damages.

  9. Investigations of the tropospheric halogen chemistry around Ross Island, Antarctica, during austral spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielcke, Johannes; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Hay, Tim; Kreher, Karin; Kalnajs, Lars; Platt, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    A unique feature of the polar troposphere is the strong impact of halogen photochemistry, in which reactive halogen species (RHS) are responsible for ozone depletion as well as the oxidation of elemental mercury and dimethyl sulphide. The source, however, as well as release and recycling mechanisms of these halogen species are far from being completely understood, especially the role of chlorine and iodine compounds. Reactive chlorine, bromine and iodine compounds are thought to be released from sea salt particles or produced by the photolysis of halocarbons and I2 emitted by the ocean. Here we present observations of halogen oxides, ozone and nitrogen dioxide conducted for three months during austral spring 2012 on Ross Island, Antarctica. Measurements were performed with a suite of remote sensing instruments. An active long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (LP-DOAS) system was set up, measuring several species (BrO, O3, NO2, OBrO, IO, OIO, I2, ClO, OClO, CHOCHO, HCHO, HONO) continuously for the whole period, with two light paths over first year sea ice. In addition, a passive MAX-DOAS as well as a new Cavity-Enhanced (CE)-DOAS system were used for mobile halogen oxide measurements on a variety of locations around Ross Island (sea ice, shelf ice, snow, coastal, etc.), with top surface layer pH measurements performed at the different measurement sites. First results show highly variable ozone concentrations including partial Ozone Depletion Events (ODEs), as well as concentrations of BrO up to 16ppt and NO2 up to 15ppb. Suprisingly, a high variation of ozone was observed without significant amounts of BrO, indicating already depleted air masses transported to the measurement site and/or NOx chemistry inhibiting halogen radical reactions.

  10. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Horton, Radley M

    2012-03-13

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows much broader meridional meanders in midlatitudes and clearly different interannual variability than the classical Arctic oscillation. This circulation change results in more frequent episodes of blocking patterns that lead to increased cold surges over large parts of northern continents. Moreover, the increase in atmospheric water vapor content in the Arctic region during late autumn and winter driven locally by the reduction of sea ice provides enhanced moisture sources, supporting increased heavy snowfall in Europe during early winter and the northeastern and midwestern United States during winter. We conclude that the recent decline of Arctic sea ice has played a critical role in recent cold and snowy winters.

  11. Tectonic insight based on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and compaction studies in the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt (southwest Gondwana boundary, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzadún, Guadalupe; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Cesaretti, Nora N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sierras Australes fold and thrust belt (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) was in the southwestern Gondwanaland margin during the Paleozoic. The Tunas Formation (Permian) is exposed along the eastern part of it and continues eastward beneath the Claromecó Basin. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and compaction studies are described and compared with previous paleomagnetic studies with the aim of determining direction and magnitude of the main stresses acting during the sedimentation of the Tunas Formation. The anisotropy ellipsoids are triaxial with oblate or prolate shapes, reflecting different stages of layer parallel shortening during the evolution of the basin. Kmax axes trend NW-SE, parallel to the fold axes, while Kmin move from a horizontal (base) to a vertical orientation at the top of the succession, showing a change from a tectonic to almost a sedimentary fabric. The magnitude of anisotropy and compaction degree decreases toward the top of the succession. The AMS results are consistent with the outcrop structural observations and the compaction and paleomagnetic data. Regional pattern indicates a compression from the SW along this part of Gondwana, with a migration of the orogenic front and attenuation toward the NE in the foreland basin during the Upper Paleozoic. This deformation, locally assigned to the San Rafael noncollisional orogenic phase, is the result of the latitudinal movements toward the Equator of Gondwana (southern plates) and Laurentia (northern plates) during the Permian. This movement is the result of a rearrangement of the microplates that collided with Gondwana during the Late Devonian, to configure Pangea during the Triassic.

  12. DNA-damaging activity of a cinnamate derivative and further compounds from Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae); Derivado cinamoilico com atividade no reparo de DNA e outras substancias de Cinnamomum australe (Lauraceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonezi, Carlos Alberto; Lopes, Marcia Nasser; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Araujo, Angela Regina; Bolzani, Vanderlan da Silva [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: bolzaniv@iq.unesp.br; Young, Maria Claudia Marx; Silva, Marcelo Rogerio da [Instituto de Botanica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Fisiologia e Bioquimica de Plantas

    2004-04-01

    The bioactive compound trans-3'-methylsulphonylallyl trans-cinnamate (1) along with the inactive iryelliptin (2) and (7R,8S,1'S)-{delta}{sup 8'}-3',5'-dimethoxy-1',4'-dihydro-4'-oxo-7.0.2',8.1'-neoli= gnan (3) were isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum australe. The structures of these compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and comparison with data registered in the literature for these compounds. The DNA-damaging activity of 1 is being described for the first time. (author)

  13. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...... are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988...

  14. Late Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asger Lau; Lassen, David Dreyer; Nielsen, Lasse Holbøll Westh

    are negative rather than positive; and when there is divided government. We test the hypotheses of the model using a unique data set of late budgets for US state governments, based on dates of budget approval collected from news reports and a survey of state budget o¢ cers for the period 1988......The budget forms the legal basis of government spending. If a budget is not in place at the beginning of the fiscal year, planning as well as current spending are jeopardized and government shutdown may result. This paper develops a continuous-time war-of-attrition model of budgeting...... in a presidential style-democracy to explain the duration of budget negotiations. We build our model around budget baselines as reference points for loss averse negotiators. We derive three testable hypotheses: there are more late budgets, and they are more late, when fiscal circumstances change; when such changes...

  15. Oceanic pCO2 in the Indian sector of the southern Ocean during the austral summer-winter transition phase

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.; Mohan, R.; Patil, S.; Jena, B.; Chacko, R.; George, J.V.; Noronha, S.; Singh, N.; Priya, L.; Sudhakar, M.

    and bubbled through nitrogen. Gaseous CO2 was captured in an ethanol–amine solution with an indicator. The solution was photometrically back- titrated using a coulometer (model 5014 of U.I.C. Inc., USA). The reliability of the coulometric titration...

  16. Winter School Les Houches

    CERN Document Server

    Lannoo, Michel; Bastard, Gérald; Voos, Michel; Boccara, Nino

    1986-01-01

    The Winter School held in Les Houches on March 12-21, 1985 was devoted to Semiconductor Heterojunctions and Superlattices, a topic which is recognized as being now one of the most interesting and active fields in semiconductor physics. In fact, following the pioneering work of Esaki and Tsu in 1970, the study of these two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures has developed rapidly, both from the point of view of basic physics and of applications. For instance, modulation-doped heterojunctions are nowadays currently used to investigate the quantum Hall effect and to make very fast transistors. This book contains the lectures presented at this Winter School, showing in particular that many aspects of semiconductor heterojunctions and super­ lattices were treated, extending from the fabrication of these two-dimensional systems to their basic properties and applications in micro-and opto-electron­ ics. Among the subjects which were covered, one can quote as examples: molecular beam epitaxy and metallorgani...

  17. Submarine intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Geological setting and petrology of the society and the austral regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hekinian, Roger; Bideau, Daniel; Stoffers, Peter; Cheminee, Jean Louis; Muhe, Richard; Puteanus, Doris; Binard, Nicolas

    1991-02-01

    The southeastern prolongations of the Society and Austral islands volcanic chains are terminated by several recent submarine volcanoes (300-3800 m in height) built on irregularly shaped crustal swells or bulges (3600-3950 m in depth). The crustal swells (about 100 km in width) is bounded by deeper abyssal hill regions (>4000 m in depth) where old volcanoes with thick Fe-Mn coatings are encountered. The rocks sampled on this ancient oceanic crust are depleted mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) similar to modem volcanics encountered on the East Pacific Rise. The volcanics of the Society hot spot consist of ankaramites, picrites, alkali-basalts, basanites, tephrites, and trachytes. Highly vesiculated pillow lavas show a wide compositional range in their large ion lithophile elements (LILE) (K2O=1-4%, Nb=25-80 ppm, Zr=200-400 ppm, Ba=300-840 ppm) and compatible element variations (Mg #=40-70, Ni=80-500 ppm), and low Zr/Nb ratios (5-8). Low-K tholeiites (K2OQueensland's xenoliths) and spinel-lherzolites, was tested as being a possible origin for the studied rocks. This model provides adequate Zr/Nb ratios and suggests that the Society mantle source contained smaller amount of homblendite (<5 wt %) and underwent lower degree of partial melting (about 5 %) than that of the Austral hot spot (10 wt % and 10-20% respectively). However, the complementary mantle source in the Society hot spot requires larger amount of LREEs than it is necessary for the Austral volcanoes. While the Zabargad amphibole-peridotites are reasonable candidates, the metasomatized peridotite xenoliths from continental alkali-basalts and the amphibole-peridotite mylonites from St. Paul's Rocks are more suitable as a potential source for the Society parental melts enriched in Ce and La. Hence the intraplate lava compositions could be the result of recycling and remelting of an ancient oceanic upper mantle which is partially metasomatized during its lateral transfer off the ridge axis. Local mantle

  18. The 2014 southeast Brazil austral summer drought: regional scale mechanisms and teleconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Caio A. S.; de Oliveira, Cristiano Prestrelo; Ambrizzi, Tércio; Reboita, Michelle Simões; Carpenedo, Camila Bertoletti; Campos, José Leandro Pereira Silveira; Tomaziello, Ana Carolina Nóbile; Pampuch, Luana Albertani; Custódio, Maria de Souza; Dutra, Lívia Marcia Mosso; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Rehbein, Amanda

    2016-06-01

    The southeast region of Brazil experienced in austral summer 2014 a major drought event leading to a number of impacts in water availability for human consumption, agricultural irrigation and hydropower production. This study aims to perform a diagnostic analysis of the observed climate conditions during this event, including an inspection of the occurred precipitation anomalies in the context of previous years, and an investigation of possible relationships with sea surface temperatures and atmospheric circulation patterns. The sea surface temperature analysis revealed that the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean region near the coast of southeast Brazil showed strong negative association with precipitation over southeast Brazil, indicating that increased sea temperatures in this ocean region are consistent with reduced precipitation as observed in summer 2014. The circulation analysis revealed prevailing anti-cyclonic anomalies at lower levels (850 hPa) with northerly anomalies to the west of southeast Brazil, channeling moisture from the Amazon towards Paraguay, northern Argentina and southern Brazil, and drier than normal air from the South Atlantic Ocean towards the southeast region of Brazil. This circulation pattern was found to be part of a large-scale teleconnection wave train linked with the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific, which in turn was generated by an anomalous tropical heat source in north/northeastern Australia. A regional Hadley circulation with an ascending branch to the south of the subsidence branch of the Walker circulation in the tropical east Pacific was identified as an important component connecting the tropical and extratropical circulation. The ascending branch of this Hadley circulation in the south Pacific coincided with an identified Rossby wave source region, which contributed to establishing the extratropical component of the large-scale wave train connecting the south Pacific and the Atlantic

  19. Análisis de los primeros conflictos obreros en la Patagonia Austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güenaga, Rosario

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Antes de las grandes huelgas patagónicas (1921-1922, en el territorio argentino de Santa Cruz, la relación entre los sectores patronales y obreros registra antecedentes de conflicto que deben entenderse dentro de un marco que incorpora no sólo la estructura socioeconómica sino también la influencia ideológica de los grupos actuantes. Los sectores de poder se mueven dentro de un contexto que incluye el dominio de las reglas de la sociedad, la cual, por sus características originarias y productivas, es terrateniente y latifundista. La reacción frente a la estructura vigente y las relaciones de trabajo surge de la agremiación de los trabajadores, primero en Magallanes y, poco después, en Santa Cruz. La primera en surgir, en el territorio austral argentino, fue la Federación Obrera de Río Gallegos que nació el 13 de mayo de 1913, conformándose la primera Comisión Directiva. La misma estaba formada en parte por trabajadores extranjeros, particularmente españoles. La influencia chilena, que es muy importante en la vida sindical del territorio, se había manifestado ya con anterioridad, actuando en las estancias argentinas con intención de crear subsedes de la Federación de Magallanes en este territorio. Por otro lado un representante de la organización chilena había actuado en forma protagonista en el momento de la creación de la de Río Gallegos, estipulándose desde el acta de fundación la hermandad entre las dos instituciones y la comunidad de ideas. La ideología que predominó, desde un primer momento, en el accionar obrero fue fundamentalmente anarquista y socialista, particularmente la primera. En este trabajo se presentan las primeras huelgas y la acción de los trabajadores, analizando sus motivaciones y las reacciones que produjo por parte de los sectores patronales y el gobierno.

  20. MARKETING WINTER VEGETABLES FROM MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, Linda; Barrios, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    The North American winter-vegetable industry is highly integrated, with Mexican production supplying a large part of U.S. winter consumption needs. Imports from Mexico undergo a rigorous inspection procedure before entering the United States. In addition to Mexican firms, many U.S. firms are also involved in sourcing winter vegetables from Mexico. To compete well, both U.S. and Mexican firms must adapt to the changing market pressures, which reward firms that can source from many locations to...

  1. Changing balance between survival and recruitment explains population trends in Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica wintering in Britain, 1969-1995

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyd, H; Piersma, T; Camphuysen, Kees (C.J.)

    2001-01-01

    The demography of Red Knots Calidris canutus islandica wintering in Britain from 1969 to 1995 was examined using published data on winter numbers, unpublished ringing data, and information on the percentages first year birds in late autumn and winter (defined here as 'recruitment'). The maximum time

  2. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  3. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and others collected from Seaglider574 in South Atlantic Ocean from 2012-09-20 to 2013-02-15 (NCEI Accession 0131762)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CSIR-SOCCO Southern Ocean Seasonal Cycle Experiment (SOSCEx) was planned around five cruises to the SAZ between the austral winter of 2012 and the late summer of...

  4. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and others collected from SeaGlider 573 in South Atlantic Ocean from 2012-09-25 to 2013-02-15 (NCEI Accession 0131501)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CSIR-SOCCO Southern Ocean Seasonal Cycle Experiment (SOSCEx) was planned around five cruises to the SAZ between the austral winter of 2012 and the late summer of...

  5. Confounded winter and spring phenoclimatology on large herbivore ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianson, David; Klaver, Robert W.; Middleton, Arthur; Kauffman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Annual variation in winter severity and growing season vegetation dynamics appear to influence the demography of temperate herbivores but parsing winter from spring effects requires independent metrics of environmental conditions specific to each season. We tested for independence in annual variation amongst four common metrics used to describe winter severity and early growing season vegetation dynamics across the entire spatial distribution of elk (Cervus elaphus) in Wyoming from 1989 to 2006. Winter conditions and early growing season dynamics were correlated in a specific way. Winters with snow cover that ended early tended to be followed by early, but slow, rises in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while long winters with extended periods of snow cover were often followed by late and rapid rises in NDVI. Across the 35 elk ranges, 0.4–86.8 % of the variation in the rate of increase in NDVI’s in spring was explained by the date snow cover disappeared from SNOTEL stations. Because phenoclimatological metrics are correlated across seasons and shifting due to climate change, identifying environmental constraints on herbivore fitness, particularly migratory species, is more difficult than previously recognized.

  6. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: an hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Daley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation, and δD and δ18O-values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record with which to investigate modern relationships between these variables, thereby enabling improved interpretation of the peatland palaeodata. Stable isotope data from two stations in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP from southern South America (Punta Arenas, Chile and Ushuaia, Argentina were analysed for the period 1982 to 2008 and compared with longer-term meteorological data from the same locations (1890 to present and 1931 to present, respectively. δD and δ18O-values in precipitation have exhibited quite different trends in response to local surface air temperature and precipitation amount. At Punta Arenas, there has been a marked increase in the seasonal difference between summer and winter δ18O-values. A decline in the deuterium excess of summer precipitation at this station was associated with a general increase in relative humidity at 1000 mb over the surface of the Southeast Pacific Ocean, believed to be the major vapour source for the local precipitation. At Ushuaia, a fall in δ18O-values was associated with an increase in the mean annual amount of precipitation. Both records are consistent with a southward retraction and increase in zonal wind speed of the austral westerly wind belt. These regional differences, observed in response to a known driver, should be detectable in peatland sites close to the GNIP stations. Currently, insufficient data with suitable temporal resolution are available to test for these regional differences over the

  7. Investigating late Holocene variations in hydroclimate and the stable isotope composition of precipitation using southern South American peatlands: an hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, T. J.; Mauquoy, D.; Chambers, F. M.; Street-Perrott, F. A.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Loader, N. J.; Roland, T. P.; van Bellen, S.; Garcia-Meneses, P.; Lewin, S.

    2012-09-01

    Ombrotrophic raised peatlands provide an ideal archive for integrating late Holocene records of variations in hydroclimate and the estimated stable isotope composition of precipitation with recent instrumental measurements. Modern measurements of mean monthly surface air temperature, precipitation, and δD and δ18O-values in precipitation from the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries provide a short but invaluable record with which to investigate modern relationships between these variables, thereby enabling improved interpretation of the peatland palaeodata. Stable isotope data from two stations in the Global Network for Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP) from southern South America (Punta Arenas, Chile and Ushuaia, Argentina) were analysed for the period 1982 to 2008 and compared with longer-term meteorological data from the same locations (1890 to present and 1931 to present, respectively). δD and δ18O-values in precipitation have exhibited quite different trends in response to local surface air temperature and precipitation amount. At Punta Arenas, there has been a marked increase in the seasonal difference between summer and winter δ18O-values. A decline in the deuterium excess of summer precipitation at this station was associated with a general increase in relative humidity at 1000 mb over the surface of the Southeast Pacific Ocean, believed to be the major vapour source for the local precipitation. At Ushuaia, a fall in δ18O-values was associated with an increase in the mean annual amount of precipitation. Both records are consistent with a southward retraction and increase in zonal wind speed of the austral westerly wind belt. These regional differences, observed in response to a known driver, should be detectable in peatland sites close to the GNIP stations. Currently, insufficient data with suitable temporal resolution are available to test for these regional differences over the last 3000 yr. Existing peatland palaeoclimate data from two

  8. Registro de un par madre-cría de ballena franca austral (Eubalaena australis en la costa de Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Orihuela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hasta el presente reporte, la distribución de la ballena franca austral en el Pacífico Sur se extendía hasta los 15°08’S en la bahía San Fernando, Ica. Previamente, ballenas francas australes en Perú fueron registradas en noviembre de 1987 en Ilo, Moquegua y setiembre de 1996 en Atico, Arequipa. Estos registros podrían corresponder a una recuperación de la población del Pacífico Sudeste, la cual ha sido declarada En Peligro Crítico por la IUCN. Aquí reportamos un par madre-cría de ballenas francas australes avistados en el distrito de Chorrillos, en Lima, el 20 de agosto de 2012, desde las 9:30 h por un período de 4 horas hasta la 13:30 h.

  9. Melicope balgooyi Appelhans, W.L. Wagner & K.R. Wood, a new species and new record in Melicope section Melicope (Rutaceae) for the Austral Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Marc S; Wagner, Warren L; Wood, Kenneth R

    2014-01-01

    Melicope balgooyi, a new species of Melicope (Rutaceae) is described. It is known only from the Austral Islands in the South Pacific (French Polynesia). However, it is not closely related to the other two species previously known from the Austral Islands, which are part of Melicope section Vitiflorae. The new species belongs to Melicope section Melicope and is most closely related to species from New Zealand, the Kermadec Islands, and the Society Islands. The new species has alternate to sub-opposite leaves, which is a very rare arrangement in Melicope and has only been described for two other species of the genus so far.

  10. Melicope balgooyi Appelhans, W.L. Wagner & K.R. Wood, a new species and new record in Melicope section Melicope (Rutaceae for the Austral Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Appelhans

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Melicope balgooyi, a new species of Melicope (Rutaceae is described. It is known only from the Austral Islands in the South Pacific (French Polynesia. However, it is not closely related to the other two species previously known from the Austral Islands, which are part of Melicope section Vitiflorae. The new species belongs to Melicope section Melicope and is most closely related to species from New Zealand, the Kermadec Islands, and the Society Islands. The new species has alternate to sub-opposite leaves, which is a very rare arrangement in Melicope and has only been described for two other species of the genus so far.

  11. Viruses and Protists Induced-mortality of Prokaryotes around the Antarctic Peninsula during the Austral Summer

    KAUST Repository

    Vaque, Dolors

    2017-03-27

    During the Austral summer 2009 we studied three areas surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula: the Bellingshausen Sea, the Bransfield Strait and the Weddell Sea. We aimed to investigate, whether viruses or protists were the main agents inducing prokaryotic mortality rates, and the sensitivity to temperature of prokaryotic heterotrophic production and mortality based on the activation energy (Ea) for each process. Seawater samples were taken at seven depths (0.1-100 m) to quantify viruses, prokaryotes and protists abundances, and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (PHP). Viral lytic production, lysogeny, and mortality rates of prokaryotes due to viruses and protists were estimated at surface (0.1-1 m) and at the Deep Fluorescence Maximum (DFM, 12-55 m) at eight representative stations of the three areas. The average viral lytic production ranged from 1.0 +/- 0.3 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bellingshausen Sea to1.3 +/- 0.7 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bransfield Strait, while lysogeny, when detectable, recorded the lowest value in the Bellingshausen Sea (0.05 +/- 0.05 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1)) and the highest in the Weddell Sea (4.3 +/- 3.5 x 10(7) viruses ml(-1) d(-1)). Average mortality rates due to viruses ranged from 9.7 +/- 6.1 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Weddell Sea to 14.3 +/- 4.0 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bellingshausen Sea, and were higher than averaged grazing rates in the Weddell Sea (5.9 +/- 1.1 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1)) and in the Bellingshausen Sea (6.8 +/- 0.9 x 10(4) cells ml-1 d(-1)). The highest impact on prokaryotes by viruses and main differences between viral and protists activities were observed in surface samples: 17.8 +/- 6.8 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) and 6.5 +/- 3.9 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Weddell Sea; 22.1 +/- 9.6 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) and 11.6 +/- 1.4 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in the Bransfield Strait; and 16.1 +/- 5.7 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) and 7.9 +/- 2.6 x 10(4) cells ml(-1) d(-1) in

  12. Estudo morfoanatômico preliminar do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae A preliminary morphological and anatomical study of the stem and leaf of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia R. Rocha Martins

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Descrições morfoanatômicas preliminares do caule e da folha de Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze foram realizadas a partir de material vegetal fresco e fixado. Secções transversais e paradérmicas, coradas com safranina/azul de astra e azul de toluidina foram analisadas ao microscópio. As superfícies do caule e da folha foram observadas através de microscopia eletrônica de varredura. A. australe apresenta, tanto no caule quanto na folha, tricomas tectores pluricelulares, unisseriados e de extremidades afiladas, e glandulares discóides, com pedúnculo curto unicelular, no qual se prendem cinco séries de células. A folha é anfiestomática e os estômatos são do tipo anomocítico, levemente proeminentes em relação ao nível das demais células epidérmicas. O caule apresenta crescimento secundário inicial, destacando-se os ductos secretores no parênquima cortical e medular.Preliminary morphological and anatomical descriptions of stem and leaf of Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze were made in fresh and fixed material. Cross and superficial sections, stained with safranin/astra blue and Toluidine blue were analyzed at the light microscopic and the images were acquired by means the program Image Pro-Plus, version 4.0 (Media Cybertecnics. The surface of the stem and leaf were observed through scanning electronic microscopy. The species presents in the stem and leaf surface multicellular nonglandular trichome, uniseriate with a pointed edge and multicellular glandular trichome like a disk with a unicellular peduncle, in which is attached a series of five cells. The leaf presents anomocytic stomata in both surfaces a little prominent in relation to the level of the epidermal cells. The stem presents an initial secondary growth with evident secretory ducts in the cortex and pith.

  13. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  14. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s, as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 day, 30-Day, and 90-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  15. Winter fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-04

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  16. "Winter is coming"

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Veselin; Hartman, Nikolaus; Guzewich, Scott; Rogers, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Those that do not sow care little about such mundane things as equinoxes or planting seasons, or even crop rotation for that matter. Wherever and whenever the reavers reave, the mood is always foul and the nights are never warm or pleasant. For the rest of the good folks of Westeros, however, a decent grasp of the long-term weather forecast is a necessity. Many a maester have tried to play the Game of Weather Patterns and foretell when to plant those last turnip seeds, hoping for a few more years of balmy respite. Tried and failed. For other than the somewhat vague (if not outright meaningless) omens of "Winter is Coming", their meteorological efforts have been worse than useless. To right that appalling wrong, here we attempt to explain the apparently erratic seasonal changes in the world of G.R.R.M. A natural explanation for such phenomena is the unique behavior of a circumbinary planet. Thus, by speculating that the planet under scrutiny is orbiting a pair of stars, we utilize the power of numerical three-...

  17. Klaus Winter (1930 - 2015)

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    We learned with great sadness that Klaus Winter passed away on 9 February 2015, after a long illness.   Klaus was born in 1930 in Hamburg, where he obtained his diploma in physics in 1955. From 1955 to 1958 he held a scholarship at the Collège de France, where he received his doctorate in nuclear physics under the guidance of Francis Perrin. Klaus joined CERN in 1958, where he first participated in experiments on π+ and K0 decay properties at the PS, and later became the spokesperson of the CHOV Collaboration at the ISR. Starting in 1976, his work focused on experiments with the SPS neutrino beam. In 1984 he joined Ugo Amaldi to head the CHARM experiment, designed for detailed studies of the neutral current interactions of high-energy neutrinos, which had been discovered in 1973 using the Gargamelle bubble chamber at the PS. The unique feature of the detector was its target calorimeter, which used large Carrara marble plates as an absorber material. From 1984 to 1991, Klau...

  18. Mass dynamics of wintering Pacific Black Brant: Body, adipose tissue, organ, and muscle masses vary with location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, D.D.; Barboza, P.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    We compared body size and mass of the whole body, organs, adipose tissue, and muscles of adult Pacific Black Brant (Branta bernicla nigricans (Lawrence, 1846)) collected concurrently in Alaska and Baja California during the fall, winter, and spring of 2002–2003. Head and tarsal lengths of males were similar between sites and slightly larger for females in Alaska than in Baja California. Brant appear to operate under similar physiological bounds, but patterns of nutrient allocation differ between sites. Birds wintering in Alaska lost similar amounts of adipose tissue during early winter as birds in Baja California gained during late winter before migration. Masses of the body, adipose tissue, and flight muscles during mid-winter were similar between sites. Seasonal adipose tissue deposition may, therefore, equally favor winter residency or long-distance migration. Gonad and liver masses increased in late winter for birds in Alaska but not for those in Baja California, suggesting birds wintering in Baja may delay reproductive development in favor of allocating reserves needed for migration. Phenotypic flexibility allows Brant to use widely divergent wintering sites. The wintering location of Brant likely depends more upon changes in environmental conditions and food availability, than upon physiological differences between the two wintering populations.

  19. Description of the biogeochemical features of the subtropical southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean south off South Africa during the austral summer of the International Polar Year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. C. Le Moigne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Meridional and vertical distributions of several biogeochemical parameters were studied along a section in the southeastern Atlantic and the Southern Ocean south of South Africa during the austral summer 2008 of the International Polar Year to characterize the biogeochemical provinces and to assess the seasonal net diatom production. Based on analyses of macro-nutrients, ammonium (NH4, chlorophyll a, (chl a phaeopigments, biogenic silica (BSi, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC, and particulate organic carbon and nitrogen (POC and PON, respectively four biogeochemical domains were distinguished along the section: the subtropical Atlantic, the confluence zone of the subtropical and subantarctic domains, the Polar Frontal Zone (PFZ in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC and the north-eastern branch of the Weddell Gyre. The subtropical region displayed extremely low nutrient concentrations featuring oligotrophic conditions, and sub-surface maxima of chl a and phaeopigments never exceeded, 0.5 μg l−1 and 0.25 μg l−1 respectively. The anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies crossed in the Cape Basin were characterized by a deepening and a rise, respectively, of the nutrients isolines. Mesoscale eddies can bring episodic pulse of nutrients into the photic zone. The confluence zone of the subtropical domain and the northern side of the ACC within the subantarctic domain displayed remnant nitrate and phosphate levels, whereas silicate concentrations kept to extremely low levels. In this area chl a level of 0.4–0.5 μg l−1 distributed homogenously within the mixed layer, and POC and PON accumulated to values up to 10 μM and 1.5 μM, respectively; still indicative of biomass accumulation along the confluence zone during the late productive period. In the ACC domain, the Polar Frontal Zone was marked by a postbloom of diatoms that extended beyond the Polar Front (PF during this

  20. Phenological relationships between two insect galls and their host plants: Aspidosperma australe and A. spruceanum (Apocynaceae Relações fenológicas entre duas galhas induzidas por insetos e suas plantas hospedeiras: Aspidosperma australe e A. spruceanum (Apocynaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Tolentino Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although gall diversity in the Neotropical region is immense, comparative studies on the phenology of host plants and their galls are scarce. Gall systems generally require high levels of phenological synchrony between the associated organisms. The relationships between the phenology of two leaf galls induced by an unidentified Cecidomyiidae in Aspidosperma spruceanum Benth. ex Müell. Arg. and by Pseudophacopteron sp. in A. australe Müell. Arg. were investigated. The investigation was performed on ten individuals per species in 15-day intervals taking into consideration the percentage of galled leaves. In a one-year study, three distinct phenophases for the leaf galls and four phenophases for host plants were observed. The maximum percentage of leaf galls (80% on A. australe occurred just after the peak of leaf sprouting. In A. spruceanum, the percentage of leaf galls was always over 50%, which can be related to continuous leaf production and gall induction in this species. In both species, developing galls were observed over the entire year, indicating multivoltinism. The ability to induce galls at young and mature sites seems to be a good strategy for galling species survivorship.Embora a diversidade de galhas na região neotropical seja grande, poucos são os estudos fenológicos comparando a fenologia das espécies hospedeiras com aquela das galhas. O desenvolvimento de galhas geralmente requer alta sincronia fenológica entre os organismos associados. A relação entre a fenologia de duas galhas foliares induzidas por um Cecidomyiidae e Aspidosperma spruceanum Benth. ex Müell. Arg. e de uma espécie de Pseudophacopteron sp. e A. australe Müell. Arg. foram investigadas. O trabalho foi realizado em dez indivíduos de cada espécie em intervalos quinzenais, levando em consideração a percentagem de folhas galhadas. Durante um ano, foram observadas três fenofases distintas para as galhas foliares e quatro fenofases para a hospedeira. A

  1. Nuclear Winter Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, David W.

    A “major nuclear exchange” between the United States and the Soviet Union could inject enough smoke and dust into the atmosphere to cause significant temperature drops over the northern temperate zone that could last from weeks to months, according to a new study by the National Research Council (NRC).The results of the NRC study are “consistent with the results that came out of the TTAPS study” released late in 1983, according to George Carrier, chairman of the NRC study committee. The TTAPS study—named for authors R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, T. P. Ackerman, J. B. Pollack, and Carl Sagan—investigated the potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war.

  2. CLOSER for the Winter,Embrace the Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2009-01-01

    @@ "Yes, we are facing a dif-ficult time since the financial crisis, but that requires us to work much more closer to pass through the winter time," Leonard Kok, General Manager of Department for Urban and Economic Development, City of The Hague, Neth-erlands, said so on his recent visit to Bei-jing, China. In the late February, Beijing was still icy in temperature, however the warmth brought by the Netherlands' del-egation promised an agreeable spring in April.

  3. Future Changes Projections of Atmospheric Circulation and Precipitation and Temperature Patterns Over South America in Austral Summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M. H.; Cavalcanti, I. F.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric circulation is primarily driven by temperature gradients across the globe due to differential heating of Earth's surface which leads to a surplus of energy in the tropics and a deficit in the high latitudes. However, due to global warming, changes in atmospheric circulation are expected, which could result in modifications also in precipitation pattern. There are some evidences of changes in atmospheric circulation, such as the expansion of tropical belt and the poleward shift of large-scale atmospheric circulation systems, such as jet streams. These changes can be enhanced in a scenario with increasing greenhouse gases concentration. The objective of this study was to analyze future changes of atmospheric circulation and precipitation and temperature patterns in the austral summer over South America under Representative Pathway Concentration 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emission scenario. This evaluation was made according to model projections based on the coordinated climate change experiments defined by Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Historical simulations were used to evaluate model performance in reproduce main climatic features over South America in the Austral Summer. This analysis showed that some models perform better than others, with a wide range of difference between simulations and Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim data sets. In general, the models captured the main features of Austral Summer such as the northwest-southeast precipitation band associated with the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and the anticyclonic circulation at high levels related to Bolivian High. The projections from different models pointed out in general to a reduction of precipitation, however the signal was not the same over all the continent and for all models. For example, Met Office's HadGEM2-ES projection indicated a reduction of precipitation in most of

  4. A INTEGRAÇÃO SECURITÁRIA NA ÁFRICA AUSTRAL: A SADC E O OPDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaly Xavier Schutz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Os problemas de segurança do Continente Africano são, em sua grande maioria, originários dos processos de colonização e descolonização ocorridos ao longo dos séculos XIX e XX. Na África Austral, em específico, o regime do apartheid da África do Sul marcou de maneira bastante expressiva a construção de uma identidade comum e a aproximação entre os demais países da região em torno dos temas de segurança. O objetivo desse trabalho é avaliar a evolução da SADC ao longo dos anos 90 e 2000 no tocante aos aspectos securitários, visando analisar em que medida a organização contribuiu ou não para a resolução dos problemas políticos e de segurança da região, em especial nos momentos de crise. A análise será concentrada na criação e nas modificações do Órgão para a Cooperação em Política, Defesa e Segurança (OPDS da Comunidade para o Desenvolvimento da África Austral (SADC. A hipótese central do trabalho é de que a SADC, e o OPDS em específico, constituem a principal esfera de tratamento das questões securitárias da África Austral e, ao longo dos anos, contribuiu para evolução da resolução desses problemas. O trabalho irá utilizar a revisão bibliográfica e documental, adotando uma abordagem histórica, visando uma comparação temporal do caso em questão.

  5. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2017-01-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  6. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  7. Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2011-02-12

    The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 12 to February 18, 2011. Ninety-four participants from ten countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, "New Data From the Energy Frontier." There were 54 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The week's events included a public lecture ("The Hunt for the Elusive Higgs Boson" given by Ben Kilminster from Ohio State University) and attended by 119 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists. The 2011 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was "Indirect and Direct Detection of Dark Matter." It was held from February 6 to February 12, 2011. The 70 participants came from 7 countries and attended 53 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists from other institutions and countries or due to incipient collaborations. In addition, Blas Cabrera of Stanford University gave a public lecture titled "What Makes Up Dark Matter." There were 183 members of the general public in attendance. Before the lecture, 45 people attended the physics cafe to discuss dark matter. This report provides the attendee lists, programs, and announcement posters for each event.

  8. Characterization of winter foraging locations of Adélie penguins along the Western Antarctic Peninsula, 2001-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Eric S.; Ribic, Christine A.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-07-01

    In accord with the hypotheses driving the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (SO GLOBEC) program, we tested the hypothesis that the winter foraging ecology of a major top predator in waters off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), the Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae), is constrained by oceanographic features related to the physiography of the region. This hypothesis grew from the supposition that breeding colonies in the WAP during summer are located adjacent to areas of complex bathymetry where circulation and upwelling processes appear to ensure predictable food resources. Therefore, we tested the additional hypothesis that these areas continue to contribute to the foraging strategy of this species throughout the non-breeding winter season. We used satellite telemetry data collected as part of the SO GLOBEC program during the austral winters of 2001 and 2002 to characterize individual penguin foraging locations in relation to bathymetry, sea ice variability within the pack ice, and wind velocity and divergence (as a proxy for potential areas with cracks and leads). We also explored differences between males and females in core foraging area overlap. Ocean depth was the most influential variable in the determination of foraging location, with most birds focusing their effort on shallow (penguin's foraging, the analysis of sea ice data of a higher resolution than was available for this study may help elucidate the role of sea ice in affecting Adélie penguin winter foraging behavior within the pack ice.

  9. Characterization of winter foraging locations of Adélie penguins along the Western Antarctic Peninsula, 2001–2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Eric S.; Ribic, Christine; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-01-01

    In accord with the hypotheses driving the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (SO GLOBEC) program, we tested the hypothesis that the winter foraging ecology of a major top predator in waters off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), the Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae), is constrained by oceanographic features related to the physiography of the region. This hypothesis grew from the supposition that breeding colonies in the WAP during summer are located adjacent to areas of complex bathymetry where circulation and upwelling processes appear to ensure predictable food resources. Therefore, we tested the additional hypothesis that these areas continue to contribute to the foraging strategy of this species throughout the non-breeding winter season. We used satellite telemetry data collected as part of the SO GLOBEC program during the austral winters of 2001 and 2002 to characterize individual penguin foraging locations in relation to bathymetry, sea ice variability within the pack ice, and wind velocity and divergence (as a proxy for potential areas with cracks and leads). We also explored differences between males and females in core foraging area overlap. Ocean depth was the most influential variable in the determination of foraging location, with most birds focusing their effort on shallow (penguin's foraging, the analysis of sea ice data of a higher resolution than was available for this study may help elucidate the role of sea ice in affecting Adélie penguin winter foraging behavior within the pack ice.

  10. Winter waterfowl survey, southeastern Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Little is known of the total numbers of wintering waterfowl within the north pacific coastal region. The random stratified plot sampling methods used in 1980, as...

  11. The Challenge of Winter Backpacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Michael; Mapes, Alan

    1981-01-01

    Tips and techniques for safe and enjoyable winter backpacking are offered. Topics covered include cross county skis, snowshoes, clothing, footwear, shelter, sleeping bags, food, hypothermia prevention, as well as general rules and requirements. (CO)

  12. A Warm and Cleaner Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Beijing municipal and district governments have taken measures to keep residents warm and the winter sky blue In a bungalow in Xisi North Fifth Alley in the Xicheng District of Beijing,Li has lived for nearly seven decades.

  13. Ice duration drives winter nitrate accumulation in north temperate lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Steven M; Labou, Stephanie G.; Baulch, Helen M.; Hunt, Randall J.; Lottig, Noah R.; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Stanley, Emily H.

    2017-01-01

    The duration of winter ice cover on lakes varies substantially with climate variability, and has decreased over the last several decades in many temperate lakes. However, little is known of how changes in seasonal ice cover may affect biogeochemical processes under ice. We examined winter nitrogen (N) dynamics under ice using a 30+ yr dataset from five oligotrophic/mesotrophic north temperate lakes to determine how changes in inorganic N species varied with ice duration. Nitrate accumulated during winter and was strongly related to the number of days since ice-on. Exogenous inputs accounted for less than 3% of nitrate accumulation in four of the five lakes, suggesting a paramount role of nitrification in regulating N transformation and the timing of chemical conditions under ice. Winter nitrate accumulation rates ranged from 0.15 μg N L−1 d−1 to 2.7 μg N L−1 d−1 (0.011–0.19 μM d−1), and the mean for intermediate depths was 0.94 μg N L−1 d−1(0.067 μM d−1). Given that winters with shorter ice duration (< 120 d) have become more frequent in these lakes since the late 1990s, peak winter nitrate concentrations and cumulative nitrate production under ice may be declining. As ice extent and duration change, the physical and chemical conditions supporting life will shift. This research suggests we may expect changes in the form and amount of inorganic N, and altered dissolved nitrogen : phosphorus ratios, in lakes during winters with shorter ice duration.

  14. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe)2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Di; Wu, Yuxiang; Zhang, Xiling; Li, Fuguang

    2015-01-01

    Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe)2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  15. Evaluation of seafood toxicity in the Australes archipelago (French Polynesia) using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowiez, Ralph; Darius, Hélène Taiana; Cruchet, Philippe; Rossi, Fanny; Caillaud, Amandine; Laurent, Dominique; Chinain, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), a disease caused by consuming fish that have accumulated ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their tissue, is regarded as the most prevalent form of intoxication in French Polynesia. Recently, the Australes, one of the least affected archipelago until the early 1980s, has shown a dramatic increase in its incidence rates in 2009 with unusual CFP cases. In the present work, potential health hazards associated with the proliferation of various marine phytoplankton species and the consumption of fish and marine invertebrates highly popular among local population were assessed in three Australes islands: Raivavae, Rurutu and Rapa. Extracts from the marine dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus, Ostreospis and mat-forming cyanobacteria as well as fish, giant clams and sea urchin samples were examined for the presence of CTXs and palytoxin (PLTX) by using the neuroblastoma cell-based assay (CBA-N2a). Cytotoxic responses observed with both standards (Pacific CTX-3C and PLTX) and targeted marine products indicate that CBA-N2a is a robust screening tool, with high sensitivity and good repeatability and reproducibility. In Rurutu and Raivavae islands, our main findings concern the presence of CTX-like compounds in giant clams and sea urchins, suggesting a second bio-accumulation route for CFP toxins in the ciguatera food chain. In Rapa, the potential CFP risk from Gambierdiscus bloom and fish was confirmed for the first time, with levels of CTXs found above the consumer advisory level of 0.01 ng Pacific CTX-1B g(-1) of flesh in three fish samples. However, despite the presence of trace level of PLTX in Ostreopsis natural assemblages of Rapa, no sign of PLTX accumulation is yet observed in tested fish samples. Because this multi-toxinic context is likely to emerge in most French Polynesian islands, CBA-N2a shows great potential for future applications in the algal- and toxin-based field monitoring programmes currently on hand locally.

