WorldWideScience

Sample records for laser-induced ocular hypertension

  1. Ocular Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...

  2. Severe Corticosteroid-Induced Ocular Hypertension Requiring Bilateral Trabeculectomies in a Patient with Takayasu’s Arteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Maria Gruener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of severe corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension (OHT after prolonged systemic corticosteroid use in a young woman with Takayasu’s arteritis. As she did not sufficiently respond to ocular antihypertensive therapies, bilateral enhanced trabeculectomies were required to normalize her intraocular pressures. The systemic side effects of corticosteroids are well known, yet steroid-induced OHT and glaucoma remain silent causes of ocular morbidity. This case highlights the importance of IOP-monitoring in visually asymptomatic patients on systemic corticosteroids. It further emphasizes the need to raise awareness of the potential ocular side effects of steroids amongst physicians, in particular those looking after patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  3. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    Full Text Available In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15; and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15; and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3. In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs. Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  4. Inhibition of neutral sphingomyelinase decreases elevated levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase and apoptotic cell death in ocular hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Mutay, E-mail: mutayaslan@akdeniz.edu.tr [Department of Medical Biochemistry, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Basaranlar, Goksun [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Unal, Mustafa [Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Ciftcioglu, Akif [Department of Pathology, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Derin, Narin [Department of Biophysics, Akdeniz University Faculty of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Mutus, Bulent [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and excessive nitric oxide production via induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neuronal retinal cell death in ocular hypertension. Neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase)/ceramide pathway can regulate NOS2 expression, hence this study determined the role of selective neutral sphingomyelinase (N-SMase) inhibition on retinal NOS2 levels, ER stress, apoptosis and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of elevated intraocular pressure (EIOP). NOS2 expression and retinal protein nitration were significantly greater in EIOP and significantly decreased with N-SMase inhibition. A significant increase was observed in retinal ER stress markers pPERK, CHOP and GRP78 in EIOP, which were not significantly altered by N-SMase inhibition. Retinal TUNEL staining showed increased apoptosis in all EIOP groups; however N-SMase inhibition significantly decreased the percent of apoptotic cells in EIOP. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were significantly increased in EIOP and returned to baseline levels following N-SMase inhibition. Latencies of all VEP components were significantly prolonged in EIOP and shortened following N-SMase inhibition. Data confirm the role of nitrative injury in EIOP and highlight the protective effect of N-SMase inhibition in EIOP via down-regulation of NOS2 levels and nitrative stress. - Highlights: • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases NOS2 levels in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases protein nitration in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases caspase activation in ocular hypertension. • Inhibition of N-SMase decreases apoptosis in ocular hypertension.

  5. Laser in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension (LiGHT) trial. A multicentre, randomised controlled trial: design and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzard, Gus; Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Garway-Heath, David; Barton, Keith; Wormald, Richard; Morris, Stephen; Hunter, Rachael; Rubin, Gary; Buszewicz, Marta; Ambler, Gareth; Bunce, Catey

    2018-05-01

    The Laser in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension (LiGHT) Trial aims to establish whether initial treatment with selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is superior to initial treatment with topical medication for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). The LiGHT Trial is a prospective, unmasked, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. 718 previously untreated patients with POAG or OHT were recruited at six collaborating centres in the UK between 2012 and 2014. The trial comprises two treatment arms: initial SLT followed by conventional medical therapy as required, and medical therapy without laser therapy. Randomisation was provided online by a web-based randomisation service. Participants will be monitored for 3 years, according to routine clinical practice. The target intraocular pressure (IOP) was set at baseline according to an algorithm, based on disease severity and lifetime risk of loss of vision at recruitment, and subsequently adjusted on the basis of IOP control, optic disc and visual field. The primary outcome measure is health-related quality of life (HRQL) (EQ-5D five-level). Secondary outcomes are treatment pathway cost and cost-effectiveness, Glaucoma Utility Index, Glaucoma Symptom Scale, Glaucoma Quality of Life, objective measures of pathway effectiveness, visual function and safety profiles and concordance. A single main analysis will be performed at the end of the trial on an intention-to-treat basis. The LiGHT Trial is a multicentre, pragmatic, randomised clinical trial that will provide valuable data on the relative HRQL, clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SLT and topical IOP-lowering medication. ISRCTN32038223, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Seasonal and diurnal variations of ocular pressure in ocular hypertensive subjects in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, I A; Xiao, R X; Yang, B H; Zhang, J; Xiang, D W; Hui, J L

    1999-05-01

    Studies have been shown that intraocular pressure (IOP) shows a diurnal variation in ocular hypertensive subjects, but the amount of change differs from study to study. In recent years it has been noted that intraocular pressure is a dynamic function and is subjected to many influences both acutely and over the long term. The variability in the results may be due to negligence of factors that can affect IOP. Moreover, seasonal variations in the ocular hypertensive subjects have never been described. After placing control on those factors that can affect IOP, this study investigated seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects. IOP was measured each month over the course of 12 months with the Goldmann applanation tonometer in 91 ocular hypertensive male subjects. To see the diurnal changes, subjects were asked to stay in the hospital for 24 hours. The average IOP in the winter months was higher than those in spring, summer, and autumn. The IOP difference between winter and summer was (mean +/- sem) 2.9 +/- 0.9 mmHg (p < 0.001). The peak of mean IOP in diurnal variation curve (25.7 +/- 1.2 mmHg) appeared in the morning when the subjects had just awaken. The mean diurnal variation was found to be 4.2 +/- 0.6 mmHg (p < 0.001). This study confirms that seasons influence IOP and it shows diurnal variations. As compared to other nations, diurnal variations in ocular hypertensive subjects seem to be somewhat less in Pakistan. Knowledge of the seasonal and diurnal variations in IOP may help glaucoma screeners.

  7. Ocular Injury in Cosmetic Laser Treatments of the Face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Amy; Phillips, Arianna; Adar, Tony; Hui, Andrea

    2018-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The eye is a vulnerable and commonly injured organ in cosmetic laser procedures of the face. Treatment of the eyelids and periorbital areas increases this risk, especially when ocular protection devices are not used or are removed during the procedure. A study has shown that injury from laser epilation of the periocular areas is one of the most common causes of litigation in cutaneous laser surgery. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review is to determine the causes of ocular injury in cosmetic laser procedures and derive lessons on critical safety elements to prevent future injury. METHODS: We conducted a review of the current literature through a PubMed search on case reports of ocular injury in cosmetic laser treatments of the face. Twenty-one cases are examined. RESULTS: In more than 62 percent of cases, ocular protection was not used or protection was used but removed during the procedure to treat areas close to the eye. However, despite the proper use of intraocular corneal shields and wavelength-specific goggles, accidents occurred in 33 percent of cases. CONCLUSION: Ocular protection devices are essential to prevent most cases of laser-induced eye injury. Use of high fluence and long wavelength lasers increases the risk of ocular injury due to deeper penetration of the organ by radiation. Inadequate cooling between pulses also predisposes to injury by cosmetic lasers.

  8. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanadani, Fabio N; Figueiredo, Carlos R; Miranda, Rafaela Morais; Cunha, Patricia Lt; M Kanadani, Tereza Cristina; Dorairaj, Syril

    2015-01-01

    Glaucomatous neuropathy can be a consequence of insufficient blood supply, increase in intraocular pressure (IOP), or other risk factors that diminish the ocular blood flow. To determine the ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in normal and systemic hypertensive patients. One hundred and twenty-one patients were enrolled in this prospective and comparative study and underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination including slit lamp examination, Goldmann applanation tonometry, stereoscopic fundus examination, and pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) measurements. The OPP was calculated as being the medium systemic arterial pressure (MAP) less the IOP. Only right eye values were considered for calculations using Student's t-test. The mean age of the patients was 57.5 years (36-78), and 68.5% were women. There was a statistically significant difference in the OPP of the normal and systemic hypertensive patients (p cite this article: Kanadani FN, Figueiredo CR, Miranda RM, Cunha PLT, Kanadani TCM, Dorairaj S. Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Pulsatile Ocular Blood Flow in Normal and Systemic Hypertensive Patients. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2015;9(1):16-19.

  9. The Laser in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension (LiGHT) trial. A multicentre randomised controlled trial: baseline patient characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantakopoulou, Evgenia; Gazzard, Gus; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Jiang, Yuzhen; Nathwani, Neil; Hunter, Rachael; Ambler, Gareth; Bunce, Catey

    2018-05-01

    The laser in glaucoma and ocular hypertension (LiGHT) trial aims to establish whether initial treatment with selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) is superior to initial treatment with topical medication for primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). LiGHT is a prospective unmasked, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial (RCT). 718 previously untreated patients with POAG or OHT were recruited at 6 UK centres between 2012 and 2014. Patients were randomised to initial SLT followed by medical therapy or medical therapy without laser. Participants will be monitored for 3 years, according to routine clinical practice. The primary outcome is EQ-5D-5L. Secondary outcomes are treatment pathway cost and cost-effectiveness, Glaucoma Utility Index (GUI), Glaucoma Symptom Scale, Glaucoma Quality of Life (GQL), pathway effectiveness, visual function, safety and concordance. A total of 555 patients had POAG and 163 OHT; 518 patients had both eyes eligible. The mean age for patients with POAG was 64 years and for OHT 58 years. 70% of all participants were white. Median IOP for OHT eyes was 26 mm Hg and 23 mm Hg for POAG eyes. Median baseline visual field mean deviation was -0.81 dB for OHT eyes and -2.82 dB for POAG eyes. There was no difference between patients with POAG and patients with OHT on the EQ-5D-5DL; the difference between OHT and POAG on the GUI was -0.02 and 1.23 on the GQL. The LiGHT trial is the first RCT to compare the two treatment options in a real-world setting. The baseline characteristics of the LiGHT cohort compare well with other landmark glaucoma studies. ISRCTN32038223, Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. The prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in a population of geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, J M; Irving, A C; Bridges, J P; Jones, B R

    2014-01-01

    To provide an estimate of the prevalence of ocular lesions associated with hypertension in geriatric cats in Auckland, New Zealand and to evaluate the importance of examination of the ocular fundi of cats over eight years of age. A total of 105 cats ≥8 years of age were examined and clinical signs recorded. Blood was collected for the laboratory measurement of the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose and creatinine in serum, urine was collected for determination of urine specific gravity (USG), and blood pressure (BP) was measured using high definition oscillometry equipment. A cat was determined to have systemic hypertension with a systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg and a diastolic BP ≥100 mm Hg. Each animal had an ocular fundic examination using a retinal camera to diagnose ocular lesions associated with hypertension, including retinopathies, choroidopathies and optic neuropathies. Blood pressure was successfully recorded in 73 cats. Of these, 37 (51%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions and no underlying disease diagnosed, 24 (33%) had no hypertensive ocular lesions detected, but underlying disease such as chronic kidney disease, hyperthyroidism or diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, and 12 (16%) cats had evidence of hypertensive ocular lesions. Ten of the cats with hypertensive ocular lesions were hypertensive at the time of the first visit and two were normotensive. One additional cat had hypertensive ocular lesions, but it was not possible to obtain consistent BP readings in this animal. Chronic kidney disease was the most commonly diagnosed concurrent disease in cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (n=6). Mean systolic BP for cats with hypertensive ocular lesions (168.0 (SE 6.29) mm Hg) was higher than for those with no ocular lesions (144.7 (SE 3.11) mm Hg) or those with no lesions but with underlying disease (146.0 (SE 4.97) mm Hg) (p=0.001). Ocular fundic examination of cats over eight years of age allows identification of cats with

  11. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-07-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  12. Comparison of intraocular pressure-lowering effects of ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate for inflammatory and corticosteroid-induced ocular hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Yasuda

    Full Text Available Ocular hypertension (OHT caused by inflammation or corticosteroid treatment is a common complication of uveitis. Ripasudil hydrochloride hydrate (K-115 is reportedly efficacious for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP. We retrospectively compared the IOP-lowering effect of K-115 for inflammatory and corticosteroid-induced OHT associated with uveitis. Thirty-six consecutive eyes of 27 patients with uveitis-associated OHT (20 and 16 eyes with inflammation- and corticosteroid-induced OHT, respectively were treated with K-115 with or without other anti-glaucoma agents. In the inflammation-induced OHT, mean IOP and aqueous flare significantly decreased (P < 0.001 and P = 0.035, respectively, changing from 26.4 ± 7.5 mmHg and 28.1 ± 15.0 photon counts per millisecond (pc/ms at the initial assessment to 17.9 ± 5.4 mmHg and 17.1 ± 10.7 pc/ms at the last visit, respectively. In the corticosteroid-induced OHT, mean IOP significantly decreased (P = 0.0005, changing from 26.7 ± 7.8 mmHg and 18.7 ± 11.2 pc/ms to 18.6 ± 8.8 mmHg and 22.6 ± 15.3 pc/ms, respectively; conversely, aqueous flare remained unchanged. In the inflammation-induced OHT, K-115 was more efficacious in the eyes with higher IOP. Neither remarkable adverse effects nor exacerbation of uveitis were observed in the eyes of either group during the observation period. K-115 decreased IOP in both inflammation- and corticosteroid-induced OHT associated with uveitis and played a synergistic role in reducing ocular inflammation in uveitis treatment.

  13. c-Jun N-terminal kinase 3 expression in the retina of ocular hypertension mice: a possible target to reduce ganglion cell apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue He

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma, a type of optic neuropathy, is characterized by the loss of retinal ganglion cells. It remains controversial whether c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK participates in the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells in glaucoma. This study sought to explore a possible mechanism of action of JNK signaling pathway in glaucoma-induced retinal optic nerve damage. We established a mouse model of chronic ocular hypertension by reducing the aqueous humor followed by photocoagulation using the laser ignition method. Results showed significant pathological changes in the ocular tissues after the injury. Apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells increased with increased intraocular pressure, as did JNK3 mRNA expression in the retina. These data indicated that the increased expression of JNK3 mRNA was strongly associated with the increase in intraocular pressure in the retina, and correlated positively with the apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells.