  16. Analysis of [Gossypium capitis-viridis × (G.hirsutum × G.australe2] Trispecific Hybrid and Selected Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Chen

    Full Text Available Speciation is always a contentious and challenging issue following with the presence of gene flow. In Gossypium, there are many valuable resources and wild diploid cotton especially C and B genome species possess some excellent traits which cultivated cotton always lacks. In order to explore character transferring rule from wild cotton to upland tetraploid cotton, the [G. capitis-viridis × (G. hirsutum × G. australe2] triple hybrid was synthesized by interspecies hybridization and chromosome doubling. Morphology comparisons were measured among this hybrid and its parents. It showed that trispecific hybrid F1 had some intermediate morphological characters like leaf style between its parents and some different characters from its parents, like crawl growth characteristics and two kind flower color. It is highly resistant to insects comparing with other cotton species by four year field investigation. By cytogenetic analysis, triple hybrid was further confirmed by meiosis behavior of pollen mother cells. Comparing with regular meiosis of its three parents, it was distinguished by the occurrence of polyads with various numbers of unbalanced microspores and finally generating various abnormal pollen grains. All this phenomenon results in the sterility of this hybrid. This hybrid was further identified by SSR marker from DNA molecular level. It showed that 98 selected polymorphism primers amplified effective bands in this hybrids and its parents. The genetic proportion of three parents in this hybrid is 47.8% from G. hirsutum, 14.3% from G. australe, 7.0% from G. capitis-viridis, and 30.9% recombination bands respectively. It was testified that wild genetic material has been transferred into cultivated cotton and this new germplasm can be incorporated into cotton breeding program.

  17. 土壤水分对冬小麦生育后期叶片气体交换及叶绿素荧光参数的影响%Effects of soil moisture on leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of winter wheat during its late growth stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永秀; 申双和; 李丽; 汪秀敏; 张富存; 韩小梅

    2012-01-01

    通过防雨棚小区栽培,控制土壤供水系数(Kw)分别为0.8、0.6、0.4、0.2,以自然状况下的小区为对照(CK),研究土壤水分条件对冬小麦生育后期叶片气体交换及叶绿素荧光参数的影响.结果表明:Kw为0.6处理的冬小麦叶片叶绿素含量与0.8处理接近,且显著高于其他处理(P<0.05);Kw为0.6处理对冬小麦叶片的气孔导度和蒸腾速率有轻度抑制,但其光合速率却高于0.8处理,而Kw为0.2处理的光合速率、气孔导度及蒸腾速率均为最低;气孔限制值在Kw为0.4处理下最高,其次为0.2处理,0.8处理下最低;冬小麦叶片的表观量子效率在Kw为0.4处理下最高,光补偿点总体上随着土壤水分含量的降低呈下降趋势,而光饱和点及最大光合速率则以Kw为0.6处理最高,其次为0.8处理,0.2处理最低;冬小麦叶片的天线转化效率Fv′/Fm′、电子传递速率ETR、实际量子效率φPSⅡ及光化学猝灭qP均以Kw为0.6处理最高,其次为0.8处理,0.2处理下最低;在Kw为0.2处理下,冬小麦光合作用主要受非气孔因素限制,而在0.4处理下,则主要受气孔因素限制.%A plot experiment with rainproof installation was conducted to study the effects of different soil moisture regimes on the leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of winter wheat during its late growth stage. Five treatments were installed, I. E. , natural soil mois ture regime (CK) , soil water supply coefficient (Kw) of 0. 8, 0. 6, 0. 4 and 0. 2, respectively. The leaf chlorophyll content in Kw = 0. 6 was close to that in Kw = 0. 8, and significantly higher than that in other treatments (p<0.05). In Kw =0. 6, the leaf stomatal conductance and transpi ration rate were mildly inhibited, while the photosynthetic rate was higher than that in Kw = 0. 8. In Kw = 0. 2, the photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and transpiration rate were the lowest. The stomatal limitation was the highest in Kw =0. 4

  18. Interdecadal Change in the Connection Between Hadley Circulation and Winter Temperature in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the interdecadal variability of Hadley circulation (HC) and its association with East Asian temperature in winter are investigated. Results indicate that the Northern Hemisphere winter HC underwent apparent change in the 1970s, with transition occurring around 1976/77.Along with interdecadal variability of HC, its linkage to surface air temperature (SAT) in East Asia also varied decadally, from weak relations to strong relations. Such a change may be related to the interaction between HC and the atmospheric circulation system over the Philippines, which is associated with the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM). Before the 1970s, the connection between HC and the anticyclonic circulation around the Philippines was insignificant, but after the late 1970s their linkage entered a strong regime. The intensification of this connection may therefore be responsible for the strong relations between HC and East Asian winter temperatures after the late 1970s.

  19. Diurnal variability of rainfall in southwest Amazonia during the LBA-TRMM field campaign of the austral summer of 1999 Variação diurna da chuva no sudoeste da Amazônia durante a campanha de campo do experimento LBA-TRMM no verão austral de 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Marengo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The TRMM-LBA field campaign was held during the austral summer of 1999 in southwestern Amazonia. Among the major objectives, was the identification and description of the diurnal variability of rainfall in the region, associated with the different rain producing weather systems that occurred during the January-February season. By using a network of 40 digital rain gauges implemented in the state of Rondônia, and together with observations and analyses of circulation and convection, it was possible to identify details of the diurnal cycle of rainfall and the associated rainfall mechanisms. Rainfall episodes were characterized by regimes of "low-level easterly" and "westerly" winds in the context of the large-scale circulation. The westerly regime is related to an enhanced South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ and an intense and/or wide Low Level Jet (LLJ east of the Andes, which can extend eastward towards Rondônia, even though some westerly regime episodes also show a LLJ that remains close to the foothill of the Andes. The easterly regime is related to easterly propagating systems (e.g. squall-lines with possible weakened or less frequent LLJs and a suppressed SACZ. Diurnal variability of rainfall during westerly surface wind regime shows a characteristic maximum at late afternoon followed by a relatively weaker second maximum at early evening (2100 Local Standard Time LST. The easterly regime composite shows an early morning maximum followed by an even stronger maximum in the afternoon.O experimento de campo do TRMM-LBA ocorreu conteceu durante o verão austral de 1999, na região do sudeste de Amazonia. Entre os principais objetivos deste trabalho pode-se citar a identificação e descrição da variabilidade diurna da chuva nesta região, associada a diferentes fenômenos meteorológicos e sistemas de tempo que ocorreram durante o período de Janeiro-Fevereiro. Usando uma rede de 40 pluviômetros instalados no estado de Rond

  20. Dynamics of sea-ice biogeochemistry in the coastal Antarctica during transition from summer to winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhas Shetye

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2, air-sea CO2 fluxes and associated environmental parameters were investigated in the Antarctic coastal waters. The in-situ survey was carried out from the austral summer till the onset of winter (January 2012, February 2010 and March 2009 in the Enderby Basin. Rapid decrease in pCO2 was evident under the sea-ice cover in January, when both water column and sea-ice algal activity resulted in the removal of nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and increase in pH. The major highlight of this study is the shift in the dominant biogeochemical factors from summer to early winter. Nutrient limitation (low Si/N, sea-ice cover, low photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, deep mixed layer and high upwelling velocity contributed towards higher pCO2 during March (early winter. CO2 fluxes suggest that the Enderby Basin acts as a strong CO2 sink during January (−81 mmol m−2 d−1, however it acts as a weak sink of CO2 with −2.4 and −1.7 mmol m−2 d−1 during February and March, respectively. The present work, concludes that sea ice plays a dual role towards climate change, by decreasing sea surface pCO2 in summer and enhancing in early winter. Our observations emphasize the need to address seasonal sea-ice driven CO2 flux dynamics in assessing Antarctic contributions to the global oceanic CO2 budget.

  1. Management of winter weeds affects Frankliniella fusca (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, A L P; Kennedy, G G

    2012-04-01

    Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) naturally disperses from winter weeds to crops in spring, causing direct and indirect damage. Field preparation before planting includes use of herbicides or cultivation to kill unwanted vegetation, which adversely affects F. fusca host plants and potentially influences F. fusca dispersal. Common chickweed, Stellaria media (L.), infested with F. fusca, was used as a model to study effects of timing and type of vegetation management on adult dispersal. Infested weeds were caged and F. fusca weekly dispersal was monitored using sticky traps. Weed management treatments performed at an early (14 April-11 May) or late (2 wk after early treatment) date consisted of glyphosate, paraquat, disking, hoeing, or untreated control. Late glyphosate and hoeing treatments resulted in cumulative dispersal statistically similar to or greater than from control plots. Compared with the control, significantly more F. fusca dispersed from the glyphosate and hoeing plots during the 3 wk after treatment. More thrips dispersed from the late paraquat treatment 1 wk post-application than from the control. Dispersal from the disked treatment and early paraquat treatment was similar to that of the control 1- to 3-wk post-treatment. Early treatments resulted in significantly smaller cumulative dispersal than the control in all but one instance. Late disking and paraquat treatments resulted in cumulative F. fusca captures that were statistically similar or less than that in the control. Winter weed management type and timing affect F. fusca dispersal magnitude and duration.

  2. What do we know about winter active ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jaskula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates.

  3. Infraestructura y significado en la dominiación Inka del centro oeste argentino (Coa extremo austral Oriental del Tawantinsuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Roberto Bárcena

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Con el apoyo de la ANPCyT (SECYT y del CONICET mediante subsidios, desarrollamos investigaciones arqueológicas y etnohistóricas sobre la dominación inka en el Centro oeste argentino, extremo austral oriental del Tawantinsuyu. En la actualidad trabajamos en las provincias de La Rioja (Famatina, Laguna Brava, Guandacol, entre otras áreas, San Juan (Reserva de la Biosfera de San Guillermo, Valle Fértil, Paso del Lámar —Jáchal—, entre otros sectores y Mendoza (Valle de Uspallata, Valle de Uco, entre otras zonas, estudiando la vialidad y los sitios relacionados, excavando varios de éstos. Un abordaje de tal envergadura implica, entre otras, la posibilidad de contrastar semejanzas y diferencias en la implantación territorial, diversidad en las relaciones con las poblaciones locales y sumanifestación en los indicadores arqueológicos y etnohistóricos y permite contrastar los modelos de dominación regional. En este contexto nos referimos, desde la perspectiva del significado, al registro de bienes inka como ser, entre otros, la propia arquitectura o los relacionados con los sitios ceremoniales de alturaWith the support of the ANPCyT (SECYT and of the CONICET we have undertaken archaeological and ethnohistorical research on the Inka domination in the Argentine centralwest, at the oriental austral extreme of the Tawantinsuyu. Our team is presently working in the provinces of: La Rioja (at Famatina, Laguna Brava,Guandacol, among other areas, San Juan (at the Reserva de la Biosfera de San Guillermo, Valle Fértil and Paso del Lámar -Jáchal-, among other sectors and,Mendoza (at the Valle deUspallata, Valle deUco, among other zones, studying the net of roads and other related sites, excavating several of the later ones. Such an approach implies, between others, the possibility of contrasting similarities and differences in the territorial implantation, the diversity in relations with the local inhabitants and its manifestation in the

  4. Distribution and structure of zooplankton communities in the austral summer in the Prydz Bay, Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    As a structure linking the ecosystem and population, community plays an important role in the marine ecology. Abundance of different species and development stages were used in our classification to the sampling stations with clustering-analysis and multi-dimension scaling, through which three geographic communities were marked out, respectively as following: the Salp community characterized by presence of Salp thompni in the northern area, the Near-shore community by Euphausia crystallorophias in the south and the main ocean community located between the above two communities. Indicator species method was then carried out between every two communities to findout which species or stages differ most. It tells that Rhincalanus gigas, adult cheatognath, late stages of Metridia gerlachei and calyptopis of Euphausiidae are indicators between Salp and neritic communities, between Krill and Salp communities are Salp thompni, adult and larvae of Cheatognath and R. gigas, and the most notable indicator between the Krill and the neritic communities are E. crystallorophias, then nauplii of Euphausiidae and Onceae conifera with less evidence.

  5. Arctic Ozone Depletion Observed by UARS MLS During the 1994-95 Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Santee, M. L.; Read, W. G.; Flower, D. A.; Jarnot, R. F.; Zurek, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    During the unusually cold 1994-95 Arctic winter, the Microwave Limb Sounder observed enhanced chlorine monoxide (ClO) in late Dec and throughout Feb and early Mar. Late Dec ClO was higher than during any of the previous 3 years, consistent with the colder early winter. Between late Dec 1994 and early Feb 1995, 465 K (about 50 hPa) vortex-averaged ozone (03) decreased by about 15%, with local decreases of about 30%; additional local decreases of about 5% were seen between early Feb and early Mar. Transport calculations indicate that vortex-averaged chemical loss between late Dec and early Feb was about 20% at 465 K, with about 1/4 of that masked by downward transport of O3. This Arctic chemical O3 loss is not readily detectable in MLS column O3 data.

  6. Wintering bird response to fall mowing of herbaceous buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, P.J.; Parks, J.R.; Dively, G.P.

    2011-01-01

    Herbaceous buffers are strips of herbaceous vegetation planted between working agricultural land and streams or wetlands. Mowing is a common maintenance practice to control woody plants and noxious weeds in herbaceous buffers. Buffers enrolled in Maryland's Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) cannot be mowed during the primary bird nesting season between 15 April and 15 August. Most mowing of buffers in Maryland occurs in late summer or fall, leaving the vegetation short until the following spring. We studied the response of wintering birds to fall mowing of buffers. We mowed one section to 10-15 cm in 13 buffers and kept another section unmowed. Ninety-two percent of birds detected in buffers were grassland or scrub-shrub species, and 98% of all birds detected were in unmowed buffers. Total bird abundance, species richness, and total avian conservation value were significantly greater in unmowed buffers, and Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis), Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia), and White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) were significantly more abundant in unmowed buffers. Wintering bird use of mowed buffers was less than in unmowed buffers. Leaving herbaceous buffers unmowed through winter will likely provide better habitat for wintering birds. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  7. U-Pb zircon constraints on the age of the Cretaceous Mata Amarilla Formation, Southern Patagonia, Argentina: its relationship with the evolution of the Austral Basin Edades U-Pb en circones de la Formación Mata Amarilla (Cretácico, Patagonia Austral, Argentina: su relación con la evoluci��n de la Cuenca Austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto N Varela

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the abundant fossil content of the Mata Amarilla Formation (Southern Patagonia, Santa Cruz Province, Argentina, its age has always generated a considerable number of questions and debates. The chronological data provided by invertebrates, dinosaurs, fish, turtles, plesiosaurs and fossil flora are contradictory. In this work, twenty U-Pb spot analyses by laser ablation were carried out on the outer parts of the zoned zircon crystals from a tuff layer of the middle section of the Mata Amarilla Formation, yielding a U-Pb concordia age of 96.23±0.71 Ma, which corresponds to the middle Cenomanian. The deposition of the lower section of the Mata Amarilla Formation marks the onset of the foreland stage of the Austral Basin (also known as Magallanes Basin; this transition is characterized by the west-east shift of the depositional systems, which is consistent with the progradation of the Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt. Thus, the onset of the foreland stage could have occurred between the upper Albian and lower Cenomanian, as the underlying Piedra Clavada Formation is lower Albian in age. On comparing the data obtained with information from the Última Esperanza Province in Chile, it can be suggested that the initiation of the closure of the Rocas Verdes Marginal Basin occurred simultaneously.A pesar del abundante contenido fosilífero de la Formación Mata Amarilla (Patagonia Austral, Provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina, siempre se generaron abundantes dudas y debates acerca de cuál es la edad de esta formación. Los datos cronológicos aportados por los invertebrados, los dinosaurios, peces, tortugas, plesiosaurios y flora fósil son dispares. En el presente trabajo se obtuvo una edad U-Pb concordia por la metodología de ablación láser aplicada a 20 puntos de la parte externa de circones zonados provenientes de un nivel tobáceo hallado en la sección media de la Formación Mata Amarilla, lo cual arrojó una edad de 96,23±0,71 Ma, que

  8. Facing a dark winter. Albania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truijen, A.

    2007-11-15

    Albania is once again facing a dark winter. The country has already been suffering power cuts lasting a couple of hours a day for the past seventeen years, Drought, increased power consumption and political maladministration are the factors underlying the electricity problems that have now mushroomed into a national crisis.

  9. Eikenprocessierups doorstaat koude winter goed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, S.

    2010-01-01

    Eikenprocessierupsen zijn niet gedeerd door de langdurige koude van deze winter. Bij het opensnijden van eipakketjes blijken de rupsjes springlevend naar buiten te komen. Het is nog te vroeg om nu al iets te zeggen over de mogelijke overlast later dit jaar. Dat is afhankelijk van de weersomstandighe

  10. Learning through a Winter's Tale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidotto, Kristie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience during the final semester of Year 11 Theatre Studies when she performed a monologue about Hermione from "The Winter's Tale". This experience was extremely significant to her because it nearly made her lose faith in one of the most important parts of her life, drama. She believes this experience,…

  11. Temperature profile data collected using XBTs from the AUSTRAL RAINBOW from the Pacific Ocean during the Thermal Structure Monitoring Program in the Pacific (TRANSPAC) project, 1976-09-10 to 1976-09-15 (NCEI Accession 8100229)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile data were collected using bathythermograph (BT/XBT) casts from AUSTRAL RAINBOW in the Pacific Ocean from September 10, 1976 to September 15,...

  12. Exploring Late Globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this viewpoint paper is to motivate a program of research on late globalization, a program that could eventually lead to one or more significant theories of late globalization. The paper explores the phenomenon of late globalization as well as the idea of “late” by drawing on sparse...... literature on late globalization from sociocultural and economic perspectives. It illustrates in a vignette the character and features of late globalization observable in the withdrawal from foreign locations or deinternationalization of universities, as late globalizing entitis. The paper discusses...... the range of constructs around the core idea of late globalization, generating questions for future work in a late globalization research program....

  13. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  14. Salud y enfermedad en Patagonia Austral, líneas de análisis, problemas y perspectivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guichón, Ricardo Aníbal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La dispersión de enfermedades durante el proceso de contacto europeo aborigen en Patagonia Austral es un tema complejo en el cual estamos comenzando a trabajar. Partiendo de algunas consideraciones generales sobre el proceso de ocupación humana en la región se analiza la información sobre: ¿Qué tipos de enfermedades actuaron en momentos pre y post contacto europeo aborigen? ¿Cuál es la muestra osteológica humana disponible y que información tiene asociada? ¿Dónde y cómo aparece el registro biológico humano? Asimismo se hace referencia a algunos avances en dos líneas de trabajo: tafonomía de restos humanos a partir del análisis de propiedades óseas intrínsecas y otra sobre Paleoparasitología. En el marco de proyectos de colaboración con arqueólogos, se señalan los trabajos iniciados en dos sitios: el primer asentamiento español en el estrecho de Magallanes (1584 y La Misión Salesiana "La Candelaria" de Río Grande, Tierra del Fuego. El desafió es coordinar esfuerzos entre bioantropólogos, biólogos, paleopatólogos, paleoparasitólogos, médicos, arqueólogos e historiadores.

  15. Nitrogen Uptake in the Northeastern Arabian Sea during Winter Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The uptake of dissolved inorganic nitrogen by phytoplankton is an important aspect of the nitrogen cycle of oceans. Here, we present nitrate (NO3- and ammonium (NH4+ uptake rates in the northeastern Arabian Sea using 15N tracer technique. In this relatively underexplored region, productivity is high during winter due to supply of nutrients by convective mixing caused by the cooling of the surface by the northeast monsoon winds. Studies done during different months (January and late February-early March of the northeast monsoon 2003 revealed a fivefold increase in the average euphotic zone integrated NO3- uptake from January (2.3 mmolN m−2d−1 to late February-early March (12.7 mmolN m−2d−1. The f-ratio during January appeared to be affected by the winter cooling effect and increased by more than 50% from the southernmost station to the northern open ocean stations, indicating hydrographic and meteorological control. Estimates of NO3- residence time suggested that NO3- entrained in the water column during January contributed to the development of blooms during late February-early March.

  16. Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area Management Plan 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Within the Nulhegan basin lies the Nulhegan Deer Wintering Area, an approximately 15,000-acre tract of land. In addition to being the largest deer wintering area in...

  17. Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mexican Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey is a continuation of the annual winter waterfowl survey which is conducted in the United States and Mexico. Since the...

  18. Endemismo a diferentes escalas espaciales: un ejemplo con Carabidae (Coleóptera: Insecta de América del Sur austral Endemism at different spatial scales: an example with Carabidae (Coleóptera: Insecta of austral South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOLORES CASAGRANDA M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Analizamos aproximadamente 4.000 registros correspondientes a 426 especies/subespecies de carábidos presentes en la región de América del Sur austral mediante análisis de endemicidad, considerando diferentes tamaños de celda. Para este análisis usamos el programa NDM/VNDM el cual implementa una función de llenado (R. fill que permite inferir presencias potenciales de especies a partir de los datos de presencia observados. En este análisis exploramos el uso de diferentes valores de esta función y observamos sus efectos en los resultados obtenidos. Las áreas de endemismo encontradas se compararon con regionalizaciones biogeográficas propuestas previamente. Se obtuvieron numerosas áreas de endemismo, coincidentes en forma total o parcial con áreas naturales anteriormente descritas para la zona. Algunas de estas áreas fueron recuperadas en todos los tamaños de celda usados, mientras que otras solo se identificaron bajo un tamaño de celda específico. En general, el empleo de celdas pequeñas facilitó la identificación de áreas de endemismo disyuntas y áreas de corta extensión, mientras el uso de celdas mayores permitió la identificación de áreas de gran extensión geográfica que resultan fragmentadas al usar celdas más pequeñas. Con el aumento en los valores de R. fill usados se observó un incremento en el número de áreas de endemismo y especies endémicas. Nuestros resultados muestran que áreas de endemismo de diversas características se manifiestan al emplear diferentes combinaciones de R. fill y tamaño de grilla, enfatizando la importancia de explorar distintas opciones en los análisis durante la búsqueda de patrones de distribución.In this paper we perform an endemicity analysis using ca 4,000 distributional records from 426 carabid species/subspecies distributed along austral South America. We used the program NDM/VNDM which implements a fill function (R. fill to heuristically assign species' potential

  19. Evaluation of WRF Boundary Layer Profiles against Radiosoundings in Northern Greenland in winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirova, Hristina; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2014-01-01

    The boundary-layer processes in High Arctic area are studied based on consecutive radiosoundings and numerical simulations with Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.3.1 during a late winter period. The measurements consist of about 30 radiosondings performed every 12 hours...

  20. Nitrogen uptake, nitrate leaching and root development in winter-grown wheat and fodder radish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2017-01-01

    radish on N dynamics and root growth. Field experiments were carried out on a humid temperate sandy loam soil. Aboveground biomass and soil inorganic N were determined in late autumn; N uptake and grain yield of winter wheat were measured at harvest. Nitrate leaching was estimated from soil water samples...

  1. Winter food habits and preferences of northern bobwhites in east Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Dietz; R. Montague Whiting; Nancy E. Koerth

    2009-01-01

    During late winter, 1994 and 1995, we investigated food habits and preferences of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter, bobwhites) collected on forested lands in east Texas. Crops for bobwhites were collected from areas under 3 management regimes, namely intensively managed for bobwhites (QMA) (i.e., tree basal area reduced...

  2. Epidemiological and virological assessment of influenza activity in Europe, during the winter 2005-2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Meuwissen, L.E.; Velden, J. van der; Paget, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza activity in Europe during the winter 2005-2006 started late January - early February 2006 and first occurred in the Netherlands, France, Greece and England. Subsequently, countries were affected in a random pattern across Europe and the period of influenza activity lasted till the end of A

  3. Epidemiological and virological assessment of influenza activity in Europe, during the winter 2005-2006.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Meuwissen, L.E.; Velden, J. van der; Paget, W.J.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza activity in Europe during the winter 2005-2006 started late January - early February 2006 and first occurred in the Netherlands, France, Greece and England. Subsequently, countries were affected in a random pattern across Europe and the period of influenza activity lasted till the end of

  4. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  5. Energy balance of a sparse coniferous high-latitude forest under winter conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Batchvarova, E.; Bruin, H.A.R. de

    2001-01-01

    Measurements carried out in Northern Finland on radiation and turbulent fluxes over a sparse, sub-arctic boreal forest with snow covered ground were analysed. The measurements represent late winter conditions characterised by low solar elevation angles. During the experiment (12-24 March 1997) da...

  6. Winter cover crops influence Amaranthus palmeri establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter cover crops were evaluated for their effect on Palmer amaranth (PA) suppression in cotton production. Cover crops examined included rye and four winter legumes: narrow-leaf lupine, crimson clover, Austrian winter pea, and cahaba vetch. Each legume was evaluated alone and in a mixture with rye...

  7. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among...

  8. Shoot apex development date of anthesis and grain yield of autumn-sown spring and winter barley hordeum-vulgare after different sowing times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knopp, E.

    1985-01-01

    One spring and eight winter barley cultivars were sown at intervals from the middle of September (normal) until the end of October (late). The apical meristem of the spring cultivar had developed furthest until the onset of winter. It had started ear differentiation after normal sowing. Among the...

  9. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years. PMID:28178351

  10. Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xia; Yang, Guang

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening summer. However, anomalies during the non-WTWR years have the opposite sign between the current and ensuing winters. The WTWR of circulation anomalies contributes to that of surface air temperature anomalies (SATAs), which is useful information for improving seasonal and interannual climate predictions over East Asia and China. In the positive (negative) WTWR years, SATAs are cooler (warmer) over East Asia in two successive winters, but the signs of the SATAs are opposite in the preceding and subsequent winters during the non-WTWR years.

  11. Foraging behavior of redheads (Aythya americana) wintering in Texas and Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodin, M.C.; Michot, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    Redheads, Aythya americana, concentrate in large numbers annually in traditional wintering areas along the western and northern rim of the Gulf of Mexico. Two of these areas are the Laguna Madre of Texas and Chandeleur Sound of Louisiana. We collected data on 54,340 activities from 103 redhead flocks in Texas and 51,650 activities from 57 redhead flocks in Louisiana. Males and females fed similarly, differing neither in levels of feeding (percent of all birds in flock that were feeding) (p>0.90) nor in percentages of birds feeding by diving, tipping, dipping, or gleaning from the surface (p>0.10). The foraging level of redheads in the upper Laguna Madre region was relatively constant throughout two winters. Foraging of redheads in early winter in Louisiana was significantly greater than redhead foraging in the upper Laguna Madre, but by late winter, foraging by redheads in Louisiana had declined to the same level as that shown by redheads foraging in the upper Laguna Madre. The overall foraging level of redheads from Chandeleur Sound was greater (41%) than that of redheads in the upper Laguna Madre (26%), yet it was quite similar to the 46% foraging level reported for redheads from the lower Laguna Madre. Redheads in the upper Laguna Madre region of Texas fed more by diving than did those in the Chandeleur Sound and the lower Laguna Madre. Diving increased in frequency in late winter. Greater reliance by redheads on diving in January and February indicates that the birds altered their foraging to feed in deeper water, suggesting that the large concentrations of redheads staging at this time for spring migration may have displaced some birds to alternative foraging sites. Our results imply that the most likely period for food resources to become limiting for wintering redheads is when they are staging in late winter. ?? Springer 2006.

  12. Population dynamics of four dominant copepods in Prydz Bay, Antarctica, during austral summer from 1999 to 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guang; LI Chaolun; SUN Song

    2011-01-01

    Population dynamics of four dominant Antarctic copepods,Calanoides acutus,Calanus propinquus,Metridia gerlachei and Rhincalanus gigas were studied based on zooplankton samples collected in the Prydz Bay during austral summer from 1999 to 2006.We found that C.acutus was the most abundant species among these four copepods,followed by C.propinquus,M.gerlachei and R.gigas.R.gigas occurred mainly in the warmer oceanic regions and showed distribution pattems discrete from the other three species,whose distribution in the whole survey area overlapped.By December 15th (about one month before our sampling) of the years 1999,2003 and 2006,sea ice retreated earlier and polynyas existed in the neritic region one month before sampling.These periods were characterized by numerical dominance of C.acutus,C.propinquus and M.gerlachei,elevated proportions of Copepodite Ⅰ and Copepodite Ⅱ stages especially in the neritic region.While for the years 2000,2002,and 2005,the ice edge located more northerly and polynyas did not exist in the neritic region,the copepods abundance was lower,indicating poor recruitment.Population structure of R.gigas was mainly composed of advanced stages Copepodite V and female during all cruises.Log10 (x+l) transformed densities of C.acutus,C.propinquus and M.gerlachei showed positive correlation with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration,while mean population stages of these copopods were negatively correlated with these environmental variables.Younger copepodite stages of C.acutus,C.propinquus and M.gerlachei appeared more often in neritic regions.We confirmed that the polynyas had a great contribution to phytoplankton blooms,which promote copepods reproduction and recruitment success.The study suggested that population dynamics of the four copepods have good correspondence with sea ice and polynya variations during all cruises of the Prydz Bay.

  13. The influence of differing protected area status and environmental factors on the macroinvertebrate fauna of temperate austral wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Furlonge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One means of conserving wetlands is to designate the area around them as ‘protected’. Although many different types of protected areas exist, ranging from international (Ramsar-listed to local importance, there is little information on how the type of protection influences biodiversity conservation. Studies of the effectiveness of protected area systems are a priority, if we are to understand their importance and design systems effectively. Many Tasmanian wetlands are regarded as having high to very high conservation values with more than 60% located within protected areas. This study tested macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage responses to a range of environmental attributes and differing types of protected area status at 66 protected Tasmanian (Australian wetlands. Two hundred and eighteen taxa were identified with an average of 33 species (or morphospecies and 18 families recorded per wetland. The wetland assemblages were idiosyncratic, four families contributed 21% of the total recorded and only two families contributed greater than 10%. Wetlands were not significantly nested on the basis of the composition of their macroinvertebrate assemblages. No single environmental attribute had a strong relationship with macroinvertebrate richness or assemblage composition and neither species richness nor assemblage composition varied significantly between different types of protected areas. Although the majority of protected area types were designed to support terrestrial conservation objectives rather than wetland values, our results suggest that the latter were also afforded protection. The state of the proximal zone (the terrestrial zone within 50m of the wetland edge and the type of aquatic habitat present (macrophyte or sediment-dominated substrates were the most important determinants of macroinvertebrate richness and assemblage composition across all types of protected wetlands. These results suggest that for temperate austral wetlands

  14. Use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish: a scientific evaluation of their effectiveness in Raivavae Island (Australes, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, H T; Drescher, O; Ponton, D; Pawlowiez, R; Laurent, D; Dewailly, E; Chinain, M

    2013-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning is a seafood intoxication commonly afflicting island communities in the Pacific. These populations, which are strongly dependent on fish resources, have developed over centuries various strategies to decrease the risk of intoxication, including the use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two folk tests commonly used in Raivavae Island (Australes, French Polynesia): the rigor mortis test (RMT) and the bleeding test (BT). A total of 107 fish were collected in Raivavae Lagoon, among which 80 were tested by five testers using the RMT versus 107 tested by four testers using BT. First, the performance between testers was compared. Second, the efficiency of these tests was compared with toxicity data obtained via the receptor binding assay (RBA) by assessing various parameter's values such as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Comparisons of outcomes between folk tests and RBA analyses were considered: tests used separately or in a parallel versus the series approach by each tester. The overall efficiency of the RMT and BT tests was also evaluated when the judgments of all testers were "pooled". The results demonstrate that efficiencies varied between testers with one showing the best scores in detecting toxic fish: 55% with RMT and 69.2% with BT. BT gave the best results in detecting toxic fish as compared with RMT, giving also better agreement between testers. If high NPV and Se values were to be privileged, the data also suggest that the best way to limit cases of intoxication would be to use RMT and BT tests in a parallel approach. The use of traditional knowledge and a good knowledge of risky versus healthy fishing areas may help reduce the risk of intoxication among communities where ciguatera fish poisoning is highly prevalent.

  15. Identification of virus and nematode resistance genes in the Chilota Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon López

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Potato Genebank of the Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh is an important gene bank in Chile. The accessions collected all over the country possess high genetic diversity, present interesting agronomic and cooking traits, and show resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. A particularly interesting subgroup of the gene bank includes the accessions collected in the South of Chile, the Chilota Potato Genebank. The focus of this study is the identification of virus and nematode resistant genes in potatoes (Solatium tuberosum L., using the RYSC3 and YES3-3B molecular markers. The Potato virus Y(PVY resistance genes Ry adg and Ry sto were identified. Furthermore, the CP60 marker was used to assess the Rx resistance gene that confers resistance to Potato virus X (PVX. In addition, the HC and GRO1-4 markers were utilized to identify the GpaVvrn_QTL and Gro1-4, resistance genes of Globodera pallida and Globodera rostochiensis, respectively. Both G. pallida and G. rostochiensis are Potato Cyst Nematodes (PCN. The plant material used in this study included leaves from 271 accessions of the gene bank. These samples were collected in the field where natural pathogen pressure of potential viruses and diseases exists. ELISA assays were run for field detection of PVY and PVX. However, there have been no previous reports of nematode presence in the plant material. The results herein presented indicate presence of virus and nematode resistance genes in accessions of the Chilota Potato Genebank. In terms of virus resistance, 99 accessions out of the 271 tested possess the Ry adg resistance gene and 17 accessions of these 271 tested have the Ry sto resistance gene. Also, 10 accessions showed positive amplification of the Rxl resistant gene marker. As to nematode resistance, 99 accessions have possible resistance to G. pallida and 54 accessions show potential resistance to G. rostochiensis as detected using the available molecular markers.

  16. New records of temperate mollusks in two Late Pleistocene terrestrial localities from northeastern Oaxaca, Southern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Arenas, Rosalía; Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo; García-Barrera, Pedro

    2013-11-01

    The Mixteca Alta Oaxaqueña is in the state of Oaxaca, southern Mexico. This region is characterized by numerous Pleistocene fossiliferous localities. The objective of this study is to describe a diverse assemblage of Late Pleistocene freshwater and terrestrial mollusks in two localities from northeastern Oaxaca, Coixtlahuaca District. We identified 10 taxa of gastropods and one of bivalves. By the sedimentological characteristics and the mollusks assemblage, it is possible to relate the first locality with meandriform river deposits, without vegetation. The second locality was associated with a floodplain with short-lived associated vegetation. Five identified species constitute the most austral records of these taxa in Neartic Realm. In all the taxa, the Late Pleistocene occurrences constitute the last records of the identified mollusks in the study zone.

  17. Research on Winter Lightning in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masaru

    Winter lightning in Japan is known for such characteristics as frequent occurrence of upward lightning and of positive ground flashes. On the engineering side, higher frequencies of troubles at transmission lines or wind turbines in winter due to lightning than those in summer have been experienced in the winter thunderstorm area of Japan, despite the much smaller number of lightning strokes in winter observed by lightning location systems (LLS). Such frequent troubles by lightning in the cold season are unique in Japan, which have promoted intensive research on winter lightning in Japan since 1980s.

  18. Changes in winter warming events in the Nordic Arctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikhamar-Schuler, Dagrun; Isaksen, Ketil; Haugen, Jan Erik; Bjerke, Jarle Werner; Tømmervik, Hans

    2015-04-01

    In recent years winter warming events are frequently reported from Arctic areas. Extraordinarily warm weather episodes, occasionally combined with intense rainfall, cause severe ecological disturbance and great challenges for Arctic infrastructure. For example, the formation of ground ice due to winter rain or melting prevents reindeer from grazing, leads to vegetation browning, and impacts soil temperatures. The infrastructure may be affected by avalanches and floods resulting from intense snowmelt. The aim of our analysis is to study changes in warm spells during winter in the Nordic Arctic Region, here defined as the regions in Norway, Sweden and Finland north of the Arctic circle (66.5°N), including the Arctic islands Svalbard and Jan Mayen. Within this study area we have selected the longest available high quality observation series with daily temperature and precipitation. For studying future climate we use available regionally downscaled scenarios. We analyse three time periods: 1) the past 50-100 years, 2) the present (last 15 years, 2000-2014) and 3) the future (next 50-100 years). We define an extended winter season (October-April) and further divide it into three subseasons: 1) Early winter (October and November), 2) Mid-winter (December, January and February) and 3) Late-winter (March and April). We identify warm spells using two different classification criteria: a) days with temperature above 0°C (the melting temperature); and b) days with temperature in excess of the 90th percentile of the 1985-2014 temperature for each subseason. Both wet and dry warm spells are analysed. We compare the results for the mainland stations (maritime and inland stations) with the Arctic islands. All stations have very high frequency of warm weather events in the period 1930-1940s and for the last 15 years (2000-2014). For the most recent period the largest increase in number of warm spells are observed at the northernmost stations. We also find a continuation of this

  19. Using weather indices to predict survival of winter wheat in a cool temperate environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhoe, H. N.; Lapen, D. R.; Andrews, C. J.

    2002-10-01

    Seven years of winter survival data for winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were collected on a loam soil located on the Central Experimental Farm at Ottawa, Ontario (45°23'N, 75°43'W). The site was low-lying and subject to frequent winter flooding and ice-sheet formation. Two cultivars, a soft white and a hard red winter wheat, were planted in September. Crop establishment was measured in late fall and the percentage survival was measured in April of the following year. Meteorological data, which were available from the nearby weather site, were used to develop a large set of monthly weather indices that were felt to be important for winter survival. The objective of the study was to use genetic selection algorithms and artificial neural networks to select a subset of critical weather factors and topographic features and to model winter survival. The six weather indices selected were the total rain depth for December (mm), the total rain depth for February (mm), the number of days of the month with snow on the ground for January, the extreme minimum observed daily air temperature for March (°C), the number of days of the month with snow on the ground for March, and the number of days of April with a daily maximum air temperature greater than 0 °C. It was found 89% of the variation in winter survival could be explained by these six weather indices, the cultivar, elevation and plot location.

  20. Heterotic patterns in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) using exotic germplasm for Chinese semi-winter hybrid breeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Lunwen; Chen Lunlin; Mei Jiaqin; Li Maoteng; Martin Frauen; Christian Jung; Qian Wei; Meng Jinling

    2013-01-01

    Chinese semi-winter rapeseed,genetically differing from winter and spring rapeseed,has been consid-ered to possess strong potential as parent in winter and spring rapeseed hybrid breeding programs. However,no de-tailed researches have been documented whether winter and spring rapeseed lines have potential for Chinese semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding. The objectives of this study are to estimate the potential of winter and spring rapeseed for semi-winter rapeseed hybrid breeding,and to investigate the association of general combining ability (GCA) with adaptation of parental lines by combining with the data in our previous studies. Four winter and four spring male sterile lines were crossed with 14 Chinese semi-winter rapeseed lines to develop 112 hybrids,which were evaluated together with their parents for seed yield under three environments in China. The exotic parental lines were not adapted to local environment as demonstrated by late flowering,low seed weight and poor seed yield per se. However,the hybrids,especially derived from winter rapeseed exhibited strong heterosis for seed yield,indicating that winter rapeseed germplasm has a great potential for rapeseed hybrid breeding in China. Our data suggested a strong association of GCA with their adaptation ability of parental lines,since high to middle cor-relations were found for local parental lines and low correlations for exotic parental lines under spring,winter and semi-winter eco-growth environments. The hybrid breeding program using exotic germplasm in rapeseed was dis-cussed.

  1. Late Accretion and the Late Veneer

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    The concept of Late Veneer has been introduced by the geochemical community to explain the abundance of highly siderophile elements in the Earth's mantle and their chondritic proportions relative to each other. However, in the complex scenario of Earth accretion, involving both planetesimal bombardment and giant impacts from chondritic and differentiated projectiles, it is not obvious what the "Late Veneer" actually corresponds to. In fact, the process of differentiation of the Earth was probably intermittent and there was presumably no well-defined transition between an earlier phase where all metal sunk into the core and a later phase in which the core was a closed entity separated from the mantle. In addition, the modellers of Earth accretion have introduced the concept of "Late Accretion", which refers to the material accreted by our planet after the Moon-forming event. Characterising Late Veneer, Late Accretion and the relationship between the two is the major goal of this chapter.

  2. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Young; Lee, Sangchui; Sadeghi, Ali M.; Beeson, Peter C.; Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Greg W.; Lang, Megan W.