  14. Decompression Retinopathy after ExPRESS Shunt Implantation for Steroid-Induced Ocular Hypertension: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khawla Abu Samra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present a unique case of decompression retinopathy after the implantation of ExPRESS drainage device. Method. A 25-year-old female patient underwent implantation of ExPRESS drainage device in the left eye for the management of steroid-induced ocular hypertension. Results. On the postoperative day one, best-corrected visual acuity in the left eye was 20/50. Fundus examination revealed diffuse intraretinal hemorrhages, some white-centered, throughout the retina. There was also marked tortuosity to the retinal vasculature and no evidence of choroidal effusion. Intravenous fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green did not contribute to the aetiopathogenesis. Conclusion. Decompression retinopathy can occur following the implantation of ExPRESS drainage device. It is very important to be aware of this complication in patients with relatively high intraocular pressure who is planned for filtration surgery, including the ExPRESS implant.

  15. Effects of malicious ocular laser exposure in commercial airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakkamanil, Mathew M; Fielden, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Intentional malicious laser strikes on commercial pilots are committed by individuals who target a laser into airplane cockpits during takeoff and landing. Because laser exposure to pilots is a relatively new but growing occurrence, our study investigates the ocular effect of this laser exposure in pilots. Retrospective chart review by a single ophthalmologist. All commercial airline pilots (58 male, 3 female) who experienced a laser strike while flying between April 2012 and November 2014 who presented to our clinic were included. A retrospective chart review was performed in a retinal specialist's practice. Ocular assessment was performed within 3 days of laser exposure. A complete ophthalmic evaluation was conducted, including Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, dilated fundus examination, colour fundus photographs, and ocular coherence tomography. Sixty-four laser strike incidents involving commercial pilots were included. All pilots in the study experienced some degree of immediate ocular irritation or light sensitivity. No definite cases of ocular damage were attributed to laser strikes. No pilot had any functional ocular deficits. Our study revealed that laser strikes on aircraft did not result in permanent visual functional or structural deficits. However, laser strikes cause immediate visual effects, including glare, flash blindness, and ocular irritation that can interfere with a pilot's visual function. Given the widespread accessibility of high-power lasers and the rapid increase in incidents, laser strikes threaten to jeopardize aviation safety unless effective preventative measures are put in place. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy secondary to severe ocular hypertension masked by interface fluid in a post-LASIK eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Mai T; Peck, Rachel E; Dobbins, Kendall R B

    2013-06-01

    We report a case of ischemic optic neuropathy arising from elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) masked by interface fluid in a post-laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) eye. A 51-year-old man, who had had LASIK 6 years prior to presentation, sustained blunt trauma to the left eye that resulted in a hyphema and ocular hypertension. Elevated IOP resulted in accumulation of fluid in the stromal bed-LASIK flap interface, leading to underestimation of IOP when measured centrally over the flap. After days of unrecognized ocular hypertension, ischemic optic neuropathy developed. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of ischemic optic neuropathy resulting from underestimated IOP measurements in a post-LASIK patient. It highlights the inaccuracy of IOP measurements in post-LASIK eyes and a vision-threatening potential complication. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term effect of latanoprost and timolol eye drops on tear fluid and the ocular surface in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, John; Aaen, Kim; Theodorsen, F.

    2000-01-01

    ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology......ophthalmology, open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, glaucoma therapy, latanoprost, timolol, Rose-Bengal test, break-up time, Schirmer-1-test, conjunctival impression cytology...

  18. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordon, Rosely

    2003-01-01

    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  19. Effects of corn silk aqueous extract on intraocular pressure of ocular hypertensive human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.O. George

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma/style of Zea mays L (Corn silk has been documented to have hypotensive effect on blood pressure and to relieve oedema. However we are not aware of any literature on its hypotensive effect on intraocular pressure (IOP of humans or animals. We studied the effects of water only, masked doses of corn silk aqueous extract (60 mg/kg, 130 mg/kg, 192.5 mg/kg and 260 mg/kg body weight on the IOP and blood pressure (BP of twenty normotensives and twenty ocular hypertensive subjects. Also we compared the effects of the varied doses of corn silk aqueous extract (CSAE with masked doses (5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg body weight of acetazolamide on IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects only. The results showed that the last three doses of CSAE lowered IOP and BP significantly (p<0.001 within eight hours of administration. The peak effect on IOP was observed after four hours while the peak effect on BP was observed after three hours of administration in the normotensives and ocular hypertensive subjects likewise the hypotensive effect was dose-dependent. The results also showed that 130 mg/kg body weight of CSAE produced the same hypotensive effect on IOP of ocular hypertensive subjects as 5 mg/kg body weight of acetazolamide. Therefore CSAE may have some IOP lowering effects that require further investigation in the management of ocular hypertension. (S Afr Optom 2013 72(3 133-143

  20. Ocular hazards of Q-switched near-infrared lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, David J.; Edsall, Peter R.; Stuck, Bruce E.

    2003-06-01

    The threshold for laser-induced retinal damage in the rhesus eye was determined for wavelengths between 900 nm and 1300 nm. The laser source was a tunable Optical Parametric Oscillator (OPO) pumped by the 3rd harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. The laser pulse duration was 3.5 ns. The wavelength dependence of the injury threshold is consistent with the prediction of a model based on the transmission of the preretinal ocular media, absorption in the retinal pigment epithelium, and variation of irradiance diameter resulting from chromatic aberration of the eye optics for wavelengths shorter than 1150 nm but was less consistent for longer wavelengths. The threshold for 24-hour observation was slightly lower than the threshold for 1-hour observation. These data form a basis for reexamination of the currently defined MPEs for wavelengths longer than 1100 nm.

  1. Krypton red laser photocoagulation of the ocular fundus. 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Shakin, Jeffrey L

    2012-02-01

    The theoretical rationale, the histopathologic evidence, and the preliminary clinical studies related to krypton red laser (KRL) photocoagulation of the ocular fundus are reviewed. The authors report on their experience with currently available laser systems using this wavelength (647.1 nm) for photocoagulation of retinal vascular proliferative diseases and chorioretinal diseases associated with exudative manifestations. A histopathologic and clinical comparison of argon blue-green laser (ABGL), the pure argon green laser (AGL), and the krypton yellow laser (KYL), with reference to photocoagulation treatment of the ocular fundus is also discussed.

  2. Temperature mapping of laser-induced hyperthermia in an ocular phantom using magnetic resonance thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maswadi, Saher M; Dodd, Stephen J; Gao, Jia-Hong; Glickman, Randolph D

    2004-01-01

    Laser-induced heating in an ocular phantom is measured with magnetic resonance thermography (MRT) using temperature-dependent phase changes in proton resonance frequency. The ocular phantom contains a layer of melanosomes isolated from bovine retinal pigment epithelium. The phantom is heated by the 806-nm output of a continuous wave diode laser with an irradiance of 2.4 to 21.6 W/cm2 in a beam radius of 0.8 or 2.4 mm, depending on the experiment. MRT is performed with a 2 T magnet, and a two-turn, 6-cm-diam, circular radio frequency coil. Two-dimensional temperature gradients are measured within the plane of the melanin layer, as well as normal to it, with a temperature resolution of 1 degrees C or better. The temperature gradients extending within the melanin layer are broader than those orthogonal to the layer, consistent with the higher optical absorption and consequent heating in the melanin. The temperature gradients in the phantom measured by MRT closely approximate the predictions of a classical heat diffusion model. Three-dimensional temperature maps with a spatial resolution of 0.25 mm in all directions are also made. Although the temporal resolution is limited in the prototype system (22.9 s for a single image "slice"), improvements in future implementations are likely. These results indicate that MRT has sufficient spatial and temperature resolution to monitor target tissue temperature during transpupillary thermotherapy in the human eye.

  3. Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Alex P; Marshall-Bowman, Karina

    2015-06-01

    Although once a widely speculated about and largely theoretical topic, spaceflight-induced intracranial hypertension has gained acceptance as a distinct clinical phenomenon, yet the underlying physiological mechanisms are still poorly understood. In the past, many terms were used to describe the symptoms of malaise, nausea, vomiting, and vertigo, though longer duration spaceflights have increased the prevalence of overlapping symptoms of headache and visual disturbance. Spaceflight-induced visual pathology is thought to be a manifestation of increased intracranial pressure (ICP) because of its similar presentation to cases of known intracranial hypertension on Earth as well as the documentation of increased ICP by lumbar puncture in symptomatic astronauts upon return to gravity. The most likely mechanisms of spaceflight-induced increased ICP include a cephalad shift of body fluids, venous outflow obstruction, blood-brain barrier breakdown, and disruption to CSF flow. The relative contribution of increased ICP to the symptoms experienced during spaceflight is currently unknown, though other factors recently posited to contribute include local effects on ocular structures, individual differences in metabolism, and the vasodilator effects of carbon dioxide. This review article attempts to consolidate the literature regarding spaceflight-induced intracranial hypertension and distinguish it from other pathologies with similar symptomatology. It discusses the proposed physiological causes and the pathological manifestations of increased ICP in the spaceflight environment and provides considerations for future long-term space travel. In the future, it will be critical to develop countermeasures so that astronauts can participate at their peak potential and return safely to Earth.

  4. Degenerative effects in rat eyes after experimental ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scarsella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was used to evaluate the degenerative effects on the retina and eye-cup sections after experimental induction of acute ocular hypertension on animal models. In particular, vascular events were directly focused in this research in order to assess the vascular remodeling after transient ocular hypertension on rat models. After local anaesthesia by administration of eye drops of 0.4% oxibuprocaine, 16 male adult Wistar rats were injected in the anterior chamber of the right eye with 15 µL of methylcellulose (MTC 2% in physiological solution. The morphology and the vessels of the retina and eye-cup sections were examined in animals sacrificed 72 h after induction of ocular hypertension. In retinal fluorescein angiographies (FAGs, by means of fluorescein isothiocyanate-coniugated dextran (FITC, the radial venules showed enlargements and increased branching, while the arterioles appeared focally thickened. The length and size of actually perfused vessels appeared increased in the whole superficial plexus. In eye-cup sections of MTC-injected animals, in deep plexus and connecting layer there was a bigger increase of vessels than in controls. Moreover, the immunolocalization of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP revealed its increased expression in internal limiting membrane and ganglion cell layer, as well as its presence in Müller cells. Finally, the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was found to be especially expressed by neurones of ganglion cell layer, both in control and in MTC-injected eyes. The data obtained in this experimental model on the interactions among glia, vessels and neurons should be useful to evaluate if also in glaucomatous patients the activation of vessel-adjacent glial cells might play key roles in following neuronal dysfunction.

  5. Degenerative effects in rat eyes after experimental ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarsella, G; Nebbioso, M; Stefanini, S; Pescosolido, N

    2012-10-08

    This study was used to evaluate the degenerative effects on the retina and eye-cup sections after experimental induction of acute ocular hypertension on animal models. In particular, vascular events were directly focused in this research in order to assess the vascular remodeling after transient ocular hypertension on rat models. After local anaesthesia by administration of eye drops of 0.4% oxibuprocaine, 16 male adult Wistar rats were injected in the anterior chamber of the right eye with 15 µL of methylcellulose (MTC) 2% in physiological solution. The morphology and the vessels of the retina and eye-cup sections were examined in animals sacrificed 72 h after induction of ocular hypertension. In retinal fluorescein angiographies (FAGs), by means of fluorescein isothiocyanate-coniugated dextran (FITC), the radial venules showed enlargements and increased branching, while the arterioles appeared focally thickened. The length and size of actually perfused vessels appeared increased in the whole superficial plexus. In eye-cup sections of MTC-injected animals, in deep plexus and connecting layer there was a bigger increase of vessels than in controls. Moreover, the immunolocalization of astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) revealed its increased expression in internal limiting membrane and ganglion cell layer, as well as its presence in Müller cells. Finally, the pro-angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was found to be especially expressed by neurones of ganglion cell layer, both in control and in MTC-injected eyes. The data obtained in this experimental model on the interactions among glia, vessels and neurons should be useful to evaluate if also in glaucomatous patients the activation of vessel-adjacent glial cells might play key roles in following neuronal dysfunction.

  6. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and visual function in glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugleta, Konstantin

    2010-06-01

    Dorzolamide and brinzolamide are topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) indicated for patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. An evidence-based review of clinical trials of dorzolamide and brinzolamide was undertaken to determine an effect of these medications on visual function (primarily visual field) in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Using the keywords 'dorzolamide' and 'brinzolamide', all articles describing trials of these medications reporting on visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and visual field from September 1966 to July 2009 were found in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. No information from other sources was included in this review. A relatively modest number of trials was identified, where impact of therapy on one or more of the visual function modes was reported. In the studies of less than 1 year duration (3 days to 1 year, 23 studies) in all but three studies treatment with topical CAIs did not influence visual function, in two studies with dorzolamide some improvement in the contrast sensitivity was observed and in one open-label retrospective no-control-group study with dorzolamide visual field indices improved significantly. A different picture was seen in long-term studies, which were designed and powered to detect changes in visual field. One large study (European Glaucoma Prevention Study) with dorzolamide versus placebo failed to detect significant protective effect of the drug on glaucoma occurrence in ocular hypertensives. Several interesting aspects of this study are discussed in detail. The other two long-term studies reported on the superiority of adding dorzolamide over timolol therapy alone, and the superiority of the combination of dorzolamide and timolol over brinzolamide and timolol in terms of improving ocular blood flow (retrobulbar Color Doppler Imaging--CDI parameters) as well as in terms of visual field preservation in glaucoma patients over 4 to 5 years. For the first time one study could demonstrate

  7. Circumferential Ciliary Body Cysts Presenting as Acute Pigment Dispersion and Ocular Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıgül Sezenöz, Almila; Güngör, Sirel Gür; Kıratlı, Hayyam; Akman, Ahmet

    2017-09-15

    To report a case of circumferential neuroepithelial cyst of the ciliary body presenting with pigment dispersion (PD) and ocular hypertension. 48-year-old female patient presented with a complaint of pain in the left eye. On examination, visual acuity of the left eye was 0.9, and the intraocular pressure was 48 mmHg. Biomicroscopic anterior segment examination of the left eye revealed 4+ pigmented cells in the anterior chamber. Active PD from the pupillary region at 11 o'clock was noticed at the time of the examination. Ultrasound biomicroscopy demonstrated 360º cystic lesions of the ciliary body in the left eye. The patient was diagnosed as neuroepithelial cyst of the ciliary body. Our case is unique as it is the first case of circumferential neuroepithelial ciliary body cyst presenting with acute PD and ocular hypertension.

  8. Nitric oxide levels in the aqueous humor vary in different ocular hypertension experimental models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Wen Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships among intraocular pressure (IOP, nitric oxide (NO levels, and aqueous flow rates in experimental ocular hypertension models. A total of 75 rabbits were used. One of four different materials [i.e., α-chymotrypsin, latex microspheres (Polybead, red blood cell ghosts, or sodium hyaluronate (Healon GV] was injected into the eyes of the 15 animals in each experimental group; the remaining 15 rabbits were reserved for a control group. The IOP changes in the five groups were recorded on postinduction Days 1–3, Day 7, Day 14, Day 30, Day 60, Day 90, and Day 120. On postinduction Day 7, the dynamics and NO levels in the aqueous humor were recorded. Significant IOP elevations were induced by α-chymotrypsin (p < 0.01 and Polybead (p < 0.01 on each postinduction day. In the red blood cell ghosts model, significant elevations (p < 0.01 were found on postinduction Days 1–3; Healon GV significantly elevated IOP (p < 0.01 on postinduction Day 1 and Day 2. On postinduction Day 7, the aqueous humor NO levels increased significantly in the models of α-chymotrypsin, Polybead, and red blood cell ghosts (all p < 0.01, while the aqueous flow rates were significantly reduced in the models of α-chymotrypsin and Polybead (p < 0.005. Persistent ocular hypertension models were induced with α-chymotrypsin and Polybead in the rabbits. The Polybead model exhibited the characteristic of an increased aqueous humor NO level, similar to human eyes with acute angle-closure glaucoma and neovascular glaucoma.

  9. [Use of data display screens and ocular hypertension in local public sector workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abellán Torró, Rosana; Merelles Tormo, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to examine the association between work with data display screens (DDS) and ocular hypertension (OHT). A cross-sectional study among local public sector workers (Diputación Provincial de Valencia). Data from 620 people were collected over 25 months, from periodic medical examinations performed at an occupational health unit. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was obtained with a portable puff tonometer validated for screening, establishing the cut-off point for OHT at 22 mmHg. Both biological characteristics and other work-related variables were taken into account as covariates. Descriptive statistics of the data were obtained, together with nonparametric tests with a level of significance of 95% and logistic regression with p 〈0.1 as the level of significance of the likelihood test. The average age of the study population is 52.8 years. The prevalence of OHT was 3.5% (5.1% among men and 1.2% among women; p=0.012). No significant associations were found between hours of DDS-related work and OHT were found (p=0.395). Logistic regression corroborated the association between gender and OHT, with women less affected (OR = 0.234; 95%CI: 0.068 - 0.799; p=0.020). In our study, no associations were found between time of exposure to data display screens and ocular hypertension. Logistic regression points to a certain association between ocular hypertension and gender, with men being more predisposed. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  10. Effect of patient's life expectancy on the cost-effectiveness of treatment for ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kymes, Steven M; Plotzke, Michael R; Kass, Michael A; Boland, Michael V; Gordon, Mae O

    2010-05-01

    To assess the influence of expected life span on the cost-effectiveness of treating ocular hypertension to prevent primary open-angle glaucoma. We used a Markov simulation model to estimate the cost and benefit of ocular hypertension treatment over a person's remaining life. We examined the influence of age on the cost-effectiveness decision in 2 ways: (1) by evaluating specific age cohorts to assess the influence of age at the initiation of treatment; and (2) by evaluating the influence of a specific life span. At a willingness to pay $50,000/quality-adjusted life year to $100,000/quality-adjusted life year, treatment of people with a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma was cost-effective for people aged 45 years with a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years. However, to be cost-effective, a person aged 55 years must have a life expectancy of 21 remaining years and someone aged 65 years must have a life expectancy of 23 remaining years. A person with ocular hypertension must have a life expectancy of at least 18 remaining years to justify treatment at a threshold of a 2% or greater annual risk of developing glaucoma. Persons at higher levels of risk require a life expectancy of 7 to 10 additional years to justify treatment.

  11. Contribution and significance of Heidelberg retinal tomography II in diagnostics of ocular hypertension and its conversion into primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vujica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. A term 'ocular hypertension' is used when IOP is found to be > 21 mmHg on two consecutive occasions, in the absence of detectable glaucomatous damage. The aim of this study was to determine the significance and contribution of Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II (HRT II results that show very early, subtle changes in retinal neurofibre layers (RNFL in the optic nerve head that are specific for glaucoma itself (the loss of neuroretinal rim area and an increase of Cup/Disc ratio, but are not possible to register by an ophthalmoscope. Also, when the results of the functional tests remain unchanged, that confirms the conversion of ocular hypertension into glaucoma. Methods. During a 5-year study period (2002-2007, 29 patients with ocular hypertension were examined. The frequency of control examinations, based on the presence of risk factors for glaucoma development, was 3-6 months. The examination also included IOP measurements with Goldmann Applanation Tonometry (GAT, central corneal thickness (CCT determination by pachymetry, the examination of chamber angle using indirect gonioscopy, visual field tests by computerized perimetry and also papillae nervi optici (PNO examination by using HRT II. The application of HRT II enables a great number of stereometric parameters of optic disc, the most important being the rim area and Cup/Disc (C/D ratio, which was followed during the control examination by each segment, as well as PNO in global. Results. In the examination period, three cases of conversion of ocular hypertension into a primary open-angle glaucoma were found. In the group of patients with ocular hypertension, HRT II results after six months did not show a significant increase in C/D ratio. No significant loss of rim area or rim volume was found either. In three cases of conversion, HRT II results after 3 months showed an increase of C/D ratio and also a significant loss in rim volume at first examination (0.413 comparing to the

  12. The effects of repeated Ozurdex injections on ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadorani S

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sepehr Bahadorani,1 Chelsey Krambeer,2 Kendall Wannamaker,1 Wayne Tie,1 Michael Jansen,1 Jason Espitia,2 Jeong-Hyeon Sohn,1 Michael A Singer2 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Medical Center Ophthalmology Associates, San Antonio, TX, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to correlate the degree of ocular hypertension with the number of Ozurdex injections.Methods: Intraocular pressure (IOP fluctuations for a total of 183 injections were studied over a period of at least 12 months. The main indications for treatment were uveitis, diabetic macular edema, and retinal vein occlusion.Results: Results of the study demonstrate that repeated Ozurdex injections do not increase the frequency of IOP spikes beyond 30 mmHg. For lower IOPs, however, a positive correlation exists. Furthermore, patients with primary open angle glaucoma and uveitis had the highest IOP response to repeated injections. On average, patients with an IOP of ≥28.6 mmHg received pressure lowering medications, after which their IOP reached a stable level (16.7 mmHg without the need for additional interventions.Conclusion: The data support the conclusion that multiple Ozurdex injections does not increase the frequency of IOP spikes beyond 30 mmHg, but patients still must be closely monitored if they have a history of primary open angle glaucoma. Keywords: Ozurdex, dexamethasone, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, ocular hypertension

  13. Influência da redução medicamentosa da pressão intra-ocular na medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina de olhos hipertensos e glaucomatosos pela polarimetria de varredura a laser The influence of intraocular pressure reduction with medication on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements obtained with scanning laser polarimetry in glaucomatous and hypertensive eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende Gomes Avelino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da redução da pressão intra-ocular (PIO obtido com o uso de terapia medicamentosa na espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina medida pela polarimetria de varredura a laser (PVL em pacientes glaucomatosos ou hipertensos oculares. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete olhos de 37 pacientes foram prospectivamente incluídos no estudo e avaliados com a PVL sem uso de medicação ocular hipotensora e num período entre 15 e 30 dias após a instituição de medicação ocular hipotensora, que resultou em redução da PIO de pelo menos 25%. Os parâmetros medidos pela PVL antes e após a redução da PIO foram comparados com o teste t de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: A PIO média dos 37 pacientes diminuiu significativamente de 26,57±4,23 mmHg para 16,54±2,92 mmHg (p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A redução da PIO com o uso de medicação ocular hipotensora não altera a medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina pela PVL em pacientes com glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP after the use of medication to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucomatous or ocular hypertensive patients. METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled 37 eyes of 37 patients in whom IOP was reduced by more than 25% after the use of medication. The images were obtained before and 15 to 30 days after the introduction of medication. The SLP parameters measured before and after the use of medication were compared using paired Student's t Test. RESULTS: The mean IOP was significantly reduced from 26.57±4.23 mmHg to 16.54 ±2.92 mmHg after the use of medication (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as measured by SLP, is not affected by the reduction of IOP with medication in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  14. Ocular parasitosis: A rare cause of hypertensive uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A middle-aged Asian gentleman presented with four weeks′ history of recurrent redness, pain and deterioration of vision in his right eye. He was diagnosed with chronic, unilateral, granulomatous hypertensive uveitis. During one of the serial examinations a single, off-white, extremely motile, thread-like worm about 15 mm long was noted in the anterior chamber. Surgical retrieval of the worm was unsuccessful. The worm disappeared in the eye and was never seen again. Patient suffered from chronic waxing and waning granulomatous inflammation with uncontrolled high intraocular pressure despite treatment. The vision dropped down to no perception of light. Therapeutic success in such patients depends upon early and complete surgical removal of the worm, which could be a real challenge as worms are highly motile and only visible sporadically, as in this case. Ocular parasitosis should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in treating non-responsive chronic hypertensive granulomatous inflammation, especially if the patient is of Southeast Asian origin or has recently visited the region.

  15. Ultrasound biomicroscopic evaluation of anterior segment cysts as a risk factor for ocular hypertension and closure angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim Dusak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the relationship between the ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM features of anterior-segment cysts (ASCs and increased intraocular pressure (IOP as a risk factor for closed-angle glaucoma (CAG.METHODS:Totally 24 eyes with recently diagnosed ASCs were divided into two groups . First group with ASC and ocular normotension (n=13, second group with ASC and ocular hypertension (n=11. An ophthalmologic examination, including tonometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy (SLBM, gonioscopy, fundoscopy, pentacam, and UBM, was performed. The features of the ASCs were compared with the IOP.RESULTS:ASCs were accurately diagnosed and delineated in 24 eyes using UBM. IOP was elevated in those ASCs with a secondary aetiology (P=0.027, iridociliary location (P=0.006, deformed shape (P=0.013, increased size (P=0.001 and elongated pupillary aperture (P=0.009. However, the count (P=0.343 of ASCs, anterior chamber depth (ACD; P=0.22 and axial lenght (AL; P=0.31 were not associated with ocular hypertension. Correlations were found between the IOP and ASC size (r=-0.712; P=0.003, anterior chamber angle (ACA; r=-0.985; Pr=0.885; Pr=-0.776, Pr =-0.655, P=0.002.CONCLUSION:Ocular hypertension in some eyes with ASC might be associated with various mechanisms, including secondary aetiology, iridociliary location, deformed shape, increased size and elongated pupill, which can be determined by UBM.