    2013-01-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW), which is located in the Mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of winter cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops at the watershed scale and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically-based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data and satellite-based estimates of winter cover crop species performance to simulate hydrological processes and nutrient cycling over the period of 1991–2000. Multiple scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops planted and to investigate how nitrate loading could change with different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting times, and implementation areas. The results indicate that winter cover crops had a negligible impact on water budget, but significantly reduced nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading was approximately 14 kg ha−1, but it decreased to 4.6–10.1 kg ha−1 with winter cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27–67% at the watershed scale. Rye was most effective, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of winter cover crops (~30 days of additional growing days) was crucial, as it lowered nitrate export by an additional ~2 kg ha−1 when compared to late planting scenarios. The effectiveness of cover cropping increased with increasing extent of winter cover crop implementation. Agricultural fields with well-drained soils

  3. Communicating Certainty About Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robock, A.

    2013-12-01

    I have been spending much of my time in the past several years trying to warn the world about the continuing danger of nuclear weapons, and that the solution is a rapid reduction in the nuclear arsenal. I feel that a scientist who discovers dangers to society has an ethical duty to issue a warning, even if the danger is so scary that it is hard for people to deal with. The debate about nuclear winter in the 1980s helped to end the nuclear arms race, but the planet still has enough nuclear weapons, even after reductions planned for 2017 under the New START treaty, to produce nuclear winter, with temperatures plunging below freezing in the summer in major agricultural regions, threatening the food supply for most of the planet. New research by myself, Brian Toon, Mike Mills, and colleagues over the past six years has found that a nuclear war between any two countries, such as India and Pakistan, using 50 atom bombs each of the size dropped on Hiroshima could produce climate change unprecedented in recorded human history, and a world food crisis because of the agricultural effects. This is much less than 1% of the current global arsenal. Communicating certainty - what we know for sure - has been much more effective than communicating uncertainty. The limited success I have had has come from persistence and serendipity. The first step was to do the science. We have published peer-reviewed articles in major journals, including Science, Nature, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, Physics Today, and Climatic Change. But policymakers do not read these journals. Through fairly convoluted circumstances, which will be described in this talk, we were able to get papers published in Scientific American and the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. I have also published several encyclopedia articles on the subject. As a Lead Author of Chapter 8 (Radiative Forcing) of the recently published Fifth Assessment

  4. The Influence of the East Asian Winter Monsoon on Indonesian Rainfall During the Past 60,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecky, B. L.; Russell, J. M.; Vogel, H.; Bijaksana, S.; Huang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) invigorates the oceanic-atmospheric circulation in the tropics, with far-reaching climate impacts that extend into the high latitudes. A growing number of deglacial proxy reconstructions from the Maritime Continent and its surrounding seas have revealed the importance of both high- and low-latitude climate processes to IPWP rainfall during the deglaciation and the Holocene. However, few records extend beyond the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), making it difficult to assess regional rainfall characteristics and monsoon interactions under the glacial/interglacial boundary conditions of the Pleistocene. Proxy reconstructions of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of rainfall (δ18O/δDprecip) have proven useful in understanding millennial to orbital scale changes in the climate of the Maritime Continent, but the tendency for δ18O/δDprecip in this region to reflect regional and/or remote climate processes has highlighted the need to reconstruct δ18O/δDprecip alongside independent proxies for continental rainfall amount. Here we present a reconstruction of δDprecip using leaf wax compounds preserved in the sediments of Lake Towuti, Central Sulawesi, from 60,000 years before present (kyr BP) to today. Our δDprecip reconstruction provides a precipitation isotopic counterpart to multi-proxy geochemical reconstructions of surface hydrology and vegetation characteristics from the same sediment cores, enabling for the first time an independent assessment of both continental rainfall intensity and δDprecip from this region on glacial/interglacial timescales. We find that orbital-scale variations in δDprecip and rainfall intensity are strongly tied to the East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM), which is an important contributor to the band of convection over the Maritime Continent during austral summer. Unlike today, however, severely dry conditions in Central Sulawesi during the Last Glacial Maximum were accompanied by a strengthened

  5. Phytoclimate of winter rye stands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittchen, U. [Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Kleinmachnow (Germany); Chmielewski, F.M. [Humboldt-Univ. of Berlin, Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture, Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The present study describes the microclimate within a winter rye (Secale cereale) stand compared to that above a bare soil at the same height. It is focused on air temperature and humidity. The study is based on long-term measurements (1981-1999) at 0.2 m above ground in the agrometeorological field experiment at Berlin-Dahlem (Humboldt-University of Berlin). The microclimate within a winter rye stand differs significantly from that above a bare soil. Temperature and actual vapour pressure differences between both locations depend on the developmental stage of the plants as well as the time of the day. Their influence is so strong that a detailed analysis of the microclimate makes it necessary to break down the growing time of crop into several developmental periods. So, it was possible to describe and explain the characteristics of the phytoclimate in a relatively detailed and comprehensive manner. Thereby the assessment of potential damages caused by pests and diseases within crop stands becomes more precise. (orig.)

  6. Winter therapy for the accelerators

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    Hundreds of people are hard at work during the year-end technical stop as all the accelerators are undergoing maintenance, renovation and upgrade operations in parallel.   The new beam absorber on its way to Point 2 before being lowered into the LHC tunnel for installation. The accelerator teams didn’t waste any time before starting their annual winter rejuvenation programme over the winter. At the end of November, as the LHC ion run was beginning, work got under way on the PS Booster, where operation had already stopped. On 14 December, once the whole complex had been shut down, the technical teams turned their attention to the other injectors and the LHC. The year-end technical stop (YETS) provides an opportunity to carry out maintenance work on equipment and repair any damage as well as to upgrade the machines for the upcoming runs. Numerous work projects are carried out simultaneously, so good coordination is crucial. Marzia Bernardini's team in the Enginee...

  7. Estudio integrado del ecosistema en el estrecho de Bransfield y alrededores de la Isla Elefante, verano austral 2013: presentación

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Carlos Martín; Espino, Marco Antonio

    2016-01-01

    En el ANTAR XXI se ejecutó un programa científico que fue realizado a bordo del BIC Humboldt del 22 de enero al 28 de febrero durante el verano austral 2013. Este programa tuvo por finalidad describir el ecosistema antártico como una función de las interrelaciones entre el krill antártico (Euphasia superba), sus depredadores y las condiciones oceanográficas y biológicas del medio marino. Pero además, cabe destacar, la implementación en el programa de la primera investigación peruana de ...

  8. Sedimentología y modelos deposicionales de la formación Mata Amarilla, cretácico de la Cuenca Austral, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Varela, Augusto N.

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo consistió en el análisis sedimentológico y estratigráfico de los depósitos litorales y continentales de la Formación Mata Amarilla, la cual aflora en el Sudoeste de la provincia de Santa Cruz y forma parte del relleno de la Cuenca Austral. Es identificada litoestratigráficamente por la alternancia muy marcada de areniscas blanquecinas y pelitas grises y negras, que en su parte inferior y superior posee niveles de coquinas y arenas bioclásticas. Para el desarro...

  9. Política y cultura : Biblioteca Contemporánea y Colección Austral, dos modelos de difusión cultural

    OpenAIRE

    Larraz, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    El inicio del período de mayor auge editorial ocurrido en la historia de Argentina, entre 1937 y 1951, coincide con el lanzamiento de dos colecciones de bolsillo muy relevantes para la educación de una generación: la Biblioteca Contemporánea, de la Editorial Losada; y la Colección Austral, de la editorial Espasa-Calpe Argentina. Ambas colecciones responden a sendos proyectos editoriales cuyos fundamentos son analizados en este trabajo. Para ello, se explica su origen y se lleva a cabo un anál...

  10. Potential effects of drought on carrying capacity for wintering waterfowl in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrie, Mark J.; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Wolder, Mike A.; Isola, Craig R.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Skalos, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    We used the bioenergetics model TRUEMET to evaluate potential effects of California's recent drought on food supplies for waterfowl wintering in the Central Valley under a range of habitat and waterfowl population scenarios. In nondrought years in the current Central Valley landscape, food supplies are projected to be adequate for waterfowl from fall through early spring (except late March) even if waterfowl populations reach North American Waterfowl Management Plan goals. However, in all drought scenarios that we evaluated, food supplies were projected to be exhausted for ducks by mid- to late winter and by late winter or early spring for geese. For ducks, these results were strongly related to projected declines in winter-flooded rice fields that provide 45% of all the food energy available to ducks in the Central Valley in nondrought water years. Delayed flooding of some managed wetlands may help alleviate food shortages by providing wetland food resources better timed with waterfowl migration and abundance patterns in the Central Valley, as well as reducing the amount of water needed to manage these habitats. However, future research is needed to evaluate the impacts of delayed flooding on waterfowl hunting, and whether California's existing water delivery system would make delayed flooding feasible. Securing adequate water supplies for waterfowl and other wetland-dependent birds is among the greatest challenges facing resource managers in coming years, especially in the increasingly arid western United States.

  11. Impact of MJO on the diurnal cycle of rainfall over the western Maritime Continent in the austral summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Yul; Lim, Gyu-Ho [Seoul National University, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    This paper investigates the impact of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on the diurnal cycle of rainfall over the western Maritime Continent during the austral summer. For this purpose, cyclostationary empirical orthogonal function analysis is applied to the tropical rainfall measuring mission rain rate and the Japanese Reanalysis-25 data for the period 1998-2008. The real-time multivariate MJO index by Wheeler and Hendon (Mon Wea Rev 132:1917-1932, 2004) is adopted to define the intensity and the phase of MJO. It is demonstrated that the hourly maximum rain rate over the domain tends to increase when convectively active phase of MJO approaches the Maritime Continent. In contrast, the hourly maximum rain rate tends to decrease when convectively suppressed phase of MJO resides over the region. The changes in the rain rate due to MJO differ over the ocean and the land. This difference is the greatest when the MJO is in the mature stage. Throughout the day during this stage, terrestrial rain rates show minimum values while diurnally varying oceanic rain rates record maximum values. Thus, precipitation becomes more intense in the morning over the Java Sea and is weakened in the evening over Borneo and Sumatra during the mature stage of MJO. During the decaying stage of MJO over the Maritime Continent, the diurnal cycle of precipitation weakens significantly over the ocean but only weakly over land. Analyses suggest that the anomalous lower level winds accompanied by MJO interact with the monsoonal flow over the Maritime Continent. Westerlies induced by MJO convection in the mature stage are superimposed on the monsoonal westerlies over the equator and increase wind speed mainly over the Java Sea due to the blocking effect of orography. Mountainous islands induce flow bifurcation, causing near-surface winds to converge mainly over the oceanic channels between two islands. As a result, heat flux release from the ocean to the atmosphere is enhanced by the increased

  12. On the influence of zonal gravity wave distributions on the Southern Hemisphere winter circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilienthal, Friederike; Jacobi, Christoph; Schmidt, Torsten; de la Torre, Alejandro; Alexander, Peter

    2017-07-01

    A mechanistic global circulation model is used to simulate the Southern Hemisphere stratospheric, mesospheric, and lower thermospheric circulation during austral winter. The model includes a gravity wave (GW) parameterization that is initiated by prescribed 2-D fields of GW parameters in the troposphere. These are based on observations of GW potential energy calculated using GPS radio occultations and show enhanced GW activity east of the Andes and around the Antarctic. In order to detect the influence of an observation-based and thus realistic 2-D GW distribution on the middle atmosphere circulation, we perform model experiments with zonal mean and 2-D GW initialization, and additionally with and without forcing of stationary planetary waves (SPWs) at the lower boundary of the model. As a result, we find additional forcing of SPWs in the stratosphere, a weaker zonal wind jet in the mesosphere, cooling of the mesosphere and warming near the mesopause above the jet. SPW wavenumber 1 (SPW1) amplitudes are generally increased by about 10 % when GWs are introduced being longitudinally dependent. However, at the upper part of the zonal wind jet, SPW1 in zonal wind and GW acceleration are out of phase, which reduces the amplitudes there.

  13. A Third Way for Entomophthoralean Fungi to Survive the Winter: Slow Disease Transmission between Individuals of the Hibernating Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Bruun Jensen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In temperate regions, insect pathogenic fungi face the challenge of surviving through the winter. Winter is a time when hosts are immobile, low in number or are present in a stage which is not susceptible to infection. Fungi from Entomophthoromycota have so far been known to survive the winter in two ways: either as (1 thick-walled resting spores released into environment from dead hosts, or as (2 structures inside the dead host (e.g., hyphal bodies. Here we report, from the Danish environment, a third way to survive the winter, namely a slow progression and transmission of Entomophthora schizophorae in adult dipteran Pollenia hosts that hibernate in clusters in unheated attics, sheltered areas outdoors (under bark etc.. Fungus-killed sporulating flies were observed outside very early and very late in the season. By sampling adults at the time of their emergence from hibernation in late winter/early spring we documented that the fungus was naturally prevalent and killed flies after a period of incubation. Experimentally we documented that even at the low temperature of 5 °C, the fungus was able to maintain itself in Pollenia cohorts for up to 90 days. From these observations the full winter cycle of this fungus is elucidated. The three types of winter survival are discussed in relation to fungus epidemic development.

  14. Diurnal time-activity budgets of redheads (Aythya americana) wintering in seagrass beds and coastal ponds in Louisiana and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michot, T.C.; Woodin, M.C.; Adair, S.E.; Moser, E.B.

    2006-01-01

    Diurnal time-activity budgets were determined for wintering redheads (Aythya americana) from estuarine seagrass beds in Louisiana (Chandeleur Sound) and Texas (Laguna Madre) and from ponds adjacent to the Laguna Madre. Activities differed (pLaguna Madre or freshwater ponds. Redheads in Louisiana fed more than birds in Texas; this was partially because of weather differences (colder temperatures in Louisiana), but the location effect was still significant even when we adjusted the model for weather effects. Redheads in Louisiana showed increased resting and decreased feeding as winter progressed, but redheads in Texas did not exhibit a seasonal pattern in either resting or feeding. In Louisiana, birds maintained a high level of feeding activity during the early morning throughout the winter, whereas afternoon feeding tapered off in mid- to late-winter. Texas birds showed a shift from morning feeding in early winter to afternoon feeding in late winter. Males and females at both Chandeleur Sound and Laguna Madre showed differences in their activities, but because the absolute difference seldom exceeded 2%, biological significance is questionable. Diurnal time-activity budgets of redheads on the wintering grounds are influenced by water salinities and the use of dietary fresh water, as well as by weather conditions, tides, and perhaps vegetation differences between sites. The opportunity to osmoregulate via dietary freshwater, vs. via nasal salt glands, may have a significant effect on behavioral allocations. ?? Springer 2006.

  15. Evolution of microwave limb sounder ozone and the polar vortex during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, G. L.; Froidevaux, L.; Waters, J. W.; Zurek, R. W.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of polar ozone observed by the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is described for the northern hemisphere (NH) winters of 1991/1992, 1992/1993, and 1993/1994 and the southern hemisphere (SH) winters of 1992 and 1993. Imterannual and interhemispheric variability in polar ozone evolution are closely related to differences in the polar vortex and to the frequency, duration and strength of stratospheric sudden warmings. Ozone in the midstratospheric vortices increases during the winter, with largest increases associated with stratospheric warmings and a much larger increase in the NH than in the SH. A smaller NH increase was observed in 1993/1994, when the middle stratospheric vortex was stronger. During strong stratospheric warmings in the NH, the upper stratospheric vortex may be so much eroded that it presents little barrier to poleward transport; in contrast, the SH vortex remains strong throughout the stratosphere during wintertime warmings, and ozone increases only below the mixing ratio peak, due to enhanced diabatic descent. Ozone mixing ratios decrease rapidly in the lower stratosphere in both SH late winters, as expected from chemical destruction due to enhanced reactive chlorine. The interplay between dynamics and chemistry is more complex in the NH lower stratosphere and interannual variability is greater. Evidence has previously been shown for chemical ozone destruction in the 1991/1992 and 1992/1993 winters. We show here evidence suggesting some chemical destruction in late February and early March 1994. In the NH late winter lower stratosphere the pattern of high-ozone values (typical of the vortex) seen in mid-latitudes is related to the strength of the lower-stratospheric vortex, with the largest areal extent of high ozone outside the vortex in 1994, when the lower stratospheric vortex is relatively weak, and the least extent in 1993 when the lower stratospheric vortex is strongest.

  16. Influence of Warm Winter and Cold Winter Year on Wintering Ability and Heading Stage in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum)%暖冷年对选择小麦越冬性和抽穗期的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟伟; 王凤宝; 董立峰; 付金锋

    2011-01-01

    为选育强冬性、冬冷年正常成熟的小麦新品种,解决小麦生产上经常出现的冻害及其导致的小麦迟熟问题,对河北科技师范学院2008-2009年度(冬暖年)、2009-2010年度(冬冷年)冬小麦杂种高代材料的枯死度、分蘖节入土深度、抽穗期进行了比较研究.研究表明:分蘖节入土深度与越冬死亡率的相关系数为-0.6185,呈极显著差异;枯死度与越冬死亡率的相关系数为0.1635,差异不显著,分蘖节入土深度选择方法优于枯死度选择法,尤其是冬暖年枯死度选择法可靠性较差.冬冷年对小麦抽穗期带来不同程度的滞后,2008-2009年度(冬暖年)与2009-2010年度(冬冷年)比较,2009-2010年度小麦的抽穗期推迟了7天~14天,与冬暖年形成显著的差值.分析表明:其差值越大的材料,温光反应往往越敏感,差值越小,温光反应往往越迟钝.该研究认为利用分蘖节入土深度及冬暖年、冬冷年抽穗期的差值作为选择指标,选育强冬性、温光反应迟钝的小麦品种是可行的.%For breading the new wheat varieties which have strong resistance to winter and mature normally in Cold Winter Year and solve the problems of freeze injury and late-maturing usually happened in wheat production, we study comparatively the death degree, buried depth of tillering node and heading stage of high hybrid winter wheat generation materials from Hebei Normal University of Science & Technology in 2008-2009 year (warm winter year) and 2009-2010 year (cold winter year). The results showed that the related coefficient between depth of tillering node and death rate in winter was -0.6185, and they were in extremely notable difference, the related coefficient between the death degree and death rate in winter was 0.1635, and they were not in notable difference, and selection method of buried depth of tillering node was superior to the method of death degree, especially in warm winter the death degree had bad

  17. Contribución al estudio del género Rhynchospora (Cyperaceae V. Sección Longirostres en América Austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación R. Guaglianone

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available La sección Longirostres del género Rhynchospora subgénero Haplostylis (Cyperaceae, comprende 19 especies, la mayoría extendidas en América tropical y templada, 2 especies cosmopolitas y otra, R. hookeri, está restringida a Malasia, India y Africa. Rhynchospora careyana, R. corniculata, R. inundata y R. macrostachya habitan en América del Norte y las Antillas. De las 13 especies que se encuentran en América austral, se describen en este trabajo, 10 especies, 2 subespecies y 5 variedades. Estos taxones son: R. corymbosa, cosmopolita, y sus variedades: corymbosa, bonariensis y chacoensis; se proponen dos nuevas combinaciones, y stat. nov.: R. corymbosa var. angustirostris (Barros Guagl. y R. corymbosa var. legrandii (Kük. ex Barros Guagl. Se tratan también R. amazonica y su subsp. guianensis, R. asperula (previamente subordinada a R. corymbosa; R. gigantea, R. scutellata, R. stenocarpa, R. triflora, también cosmopolita y R. trispicata. Se describe una nueva especie, R. latibracteata Guagl., de Brasil austral y Uruguay, y se propone un nuevo nombre: R. pedersenii Guagl. Todos los taxones son descriptos y la mayoría ilustrados. Se proveen claves para su identificación y mapas de distribución geográfica. R. sampaioana, se excluye de la sección Longirostres

  18. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  19. Nuclear Winter: Scientists in the Political Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badash, Lawrence

    2001-03-01

    The nuclear winter phenomenon is used to illustrate the many paths by which scientific advice reaches decision makers in the United States government. Because the Reagan administration was hostile to the strategic policy that the scientific discovery seemed to demand, the leading proponent of nuclear winter, Carl Sagan, used his formidable talent for popularization to reach a larger audience.

  20. Extensive lake sediment coring survey on Sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean Kerguelen Archipelago (French Austral and Antarctic Lands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Fabien; Fanget, Bernard; Malet, Emmanuel; Poulenard, Jérôme; Støren, Eivind; Leloup, Anouk; Bakke, Jostein; Sabatier, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Recent paleo-studies revealed climatic southern high latitude climate evolution patterns that are crucial to understand the global climate evolution(1,2). Among others the strength and north-south shifts of westerlies wind appeared to be a key parameter(3). However, virtually no lands are located south of the 45th South parallel between Southern Georgia (60°W) and New Zealand (170°E) precluding the establishment of paleoclimate records of past westerlies dynamics. Located around 50°S and 70°E, lost in the middle of the sub-Antarctic Indian Ocean, Kerguelen archipelago is a major, geomorphologically complex, land-mass that is covered by hundreds lakes of various sizes. It hence offers a unique opportunity to reconstruct past climate and environment dynamics in a region where virtually nothing is known about it, except the remarkable recent reconstructions based on a Lateglacial peatbog sequence(4). During the 2014-2015 austral summer, a French-Norwegian team led the very first extensive lake sediment coring survey on Kerguelen Archipelago under the umbrella of the PALAS program supported by the French Polar Institute (IPEV). Two main areas were investigated: i) the southwest of the mainland, so-called Golfe du Morbihan, where glaciers are currently absent and ii) the northernmost Kerguelen mainland peninsula so-called Loranchet, where cirque glaciers are still present. This double-target strategy aims at reconstructing various independent indirect records of precipitation (glacier advance, flood dynamics) and wind speed (marine spray chemical species, wind-borne terrigenous input) to tackle the Holocene climate variability. Despite particularly harsh climate conditions and difficult logistics matters, we were able to core 6 lake sediment sites: 5 in Golfe du Morbihan and one in Loranchet peninsula. Among them two sequences taken in the 4km-long Lake Armor using a UWITEC re-entry piston coring system by 20 and 100m water-depth (6 and 7m-long, respectively). One

  1. Interannual variations in the zonal asymmetry of the subpolar latitudes total ozone column during the austral spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Agosta

    2010-06-01

    patrones estadísticamente significativos en geopotencial y vientos zonales asociados a una onda cuasi-estacionaria 1 que abarca la estratósfera inferior. Los cambios en la onda cuasi-estacionaria 1 asociados a las posiciones extremas de mínimo de ozono muestran tener fuentes y sumideros que determinan interacciones transientes entre la troposfera y la estratosfera. Así, estados climáticos distinguibles de la troposfera parecen estar dinámicamente vinculados con el estado de la estratosfera y la capa de ozono. La migración de la vaguada de CTO desde el sur de Sudamérica hacia el este durante la década de 1990 puede estar vinculada a cambios en la variabilidad del Modo Anular del Sur durante la primavera austral.

  2. Late recurrence of medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Brittney; Razzaqi, Faisal; Yu, Lolie; Craver, Randall

    2008-01-01

    We present a child with a cerebellar medulloblastoma, diagnosed at age three, treated with near total surgical resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, that recurred 13 years after the initial diagnosis. This late recurrence exceeds the typical 10-year survival statistics that are in common use, and exceeds the Collins rule. Continued follow-up of these children is justified to increase the likelihood of detecting these late recurrences early and to learn more about these late recurrences.

  3. Did the Laki volcano eruption cause the cold winter of 1783-1784?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    In June 1783 the Laki volcano in Iceland began to erupt and continued erupting for months, causing a major environmental disaster. The eruption spewed out toxic sulfuric acid aerosols, which spread over northern latitudes and caused thousands of deaths. That summer, there were heat waves, widespread famines, crop failures, and livestock losses. During the following winter, temperatures in Europe were about 2°C below average for the late 1700s; the winter was also one of the most severe of the past 500 years in eastern North America. The Laki eruption has been blamed for the anomalously cold winter of 1783-1784. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL046696, 2011)

  4. Nuclear winter or nuclear fall?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, André

    Climate is universal. If a major modern nuclear war (i.e., with a large number of small-yield weapons) were to happen, it is not even necessary to have a specific part of the world directly involved for there to be cause to worry about the consequences for its inhabitants and their future. Indeed, smoke from fires ignited by the nuclear explosions would be transported by winds all over the world, causing dark and cold. According to the first study, by Turco et al. [1983], air surface temperature over continental areas of the northern mid-latitudes (assumed to be the nuclear war theatre) would fall to winter levels even in summer (hence the term “nuclear winter”) and induce drastic climatic conditions for several months at least. The devastating effects of a nuclear war would thus last much longer than was assumed initially. Discussing to what extent these estimations of long-term impacts on climate are reliable is the purpose of this article.

  5. Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabó A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H+-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg2+-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.

  6. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D.; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K.; Burgess, Elizabeth A.; Lanyon, Janet M.

    2014-01-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through permanova, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  7. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  8. Decreasing but still significant facilitation effect of cold-season macrophytes on wetlands purification function during cold winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangxu; Zhang, Hui; Zuo, Jie; Wang, Penghe; Zhao, Dehua; An, Shuqing

    2016-06-01

    To identify the facilitation effect of a cool-season aquatic macrophyte (FEam) for use in effluent purification via constructed floating wetlands (CFWs) and to determine the possible pathways used during a winter period with an average temperature of less than 5 °C, pilot-scale CFWs were planted with the cold-season macrophyte Oenanthe clecumbens and were operated as batch systems. Although some leaves withered, the roots retained relatively high levels of activity during the winter, which had average air and water temperatures of 3.63 and 5.04 °C, respectively. The N and P removal efficiencies in CFWs decreased significantly in winter relative to those in late autumn. The presence of cool-season plants resulted in significant improvements in N and P removal, with a FEam of 15.23-25.86% in winter. Microbial N removal accounted for 71.57% of the total N removed in winter, and the decrease in plant uptake was the dominant factor in the wintertime decrease in N removal relative to that in late autumn. These results demonstrate the importance of cold-season plants in CFWs for the treatment of secondary effluent during cold winters.

  9. Variation in the hindgut microbial communities of the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris over winter in Crystal River, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Samuel D; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Gulino, Lisa-Maree; Klieve, Athol; Bonde, Robert K; Burgess, Elizabeth A; Lanyon, Janet M

    2014-03-01

    The Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris, is a hindgut-fermenting herbivore. In winter, manatees migrate to warm water overwintering sites where they undergo dietary shifts and may suffer from cold-induced stress. Given these seasonally induced changes in diet, the present study aimed to examine variation in the hindgut bacterial communities of wild manatees overwintering at Crystal River, west Florida. Faeces were sampled from 36 manatees of known sex and body size in early winter when manatees were newly arrived and then in mid-winter and late winter when diet had probably changed and environmental stress may have increased. Concentrations of faecal cortisol metabolite, an indicator of a stress response, were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Using 454-pyrosequencing, 2027 bacterial operational taxonomic units were identified in manatee faeces following amplicon pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V3/V4 region. Classified sequences were assigned to eight previously described bacterial phyla; only 0.36% of sequences could not be classified to phylum level. Five core phyla were identified in all samples. The majority (96.8%) of sequences were classified as Firmicutes (77.3 ± 11.1% of total sequences) or Bacteroidetes (19.5 ± 10.6%). Alpha-diversity measures trended towards higher diversity of hindgut microbiota in manatees in mid-winter compared to early and late winter. Beta-diversity measures, analysed through PERMANOVA, also indicated significant differences in bacterial communities based on the season.

  10. Personality in Late Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Molbo, Drude

    2014-01-01

    To analyze associations in late midlife between sex, age, education and social class, and the Big Five personality traits; to analyze associations between personality traits and cognitive ability in late midlife; and to evaluate how these associations are influenced by demographic factors....

  11. Regional characteristics of the interdecadal turning of winter/summer climate modes in Chinese mainland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI XiaoHui; XU XiangDe

    2007-01-01

    Tomé and Miranda's climate trend turning discriminatory model is used to identify the spatial-temporal characteristics of the interdecadal turning of winter/summer climate modes at stations and in eight sub-areas over Chinese mainland based on the 1961-2000 observations. It is found that the stations with close occurrence years of the interdecadal trend turning (ITT) and coincident trends after the ITT exhibit a zonal distribution. A view is accordingly proposed that the interdecadal turnings of climate modes in China have remarkably regional structures. The research results show that after the early 1980s, winter climate over Chinese mainland overall trends towards a "warm-wet" mode, while summer climate had an abrupt change into "warm wet" mode in the late 1980s, suggesting that the time of the "warm-wet" mode turning for winter climate is earlier than that for summer climate. The regional characteristics and test results of the ITTs in eight sub-areas suggest that winter climate exhibits a distinctive "warm-dry" trend in North China after the late 1970s, and a slight "warm-dry" trend in Northeast China, South China, and Southwest China after the late 1980s. A "warm-wet" trend appears in the rest four sub-areas (the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River Valley, briefly Jianghuai, the east of the Tibetan plateau, and the east and west of Northwest China) after the early 1980s. The summer climate trends towards a "warm-dry" mode in Northeast China, North China and the east of Northwest China after the late 1980s, but a "warm-wet" mode appears in Southwest China and the east of the Tibetan plateau after the middle 1970s, as well as in Jianghuai and the west of Northwest China after the early 1980s. Specially, summer climate in South China started a "cold-wet" trend in 1984.

  12. STS-65 Earth observation of northern Australia (winter burning) from OV-102

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    STS-65 Earth observation taken aboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, shows late winter burning in northern Australia and the extreme northern coastal area that includes the Cobourg Peninsula, as well as Melville and Bathurst Islands. These fires were probably set intentionally to renew pasture under open canopy woodland. The very dark lowland areas on Melville Island represent mangrove woodland. In contrast to some other tropical regions (for example Madagascar and Indonesia), no soil erosion (sediment plumes) is visible in this photograph.

  13. Winter forage selection by barren-ground caribou: Effects of fire and snow

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Saperstein

    1996-01-01

    Both long- and short-term consequences should be considered when examining the effects of fire on the foraging behavior of caribou. Post-fire increases in protein content, digestibility, and availability of E. vaginatum make burned tussock tundra an attractive feeding area for caribou in late winter. These benefits are likely short-lived, however. Lowered availability of lichens and increased relative frequency of bryophytes will persist for a much longer period.

  14. Winter forage selection by barren-ground caribou: Effects of fire and snow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Saperstein

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Both long- and short-term consequences should be considered when examining the effects of fire on the foraging behavior of caribou. Post-fire increases in protein content, digestibility, and availability of E. vaginatum make burned tussock tundra an attractive feeding area for caribou in late winter. These benefits are likely short-lived, however. Lowered availability of lichens and increased relative frequency of bryophytes will persist for a much longer period.

  15. Analysis of the warmest Arctic winter, 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullather, Richard I.; Lim, Young-Kwon; Boisvert, Linette N.; Brucker, Ludovic; Lee, Jae N.; Nowicki, Sophie M. J.

    2016-10-01

    December through February 2015-2016 defines the warmest winter season over the Arctic in the observational record. Positive 2 m temperature anomalies were focused over regions of reduced sea ice cover in the Kara and Barents Seas and southwestern Alaska. A third region is found over the ice-covered central Arctic Ocean. The period is marked by a strong synoptic pattern which produced melting temperatures in close proximity to the North Pole in late December and anomalous high pressure near the Taymyr Peninsula. Atmospheric teleconnections from the Atlantic contributed to warming over Eurasian high-latitude land surfaces, and El Niño-related teleconnections explain warming over southwestern Alaska and British Columbia, while warm anomalies over the central Arctic are associated with physical processes including the presence of enhanced atmospheric water vapor and an increased downwelling longwave radiative flux. Preconditioning of sea ice conditions by warm temperatures affected the ensuing spring extent.

  16. Effects of winter road grooming on bison in YNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjornlie, Daniel D; Garrott, R.A.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of winter recreation—specifically snowmobiling—on wildlife in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) have become high-profile management issues. The road grooming needed to support oversnow travel in YNP is also being examined for its effects on bison (Bison bison) ecology. Data were collected from November 1997 through May 1998 and from December 1998 through May 1999 on the effects of road grooming on bison in Madison–Gibbon–Firehole (MGF) area of YNP Peak bison numbers occurred during late March—early April and were strongly correlated with the snow water equivalent measurements in the Hayden Valley area (1997–1998: r* = 0.62, p:0.001: 1998–1999: r2 = 0.64, P-0.001). Data from an infrared trail monitor on the Mary Mountain trail between the Hayden and Firehole valleys suggest that this trail is the sole corridor for major bison distributional shifts between these locations. Of the 28,293 observations of individual bison made during the study, 8% were traveling and 69% were foraging. These percentages were nearly identical during the period of winter road grooming (7% and 68%, respectively). During this period, 77% of bison foraging activity and 12% of bison traveling activity involved displacing snow. Most travel took place off roads (Pgrooming, with peak use in April and lowest use during the road-grooming period. Bison in the MGF area of YNF neither seek out nor avoid groomed roads. The minimal use of roads compared to off-road areas, the short distances traveled on the roads, the decreased use of roads during the over snow vehicle (OSV) season, and the increased costs of negative interactions with OSVs suggest that grooming roads during winter does not have a major influence on bison ecology.

  17. Increased body mass of ducks wintering in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Yee, Julie L.; Yarris, Gregory S.; Loughman, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Waterfowl managers lack the information needed to fully evaluate the biological effects of their habitat conservation programs. We studied body condition of dabbling ducks shot by hunters at public hunting areas throughout the Central Valley of California during 2006–2008 compared with condition of ducks from 1979 to 1993. These time periods coincide with habitat increases due to Central Valley Joint Venture conservation programs and changing agricultural practices; we modeled to ascertain whether body condition differed among waterfowl during these periods. Three dataset comparisons indicate that dabbling duck body mass was greater in 2006–2008 than earlier years and the increase was greater in the Sacramento Valley and Suisun Marsh than in the San Joaquin Valley, differed among species (mallard [Anas platyrhynchos], northern pintail [Anas acuta], America wigeon [Anas americana], green-winged teal [Anas crecca], and northern shoveler [Anas clypeata]), and was greater in ducks harvested late in the season. Change in body mass also varied by age–sex cohort and month for all 5 species and by September–January rainfall for all except green-winged teal. The random effect of year nested in period, and sometimes interacting with other factors, improved models in many cases. Results indicate that improved habitat conditions in the Central Valley have resulted in increased winter body mass of dabbling ducks, especially those that feed primarily on seeds, and this increase was greater in regions where area of post-harvest flooding of rice and other crops, and wetland area, has increased. Conservation programs that continue to promote post-harvest flooding and other agricultural practices that benefit wintering waterfowl and continue to restore and conserve wetlands would likely help maintain body condition of wintering dabbling ducks in the Central Valley of California.

  18. Silent as a Winter Cuckoo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pad+ma dbang chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When my grandparents were children, parents were gods and their decisions about such issues as marriage and the choice of marriage partners were final. Children had no right to choose a spouse. Many parents found a daughter-in-law with a blood relationship for their son, believing this would better ensure family harmony. Consequently, many Tibetans struggled in sad marriages. Of course, parents hoped their children would have a good, stable life and not all arranged marriages were unhappy. When Grandfather was eighteen he herded sheep on our pastureland everyday. At that time, sheep and goats covered an enormous mountain that resembled a member of the Himalayas. Herders stayed together, played, told folktales, and sang folksongs. Some wrestled and others talked about their lovers. In many ways this daily gathering resembled a celebration of victory in battle. Grandfather and his lover, Dkon mchog mtsho, herded and had lunch together everyday. They went home from the pastureland and soon met again after supper, because they loved and needed each other as fish need water. They felt that they were the happiest people in the world, and hoped to marry. Everyone understood their intimate relationship and envied their loyalty to each other. Some other girls were especially jealous because Grandfather was handsome. In time, Great-grandfather discovered their relationship and resolved to end it. Grandfather was as silent as a winter cuckoo, because he was afraid of his father. However, he thought about how to convince his parents, or how to have a life with his lover. After some days he decided to elope, went to the place where he usually met Dkon mchog mtsho, and found her there. They looked longingly at each other as Dkon mchog mtsho's tears streamed down her red cheeks and seeped into the earth.

  19. Effect of cultivar and year on phyllochron in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and growth of leaves in cereals significantly affects grain yield since dry matter accumulation depends on the leaf area that intercepts light. Phyllochron (PHY is defined as time interval between the emergences of successive leaves on the main stem. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of year and cultivar on phyllochron in winter barley. Twelve cultivars of winter barley differing in origin and time of anthesis were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. The highest PHY across GSs was determined in the two-rowed cultivar Cordoba (81.6°Cd and the lowest in the two-rowed cultivar Novosadski 581 (71.0°Cd. The early cultivars had fast leaf development, the medium cultivars medium and the late cultivars slow development, 72.5°Cd, 75.6°Cd and 78.9°Cd, respectively. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in the PHY, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  20. Effect of Simple Plastic-film Greenhouse on Environmental Factors in Crown of Lane Late Navel Orange in Winter%简易塑料大棚对冬季晚棱脐橙树冠内环境因子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚锋先; 管冠; 谢金招; 钟八莲

    2015-01-01

    Taking 4-year-old lane late navel orange as research material , the author used a simple plastic-film greenhouse to study the change characteristics of temperature and humidity in the crown of tree .The results showed that the temperature and hu-midity in the tree crown in the simple plastic greenhouse were closely relevant to those in the open air ( the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.7359 and 0.7489, respectively), the average temperature in greenhouse was 1.6℃higher, and the humidity was slightly low-er than those in the open air .The temperature gap between inside and outside of greenhouse was averagely 4.8℃( high inside and low outside) in daytime, and -1.2℃in night.Both the temperature rising in daytime and the temperature inversion in night hap-pened in the greenhouse , which were not affected by the types of weather .%以4年生枳壳砧晚棱脐橙树为试验材料,采用简易塑料大棚设施栽培模式,研究了设施条件下树冠内环境因子的变化特征,结果表明:简易塑料大棚树冠内温湿度与外界大气环境温湿度密切相关(相关系数R2分别为0.7359和0.7489),大棚内平均温度提高约1.6℃,湿度略有下降。对白天和夜晚设施内外温度差的分析表明,白天设施内平均增温4.8℃,晚上则恰好相反,内外温差为-1.2℃;设施内白天升温和夜间“逆温”现象并存,且不受天气类型的影响。

  1. Dead or alive: deformed wing virus and Varroa destructor reduce the life span of winter honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainat, Benjamin; Evans, Jay D; Chen, Yan Ping; Gauthier, Laurent; Neumann, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Elevated winter losses of managed honeybee colonies are a major concern, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Among the suspects are the parasitic mite Varroa destructor, the microsporidian Nosema ceranae, and associated viruses. Here we hypothesize that pathogens reduce the life expectancy of winter bees, thereby constituting a proximate mechanism for colony losses. A monitoring of colonies was performed over 6 months in Switzerland from summer 2007 to winter 2007/2008. Individual dead workers were collected daily and quantitatively analyzed for deformed wing virus (DWV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), N. ceranae, and expression levels of the vitellogenin gene as a biomarker for honeybee longevity. Workers from colonies that failed to survive winter had a reduced life span beginning in late fall, were more likely to be infected with DWV, and had higher DWV loads. Colony levels of infection with the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and individual infections with DWV were also associated with reduced honeybee life expectancy. In sharp contrast, the level of N. ceranae infection was not correlated with longevity. In addition, vitellogenin gene expression was significantly positively correlated with ABPV and N. ceranae loads. The findings strongly suggest that V. destructor and DWV (but neither N. ceranae nor ABPV) reduce the life span of winter bees, thereby constituting a parsimonious possible mechanism for honeybee colony losses.

  2. Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162518.html Zika Still a Threat During Winter Months Public health ... doesn't necessarily mean the end of the Zika threat in the United States, a public health ...

  3. VT Mean Winter Precipitation - 1971-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) ClimatePrecip_PRECIPW7100 includes mean winter precipitation data (October through March) for Vermont (1971-2000). It's a raster dataset derived...

  4. Winter wheat mapping combining variations before and after estimated heading dates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Bingwen; Luo, Yuhan; Tang, Zhenghong; Chen, Chongcheng; Lu, Difei; Huang, Hongyu; Chen, Yunzhi; Chen, Nan; Xu, Weiming

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and updated information on winter wheat distribution is vital for food security. The intra-class variability of the temporal profiles of vegetation indices presents substantial challenges to current time series-based approaches. This study developed a new method to identify winter wheat over large regions through a transformation and metric-based approach. First, the trend surfaces were established to identify key phenological parameters of winter wheat based on altitude and latitude with references to crop calendar data from the agro-meteorological stations. Second, two phenology-based indicators were developed based on the EVI2 differences between estimated heading and seedling/harvesting dates and the change amplitudes. These two phenology-based indicators revealed variations during the estimated early and late growth stages. Finally, winter wheat data were extracted based on these two metrics. The winter wheat mapping method was applied to China based on the 250 m 8-day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 2-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2) time series datasets. Accuracy was validated with field survey data, agricultural census data, and Landsat-interpreted results in test regions. When evaluated with 653 field survey sites and Landsat image interpreted data, the overall accuracy of MODIS-derived images in 2012-2013 was 92.19% and 88.86%, respectively. The MODIS-derived winter wheat areas accounted for over 82% of the variability at the municipal level when compared with agricultural census data. The winter wheat mapping method developed in this study demonstrates great adaptability to intra-class variability of the vegetation temporal profiles and has great potential for further applications to broader regions and other types of agricultural crop mapping.

  5. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2016-07-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  6. Trends in the seasonal length and opening dates of a winter road in the western James Bay region, Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yukari; Gough, William A.; Butler, Ken; Tsuji, Leonard J. S.

    2017-08-01

    In northern Canada, winter roads are essential for communities. The duration of the winter road season depends on particular meteorological conditions. In this study, we investigated whether there is a temporal relationship between seasonal weather trends and the historical opening dates of the James Bay Winter Road in Ontario's Far North. The statistical significance of the temporal trends and their magnitude are determined by the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Results showed that decreasing trends in the freezing degree-days (FDDs) are statistically significant, along with the statistically significant increasing trends of monthly averages of both T min and T mean during the winter months in the western James Bay region for the 1961-2014 period. However, there were no statistically significant linkages between opening dates and FDDs detected, perhaps due to the paucity of opening dates data, although early opening dates in the last 10 years may be the result of larger FDDs. The FDDs during the months of October through December were more closely linked to opening dates than FDDs that were calculated up the opening date (including January dates), suggesting the key role of preconditioning during late fall and early winter. The lowest FDDs for the months of October to December that resulted in a viable winter road were 380 degree-days (°C). This threshold can be potentially used as a lower threshold for winter roads.