  16. α2-Adrenergic modulation of the glutamate receptor and transporter function in a chronic ocular hypertension model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung In; Kim, Jie Hyun; Park, Chan Kee

    2015-10-15

    Excitotoxicity, glutamate-induced toxic effects to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), is one of several mechanisms of RGC loss suggested in glaucoma. In this study, we focused on the role of glutamate transporter of glial cells as well as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor with regard to glutamate toxicity in glaucoma. We also investigated whether α2-adrenoceptor activation could modulate glutamate transporters and NMDA receptors in a chronic ocular hypertension model. Brimonidine 0.15% was administered topically to the eyes of experimental glaucoma and control animals twice daily. After 8 weeks of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation, staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) revealed an increase in the ganglion cell layer, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells was reduced by brimonidine treatment (P<0.05). Animals with experimentally induced glaucoma exhibited an increase in retinal stress marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity; brimonidine treatment reduced GFAP. Excitatory amino acid transporter 1(EAAT1) expression remained stable throughout the period of chronic ocular hypertension. α2-Adrenergic treatment upregulated EAAT1 protein levels (P<0.05). NMDA receptor (GluN1) expression was stimulated by chronic elevation of IOP, and GluN1-positive cells in ganglion cell layer were co-localized with TUNEL staining. Brimonidine administration suppressed GluN1 levels (P<0.05). These results indicate that brimonidine decreased RGC apoptosis, upregulating EAAT1 and downregulating NMDA receptors. We suggest that topical brimonidine treatment may decrease the glutamate excitotoxicity through modulation of glutamate transporter and NMDA receptor in glaucoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ocular surface disease in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with either BAK-preserved latanoprost or BAK-free travoprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Katz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gregory Katz1, Clark L Springs2, E Randy Craven3, Michela Montecchi-Palmer41Huron Ophthalmology, Ypsilanti, MI, USA; 2Indiana University Eye Care, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Specialty Eye Care, Denver, CO, USA; 4Alcon Research Ltd., Fort Worth, TX, USAPurpose: The preservative benzalkonium chloride (BAK may adversely affect ocular surface health. This study evaluated symptoms of ocular surface disease (OSD in patients previously treated with a BAK-preserved therapy to lower their intraocular pressure, who either continued that therapy or switched to a BAK-free therapy.Methods: Eligible adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma that had been controlled with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy (Xalatan® for at least one month and had a score of ≥ 13 (0 = none, 100 = most severe on the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire were entered into this prospective, double-masked, randomized, active-controlled, multicenter trial. By random assignment, patients either continued with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% or transitioned to BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (Travatan Z® ophthalmic solution. OSDI scores were assessed again after six and 12 weeks.Results: For the 678 evaluable patients, mean change in OSDI score from baseline to week 12 favored the travoprost 0.004% BAK-free group, but was not statistically different between groups (P = 0.10. When patients with mild OSD at baseline were assessed after 12 weeks, the mean OSDI score was significantly lower (P = 0.04 in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (score = 11.6 ± 10.8 units than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (score = 14.4 ± 11.9 units, and a significantly larger percentage (P < 0.01 improved to normal OSDI scores in the BAK-free travoprost 0.004% group (62.9% of group than in the BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% group (47.0% of group. Patients pretreated with BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% for >24 months were significantly more likely (P

  18. Comparison of Newly Diagnosed Ocular Hypertension and Open-Angle Glaucoma: Ocular Variables, Risk Factors, and Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne M. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the distribution of ocular variables, risk factors, and disease severity in newly diagnosed ocular hypertension (OH or open-angle glaucoma (OAG. Methods. Eligible subjects underwent a complete history and examination. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs obtained from multiple logistic regression models were used to compare OAG to OH and advanced to early/moderate OAG. Results. 405 subjects were enrolled: 292 (72.1% with OAG and 113 (27.9% with OH. 51.7% had early, 27.1% moderate, and 20.9% advanced OAG. The OR for OAG versus OH was 8.19 (P<0.0001 for disc notch, 5.36 (P<0.0001 for abnormal visual field, 1.45 (P=0.001 for worsening mean deviation, 1.91 (P<0.0001 for increased cupping, 1.03 for increased age (P=0.030, and 0.36 (P=0.010 for smoking. Conclusions. Increased age was a risk for OAG, and smoking decreased the risk of OAG compared to OH. Almost half of the OAG subjects had moderate/advanced disease at diagnosis.

  19. Ocular pulsation correlates with ocular tension: the choroid as piston for an aqueous pump?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, C I; Tsukahara, S; Hosaka, O; Adams, W

    1992-01-01

    In 26 random out-patients, including 13 treated glaucoma patients and ocular hypertensives, the higher the ocular tension, the greater the pulse amplitude, by Alcon pneumotonometry, at a statistically significant level. In a single untreated hypertensive, when 2-hourly pneumotonometry was done for 24 h, the correlation was similar and significant. The higher the diastolic blood pressure, the higher the ocular pulsation, also significantly. Pulsation is suggested to be a pump, the choroid being the piston, contributing (1) to an increase in the outflow of aqueous humour and (2) to a homeostatic mechanism contributing to normalization of the intra-ocular pressure, wherein pulsation increases or decreases, as the intraocular pressure increases or decreases, respectively.

  20. Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Taliantzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergios Taliantzis, Dimitris Papaconstantinou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michalis Moschos, Michalis Apostolopoulos, Gerasimos GeorgopoulosAthens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: To compare the functional changes in visual fields with optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and suspected glaucoma. In addition, our purpose is to evaluate the correlation of global indices with the structural glaucomatous defect, to assess their statistical importance in all the groups of our study, and to estimate their validity to the clinical practice.Methods: One hundred sixty nine eyes (140 patients were enrolled. The patients were classified in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 54 eyes with ocular hypertension, group 2 of 42 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, and group 3 of 73 eyes with chronic open angle glaucoma. All of them underwent ophthalmic examination according to a prefixed protocol, OCT exam (Stratus 3000 for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurement with fast RNFL thickness protocol and visual fields (VF examination with Octopus perimeter (G2 program, central 30–2 threshold strategy. Pearson correlation was calculated between RNFL thickness and global index of VF.Results: A moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and indices mean sensitivity (MS, mean defect (MD and loss variance (LV of VF (0.547, -0.582, -0.527, respectively; P < 0.001 was observed for all patients. Correlations of the ocular hypertension and preperimetric groups are weak. Correlation of RNFL thickness with global indices becomes stronger as the structural alterations become deeper in OCT exam. Correlation of RNFL thickness with the global index of VF, in respective segments around optic disk was also calculated and was found significant in the nasal, inferior, superior, and temporal segments.Conclusion: RNFL average thickness is not a reliable index for early

  1. Retinal nerve fiber layer assessment by scanning laser polarimetry and standardized photography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niessen, A. G.; van den Berg, T. J.; Langerhorst, C. T.; Greve, E. L.

    1996-01-01

    To determine whether, in a clinical setting, scanning laser polarimetry and retinal nerve fiber layer photography provide equivalent information on the retinal nerve fiber layer. We prospectively studied 60 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension and 24 healthy subjects. With scanning laser

  2. Ocular hypertension and hypotony as determinates of outcomes in uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rabia Aman,1 Stephanie B Engelhard,1 Asima Bajwa,1 James Patrie,2 Ashvini K Reddy1 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, USA Purpose: To assess ocular hypertension (OHT and hypotony as outcomes of uveitis in patients managed in a mid-Atlantic tertiary care center. Methods: Retrospective, observational study of uveitis patients seen at the University of Virginia from 1984 to 2014. Results: A total of 442 patients (582 eyes with uveitis were identified and included in the study. The patient population was 57.0% female. Overall, 61.9% were Caucasian and 26.6% were African American. Mean age was 46.8 years. Overall, 11.5% of the eyes had OHT at initial visit, and 7.9% had OHT at final visit (P=0.035. For each additional decade of life, the odds that an eye had OHT were elevated by a factor of 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.02, 1.30], P=0.027 at initial visit and by a factor of 1.15 (95% CI: [1.00, 1.32], P=0.055 at final visit. The odds that an anterior uveitis eye had OHT were greater by a factor of 2.50 (95% CI: [1.22, 5.14], P=0.013 than the odds for a nonanterior uveitis eye at initial visit and greater by a factor of 2.61 (95% CI: [1.24, 5.50], P=0.011 at final visit. For each additional 0.5 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution increase in initial visual acuity, the odds that an affected eye had OHT were elevated by a factor of 1.18 (95% CI: [1.00, 1.39], P=0.047 at initial visit and 1.23 (95% CI: [0.99, 1.54], P=0.065 at final visit. Overall, 21 of 582 eyes (3.6% were hypotonous initially, while 24 of 582 eyes (4.1% were hypotonous at final follow-up (P=0.631. Conclusion: OHT was associated with increasing age, anterior uveitis, and poor presenting visual acuity. Ocular hypotony was more common in anterior uveitis than in nonanterior uveitis. Fluctuations in intraocular pressure are an important cause of visual impairment in patients with uveitis

  3. Drug induced hypertension--An unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Alon; Messerli, Franz H; Grossman, Ehud

    2015-09-15

    Most patients with hypertension have essential hypertension or well-known forms of secondary hypertension, such as renal disease, renal artery stenosis, or common endocrine diseases (hyperaldosteronism or pheochromocytoma). Physicians are less aware of drug induced hypertension. A variety of therapeutic agents or chemical substances may increase blood pressure. When a patient with well controlled hypertension is presented with acute blood pressure elevation, use of drug or chemical substance which increases blood pressure should be suspected. Drug-induced blood pressure increases are usually minor and short-lived, although rare hypertensive emergencies associated with use of certain drugs have been reported. Careful evaluation of prescription and non-prescription medications is crucial in the evaluation of the hypertensive individual and may obviate the need for expensive and unnecessary evaluations. Discontinuation of the offending agent will usually achieve adequate blood pressure control. When use of a chemical agent which increases blood pressure is mandatory, anti-hypertensive therapy may facilitate continued use of this agent. We summarize the therapeutic agents or chemical substances that elevate blood pressure and their mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Polyquaternium-1-Preserved Travoprost 0.003% or Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Travoprost 0.004% for Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, James H; Ahlberg, Peter; Wagner, Mathias; Lim, John M; Wirta, David; Branch, James D

    2015-08-01

    To demonstrate equivalence of polyquaternium-1-preserved travoprost 0.003% with benzalkonium chloride-preserved travoprost 0.004% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Double-masked, randomized, 2-treatment, equivalence clinical trial. setting: Multicenter clinical trial conducted in 60 centers in the United States and Europe. Adult patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. One eye per patient was analyzed. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive polyquaternium-1-preserved travoprost 0.003% (n = 442) or benzalkonium chloride-preserved travoprost 0.004% (n = 422) once daily for 3 months. Mean intraocular pressure (IOP) was assessed at 8 AM, 10 AM, and 4 PM at week 2, week 6, and month 3. Supportive outcomes were mean and percent IOP change, percentage of patients achieving IOP reduction, and adverse events. Mean IOP was similar between groups at all study visits (travoprost 0.003% range, 17.5-18.9 mm Hg; travoprost 0.004% range, 17.4-19.0 mm Hg). Mean change (least squares mean differences, -0.1 to 0.3 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, -0.5 to 0.7 mm Hg) and percentage change (travoprost 0.003%, 28.4%-30.7%; travoprost 0.004%, 28.5%-31.0%) from baseline were comparable. The percentages of patients with IOP reduction of IOP were also similar. Hyperemia was the most frequent treatment-related adverse event with both formulations (travoprost 0.003%, 11.8%; travoprost 0.004%, 14.5%). In patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, polyquaternium-1-preserved travoprost 0.003% solution provided equivalent IOP-lowering efficacy to that of benzalkonium chloride-preserved travoprost 0.004%. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Han [Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sonoda, Koh-Hei, E-mail: sonodak@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro [Department of Ophthalmology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-Ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2009-04-17

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  6. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Han; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2009-01-01

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8 + T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8 + T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  7. Laser beams hazards. Experimental determination of a laser ocular lesion threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, D.; Court, L.; Gueneau, G.; Bagot, J.D.; Abadie, B.; Brouillet, B.; Laborde, G.; Duchene, A.

    1984-10-01

    The risks due to the use of laser have called for the definition of exposure limits. The determination of these values requires the knowledge of the physical parameters of exposure and both the anatomical and the physiological properties of the skin and the eye. The parameters of the mechanisms involved in the biological effects of laser beams, the concept of damage criteria and the experimental results found in the literature are first discussed. The main parameter of the beam determining the injury: wavelength, time and the size of the image are then analysed. Some examples of experimental determinations of laser ocular lesion thresholds, carried out on the retinae of the rabbit and the monkey, emphasize, the difficulties met in the determination of the exposure limits. These experiments involve the effect of laser beam in the visible spectrum. Several techniques are compared: a direct ophthalmoscopic observation, a method with fluorescein angiography, a histologic study with light microscopy and an electrophysiological study. The results show that the determination of exposure limits is chiefly a function of the experimental techniques used, the delay of the observation after exposure and the probability of risk selected. The experimental results demonstrate the importance of these parameters and bring into light the uncertainties of the present guidelines [fr

  8. Laser exposure incidents: pilot ocular health and aviation safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawara, Van B; Wood, Kathryn J; Montgomery, Ron W

    2008-09-01

    A database of aviation reports involving laser illumination of flight crewmembers has been established and maintained at the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute. A review of recent laser illumination reports was initiated to investigate the significance of these events. Reports that involved laser exposures of civilian aircraft in the United States were analyzed for the 13-month period (January 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005). There were 90 reported instances of laser illumination during the study period. A total of 53 reports involved laser exposure of commercial aircraft. Lasers illuminated the cockpit in 41 (46%) of the incidents. Of those, 13 (32%) incidents resulted in a visual impairment or distraction to a pilot, including 1 incident that reportedly resulted in an ocular injury. Nearly 96% of these reports occurred in the last 3 months of the study period. There were no aviation accidents in which laser light illumination was found to be a contributing factor. Operational problems have resulted from laser illumination incidents in the national airspace system. Eye care practitioners, to provide effective consultations to their pilot patients, should be familiar with the problems that can occur with laser exposure.

  9. Iris and periocular adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Minako Shiokawa1, Michitaka Sugahara1, Risako Higa1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Second Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively investigate adverse reactions to bimatoprost in Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. We also examined patient attitudes to adverse reactions via a questionnaire.Methods: Fifty-two Japanese patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were enrolled. Iridial, eyelid, and eyelash photographs were taken before and at 6 months after bimatoprost treatment. Increase in eyelid pigmentation, iridial pigmentation, eyelash growth and bristle, and vellus hair of the lid was assessed from the photographs. Questionnaires completed by patients provided insight into their subjective judgment of adverse reactions.Results: Increase in eyelash bristle (53.8%, iris pigmentation (50.0%, eyelash growth (46.2%, vellus hair of the lid (40.4%, and eyelid pigmentation (7.7% was evident after bimatoprost treatment. The objective and subjective assessments were in agreement in terms of increase in eyelash bristle, eyelash growth, and increase in vellus hair of the lid.Conclusion: Most patients were conscious of these adverse reactions. Before administering bimatoprost, sufficient explanation of potential adverse reactions should be provided; after initiating treatment, careful observation is required.Keywords: bimatoprost, adverse reaction, eyelid pigmentation, changes in eyelashes, iris pigmentation 

  10. Preservative-free versus preserved latanoprost eye drops in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Choudhry, Reena; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2016-08-01

    This study compared the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a preservative-free latanoprost formulation to an established, benzalkonium chloride (BAK) containing formulation for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This was a phase II, randomized, cross-over, investigator-masked, multi-center, pilot study (NCT01494753). A total of 30 untreated adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with primary open angle glaucoma, pseudo-exfoliative glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or ocular hypertension received either preservative-free or preserved latanoprost once daily in both eyes for 6 weeks, before crossing over to receive the other treatment. Efficacy (intraocular pressure [IOP] at 8 am, midday, 4 pm and 8 pm, and global efficacy assessment by investigator), safety (adverse events, ocular symptoms and global tolerance, slit lamp examination, funduscopy, visual field examination, visual acuity, and heart rate), and pharmacokinetics were assessed at Days 0, 42, and 84. Both treatments resulted in a reduction in IOP that was similar for the preservative-free and the preserved formulation at all time points. Similarly, the overall diurnal reduction was similar in both groups (6.3 mmHg [27.9% reduction] and 6.4 mmHg [28.1% reduction] for preserved and preservative-free latanoprost, respectively). There were no differences in global efficacy assessment or in the safety and tolerance of each treatment. Systemic concentrations of latanoprost were very low; AUC0-30 and Cmax were lower and tmax was longer for preservative-free latanoprost. Preservative-free latanoprost showed similar efficacy at all time points compared to BAK preservative containing formulation, with no difference in tolerance, allowing progression to phase III clinical development.

  11. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimura, Suely, E-mail: suelytomimura@uol.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Silva, Bianca Passos Assumpção [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Sanches, Iris Callado [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Canal, Marina [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Conti, Felipe Fernandes; Angelis, Katia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Chavantes, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  12. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Tomimura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16 were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8, which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8, which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group, revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group. Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  13. The effects of repeated Ozurdex injections on ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadorani, Sepehr; Krambeer, Chelsey; Wannamaker, Kendall; Tie, Wayne; Jansen, Michael; Espitia, Jason; Sohn, Jeong-Hyeon; Singer, Michael A

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to correlate the degree of ocular hypertension with the number of Ozurdex injections. Intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations for a total of 183 injections were studied over a period of at least 12 months. The main indications for treatment were uveitis, diabetic macular edema, and retinal vein occlusion. Results of the study demonstrate that repeated Ozurdex injections do not increase the frequency of IOP spikes beyond 30 mmHg. For lower IOPs, however, a positive correlation exists. Furthermore, patients with primary open angle glaucoma and uveitis had the highest IOP response to repeated injections. On average, patients with an IOP of ≥28.6 mmHg received pressure lowering medications, after which their IOP reached a stable level (16.7 mmHg) without the need for additional interventions. The data support the conclusion that multiple Ozurdex injections does not increase the frequency of IOP spikes beyond 30 mmHg, but patients still must be closely monitored if they have a history of primary open angle glaucoma.

  14. Intramuscular Immunisation with Chlamydial Proteins Induces Chlamydia trachomatis Specific Ocular Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Badamchi-Zadeh

    Full Text Available Ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis can cause trachoma, which is the leading cause of blindness due to infection worldwide. Despite the large-scale implementation of trachoma control programmes in the majority of countries where trachoma is endemic, there remains a need for a vaccine. Since C. trachomatis infects the conjunctival epithelium and stimulates an immune response in the associated lymphoid tissue, vaccine regimens that enhance local antibody responses could be advantageous. In experimental infections of non-human primates (NHPs, antibody specificity to C. trachomatis antigens was found to change over the course of ocular infection. The appearance of major outer membrane protein (MOMP specific antibodies correlated with a reduction in ocular chlamydial burden, while subsequent generation of antibodies specific for PmpD and Pgp3 correlated with C. trachomatis eradication.We used a range of heterologous prime-boost vaccinations with DNA, Adenovirus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA and protein vaccines based on the major outer membrane protein (MOMP as an antigen, and investigated the effect of vaccine route, antigen and regimen on the induction of anti-chlamydial antibodies detectable in the ocular lavage fluid of mice.Three intramuscular vaccinations with recombinant protein adjuvanted with MF59 induced significantly greater levels of anti-MOMP ocular antibodies than the other regimens tested. Intranasal delivery of vaccines induced less IgG antibody in the eye than intramuscular delivery. The inclusion of the antigens PmpD and Pgp3, singly or in combination, induced ocular antigen-specific IgG antibodies, although the anti-PmpD antibody response was consistently lower and attenuated by combination with other antigens.If translatable to NHPs and/or humans, this investigation of the murine C. trachomatis specific ocular antibody response following vaccination provides a potential mouse model for the rapid and high throughput

  15. Fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension with inadequate IOP adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrett Brief

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gerrett Brief1, Tobias Lammich2, Edgar Nagel3, Sabine Pfennigsdorf4, Christoph W Spraul5, Selwyn Ho61Facharzt für Augenheilkunde, Dortmund, Germany; 2Neubrandenburg, Germany; 3Augenarztpraxis Rudolstadt, Germany; 4Polch, Germany; 5Geiselhart, Ulm, Germany; 6Allergan Europe, Marlow, UKObjective: To assess the efficacy and tolerability of a fixed combination of bimatoprost and timolol (BTFC in a large patient sample in a clinical setting.Methods: In this multicenter, observational, noncontrolled, open-label study, patients (n = 1862 with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were treated with BTFC. Assessments were made at baseline, six weeks, and three months.Results: Prior to starting BTFC, 92.3% of patients were taking other ocular hypotensive medications. In the overall group at three months, mean intraocular pressure was reduced from baseline (21.7 ± 4.5 mmHg and 21.8 ± 4.9 mmHg for the right and left eye, respectively to 16.1 ± 3.0 mmHg for each eye (P < 0.0001. The majority of patients (92% reported no adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events (in >1% of patients were eye irritation, and ocular and conjunctival hyperemia. Adherence to treatment was generally better than (35.4% or the same as (57.5% with prior therapy. BTFC tolerability was rated as excellent or good by 92.3% of physicians and 85.8% of patients.Conclusions: In a large group of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, treatment with BTFC was associated with consistent reductions in IOP, improved adherence to treatment, and good tolerability.Keywords: bimatoprost, timolol, intraocular pressure, fixed combination, glaucoma

  16. Ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Stayner, Leslie; Slama, Rémy

    2014-01-01

    to ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. We searched electronic databases for English language studies reporting associations between ambient air pollution and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders published between December.......5), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), proximity to major roads, and traffic density met our inclusion criteria. Most studies reported that air pollution increased risk for pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders. There was significant heterogeneity in meta-analysis, which included 16 studies reporting...... on gestational hypertension and preeclampsia as separate or combined outcomes; there was less heterogeneity in findings of the 10 studies reporting solely on preeclampsia. Meta-analyses showed increased risks of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy for all pollutants except CO. Random-effect meta...

  17. Selective laser trabeculoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Ming Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT provided a new choice for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP in eyes with open angle glaucoma (OAG and ocular hypertension (OHT. SLT was demonstrated equally as effective as topical medical therapy and argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT to lower IOP. It is a potentially repeatable procedure because of the lack of coagulation damage to the trabecular meshwork (TM and also effect in patients with previously failed ALT. SLT can be used to treat patients with OAG, pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, OHT, juvenile glaucoma, pseudophakic and aphakic glaucoma. Furthermore, SLT can be considered as a primary treatment option in patients who cannot tolerate or are noncompliant with medications, while not interfering with the success of future surgery. Its safety profiles include mild and transient inflammation, ocular pain and a small risk of moderate IOP elevations after the procedure. SLT is a safe and effective means of IOP reduction in eyes with OAG and OHT.

  18. Impact of Microbiota on Resistance to Ocular Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Induced Keratitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Kugadas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of the ocular microbiota has been reported but functional analyses to evaluate its significance in regulating ocular immunity are currently lacking. We compared the relative contribution of eye and gut commensals in regulating the ocular susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced keratitis. We find that in health, the presence of microbiota strengthened the ocular innate immune barrier by significantly increasing the concentrations of immune effectors in the tear film, including secretory IgA and complement proteins. Consistent with this view, Swiss Webster (SW mice that are typically resistant to P. aeruginosa-induced keratitis become susceptible due to the lack of microbiota. This was exemplified by increased corneal bacterial burden and elevated pathology of the germ free (GF mice when compared to the conventionally maintained SW mice. The protective immunity was found to be dependent on both eye and gut microbiota with the eye microbiota having a moderate, but significant impact on the resistance to infection. These events were IL-1ß-dependent as corneal IL-1ß levels were decreased in the infected GF and antibiotic-treated mice when compared to the SPF controls, and neutralization of IL-1ß increased the ocular bacterial burden in the SPF mice. Monocolonizing GF mice with Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus sp. isolated from the conjunctival swabs was sufficient to restore resistance to infection. Cumulatively, these data underline a previously unappreciated role for microbiota in regulating susceptibility to ocular keratitis. We predict that these results will have significant implications for contact lens wearers, where alterations in the ocular commensal communities may render the ocular surface vulnerable to infections.

  19. Port-wine vascular malformations and glaucoma risk in Sturge-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharan, Sapna; Swamy, Brighu; Taranath, Deepa Ajay; Jamieson, Robyn; Yu, Tao; Wargon, Orli; Grigg, John R

    2009-08-01

    Treatment of the capillary vascular malformation (port-wine stain) in Sturge-Weber syndrome with the use of a laser is helpful cosmetically. However, concerns have been raised that laser obliteration of port-wine stains may result in ocular hypertension. The aim of this study was to review clinical features and management of ocular complications of SWS and assess the effects of dermatological laser treatment on the incidence of glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in an institutional setting. All patients had involvement of the face. Patients who underwent skin laser to the port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed further. Ocular involvement, glaucoma, and skin laser treatment and the relationship to ocular hypertension/glaucoma were observed. Forty-one Sturge-Weber syndrome patients with port-wine vascular malformation were analyzed. Glaucoma was observed in 24 patients (58.5%) at mean age of 2.9 years (range, 0.0-16.5). Of these, 18 (75.0%) were treated with medical therapy, and 10 (41.7%) required trabeculectomy, with 2 of these requiring Seton implant. Of the 41 patients, 28 (68.3%) underwent laser to face/forehead. Mean age of laser commencement was 5 years (range, 0.4-16.5). Thirteen did not undergo laser treatment. Fourteen of the 28 and 10 of the 13 developed ocular hypertension/glaucoma. This retrospective review did not find evidence to suggest that laser treatment of port-wine vascular malformations causes glaucoma or that it can worsen a preexisting ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Statistical analysis was inconclusive.

  20. Management of the ocular surface and tear film before, during, and after laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albietz, Julie M; Lenton, Lee M

    2004-01-01

    To identify evidence-based, best practice strategies for managing the ocular surface and tear film before, during, and after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). After a comprehensive review of relevant published literature, evidence-based recommendations for best practice management strategies are presented. Symptoms of ocular irritation and signs of dysfunction of the integrated lacrimal gland/ocular surface functional gland unit are common before and after LASIK. The status of the ocular surface and tear film before LASIK can impact surgical outcomes in terms of potential complications during and after surgery, refractive outcome, optical quality, patient satisfaction, and the severity and duration of dry eye after LASIK. Before LASIK, the health of the ocular surface should be optimized and patients selected appropriately. Dry eye before surgery and female gender are risk factors for developing chronic dry eye after LASIK. Management of the ocular surface during LASIK can minimize ocular surface damage and the risk of adverse outcomes. Long-term management of the tear film and ocular surface after LASIK can reduce the severity and duration of dry eye symptoms and signs. Strategies to manage the integrated ocular surface/lacrimal gland functional unit before, during, and after LASIK can optimize outcomes. As problems with the ocular surface and tear film are relatively common, attention should focus on the use and improvement of evidence-based management strategies.

  1. Antioxidative role of ocular melanin pigment in the model of lens induced uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, A; Bilgihan, M K; Akata, R F; Aricioğlu, A; Hasanreisoğlu, B

    1995-12-01

    Ocular melanin pigment has antioxidant effect against excess of dispersed light. To investigate whether it has a similar effect in ocular inflammations, we used albino and pigmented guinea pigs and measured retinal glutathione peroxidase activities and lipid peroxide levels (expressed as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in a model of lens induced uveitis. Although the increase in the levels of the retinal lipid peroxides were higher in the albino group (204%, p < 0.05), the decrease in the activities of glutathione peroxidase were higher in pigmented guinea pigs (26%, p < 0.005). The results of the study suggest that pigmentless animals are more sensitive to the ocular inflammations, and ocular melanin pigment may act as an endojen antioxidant in lens induced uveitis.