  7. Winter Dew Harvest in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias-Torres Jorge Ernesto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental and theoretical results of winter dew harvest in México City in terms of condensation rate. A simplified theoretical model based on a steady-state energy balance on a radiator-condenser was fitted, as a function of the ambient temperature, the relative humidity and the wind velocity. A glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted were used as samples over the outdoor experiments. A good correlation was obtained between the theoretical and experimental data. The experimental results show that there was condensation in 68% of the winter nights on both condensers. The total winter condensed mass was 2977 g/m2 and 2888 g/m2 on the glass sheet and aluminum sheet white-painted, respectively. Thus, the condensed mass on the glass was only 3% higher than that on the painted surface. The maximum nightly dew harvests occurred during December, which linearly reduced from 50 g/m2 night to 22 g/m2 night as the winter months went by. The condensation occurred from 1:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m., with maximum condensation rates between 6:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The dew harvest can provide a partial alternative to the winter water shortage in certain locations with similar climates to the winter in Mexico City, as long as pollution is not significant.

  8. Breeding sites and winter site fidelity of Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas, a previously unknown major wintering area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratto-Trevor, Cheri; Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Maddock, Sidney; Roche, Erin A.; Moore, Predensa

    2016-01-01

    Most of the known wintering areas of Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) are along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States and into Mexico, and in the Caribbean. However, 1066 threatened/endangered Piping Plovers were recently found wintering in The Bahamas, an area not previously known to be important for the species. Although representing about 27% of the birds counted during the 2011 International Piping Plover Winter Census, the location of their breeding site(s) was unknown. Thus, our objectives were to determine the location(s) of their breeding site(s) using molecular markers and by tracking banded individuals, identify spring and fall staging sites, and examine site fidelity and survival. We captured and color-banded 57 birds in January and February 2010 in The Bahamas. Blood samples were also collected for genetic evaluation of the likely subspecies wintering in The Bahamas. Band re-sightings and DNA analysis revealed that at least 95% of the Piping Plovers wintering in The Bahamas originated on the Atlantic coast of the United States and Canada. Re-sightings of birds banded in The Bahamas spanned the breeding distribution of the species along the Atlantic coast from Newfoundland to North Carolina. Site fidelity to breeding and wintering sites was high (88–100%). Spring and fall staging sites were located along the Atlantic coast of the United States, with marked birds concentrating in the Carolinas. Our estimate of true survival for the marked birds was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.80). Our results indicate that more than one third of the Piping Plover population that breeds along the Atlantic coast winters in The Bahamas. By determining the importance of The Bahamas to the Atlantic subspecies of Piping Plovers, future conservation efforts for these populations can be better focused on where they are most needed.

  9. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources, care and ways to engage in meaningful connections. During the late stages, your role as a ... drinks. This will help you track the person's natural routine, and then you can plan a schedule. ...

  10. Suicides in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Kimberly; Conwell, Yeates

    2011-06-01

    Suicide in late life is an enormous public health problem that will likely increase in severity as adults of the baby boom generation age. Data from psychological autopsy studies supplemented with recent studies of suicidal ideation and attempts point to a consistent set of risk factors for the spectrum of suicidal behaviors in late life (suicide ideation, attempts, and deaths). Clinicians should be vigilant for psychiatric illness (especially depression), physical illness, pain, functional impairment, and social disconnectedness. Recent advances in late-life suicide prevention have in common collaborative, multifaceted intervention designs. We suggest that one mechanism shared by all preventive interventions shown to reduce the incidence of late-life suicide is the promotion of connectedness. For the clinician working with older adults, our recommendation is to not only consider risk factors, such as depression, and implement appropriate treatments but to enhance social connectedness as well.

  11. How individual Montagu's Harriers cope with Moreau's Paradox during the Sahelian winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaich, Almut Ellinor; Klaassen, Raymond H G; Bouten, Willem; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Koks, Ben Johannes; Villers, Alexandre; Both, Christiaan

    2016-11-01

    at their breeding site. Our results confirmed the suggestions Moreau made 40 years ago: the late wintering period might be a bottleneck during the annual cycle with possible carry-over effects to the breeding season. Ongoing climate change with less rainfall in the Sahel region paired with increased human pressure on natural and agricultural habitats resulting in degradation and desertification is likely to make this period more demanding, which may negatively impact populations of migratory birds using the Sahel.

  12. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century

    OpenAIRE

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Coluccy, John; Hoving, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a o...

  13. Differential effects of short term winter thermal stress on diapausing tiger swallowtail butterflies (Papilio spp.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.Mark Scriber; Emily Maher; Matthew L.Aardema

    2012-01-01

    It is generally thought that insects inhabiting lower latitudes are more severely impacted by changes in their thermal environment than are high latitude species.This is attributed to the wider range of temperatures to which high-latitude species are exposed.By contrast,low-latitude species have typically evolved in more thermally stable environments with a narrower range of temperature variation.However,deviation from this pattern can occur and here we report that under variable winter conditions a higher latitude species may be more sensitive to thermal variation than its lower latitude sister species.Using split broods,we examined the survival and adult emergence success of diapausing pupae of Papilio canadensis and P.glaucus,as well as a unique,recombinant hybrid population ("late-flight") to short periods of mid-winter cold and heat stress.Our results indicate that the higher latitude,univoltine populations (P.canadensis and late-flights) exhibit lower pupal survival than the lower latitude,facultative diapauser (P.glaucus) for all mid-winter thermal stress treatments,both high and low.Size differences alone do not appear to account for the observed differences in survival or metabolic costs in these three phenotypes,as late-flight individuals are similar in size to P.glaucus.We attribute the observed differences in survival and weight loss to potential metabolic differences and variation in the intensity of diapause,in addition to divergent adaptation to winter precipitation levels (e.g.snow cover) and the influences this may have on microhabitat temperature moderation.

  14. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May), elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug.), birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500-600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100-200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals showing a clear

  15. Migratory timing, rate, routes and wintering areas of White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis), a key seed disperser for Patagonian forest regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Susana Patricia; Cueto, Victor Rodolfo; Gorosito, Cristian Andrés

    2017-01-01

    Migratory animals often play key ecological roles within the communities they visit throughout their annual journeys. As a consequence of the links between biomes mediated by migrants, changes in one biome could affect remote areas in unpredictable ways. Migratory routes and timing of most Neotropical austral migrants, which breed at south temperate latitudes of South America and overwinter closer to or within tropical latitudes of South America, have yet to be described in detail. As a result, our understanding about how these birds provide links between South American biomes is almost non-existent. White-crested Elaenia (Elaenia albiceps chilensis) is a long-distance austral migrant that breeds in the Patagonian Forest biome and overwinters in tropical South America. Because this small flycatcher plays a key role in the regeneration of this ecosystem, our objective was to describe the annual cycle of White-crested elaenias to evaluate the degree of migratory connectivity between breeding and wintering areas and therefore to determine if there are specific biomes of northern South America linked by elaenias to Patagonian forests. Fifteen individuals were successfully tracked throughout a complete migration cycle using miniature light-level geolocators. All individuals resided and moved through the same general regions. During fall (March-April-May), elaenias were located in the Caatinga and the Atlantic Forest biomes, from Rio de Janeiro to the region near Salvador da Bahia, Brazil. During winter (June-July-Aug.), birds were located further inland, within the Cerrado biome. Birds used three different routes during fall migration. Our results indicate that some individuals use a direct route, flying between 500–600 km/day, crossing desert and grasslands, while others took a detour, flying 100–200 km/day through forested areas with refueling opportunities. All birds used the Yunga forest during spring migration, with ten out of 15 individuals showing a clear

  16. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Jørgen E; Hermansen, John Erik

    2013-01-01

    by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO2 equivalents...

  17. Winter distribution of willow flycatcher subspecies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton, E.H.; Unitt, P.; Sogge, M.K.; Whitfield, M.; Keim, P.

    2011-01-01

    Documenting how different regions across a species' breeding and nonbreeding range are linked via migratory movements is the first step in understanding how events in one region can influence events in others and is critical to identifying conservation threats throughout a migratory animal's annual cycle. We combined two studies that evaluated migratory connectivity in the Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii), one using mitochondrial DNA sequences from 172 flycatchers sampled throughout their winter range, and another which examined morphological characteristics of 68 museum specimens collected in the winter range. Our results indicate that the four subspecies occupy distinct but overlapping regions of the winter range. Connectivity between specific breeding and winter grounds appears to be moderate to strong, with distributions that suggest migration patterns of both the chain and leap-frog types connecting the breeding and nonbreeding grounds. The Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica appear to be a key winter location for the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (E. t. extimus), although other countries in Central America may also be important for the subspecies. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2011.

  18. Payment mechanisms for winter road maintenance services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Abdi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In countries with severe winters a major part of the annual budget for road maintenance is allocated on performance of winter road maintenance tasks. Finding appropriate remuneration forms to compensate entrepreneurs for performed road measures during winter is not an easy task in order to minimise or eliminate disputes and satisfy both client organisations and contractors. On the other hand improper reimbursement models lead either to the client’s annual budget imbalance due to unnecessary cost overruns or affect contractor’s cash-flow. Such cases in turn affect just-in-time winter road maintenance and then traffic safety. To solve such problems, a number of countries in cold regions like Sweden have developed different remuneration models based more on weather data called Weather Index. Therefore the objective of this paper is to investigate and evaluate the payment models applied in Sweden. The study uses a number of approaches namely; domestic questionnaire survey, analysis of a number of contract documents, a series of meetings with the project managers and an international benchmarking. The study recognised four remuneration models for winter maintenance service of which one based on weather data statistics. The study reveals the payment model based on weather data statistics is only applied for the roads with higher traffic flow and the model generates most uncertainty.

  19. Human adaptation to isolated and confined environments: Preliminary findings of a seven month Antarctic winter-over human factors study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.; Stokols, Daniel; Carrere, Sybil

    1988-01-01

    This field study was conducted during the last decade of an austral winter-over at Palmer Station in the Antarctic. The purpose of the study was to understand temporal patterns in physiological arousal and psychological mood over the course of the mission. The investigators were principally interested in how people adapted over time to chronic and acute stressors, and how people use and modify their built environment. Physiological and psychological data were collected several times a week, and information on behavior and the use of physical facilities was collected monthly. Physiological and psychological data were compared with social changes in the setting toward the development of a sequential model of human-environment transactional relationships. Based on the study results, guidelines for design of future isolated and confined environments (ICEs) included: plan space for items which make people feel at home, provide materials to allow people to personalize their environment, allow for flexible environments, provide areas for visual and auditory privacy, equip areas for socializing and remove them from private areas, and provide facilities for exercise and for projects involving physical activity. The study offers guidelines about patterns of adaption that could be expected in an ICE, discusses how these settings can be programmed to facilitate successful adjustment, and provides information about how to design future ICE habitats to maximize a healthy living environment.

  20. Albedo changes, Milankovitch forcing, and late quaternary climate changes in the central Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kull, C.; Grosjean, M. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography

    1998-11-01

    Late quaternary humidity changes resulted in substantial modifications of the land surface characteristics in the Altiplano of the Atacama desert, central Andes. Reconstructions of surface albedo, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) albedo, and shortwave net radiation in the Andes of northern Chile for 20,14,10,7 and 0 ka suggest that surface and TOA albedo increased substantially during periods of relatively humid environmental conditions (i.e., with large palaeolakes, glaciers and dense vegetation). The decrease of summer shortwave net radiation and seasonality during the late-glacial/early Holocene humid phase (14 to 10 ka) due to Earth`s surface and atmospheric characteristics added to the effect of orbitally driven negative deviations of southern Hemisphere austral summer insolation and minimum seasonality at 20 S. Therefore, in situ radiative forcing is, in contrast to the Northern Hemisphere tropics, not a suitable explanation for enhanced convective precipitation and, ultimately, humid climatic conditions. Our results suggest that late Quaternary humidity changes on the Altiplano reflect a collective response to (1) environmental changes in the source area of the moisture (e.g., reexpansion of the rain forest and increased release of latent heat over Amazonia and the Chaco, warm sea surface temperatures in the E Pacific) and, (2) large-scale circulation patterns and wave structures in the upper troposphere (strength and position of the Bolivian high, divergent flow stimulating convection over the Altiplano), or that they even reflect a response to (3) interhemispherical teleconnections. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 45 refs.

  1. Assessing winter cover crop nutrient uptake efficiency using a water quality simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, I.-Y.; Lee, S.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Beeson, P. C.; Hively, W. D.; McCarty, G. W.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Winter cover crops are an effective conservation management practice with potential to improve water quality. Throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed (CBW), which is located in the mid-Atlantic US, winter cover crop use has been emphasized, and federal and state cost-share programs are available to farmers to subsidize the cost of cover crop establishment. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of planting winter cover crops to improve water quality at the watershed scale (~ 50 km2) and to identify critical source areas of high nitrate export. A physically based watershed simulation model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), was calibrated and validated using water quality monitoring data to simulate hydrological processes and agricultural nutrient cycling over the period of 1990-2000. To accurately simulate winter cover crop biomass in relation to growing conditions, a new approach was developed to further calibrate plant growth parameters that control the leaf area development curve using multitemporal satellite-based measurements of species-specific winter cover crop performance. Multiple SWAT scenarios were developed to obtain baseline information on nitrate loading without winter cover crops and to investigate how nitrate loading could change under different winter cover crop planting scenarios, including different species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The simulation results indicate that winter cover crops have a negligible impact on the water budget but significantly reduce nitrate leaching to groundwater and delivery to the waterways. Without winter cover crops, annual nitrate loading from agricultural lands was approximately 14 kg ha-1, but decreased to 4.6-10.1 kg ha-1 with cover crops resulting in a reduction rate of 27-67% at the watershed scale. Rye was the most effective species, with a potential to reduce nitrate leaching by up to 93% with early planting at the field scale. Early planting of cover crops (~ 30

  2. Cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yongfu; XU; Jiyao

    2005-01-01

    This paper utilizes horizontal velocity measurements observed from 19 chaff rockets and nearly simultaneous temperature measurements collected from 19 falling sphere rockets to study the cause of winter gravity wave spectrum saturation. Results suggest that strong horizontal velocity shears larger than 0.04 s-1 are observed to be present at various heights near the winter mesopause. On one single chaff rocket flight, an extremely strong horizontal velocity shear as high as 0.33 s-1 is observed at 87.4 km and is believed to be the strongest value ever measured in the mesosphere. These strong horizontal velocity shears, together with Brunt-V(a)is(a)l(a) frequency squared obtained from the temperature profile, act collectively to yield two dynamical instability regions of Richardson number smaller than 1/4, suggesting that the saturated gravity wave spectrum observed by the chaff rockets in winter is a result of dynamical instability.

  3. The engineering approach to winter sports

    CERN Document Server

    Cheli, Federico; Maldifassi, Stefano; Melzi, Stefano; Sabbioni, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    The Engineering Approach to Winter Sports presents the state-of-the-art research in the field of winter sports in a harmonized and comprehensive way for a diverse audience of engineers, equipment and facilities designers, and materials scientists. The book examines the physics and chemistry of snow and ice with particular focus on the interaction (friction) between sports equipment and snow/ice, how it is influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature and pressure, as well as by contaminants and how it can be modified through the use of ski waxes or the microtextures of blades or ski soles. The authors also cover, in turn, the different disciplines in winter sports:  skiing (both alpine and cross country), skating and jumping, bob sledding and skeleton, hockey and curling, with attention given to both equipment design and on the simulation of gesture and  track optimization.

  4. [Effects of winter cover crop on methane and nitrous oxide emission from paddy field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hai-ming; Tang, Wen-guang; Shuai, Xi-qiang; Yang, Guang-li; Tang, Hai-tao; Xiao, Xiao-Ping

    2010-12-01

    Static chamber-GC technique was employed to study the effects of different treatment winter cover crops, including no-tillage and directly sowing ryegrass (T1), no-tillage and directly sowing Chinese milk vetch (T2), tillage and transplanting rape (T3), no-tillage and directly sowing rape (T4), and fallowing (CK), on the CH4 and N2O emission from double cropping rice paddy field. During the growth period of test winter cover crops, the CH4 and N2O emission in treatments T1-T4 was significantly higher than that in CK (P winter cover crops returned to field, the CH4 emission from early and late rice fields in treatments T1, T2, T3, and T4 was larger than that in CK. In early rice field, treatments T1 and T2 had the largest CH4 emission (21.70 and 20.75 g x m(-2)); while in late rice field, treatments T3 and T4 had the largest one (58.90 and 54.51 g x m(-2) respectively). Treatments T1-T4 also had larger N2O emission from early and late rice fields than the CK did. The N2O emission from early rice field in treatments T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 53.7%, 12.2%, 46.3%, and 29.3%, and that from late rice field in corresponding treatments was increased by 28.6%, 3.8%, 34.3%, and 27.6%, respectively, compared with CK.

  5. Multiproxy summer and winter surface air temperature field reconstructions for southern South America covering the past centuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neukom, R.; Grosjean, M.; Wanner, H. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); Luterbacher, J. [Justus Liebig University of Giessen, Department of Geography, Climatology, Climate Dynamics and Climate Change, Giessen (Germany); Villalba, R.; Morales, M.; Srur, A. [CONICET, Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales (IANIGLA), Mendoza (Argentina); Kuettel, M. [University of Bern, Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research (OCCR), Bern (Switzerland); University of Bern, Institute of Geography, Climatology and Meteorology, Bern (Switzerland); University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Seattle (United States); Frank, D. [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Jones, P.D. [University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, Norwich (United Kingdom); Aravena, J.-C. [Centro de Estudios Cuaternarios de Fuego Patagonia y Antartica (CEQUA), Punta Arenas (Chile); Black, D.E. [Stony Brook University, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook (United States); Christie, D.A.; Urrutia, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); D' Arrigo, R. [Earth Institute at Columbia University, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Palisades, NY (United States); Lara, A. [Universidad Austral de Chile Valdivia, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Nucleo Cientifico Milenio FORECOS, Fundacion FORECOS, Valdivia (Chile); Soliz-Gamboa, C. [Utrecht Univ., Inst. of Environmental Biology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Gunten, L. von [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland); Univ. of Massachusetts, Climate System Research Center, Amherst (United States)

    2011-07-15

    We statistically reconstruct austral summer (winter) surface air temperature fields back to ad 900 (1706) using 22 (20) annually resolved predictors from natural and human archives from southern South America (SSA). This represents the first regional-scale climate field reconstruction for parts of the Southern Hemisphere at this high temporal resolution. We apply three different reconstruction techniques: multivariate principal component regression, composite plus scaling, and regularized expectation maximization. There is generally good agreement between the results of the three methods on interannual and decadal timescales. The field reconstructions allow us to describe differences and similarities in the temperature evolution of different sub-regions of SSA. The reconstructed SSA mean summer temperatures between 900 and 1350 are mostly above the 1901-1995 climatology. After 1350, we reconstruct a sharp transition to colder conditions, which last until approximately 1700. The summers in the eighteenth century are relatively warm with a subsequent cold relapse peaking around 1850. In the twentieth century, summer temperatures reach conditions similar to earlier warm periods. The winter temperatures in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries were mostly below the twentieth century average. The uncertainties of our reconstructions are generally largest in the eastern lowlands of SSA, where the coverage with proxy data is poorest. Verifications with independent summer temperature proxies and instrumental measurements suggest that the interannual and multi-decadal variations of SSA temperatures are well captured by our reconstructions. This new dataset can be used for data/model comparison and data assimilation as well as for detection and attribution studies at sub-continental scales. (orig.)

  6. Late Sovereign Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    the promotion of national interests with those of the Union. In this late sovereign phase of diplomacy, political and legal authorities overlap, territorial exclusivity is replaced with functional boundaries, and states begin to speak with one voice. The article explores three interlinked aspects of late...... sovereign diplomacy: the teleological interpretation of the EC and EU treaties; the intense socialization of state representatives; and the negotiation process, which promotes national positions as part of a European cause, thereby delocalizing the national interest. While the EU has not rendered national...... diplomacy obsolete, it has profoundly changed its meaning and consequences....

  7. Early and late motherhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Lausten, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The study investigates parental child rearing methods, structural factors relating to the family during adolescence geographic segregation, individual resource deficits and social background of first time late live births among 32 to 37 years old women and compare to teenagers before becoming...... teenage mothers. The purpose is to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation during adolescence and low education are causes of teen childbearing but also childlessness among elder women in the age group 32 to 37 years old. Could childlessness as well...... pregnant teenagers who had an induced abortion. Quite the opposite pattern is disclosed for late motherhood....

  8. Análisis de sistema de conversores fluido-dinámicos de energía renovable para la Patagonia Austral de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Victor Manuel Labriola

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El potencial de energía en mares y océanos se puede clasificar de distintas formas, por ejemplo: * La energía de las mareas ó Mareomotriz * La energía de las corrientes marinas * La energía de las olas ó Undimotriz * La energía térmica oceánica (OTEC. De estas formas de energía oceánica, tres son posibles en la zona Atlántica de nuestra Patagonia Austral, la Mareomotriz, la Undimotriz y la de corrientes marinas. La Energía Mareomotriz se da desde Viedma hasta Tierra del Fuego con amplitudes de mareas de 4m hasta 20m, la Energía de las Olas se da en la costa de Chubut y Santa Cruz con potenciales de 10 a 30kW/m lineal de frente de ola y el aprovechamiento de las corrientes marinas se puede dar en lugares puntuales como ser la desembocadura del río Deseado o la de Río Gallegos. Para estas Fuentes de Energía se está realizando un banco de pruebas de modelos conversores de las mismas a Energía Eléctrica, en la Unidad Académica Caleta Olivia (UACO de la Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral (UNPA. Este banco dispondrá de dos canales de ensayos hidrodinámicos uno para energía de las corrientes marinas y otro para las olas. El primero dispondrá de una bomba de circulación con velocidad de fluido variable entre 0 y 4m/s. El banco para olas tendrá un sistema de batido del agua para producir ondas de amplitud y período variable. Además se están dimensionando dos modelos de conversores de energía oceánica. Uno es una turbina, tipo eólica sumergida y el otro modelo es de tubo electromecánico oscilante como conversor energético de las olas.

  9. Reproductive aspects of the Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides off southern Chile Aspectos reproductivos del bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides en el extremo austral de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Arana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results for the reproductive biology of Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides caught off southern Chile from January to March and June to November 2006. A total of 10,896 specimens were measured (55-220 cm total length, TL and sexed (7,049 males, 64.7%; and 3,847 females, 35.3%. Macroscopic observations showed that gonad maturation begins at 60 cm TL in both sexes, with an average maturation size of 81 cm TL in males and 89 cm TL in females. This species appears to have an ampie spawning period that occurs only off the far southern region of Chile. To date, no evidence indicates that this resource reproduces in any other areas of the Pacific Ocean off the coasts of South América, where no specimens were observed with mature gonads, percentages of atresia were high, and juvenile fish were not caught in trawl fishing operations targeting other commercial species.Se dan a conocer resultados sobre la biología reproductiva del bacalao de profundidad (Dissostichus eleginoides capturado en el extremo sur-austral de Chile, entre enero y marzo y de junio a noviembre de 2006. En dicho período se midió y determinó el sexo a 10.896 ejemplares, comprendidos entre 55 y 220 cm de longitud total (LT, de los cuales 7.049 correspondieron a machos (64,7% y 3.847 a hembras (35,3%. Mediante la observación macroscópica de las gónadas se determinó que en machos y hembras se observa el comienzo de la maduración gonádica a partir de 60 cm de LT, con una talla media de maduración (TMS50% en machos a 81 cm y en hembras a 89 cm. Se sugiere que esta especie presenta un período amplio de desove y que este proceso se efectuaría únicamente en la región austral de Chile, destacándose que hasta ahora no se cuenta con evidencias que este recurso se reproduzca en otra zona del océano Pacífico frente a la costa de Sudamérica en atención a la ausencia de ejemplares maduros en las capturas, altos porcentajes de atresia y ausencia de peces

  10. Nuclear winter: The evidence and the risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, O.

    1985-01-01

    Global concern over nuclear extinction, centered on the holocaust itself, now has turned to the more terrifying consequences of a post-war nuclear winter: ''the long-term effects - destruction of the environment, spread of epidemic diseases, contamination by radioactivity, and ... collapse of agriculture-(that) would spread famine and death to every country.'' Nuclear Winter, the latest in a series of studies by a number of different groups is clinical, analytical, systematic, and detailed. Two physicists and biologist analyze the effects on the climate, plants, animals, and living systems; the human costs; the policy implications.

  11. Is recent Eurasian winter cooling caused by Arctic sea ice loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Son, Seok-Woo; Kim, Kwang-Yul; Kug, Jong-Seong; Kim, Baek-Min; Jeong, Jee-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    The observed surface air temperature in the northern mid-latitudes shows a significant cooling trend in recent winters despite greenhouse gas concentrations continuing to rise. Such an unexpected cooling trend since late 1990's is especially strong over the Eurasia. Here, by performing statistical analyses and climate model experiment, we show that the recent Eurasian cooling trend is at least in part caused by Arctic sea ice loss over the Barents and Kara (BK) seas. A significant time-lagged co-variability is observed between autumn sea ice concentrations over BK seas and winter surface air temperature over the Eurasia. More importantly, the timing of a rapid sea ice loss is consistent with the timing of Eurasian cooling. These results indicate that both interannual variability and long-term trend of Eurasian winter surface air temperature are likely influenced by regional sea ice changes over BK seas. This conjecture is confirmed by climate model experiment. A coupled model, GFDL CM2.1, is integrated with a pre-industrial condition except for the Arctic regions where observed sea surface temperature is relaxed. Ensemble simulations successfully reproduce the recent cooling trend over the Eurasia although the timing is bit delayed (i.e., early 2000's instead of late 1990's). However, it is found that this cooling trend is unlikely explained by linear dynamics, and is not associated with changes in atmospheric blocks.

  12. Sowing time affects the abundance of pests and weeds in winter rye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUUSELA-VEISTOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Selection of an appropriate sowing time for some winter rye (Secale cereale cultivars could reduce the need for crop protection measures. In this study the occurrence and status of pests and weeds in relation to sowing time and growth habit of winter rye was studied in southern Finland. This was done using three sowing times and four rye varieties in field trials conducted at three locations in 1999–2001. The early sown rye was severely affected by pests (Oscinella frit, Mayetiola destructor and weeds, whereas postponing sowing for two weeks after the recommended sowing time in late August resulted in considerably less damage and the optimal establishment of crop stands. The German hybrid varieties Picasso and Esprit produced more tillers m-2 in autumn than the Finnish varieties Anna and Bor 7068. However, the number of pests and weeds did not differ among rye varieties. Late sowing of rye should be considered to minimize the need for plant protection. If rye is sown at the recommended time it may still require insecticide treatments promptly in the autumn whereas herbicide treatment need not be determined until spring, after recording the winter mortality of weeds.;

  13. Fall and winter foods of northern pintails in the Sacramento Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael R.

    1987-01-01

    Food habits of northern pintails (Anas acuta) were investigated on 3 national wildlife refuges in the western portion of the Sacramento Valley, California, from August to March 1979-82. Pintails consumed 97% (aggregate % dry wt) plant food during diurnal foraging on national wildlife refuge rice, summer-irrigated, and summer-dry habitats from August through January. Invertebrate use increased to 28.9-65.6% of the diet in these habitats during February and March. Rice, swamp timothy (Heleochloa schoenoides), flatsedges (Cyperus spp.), common barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crusgalli), southern naiad (Najas guadalupensis), and smartweed (Polygonum spp.) seeds, miscellaneous vegetation, snails (Gastropoda), and midge (Diptera) and water beetle (Coleoptera) larvae were most important. These foods usually were taken proportional to or greater than availability. Rice was the most important food of pintails feeding nocturnally off the refuges in harvested rice fields from October through January (99.7%) and February and March (63%; barnyardgrass formed 31% of the diet). In August and October, some pintails consumed invertebrates or bulrush (Scirpus spp. ) seedlings in marshes soon after feeding in refuge rice (Aug) or harvested commercial rice fields (Oct), thereby increasing dietary protein. In late winter, females and males obtained similar (P > 0.05) percentages of invertebrates from refuge habitats. Important dietary seeds and invertebrates contained high protein or metabolizable energy content. Management should maintain adequate seed production in fall and mid-winter and invertebrate biomass in late winter.

  14. Characterization of the seascape used by juvenile and wintering adult Southern Giant Petrels from Patagonia Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Gabriela S.; Pisoni, Juan P.; Quintana, Flavio

    2015-02-01

    The characterization of the seascape used by marine top predators provides a wide perspective of pelagic habitat use and it is necessary to understand the functioning of marine systems. The goal of this study was to characterize the oceanographic and biological features of marine areas used by adult and first year juvenile southern giant petrels (SGP, Macronectes giganteus) from northern Patagonian colonies (Isla Arce and Gran Robredo) during the austral fall and winter (2005, 2006, 2007, and 2008). The marine environment exploited by the SGP was characterized using sea surface temperature (SST), SST gradients, chlorophyll-a concentration, water depth, oceanographic regimes, and ocean surface winds. In addition, the biological seascape was defined by considering the distribution of squid during the months of study. Juveniles SGP exploited a wide range of environments focusing mainly on productive neritic waters using a variety of oceanographic regimes. Juveniles were exposed to eutrophic and enriched waters, probably because of the frequent presence of thermal fronts in their utilization areas. Adults' environments lacked of thermal fronts remaining the majority of their time within the oceanographic regime "Continental Shelf", in water depths of 100-200 m, exploiting mesotrophic and eutrophic environments, and remaining in areas of known food resources related to the presence of squid. For the most part, juveniles were exposed to westerly winds, which may have helped them in their initial flight to the shelf break, east of the colony. Wintering adults SGP also explored areas characterized by westerly winds but this did not play a primary role in the selection of their residence areas. Juveniles during their first year at sea have to search for food exploring a variety of unknown environments. During their search, they remained in productive environments associated to fronts and probably also associated to fisheries operating in their foraging areas. The

  15. Interacting effects of latitude, mass, age, and sex on winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): Implications for differential migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher-Koch, Brian D.; Esler, Daniel N.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Ward, David; Boyd, Sean; Kirk, Molly; Lewis, Tyler L.; VanStratt, Corey S.; Brodhead, Katherine M.; Hupp, Jerry; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    We quantified variation in winter survival of Surf Scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) across nearly 30° of latitude on the Pacific coast of North America to evaluate potential effects on winter distributions, including observed differential distributions of age and sex classes. We monitored fates of 297 radio-marked Surf Scoters at three study sites: (1) near the northern periphery of their wintering range in southeast Alaska, USA, (2) the range core in British Columbia, Canada, and (3) the southern periphery in Baja California, Mexico. We detected 34 mortalities and determined that survival averaged lower at the range peripheries than in the range core, was lower during mid-winter than during late winter at all sites, and was positively correlated with body mass within locations. Although neither age nor sex class had direct effects, mass effects led to differential survival patterns among classes. When simultaneously incorporating these interacting influences, adult males of mean mass for their location had highest survival at the northern range periphery in Alaska, whereas adult females and juveniles had higher survival at the range core and the southern periphery. Our observations help to explain patterns of differential migration and distribution reported for this species and highlight seasonal periods (mid-winter) and locations (range peripheries) of elevated levels of mortality for demographically important age–sex classes (adult females).

  16. Does stratosphereic sudden warming occur more frequently during ENSO winters than during normal winters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seok-Woo; Song, Kanghyun

    2017-04-01

    Stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) events exhibit pronounced interannual variability. Based on WMO definition of SSW, it has been suggested that SSW events occur more preferably during El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters (both El Niño and La Niña winters) than during normal winters. This nonlinear relationship is re-examined here by considering six different definitions of SSW. For all definitions, SSW events are detected more frequently during El Niño winters than during normal winters, in consistent with an enhanced planetary-scale wave activity. However, a systematic relationship is not found during La Niña winters. While two SSW definitions, including WMO definition, show an increased SSW frequency during La Niña winters, other definitions show no change or even a reduced SSW frequency. This result is insensitive to the choice of reanalysis datasets and ENSO index, indicating that the reported ENSO-SSW relationship is not robust but dependent on the details of SSW definition.

  17. Los peces continentales del Cuaternario de Argentina : Su importancia para la compresión del origen de la ictiofauna actual del área austral de América del Sur

    OpenAIRE

    Vallone, Evelyn Romina

    2015-01-01

    La región Neotropical presenta la ictiofauna de agua dulce más rica y variada del mundo. Esta región ha sido dividida en dos unidades: la Subregión Brasílica y la Subregión Austral. La Subregión Austral incluye Patagonia, Cuyo, y el centro y sur de Chile; en tanto que el resto de la región Neotropical está ocupada por la Subregión Brasílica que representa el área con mayor riqueza específica de peces del mundo, alrededor del 98% del total de las especies conocidas en la Región. En Argentina, ...

  18. Late Embryogenesis Abundant Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shih, M.D.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Hsing, Y.I.C.

    2008-01-01

    During the late maturation stage of seed development, water content decreases greatly. One of the most striking characteristics of mature orthodox seeds is their ability to withstand severe desiccation. Mechanisms of plant drought/desiccation tolerance have been studied by numerous groups, and a bro

  19. Never Too Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A historical issue is being raised on Capitol Hill.In late May,members of the U.S.Congress introduced bipartisan resolutions in both chambers,calling on the federal legislature to acknowledge formally and express regret for discriminatory legislation and how the country accordingly treated Chinese immigrants more than a century ago.

  20. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  1. Was I Late

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶历来; 罗琪芳

    2011-01-01

    “Get up, Jane!” “Oh... Mom, let me sleep five more minutes. I'm so Ured ( 困的 ).” “It's 7:50. It's too late. ” “OK, three minutes then... Wait! What did you say? What time is it? It's 7:50.”

  2. Microbial activity in forest soil reflects the changes in ecosystem properties between summer and winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žifčáková, Lucia; Větrovský, Tomáš; Howe, Adina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the ecology of coniferous forests is very important because these environments represent globally largest carbon sinks. Metatranscriptomics, microbial community and enzyme analyses were combined to describe the detailed role of microbial taxa in the functioning of the Picea abies-dominated coniferous forest soil in two contrasting seasons. These seasons were the summer, representing the peak of plant photosynthetic activity, and late winter, after an extended period with no photosynthate input. The results show that microbial communities were characterized by a high activity of fungi especially in litter where their contribution to microbial transcription was over 50%. Differences in abundance between summer and winter were recorded for 26-33% of bacterial genera and soil than in litter. Most importantly, fungal contribution to total microbial transcription in soil decreased from 33% in summer to 16% in winter. In particular, the activity of the abundant ectomycorrhizal fungi was reduced in winter, which indicates that plant photosynthetic production was likely one of the major drivers of changes in the functioning of microbial communities in this coniferous forest.

  3. Modeling shoot water contents in high-elevation Picea rubens during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, R L; Friedland, A J; Macdonald, V N

    1992-12-01

    During the winter of 1990-1991, a meteorological tower was established at an 880-m elevation site within the spruce-fir zone on Mt. Moosilauke, New Hampshire, USA. Hourly means of air, needle and trunk temperatures, wind velocity, relative humidity and solar radiation were recorded. On a weekly basis, shoots that had elongated during the preceding growing season were collected from four red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) trees and their relative water contents (RWC) determined. Cuticular resistances of needles from these shoots were measured four times during the winter.Measured meteorological parameters were used in a previously developed model to simulate changes in red spruce shoot RWC during the winter. The modeled results were compared to measured shoot RWCs. The predictive power of the model was improved when it was modified to include measured values of cuticular resistance and needle and trunk temperatures. The new version of the model accurately predicted RWC from late December 1990 to the beginning of April 1991, after which spring recharge appeared to occur. We conclude that water lost from foliage was easily replaced by stored reserves and that uptake of water by the roots was not required to maintain an adequate foliar water content during the winter.

  4. Modeling influences on winter distribution of caribou in northwestern Alaska through use of satellite telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Joly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available I hypothesize that the distribution of barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These factors include, but are not limited to, terrain and snow characteristics as well as predation pressure and habitat. To test this hypothesis, I attributed caribou locations derived from satellite telemetry over a 6 year period with terrain (elevation, slope, aspect, and ruggedness, habitat characteristics, and moose density - potentially an index of wolf predation pressure. These locations were compared to random locations, attributed using the same data layers, using logistic regression techniques to develop resource selection functions (RSFs. I found that caribou moved significantly less during mid-winter than early- or late-winter and that cows moved significantly more in April than bulls due to their earlier departure on their spring migration. Distribution was different between cows and bulls. Terrain variables were important factors but were scale-dependent. Cows avoided forested areas, highlighting the importance of tundra habitats, and selected for dwarf shrub, with relatively high lichen cover, and sedge habitat types. Bulls selected for dryas, coniferous forest and dwarf shrub habitats but against lowland sedge, upland shrub and burned tundra. Cow distribution was negatively correlated with moose density at the scale of the Seward Peninsula. My results support the hypothesis that caribou distribution during winter in northwest Alaska is affected by multiple, interrelated factors. These results may be useful for researchers to track and/or model changes in future patterns of range use over winter.

  5. Late winter population and distribution of Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) in the Bering Sea 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Following satellite telemetry and aerial survey work from 1993-1998, all or most of the global population of spectacled eiders (Somateria flscheri) is believed to...

  6. Circumpolar Circulation Patterns Over the Northern Hemisphere Oceans in Late Winter, 1949-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterman, J.; Starr, D. OC.; Atlas, R.; Jusem, J. C.; Saaroni, H.

    2003-01-01

    To assess interannual changes in ocean-to-land advection, we extract zonal winds for February and March, 1949-2002, from NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis. Winds are analyzed at pairs of locations (55 deg N and 35 deg N) in the N. Pacific (15 deg W), N. Atlantic (30 deg W) and Baltic/Mediterranean (30 deg E). The monthly means at the northern and southern sites are negatively correlated. For N. Pacific, winds at 55 deg N show negative trends at all levels (magnitude increasing with altitude), versus positive at 35 deg N. An opposite scenario is observed over N. Atlantic, positive (negative) trends at 55 deg N (35 deg N) and similarly, but weaker, over the Baltic/Mediterranean. The geographic variability of trends is attributed to displacement of the polar vortex wave pattern. Increasing storm strength/frequency over N. Hemisphere oceans is inherently related to the strong positive trends in wind speed and vertical shear.

  7. Sources of anions in aerosols in northeast Greenland during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Marlene Fenger; Sørensen, Lise Lotte; Kristensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    affecting the composition of aerosols in the high Arctic. Therefore size-segregated aerosols were sampled at a high Arctic site, Station Nord (Northeast Greenland), in March 2009 using a Micro Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor. The aerosol samples were extracted in order to analyse three water-soluble anions......−4 is by far the dominating anion accounting for 50–85% of the analyzed mass. The analysis suggests that Cl− and NO−3 in coarser particles (> 1.5 μm) originate from local/regional sources. Under conditions where the air mass is transported over sea ice at high wind speeds, very coarse particles (> 18 μm...

  8. Spatial distributions of floating seaweeds in the East China Sea from late winter to early spring

    OpenAIRE

    Mizuno, S.; Ajisaka, T.; Lahbib, S.; Kokubu, Y.; Alabsi, M. N.; Komatsu, T

    2013-01-01

    Floating seaweeds play an important role as a habitat for many animals accompanying or attaching to them in offshore waters. It was in 2000 that the first report described abundant distributions of floating seaweeds in offshore waters in the East China Sea in spring. Young individuals of the yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata are captured for aquaculture purposes from floating seaweeds in the East China Sea. Therefore, a sound understanding of the distributions of floating seaweeds in the East...

  9. Regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat over a sub-arctic landscape during late winter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    the regional fluxes of momentum and sensible heat in different ways. The regional momentum flux is found to be 10-20% smaller than the measured momentum flux over the forest, and the regional sensible heat flux is estimated to be 30-50% of the values measured over a coniferous forest. The regional momentum...

  10. Circulation and distribution of some hydrographical properties during the late winter in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.P.; Sastry, J.S.

    cooling near the head of the Bay, the influence of northeast monsoon winds, the influence of north equatorial current in the southern regions and the influence of fresh water discharges, especially in the northern Bay, Andaman Sea and along the east coast...

  11. Registration of 'Sunshine' Hard White Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ’Sunshine’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 674741) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2014 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Un...

  12. Copper Scrap Industry Remained in Cold Winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Beginning from 2012,domestic copper scrap enterprises entered"winter"period,this year the situation further worsened.According to survey,most medium to small sized copper scrap trading enterprises have either closed down,transferred to other businesses,or reduced trading volume,though large trading

  13. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-11-23

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  14. The Colgate University Winter Wilderness Survival Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Peter C.; Milner, Robert

    In January 1976, Colgate University offered its first Winter Wilderness Survival Program in conjunction with the North American Wilderness Survival School (NAWSS). This post-program evaluation summarizes background of the three-week program, with attention to the leadership, program aims, how the course was publicized, and how it developed month…

  15. Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ve Got Skin in the Game Anti-Aging Vitamin D Related: What Is Skin Cancer? | True Stories | Ask the Experts Blog Events ... Weekend Warriors expand/collapse Golf: You've Got Skin in the Game expand/collapse Vitamin D Essential Outdoor Sun Safety Tips for Winter ...