  2. Time-dependent retinal ganglion cell loss, microglial activation and blood-retina-barrier tightness in an acute model of ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, A; Motloch, K; Bruckner, D; Schroedl, F; Bogner, B; Kaser-Eichberger, A; Runge, C; Strohmaier, C; Klein, B; Aigner, L; Reitsamer, H A

    2015-07-01

    Glaucoma is a group of neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons, and is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure is a well known risk factor for the development of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and pharmacological or surgical lowering of intraocular pressure represents a standard procedure in glaucoma treatment. However, the treatment options are limited and although lowering of intraocular pressure impedes disease progression, glaucoma cannot be cured by the currently available therapy concepts. In an acute short-term ocular hypertension model in rat, we characterize RGC loss, but also microglial cell activation and vascular alterations of the retina at certain time points. The combination of these three parameters might facilitate a better evaluation of the disease progression, and could further serve as a new model to test novel treatment strategies at certain time points. Acute ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by the injection of magnetic microbeads into the rat anterior chamber angle (n = 22) with magnetic position control, leading to constant elevation of IOP. At certain time points post injection (4d, 7d, 10d, 14d and 21d), RGC loss, microglial activation, and microvascular pericyte (PC) coverage was analyzed using immunohistochemistry with corresponding specific markers (Brn3a, Iba1, NG2). Additionally, the tightness of the retinal vasculature was determined via injections of Texas Red labeled dextran (10 kDa) and subsequently analyzed for vascular leakage. For documentation, confocal laser-scanning microscopy was used, followed by cell counts, capillary length measurements and morphological and statistical analysis. The injection of magnetic microbeads led to a progressive loss of RGCs at the five time points investigated (20.07%, 29.52%, 41.80%, 61.40% and 76.57%). Microglial cells increased in number and displayed an activated morphology

  3. Ocular Blood Flow Measurements in Healthy White Subjects Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Luft

    Full Text Available To assess the feasibility and reliability of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy (LSFG to measure ocular perfusion in a sample of healthy white subjects and to elucidate the age-dependence of the parameters obtained.This cross-sectional study included 80 eyes of 80 healthy, non-smoking white subjects of Western European descent between 19 and 79 years of age. A commercial LSFG instrument was applied to measure ocular blood flow at the optic nerve head (ONH three successive times before and after pharmacological pupil dilation. The mean blur rate (MBR, a measure of relative blood flow velocity, was obtained for different regions of the ONH. Eight parameters of ocular perfusion derived from the pulse-waveform analysis of MBR including blowout time (BOT and falling rate (FR were also recorded.Artifact-free LSFG images meeting the quality criteria for automated image analysis were obtainable in 93.8% without pupil dilation and in 98.8% with pharmacological pupil dilation. Measurements of MBR showed excellent repeatability with intraclass correlation coefficients ≥ 0.937 and were barely affected by pupil dilation. The majority of pulse-waveform derived variables exhibited equally high repeatability. MBR-related blood flow indices exhibited significant age dependence (p<0.001. FR (r = 0.747, p<0.001 and BOT (r = -0.714, p<0.001 most strongly correlated with age.LSFG represents a reliable method for the quantitative assessment of ocular blood flow in white subjects. Our data affirms that the LSFG-derived variables FR and BOT may be useful biomarkers for age-related changes in ocular perfusion.

  4. Laser-induced interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    This dissertation discusses some of the new ways that lasers can be used to control the energy flow in a medium. Experimental and theoretical considerations of the laser-induced collision are discussed. The laser-induced collision is a process in which a laser is used to selectively transfer energy from a state in one atomic or molecular species to another state in a different species. The first experimental demonstration of this process is described, along with later experiments in which lasers were used to create collisional cross sections as large as 10 - 13 cm 2 . Laser-induced collisions utilizing both a dipole-dipole interaction and dipole-quadrupole interaction have been experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical aspects of other related processes such as laser-induced spin-exchange, collision induced Raman emission, and laser-induced charge transfer are discussed. Experimental systems that could be used to demonstrate these various processes are presented. An experiment which produced an inversion of the resonance line of an ion by optical pumping of the neutral atom is described. This type of scheme has been proposed as a possible method for constructing VUV and x-ray lasers

  5. Mechanisms and mediators of hypertension induced by erythropoietin and related molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv

    2017-12-08

    Hypertension is a common but frequently overlooked adverse effect of erythropoietin (EPO) therapy. Underreporting of hypertension with EPO is likely due to either more aggressively managing hypertension through the prescription of antihypertensive drugs or closer attention to dry weight. The purpose and focus of this review is to critically evaluate the mechanisms of EPO-induced hypertension. Preclinical data are considered first, followed by clinical data where available. Mediated by a variety of molecules, there is an imbalance in the vascular tone favoring net vasoconstriction that mediates EPO-induced hypertension. Animal studies show the primary importance of chronic kidney disease in the genesis of EPO-induced hypertension. Preclinical studies show deranged regulation of the nitric oxide, endothelins and porstanoids and the sympathoadrenal and renin-angiotensin pathways as causes of EPO-induced hypertension. Human studies suggest that EPO administration is also associated with increased responsiveness to catecholamines and angiotensin II on vascular tissue; in addition, hypoxia-induced vasodilation may be impaired in those with EPO-induced hypertension. There is little evidence for EPO as a direct vasoconstrictor or its effect on blood viscosity as a mechanism of EPO-induced hypertension. EPO-induced hypertension, at least in part, appears to be independent of an increase in hemoglobin, because experiments show that hemoglobin may be increased by EPO without an increase in blood pressure (BP) by simply treating the animals with EPO-binding protein and that treatment with EPO in the setting of iron deficiency may not increase hemoglobin but may still increase BP. However, experimental data are not consistent across studies and better mechanistic designs are needed, especially in patients with chronic kidney disease, to dissect the precise mechanism of EPO-induced hypertension. Animal studies suggest that hypoxia-inducible factor stablizers may induce

  6. Polycystic ovary disease and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, S; Claman, P

    2000-12-01

    To compare the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in patients with and without polycystic ovary disease (PCOD). We conducted a retrospective, case-control analysis of patients who achieved singleton pregnancies with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) therapy. Twenty-two PCOD patients were compared to 27 infertility patients without PCOD who were pregnant after hMG therapy. Non-PCOD patients received hMG for superovulation as part of superovulation/intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer. PCOD patients were receiving hMG for simple ovulation induction. Pregnancy-induced hypertension was defined as late pregnancy blood pressure > 140/90 mm Hg on two readings six hours apart and return to normal blood pressure by four to six weeks postpartum. There were no differences between PCOD and non-PCOD patients with reference to age, body mass index, parity or other pregnancy-induced hypertension risk factors (i.e., chronic hypertension, diabetes or chronic renal disease). Pregnant PCOD patients had a much higher incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, 31.8% (7/22), versus non-PCOD patients, who only had a pregnancy-induced hypertension incidence of 3.7% (1/27) (P = .016, OR = 12.1, 95% CI = 1.3-566.8). PCOD patients are at very high risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension when pregnant after ovulation induction.

  7. Prospective Observational Post-Marketing Study of Tafluprost for Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension: Effectiveness and Treatment Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Yasuaki; Hashimoto, Masako; Kakegawa, Reiko; Nomura, Akio; Shimada, Fumiki

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the long-term intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect and safety of tafluprost, a prostaglandin analogue, in actual clinical practice and to determine persistency of tafluprost as an indicator of its benefit-risk balance. This was a large-scale, post-marketing, multicenter, non-interventional, open-label, long-term study. Patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who initiated tafluprost treatment were registered and prospectively observed over a 2-year period in the real-world setting in Japan. Long-term IOP and safety data were collected. Of the 4502 patients registered from 553 medical institutions, 4265 patients were analyzed. The majority of patients had normal-tension glaucoma (44.4%) and primary open-angle glaucoma (37.8%), and patients with ocular hypertension constituted 7.0%. Treatment patterns with tafluprost during the study period were as follows: naïve monotherapy (48.1%), switching monotherapy (18.4%), and concomitant therapy (33.5%). In all patients analyzed, mean IOP was significantly reduced from 18.6 ± 5.9 mmHg (month 0) to 15 mmHg or below throughout the 2-year observation period after initiation of tafluprost. Significant IOP-lowering effects were shown in various treatment patterns and disease types. Adverse reactions were observed in 795 patients (18.64%). Major adverse reactions included eyelid pigmentation, ocular hyperemia, eyelash changes, eyelid hypertrichosis, and iris hyperpigmentation. Kaplan-Meier curves showed that 84.6% and 76.1% of patients were persistent on tafluprost for 1 and 2 years, respectively, when discontinuation due to insufficient efficacy or adverse events was defined as a treatment failure event. Furthermore, among treatment-naïve patients (n = 2304), the persistency rates on tafluprost monotherapy were 77.0% for 1 year and 67.0% for 2 years. Tafluprost showed significant long-term IOP-lowering effects regardless of treatment patterns or diagnosis, with

  8. UV radiation-induced photochemical damage of tryptophan in peptides, proteins and ocular lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibbard, L.B.

    1985-01-01

    These studies were undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of the amino acid tryptophan in the near-ultraviolet radiation-induced photochemical alteration of peptides and proteins and the role tryptophan photolysis plays in ocular lens damage. Sample irradiations were performed to determine if tryptophan photolysis occurs with radiation in the UV-A region in comparison to photolysis induced by wavelengths in the normal absorption band of the amino acid (UV-B). Photolysis studies were carried out on free tryptophan and two dipeptides, tryptophyglycine and glycyltryptophan, in aqueous solutions at different pH values in the range 4.5-10.0 under aerated or anaerobic conditions. Rates of photolysis of these 290 nm-irradiated compounds, detected by observing tryptophan fluorescence intensity loss during irradiation, were compared and significant differences were observed for each compound which varied with pH and oxygen environment. Another series of experiments examined the photolysis of tryptophan residues in lens proteins in whole rat lenses induced by 290 nm and 298 nm dye laser radiation. Tryptophan residue photolysis was, once again, monitored by loss in tryptophan fluorescence intensity. A relationship was derived between tryptophan loss and photoproduct buildup during irradiation

  9. Ocular manifestations of graft-versus-host disease: 10 years’ experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin X

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xihui Lin, Harrison Dwight Cavanagh Department of Ophthalmology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA Purpose: To evaluate the ocular presentation, treatment, and clinical course of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD. Design: Retrospective case series. Participants: Two hundred and forty-nine patients with systemic GVHD were included in the study. Methods: Ocular and systemic data were collected from 2003 to 2013. Main outcome measures: Mortality, visual acuity, and response of ocular symptoms. Results: Sixty-four patients had ocular manifestations (25.7%. At presentation, the mean age was 44.5 years and mean latency was 16.4 months. The most common presentations were keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cataract, blepharitis, ocular hypertension, and filamentary keratitis. Visual acuity at presentation was 20/49; at the worst point in the disease was 20/115; and at most recent visit was 20/63. When topical anti-inflammatory drops were used in addition to tears, 54.3% of patients’ ocular symptoms stabilized. When autologous serum was used in addition, 80% stabilized. The overall 10-year mortality of GVHD was 29.7%. For those with ocular involvement, it was 21.9%. Conclusion: Systemic GVHD has a high mortality rate, but ocular involvement does not suggest a worse prognosis. The main ocular presentations were keratoconjunctivitis sicca, cataracts, and ocular hypertension. Dry eyes in this population were very severe with overall worsening in visual acuity. However, with a step-wise approach involving topical anti-inflammatory medications and autologous serum tears, ocular symptoms do improve. It is important to monitor these patients closely, as they are prone to serious ocular complications such as corneal perforation and endophthalmitis. Keywords: dry eye, keratitis, corneal ulceration

  10. OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE- A HOSPITALBASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Ponmudy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease affects every organ system including the eye. The aim of the study is to conduct a thorough ocular examination and to study the occurrence of various ocular manifestations exhibited by patients with chronic kidney disease and to analyse the findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 patients from Department of Nephrology, Stanley Medical College diagnosed with chronic kidney disease were examined for ocular manifestations at the Department of Ophthalmology, Stanley Medical College. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, non-interventional, hospital-based study. The period of study was from August 2010 to October 2011. RESULTS The commonest cause of CKD was hypertension in 47 pts. (52.2% followed by both diabetes and hypertension in 30 patients. Patients with only diabetes were 6 patients (6.7% and with other causes were 7 patients (7.8%.10% of patients were legally blind with visual acuity <6/60. In this study, 65 patients belonged to less than 50 years. 49.3% of the presenile patients had cataract. A reduced Schirmer’s value was noted in 54 eyes of the 200 eyes. The incidence of ocular surface disease in the study was 27%. 92 eyes out of 200 eyes studied showed hypertensive retinopathy. Higher grades of hypertensive retinopathy was more in advanced stages of CKD, i.e. 24 eyes in stage IV and 23 eyes in stage V. 51 eyes out of 40 diabetics showed diabetic retinopathy changes of which a majority of 25 eyes belonged to stage V disease. Prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in CKD patients is significantly more when compared to diabetic patients without CKD. CONCLUSION Study demonstrates that routine ocular evaluation is necessary in all patients with chronic kidney disease irrespective of the presence of ocular symptoms. It also highlights the occurrence of a variety of treatable ocular manifestations, which can become vision threatening if not taken care of at the earliest.