  16. Appalachia's Winter Secret: Downhill on the Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Randy

    1991-01-01

    Describes ski-industry and winter-tourism growth in Appalachia. Sketches ski-resort developments in Maryland, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, and West Virginia. Describes economic threats to industry, its economic impact on Appalachian states and region, resorts' general qualities, and ski industry's promotional efforts. (TES)

  17. The Winter Olympics--On Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Barbara G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes several science activities designed around the upcoming Winter Olympics ice skating events which demonstrate the scientific principles behind the sport. Students learn that increasing the pressure on ice will lead to the ice melting, the principle involved in the spinning swing, and the technology of skates and skating outfits. (PVD)

  18. Music Activities for Lemonade in Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2014-01-01

    "Lemonade in Winter: A Book About Two Kids Counting Money" is a children's book about math; however, when sharing it in the music classroom, street cries and clapping games emerge. Jenkins' and Karas' book provides a springboard to lessons addressing several music elements, including form, tempo, and rhythm, as well as…

  19. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  20. European Society for Clinical Virology - winter meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westh, Henrik

    2004-02-01

    The European Society for Clinical Virology annual winter meeting mainly appeals to clinical virologists interested in human disease. Basic and clinical data were presented, highlighting a number of interesting findings. This report briefly describes options in HIV antiviral treatment, and focuses on fusion inhibitors, a new anti-HIV class of drugs. Recent improvements in experimental DNA vaccines are also presented.

  1. Winterization strategies for bulk storage of pickles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucumbers are commercially fermented and stored in bulk in outdoor open top fiberglass tanks. During winter, snow and ice accumulates around and on top of tanks influencing heat transfer in an unpredictable manner, often compromising the fruit quality. This study evaluates the performance of inexpen...

  2. Winter cooling in the northern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrasannaKumar, S.; Prasad, T.G.

    surface temperature (SST) 29.5 degrees C) and shallow mixed layer depth (MLD) (25 M). In contrast, during winter, the upper thermo-haline field showed a dramatic change, with cold SST (25 degrees C) and deep MLD (100 m) in the north, though the winds were...

  3. Resonance asymptotics in the generalized Winter model

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, P; Exner, Pavel; Fraas, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Winter model describing a quantum particle in presence of a spherical barrier given by a fixed generalized point interaction. It is shown that the three classes of such interactions correspond to three different types of asymptotic behaviour of resonances of the model at high energies.

  4. Monopolizar la violencia en una frontera colonial. Policías y militares en Patagonia austral (Argentina y Chile, 1870-1922

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Harambour R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la monopolización de la violencia en el ciclo inicial de colonización de Patagonia austral para lo cual propone, primero, que la precariedad local de los Estados de Argentina y Chile descansó en la fuerza expansiva de la industria ganadera para la instalación de su sobe- ranía territorial; y segundo, que la clausura de la delimitación fronteriza solo se produjo en el verano de 1922, como resultado de la represión a la insurgencia obrera. A partir de una extensa investigación en fuentes oficiales y empresariales referidas a Santa Cruz, Magallanes y Tierra del Fuego, así como en la prensa local, se investiga y compara la presencia de la fuerza policial y militar en las subdivisiones administrativas del extremo sur; además se examinaron similitudes y diferencias en las estra- tegias de control social.

  5. Nuevas evidencias de la presencia del Oso Andino (Tremarctos ornatus en las Yungas de Puno, el registro más austral de Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella Márquez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available El oso de anteojos Tremarctos ornatus es el único representante de la familia Ursidae en Suramérica. La población más grande y de distribución continua del oso andino en el Perú, se localiza en la ladera oriental de la cordillera oriental, incluyendo al departamento de Puno, donde casi todos los registros de esta especie provienen solamente de encuestas. Se describe aquí dos registros indirectos de la presencia del oso en el departamento de Puno, obtenidos en agosto del año 2009. El primer registro corresponde a una feca, con semillas perteneciente a la familia Lauraceae, encontrada en Yanacocha; y el segundo registro corresponde a unas marcas de garras del oso hallado en Challohuma. Este último representa el registro más austral con- firmado para la distribución del oso de anteojos en el Perú. Nuestros registros evidencian una continuidad en la distribución de esta especie en la vertiente oriental de la cordillera andina, desde el sur del Perú hasta el noroeste de Bolivia. Estos registros se hallan también muy próximos al Parque Nacional Bahuaja Sonene (PNBS, uno de los corredores de conservación más importantes en el mundo, y muestran la importancia de establecer estrategias de conservación tanto dentro como fuera de la zona de amortiguamiento del PNBS.

  6. Análisis panbiogeográfico de las especies de Epicauta Dejean, 1834 (Coleoptera: Meloidae en América del Sur austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Paula CAMPOS-SOLDINI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basado sobre los trazos individuales de 37 especies de Epicauta Dejean, 1834 de América del Sur Austral se obtuvieron seis trazos generalizados ubicados en dos áreas bióticas diferentes: cuatro están presentes en la Región Neotropical, uno en la Región Andina, y otro en la Zona de Transición Sudamericana, zona de ecotono entre ambas regiones. Como resultado de la superposición de trazos generalizados se han podido determinar cinco nodos, un nodo ubicado en la subregión Paranaense, tres nodos ubicados en la Subregión Chaqueña, y uno ubicado en la Zona de Transición Sudamericana. La gran cantidad de nodos obtenidos muestra que el área en estudio tiene una compleja historia Biogeográfica. Esta complejidad puede deberse a los numerosos eventos sucedidos en el Cenozoico en América del Sur, los que habrían permitido distintos desplazamientos cíclicos de la biota Neotropical.

  7. Community structure of copepods in the oceanic and neritic waters off Adélie and George V Land, East Antarctica, during the austral summer of 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Aiko; Watanabe, Yuko; Moteki, Masato; Hosie, Graham W.; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2017-06-01

    Copepods are one of the most important components of the Southern Ocean food web, and are widely distributed from surface to deeper waters. We conducted discrete depth sampling to clarify the community structure of copepods from the epi- to bathypelagic layers of the oceanic and neritic waters off Adélie and George V Land, East Antarctica, in the austral summer of 2008. Notably high diversity and species numbers were observed in the meso- and bathypelagic layers. Cluster analysis based on the similarity of copepod communities identified seven cluster groups, which corresponded well with water masses. In the epi- and upper- mesopelagic layers of the oceanic zone, the SB (Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current) divided copepod communities. Conversely, in the lower meso- and bathypelagic layers (500-2000 m depth), communities were consistent across the SB. In these layers, the distributions of copepod species were separated by habitat depth ranges and feeding behaviour. The different food webs occur in the epipelagic layer with habitat segregation by zooplankton in their horizontal distribution ranges.

  8. Secciones estructurales de Las Sierras Australes de la provincia de Buenos Aires: Repetición de la secuencia estratigráfica a partir de fallas inversas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata N. Tomezzoli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Las Sierras Australes o Sierras de la Ventana están ubicadas en el sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, entre los 37°-39°S y los 61°- 63°O y constituyen una faja plegada y corrida con rumbo general noroeste. Están formadas por rocas de edades precámbricas a pérmicas. Las sierras más viejas e intensamente deformadas son las occidentales mientras que las más jóvenes y menos deformadas se ubican hacia el este. En este trabajo se presentan dos secciones regionales desde la localidad de López Lecube hasta el arroyo Quiñihual y en el abra de Agua Blanca - Hinojo, que corroboran la importancia del fallamiento en el desarrollo de las sierras. El contacto principal entre los Grupos Curamalal y Ventana se interpreta aqui como un corrimiento que repite la secuencia. Se presenta una seccion esquemática de las sierras siguiendo esta idea.

  9. Growth and biomass production with enhanced {beta}-glucan and dietary fibre contents of Ganoderma australe ATHUM 4345 in a batch-stirred tank bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaspyridi, Lefki-Maria; Christakopoulos, Paul [BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Katapodis, Petros [BIOtechMASS Unit, Biotechnology Laboratory, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, Ioannina (Greece); Gonou-Zagou, Zacharoula; Kapsanaki-Gotsi, Evangelia [Department of Ecology and Systematics, Faculty of Biology, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2011-02-15

    In this study we maximized biomass production by the basidiomycete Ganoderma australe ATHUM 4345, a species of pharmaceutical interest as it is a valuable source of nutraceuticals, including dietary fibers and glucans. We used the Biolog FF MicroPlate to screen 95 different carbon sources for growth monitoring. The pattern of substrate catabolism forms a substrate assimilation fingerprint, which is useful in selecting components for media optimization of maximum biomass production. Response surface methodology, based on the central composite design was applied to explore the optimum concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources of culture medium in shake flask cultures. When the improved culture medium was tested in a 20-L stirred tank bioreactor, using 13.7 g/L glucose and 30.0 g/L yeast extract, high biomass yields (10.1{+-}0.4 g/L) and productivity of 0.09 g L{sup -1} h{sup -1} were obtained. The yield coefficients for total glucan and dietary fibers on biomass formed were 94.82{+-}6 and 341.15{+-}12.3 mg/g mycelium dry weight, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Impact of warm winters on microbial growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgander, Johanna; Rousk, Johannes; Axel Olsson, Pål

    2014-05-01

    Growth of soil bacteria has an asymmetrical response to higher temperature with a gradual increase with increasing temperatures until an optimum after which a steep decline occurs. In laboratory studies it has been shown that by exposing a soil bacterial community to a temperature above the community's optimum temperature for two months, the bacterial community grows warm-adapted, and the optimum temperature of bacterial growth shifts towards higher temperatures. This result suggests a change in the intrinsic temperature dependence of bacterial growth, as temperature influenced the bacterial growth even though all other factors were kept constant. An intrinsic temperature dependence could be explained by either a change in the bacterial community composition, exchanging less tolerant bacteria towards more tolerant ones, or it could be due to adaptation within the bacteria present. No matter what the shift in temperature tolerance is due to, the shift could have ecosystem scale implications, as winters in northern Europe are getting warmer. To address the question of how microbes and plants are affected by warmer winters, a winter-warming experiment was established in a South Swedish grassland. Results suggest a positive response in microbial growth rate in plots where winter soil temperatures were around 6 °C above ambient. Both bacterial and fungal growth (leucine incorporation, and acetate into ergosterol incorporation, respectively) appeared stimulated, and there are two candidate explanations for these results. Either (i) warming directly influence microbial communities by modulating their temperature adaptation, or (ii) warming indirectly affected the microbial communities via temperature induced changes in bacterial growth conditions. The first explanation is in accordance with what has been shown in laboratory conditions (explained above), where the differences in the intrinsic temperature relationships were examined. To test this explanation the

  11. Efecto de la severidad de quemado sobre la concentración de carbono orgánico en montículos e intermontículos en el monte austral Effect of burn severity on the soil organic carbon concentration mounds and intermounds in the monte austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Gaitán

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de la severidad de quemado sobre la concentración de carbono orgánico (COS en los montículos vegetados y en los intermontículos de suelo desnudo fue evaluado 4 años luego de la ocurrencia de un incendio natural en un área del Monte Austral (provincia de Río Negro. Los montículos actúan como "islas de fertilidad" dado que la concentración de COS fue mayor que en los intermontículos. La concentración de COS en los intermontículos no fue afectada por el incendio. En cambio en los montículos se halló una disminución en la concentración de COS al incrementarse la severidad de quemado. La pérdida de COS podría inducir una degradación de los pastizales, por lo tanto las prácticas de manejo del fuego deberían tender a la realización de quemas de baja severidad.The effect of burn severity on soil organic carbon concentration (COS in vegetated mounds and in bare soil intermounds was evaluated 4 years after the occurrence of a natural fire in an area of the Monte Austral (Río Negro province. The mounds act as "fertility islands" since COS concentration was higher than in the intermounds. The COS concentration in the intermounds was not affected by fire. On the other hand, in the mounds a decrease in the COS concentration was found when the burn severity increased. The COS loss could induce rangelands degradation, therefore fire management practices should tend to the realization of low severity burns.

  12. Genotype x environment interactions for postweaning performance in crossbred calves grazing winter wheat pasture or dormant native prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W

    2001-06-01

    Data from 403 calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows sired by Polled Hereford bulls were used to evaluate the impact of postweaning backgrounding forages on postweaning BW, gains, and carcass traits. Calves were born (spring of 1991 through 1994) and reared on either endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass pastures. After weaning, calves were transported 360 km to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, west of El Reno, OK, and, within breed and preweaning forage, were assigned to one of the following winter stocker treatments: 1) winter wheat pasture or 2) dormant native prairie plus supplemental CP. In March, winter stocker treatments were ended and calves were grazed as a single group on cool-season grasses until early July (1992, 1993, and 1994) or late May (1995), when the feedlot phase began. In the feedlot, calves were fed a high concentrate diet for an average of 120 d until a backfat thickness of > 10 mm was reached. Calves were shipped in truck load lots to Amarillo, TX (350 km), for processing and collection of carcass data. Averaged over calf breed group, calves wintered on wheat pasture gained faster (P carcass weights (337 vs 315 kg); larger (P carcass traits. Calves wintered on native prairie were restricted in growth and expressed compensatory gain during the feedlot phase but not during the spring stocker phase. Dormant native grasses can be used to winter stocker calves excess to the winter wheat pasture needs, but ownership of these calves would have to be retained through the feedlot phase to realize any advantage of built-in compensatory gain. Finally, these data suggest that expression of maternal heterosis for weight gain is more likely in calves backgrounded on native prairie than in calves grazed on winter wheat.

  13. Climate-driven effects of fire on winter habitat for caribou in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustine, David D.; Brinkman, Todd J.; Lindgren, Michael A.; Schmidt, Jennifer I.; Rupp, T. Scott; Adams, Layne G.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic warming has direct implications for fire-dominated disturbance patterns in northern ecosystems. A transforming wildfire regime is altering plant composition and successional patterns, thus affecting the distribution and potentially the abundance of large herbivores. Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are an important subsistence resource for communities throughout the north and a species that depends on terrestrial lichen in late-successional forests and tundra systems. Projected increases in area burned and reductions in stand ages may reduce lichen availability within caribou winter ranges. Sufficient reductions in lichen abundance could alter the capacity of these areas to support caribou populations. To assess the potential role of a changing fire regime on winter habitat for caribou, we used a simulation modeling platform, two global circulation models (GCMs), and a moderate emissions scenario to project annual fire characteristics and the resulting abundance of lichen-producing vegetation types (i.e., spruce forests and tundra >60 years old) across a modeling domain that encompassed the winter ranges of the Central Arctic and Porcupine caribou herds in the Alaskan-Yukon Arctic. Fires were less numerous and smaller in tundra compared to spruce habitats throughout the 90-year projection for both GCMs. Given the more likely climate trajectory, we projected that the Porcupine caribou herd, which winters primarily in the boreal forest, could be expected to experience a greater reduction in lichen-producing winter habitats (−21%) than the Central Arctic herd that wintered primarily in the arctic tundra (−11%). Our results suggest that caribou herds wintering in boreal forest will undergo fire-driven reductions in lichen-producing habitats that will, at a minimum, alter their distribution. Range shifts of caribou resulting from fire-driven changes to winter habitat may diminish access to caribou for rural communities that reside in fire-prone areas.

  14. Industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants in cormorants wintering near the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; Stafford, C.J.; Cain, B.W.; Mueller, A.J.; Hall, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus ) collected in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA, in November shortly after their fall migration contained residues of several industrial, agricultural, and petroleum contaminants including polychlorinated styrenes (PCS's), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), DDE, and petroleum hydrocarbons. PCS concentrations in over-wintering birds collected in late February were three times higher than those in birds collected in November. PCB and petroleum concentrations remained at about the same level throughout the 3-month winter period. Petroleum hydrocarbons were present in all cormorants and residues in some individuals exceeded 25 ppm (wet weight). Mean DDE residues in samples collected in November and February were less than 1 ppm. Low concentrations of five other organochlorine compounds, not detected in cormorants collected in November, were recovered in birds collected in February.

  15. Modeling winter ozone episodes near oil and natural gas fields in Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuling; Rappenglück, Bernhard; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Field, Robert A.; Soltis, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Wintertime ozone episodes have been reported in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) producing fields in Uintah Basin, Utah and the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming in recent years. High concentrations of ozone precursors facilitated by favorable meteorological conditions, including low wind and shallow boundary layer (BL), were found in these episodes, although the exact roles of these precursor species in different O&NG fields are to be determined. Meanwhile, snow cover is also found to play an important role in these winter ozone episodes as the cold snow covered surface enhances the inversion, further limits the BL and the high snow albedo greatly boosts photolysis reactions that are closely related to ozone chemistry. In this study, we utilize model simulation to explore the role of chemical compositions, in terms of different VOC groups and NOx, and that of the enhanced photolysis due to snow cover in the UGRB ozone episodes in the late winter of 2011.

  16. Early unusual ozone loss during the Arctic winter 2002/2003 compared to other winters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Goutail

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total column ozone reduction in the Arctic is evaluated each winter since 1993/1994 by the transport method (3-D CTM passive ozone minus measurements. The cumulative loss from 1 December to the end of the season ranges from 5–10% during warm winters like 1998/1999, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002 up to 30%–32% during cold winters like 1994/1995 and 1995/1996. The 23% cumulative loss observed during the winter 2002/2003 is similar in amplitude to the 20–24% measured in 1996/1997 and 1999/2000 but the timing is different. It started unusually early in December after the occurrence of very low temperature at all stratospheric levels between 550 K and 435 K allowing PSC formation and thus chlorine activation. The early ozone loss of 2002/2003 is well captured by current 3-D CTM models.

  17. Interannual modulation of East African early short rains by the winter Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Dao-Yi; Guo, Dong; Mao, Rui; Yang, Jing; Gao, Yongqi; Kim, Seong-Joong

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the interannual linkage between the boreal winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) and East African early short rains. When the Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño-Southern Oscillation variance are excluded by linear regression, the boreal winter AO index is significantly correlated with the October East African precipitation over the domain of 5°N-5°S and 35°-45°E for the period 1979-2014, r =+ 0.46. The upper ocean heat content likely acts as a medium that links the AO and East African precipitation. Significant subsurface warming and positive upper ocean heat content anomalies occur over the western Indian Ocean during the autumn following positive AO winters, which enriches the atmospheric moisture, intensifies convection, and enhances precipitation. Oceanic dynamics play a key role in causing this subsurface warming. Winter AO-related atmospheric circulation creates anomalous wind stress, which forces a downwelling oceanic Rossby wave between 60°-75°E and 5°-10°S, where the thermocline significantly deepens. This Rossby wave propagates westward and accompanies significant subsurface warming along the thermocline. The Rossby wave arrives at the western Indian Ocean in the late summer, significantly warming the region to the west of 55°E at a depth of 60-100 m. This warming remains significant through October. Correspondingly, the upper ocean heat content significantly increases by approximately 2-3 × 108 J m-2 in the region west of 60°E between 5° and 10°S. The role of these oceanic dynamics in linking the winter AO, and anomalous subsurface warming was tested by numerical experiments with an oceanic general circulation model. The experiments were performed with the forcing of AO-related wind stress anomalies over the Indian Ocean in the winter. The oceanic Rossby wave generated in the central Indian Ocean during boreal winter, the consequent subsurface warming, and the anomalous upper ocean heat content in October over the

  18. Late-Onset Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2017-01-01

    Late-onset asthma is common, associated with poor outcome, underdiagnosed and undertreated, possibly due to the modifying effect of ageing on disease expression. Although the diagnostic work-up in elderly individuals suspected of having asthma follows the same steps as in younger individuals (case......, to objectively confirm asthma. If necessary, a trial of oral or inhaled corticosteroid might be necessary. Asthma can be diagnosed when increased airflow variability is identified in a symptomatic patient, and if the patient does not have a history of exposure, primarily smoking, known to cause chronic...... obstructive pulmonary disease, the diagnosis is asthma even if the patient does not have fully reversible airflow obstruction. Pharmacological therapy in patients with late-onset asthma follows international guidelines, including treatment with the lowest effective dose of inhaled corticosteroid to minimize...

  19. Late Babylonian Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John M.

    The last five centuries BC saw the development of several new forms of astrology in Babylonia. Key to these new astrological techniques was the invention of the zodiac in about 400 BC. These new forms of astrology include personal horoscopes, astral medicine, and the exploitation of geometrical relationships between the position of heavenly bodies. Several Late Babylonian astrological doctrines were later adopted within Greek astrology.

  20. Phenology, canopy aging and seasonal carbon balance as related to delayed winter pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo eGatti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER was followed throughout the season.Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs 34 in SWP, highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly

  1. Phenology, Canopy Aging and Seasonal Carbon Balance as Related to Delayed Winter Pruning of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Sangiovese Grapevines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Matteo; Pirez, Facundo J; Chiari, Giorgio; Tombesi, Sergio; Palliotti, Alberto; Merli, Maria C; Poni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Manipulating or shifting annual grapevine growing cycle to offset limitations imposed by global warming is a must today, and delayed winter pruning is a tool to achieve it. However, no information is available about its physiological background, especially in relation to modifications in canopy phenology, demography and seasonal carbon budget. Mechanistic hypothesis underlying this work was that very late winter pruning (LWP) can achieve significant postponement of phenological stages so that ripening might occur in a cooler period and, concurrently, ripening potential can be improved due to higher efficiency and prolonged longevity of the canopy. Variability in the dynamics of the annual cycle was created in mature potted cv. Sangiovese grapevines subjected to either standard winter pruning (SWP) or late and very late winter pruning (LWP, VLWP) performed when apical shoots on the unpruned canes were at the stage of 2 and 7 unfolded leaves. Vegetative growth, phenology and canopy net CO2 exchange (NCER) were followed throughout the season. Despite LWP and VLWP induced a bud-burst delay of 17 and 31 days vs. SWP, the delay was fully offset at harvest for LWP and was reduced to 6 days in VLWP. LWP showed notably higher canopy efficiency as shorter time needed to reach maximum NCER/leaf area (22 days vs. 34 in SWP), highest maximum NCER/leaf area (+37% as compared to SWP) and higher NCER/leaf area rates from veraison to end of season. As a result, seasonal cumulated carbon in LWP was 17% higher than SWP. A negative functional relationship was also established between amount of leaf area removed at winter pruning and yield per vine and berry number per cluster. Although retarded winter pruning was not able to postpone late-season phenological stages under the warm conditions of this study, it showed a remarkable potential to limit yield while improving grape quality, thereby fostering the hypothesis that it could be used to replace time-consuming and costly cluster

  2. A checklist of the winter bird community in different habitat types of Rosekandy Tea Estate of Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ahmed

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at preparing an inventory of the avifauna and to document the species composition of birds during winter in different habitat types of Rosekandy Tea Estate of Cachar District of Assam. Four habitat types, viz., tea plantation, ecotone zone, secondary growth forest and water bodies were selected within the tea estate and surveyed from mid-December 2010 (early winter to mid-April 2011 (late winter covering four months of survey. A total of 88 species were recorded during the survey period with the highest number of species in ecotone zone (n=63, followed by secondary forest (n=60, tea plantation (n=48 and water bodies (n=17. The species were further categorized into different feeding and habitat guilds to study the distribution of bird species in different habitat types according to various guilds.

  3. Scientific Library to Hold Annual Winter Video Series | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library is getting ready for its Annual Winter Video Series. Beginning on Monday, January 9 and concluding on Friday, February 17, the Winter Video Series will consist of two different PBS programs, each with three episodes.

  4. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type: current insights and treatment options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meesters Y; Gordijn MCM

    2016-01-01

    ...., Groningen, the Netherlands Abstract: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer...

  5. Scientific Library to Hold Annual Winter Video Series | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Scientific Library is getting ready for its Annual Winter Video Series. Beginning on Monday, January 9 and concluding on Friday, February 17, the Winter Video Series will consist of two different PBS programs, each with three episodes.

  6. Initial Survey Instructions for mid-winter waterfowl survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Mid-winter Waterfowl Survey (MWS) is conducted annually in early January as part of the nationwide wintering waterfowl monitoring effort led by U.S. Fish &...

  7. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  8. Vernalization and epigenetics: how plants remember winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sibum; Amasino, Richard M

    2004-02-01

    One of the remarkable aspects of the promotion of flowering by vernalization is that plants have evolved the ability to measure a complete winter season of cold and to 'remember' this prior cold exposure in the spring. Recent work in Arabidopsis demonstrates the molecular basis of this memory of winter: vernalization causes changes in the chromatin structure of a flowering repressor gene, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that switch this gene into a repressed state that is mitotically stable. A key component of the vernalization pathway, VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3), which is a PHD-domain-containing protein, is induced only after a prolonged period of cold. VIN3 is involved in initiating the modification of FLC chromatin structure. The stable silencing of FLC also requires the DNA-binding protein VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and the polycomb-group protein VRN2.

  9. The effect of sowing strategy, row distance and mechanical weed control on weeds and yield in organic winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.

    2002-01-01

    A series of field experiments were carried out in winter wheat grown under organic conditions in Denmark on fields with different weed pressure. The treatments were sowing strategy (normal sowing time, late sowing and false seedbed), row distance (12 cm and 24 cm row distance) and weed control method (untreated, mechanical weed control (weed harrowing at 12 cm supplemented with row hoeing at 24 cm), and herbicide weed control). Weed biomass was largest at the normal sowing time and was reduce...

  10. 33 CFR 401.92 - Wintering and lying-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wintering and lying-up. 401.92... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations General § 401.92 Wintering and lying-up. No vessel shall winter within the Seaway or lie-up within the Seaway during the navigation...

  11. Surgical risks associated with winter sport tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Stéphane; Payet, Cécile; Lifante, Jean-Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Chollet, François; Carty, Matthew J; Duclos, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    Mass tourism during winter in mountain areas may cause significant clustering of body injuries leading to increasing emergency admissions at hospital. We aimed at assessing if surgical safety and efficiency was maintained in this particular context. We selected all emergency admissions of open surgery performed in French hospitals between 2010 and 2012. After identifying mountain areas with increasing volume of surgical stays during winter, we considered seasonal variations in surgical outcomes using a difference-in-differences study design. We computed multilevel regressions to evaluate whether significant increase in emergency cases had an effect on surgical mortality, complications and length of stay. Clustering effect of patients within hospitals was integrated in analysis and surgical outcomes were adjusted for both patient and hospital characteristics. A total of 381 hospitals had 559,052 inpatient stays related to emergency open surgery over 3 years. Compared to other geographical areas, a significant peak of activity was noted during winter in mountainous hospitals (Alps, Pyrenees, Vosges), ranging 6-77% volume increase. Peak was mainly explained by tourists' influx (+124.5%, 4,351/3,496) and increased need for orthopaedic procedures (+36.8%, 4,731/12,873). After controlling for potential confounders, patients did not experience increased risk for postoperative death (ratio of OR 1.01, 95%CI 0.89-1.14, p = 0.891), thromboembolism (0.95, 0.77-1.17, p = 0.621) or sepsis (0.98, 0.85-1.12, p = 0.748). Length of stay was unaltered (1.00, 0.99-1.02, p = 0.716). Surgical outcomes are not compromised during winter in French mountain areas despite a substantial influx of major emergencies.

  12. 31st Winter Workshop in Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    The 31st edition of the Winter Workshop will be held January 25-31st, 2015 in the Keystone Resort, Colorado, USA. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC and RHIC heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, NICA and JLab will also be featured.

  13. 2010 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2010 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry,sixteenth in a series of biennial meetings sponsored by the ICP Information Newsletter, features developments in plasma spectrochemical analysis by inductively coupled plasma (ICP), dc plasma (DCP), microwave plasma (MIP), glow discharge (GDL, HCL), and laser sources. The meeting will be held Monday, January 4 through Saturday, January 9, 2010, in Fort Myers, Florida (www. fortmyers-sanibel, corn) at the Sanibel Harbour Resort and Spa (www. sanibel-resort, com).

  14. Ice Jams, Winter 1996-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    Engineers® Rivers, streams, and lakes in cold regions freeze during winter months. Ice jams may form during initial ice cover formation ( freezeup jams) or...when ice cover breaks up (breakup jams). Both freezeup and breakup jams cause backwater flooding and damage to low-lying areas and municipal...Laboratory (CRREL) Ice Jam Database is a compilation of freezeup and breakup ice jam events in the United States (White 1996). Currently, there are more

  15. Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University

    2006-11-08

    Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

  16. Feeding ecology of mallards wintering in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, D.G.; Krapu, G.L.; Crawford, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    Food use by mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) wintering on the Platte River in south central Nebraska was determined from mid-December to early March 1978-80. Mallards foraged in river channels, irrigation drainage canals, and agricultural areas. Plant matter formed 97% of the diet (dry weight) and diets did not vary between sexes (P > 0.05). Waste corn was the principal food consumed and formed 46 and 62% of the diets of males and females, respectively. Milo, common duckweed (Lemna minor), smartweed (Polygonum spp.), and barnyardgrass (Echinochloa muricata) composed most of the remaining plant matter ingested. Mallards fed intensively in riparian wetland habitat to obtain invertebrates, but few were consumed because of limited abundance. Dietary protein was lower than reported among mallards wintering in Louisiana. Field feeding occurred primarily in grazed corn stubble and cattle feedlots. The distances traveled to feed, and the duration and timing of feeding varied with snow cover and season phenology. Competition for food was markedly higher during the cold winter of 1979 when heavy snow cover was present.

  17. Active orogeny of the south-central Andes studied with GPS geodesy Orogenia activa de los Andes centro-australes estudiada mediante geodesia de GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kendrick

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We present GPS measurements of the crustal velocity field in the southern Central Andes between the Santa Cruz corner and the Malargüe fold and thrust belt, and model this interseismic velocity field as the combination of an ephemeral, elastic signal associated with locking of the main plate boundary, and a steady and non-reversing component of displacement associated with localized backarc convergence and growth of the mountain belt. We find that this second component, i.e. the ongoing and permanent displacement of the forearc and the high Andes relative to the craton, can be modeled very well as a steady clockwise rotation of an Andean microplate about a pole located in southern Argentina. Near the Malargüe Basin, this microplate (or block is moving nearly parallel to the strike of the orogen, transporting material towards the bend in the central Andes. Farther north, in the southern limb of the Central Andes, the motion of this same crustal block is directed nearly perpendicular to the strike of the mountain belt. Our results suggest that permanent deformation rates in the backarc range from a maximum of ~ 6-7 mm/yr in the Bolivian Subandes to less than ~ 3 mm/yr in the Argentine Precordillera and Malargue fold and thrust belt. It is likely that most active backarc deformation is accruing in a narrow zone (~ 50 km wide associated with the backarc boundary (usually defined as the thrust front though at this stage it is impossible to distinguish whether specific backarc structures are actively accruing strain.Se presentan mediciones GPS del campo de velocidad en los Andes centro-australes entre el extremo norte de Santa Cruz y la faja plegada de Malargüe. Se modela el campo de velocidad intersísmico como la combinación de una señal elástico/efímera asociada con el anclaje del límite principal de placas, y una componente constante, no reversible de desplazamiento asociada con una convergencia localizada en el retroarco y crecimiento del

  18. Historical biogeographic analysis of the family Fanniidae (Díptera: Calyptratae, with special reference to the austral species of the genus Fannia (Diptera: Fanniidae using dispersal-vicariance analysis Análisis biogeográfico histórico de la familia Fanniidae (Diptera: Calyptratae, con referencia especial a las especies australes del genero Fannia (Diptera: Fanniidae usando análisis de dipersion-vicarianza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CECILIA DOMÍNGUEZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to achieve a hypothesis explaining the biogeographical history of the family Fanniidae, especially that of the species from Patagonia, the Neotropics, Australia, and New Zealand. We used "dispersal-vicariance analysis" (DIVA, an event-based parsimony method, to analyze the most parsimonious phylogenetic hypothesis for the family, obtained by Domínguez & Roig-Juñent (2008. The analysis resulted in 32800 alternative equally optimal reconstructions that indicate that the ancestor of the Fanniidae was widely distributed across different regions of the world, which along with the subsequent separation of two clades that correspond to the Laurasic and Gondwanan Landmasses allow the proposal of an older age than in previous hypothesis (Late Jurassic or early Cretaceous times instead of upper Cretaceous and a Pangeic origin for the Fanniidae. The northern hemisphere species of Fanniidae included in this study highlight the difficulty that arises when analysing with DIVA a tree with a large amount of paralogy or redundant distributions, as illustrated here with several examples. The southern hemisphere species of Fanniidae indicate a clear pattern of vicariance and dispersal consistent with the rupture of Gondwana.El propósito de este estudio fue el de obtener una hipótesis que explique la historia biogeográfica de la familia Fanniidae, especialmente la de las especies de las regiones Patagónica, Neotropical, Australiana y Neozelandesa. Se utilizó el método de "dispersión y vicarianza" (DIVA, el cual es un método de parsimonia basado en eventos para analizar el árbol filogenético más parsimonioso obtenido por Domínguez & Roig-Juñent (2008. El análisis resultó en 32800 reconstrucciones alternativas igualmente óptimas que indican que el ancestro de Fanniidae estaba ampliamente distribuido en distintas regiones del mundo, lo cual junto con la subsiguiente separación de dos clados que corresponderían a los

  19. Folding, thrusting and development of push-up structures during the Miocene tectonic inversion of the Austral Basin, Southern Patagonian Andes (50°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerfass, Henrique; Ramos, Victor A.; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Belotti, Hugo J.; Carmo, Isabela O.

    2017-03-01

    Rift and post-rift sections of the Austral Basin in the Southern Patagonian fold and thrust belt were examined in outcrop and in 2D seismic reflection sections to evaluate geometric and kinematic aspects of the extension and subsequent inversion. The syn-rift section is composed of dacitic lava flows of the El Quemado Complex (Jurassic), the lowermost unit of the basin. The coastal sandstones of the Springhill Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) and marine shales of the Río Mayer Formation (Berriasian-Albian) are thought to be sag units. However, field data suggest that these units are also part of the syn-rift successions, as evidenced by extensional growth strata in the lower levels of the Río Mayer Formation. A dacitic flow that is texturally and compositionally similar to those of the syn-rift phase and that is termed here the Río Guanaco dacite is interfingered with the basal strata of the Río Mayer Formation and has a U-Pb zircon crystallization age of c. 141 Ma (Berriasian). The outcropping section was inverted by compression in the early Miocene, according to structural and isotopic data of adjacent areas, producing a broad anticline with inverted and fossil extensional faults as well as newly generated thrusts. At the seismic scale, most of the extensional master faults present negligible reverse slip, and shortening was accommodated in hanging wall push-up structures. This situation is interpreted as a result of the competent metamorphic basement and volcanic syn-rift section, inducing frictional lock-up of the master faults.

  20. Magmatismo ácido del mioceno superior-cuaternario en el área de Cerro Blanco-La Hoyada, Puna Austral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Carolina Montero López

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El volcanismo de composición ácida desarrollado en la Puna Austral entre el Mioceno superior y el Holoceno está representado en el extremo oriental de la cordillera de San Buenaventura (26°25'-27°00'S y 67°25'-67°50' O por dos unidades: Ignimbrita Aguada Alumbrera y Complejo Volcánico Cerro Blanco. Hacia el norte y noroeste de esta área afloran flujos piroclásticos (Ignimbrita Rosada cuyo análisis se presenta aquí a fines comparativos. Estas rocas volcánicas apoyan sobre un basamento metamórfico de mediano a alto grado con intrusivos del Neoproterozoico-Paleozoico inferior y rocas volcánicas de composición intermedia de ca. 9-7 Ma. Las rocas estudiadas abarcan un lapso entre el Mioceno superior (Ignimbrita Aguada Alumbrera e Ignimbrita Rosada hasta el Holoceno (Complejo Volcánico Cerro Blanco, tienen afinidad calcoalcalina y son principalmente de composición riolítica. En este estudio se presentan nuevos datos de campo que permiten ordenar la estratigrafía del sector de estudio, así como resultados de geoquímica. Las ignimbritas del Mioceno Superior-Plioceno estudiadas presentan características similares a las rocas ácidas aflorantes al oeste del área de estudio, las cuales fueron relacionadas por diversos autores a un ambiente de subducción procedentes de fuentes mantélicas con altos porcentajes de contaminación cortical, mientras que el Complejo Volcánico Cerro Blanco podría estar reflejando su procedencia de la fusión directa de la corteza, si bien esta hipótesis debe ser corroborada con mayor cantidad de datos geoquímicos.

  1. Total carbon dioxide, hydrographic, and nitrate measurements in the Southwest Pacific during Austral autumn, 1990: Results from NOAA/PMEL CGC-90 cruise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamb, M.F.; Feely, R.A. [Pacific Marine Environmental Lab., Seattle, WA (United States); Moore, L. [Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Lab., Miami, FL (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    In support of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate and Global Change (C&GC) Program, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL) scientists have been measuring the growing burden of greenhouse gases in the thermocline waters of the Pacific Ocean since 1980. Collection of data at a series of hydrographic stations along longitude 170{degrees} W during austral autumn of 1990 was designed to enhance understanding of the increase in the column burden of chlorofluorocarbons and carbon dioxide in the thermocline waters since the last expedition in 1984. This document presents the procedures and methods used to obtain total carbon dioxide (TCO{sub 2}), hydrographic, and nitrate data during the NOAA/PMEL research vessel (R/V) Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise. Data were collected along two legs; sampling for Leg 1 began along 170{degrees} W from 15{degrees} S to 60{degrees} S, then angled northwest toward New Zealand across the Western Boundary Current. Leg 2 included a reoccupation of some stations between 30{degrees} S and 15{degrees} S on 170{degrees} W and measurements from 15{degrees} S to 5{degrees} N along 170{degrees} W. The following data report summarizes the TCO{sub 2}, salinity, temperature, and nitrate measurements from 63 stations. The TCO, concentration in seawater samples was measured using a coulometric/extraction system (Models 5011 and 5030, respectively) originated by Ken Johnson. The NOAA/PMEL R/V Malcolm Baldrige CGC-90 Cruise data set is available without charge as a numeric data package (NDP) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center. The NDP consists of two oceanographic data files, two FORTRAN 77 data retrieval routine files, a {open_quotes}readme{close_quotes} file, and this printed documentation, which describes the contents and format of all files as well as the procedures and methods used to obtain the data.

  2. DIÁSPORA BRANCA NA ÁFRICA AUSTRAL 1914. (Dossiê:As fontes para a História da África

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvio Marcus de Souza Correa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O presente artigo trata da deportação de alemães da então colônia alemã do sudoeste africano (atual Namíbia para a então União Sul-Africana (atual África do Sul em 1914. A análise enfoca o deslocamento forçado de centenas de pessoas e as consequências imediatas dessa diáspora em suas vidas. Com base na historiografia, em fontes hemerográficas, diários ou memórias como a de Hertha Brodersen-Manns (1891-1959, esse episódio se inscreve na fase final do colonialismo alemão em África, mas também numa história de diásporas sobrepostas.Palavras-chave: Diáspora, Colonialismo, África australAbstract: This article deals with the deportation of Germans from the whilom German South-West Africa (now Namibia to the whilom Union of South Africa (now South Africa in 1914. The analysis focuses on the forced displacement of hundreds of people and the immediate consequences of this diaspora in their lives. Based on historiography, newspapers, journals or memoirs like the book of Hertha Brodersen-Manns (1891-1959, this episode belongs to the final phase of German colonialism in Africa, but also taking part in the history of Overlapping Diasporas.Keywords: Diaspora, Colonialism, South AfricaRecebido em: 03/07/2015  – Aceito em 25/07/2015

  3. Distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu between dissolved fraction, inorganic particulate and phytoplankton in seawater of Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica) during austral summer 2011-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Romagnoli, T; Libani, G; Antonucci, M; Scarponi, G; Totti, C; Truzzi, C

    2017-10-01

    During the austral summer 2011-2012, the metal quotas of Cd, Pb and Cu in the phytoplankton of Terra Nova Bay (TNB, Antarctica) were measured for the first time. Evolution of all the three metal distributions between dissolved and particulate fractions during the season was also evaluated. Metal concentrations were mainly affected by the dynamic of the pack ice melting and phytoplankton activity. In mid-December when TNB area was covered by a thick pack ice layer and phytoplankton activity was very low, all the three metals were present mainly in their dissolved species. When the pack ice started to melt and the water column characteristics became ideal (i.e. moderate stratification, ice free area), the phytoplankton bloom occurred. Cd showed a nutrient-type behaviour with dissolved and particulate fractions mainly influenced by phytoplankton activity. Cd quota showed a mean value of 0.12 ± 0.07 nmol L(-1) (30-100% of the total particulate). Also Cu showed a nutrient-type behaviour, with its quota in phytoplankton varying between 0.08 and 2.1 nmol L(-1) (20-100% of the total particulate). Pb features the typical distribution of a scavenged element with very low algal content (0.03 ± 0.02 nmol L(-1), representing 20-50% of the total particulate). The vertical distribution of this element was influenced by several factors (e.g. pack ice melting, atmospheric inputs), the phytoplankton activity affecting Pb behaviour only partially. Metal:C ratios provide valuable information on the biological requirements for Cd, Pb and Cu, leading us to better understand their biogeochemical cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Factores de Riesgo para el desarrollo de Enfermedad Renal Crónica en Estudiantes de Medicina, Universidad Austral de Chile, 2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Sánchez G.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available La Enfermedad Renal Crónica (ERC afecta aproximadamente al 10% de la población adulta. OBJETIVO: Cuantificar factores de riesgo directos e indirectos que inciden en el desarrollo de ERC. PACIENTES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio epidemiológico analítico de corte transversal. En abril de 2010 respondieron una encuesta sobre “Factores de riesgo renal (FRR” 164 alumnos de primer a tercer año de la carrera de Medicina de la Universidad Austral de Chile. Se consideraron factores de riesgo directo: Diabetes Mellitus (DM1, Hipertensión Arterial (HTA y consumo de analgésicos en los encuestados y factores de riesgo indirecto: dislipidemia, sobrepeso u obesidad en los encuestados y DM2, HTA, sobrepeso u obesidad y dislipidemia en familiares de primer y segundo grado. Para el análisis de los resultados se utilizó Excel 8.0 y PASW-Statistic18. RESULTADOS: De los 164 alumnos, el 60,4%(n=99 fueron varones. Con respecto a los factores de riesgo, el 28%(n=50 se automedica al menos 1 vez a la semana algún tipo de analgésico, 32%(n=52 presentaban IMC>25 (IMC promedio en varones 24,03 y en mujeres 21,8. Del total, un 48%(n=78 posee antecedentes familiares de sobrepeso u obesidad, 52%(n=86 de HTA y 27%(n=44 DM2, existiendo una relación estadísticamente significativa (p<0.05 entre estos antecedentes y la presencia de estos mismos factores de riesgo en los encuestados. DISCUSIÓN: Un porcentaje importante del 50% de los estudiantes encuestados presenta potenciales factores de riesgo tanto directos como indirectos para desarrollar ERC.

  5. POTENCIAL DE LA ORGANOGÉNESIS COMO ESTRATEGIA PARA LA MASIFICACIÓN in vitro DE Fitzroya cupressoides EN SUDAMÉRICA AUSTRAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vidal Cob-Uicab

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce es una conífera endémica de Sudamérica austral cuya madera ostenta atributos de belleza y durabilidad. El presente estudio evaluó el efecto de componentes hormonales suplementado con medios de cultivo sobre la capacidad organogénica de Fitzroya cupressoides, y se analizó el proceso de regeneración in vitro mediante estudios histológicos. Se ensayó el medio de cultivo básico Quorin y Lepoivre (QL suplementado con diferentes concentraciones de ácido indol 3-butírico (AIB, 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP y ácido 2,4-diclorofenoxiacético (2,4-D utilizando segmentos nodales y hojas aciculares. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con cinco repeticiones balanceado; la unidad experimental fue un frasco de vidrio conteniendo un explante, y la inducción de callogénesis correspondió a una placa petri con cuatro explantes foliares. Hubo efectos significativos (P = 0.001 del tratamiento sobre las variables respuesta número de brotes y elongación caulinar. La prueba de rangos múltiples de Duncan confirmó que los tratamientos que observaron diferencias significativas fueron 0.1 mg·L-1 de AIB y 1.5 mg·L-1 de BAP para número de brotes por explante y 0.1 mg·L-1 AIB y 1.0 mg·L-1 de BAP para la elongación caulinar. El análisis histológico demostró la proliferación de estructuras meristemáticas a partir de tejido subepidérmico.

  6. Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Berggren

    Full Text Available Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden. The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters. Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter.

  7. Late-modern hipsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the cultural significance of a new figure in late-modern Western culture: the hipster. The current hipster culture, so I argue, can be used as a magnifying glass that makes impending changes to our conception of culture and of cultural development visible. It ushers in broa...... redemptive gesture toward the objects of the recent past and its predilection for irony. The article seeks to unfold hipster culture and sociality in an ongoing dialogue with sociological theory in general and conventional ways of thinking subculture in particular....

  8. Late-onset hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dudek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Poland, the number of men over the age of 50 years exceeds 6 million. It is estimated that about 2-6% of this population develops symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. In men, testosterone deficiency increases slightly with age. LOH is a clinically and biochemically defined disease of older men with serum testosterone level below the reference parameters of younger healthy men and with symptoms of testosterone deficiency, manifested by pronounced disturbances of quality of life and harmful effects on multiple organ systems. Testosterone replacement therapy may give several benefits regarding body composition, metabolic control, and psychological and sexual parameters.

  9. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D.; Vaske, Jerry J.; Squires, John R.; Olson, Lucretia E.; Roberts, Elizabeth K.

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation—often by non-motorized and motorized activity—is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists ( n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  10. Does Zoning Winter Recreationists Reduce Recreation Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Aubrey D; Vaske, Jerry J; Squires, John R; Olson, Lucretia E; Roberts, Elizabeth K

    2017-01-01

    Parks and protected area managers use zoning to decrease interpersonal conflict between recreationists. Zoning, or segregation, of recreation-often by non-motorized and motorized activity-is designed to limit physical interaction while providing recreation opportunities to both groups. This article investigated the effectiveness of zoning to reduce recreation conflict in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area in Colorado, USA. Despite a zoning management system, established groomed travel routes were used by both non-motorized recreationists (backcountry skiers, snowboarders, snowshoers) and motorized recreationists (snowmobilers). We hypothesized that persistent recreation conflict reported by non-motorized recreationists was the result of recreation occurring in areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use, mostly along groomed routes. We performed a geospatial analysis of recreation [from Global Positioning System (GPS) points, n = 1,233,449] in the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area to identify areas of mixed non-motorized and motorized use. We then surveyed non-motorized recreationists (n = 199) to test whether reported conflict is higher for respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with respondents traveling outside areas of mixed-use. Results from the geospatial analysis showed that only 0.7 % of the Vail Pass Winter Recreation Area contained recreation from both groups, however that area contained 14.8 % of all non-motorized recreation and 49.1 % of all motorized recreation. Survey analysis results showed higher interpersonal conflict for all five standard conflict variables among non-motorized respondents who traveled in areas of mixed-use, compared with those traveling outside mixed-use areas. Management implications and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of zoning are provided.

  11. Never too late.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Motivated by the belief that education has been central to Japan's economic success, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) promotes universal access to quality basic education. In developing countries, school children rarely learn science through experiments. A new JICA training course, the Science Experiment in Primary Education, involved teacher trainers from Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Physics, chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy experiments that require simple, inexpensive materials were taught. Another JICA project in Satkhira, Bangladesh, sought to raise the economic status of women enrolled in a dressmaking program through a year-long evening literacy class at three sites. Elementary school diplomas (available with proof to a local teacher of basic literacy and minimal arithmetic skills) are required in Bangladesh to apply for nongovernmental organization-initiated vocational schools and loans to start businesses in areas such as dressmaking, agriculture, and livestock raising. By late 1993, the female literacy program had expanded to 18 villages.

  12. Late-Modern Symbolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2015-01-01

    Through analysis of key texts, I seek to demonstrate the explanative potential of Durkheim’s sociology of religion in the present context. I critically readdress the idea, found in his early work, that modernity is characterized by a rupture with pre-modern forms of solidarity. First, I investigate...... the ways in which Durkheim sets up a stark distinction between the pre-modern and the modern in his early work, and how this distinction is further cemented by his orthodox critique of the modern economy and its negative effects on social life. Second, I show how another timeless and positive understanding...... of “mechanical” solidarity is to be found behind the “symbolist” template crystalizing in Durkheim’s late work. Third, I develop this template for a modern context by critically addressing and removing other obstacles and prejudices on Durkheim’s part....

  13. Winter anoxic layer in Lake Hibara

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yasuhiro; KUMAGAI, Michio; Sugawara, Kotaro; Miyamori, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    Abstract : The concentration of dissolved oxygen in waters 0.5-0.6m above the bottom of Lake Hibara, a dimictic lake, was zero in early spring of 1994 and 1997. The concentrations in early spring of 1992, 1993, 1995, 1996, and 1998 ranged from 3.75 to 10.1mg1~-1. The depth profiles of water temperature suggest that water had not circulated prior to the sample collections of 1994 and 1997, but it had done so in the cases of the other years, suggesting that winter conditions were well preserved...

  14. USGS Multi-Hazards Winter Storm Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Perry, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    The USGS began an inter-disciplinary effort, the Multi Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP), in 2007 to demonstrate how hazards science can improve a community's resiliency to natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, wildfires, landslides, floods and coastal erosion. The project engages the user community in setting research goals and directs efforts towards research products that can be applied to loss reduction and improved resiliency. The first public product of the MHDP was the ShakeOut Earthquake Scenario published in May 2008. It detailed the realistic outcomes of a hypothetical, but plausible, magnitude 7.8 earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in southern California. Over 300 scientist and experts contributed to designing the earthquake and understanding the impacts of such a disaster, including the geotechnical, engineering, social, cultural, environmental, and economic consequences. The scenario advanced scientific understanding and exposed numerous vulnerabilities related to emergency response and lifeline continuity management. The ShakeOut Scenario was the centerpiece of the Nation's largest-ever emergency response exercise in November 2008, dubbed "The Great Southern California ShakeOut" (www.shakeout.org). USGS Multi-Hazards is now preparing for its next major public project, a Winter Storm Scenario. Like the earthquake scenario, experts will be brought together to examine in detail the possibility, cost and consequences of a winter storm disaster including floods, landslides, coastal erosion and inundation; debris flows; biologic consequences like extirpation of endangered species; physical damages like bridge scour, road closures, dam failure, property loss, and water system collapse. Consideration will be given to the vulnerabilities associated with a catastrophic disruption to the water supply to southern California; the resulting impacts on ground water pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence; and a

  15. [Direct embryogenesis from protoplast of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, T M; Zhang, R D; Qin, F L; Yu, Y J; Xie, Y F

    2000-09-01

    Friable embryogenic calli were obtained on a modified N6 medium (NBD medium) from a winter wheat cultivar "Jinghua No. 1" (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Jinghua No. 1) and were transferred to a modified MS liquid medium (MSDL medium) to initiate embryogenic suspension cultures. Protoplasts were isolated from the suspensions and cultured on a modified MS medium (MSDP medium). The somatic embryoids were formed directly from the protoplasts and germinated into entire plants. The development of the somatic embryoids was very similar to that of zygotic embryos of wheat.

  16. [Excess mortality associated with influenza in Spain in winter 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Gómez, Inmaculada; Delgado-Sanz, Concepción; Jiménez-Jorge, Silvia; Flores, Víctor; Simón, Fernando; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Larrauri, Amparo; de Mateo Ontañón, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    An excess of mortality was detected in Spain in February and March 2012 by the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and the «European monitoring of excess mortality for public health action» program. The objective of this article was to determine whether this excess could be attributed to influenza in this period. Excess mortality from all causes from 2006 to 2012 were studied using time series in the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system, and Poisson regression in the European mortality surveillance system, as well as the FluMOMO model, which estimates the mortality attributable to influenza. Excess mortality due to influenza and pneumonia attributable to influenza were studied by a modification of the Serfling model. To detect the periods of excess, we compared observed and expected mortality. In February and March 2012, both the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and the European mortality surveillance system detected a mortality excess of 8,110 and 10,872 deaths (mortality ratio (MR): 1.22 (95% CI:1.21-1.23) and 1.32 (95% CI: 1.29-1.31), respectively). In the 2011-12 season, the FluMOMO model identified the maximum percentage (97%) of deaths attributable to influenza in people older than 64 years with respect to the mortality total associated with influenza (13,822 deaths). The rate of excess mortality due to influenza and pneumonia and respiratory causes in people older than 64 years, obtained by the Serfling model, also reached a peak in the 2011-2012 season: 18.07 and 77.20, deaths per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. A significant increase in mortality in elderly people in Spain was detected by the Spanish daily mortality surveillance system and by the European mortality surveillance system in the winter of 2012, coinciding with a late influenza season, with a predominance of the A(H3N2) virus, and a cold wave in Spain. This study suggests that influenza could have been one of the main factors contributing to the mortality excess

  17. 2012 Aspen Winter Conferences on High Energy and Astrophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, John; Olivier, Dore; Fox, Patrick; Furic, Ivan; Halkiadakis, Eva; Schmidt, Fabian; Senatore, Leonardo; Smith, Kendrick M; Whiteson, Daniel

    2012-05-01

    Aspen Center for Physics Project Summary DE-SC0007313 Budget Period: 1/1/2012 to 12/31/2012 The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Particle Physics was held at the Aspen Center for Physics from February 11 to February 17, 2012. Sixty-seven participants from nine countries, and several universities and national labs attended the workshop titled, The Hunt for New Particles, from the Alps to the Plains to the Rockies. There were 53 formal talks, and a considerable number of informal discussions held during the week. The weeks events included a public lecture-Hunting the Dark Universe given by Neal Weiner from New York University) and attended by 237 members of the public, and a physics cafe geared for high schoolers that is a discussion with physicists conducted by Spencer Chang (University of Oregon), Matthew Reece (Harvard University) and Julia Shelton (Yale University) and attended by 67 locals and visitors. While there were no published proceedings, some of the talks are posted online and can be Googled. The workshop was organized by John Campbell (Fermilab), Patrick Fox (Fermilab), Ivan Furic (University of Florida), Eva Halkiadakis (Rutgers University) and Daniel Whiteson (University of California Irvine). Additional information is available at http://indico.cern.ch/conferenceDisplay.py?confId=143360. Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era The 2012 Aspen Winter Conference on Astroparticle physics held at the Aspen Center for Physics was Inflationary Theory and its Confrontation with Data in the Planck Era. It was held from January 30 to February 4, 2012. The 62 participants came from 7 countries and attended 43 talks over five days. Late mornings through the afternoon are reserved for informal discussions. In feedback received from participants, it is often these unplanned chats that produce the most excitement due to working through problems with fellow physicists

  18. Winter sowing of adapted lines as a potential yield increase strategy in lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, A.; Aparicio, T.; Rodríguez, M.J.; Pérez de la Vega, M.; Caminero, C.

    2016-11-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. subsp. culinaris) is a traditional crop in Spain although current grain yield in Spain is relatively low and unstable. The effect of an early sowing date (winter sowing) on yield in the Spanish Central Plateau (meseta) was analyzed comparing it to the traditional spring sowing. Yield from eleven cultivars currently available for sowing in Spain and two F6:7 populations of recombinant inbred lines (RIL), ´Precoz´ × ´WA8649041´ (89 lines) and ´BGE016365´ × ´ILL1918´ (118 lines), was evaluated in winter and spring sowing dates for three seasons (2005/06, 2006/07 and 2007/08) and two localities. Yield and stability were assessed by the method of consistency of performance with some modifications. When comparing with the best currently available cultivars sown in the traditional spring sowing date, (with an estimated average yield of 43.9 g/m in our experimental conditions), winter sowing using adapted breeding lines proved to be a suitable strategy for increasing lentil yield and yield stability in the Spanish meseta, with an average yield increase of 111% (reaching an estimated yield of 92.8 g/m). Results point to that lentil production can greatly increase in the Spanish meseta if adequate plant materials, such as some of the lines analyzed, are sown at late fall. (Author)

  19. [Effects of ecological factors on the dough extensograph parameters of different winter wheat cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xue-lin; Wang, Chen-yang; Guo, Tian-cai; Wang, Yong-hua; Zhu, Yun-ji

    2009-12-01

    In 2000-2001 and 2001-2002, six representative winter wheat cultivars Yumai 34, Gaomai 8901, Yumai 49, Yumai 70, Luoyang 8716, and Yumai 50 were consecutively grown at five locations (Xinyang, Zhumadian, Xuchang, Wuzhi, and Tangyin) with latitudes varying from 32 degrees N to 36 degrees N in Henan Province, aimed to understand the relationships of winter wheat dough extensograph parameters with genetic and ecological factors. The dough extensograph parameters were more affected by genetic factors than by ecological factors. Cultivars Yumai 34 and Gaomai 8901 had significantly higher maximum resistance and extension area than the other four test cultivars, and significant differences in the dough extensograph parameters were observed between the cultivars grown in the south region (Xinyang and Zhumadian) and in the north region (Wuzhi and Tangyin) of the Province. The change patterns of dough extensograph parameters with latitude differed in 2000-2001 and in 2001-2002, and the effects of climatic factors on the dough extensograph parameters varied with year. In 2001-2002, the precipitation at the stage from grain-filling to maturing affected the dough extensograph parameters significantly. Our results suggested that in order to improve the dough extensograph parameters of winter wheat, local meteorological conditions should be taken into full consideration in the soil water management at late-maturing stage.

  20. Holocene climate variability in the winter rainfall zone of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Weldeab

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We established a multi-proxy time series comprising analyses of major elements in bulk sediments, Sr and Nd isotopes, grain size of terrigenous fraction, and δ18O and δ13C in tests of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sinistral from a marine sediment sequence recovered off the Orange River. The records reveal coherent patterns of variability that reflect changes in wind strength, precipitation over the river catchments, and upwelling of cold and nutrient-rich coastal waters off Western South Africa. The wettest episode of the Holocene in the Winter Rainfall Zone (WRZ of South Africa occurred during the "Little Ice Age" (700–100 yr BP. Wet phases were accompanied by strengthened coastal water upwellings, a decrease of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern Atlantic, and a reduced dust incursion over Antarctica. A continuous aridification trend in the WRZ and a weakening of the Southern Benguela Upwelling System (BUS between 9000 and 5500 yr BP parallel with evidence of a poleward shift of the austral mid-latitude westerlies and an enhanced leakage of warm Agulhas water into the Southeastern Atlantic. The temporal relationship between precipitation changes in the WRZ, the thermal state of the coastal surface water, and variation of dust incursion over Antarctica suggests a causal link that most likely was related to latitudinal shifts of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and changes in the amount of Agulhas water leakage into the Southern BUS. Our results of the mid-Holocene time interval may serve as an analogue to a possible long-term consequence of the current and future southward shift of the westerlies that may result in a decline of rainfall over Southwest Africa and a weakened upwelling with implication for phytoplankton productivity and fish stocks. Furthermore, warming of the coastal surface water as a result of warm Agulhas water incursion into the Southern BUS may affect coastal fog formation that is

  1. Neonicotinoids act like endocrine disrupting chemicals in newly-emerged bees and winter bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, Danica; Wilton, Emily; Pawluk, Abbe; de Gorter, Michael; Chomistek, Nora

    2017-09-08

    Accumulating evidence suggests that neonicotinoids may have long-term adverse effects on bee health, yet our understanding of how this could occur is incomplete. Pesticides can act as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in animals providing characteristic multiphasic dose-response curves and non-lethal endpoints in toxicity studies. However, it is not known if neonicotinoids act as EDCs in bees. To address this issue, we performed oral acute and chronic toxicity studies including concentrations recorded in nectar and pollen, applying acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam to bumble bees, honey bees and leafcutter bees, the three most common bee species managed for pollination. In acute toxicity studies, late-onset symptoms, such as ataxia, were recorded as non-lethal endpoints for all three bee species. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam produced biphasic dose-response curves for all three bee species. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were extremely toxic to winter worker honey bees prior to brood production in spring, making this the most sensitive bee stage identified to date. Chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of neonicotinoids reduced bee survival and caused significant late-onset symptoms for all three bee species. Given these findings, neonicotinoid risk should be reevaluated to address the EDC-like behavior and the sensitivity of winter worker honey bees.

  2. Recent changes in winter Arctic clouds and their relationships with sea ice and atmospheric conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Yoon Jun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Changes in Arctic clouds during boreal winter (December through February and their relationship with sea ice and atmospheric conditions in recent decades have been examined using satellite and reanalysis data, and they are compared with output data from atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM experiments. All the datasets used in this study consistently show that cloud amount over the Arctic Ocean (north of 67°N decreased until the late 1990s but rapidly increased thereafter. Cloud increase in recent decade was a salient feature in the lower troposphere over a large part of the Arctic Sea, in association with obvious increase of lower tropospheric temperature and moisture. The comparison between the two periods before and after 1997 indicates that interannual covariability of Arctic clouds and lower tropospheric temperature and moisture was significantly enhanced after the late 1990s. Large reduction of sea ice cover during boreal winter decreased lower tropospheric static stability and deepened the planetary boundary layer. These changes led to an enhanced upward moisture transport and cloud formation, which led to considerable longwave radiative forcing and, as a result, strengthened the cloud–moisture–temperature relationship in the lower troposphere. AGCM experiments under reduced sea ice conditions support those results obtained by satellite and reanalysis datasets reproducing the increases in cloud amount and lower tropospheric temperature and their enhanced covariability.

  3. Parámetros ambientales y residuos de contaminantes orgánicos persistentes (COPs) en el litoral costero de Pisco-Paracas, Perú, Invierno Austral 2005.

    OpenAIRE

    Cabello, Rita J; Sánchez, Guadalupe

    2006-01-01

    Este informe muestra el proyecto de monitoreo y control de la contaminación marino costero en el pacifico sudeste de América latina y Panamá auspiciado por OEA coordinado por Panamá dentro del marco de la comisión permanente del pacifico Sur el area seleccionada comprendio el litoral costero de Pisco-Paracas, especialmente en las Islas Ballestas y la Ensenada Lagunillas. El trabajo se realizo en el periodo de invierno austral, del 29 de Agosto al 1 de Setiembre del 2005.

  4. Extensión del límite austral de distribución de tres especies de peces óseos tropicales en la costa de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Milessi, Andrés C.; Jorge H Colonello; Cortés, Federico; Lasta,Carlos A; Waessle,Juan A; Allega,Lucrecia

    2012-01-01

    Se presentan tres nuevos registros de especies de peces óseos cuya distribución corresponde a aguas tropicales, capturados por buques pesqueros en la costa de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina (CPBA, 36°-38°S). Los ejemplares corresponden a las especies: Rachycentrum canadum, Elops saurus y Caulolatilus chrysops. Estos registros amplían significativamente el límite austral de su distribución. La presencia ocasional de estas especies está asociada al transporte de agua subtropical cálida...

  5. Estudio de "las capas del cabo ladrillero superior" en el cabo homónimo, mioceno inferior de la cuenca austral, tierra del fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía P Tudisca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los acantilados del cabo Ladrillero, situado sobre la costa atlántica de la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, afloran parte de los depósitos cuspidales que rellenan la cuenca de antepaís Austral o de Magallanes. Estos depósitos del Mioceno inferior son conocidos como "capas del Cabo Ladrillero" y "capas del Cabo San Pablo", siendo las "capas del Cabo Ladrillero superior" las analizadas en este trabajo. La zona de estudio, situada a una decena de kilómetros al norte del frente orogénico emergente (Punta Gruesa, permitió reconocer cuatro asociaciones de facies que registran depósitos gravitacionales resedimentados en un ambiente marino supra batial y una cuña deltaica progradante y somerizante hacia el noreste. Entre los rasgos más conspicuos observados en esta sucesión se destacan bancos deformados, intervalos macizos y abundantes diques clásticos, cuyo análisis estadístico indica un patrón transtensivo. Los microfósiles documentados en el área y utilizados previamente como herramienta para sostener un ambiente marino profundo provienen de niveles estratigráficos infrayacentes y corresponden a niveles de la Formación Desdémona y las capas del Cabo Ladrillero inferior, aflorantes hacia el sur de la zona de estudio. Las evidencias sedimentológicas no son concluyentes respecto de la batimetría, pero la ausencia de turbiditas clásicas, flujos hiperpícnicos, la abundancia de bancos deformados y resedimentados, restos vegetales y fragmentos de carbón son compatibles con un ambiente somero y deltaico con altas tasas de aporte y pendientes inestables antes que un ambiente marino profundo, y sugieren una historia compleja de la evolución del relleno sedimentario que no se explica meramente con los esquemas basados exclusivamente en el contenido de foraminíferos que domina en la literatura.

  6. Geochronology, Stratigraphy, and Provenance of the Early Fill of the Magallanes-Austral Basin, Southern Patagonia: Diachronous Initiation of a Retroarc Foreland Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkowski, M. A.; Sharman, G.; Graham, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Magallanes-Austral Basin (MAB) is preserved along a >1000 kilometer north-south trending outcrop belt in the southern Patagonia region of Argentina and Chile. The stratigraphic evolution of the MAB has been well documented in the Chilean sector of the basin, however its along-strike counterpart in Argentina is poorly constrained. We present new stratigraphic and geochronologic data from the early basin fill (Aptian-Turonian) from the Argentine sector (49-51°S) of the MAB to document spatial variability in stratigraphic facies and timing of deposition. The initiation of the MAB is marked by the transition from mudstone to coarse-clastic deposition which is characterized by the consistent presence of thick sandstone beds. These sandy facies are interpreted to represent turbidity current deposits in a submarine fan system. This study documents that such facies are present as far north as El Chalten, Argentina (49°S), indicating that facies-equivalent rocks can be traced along-strike for at least 5 degrees of latitude, based on correlation with strata as far south as the Cordillera Darwin (54°S). Detrital zircon U-Pb ages (477 grains from 6 samples) from sandstone within the Argentine sector reveal similar trends to those documented in the Chilean sector. Age populations primarily consist of Aptian-Campanian (126-75 Ma) arc-related grains as well as Cambrian-Triassic ages (600-200 Ma) derived from the East Andean Metamorphic Complex. Jurassic to earliest Cretaceous ages (200-126) representing rift-phase volcanism and early arc magmatism, typically account for less than 5% of the ages. Finally, 6 new U-Pb ages from ash beds, coupled with maximum depositional ages from detrital zircon populations, reveal a southward younging trend in depositional ages. Interpreted ages range from 115 Ma to 95 Ma in the northern sector, but based on previous studies, are not older than 92 Ma and 89 Ma in the central and southern sectors, respectively. The diachronous delivery of

  7. Forage radish winter cover crop suppresses winter annual weeds in fall and before corn planting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forage radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus) is a new winter cover crop in the Mid-Atlantic region. The objective of this project was to characterize the repeatability, amount, and duration of weed suppression during and after a fall-planted forage radish cover crop and to quantify the sub...

  8. Late Carboniferous to Late Permian carbon isotope stratigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggisch, Werner; Krainer, Karl; Schaffhauser, Maria

    2015-01-01

    An integrated study of the litho-, bio-, and isotope stratigraphy of carbonates in the Southern Alps was undertaken in order to better constrain δ13C variations during the Late Carboniferous to Late Permian. The presented high resolution isotope curves are based on 1299 δ13Ccarb and 396 δ13Corg a...

  9. Effects of variation in food resources on foraging habitat use by wintering Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Zheng; Lizhi Zhou; Niannian Zhao; Wenbin Xu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The ideal habitat use of waterbirds can be considered to be fixed, but current habitat use depends on environmental conditions, especially those of food characteristics, considered crucial to their use of habitats. Understanding how waterbirds respond to variation in food availability at degraded wetland sites and change their habitat use patterns over spatial and temporal scales should direct future conservation planning. The objectives of this study were to identify these spatial-temporal foraging habitat use patterns of Hooded Cranes (Grus monacha) and their relationship with food characteristics in the severely degraded wetlands of the Shengjin and Caizi lakes along with the Yangtze River floodplain. Methods:We investigated the changes in food characteristics, relative abundance and density of Hooded Cranes in various habitat types across three winter periods from November 2012 to April 2013. We examined the effect of these winter periods and habitat types on the pattern of use by the cranes and explored the relationship between these patterns and food characteristics using linear regression. Results:The food characteristics and habitat use clearly changed over spatial-temporal scales. In the early and mid-winter periods, the most abundant, accessible and frequented food resources were found in paddy fields, while in the late period the more abundant food were available in meadows, which then replaced the paddy fields. There were fewer effects of winter periods, habitat types and their interactions on habitat use patterns except for the effect of habitat types on the relative abundance, determined as a function of food abundance, but independent of food depth and sediment permeability. Conclusions:In response to the degradation and loss of lake wetlands, the cranes shifted their habitat use patterns by making tradeoffs between food abundance and accessibility over spatial-temporal scales that facilitated their survival in the mosaic of these lake

  10. Severe dry winter affects plant phenology and carbon balance of a cork oak woodland understorey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, A. C.; Costa-e-Silva, F.; Dubbert, M.; Piayda, A.; Pereira, J. S.

    2016-10-01

    Mediterranean climates are prone to a great variation in yearly precipitation. The effects on ecosystem will depend on the severity and timing of droughts. In this study we questioned how an extreme dry winter affects the carbon flux in the understorey of a cork oak woodland? What is the seasonal contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem productivity? We used closed-system portable chambers to measure CO2 exchange of the dominant shrub species (Cistus salviifolius, Cistus crispus and Ulex airensis), of the herbaceous layer and on bare soil in a cork oak woodland in central Portugal during the dry winter year of 2012. Shoot growth, leaf shedding, flower and fruit setting, above and belowground plant biomass were measured as well as seasonal leaf water potential. Eddy-covariance and micrometeorological data together with CO2 exchange measurements were used to access the understorey species contribution to ecosystem gross primary productivity (GPP). The herbaceous layer productivity was severely affected by the dry winter, with half of the yearly maximum aboveground biomass in comparison with the 6 years site average. The semi-deciduous and evergreen shrubs showed desynchronized phenophases and lagged carbon uptake maxima. Whereas shallow-root shrubs exhibited opportunistic characteristics in exploiting the understorey light and water resources, deep rooted shrubs showed better water status but considerably lower assimilation rates. The contribution of understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP was lower during summer with 14% and maximum during late spring, concomitantly with the lowest tree productivity due to tree canopy renewal. The herbaceous vegetation contribution to ecosystem GPP never exceeded 6% during this dry year stressing its sensitivity to winter and spring precipitation. Although shrubs are more resilient to precipitation variability when compared with the herbaceous vegetation, the contribution of the understorey vegetation to ecosystem GPP can

  11. Impact of Climate Change on Winter Chilling Trend for Deciduous Fruit Trees (Case Study: Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. sabziparvar

    2016-02-01

    time. Historical daily minimum and maximum data from 1980 to 2010 were used from the Hamadan airport synoptic station. Future time horizon splittedinto early (2011-2030 and late (2031-2050 periods. For evaluating the long-term future changes in the chilling requirement, we used parametric and non-parametric tests. Results and Discussion: The model results showed a decreasing WCR trend during the recent decade. In general, the outputs of downscaled climate models predicted a decreasing WCR trend for the study site. For the time horizon of 2031-2050, this dramatic reduction in the WCR varied rom 25 percent to 40 percent. Future chill profiles differentiated between the WCR models as demonstrated through Hamadan global average temperature, causing a small decline in accumulated chill unit, with further warming causing greater decreases. This decrease in the UT models can be due to the negative effect of high temperature during this period. The study result which showed the WCR mean during early time horizon 2011-2030, was not significant but further time horizon 2031-2050 had a very significant change, as compared to the baseline. The aim of this study was to assess changes in the WCR rather than completing a model skill analysis. Through using previous climate model performance studies a justification of the addition of GCMs was described. Such defenses for model selection are recommended in all climate change impact studies. Test of model output in other scenarios and different GCMs showed an insignificant versatility between them. Conclusions: This research represents a significant update to the previous climate impact analysis of chill in cold semi-arid climate of Hamadan. It also highlights that sensitivity studies as a useful method for impact assessments. The severity and rate of decline of winter chilling requirement, depends on which chill model was used. The general trend showed decreasing of the winter chilling requirement against the winter temperature trend

  12. Illusory Late Heavy Bombardments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark

    2016-09-27

    The Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a hypothesized impact spike at ∼3.9 Ga, is one of the major scientific concepts to emerge from Apollo-era lunar exploration. A significant portion of the evidence for the existence of the LHB comes from histograms of (40)Ar/(39)Ar "plateau" ages (i.e., regions selected on the basis of apparent isochroneity). However, due to lunar magmatism and overprinting from subsequent impact events, virtually all Apollo-era samples show evidence for (40)Ar/(39)Ar age spectrum disturbances, leaving open the possibility that partial (40)Ar* resetting could bias interpretation of bombardment histories due to plateaus yielding misleadingly young ages. We examine this possibility through a physical model of (40)Ar* diffusion in Apollo samples and test the uniqueness of the impact histories obtained by inverting plateau age histograms. Our results show that plateau histograms tend to yield age peaks, even in those cases where the input impact curve did not contain such a spike, in part due to the episodic nature of lunar crust or parent body formation. Restated, monotonically declining impact histories yield apparent age peaks that could be misinterpreted as LHB-type events. We further conclude that the assignment of apparent (40)Ar/(39)Ar plateau ages bears an undesirably high degree of subjectivity. When compounded by inappropriate interpretations of histograms constructed from plateau ages, interpretation of apparent, but illusory, impact spikes is likely.

  13. Wintering of Egyptian vultures (Neophron percnopterus in Sicily: new data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Vittorio, M.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus in continental Europe are usually migratory, travelling from their breeding grounds to wintering areas in the sub-Saharan Sahel region. In Sicily, there are currently six breeding pairs of this species, but there are few reports about their presence in winter. We report the sighting of one young and two adults in Sicily during the 2015-2016 winter season.

  14. Impact of declining Arctic sea ice on winter snowfall

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jiping; Curry, Judith A.; Wang, Huijun; Song, Mirong; Radley M. Horton

    2012-01-01

    While the Arctic region has been warming strongly in recent decades, anomalously large snowfall in recent winters has affected large parts of North America, Europe, and east Asia. Here we demonstrate that the decrease in autumn Arctic sea ice area is linked to changes in the winter Northern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation that have some resemblance to the negative phase of the winter Arctic oscillation. However, the atmospheric circulation change linked to the reduction of sea ice shows mu...

  15. Demographic consequences of increased winter births in a large aseasonally breeding mammal (Bos taurus) in response to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burthe, Sarah; Butler, Adam; Searle, Kate R; Hall, Stephen J G; Thackeray, Stephen J; Wanless, Sarah

    2011-11-01

    1. Studies examining changes in the scheduling of breeding in response to climate change have focused on species with well-defined breeding seasons. Species exhibiting year-round breeding have received little attention and the magnitudes of any responses are unknown. 2. We investigated phenological data for an enclosed feral population of cattle (Bos taurus L.) in northern England exhibiting year-round breeding. This population is relatively free of human interference. 3. We assessed whether the timing of births had changed over the last 60 years, in response to increasing winter and spring temperatures, changes in herd density, and a regime of lime fertilisation. 4. Median birth date became earlier by 1·0 days per year. Analyses of the seasonal distribution of calving dates showed that significantly fewer calves were born in summer (decline from 44% of total births to 20%) and significantly more in winter (increase from 12% to 30%) over the study period. The most pronounced changes occurred in winter, with significant increases in both the proportion and number of births. Winter births arise from conceptions in the previous spring, and we considered models that investigated climate and weather variables associated with the winter preceding and the spring of conceptions. 5. The proportion of winter births was higher when the onset of the plant growing season was earlier during the spring of conceptions. This relationship was much weaker during years when the site had been fertilised with lime, suggesting that increased forage biomass was over-riding the impacts of changing plant phenology. When the onset of the growing season was late, winter births increased with female density. 6. Recruitment estimates from a stage-structured state-space population model were significantly negatively correlated with the proportion of births in the preceding winter, suggesting that calves born in winter are less likely to survive than those born in other seasons. 7.

  16. Potential ocean–atmosphere preconditioning of late autumn Barents-Kara sea ice concentration anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P. King

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many recent studies have revealed the importance of the climatic state in November on the seasonal climate of the subsequent winter. In particular, it has been shown that interannual variability of sea ice concentration (SIC over the Barents-Kara (BK seas in November is linked to winter atmospheric circulation anomaly that projects on the North Atlantic Oscillation. Understanding the lead–lag processes involving the different components of the climate system from autumn to winter is therefore important. This note presents dynamical interpretation for the ice-ocean–atmosphere relationships that can affect the BK SIC anomaly in late autumn. It is found that cyclonic (anticyclonic wind anomaly over the Arctic in October, by Ekman drift, can be responsible for positive (negative SIC in the BK seas in November. The results also suggest that ocean heat transport via the Barents Sea Opening in September and October can contribute to BK SIC anomaly in November.

  17. The History of Winter: teachers as scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, L.; Courville, Z.; Wasilewski, P. J.; Gow, T.; Bender, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The History of Winter (HOW) is a NASA Goddard Space Flight Center-funded teacher enrichment program that was started by Dr. Peter Wasilewski (NASA), Dr. Robert Gabrys (NASA) and Dr. Tony Gow (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, or CRREL) in 2001 and continues with support and involvement of scientists from both the NASA Cryospheric Sciences Laboratory and CREEL. The program brings educators mostly from middle and high schools but also from state parks, community colleges and other institutions from across the US to the Northwood School (a small, private boarding school) in Lake Placid, NY for one week to learn about several facets of winter, polar, and snow research, including the science and history of polar ice core research, lake ice formation and structure, snow pack science, winter ecology, and remote sensing including current and future NASA cryospheric missions. The program receives support from the Northwood School staff to facilitate the program. The goal of the program is to create 'teachers as scientists' which is achieved through several hands-on field experiences in which the teachers have the opportunity to work with polar researchers from NASA, CRREL and partner Universities to dig and sample snow pits, make ice thin sections from lake ice, make snow shelters, and observe under-ice lake ecology. The hands-on work allows the teachers to use the same tools and techniques used in polar research while simultaneously introducing science concepts and activities to support their classroom work. The ultimate goal of the program is to provide the classroom teachers with the opportunity to learn about current and timely cryospheric research as well as to engage in real fieldwork experiences. The enthusiasm generated during the week-long program is translated into classroom activities with guidance from scientists, teachers and educational professionals. The opportunity to engage with polar researchers, both young investigators and renowned

  18. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e...

  19. Recent casualties of late globalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I will expand my thoughts on universities as ‘late globalizers’ and the impact ‘being late’ has on university internationalization or globalization activities. In my earlier essay I viewed universities as ‘late globalizers’ and briefly introduced the impact of being ‘late’, e.g., wi...

  20. Home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games 1976-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Darryl; Ramchandani, Girish

    2017-01-01

    There is a limited amount of home advantage research concerned with winter sports. There is also a distinct lack of studies that investigate home advantage in the context of para sport events. This paper addresses this gap in the knowledge by examining home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games. Using a standardised measure of success, we compared the performances of host nations at home with their own performances away from home between 1976 and 2014. Both country level and individual sport level analysis is conducted for this time period. Comparisons are also drawn with the Winter Olympic Games since 1992, the point from which both the Winter Olympic Games and the Winter Paralympic Games have been hosted by the same nations and in the same years. Clear evidence of a home advantage effect in the Winter Paralympic Games was found at country level. When examining individual sports, only alpine skiing and cross country skiing returned a significant home advantage effect. When comparing home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games with the Winter Olympic Games for the last seven host nations (1992-2014), we found that home advantage was generally more pronounced (although not a statistically significant difference) in the case of the former. The causes of home advantage in the Winter Paralympic Games are unclear and should be investigated further.

  1. Alfalfa leaf meal in wintering beef cow diets. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, C.M.; Hall, J.M.; Brown, D.B.; DiCostanzo, A.

    1998-06-01

    One hundred dry pregnant cows (1389 lb) and twenty-four pregnant heifers (1034 lb) were assigned by calving date and body condition to one of four dietary treatments for a wintering period during their late gestation. Dietary treatments consisted of supplementing crude protein (CP) at 100 % or 120 % of the recommended intake using either soybean meal or alfalfa leaf meal (ALM) as the supplemental protein source. Cows were group fed (two replicate pens/treatment) while heifers were individually fed for the duration of the study. The study lasted 70 (early) or 85 (late) days for cows and ended when the first cow in each replicate calved. For heifers, the study lasted for 100 days and ended accordingly when each heifer calved. Heifers fed ALM had consumed less (P < .05) hay and corn dry matter (DM). Overall diet DM intakes were unaffected (P > .05) by protein source. Feeding 120 % of recommended protein (2.38 vs 2.07 lb/day) to heifers increased (P < .05) their rate of gain by almost .5 lb/head/day. Cows fed ALM had faster (P < .05) rates of gain when gain was measured 22 days before calving. Once cows calved, weight change was similar (P > .05) for each protein source. However, cows fed alfalfa leaf meal consumed more (P = .054) total dry matter (DM). Calving traits were not affected by protein source or intake. Wintering heifers or cows on ALM-based supplements had no detrimental effect on performance of heifers or cows or their calves at birth. Additional protein may be required by heifers to ensure that they continue gaining weight during late gestation.

  2. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...... in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...... fertilization was conducted in Canberra, Australia. Here the root studies were done by means of the core-break method and root washing....

  3. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    Root growth is an essential parameter regarding nitrogen (N) uptake efficiency, as more and deeper roots may improve the uptake from deeper soil layers and reduce nitrate leaching losses. During this PhD project, it was studied how different agronomic practices influence root growth and N relations...... in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation and N...... fertilization was conducted in Canberra, Australia. Here the root studies were done by means of the core-break method and root washing....

  4. Landsat Science Team: 2016 winter meeting summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Todd; Loveland, Thomas; Wulder, Michael A.; Irons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    The winter meeting of the joint U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)–NASA Landsat Science Team (LST) was held January 12-14, 2016, at Virginia Tech University in Blacksburg, VA. LST co-chairs Tom Loveland [USGS’s Earth Resources Observation and Science Data Center (EROS)—Senior Scientist] and Jim Irons [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC)—Landsat 8 Project Scientist] welcomed more than 50 participants to the three-day meeting. The main objectives of this meeting focused on identifying priorities and approaches to improve the global moderate-resolution satellite record. Overall, the meeting was geared more towards soliciting team member recommendations on several rapidly evolving issues, than on providing updates on individual research activities. All the presentations given at the meeting are available at landsat.usgs. gov//science_LST_january2016.php.