  11. Preservative-free tafluprost 0.0015% in the treatment of patients with glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Carl; Lanzl, Ines; Seidova, Seid-Fatima; Kimmich, Friedemann

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy, local tolerability, and safety of this first-in-class preservative-free prostaglandin preparation in patients with ocular hypertension and glaucoma. Patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who required a change of medication or were naïve to treatment were included in this noninterventional and observational study. Noninterventional means that no influence was made upon the decision of the physicians to include specific patients and upon the treatment algorithm used. German law for observational studies does not allow any influence on the choice of drugs used, patient selection, masking, and comparator treatment regimens. The main aim of this observational study was to collect "real-life data" on the efficacy and safety of a new medical treatment after approval in a large patient population. Participating ophthalmologists were asked to provide anonymous patient data collected during regular visits by filling a simple data entry form. Intraocular pressure (IOP) readings were recorded at baseline (previous therapy or untreated) and 6-12 weeks after changing medical treatment to or initiating treatment with preservative-free tafluprost once daily. Changes in the IOP were evaluated over the study period for all patients as well as for specific pretreatment subgroups. Local comfort was determined using a five-point scale (very good, good, satisfactory, less satisfactory, not acceptable) before and after the change of medical treatment. All adverse events were recorded. Data from 2123 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension were considered for the final evaluation. Medication was changed in 41.1% of patients due to tolerability issues and in 25.6% of patients due to insufficient efficacy with prior medication. In all patients preservative-free tafluprost 0.0015% lowered IOP from 19.5 ± 4.4 mmHg (baseline) to 16.4 ± 2.9 mmHg after 6-12 weeks. Preservativefree tafluprost also significantly lowered the IOP

  12. Both Autocrine Signaling and Paracrine Signaling of HB-EGF Enhance Ocular Neovascularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yuki; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Nakamura, Shinsuke; Takata, Shinsuke; Hashimoto, Yuhei; Izawa, Hiroshi; Masuda, Tomomi; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Sakaue, Tomohisa; Nakayama, Hironao; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Hara, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of blindness is increasing because of the increase in abnormal ocular neovascularization. Anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) therapies have led to good results, although they are not a cure for the blindness. The purpose of this study was to determine what role HB-EGF (heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor) plays in ocular angiogenesis. We examined the role played by HB-EGF in ocular neovascularization in 2 animal models of neovascularization: laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and oxygen-induced retinopathy. We also studied human retinal microvascular endothelial cells in culture. Our results showed that the neovascularization was decreased in both the CNV and oxygen-induced retinopathy models in HB-EGF conditional knockout mice compared with that in wild-type mice. Moreover, the expressions of HB-EGF and VEGF were increased after laser-induced CNV and oxygen-induced retinopathy, and their expression sites were located around the neovascular areas. Exposure of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells to HB-EGF and VEGF increased their proliferation and migration, and CRM-197 (cross-reactive material-197), an HB-EGF inhibitor, decreased the HB-EGF-induced and VEGF-induced cell proliferation and migration. VEGF increased the expression of HB-EGF mRNA. VEGF-dependent activation of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor)/ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2) signaling and cell proliferation of endothelial cells required stimulation of the ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease) and ADAM12. CRM-197 decreased the grades of the fluorescein angiograms and size of the CNV areas in marmoset monkeys. These findings suggest that HB-EGF plays an important role in the development of CNV. Therefore, further investigations of HB-EGF are needed as a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. The NALP3/Cryopyrin-Inflammasome Complex is Expressed in LPS-Induced Ocular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. González-Benítez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the inflammosome complex, NALP3 or NALP1 binds to ASC and activates caspase-1 which induces IL-1β. In murine LPS-induced ocular inflammation, the production of IL-1β is increased. We suggest that NALP3- or NALP1-inflammasome complex can be participating in the LPS-induced ocular inflammation. In this work, eye, brain, testis, heart, spleen, and lung were obtained from C3H/HeN mice treated with LPS for 3 to 48 hours, and the expression of NALP1b, NALP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 was determined. Infiltrated leukocytes producing IL-1β in the anterior chamber were found at 12-hour posttreatment. A high upregulated expression of NALP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 was found at the same time when infiltrated leukocytes were observed. NALP1b was not detected in the eye of treated mice. NALP3 was also overexpressed in heart and lung. These results suggest that NALP3-, but not NALP1-inflammosome complex, is participating in the murine LPS-induced ocular inflammation.

  14. Long-term effect of latanoprost/timolol fixed combination in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension: A prospective, observational, noninterventional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenn Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective, observational studies that enroll large numbers of patients with few exclusion criteria may better reflect actual ongoing clinical experience than randomized clinical trials. Our purpose was to obtain efficacy and safety information from a cohort of subjects exposed to latanoprost/timolol fixed combination (FC for ≥18 months using a prospective, observational design. Methods In all, 577 office-based ophthalmologists in Germany switched 2339 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension to latanoprost/timolol FC for medical reasons. Follow-up visits were scheduled for every 6 months over 24 months; physicians followed usual care routines. Intraocular pressure (IOP, visual field status, optic nerve head findings, and adverse events were recorded. Efficacy parameters were evaluated for the per protocol (PP population; the safety population included subjects receiving ≥1 drop of FC. Physicians rated efficacy, tolerability, and subject compliance at month 24. Results Of the 2339 subjects switched to latanoprost/timolol FC (safety population, the primary reasons for switching were inadequate IOP reduction (78.2% and desire to simplify treatment with once-daily dosing (29.4%; multiple reasons possible. In all, 1317 (56.3% subjects completed the study, and 1028 (44.0% were included in the PP population. Most discontinuations were due to loss to follow-up. Change in mean IOP from baseline to month 6 was -4.0 ± 4.31 mmHg, a reduction that was maintained throughout (P Conclusions Over 24 months, latanoprost/timolol FC effectively lowers IOP levels and is well tolerated in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension who change from their previous ocular hypotensive therapy for medical reasons. Investigator assessments found optic disc parameters and visual field to be stable throughout 24 months of follow-up.

  15. Ocular findings in the chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Dahal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to evaluate the ocular signs in chronic renal failure (CRF in diabetes and hypertensive patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred and thirty eight cases were enrolled in the study from the nephrology unit of College Of Medical Science, Bharatpur, Nepal and examined in the department of Ophthalmology. The study duration was carried out over 2 years from January 2011 to December 2012. RESULT The number of cases in each grade of CRF were mild 80 (26.67%, moderate 84 (28%, severe 75 (25%, end stage renal disease 61 (20.33%. In all the groups the commonest cause of CRF were Hypertension (HTN 123 out of 300(41% and diabetes 98(32.67%. The commonest ocular symptoms in CRF was blurring of vision 68%. CONCLUSION Many important ocular findings like vitreous haemorrage, retinal detachment, neovascular glaucoma and cataract are the presentation in chronic renal failure, which can cause marked vision loss. Hence proper awareness should be provided to the people in time to prevent these ocular complications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i2.12949 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol.10(2; 18-26

  16. Effect of acute intraocular pressure elevation on the minimum rim width in normal, ocular hypertensive and glaucoma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sourabh; Tun, Tin A; Baskaran, Mani; Atalay, Eray; Thakku, Sri Gowtham; Liang, Zhang; Milea, Dan; Strouthidis, Nicholas G; Aung, Tin; Girard, Michael Ja

    2018-01-01

    To estimate and compare changes in the Bruch's membrane opening-minimum rim width (BMO-MRW) and area in normal, ocular hypertensive and glaucoma eyes following acute elevations in intraocular pressure (IOP). The optic nerve heads (ONHs) of 104 subjects (31 normals, 20 ocular hypertension (OHT) and 53 with primary glaucoma) were imaged using Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT; Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Germany). IOP was raised twice by applying a force (0.64 n then 0.9 n) to the anterior sclera using an ophthalmo-dynamometer. After each IOP increment, IOP was held constant, measured with a Tonopen (AVIA applanation tonometer, Reichert, Depew, New York, USA), and ONH was rescanned with OCT. In each OCT volume, BMO-MRW and area were calculated and at each IOP increment. The baseline MRW was significantly smaller in glaucoma subjects (174.3±54.3 µm) compared with normal (287.4±42.2 µm, pglaucoma subjects was significantly thinner at the first and second IOP elevations than that at baseline (both p0.05). Acute IOP elevation leads to compression of the nerve fibre layers of neuroretinal rim in glaucoma subjects only without changing ONH size. This suggests that the neural and connective tissues at ONH level in glaucoma subjects are more susceptible to acute IOP episodes than OHT or normal controls. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1%–brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sourabh Sharma,1 Sameer Trikha,1 Shamira A Perera,1 Tin Aung1,2 1Glaucoma Department, Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Centre, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: The main first-line treatment strategy for glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP by topical ocular hypotensive medications, but many patients require multiple medications for adequate IOP control. Fixed-combination therapies provide several benefits, including simplified treatment regimens, theoretical improved treatment adherence, elimination of the potential for washout of the first drug by the second, and the reduction in ocular exposure to preservatives. β-Adrenoceptor antagonists (particularly 0.5% timolol are the most commonly used agents in combination with other classes of drugs as fixed-combination eyedrops, but they are contraindicated in many patients, owing to local allergy or systemic side effects. A fixed-combination preparation without a β-blocker is therefore warranted. This paper reviews the clinical effectiveness of brinzolamide 1% and brimonidine 0.2% fixed combination (BBFC for use in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. We searched PubMed and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry, and identified three randomized controlled trials comparing BBFC vs its constituents (brimonidine vs brinzolamide, and one comparing BBFC with unfixed brimonidine and brinzolamide. All of the studies demonstrated mean diurnal IOP to be statistically significantly lower in the BBFC group compared with constituent groups and noninferior to that with the concomitant group using two separate bottles. The safety profile of BBFC was consistent with that of its individual components, the most common ocular adverse events being ocular hyperemia, visual disturbances, and ocular allergic reactions. Common systemic adverse effects included altered taste

  18. Hypoxia Inducible Factors and Hypertension: Lessons from Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Jayasri; Peng, Ying-Jie; Yuan, Guoxiang; Kumar, Ganesh K.; Prabhakar, Nanduri R.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is one of the most prevalent cardiovascular diseases. Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) with recurrent apnea is a major risk factor for developing essential hypertension. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) is a hallmark manifestation of recurrent apnea. Rodent models patterned after the O2 profiles seen with SDB patients showed that CIH is the major stimulus for causing systemic hypertension. This article reviews the physiological and molecular basis of CIH-induced hypertension. Physiological studies have identified that augmented carotid body chemosensory reflex and the resulting increase in sympathetic nerve activity is a major contributor to CIH-induced hypertension. Analysis of molecular mechanisms revealed that CIH activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 and suppresses HIF-2- mediated transcription. Dysregulation of HIF-1- and HIF-2- mediated transcription leads to imbalance of pro-oxidant and anti-oxidant enzyme gene expression resulting in increased reactive species (ROS) generation in the chemosensory reflex which is central for developing hypertension. PMID:25772710

  19. Fluvoxamine-induced intracranial hypertension in a 10-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Hemalini; Samant, Preetam

    2018-05-01

    Drug-induced intracranial hypertension is a well-established entity. We report a rare case of intracranial hypertension with papilledema in a 10-year-old boy following use of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. On discontinuing the drug, the papilledema resolved over 4 months without any residual visual anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fluvoxamine-induced intracranial hypertension with papilledema.

  20. Dasatinib-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension - A rare late complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Uroosa; Saqib, Amina; Dhar, Vidhya; Odaimi, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    Dasatinib is a dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for frontline and second line treatment of chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is defined by an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure >25 mmHg at rest. Dasatinib-induced pulmonary hypertension has been reported in less than 1% of patients on chronic dasatinib treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia. The pulmonary arterial hypertension from dasatinib may be categorized as either group 1 (drug-induced) or group 5 based on various mechanisms that may be involved including the pathogenesis of the disease process of chronic myelogenous leukemia. There have been reports of dasatinib-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension being reversible. We report a case of pulmonary arterial hypertension in a 46-year-old female patient with chronic phase chronic myelogenous leukemia on dasatinib treatment for over 10 years. She had significant improvement in symptoms after discontinuation of dasatinib and initiation of vasodilators. Several clinical questions arise once patients experience significant adverse effects as discussed in our case.

  1. Fluvoxamine-induced intracranial hypertension in a 10-year-old boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalini Samant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced intracranial hypertension is a well-established entity. We report a rare case of intracranial hypertension with papilledema in a 10-year-old boy following use of fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. On discontinuing the drug, the papilledema resolved over 4 months without any residual visual anomalies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fluvoxamine-induced intracranial hypertension with papilledema.

  2. Non-linear behaviour of power density and exposure time of argon laser on ocular tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, E M; Talaat, M S; Salem, E F [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    In ophthalmology, the thermal effect of argon laser is the most widely used category of laser- tissue interaction. The rise in tissue temperature has to exceed a threshold value for photo coagulation of retinal blood vessels. This value mainly depends on the laser. The most suitable argon laser power P and exposure time (t) which would be more effective for thermal and electrical behaviour of chicken eye was studied. This was achieved by measuring the variations in ocular temperature in electroretinogram (ERG) records under the effect of argon experiment, while power density (P) and exposure time (t) were varied in four different ways for each dose (pt). Results indicated that for the same laser dose, the temperature distribution of the eye, using low power density and high exposure time was higher than that high power density and low exposure time, indicating non-linearity of the laser dose. This finding was confirmed by ERG records which showed similar variations in b-wave latency, amplitude and duration, for the laser exposure conditions. This indicates variations in retinal function due to laser-dependent temperature variations. 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Tumor vascularity under hypertension induced by intravenous infusion of angiotensin II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    We studied whether or not the blood flow of tumors was increased by AT-II-induced hypertension in patients. Angiograms of 51 patients before and after intravenous infusion of AT-II were compared carefully from 5 points of view which suggested increased tumor blood flow. These were, 1) Contraction of small arteries feeding normal tissue, 2) Enhanced visualization of tumor vessels, 3) Enhanced visualization of tumor stain, 4) Increase of venous return from tumor-bearing region, and 5) Enhanced visualization of metastatic lymph nodes. The results were as follows. Contractions of small arteries feeding normal tissue [Finding 1)] were observed in 34 cases (66.6 %) and enhanced visualization of tumor vessels, tumor stain and so on [Finding 2)-5] were observed in 18 cases (35.3 %). Concequently, an increase of tumor blood flow was suggested in 40 cases (78.4 %). Blood flow of human tumors and normal tissue during the full course of induced hypertension with AT-II were measures by means of radionuclide angiography ( 99m Tc-RBC) and laser Doppler velocimetry. Activities of the tumor-bearing region and the mid-portion of the thigh (selected as normal tissue) were measured continuously by collimated scintillation detectors. In 26 measurements out of 31 (83.8 %), the activity in the thigh decreased promptly and returned to the baseline synchronously with the rise and fall of blood pressure. In contrast, in 11 measurements (34.4 %) the activity of the tumor-bearing region increased and returned to the baseline accompanying the change of blood pressure. Preliminary observations using laser Doppler velocimetry revealed an increase of blood flow in 5 tumors. In conclusion, the blood flow of human tumors was increased by AT-II, in agreement with the findings in animal tumors. (J.P.N.)