  5. Comparison of winter hardiness and growth of Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars grown in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marosz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment with Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars purchased from a commercial nursery was conducted in Skierniewice, central Poland. Both Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars were planted in June 2005 at a spacing of 3 × 2.2 m. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of climate conditions on the growth of eight cultivars of small kiwi fruit and to evaluate their usefulness for orchard culture in central Poland. After three years of growth in different climate conditions, including one of the coldest winters (2005/06 during the last years, and also severe late spring frosts (2007, some conclusion can be drawn. Two cultivars of Actinidia kolomikta have shown quite good resistance to winter and spring frosts, but the growth rate of these plants was rather slow. All the cultivars of Actinidia arguta were damaged by frost during the 2005/06 winter due to the snow-cover level, which was rather thick (24 cm. One year later all new shoots and leaves of Actinidia arguta cultivars were damaged completely by late spring frosts, which deleted flowering and fruit setting for at least one year. After three years of growth observations, the growth rate of small kiwi cultivars can be divided into three groups: fast growing with 'Jumbo' and 'Genewa'; moderate growing with 'Issai', 'Ken's Red' and 'Weiki' - male and female, and slow growing with A. kolomikta cultivars Dr Szymanowski and Sientiabrskaja.

  6. Motor gasolines, winter 1981-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shelton, E M

    1982-07-01

    Analytical data for 905 samples of motor gasoline, were collected from service stations throughout the country and were analyzed in the laboratories of various refiners, motor manufacturers, and chemical companies. The data were submitted to the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for study, necessary calculations, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC) and the American Petroleum Institute (API). The samples represent the products of 30 companies, large and small, which manufacture and supply gasoline. These data are tabulated by groups according to brands (unlabeled) and grades for 17 marketing districts into which the country is divided. A map included in this report, shows marketing areas, districts and sampling locations. The report also includes charts indicating the trends of selected properties of motor fuels since winter 1959-1960 survey for the leaded gasolines, and since winter 1979-1980 survey for the unleaded gasolines. Sixteen octane distribution percent charts for areas 1, 2, 3, and 4 for unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 90.0, unleaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 90.0 and above, leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 below 93.0, and leaded antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above grades of gasoline are presented in this report. The antiknock (octane) index (R+M)/2 averages of gasoline sold in this country were 87.4 for unleaded below 90.0, 91.7 for unleaded 90.0 and above, and 88.9 for leaded below 93.0. Only one sample was reported as 93.0 for leaded gasolines with an antiknock index (R+M)/2 93.0 and above.

  7. Climatology of the winter Red Sea Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Adel M.; Almazroui, Mansour

    2016-12-01

    In this study, a new and objective method for detecting the Red Sea Trough (RST) was developed using mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset from the winters of 1956 to 2015 to identify the Sudan Low and its trough. Approximately 96% of the winter RSTs were generated near two main sources, South Sudan and southeastern Sudan, and approximately 85% of these troughs were in four of the most outer areas surrounding the northern Red Sea. Moreover, from west to east of the Red Sea, the RST was affected by the relationships between the Siberian High and Azores High. The RST was oriented to the west when the strength of the Siberian High increased and to the east when the strength of the Azores High increased. Furthermore, the synoptic features of the upper level of the RST emphasize the impacts of subtropical anticyclones at 850 hPa on the orientation of the RST, the impacts of the northern cyclone trough and the maximum wind at a pressure level of 250 hPa. The average static stability between 1000 hPa and 500 hPa demonstrated that the RST followed the northern areas of low static stability. The results from previous studies were confirmed by a detailed case study of the RST that extended to its central outermost area. The results of a detailed case study of the short RST indicated that the trough becomes shorter with increasing static stability and that the Azores and Siberian high-pressure systems influence the northern region of the trough while the maximum upper wind shifts south of the climate position.

  8. Late-life attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mélanie; Rahioui, Hassan

    2017-03-01

    Old age is likely to cause a crisis in one's life because of the vulnerabilities it brings up, acting as stressful elements disrupting the elder's feeling of security. It leads to the activation of what is called his attachment system, consisting in attachment styles and interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. To recover a higher sense of safety, the elder would refer to his attachment figures, that is to say closed people paying attention to him, showing towards him availability and consideration. However older adults particularly see their tolerance threshold lowered, regarding an accumulation of losses (true or symbolic) and stressful events within their lifetime. In a psychological and organic exhaustion phenomenon, the risk is to wear out the interpersonal emotional regulation strategies. These are as much vulnerabilities that may increase psychiatric decompensation, including depression. To resolve the tension of this period and to found a necessary secure feeling, the elder will have to redesign the attachment links previously settled and proceed to adjustments to this new context. The need of relational closeness comes back in the elders' attachment behaviour, counting on attachment figures not only to help their loneliness or dependency, but essentially to support them in a narcissist and affective way. That is why attachment theory enlightens the late life period, such as the new challenges older adults have to face. Many studies recognize its value in understanding the transition to old age, but without proposing conceptualization. We aim first to focus on attachment conception to say how much it is relevant with elderly, and then to describe specific terms of attachment within this population in order to better understand those patients. To finish, we must think about new therapeutic proposals taking into consideration the attachment perspective for a better understanding of old age transition.

  9. On the relation between ionospheric winter anomalies and solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Rumi

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available There are two different winter anomalies. A small one that appears in connection with ionization at relatively low latitudes in the bottom of the D-region of the ionosphere. There, the electron densities in the winter happen to be less than should be expected. On the other hand, the classic winter anomaly is present when in the winter the upper D-region, again at relatively low latitudes, has more ionization than should be expected. Both these effects are due to the slant compression of the geomagnetic field produced by the solar wind in the winter season (which is, of course, the summer season when reference is made to events in the other hemisphere. It is shown that the small winter anomaly is a consequence of a hemispheric imbalance in the flux of galactic cosmic rays determined by the obliquely distorted geomagnetic field. It is shown that the standard winter anomaly can be ascribed to the influx of a super solar wind, which penetrates into the Earth’s polar atmosphere down to E-region heights and, duly concentrated through a funneling action at the winter pole of the distorted geomagnetic field, slows down the winter polar vortex. An equatorward motion of the polar air with its content of nitric oxide brings about the excess of ionization in the upper D-region at lower latitudes. The experimentally observed rhythmic recurrence of the upper winter anomaly is correlated to a possible rhythmic recurrence of the super solar wind. The actual detection of the upper winter anomaly could yield some information on the velocity of the basic solar wind. A by-product of the present analysis, the determination of à , the coefficient of collisional detachment of the electrons from the O2 ions, is presented in the Appendix.

  10. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Melanie A; McGlone, Matt S; Wilmshurst, Janet M

    2014-01-01

    Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E) is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5) with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C), dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm). Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  11. Winter climate limits subantarctic low forest growth and establishment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie A Harsch

    Full Text Available Campbell Island, an isolated island 600 km south of New Zealand mainland (52 °S, 169 °E is oceanic (Conrad Index of Continentality  =  -5 with small differences between mean summer and winter temperatures. Previous work established the unexpected result that a mean annual climate warming of c. 0.6 °C since the 1940's has not led to upward movement of the forest limit. Here we explore the relative importance of summer and winter climatic conditions on growth and age-class structure of the treeline forming species, Dracophyllum longifolium and Dracophyllum scoparium over the second half of the 20th century. The relationship between climate and growth and establishment were evaluated using standard dendroecological methods and local climate data from a meteorological station on the island. Growth and establishment were correlated against climate variables and further evaluated within hierarchical regression models to take into account the effect of plot level variables. Winter climatic conditions exerted a greater effect on growth and establishment than summer climatic conditions. Establishment is maximized under warm (mean winter temperatures >7 °C, dry winters (total winter precipitation <400 mm. Growth, on the other hand, is adversely affected by wide winter temperature ranges and increased rainfall. The contrasting effect of winter warmth on growth and establishment suggests that winter temperature affects growth and establishment through differing mechanisms. We propose that milder winters enhance survival of seedlings and, therefore, recruitment, but increases metabolic stress on established plants, resulting in lower growth rates. Future winter warming may therefore have complex effects on plant growth and establishment globally.

  12. Early 21st Century Anomalously Cold Central Eurasian Winters Forced By Arctic Sea Ice Retreat in an Atmosphere Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. A.; Latif, M.

    2014-12-01

    The early 21st century was marked by several severe winters over Central Eurasia linked to a blocking anti-cyclone centered south of the Barents Sea (BS). The increased occurrence of such anomalously cold winters coincided with a strong reduction of winter Arctic sea ice cover (ASIC), especially in the BS where sea ice area exhibited a step-like decline in 2005, suggesting a possible connection. To study the possible link we performed simulations with a high-resolution global atmospheric general circulation model forced by a set of multi-year sea ice anomalies observed during the last decades. The regional circulation response to reduced ASIC in 2005-2012 exhibits a statistically significant anti-cyclonic surface pressure anomaly and a surface temperature response similar to that observed. The results suggest that the recent BS sea ice reduction may have been responsible for the recent anomalously cold winters in Central Eurasia. Furthermore, a positive sea ice anomaly in the late 1960s associated with negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation also results in a similar anti-cyclonic anomaly and a cooling over the continent in the model. This implies that the atmospheric circulation response to sea ice anomalies during the period of modern sea ice decline can be essentially non-linear, both with respect to amplitude and pattern.

  13. Estudio de "las capas del cabo ladrillero superior" en el cabo homónimo, mioceno inferior de la cuenca austral, tierra del fuego Study of "The Upper Cabo Ladrillero Beds" in the homonym locality, Lower Miocene of the Austral Basin, Tierra del Fuego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía P Tudisca

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available En los acantilados del cabo Ladrillero, situado sobre la costa atlántica de la Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, afloran parte de los depósitos cuspidales que rellenan la cuenca de antepaís Austral o de Magallanes. Estos depósitos del Mioceno inferior son conocidos como "capas del Cabo Ladrillero" y "capas del Cabo San Pablo", siendo las "capas del Cabo Ladrillero superior" las analizadas en este trabajo. La zona de estudio, situada a una decena de kilómetros al norte del frente orogénico emergente (Punta Gruesa, permitió reconocer cuatro asociaciones de facies que registran depósitos gravitacionales resedimentados en un ambiente marino supra batial y una cuña deltaica progradante y somerizante hacia el noreste. Entre los rasgos más conspicuos observados en esta sucesión se destacan bancos deformados, intervalos macizos y abundantes diques clásticos, cuyo análisis estadístico indica un patrón transtensivo. Los microfósiles documentados en el área y utilizados previamente como herramienta para sostener un ambiente marino profundo provienen de niveles estratigráficos infrayacentes y corresponden a niveles de la Formación Desdémona y las capas del Cabo Ladrillero inferior, aflorantes hacia el sur de la zona de estudio. Las evidencias sedimentológicas no son concluyentes respecto de la batimetría, pero la ausencia de turbiditas clásicas, flujos hiperpícnicos, la abundancia de bancos deformados y resedimentados, restos vegetales y fragmentos de carbón son compatibles con un ambiente somero y deltaico con altas tasas de aporte y pendientes inestables antes que un ambiente marino profundo, y sugieren una historia compleja de la evolución del relleno sedimentario que no se explica meramente con los esquemas basados exclusivamente en el contenido de foraminíferos que domina en la literatura.In the cliffs of the Ladrillero cape, situated on the Atlantic coast of the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, the uppermost records of the

  14. Root development of fodder radish and winter wheat before winter in relation to uptake of nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Ellen Margrethe; Hansen, Elly Møller; Mandel, A.;

    2015-01-01

    ) at depleting the soil of mineral nitrogen (Nmin) before winter. A secondary aim was to study the agreement between three different root measuring methods: root wash (RW), core break (CB) and minirhizotron (MR). The third aim of the was to correlate the N uptake of FR and WW with RLD. An experiment was made......The nitrate (N) present in soil at the end of autumn is prone to leach during winter and spring in temperate climates if not taken up by plants. In Denmark catch crops are used as a regulatory tool to reduce N leaching and therefore a shift from winter cereals to spring cereals with catch crops has...... to see if and how root growth was affected by the minirhizotron tube. The experiments were conducted on a Danish sandy loam soil. From September to November the amount of soil Nmin decreased from 49kgNha-1 to 14kgNha-1 under FR and increased from 28kgNha-1 to 44kgNha-1 under WW. A test of correlations...

  15. Effects of prescribed burns on wintering cavity-nesting birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather L. Bateman; Margaret A. O' Connell

    2006-01-01

    Primary cavity-nesting birds play a critical role in forest ecosystems by excavating cavities later used by other birds and mammals as nesting or roosting sites. Several species of cavity-nesting birds are non-migratory residents and consequently subject to winter conditions. We conducted winter bird counts from 1998 to 2000 to examine the abundance and habitat...

  16. 我的寒假%My Winter Holidays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Winter holidays have about twenty days.During winter holidays, I do all kinds of interesting thing.I like climbing the hill,because it can make me heMthy.I like fishing,it can give me a lot of fun.I like visiting some places of interest, it can enlarge my knowledge.

  17. Controls on winter ecosystem respiration in temperate and boreal ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Wang; P. Ciais; S.L. Piao; C. Ottle; P. Brender; F. Maignan; A. Arain; A. Cescatti; D. Gianelle; C. Gough; L Gu; P. Lafleur; T. Laurila; B. Marcolla; H. Margolis; L. Montagnani; E. Moors; N. Saigusa; T. Vesala; G. Wohlfahrt; C. Koven; A. Black; E. Dellwik; A. Don; D. Hollinger; A. Knohl; R. Monson; J. Munger; A. Suyker; A. Varlagin; S. Verma

    2011-01-01

    Winter CO2 fluxes represent an important component of the annual carbon budget in northern ecosystems. Understanding winter respiration processes and their responses to climate change is also central to our ability to assess terrestrial carbon cycle and climate feedbacks in the future. However, the factors influencing the spatial and temporal...

  18. Seasonal affective disorder, winter type : current insights and treatment options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, Ybe; Gordijn, Margaretha

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), winter type, is a seasonal pattern of recurrent major depressive episodes most commonly occurring in autumn or winter and remitting in spring/summer. The syndrome has been well-known for more than three decades, with light treatment being the treatment of first

  19. Effects of cultivar and year on leaf number in winter barley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pržulj Novo M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf appearance in small cereals is the result of leaf primordium initiation and leaf primordium extension. Final leaf number (FLN on main stem is determined by the number of primordia initiated up to the beginning of floral transition. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of growing season and cultivar on FLN in winter barley. Twelve cultivars differing in origin and time of anthesis (early, medium and late were tested during six growing seasons (GS, from 2002/03 to 2007/08. FLN across cultivars and GSs was 13.5. The highest FLN across GSs was in the late, six-rowed barley cultivar Kredit (14.7 and the lowest in the early, two-rowed barley cultivar Novosadski 581 (11.3. In regard to earliness, the lowest FLN was in the early groups of cultivars (12.9 and the highest in the late ones (13.9. The tested cultivars showed significant variability in FLN, which can be used for selecting most adaptable genotypes for specific growing conditions.

  20. Arctic autumn sea ice decline and Asian winter temperature anomaly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Na; LIN Lina; WANG Yingjie; KONG Bin; ZHANG Zhanhai; CHEN Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    Associations between the autumn Arctic sea ice concentration (SIC) and Asian winter temperature are discussed using the singular value decomposition analysis. Results show that in recent 33 years reduced autumn Arctic sea ice is accompanied by Asian winter temperature decrease except in the Tibetan plateau and the Arctic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean coast. The autumn SIC reduction excites two geopotential height centers in Eurasia and the north Arctic Ocean, which are persistent from autumn to winter. The negative center is in Barents Sea/Kara Sea. The positive center is located in Mongolia. The anomalous winds are associated with geopotential height centers, providing favorable clod air for the Asian winter temperature decreasing in recent 33 years. This relationship indicates a potential long-term outlook for the Asian winter temperature decrease as the decline of the autumn sea ice in the Arctic Ocean is expected to continue as climate warms.

  1. The Effects of Different Amounts of Controlled Release Fertilizer on the Root Growth and the Filling Rate in Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the fertilizer use efficiency and yield in winter wheat, the effects of controlled release fertilizer on the root growth and the filling rate in winter wheat by applying different amounts of controlled release fertilizer had been studied in open field. The results indicated that conventional complex fertilizer and controlled release fertilizer could cause corresponding changes of the wheat root activity, dry root weight, root-shoot ratio and filling rate, but the fertilizer of conventional fertilizer performed in the pre-stage significantly, controlled release fertilizer performed in the middle and late stage gradually. So mixing conventional fertilizer with controlled release fertilizer can ensure the nutrient supply of whole growth and development of wheat to explore the most appropriate collocation dosage. This will make fertilizer and economic benefits achieve the best.

  2. The influence of winter convection on primary production: a parameterisation using a hydrostatic three-dimensional biogeochemical model

    CERN Document Server

    Große, Fabian; Pätsch, Johannes; Backhaus, Jan O

    2014-01-01

    In the recent past observational and modelling studies have shown that the vertical displacement of water parcels, and therefore, phytoplankton particles in regions of deep-reaching convection plays a key role in late winter/early spring primary production. The underlying mechanism describes how convection cells capture living phytoplankton cells and recurrently expose them to sunlight. This study presents a parameterisation called `phytoconvection' which focuses on the influence of convection on primary production. This parameterisation was implemented into a three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model and applied to the Northwestern European Continental Shelf and areas of the adjacent Northeast Atlantic. The simulation was compared to a `conventional' parameterisation with respect to its influence on phytoplankton concentrations during the annual cycle and its effect on the carbon cycle. The simulation using the new parameterisation showed good agreement with observation data recorded during winter, whe...

  3. Low temperatures enhance organic nitrate formation: evidence from observations in the 2012 Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and total alkyl nitrates (ΣANs were measured using thermal dissociation laser induced fluorescence during the 2012 Uintah Basin Winter Ozone Study (UBWOS in Utah, USA. The observed NO2 concentration was highest before sunrise and lowest in the late afternoon, suggestive of a persistent local source of NO2 coupled with turbulent mixing out of the boundary layer. In contrast, ΣANs co-varied with solar radiation with a noontime maximum, indicating that local photochemical production combined with rapid mixing and/or deposition was the dominant factor in determining the ΣAN concentrations. We calculate that ΣANs were a large fraction (~60% of the HOx free radical chain termination and show that the temperature dependence of the alkyl nitrate yields enhances the role of ΣANs in local chemistry during winter by comparison to what would occur at the warmer temperatures of summer.

  4. Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000627.htm Vaginal bleeding in late pregnancy To use the sharing features ... the blood from soaking your clothes. What Causes Bleeding Later in Pregnancy? When labor begins, the cervix ...

  5. Late and chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donta, Sam T

    2002-03-01

    This article reviews the late and chronic manifestations of Lyme disease. Special attention is given to the chronic manifestations of the disease, detailing its pathogenesis, clinical spectrum, and laboratory criteria for the diagnosis. Based on experimental evidence and experience, approaches to the successful treatment of the late and chronic disease are outlined. Much additional work is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of the disease, its diagnosis and treatment.

  6. Reconstructing winter snowpack accumulation from energy balance simulations in alpine glacierised basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemenzi, I.; Carenzo, M.; Morin, S.; Pellicciotti, F.

    2010-12-01

    Snow water equivalent has been reconstructed using a combination of melt modeling and snow cover images that provide the exact date of snow disappearance for large North-american basins including high elevation headwater catchments, but never for small mountainous basins in the Alps. This approach is based on the fact that integration of modeled snowmelt over the time required to melt all of the snow in a given area effectively reconstructs initial Snow Water Equivalent (SWE). It requires an accurate model of snow ablation and precise information on the disappearance of the snow. In this paper, we attempt to use this method for reconstructing the winter accumulation in Alpine glacierised catchments. Late winter accumulation represents the initial conditions for simulations of summer ablation and has been shown to be a major source of error in distributed simulation of glacier ablation and models of glacier runoff. In this work, we first test the applicability of a surface, two-layer energy balance model and an enhanced temperature index model against accurate snowmelt simulations obtained with the multi-layer detailed snow model CROCUS, in order to assess the model complexity required to achieve accurate estimates of melt rates for winter conditions. While energy balance modeling is well established for computation of summer ablation processes, melt models often neglect or crudely simplify processes that are important typical during winter and spring conditions such as refreezing into the snowpack, densification of snow and other subsurface processes. We quantify their relative importance and evaluate the accuracy of the two simpler models at the point scale. In a second step, we use the melt simulations to reconstruct the winter snowpack water equivalent both at the point and at the distributed scale, using measurements of snow depth at Ultrasonic Depth Gauges and photos from an automatic camera, respectively, to determine the exact date of snow disappearance. The

  7. Polar bears experience skeletal muscle atrophy in response to food deprivation and reduced activity in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, John P.; Harlow, Henry J.; Durner, George M.; Regehr, Eric V.; Rourke, Bryan C.; Robles, Manuel; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, Merav

    2017-01-01

    When reducing activity and using stored energy during seasonal food shortages, animals risk degradation of skeletal muscles, although some species avoid or minimize the resulting atrophy while experiencing these conditions during hibernation. Polar bears may be food deprived and relatively inactive during winter (when pregnant females hibernate and hunting success declines for other demographic groups) as well as summer (when sea ice retreats from key foraging habitats). We investigated muscle atrophy in samples of biceps femoris collected from free-ranging polar bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea (SBS) throughout their annual cycle. Atrophy was most pronounced in April–May as a result of food deprivation during the previous winter, with muscles exhibiting reduced protein concentration, increased water content, and lower creatine kinase mRNA. These animals increased feeding and activity in spring (when seal prey becomes more available), initiating a period of muscle recovery. During the following ice melt of late summer, ~30% of SBS bears abandon retreating sea ice for land; in August, these ‘shore’ bears exhibited no muscle atrophy, indicating that they had fully recovered from winter food deprivation. These individuals subsequently scavenged whale carcasses deposited by humans and by October, had retained good muscle condition. In contrast, ~70% of SBS bears follow the ice north in late summer, into deep water with less prey. These ‘ice’ bears fast; by October, they exhibited muscle protein loss and rapid changes in myosin heavy-chain isoforms in response to reduced activity. These findings indicate that, unlike other bears during winter hibernation, polar bears without food in summer cannot mitigate atrophy. Consequently, prolonged summer fasting resulting from climate change-induced ice loss creates a risk of greater muscle atrophy and reduced abilities to travel and hunt.

  8. Late prematurity: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Carlos Machado Júnior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation in its several aspects. Sources: the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. Data synthesis: numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. Conclusions: numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed.

  9. Late prematurity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado Júnior, Luís Carlos; Passini Júnior, Renato; Rodrigues Machado Rosa, Izilda

    2014-01-01

    this study aimed to review the literature regarding late preterm births (34 weeks to 36 weeks and 6 days of gestation) in its several aspects. the MEDLINE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases were searched, and the references of the articles retrieved were also used, with no limit of time. numerous studies showed a recent increase in late preterm births. In all series, late preterm comprised the majority of preterm births. Studies including millions of births showed a strong association between late preterm birth and neonatal mortality. A higher mortality in childhood and among young adults was also observed. Many studies found an association with several neonatal complications, and also with long-term disorders and sequelae: breastfeeding problems, cerebral palsy, asthma in childhood, poor school performance, schizophrenia, and young adult diabetes. Some authors propose strategies to reduce late preterm birth, or to improve neonatal outcome: use of antenatal corticosteroids, changes in some of the guidelines for early delivery in high-risk pregnancies, and changes in neonatal care for this group. numerous studies show greater mortality and morbidity in late preterm infants compared with term infants, in addition to long-term disorders. More recent studies evaluated strategies to improve the outcomes of these neonates. Further studies on these strategies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Late effects from hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, Eleanor A.; Chang, Polly Y.

    2004-06-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  11. Late effects from hadron therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, Eleanor A; Chang, Polly Y

    2004-12-01

    Successful cancer patient survival and local tumor control from hadron radiotherapy warrant a discussion of potential secondary late effects from the radiation. The study of late-appearing clinical effects from particle beams of protons, carbon, or heavier ions is a relatively new field with few data. However, new clinical information is available from pioneer hadron radiotherapy programs in the USA, Japan, Germany and Switzerland. This paper will review available data on late tissue effects from particle radiation exposures, and discuss its importance to the future of hadron therapy. Potential late radiation effects are associated with irradiated normal tissue volumes at risk that in many cases can be reduced with hadron therapy. However, normal tissues present within hadron treatment volumes can demonstrate enhanced responses compared to conventional modes of therapy. Late endpoints of concern include induction of secondary cancers, cataract, fibrosis, neurodegeneration, vascular damage, and immunological, endocrine and hereditary effects. Low-dose tissue effects at tumor margins need further study, and there is need for more acute molecular studies underlying late effects of hadron therapy.

  12. 32th Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 32nd edition of the Winter Workshop will be held 28 February - 5 March 2016, Hotel Resort Fort Royal Guadeloupe in Guadeloupe a French overseas territory, is an island group in the southern Caribbean Sea. As with previous years, the workshop will bring together scientists from all fields of nuclear physics for engaging and friendly exchanges of ideas. Much emphasis will be on the recent LHC, RHIC and SPS heavy ion results, but advances in the ongoing and future programs at FAIR, FRIB, EIC, JLab and NICA and will also be featured. The meeting will start with a welcome reception on the evening of Sunday, February 28. The workshop program will commence on Monday morning and run until Saturday. We recommend to arrive on Sunday and leave on Sunday. Talks will be as usual 25+5 minutes, there will be no parallel sessions. If you are interested in presenting your work, please fill out the registration form prior to the registration deadline. After the program committee has met we will confirm your talk via indivi...

  13. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  14. Paleoecología y evolución de la fauna de mamíferos de América del Sur durante la «edad de las planicies australes» (Mioceno superior-Plioceno superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz Jaureguizar, E.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the paleoecology and evolution of the South American land-mammal fauna during the «Age of the Southern Plains» are studied. Chronologically, the «Age of the Southern Plains» encompasses the Chasicoan, Huayquerian, Montehermosan and Chapadmalalan South American Land-Mammal Ages. Changes on the taxonomic richness, first and last appearance rates, and trophic types were considered, taking as a model the fossil record of the Pampean Region (Argentina. A gradual increase of the taxonomic richness is observed during the «Age of the Southern Plains». Caviomorpha and Cingulata were the most diversified taxonomic groups. First appearance rates are higher that those of the last appearances excepting the Chapadmalalan, in which both rates reach a balance. From a trophic point of view, grazer mammals were predominant. This last characteristic corroborates the hypothesis of an existing similarity between the «Age of the Southern Plains» and the North American Clarendonian Chronofauna.En este trabajo se estudian la paleoecología y la evolución de la fauna de mamíferos de América del Sur durante la denominada «edad de las planicies australes», un período que abarca las «Edades-mamífero» Chasiquense, Huayqueriense, Montehermosense y Chapadmalalense. Para ello se consideran los cambios en la riqueza taxonómica, en las tasas de primera y última aparición y en los tipos tráficos, tomando como modelo el registro de la Región Pampeana de la República Argentina. Durante la «edad de las planicies australes» se observa un paulatino incremento en la riqueza taxonómica, con un predominio de los Caviomorpha y los Cingulata. Las tasas de primera aparición son más altas que las de última aparición con la excepción de la «Edad-mamífero» Chapadmalalense, en la cual ambas tasas alcanzan un equilibrio. Desde un punto de vista trófico, predominan los mamíferos pastadores. Esta última característica corrobora la similitud

  15. Record-breaking ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2010/2011: comparison with 1996/1997

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kuttippurath

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed discussion of the chemical and dynamical processes in the Arctic winters 1996/1997 and 2010/2011 with high resolution chemical transport model (CTM simulations and space-based observations. In the Arctic winter 2010/2011, the lower stratospheric minimum temperatures were below 195 K for a record period of time, from December to mid-April, and a strong and stable vortex was present during that period. Simulations with the Mimosa-Chim CTM show that the chemical ozone loss started in early January and progressed slowly to 1 ppmv (parts per million by volume by late February. The loss intensified by early March and reached a record maximum of ~2.4 ppmv in the late March–early April period over a broad altitude range of 450–550 K. This coincides with elevated ozone loss rates of 2–4 ppbv sh−1 (parts per billion by volume/sunlit hour and a contribution of about 30–55% and 30–35% from the ClO-ClO and ClO-BrO cycles, respectively, in late February and March. In addition, a contribution of 30–50% from the HOx cycle is also estimated in April. We also estimate a loss of about 0.7–1.2 ppmv contributed (75% by the NOx cycle at 550–700 K. The ozone loss estimated in the partial column range of 350–550 K exhibits a record value of ~148 DU (Dobson Unit. This is the largest ozone loss ever estimated in the Arctic and is consistent with the remarkable chlorine activation and strong denitrification (40–50% during the winter, as the modeled ClO shows ~1.8 ppbv in early January and ~1 ppbv in March at 450–550 K. These model results are in excellent agreement with those found from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Our analyses also show that the ozone loss in 2010/2011 is close to that found in some Antarctic winters, for the first time in the observed history. Though the winter 1996/1997 was also very cold in March–April, the temperatures were higher in December

  16. Sage-grouse habitat selection during winter in Alberta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J.; Aldridge, C.; Boyce, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) are dependent on sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) for food and shelter during winter, yet few studies have assessed winter habitat selection, particularly at scales applicable to conservation planning. Small changes to availability of winter habitats have caused drastic reductions in some sage-grouse populations. We modeled winter habitat selection by sage-grouse in Alberta, Canada, by using a resource selection function. Our purpose was to 1) generate a robust winter habitat-selection model for Alberta sage-grouse; 2) spatially depict habitat suitability in a Geographic Information System to identify areas with a high probability of selection and thus, conservation importance; and 3) assess the relative influence of human development, including oil and gas wells, in landscape models of winter habitat selection. Terrain and vegetation characteristics, sagebrush cover, anthropogenic landscape features, and energy development were important in top Akaike's Information Criterionselected models. During winter, sage-grouse selected dense sagebrush cover and homogenous less rugged areas, and avoided energy development and 2-track truck trails. Sage-grouse avoidance of energy development highlights the need for comprehensive management strategies that maintain suitable habitats across all seasons. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  17. Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; McRoberts, R.E.; Peterson, R.O.; Page, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    (1) Linear regression was used to relate snow accumulation during single and consecutive winters with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn:doe ratios, mosse (Alces alces) twinning rates and calf:cow ratios, and annual changes in deer and moose populations. Significant relationships were found between snow accumulation during individual winters and these dependent variables during the following year. However, the strongest relationships were between the dependent variables and the sums of the snow accumulations over the previous three winters. The percentage of the variability explained was 36 to 51. (2) Significant relationships were also found between winter vulnerability of moose calves and the sum of the snow accumulations in the current, and up to seven previous, winters, with about 49% of the variability explained. (3) No relationship was found between wolf numbers and the above dependent variables. (4) These relationships imply that winter influences on maternal nutrition can accumulate for several years and that this cumulative effect strongly determines fecundity and/or calf and fawn survivability. Although wolf (Canis lupus L.) predation is the main direct mortality agent on fawns and calves, wolf density itself appears to be secondary to winter weather in influencing the deer and moose populations.

  18. Lemming winter habitat choice: a snow-fencing experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donald G; Bilodeau, Frédéric; Krebs, Charles J; Gauthier, Gilles; Kenney, Alice J; Gilbert, B Scott; Leung, Maria C-Y; Duchesne, David; Hofer, Elizabeth

    2012-04-01

    The insulative value of early and deep winter snow is thought to enhance winter reproduction and survival by arctic lemmings (Lemmus and Dicrostonyx spp). This leads to the general hypothesis that landscapes with persistently low lemming population densities, or low amplitude population fluctuations, have a low proportion of the land base with deep snow. We experimentally tested a component of this hypothesis, that snow depth influences habitat choice, at three Canadian Arctic sites: Bylot Island, Nunavut; Herschel Island, Yukon; Komakuk Beach, Yukon. We used snow fencing to enhance snow depth on 9-ha tundra habitats, and measured the intensity of winter use of these and control areas by counting rodent winter nests in spring. At all three sites, the density of winter nests increased in treated areas compared to control areas after the treatment, and remained higher on treated areas during the treatment. The treatment was relaxed at one site, and winter nest density returned to pre-treatment levels. The rodents' proportional use of treated areas compared to adjacent control areas increased and remained higher during the treatment. At two of three sites, lemmings and voles showed significant attraction to the areas of deepest snow accumulation closest to the fences. The strength of the treatment effect appeared to depend on how quickly the ground level temperature regime became stable in autumn, coincident with snow depths near the hiemal threshold. Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that snow depth is a primary determinant of winter habitat choice by tundra lemmings and voles.

  19. Winter Season Mortality: Will Climate Warming Bring Benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Patrick L.; Schwartz, Joel; Pascal, Mathilde; Petkova, Elisaveta; Tertre, Alain Le; Medina, Sylvia; Vautard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Extreme heat events are associated with spikes in mortality, yet death rates are on average highest during the coldest months of the year. Under the assumption that most winter excess mortality is due to cold temperature, many previous studies have concluded that winter mortality will substantially decline in a warming climate. We analyzed whether and to what extent cold temperatures are associated with excess winter mortality across multiple cities and over multiple years within individual cities, using daily temperature and mortality data from 36 US cities (1985-2006) and 3 French cities (1971-2007). Comparing across cities, we found that excess winter mortality did not depend on seasonal temperature range, and was no lower in warmer vs. colder cities, suggesting that temperature is not a key driver of winter excess mortality. Using regression models within monthly strata, we found that variability in daily mortality within cities was not strongly influenced by winter temperature. Finally we found that inadequate control for seasonality in analyses of the effects of cold temperatures led to spuriously large assumed cold effects, and erroneous attribution of winter mortality to cold temperatures. Our findings suggest that reductions in cold-related mortality under warming climate may be much smaller than some have assumed. This should be of interest to researchers and policy makers concerned with projecting future health effects of climate change and developing relevant adaptation strategies. PMID:26495037

  20. Autumn Weather and Winter Increase in Cerebrovascular Disease Mortality

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDonagh, R

    2016-11-01

    Mortality from cerebrovascular disease increases in winter but the cause is unclear. Ireland’s oceanic climate means that it infrequently experiences extremes of weather. We examined how weather patterns relate to stroke mortality in Ireland. Seasonal data for Sunshine (% of average), Rainfall (% of average) and Temperature (degrees Celsius above average) were collected for autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February) using official Irish Meteorological Office data. National cerebrovascular mortality data was obtained from Quarterly Vital Statistics. Excess winter deaths were calculated by subtracting (nadir) 3rd quarter mortality data from subsequent 1st quarter data. Data for 12 years were analysed, 2002-2014. Mean winter mortality excess was 24.7%. Winter mortality correlated with temperature (r=.60, p=0.04). Rise in winter mortality correlated strongly with the weather in the preceding autumn (Rainfall: r=-0.19 p=0.53, Temperature: r=-0.60, p=0.03, Sunshine, r=0.58, p=0.04). Winter cerebrovascular disease mortality appears higher following cool, sunny autum

  1. Projected Influences of Changes in Weather Severity on Autumn-Winter Distributions of Dabbling Ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways during the Twenty-First Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notaro, Michael; Schummer, Michael; Zhong, Yafang; Vavrus, Stephen; Van Den Elsen, Lena; Coluccy, John; Hoving, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Projected changes in the relative abundance and timing of autumn-winter migration are assessed for seven dabbling duck species across the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways for the mid- and late 21st century. Species-specific observed relationships are established between cumulative weather severity in autumn-winter and duck population rate of change. Dynamically downscaled projections of weather severity are developed using a high-resolution regional climate model, interactively coupled to a one-dimensional lake model to represent the Great Lakes and associated lake-effect snowfall. Based on the observed relationships and downscaled climate projections of rising air temperatures and reduced snow cover, delayed autumn-winter migration is expected for all species, with the least delays for the Northern Pintail and the greatest delays for the Mallard. Indeed, the Mallard, the most common and widespread duck in North America, may overwinter in the Great Lakes region by the late 21st century. This highlights the importance of protecting and restoring wetlands across the mid-latitudes of North America, including the Great Lakes Basin, because dabbling ducks are likely to spend more time there, which would impact existing wetlands through increased foraging pressure. Furthermore, inconsistency in the timing and intensity of the traditional autumn-winter migration of dabbling ducks in the Mississippi and Atlantic Flyways could have social and economic consequences to communities to the south, where hunting and birdwatching would be affected.

  2. The effect of light and nutrient availability on growth, nitrogen, and pigment contents of Saccharina latissima (Phaeophyceae) grown in outdoor tanks, under natural variation of sunlight and temperature, during autumn and early winter in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boderskov, Teis; Schmedes, Peter; Bruhn, Annette;

    2016-01-01

    Late summer harvest of cultivated Saccharina latissima, prior to seasonally determined negative length growth, is considered advantageous in North Atlantic waters to optimize biomass yields. We hypothesized that seasonal increase in tissue protein and pigments over autumn and early winter would...... bioremediation, and has an improved biomass quality in regards of increased concentrations of pigments and nitrogen rich compounds....

  3. Regional greenhouse gas emissions from cultivation of winter wheat and winter rapeseed for biofuels in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsgaard, Lars; Olesen, Joergen E.; Hermansen, John E.; Kristensen, Inge T.; Boergesen, Christen D. [Dept. of Agroecology, Aarhus Univ., Tjele (Denmark)], E-mail: lars.elsgaard@agrsci.dk

    2013-04-15

    Biofuels from bioenergy crops may substitute a significant part of fossil fuels in the transport sector where, e.g., the European Union has set a target of using 10% renewable energy by 2020. Savings of greenhouse gas emissions by biofuels vary according to cropping systems and are influenced by such regional factors as soil conditions, climate and input of agrochemicals. Here we analysed at a regional scale the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with cultivation of winter wheat for bioethanol and winter rapeseed for rapeseed methyl ester (RME) under Danish conditions. Emitted CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2}eq) were quantified from the footprints of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O associated with cultivation and the emissions were allocated between biofuel energy and co-products. Greenhouse gas emission at the national level (Denmark) was estimated to 22.1 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol for winter wheat and 26.0 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME for winter rapeseed. Results at the regional level (level 2 according to the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics [NUTS]) ranged from 20.0 to 23.9 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} ethanol and from 23.5 to 27.6 g CO{sub 2}eq MJ{sup 1} RME. Thus, at the regional level emission results varied by up to 20%. Differences in area-based emissions were only 4% reflecting the importance of regional variation in yields for the emission result. Fertilizer nitrogen production and direct emissions of soil N{sub 2}O were major contributors to the final emission result and sensitivity analyses showed that the emission result depended to a large extent on the uncertainty ranges assumed for soil N{sub 2}O emissions. Improvement of greenhouse gas balances could be pursued, e.g., by growing dedicated varieties for energy purposes. However, in a wider perspective, land-use change of native ecosystems to bioenergy cropping systems could compromise the CO{sub 2} savings of bioenergy production and challenge the targets set for biofuel

  4. Changes in winter air temperatures near Lake Michigan, 1851-1993, as determined from regional lake-ice records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assel, R.A.; Robertson, Dale M.

    1995-01-01

    Records of freezeup and breakup dates for Grand Traverse Bay, Michigan, and Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, are among the longest ice records available near the Great Lakes, beginning in 185 1 and 1855, respectively. The timing of freezeup and breakup results from an integration of meteorological conditions (primarily air temperature) that occur before these events. Changes in the average timing of these ice-events are translated into changes in air temperature by the use of empirical and process-driven models. The timing of freezeup and breakup at the two locations represents an integration of air temperatures over slightly different seasons (months). Records from both locations indicate that the early winter period before about 1890 was - 15°C cooler than the early winter period after that time; the mean temperature has, however, remained relatively constant since about 1890. Changes in breakup dates demonstrate a similar 1.0-1 .5”C increase in late winter and early spring air temperatures about 1890. More recent average breakup dates at both locations have been earlier than during 1890-1940, indicating an additional warming of 1.2”C in March since about 1940 and a warming of 1 . 1°C in January-March since about 1980. Ice records at these sites will continue to provide an early indication of the anticipated climatic warming, not only because of the large response of ice cover to small changes in air temperature but also because these records integrate climatic conditions during the seasons (winter-spring) when most warming is forecast to occur. Future reductions in ice cover may strongly affect the winter ecology of the Great Lakes by reducing the stable environment required by various levels of the food chain. 

  5. The impact of winter and spring temperatures on temperate tree budburst dates: results from an experimental climate manipulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshuo H Fu

    Full Text Available Budburst phenology is a key driver of ecosystem structure and functioning, and it is sensitive to global change. Both cold winter temperatures (chilling and spring warming (forcing are important for budburst. Future climate warming is expected to have a contrasting effect on chilling and forcing, and subsequently to have a non-linear effect on budburst timing. To clarify the different effects of warming during chilling and forcing phases of budburst phenology in deciduous trees, (i we conducted a temperature manipulation experiment, with separate winter and spring warming treatments on well irrigated and fertilized saplings of beech, birch and oak, and (ii we analyzed the observations with five temperature-based budburst models (Thermal Time model, Parallel model, Sequential model, Alternating model, and Unified model. The results show that both winter warming and spring warming significantly advanced budburst date, with the combination of winter plus spring warming accelerating budburst most. As expected, all three species were more sensitive to spring warming than to winter warming. Although the different chilling requirement, the warming sensitivity was not significantly different among the studied species. Model evaluation showed that both one- and two- phase models (without and with chilling, respectively are able to accurately predict budburst. For beech, the Sequential model reproduced budburst dates best. For oak and birch, both Sequential model and the Thermal Time model yielded good fit with the data but the latter was slightly better in case of high parameter uncertainty. However, for late-flushing species, the Sequential model is likely be the most appropriate to predict budburst data in a future warmer climate.

  6. Effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations in winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaunard, D; Bizoux, J P; Monty, A; Henriet, F; De Proft, M; Vancutsem, F; Mahy, G; Bodson, B

    2012-01-01

    Currently, economic, agronomic and environmental concerns lead to reduce the use of herbicides. Mechanical weeding can help to reach this objective. Dynamics and biology of wild chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) populations were assessed as well as dynamic of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for four level of application of a weeder-harrow (0, 1, 2, 3 treatment(s)). After each treatment, an effect of mechanical weeding on wild chamomile density was observed. Density of wild chamomile decreased significantly with intensification of mechanical weeding. A third treatment allowed eliminating late emerged plants.

  7. Septicemic salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Hessarek in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, Roser; Porrero, M Concepción; Serrano, Emmanuel; Marco, Ignasi; García, María; Téllez, Sonia; Domínguez, Lucas; Aymí, Raül; Lavín, Santiago

    2012-01-01

    We investigated two mortality events in wintering and migrating Song Thrushes (Turdus philomelos) in Catalonia, northeastern Spain in 2009 and 2010. Both episodes occurred in late February to mid-March during the spring migration. Salmonellosis produced by the serotype Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype Hessarek (S. Hessarek) was identified as the cause of death in both episodes. Poor body condition, marked splenomegaly, and microscopic disseminated intravascular coagulation with numerous intravascular and tissular bacteria were the most consistent findings. Macro-restriction profiling by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using XbaI was performed for epidemiologic typing of the S. Hessarek isolates. Two clusters were discernible, that are possibly related, with a similarity of 82.8%. Analysis comparing pectoral muscle and subcutaneous fat scores from the Song Thrushes that died from S. Hessarek with those from healthy Song Thrushes from nearby areas during 2009 and 2010 suggest that poor body condition was associated with the S. Hessarek infection.

  8. Irrigation management strategies for winter wheat using AquaCrop model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world face the challenge to ensure high yield with limited water supply. This calls for utilization of available water in an efficient and sustainable manner. Quantitative models can assist in management decision and planning purposes. The FAO’s newly developed crop-water model, AquaCrop, which simulates yield in response to water, has been calibrated for winter wheat and subsequently used to simulate yield under different sowing dates, irrigation frequencies, and irrigation sequences using 10 years daily weather data. The simulation results suggest that “2 irrigation frequency” is the most water-efficient schedule for wheat under the prevailing climatic and soil conditions. The results also indicate decreasing yield trend under late sowing. The normal/recommended sequence of irrigation performed better than the seven-days shifting from the normal. The results will help to formulate irrigation management plan based on the resource availability (water, and land availability from previous crop.

  9. Vitamin D Level in Summer and Winter Related to Measured UVR Exposure and Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieden, E.; Philipsen, P.A.; Heydenreich, J.

    2009-01-01

    , electronic wristwatch UVR dosimeters and sun exposure diaries. Constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation was measured in September. 25(OH) D was measured in September and February and was in mean 82 nmol/L +/- 25 (mean +/- SD) in September and 56 nmol/L +/- 19 (mean +/- SD) in February. The received......The influence of the summer UVR exposure on serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH) D) in late summer and winter was investigated in an open study on 25 healthy, adult volunteers. The UVR exposure dose in standard erythema dose (SED) was monitored continuously during a summer season with personal...... measurements monitored by the dosimeter (r = 0.64, P = 0.001) and (r = 0.53; P = 0.007); (3) Days "with sun-exposed upper body" (r = 0.58, P = 0.003) and (r = 0.50; P = 0.01); (4) Facultative pigmentation (r = 0.47; P

  10. Warm, windy winters drive cod north and homing of spawners keeps them there

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Lewy, Peter

    2006-01-01

    1. Climatic and anthropogenic effects often interact leading to unexpected results. For example, climate may lead to a change in the spatial distribution of a fish stock and thereby its vulnerability to exploitation. The North Sea cod stock is currently under pressure from both environmental change...... and human exploitation. This stock has experienced a series of poor recruitments since the late 1990s and, concomitant with the decrease in abundance, the distribution of cod has changed. While it has been suggested that the change in distribution can be linked to increasing temperatures and fishing......, stock size or limited directional movement of cod. Using the derived models, we investigated whether fishing has increased the sensitivity of the cod population to climate-induced distribution changes. 3. A series of winters characterized by high temperatures and southerly winds during the egg...

  11. Winter atmospheric circulation over Europe and the North Atlantic: an intercomparison of reanalysis datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryhal, Jan; Huth, Radan

    2016-04-01

    Research on atmospheric circulation has been quite common lately and includes e.g. analyses of circulation properties and trends in both reanalysis datasets and circulation model outputs. In many cases, however, studies have been restricted to only one set of data and only one research method. The goal of our present work is to compare the properties of winter European atmospheric circulation in five reanalysis datasets (ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, JRA-55, ERA-20C, and 20CRv2) over 1961-2000. The main research method we use is an automated circulation classification. In order to bring robust results, however, eight distinct circulation type calendars are defined based on the reanalysed daily mean sea level pressure patterns, for each of the reanalyses and over the total of eight European domains. Subsequently, basic properties of these calendars are computed and compared. Lastly, we show how results of GCM validation can vary if different reanalyses are taken as a benchmark.

  12. Tragicomedy and Pastoral in Shakespeare's The Winter's Tale

    OpenAIRE

    Heide, Sinem Kozanoglu

    2005-01-01

    This thesis, focusing on the diptych unity of Shakespeare s The Winter s Tale, examines the play from the perspective of pastoral tragicomedy. The Winter s Tale seems sharply divided into two halves; one for the most part tragic; the other principally comic; with Time standing in the middle as Chorus to announce their juncture and separation. Because of its very structure, The Winter s Tale was evaluated as two disjointed plays for centuries and condemned because of it, until its two parts an...

  13. CLIMATOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF WINTER TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS IN GUANGDONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using the monthly mean and minimum temperature data of the 36 observation stations in Guangdong, the climatological features of the temperatures have been analyzed, including characteristics of trends, abrupt changes and periods. And the possible affecting factors on the winter warming in Guangdong have been discussed. The results show that the winter temperatures, particularly the monthly mean minimum temperatures in Guangdong, have a warming trend. The rise of the winter minimum temperatures in Guangdong began in the second half of 1960's and the warming was more evident since the 1980's.

  14. Why was Atmospheric Circulation Decoupled from Tropical Pacific SSTs in 2014/15 winter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P.

    2015-12-01

    In late 2014 and early 2015, although Niño3.4 index exceeded the threshold for a weak-moderate El Niño, a canonical atmospheric response to ENSO event was not observed in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific. In an effort to understand why it was so, this study decomposed the DJF mean sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation rate and 200hPa stream function anomalies observed in the 2014/15 winter into the patterns related to the principal components of the DJF SST variability. It is found that the anomalies of these variables were mainly determined by the patterns related to two SST modes, one is the North Pacific Mode (NPM), and the other the El Niño and South Oscillation (ENSO) mode. The NPM was the dominant factor and was responsible for the apparent uncoupled air-sea relationship in the central equatorial Pacific and the east-west structure of the circulation anomalies over North America. The ENSO mode was important for SSTs in the central and eastern equatorial Pacific and for the circulation in the central equatorial Pacific. Further, ENSO signal likely evolved from the NPM pattern in the 2013/14 winter, however, its full development was impeded by the unusual persistence of the strong NPM throughout the year. The analysis for DJF 2014/15 winter indicates that the SST anomalies in Niño3.4 alone were not adequate for capturing the coupling of ocean and atmosphere anomalies in the tropical Pacific, due to the fact that it can't distinguish if the SST anomaly in the Niño3.4 region is associated with the ENSO mode or NPM, or both.

  15. Winter ENSO teleconnections in a warmer climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herceg Bulic, Ivana [Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Institute, Department of Geophysics, Zagreb (Croatia); Brankovic, Cedo [Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service (DHMZ), Zagreb (Croatia); Kucharski, Fred [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    2012-04-15

    Changes in the winter atmospheric response to sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in a warmer climate conditions are estimated from the two 20-member ensembles made by an atmospheric general circulation model of intermediate complexity. Warmer climate is simulated by a modification in the radiation parameterisation that corresponds to the doubled CO{sub 2} concentration, and SST forcing is represented by the same SST anomalies as in current climate (1855-2002) experiment superimposed on the climatological SST that was obtained from a complex atmosphere-ocean general circulation model forced with the doubled CO{sub 2}. SST anomalies in the Nino3.4 region, categorised into five classes, enabled a composite analysis of changes in the Northern Hemisphere tropical/extratropical teleconnections. The main features of the tropical-extratropical teleconnections are maintained in both experiments; for example, irrespective of the sign of SST anomalies, the amplitude of the atmospheric response is positively correlated with the intensity of ENSO event and the El Nino impact is stronger than that of La Nina of the same intensity. The strongest extratropical signal in the warmer climate, particularly significant for strong warm events, is found over the Pacific/North American region; however, this extratropical teleconnections is reduced in a warmer climate relative to the current climate. Over the North Atlantic/European region, a detectable signal linked to ENSO is found; this model response is significantly strengthened in the experiment with the doubled CO{sub 2} concentration. Such an atmospheric response in a warmer climate is found to be associated with changes in the mean state followed as well as in the jet waveguiding effect and stationary wave activity. (orig.)

  16. Urban emissions of water vapor in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Olivia E.; Shepson, Paul B.; Ren, Xinrong; Marquardt Collow, Allison B.; Miller, Mark A.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Cambaliza, Maria O. L.; Heimburger, Alexie; Morgan, Kristan L.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Stirm, Brian H.; Grundman, Robert; Dickerson, Russell R.

    2017-09-01

    Elevated water vapor (H2Ov) mole fractions were occasionally observed downwind of Indianapolis, IN, and the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, MD, area during airborne mass balance experiments conducted during winter months between 2012 and 2015. On days when an urban H2Ov excess signal was observed, H2Ov emission estimates range between 1.6 × 104 and 1.7 × 105 kg s-1 and account for up to 8.4% of the total (background + urban excess) advected flow of atmospheric boundary layer H2Ov from the urban study sites. Estimates of H2Ov emissions from combustion sources and electricity generation facility cooling towers are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the urban H2Ov emission rates estimated from observations. Instances of urban H2Ov enhancement could be a result of differences in snowmelt and evaporation rates within the urban area, due in part to larger wintertime anthropogenic heat flux and land cover differences, relative to surrounding rural areas. More study is needed to understand why the urban H2Ov excess signal is observed on some days, and not others. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that the observed urban enhancements in H2Ov and other greenhouse gas mole fractions contribute only 0.1°C d-1 to the urban heat island at the surface. This integrated warming through the boundary layer is offset by longwave cooling by H2Ov at the top of the boundary layer. While the radiative impacts of urban H2Ov emissions do not meaningfully influence urban heat island intensity, urban H2Ov emissions may have the potential to alter downwind aerosol and cloud properties.

  17. Risk assessment in winter backcountry travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverton, Natalie A; McIntosh, Scott E; Kim, Han S

    2009-01-01

    Risk assessment is an important part of safe backcountry travel in avalanche terrain. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the ability of backcountry travelers to accurately estimate the avalanche danger for their destination and time of travel. We surveyed 353 winter backcountry users, asking them to rate the avalanche danger for their destination that day. We then compared this estimation to the Utah Avalanche Center daily advisory for that specific location, aspect, and elevation. Tendency to underestimate the avalanche danger was then compared across 6 different sports (backcountry skiing, backcountry snowboarding, snowshoeing, snowmobiling, out-of-bounds skiing, and out-of-bounds snowboarding) as well as across age, gender, and subject participation in an avalanche safety course. A comparison across different sports, adjusted for age and gender, showed that snowshoers were 7.11 times more likely than skiers to underestimate the avalanche danger (95% CI, 2.95, 17.11). This difference was maintained after adjusting for past education in an avalanche safety course (odds ratio, 5.74; 95% CI, 2.28, 14.46). Snowmobilers were also significantly more likely to underestimate the avalanche danger when compared to skiers (odds ratio, 3.11; 95% CI, 1.12, 8.24), but these differences ceased to be significant when the data were adjusted for avalanche safety course (odds ratio, 2.39; 95% CI, 0.84, 6.74). While there was a trend for women and older age groups to underestimate the avalanche danger when compared to men, these trends were not significant. Snowshoers and snowmobilers are groups that tend to underestimate avalanche danger when traveling in the backcountry. These groups may be unknowingly assuming a higher risk and should be targeted for avalanche education and awareness.

  18. Kelp and seaweed feeding by High-Arctic wild reindeer under extreme winter conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brage Bremset Hansen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available One challenge in current Arctic ecological research is to understand and predict how wildlife may respond to increased frequencies of “extreme” weather events. Heavy rain-on-snow (ROS is one such extreme phenomenon associated with winter warming that is not well studied but has potentially profound ecosystem effects through changes in snow-pack properties and ice formation. Here, we document how ice-locked pastures following substantial amounts of ROS forced coastal Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus to use marine habitat in late winter 2010. A thick coat of ground ice covered 98% of the lowland ranges, almost completely blocking access to terrestrial forage. Accordingly, a population census revealed that 13% of the total population (n=26 of 206 individuals and 21% of one sub-population were feeding on washed-up kelp and seaweed on the sea-ice foot. Calves were overrepresented among the individuals that applied this foraging strategy, which probably represents a last attempt to avoid starvation under particularly severe foraging conditions. The study adds to the impression that extreme weather events such as heavy ROS and associated icing can trigger large changes in the realized foraging niche of Arctic herbivores.

  19. Vitamin D level in summer and winter related to measured UVR exposure and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieden, Elisabeth; Philipsen, Peter A; Heydenreich, Jakob; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the summer UVR exposure on serum-25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in late summer and winter was investigated in an open study on 25 healthy, adult volunteers. The UVR exposure dose in standard erythema dose (SED) was monitored continuously during a summer season with personal, electronic wristwatch UVR dosimeters and sun exposure diaries. Constitutive and facultative skin pigmentation was measured in September. 25(OH)D was measured in September and February and was in mean 82 nmol/L +/- 25 (mean +/- SD) in September and 56 nmol/L +/- 19 (mean +/- SD) in February. The received cumulative UVR dose measured during a mean of 121 days was 156 SED +/- 159 (mean +/- SD). The following UVR exposure parameters correlated with 25(OH)D in September and February, respectively: (1) The cumulative UVR dose (r = 0.53; P dosimeter (r = 0.64, P = 0.001) and (r = 0.53; P = 0.007); (3) Days "with sun-exposed upper body" (r = 0.58, P = 0.003) and (r = 0.50; P = 0.01); (4) Facultative pigmentation (r = 0.47; P < 0.02) and (r = 0.7; P < 0.001); (5) Constitutive pigmentation (r = 0.06, n.s.) and (r = 0.43, P = 0.03). Neither days "sunbathing" nor days with "sunscreen applied" correlated with 25(OH)D. The fall in 25(OH)D during winter was dependent on the entry value.

  20. Differences in female individual reproductive potential among three stocks of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, W. David; Wuenschel, Mark J.; Press, Yvonna K.; Towle, Emilee K.; McBride, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Potential annual fecundity (PAF) and skipped spawning of winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, were compared among the three stocks in United States waters and between two spawning seasons. Winter flounder have group-synchronous oocyte development and determinate fecundity. These characteristics enable estimation of PAF just prior to spawning by enumeration of the late-vitellogenic cohort of oocytes, in this case employing the autodiametric method. There was a low level of down-regulation, which was limited to fish in the earlier stages of vitellogenesis. Estimates of PAF increased substantially with female size and age, ranging from 5 million eggs per female. Fecundity at size decreased with increasing latitude. On average, fish from the Southern New England (SNE) stock had the highest individual fecundities at length and Gulf of Maine (GOM) the lowest, but differences varied among the years. Fecundity at length of fish from Georges Bank (GB) was intermediate to these two stocks and displayed less variability at size; however, GB fish grow faster so they had the highest relative fecundity at age. Skipped spawning also exhibited geographic differences; it was infrequent (published estimates suggest fecundity is highly variable in this species. Overall, different rates of reproductive productivity exist among individuals of the three stocks.

  1. Mixing rates and vertical heat fluxes north of Svalbard from Arctic winter to spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Fer, Ilker; Sundfjord, Arild; Peterson, Algot K.

    2017-06-01

    Mixing and heat flux rates collected in the Eurasian Basin north of Svalbard during the N-ICE2015 drift expedition are presented. The observations cover the deep Nansen Basin, the Svalbard continental slope, and the shallow Yermak Plateau from winter to summer. Mean quiescent winter heat flux values in the Nansen Basin are 2 W m-2 at the ice-ocean interface, 3 W m-2 in the pycnocline, and 1 W m-2 below the pycnocline. Large heat fluxes exceeding 300 W m-2 are observed in the late spring close to the surface over the Yermak Plateau. The data consisting of 588 microstructure profiles and 50 days of high-resolution under-ice turbulence measurements are used to quantify the impact of several forcing factors on turbulent dissipation and heat flux rates. Wind forcing increases turbulent dissipation seven times in the upper 50 m, and doubles heat fluxes at the ice-ocean interface. The presence of warm Atlantic Water close to the surface increases the temperature gradient in the water column, leading to enhanced heat flux rates within the pycnocline. Steep topography consistently enhances dissipation rates by a factor of four and episodically increases heat flux at depth. It is, however, the combination of storms and shallow Atlantic Water that leads to the highest heat flux rates observed: ice-ocean interface heat fluxes average 100 W m-2 during peak events and are associated with rapid basal sea ice melt, reaching 25 cm/d.

  2. A new synthetic allotetraploid (A1A1G2G2 between Gossypium herbaceum and G. australe: bridging for simultaneously transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into upland cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Liu

    Full Text Available Gossypium herbaceum, a cultivated diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, A1A1, has favorable traits such as excellent drought tolerance and resistance to sucking insects and leaf curl virus. G. australe, a wild diploid cotton species (2n = 2x = 26, G2G2, possesses numerous economically valuable characteristics such as delayed pigment gland morphogenesis (which is conducive to the production of seeds with very low levels of gossypol as a potential food source for humans and animals and resistance to insects, wilt diseases and abiotic stress. Creating synthetic allotetraploid cotton from these two species would lay the foundation for simultaneously transferring favorable genes into cultivated tetraploid cotton. Here, we crossed G. herbaceum (as the maternal parent with G. australe to produce an F1 interspecific hybrid and doubled its chromosome complement with colchicine, successfully generating a synthetic tetraploid. The obtained tetraploid was confirmed by morphology, cytology and molecular markers and then self-pollinated. The S1 seedlings derived from this tetraploid gradually became flavescent after emergence of the fifth true leaf, but they were rescued by grafting and produced S2 seeds. The rescued S1 plants were partially fertile due to the existence of univalents at Metaphase I of meiosis, leading to the formation of unbalanced, nonviable gametes lacking complete sets of chromosomes. The S2 plants grew well and no flavescence was observed, implying that interspecific incompatibility, to some extent, had been alleviated in the S2 generation. The synthetic allotetraploid will be quite useful for polyploidy evolutionary studies and as a bridge for transferring favorable genes from these two diploid species into Upland cotton through hybridization.

  3. Plasmodesmatal Dynamics in Both Woody Poplar and Herbaceous Winter Wheat Under Controlled Short Day and in Field Winter Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLing-Cheng; WANGHong

    2004-01-01

    Electron microscopic observation revealed that poplar (Populus deltoides Marsh.) and winterwheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. Seward 80004) plasmodesmatal structures significantly changed undershort day (SD, 8 h light) and in winter period, and such changes differed also noticeably between these twowoody and herbaceous plants. Under long day (LD, 16 h light), many plasmodesmata with strong stainappeared in the cell wall of both poplar apical buds and winter wheat young leaf tissues, and connections ofcytoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) with the ER in some plasmodesmata were observed. In addition,the typical “neck type” plasmodesmata were observed in winter wheat young leaf tissues, and their centraldesmotubules (appressed-ER) could be clearly identified. Under SD, many poplar plasmodesmata showedonly a partial structure in the cell wall and appeared to be discontinued; some plasmodesmata swelled in themid-wall, forming the cavity, and no appressed-ER appeared, in winter wheat, however, no noticeablealterations of plasmodesmata occurred, and the plasmodesmatal structure essentially remained the sameas it was under LD. In winter period, poplar plasmodesmata had a similar morphology as those observedunder SD, however, winter wheat manifested at least two types of significant plasmodesmatal alterations:one plugged by electron-dense materials and the other of reduced neck region compared to those underLD. The above dynamic difference of the two species plasmodesmata under SD and winter period revealedthe difference of their dormancy development under those environmental conditions.

  4. An Index of East Asian Winter Monsoon Applied to the Description of China's Mainland Winter Temperature Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yanfeng

    2008-01-01

    Using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (Version 1.0) and the observation data of China from January 1951 to February 2007, a new index of East Asian winter monsoon circulation (IEAWM) was defined based on the comparison of previous different winter monsoon indices and circulation factors influencing the winter climate over China. Its relationships with winter temperature over China and large-scale circulation were analyzed. Results show that IEAWM can successfully describe the variation of China's mainland winter temperature and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system. This index reflects the integrated effect of the circulations over high and low latitudes and the thermal difference between the continent and the ocean. While in the previous studies, most monsoon indices only describe the single monsoon member. The IEAWM is a good indicator of the intensity of the EAWM. Positive values of IEAWM correspond to the strong EAWM, the stronger Siberian high and East Asian trough than normal, and the strengthening of the meridional shear of 500-hPa zonal wind between high and low latitudes over East Asia, and therefore, the southward cold advection becomes stronger and leads to the decrease in surface temperature over China; and vice versa. The IEAWM inter decadal change is obviously positive before the mid-1980s, but negative since the mid-1980s, in good agreement with the fact of the winter warming in China after 1985.

  5. Late Holocene cooling event in the western Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翦知湣; 李保华; UwePflaumann; 汪品先

    1996-01-01

    Cores 255, 170, 17940-2, raised from the Okinawa Trough and South China Sea, have been studied for planktonic foraminifers. Among all the species, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata is shown to be sensitive to winter sea surface temperature in the late Quaternary in the western Pacific. Its relative abundance fluctuations are significant and correlatable between the cores. The most conspicuous change during Holocene is the P. obliquiloculata minimum zone around 4-2ka B. P., which correlates probably to the neoglacial cooling. The widespread occurrence of this cooling event in the western Pacific suggests that P. obliquiloculata is promising as a paleoceanographic and climatic monitor, possibly important for reconstructing sea-land correlation of climate.

  6. Late sequelae of superficial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, I.C.; Young, J.E.

    1984-10-01

    Superficial irradiation results in well recognized late sequelae including not only sclerosis and atrophy of skin and subcutaneous tissue, but also the development of benign and malignant tumors of skin and adjacent structures. The long latency between irradiation and its late effects allowed the early uncontrolled use of radiation treatment for benign conditions. The subsequent recognition of the causal relationship between tumors and previous irradiation has restricted its use to more appropriate purposes, although it is possible that it is still overused in some areas of dermatologic practice. Clinicians need to be aware of the time interval between irradiation and the development of its late sequelae, and the incidence of these sequelae. Appropriate irradiation exposure history should be a part of the evaluation of every patient.

  7. National FCEV Learning Demonstration: Winter 2011 Composite Data Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.; Ainscough, C.; Saur, G.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory includes the composite data products produced in Winter 2011 as part of the National Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) Learning Demonstration.

  8. Washington Maritime NWRC: Initial Survey Instructions for Winter Wildlife Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Due to the logistical challenges of accessing this refuge during the winter months, information on nonbreeding species use of refuge islands is very limited. This...

  9. Kleptoparasitism by bald eagles wintering in south-central Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, Dennis G.; Lingle, G.R.

    1988-01-01

    Kleptoparasitism on other raptors was one means by which Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) secured food along the North Platte and Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1980. Species kelptoparasitized were Ferruginous Hawk (Buteo regalis), Red-tailed Hawk (B. jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawk (B. lagopus), Golden Eagle (Aquila chrysaetos), and Bald Eagle. Stealing of prey occurred more often during the severe winter of 1978-1979 when ice cover restricted eagles from feeding on fish than during the milder winter of 1979-1980. Kleptoparasitism occurred principally in agricultural habitats where large numbers of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were foraging. Subadults watched adults steal food and participated in food-stealing with adults, which indicated interspecific kleptoparasitism may be a learned behavior. We suggest factors that may favor interspecific kleptoparasitism as a foraging strategy of Bald Eagles in obtaining waterfowl during severe winters.

  10. Circle of Life——Symbolism in The Winter's Tale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潇雨

    2007-01-01

    This essay tries to illustrate Winter's Tale's symbolic meaning about human life.It draws conclusion that Shakespeare's plan is to combine the natural rule of seasonal cycle with the life circle of human world.

  11. Malheur NWR: Initial Survey Instructions for Trumpeter Swan - Winter Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the survey is to inform a regional effort to estimate the distribution and total number of wintering swans in Western North America. The survey...

  12. Whooping Crane Winter Abundance Survey Protocol Aransas National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This protocol is primarily designed to provide a mechanism for monitoring trends in whooping crane abundance on their wintering grounds along the Texas gulf coast....

  13. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and climate change: Importance of winter forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrine Moen Heggberget

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, climate change is predicted to be particularly pronounced, although regionally variable, in the vast arctic, sub-arctic and alpine tundra areas of the northern hemisphere. Here, we review winter foraging conditions for reindeer and caribou (Rangifer tarandus living in these areas, and consider diet, forage quality and distribution, accessibility due to snow variation, and effects of snow condition on reindeer and caribou populations. Finally, we hypothesise how global warming may affect wild mountain reindeer herds in South Norway. Energy-rich lichens often dominate reindeer and caribou diets. The animals also prefer lichens, and their productivity has been shown to be higher on lichen-rich than on lichen-poor ranges. Nevertheless, this energy source appears to be neither sufficient as winter diet for reindeer or caribou (at least for pregnant females nor necessary. Some reindeer and caribou populations seem to be better adapted to a non-lichen winter diet, e.g. by a larger alimentary tract. Shrubs appear to be the most common alternative winter forage, while some grasses appear to represent a good, nutritionally-balanced winter diet. Reindeer/caribou make good use of a wide variety of plants in winter, including dead and dry parts that are digested more than expected based on their fibre content. The diversity of winter forage is probably important for the mineral content of the diet. A lichen-dominated winter diet may be deficient in essential dietary elements, e.g. minerals. Sodium in particular may be marginal in inland winter ranges. Our review indicates that most Rangifer populations with lichen-dominated winter diets are either periodically or continuously heavily harvested by humans or predators. However, when population size is mainly limited by food, accessible lichen resources are often depleted. Plant studies simulating climatic change indicate that a warmer, wetter

  14. NEFSC 2000 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0001, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  15. Surface layer temperature inversion in the Arabian Sea during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Ghosh, A.K.

    Surface layer temperature inversion in the south eastern Arabian Sea, during winter has been studied using Bathythermograph data collected from 1132 stations. It is found that the inversion in this area is a stable seasonal feature...

  16. Winter population numbers [Fort Niobrara NWR fenced animal program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This data set is for winter population numbers for bison, elk and longhorn from January 1st of the calendar year and is part of the Fort Niobrara Fenced Animal...

  17. Whooping Cranes During the 1985-1986 Winter

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report attempts to summarize whooping crane data collected by the Aransas biologist during the 1985-86 winter. It focuses on the distribution of the Wood...

  18. NEFSC 1999 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL9902, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  19. NEFSC 2001 Winter Bottom Trawl Survey (AL0102, EK500)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objectives of the cruise are to: (1) determine the winter distribution and relative abundance of fish and selected invertebrate species; (2) collect biological...

  20. Nearshore hydrography off Visakhapatnam, East coast of India, during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, B.P.; RameshBabu, V.

    . The near bottom region in the offshore area, rather than the nearshore area, seems to be promising dumping ground for industrial waste material during winter period when the thermal inversion in the water column are major mechanisms of vertical mixing...

  1. The naturally occurring rhythm of blues: winter depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilsaver, S C; Jaeckle, R S

    1990-01-01

    Winter depression, a form of seasonal affective disorder, is a common condition that increases in prevalence in northern areas and in regions with a high proportion of overcast fall and winter days. Parts of Ohio are high-risk areas given the high percentage of overcast days. Winter depression is marked by the onset of recurrent episodes of major depression each fall or winter which spontaneously remit in the spring. The depressive syndrome is often characterized by sadness, anxiety, decreased involvement in work and social activities, increased appetite, carbohydrate craving, weight gain, hypersomnia and psychomotor retardation. This syndrome often responds to treatment with two to six hours per day of full-spectrum bright artificial light. The efficacy of drugs in the treatment of this condition is now being studied at The Ohio State University. A monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective.

  2. The phenotypic diversity and fruit characterization of winter squash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fruit characterization of winter squash ( Cucurbita maxima ) populations from the Black Sea Region of Turkey. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... fruit brightness, skin thickness , flesh thickness and colour in the Black Sea region of Turkey.

  3. Winter Steelhead Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WINTER STEELHEAD contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  4. Long-run effects of gestation during the Dutch Hunger Winter famine on labor market and hospitalization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholte, Robert S; van den Berg, Gerard J; Lindeboom, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    The Dutch Hunger Winter (1944/45) is the most-studied famine in the literature on long-run effects of malnutrition in utero. Its temporal and spatial demarcations are clear, it was severe, it was not anticipated, and nutritional conditions in society were favorable and stable before and after the famine. This is the first study to analyze effects of in utero exposure on labor market outcomes and hospitalization late in life, and the first to use register data covering the full Dutch population to examine long-run effects of this famine. We provide results of famine exposure by sub-interval of gestation. We find a significantly negative effect of exposure during the first trimester of gestation on employment outcomes 53 or more years after birth. Hospitalization rates in the years before retirement are higher after middle or late gestational exposure.

  5. [Late-onset dysthymic states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siranchiev, M A

    2002-01-01

    Sixty patients with dysthymic states which had emerged in later age of 60-80 years were examined. Two clinical types of dysthymic states were described: anergic (20 patients) and hypothymic (40 patients). Different comorbid mental disorders--obsessive-phobic (14 cases), somatoform (10), personality deviations (20) and psycho-organic (7)--were found to be characteristic of late-onset dysthymic states. According to developmental features, late dysthymia was primary (first manifested in the elderly) and secondary (develops after several depressive episodes). In diagnostic terms, the former is considered as "dysthymia" (F34.1 ICD-10) and the latter--as "recurrent depressive disorder" (F33).

  6. Factors influencing the tolerance of flufenacet applications in winter rye

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    In winter rye which is grown mostly on locations with a lighter soil texture loose silky-bent grass (Apera spica-venti) is a dominate weed grass. Because of increasing herbicide resistance the control of A. spica-venti becomes more difficult. To manage resistant weed grass populations in winter rye flufenacet is a very important active substance. However, the application of flufenacet can lead to substantially culture damage. The influence of different factors influencing the tolerance of ...

  7. Accumulation of hydroxycinnamic acid amides in winter wheat under snow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shigeki; Yoshida, Midori; Nakajima, Takashi; Murai, Akio

    2003-06-01

    It was found that the content of antifungal compounds p-coumaroylagmatine [1-(trans-4'-hydroxycinnamoylamino)-4-guanidinobutane] and p-coumaroyl-3-hydroxyagmatine [1-(trans-4'-hydroxycinnamoylamino)-3-hydroxy-4-guanidinobutane] in the crown of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Chihokukomugi) significantly increased under snow cover. This finding suggests that the accumulation of these hydroxycinnamic acid amides was caused by winter stress and related to protecting the plant against snow mold under snow cover.

  8. The chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Robert D. Levitan

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes research on the chronobiology and neurobiology of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD), a recurrent subtype of depression characterized by a predictable onset in the fall/winter months and spontaneous remission in the spring/summer period. Chronobiological mechanisms related to circadian rhythms, melatonin, and photoperiodism play a significant role in many cases of SAD, and treatment of SAD can be optimized by considering individual differences in key chronobiologi...

  9. What caused the spring intensification and winter demise of the 2011 drought over Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D. Nelun; Mo, Kingtse C.; Fu, Rong; Pu, Bing; Bowerman, Adam; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Solis, Ruben S.; Yin, Lei; Mace, Robert E.; Mioduszewski, John R.; Ren, Tong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-11-01

    The 2011 Texas drought, the worst 1-year drought on record, was characterized by spring intensification of rainfall deficit and surface dryness. Such spring intensification was led by an unusually strong increase of convective inhibition (CIN), which suppressed convection at the time critical for the onset of the April-June rainfall season. The CIN increase appeared to be caused by strong sub-seasonal anomalously westerly winds at 850 hPa (U850) in April, in addition to surface dryness due to cumulative rainfall deficit since fall of 2010. The anomalous U850 advected warm dry air from the Mexican Plateau to Texas, enhancing cap inversion, and exacerbating static stability initially elevated by an anomalously high surface Bowen ratio due to rainfall deficits from winter through spring over Texas. Strengthened westerly U850 in April, in addition to the persistent rainfall deficits from winter through spring, are common characteristics in other strong drought events experienced over Texas. Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project-type simulations with prescribed La Niña SSTAs in the tropical Pacific do not show a strengthening of westerly U850 in April, suggesting that internal atmospheric variability at intraseasonal scale, instead of La Niña, may initiate the spring drought intensification over Texas. Soil moisture deficits in late spring are significantly correlated with positive 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the south central U.S. 2-3 weeks later, suggesting that intensified surface dryness in late-spring could reinforce the drought-inducing anomalous mid-tropospheric high. The drought diminished in the winter of 2011/2012 despite a second La Niña event. Our analysis suggests an important role for strong westerly wind anomalies, the resultant increase of CIN in spring, and subsequent positive feedback between dry surface anomalies and the anomalous large-scale circulation pattern in drought intensification. Clarification of the mechanisms behind

  10. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive

  11. Late onset globoid cell leukodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, R P; Petronas, N; Barton, N W

    1991-11-01

    A 29 year old male with onset of globoid cell leukodystrophy at age 14 is described. This is the first case of enzymatically confirmed globoid cell leukodystrophy with onset of symptoms after the age of ten. This patient is unique because of the late onset and slow progression and extends the clinical spectrum of globoid cell leukodystrophy.

  12. Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    This volume results from the international research project ‘The Migration of Faith: Clerical Exile in Late Antiquity (325‒c.600)’. The project is a collaboration between the Department of History at the University of Sheffield, the Seminar für Kirchengeschichte at the University of Halle, and th...

  13. LATE ONSET ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODAL TACHYCARDIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENTINGA, ML; MEEDER, JG; CRIJNS, HJGM; DEMUINCK, ED; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    1993-01-01

    AV nodal tachycardia may present at any age, but onset in late adulthood is considered uncommon. To evaluate whether onset of AV nodal tachycardias at older age is related to organic heart disease (possibly setting the stage for re-entry due to degenerative structural changes) 32 consecutive patient

  14. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in

  15. Late onset startle induced tics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Brown, P; Morris, HR; Lees, A

    1999-01-01

    Three cases of late onset Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome are presented. The motor ties were mainly induced by an unexpected startling stimulus, but the startle reflex was not exaggerated. The ties developed after physical trauma or a period of undue emotional stress. Reflex ties may occur in Gille

  16. Late detection of cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanny, K H; de Vries, I A C; Haverkamp, S J; Oomen, K P Q; Penris, W M; Eijkemans, M J C; Kon, M; Mink van der Molen, A B; Breugem, C C

    2016-01-01

    Cleft palate only (CPO) is a common congenital malformation, and most patients are diagnosed within the first weeks after birth. Late diagnosis of the cleft palate (CP) could initially result in feeding and growth impairment, and subsequently speech and hearing problems later in life. The purpose of

  17. PMP-1 Report: the Fourth Winter of PMP-1, 1981 - 1982: a Winter with Several Interesting Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labitzke, K.

    1982-01-01

    A synoptic description is given for the fourth winter of pre-MAP project 1 (PMP-1), 1981/82. The main characteristics of this winter are a Canadian warming in the beginning of December, a very strong minor warming in January, and an early final warming in mid-March. The eddy momentum budget, calculated from the daily height and temperature charts, is discussed in terms of the divergence of the Eliassen-Palm-vector.

  18. Dissolved organic matter composition of winter stream flow in the Yukon River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J.; Aiken, G.; Walvoord, M. A.; Butler, K.

    2011-12-01

    In the Yukon River Basin (YRB), groundwater-to-stream discharge has increased by 0.7-0.9% yr-1 over the last three decades, and is likely in response to regional climate warming and permafrost thaw. This recent shift in watershed hydrology has important implications for the flux of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from terrestrial to freshwater and marine ecosystems and its composition. For instance, it has been hypothesized that permafrost thaw and increased groundwater discharge may account for the long-term decline in discharge-normalized dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in the main stem of the Yukon River. However, the response of DOC dynamics in YRB subcatchments to recent warming and thaw will likely vary over space and time as a function of vegetation, parent material, ground ice content and disturbance history. To evaluate spatial patterns of groundwater DOM composition, we collected under-ice samples during winter flow from 68 streams in the YRB. Using a suite of conservative tracers (specific conductivity, base cations), we also separated the relative contribution of supra- and sub-permafrost groundwaters to winter flow. In general, DOC concentration in winter stream flow was low relative to summer flow, averaging 3.94 ± 0.46 and 18.39 ± 1.39 mg L-1. However, DOM composition varied widely across the YRB, indicating a broad range of organic matter quality and reactivity present for different groundwater sources. In streams receiving inputs primarily from sub-permafrost groundwater, we observed low specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA254) values (0.4-1.1 L mgC-1 m-1), a high proportion of hydrophilic compounds (35-50%), and a large proportion of protein-like compounds (13-35%, as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy). In streams where winter flow was a mixture of supra- and sub-permafrost groundwater sources, we observed higher SUVA254 values (2.0-3.6 L mgC-1 m-1), high hydrophobic acid content (43 ± 1%), and small proportion of protein

  19. Winter conditioning of the Cascadian margin upwelling system: Remote forcing and coastal river influences (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, B. R.; Goni, M. A.; Evans, W.; Harris, K. E.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Skyllingstad, E. D.; Wall, C.; Wetz, M.; White, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Cascadian margin stretches along the North American Pacific coast from Cape Mendocino to Vancouver Island, and across the land-ocean margin from the crest of the coastal mountains to the California Current. Carbonate system chemistry in these coastal waters is among the most dynamic in the world, with high net community productivity driving the system to a regionally important CO2 sink, while upwelled, respiration-influenced waters carry such elevated CO2 that they are often corrosive to biogenic carbonates. Most of the focus on this ecosystem has been on the influence of the seasonal upwelling and interaction with the upper thermocline of the ocean interior; recently, however, the downwelling-season has been recognized as critical in shaping the carbon cycling of the ecosystem. We present a combination of in-water survey and mooring data from river, estuary, and shelf waters; remote-sensing of coastal surface waters and watershed precipitation; and modeling results describing the physics of coastal circulation and storm-event precipitation and river discharge that shows how the winter conditions control carbon cycling. Coastally-trapped internal waves propagating northward from remote upwelling regions to the south lead to shoaling of the pycnocline such that upwelled source waters are present far inshore of the shelfbreak months before the onset of upwelling favorable winds. The close proximity of upwelled source waters to inner shelf upwelling locations leads to rapid transition in response to late winter and early spring upwelling favorable wind events. Winter storms and closely coupled flooding events deliver regionally significant amounts of nutrient-rich, low-CO2 fresh waters to the coastal ocean during downwelling conditions that retain these inputs on the shelf, and this fuels phytoplankton blooms that are a significant contribution to the annual net community production. These blooms and river influences maintain low coastal surface water pCO2 during

  20. Seedling establishment at the alpine tree line - Can there be too much winter protection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, S.; Wardle, D.; Nilsson, M. C.; Dorrepaal, E.

    2014-12-01

    Alpine and arctic tree line expansion relies on tree seedling survival above the tree line, where the environment is harsh and protection by snow during winter is essential. Above the tree line, bryophytes are dominant; they may act as thermal insulators but their insulating ability differs between species. Apart from these positive effects, both snow and bryophytes may have negative effects on seedlings via shortening of the growing season or competition, respectively. Snow depth and duration are expected to change due to climate change, leading in some places to more snow and in others to less. What is the role of bryophytes insulating properties for seedling establishment under changing winter conditions at the alpine tree line? We hypothesized that protecting effects of snow and bryophytes would be more important for seedling survival in harsh climate (high elevation) than in milder climate (low elevation) (interactions: bryophyte*elevation and snow*elevation) and that negative effects of less snow would be ameliorated by well-insulating bryophytes (interaction: bryophyte*snow). To test this, we transplanted cores of three bryophyte species of differing insulation capacity and bare soil (control) from the subarctic tree line (~600m asl.) to 700 and 350 m asl. We transplanted 10 seedlings of two common tree line tree species (Betula pubescens and Pinus sylvestris) into each core in late summer. Cores were subjected to one of three snow treatments: autumn and spring snow removal or addition, or no manipulation. After the winter we scored seedling survival. The snow treatments had different effects at the two elevations (elevation* snow: Pbryophytes did not (elevation*bryophyte: n.s). In the harsh climate, snow addition generally enhanced seedling survival. In contrast, at the milder climate site, snow addition only increased survival in the bare soil treatment but decreased survival of seedlings in the bryophyte cores (bryophyte*snow: P=0.053). Our data show that