  4. Efficacy and safety of benzalkonium chloride-free fixed-dose combination of latanoprost and timolol in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat P

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purvi Bhagat,1 Kalyani Sodimalla,2 Chandrima Paul,3 Surinder S Pandav,4 Ganesh V Raman,5 Rengappa Ramakrishnan,6 Abhijeet Joshi,7 Atul Raut7 1Glaucoma Clinic, M & J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; 2Glaucoma Department, PBMA’s H.V. Desai Eye Hospital, Maharashtra, India; 3Glaucoma Service, B B Eye Foundation, Kolkata, India; 4Advanced Eye Centre, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India; 5Glaucoma Clinic, Aravind Eye Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu, India; 6Glaucoma Clinic, Aravind Eye Hospital, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India; 7Clinical Research Department, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India Background: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK is a common preservative in topical ocular preparations; however, prolonged use may lead to deleterious effects on the ocular surface, affecting quality of life and reducing adherence to treatment and overall outcomes. This study compared the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering efficacy and safety of a novel once-daily, BAK-free, fixed-dose combination of latanoprost plus timolol with latanoprost or timolol administered as monotherapy or concomitantly. Methods: This was a 6-week, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, active-controlled study in patients aged ≥18 years with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. A total of 227 patients were randomized to either a once-daily, BAK-free, fixed-dose combination of latanoprost 0.005%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution or concomitant administration of once-daily latanoprost 0.005% plus twice-daily timolol 0.5% or once-daily latanoprost 0.005% monotherapy, or twice-daily timolol 0.5% monotherapy. Efficacy end points were assessed at three time points on visits at weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 versus baseline. Results: The IOP-lowering efficacy of the fixed-dose combination of latanoprost/timolol was similar to that of latanoprost plus timolol administered

  5. A review of preserved and preservative-free prostaglandin analogues for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommer, A

    2010-06-01

    Glaucoma affects an increasing number of people worldwide and is the second leading cause of blindness. The aim of antiglaucoma therapy is to maintain a patient's visual function and quality of life. Prostaglandin analogues are first-line topical antiglaucoma therapy. They are effective at lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) and are generally well tolerated, with fewer systemic adverse events compared with the other classes. However, the use of prostaglandin analogues can be associated with ocular adverse effects, such as stinging/burning sensation, dry eyes, iris and periocular hyperpigmentation, and eye lash growth, which can affect patient compliance. Preservatives used in antiglaucoma preparations can have dose-dependent toxic effects, which contribute to adverse effects. The development of preservative-free preparations may reduce such adverse effects and therefore improve patient compliance. Tafluprost is a prostaglandin analogue in a preservative-free formulation that was recently approved for the reduction of elevated IOP in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  7. EP3/FP dual receptor agonist ONO-9054 administered morning or evening to patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: results of a randomised crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Michael S; Rowe-Rendleman, Cheryl; Ahmed, Ike; Ross, Douglas T; Fujii, Akifumi; Ouchi, Takafumi; Quach, Christine; Wood, Andrew; Ward, Caroline L

    2016-01-01

    Background/aims The novel prostaglandin E (EP) 3 and prostaglandin F (FP) receptor agonist ONO-9054 is effective in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma when administered once daily. This study compares the effects of morning (AM) versus evening (PM) dosing of ONO-9054 on tolerability and IOP lowering. Methods This was a single-centre, randomised, double-masked, two-sequence, placebo-controlled crossover study in 12 subjects with bilateral primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Two 14-day crossover regimens were separated by a 2-week washout: ONO-9054 (1 drop to each eye) in the morning (07:00) and vehicle in the evening (19:00) and vice versa. IOP was measured multiple times during select days. Ocular examinations also evaluated safety and tolerability. Results Mild ocular hyperaemia, reported by six subjects with PM dosing, was the most frequent adverse event. Mild to moderate dryness was also slightly more frequent after PM dosing. Maximum IOP reduction from baseline occurred on day 2 with decreases from baseline of −7.4 mm Hg (−30.8%) for AM dosing and −9.1 mm Hg, (−38.0%) for PM dosing; after 14 days, mean reduction in IOP was −6.8 mm Hg (−28.6%) for AM dosing and −7.5 mm Hg (−31.0%) for PM dosing. Conclusions PM dosing of ONO-0954 was associated with a slightly increased frequency of mild hyperaemia and mild to moderate dryness. Both dosing schedules provided sustained reduction in IOP. Trial registration number NCT01670266. PMID:26453641

  8. Unique sensitivity of the rabbit eye to X-ray-induced ocular inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bito, L Z; Klein, E M [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons

    1981-10-01

    The effects of X-irradiation of the eye on ocular parameters known to be altered during the inflammatory process were studied on albino and pigmented rabbits, guinea pigs, owl monkeys, cats ducks and pigeons. Within 1.5-3.0 hr after exposure to 10 Gy (1000 rads), all irradiated eyes of either albino or pigmented rabbits showed a significant increase in intraocular pressure, iridial hyperemia, and development of flare and presence of cells in the anterior chamber. Four hours after exposure, the concentration of soluble proteins in the aqueous humor was increased, while that of ascorbic acid was decreased. In contrast, eyes of owl monkeys, cats guinea pigs, ducks and pigeons, exposed to the same or, in some cases, up to eight times higher doses of X-rays, showed no hypertension or development of other parameters of intraocular inflammation. These and previous findings suggest that rabbits, or possibly Lagomorphs in general, are unique among vertebrates in their sensitivity to the early intraocular inflammatory effects of X-rays. In addition, these results seriously question the use of this species as the primary, and frequently sole model for the study of ocular inflammation, its mediation and therapeutics.

  9. Study of serum lipid profile in pregnancy induced hypertension in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At recent times, there has been a great interest on the role of lipid metabolism in the development of pregnancy induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia ... Results: Mean serum triglyceride was higher in (Group 1) pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension than in Groups 2 and 3, this was however not ...

  10. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A

    1990-01-01

    The placenta and the umbilical cord obtained from 18 women with pregnancy-induced hypertension were investigated by light microscopy. The umbilical artery was studied by electron microscopy. 10 placentae and umbilical cords from normal pregnancies served as controls. The study was performed...... fibrosis or intervillous fibrin. Ultrastructurally, the endothelial cells of the umbilical arteries from women with pregnancy-induced hypertension showed a significant increase in the amount of dilated endoplasmic reticulum and basal laminae thickness when all 18 cases were compared with the controls....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...

  11. Bioimaging of metallothioneins in ocular tissue sections by laser ablation-ICP-MS using bioconjugated gold nanoclusters as specific tags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Alonso, María; Fernandez, Beatriz; Álvarez, Lydia; González-Iglesias, Héctor; Traub, Heike; Jakubowski, Norbert; Pereiro, Rosario

    2017-12-18

    An immunohistochemical method is described to visualize the distribution of metallothioneins 1/2 (MT 1/2) and metallothionein 3 (MT 3) in human ocular tissue. It is making use of (a) antibodies conjugated to gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) acting as labels, and (b) laser ablation (LA) coupled to inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Water-soluble fluorescent AuNCs (with an average size of 2.7 nm) were synthesized and then conjugated to antibody by carbodiimide coupling. The surface of the modified AuNCs was then blocked with hydroxylamine to avoid nonspecific interactions with biological tissue. Immunoassays for MT 1/2 and MT 3 in ocular tissue sections (5 μm thick) from two post mortem human donors were performed. Imaging studies were then performed by fluorescence using confocal microscopy, and LA-ICP-MS was performed in the retina to measure the signal for gold. Signal amplification by the >500 gold atoms in each nanocluster allowed the antigens (MT 1/2 and MT 3) to be imaged by LA-ICP-MS using a laser spot size as small as 4 μm. The image patterns found in retina are in good agreement with those obtained by conventional fluorescence immunohistochemistry which was used as an established reference method. Graphical abstract Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) conjugated to a primary specific antibody serve as a label for amplified bioimaging of metallothioneins (MTs) by laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in human ocular tissue sections.

  12. beta-Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in hypertension-induced hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatner, D.E.; Kirby, D.A.; Homcy, C.J.; Vatner, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Perinephritic hypertension was produced in dogs by wrapping one kidney with silk and removing the contralateral kidney 1 week later. Mean arterial pressure rose from 104 +/- 3 to 156 +/- 11 mm Hg, while left ventricular free wall weight, normalized for body weight, was increased by 49%. Muscarinic, cholinergic receptor density measured with [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, fell in hypertensive left ventricles (181 +/- 19 fmol/mg, n = 6; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (272 +/- 16 fmol/mg, n = 8), while receptor affinity was not changed. The beta-adrenergic receptor density, measured by binding studies with [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol, rose in the hypertensive left ventricles (108 +/- 10 fmol/mg, n = 7; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (68.6 +/- 5.2 fmol/mg, n = 15), while beta-adrenergic receptor affinity decreased in the hypertensive left ventricles (10.4 +/- 1.2 nM) compared with that found in the normal left ventricles (5.0 +/- 0.7 nM). Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in the two groups, but myocardial norepinephrine levels were depressed (p less than 0.05) in dogs with hypertension. Moderate left ventricular hypertrophy induced by long-term aortic banding in dogs resulted in elevations in beta-adrenergic receptor density (115 +/- 14 fmol/mg) and decreases in affinity (10.4 +/- 2.2 nM) similar to those observed in the dogs with left ventricular hypertrophy induced by hypertension. Thus, these results suggest that perinephritic hypertension in the dog induces divergent effects on cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptor density. The increased beta-adrenergic receptor density and decreased affinity may be a characteristic of left ventricular hypertrophy rather than hypertension

  13. Inner ocular blood flow responses to an acute decrease in blood pressure in resting humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemura, Tsukasa; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Miyaji, Akane; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Whether inner ocular vessels have an autoregulatory response to acute fluctuations in blood pressure is unclear. We tried to examine the validity of acute hypotension elicited by thigh-cuff release as to assess the dynamic autoregulation in the ocular circulation. Blood flow velocity in the superior nasal and inferior temporal retinal arterioles, and in the retinal and choroidal vasculature were measured with the aid of laser speckle flowgraphy before and immediately after an acute decrease in blood pressure in 20 healthy subjects. Acute hypotension was induced by a rapid release of bilateral thigh occlusion cuffs that had been inflated to 220 mmHg for 2 min. The ratio of the relative change in retinal and choroidal blood flow velocity to the relative change in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was calculated. Immediately after cuff release, the MAP and blood flows in the all ocular target vessels decreased significantly from the baseline values obtained before thigh-cuff release. The ratio of the relative change in inner ocular blood flow velocity to that in the MAP exceeded 1% / %mmHg. An explicit dynamic autoregulation in inner ocular vessels cannot be demonstrated in response to an acute hypotension induced by the thigh-cuff release technique. (paper)

  14. Arterial stiffening precedes systolic hypertension in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrod, Robert M; Shiang, Tina; Al Sayah, Leona; Fry, Jessica L; Bajpai, Saumendra; Reinhart-King, Cynthia A; Lob, Heinrich E; Santhanam, Lakshmi; Mitchell, Gary; Cohen, Richard A; Seta, Francesca

    2013-12-01

    Stiffening of conduit arteries is a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Aortic wall stiffening increases pulsatile hemodynamic forces that are detrimental to the microcirculation in highly perfused organs, such as the heart, brain, and kidney. Arterial stiffness is associated with hypertension but presumed to be due to an adaptive response to increased hemodynamic load. In contrast, a recent clinical study found that stiffness precedes and may contribute to the development of hypertension although the mechanisms underlying hypertension are unknown. Here, we report that in a diet-induced model of obesity, arterial stiffness, measured in vivo, develops within 1 month of the initiation of the diet and precedes the development of hypertension by 5 months. Diet-induced obese mice recapitulate the metabolic syndrome and are characterized by inflammation in visceral fat and aorta. Normalization of the metabolic state by weight loss resulted in return of arterial stiffness and blood pressure to normal. Our findings support the hypothesis that arterial stiffness is a cause rather than a consequence of hypertension.

  15. Induced Current Characteristics Due to Laser Induced Plasma and Its Application to Laser Processing Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjid, Syahrun Nur; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2011-01-01

    In laser processing, suitable conditions for laser and gas play important role in ensuring a high quality of processing. To determine suitable conditions, we employed the electromagnetic phenomena associated with laser plasma generation. An electrode circuit was utilised to detect induced current due to the fast electrons propelled from the material during laser material processing. The characteristics of induced current were examined by changing parameters such as supplied voltage, laser pulse energy, number of laser shots, and type of ambient gas. These characteristics were compared with the optical emission characteristics. It was shown that the induced current technique proposed in this study is much more sensitive than the optical method in monitoring laser processing, that is to determine the precise focusing condition, and to accurately determine the moment of completion of laser beam penetration. In this study it was also shown that the induced current technique induced by CW CO 2 laser can be applied in industrial material processing for monitoring the penetration completion in a stainless steel plate drilling process.

  16. ROCK inhibitors in ocular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Halasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rho kinases (ROCKs have a crucial role in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization and thus are involved in broad aspects of cell motility, from smooth muscle contraction to neurite outgrowth. The first marketed ROCK inhibitor, called fasudil, has been used safely for treatment of cerebral vasospasm since 1995 in Japan. During the succeeding decades ROCK inhibitors have been applied in many pathological conditions from central nervous system disorders to cardiovascular disease as potential therapeutic agents or experimental tools to help understand the underlying (pathomechanisms. In 2014, a fasudil derivate named ripasudil was accepted for clinical use in glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Since ROCK kinases are widely expressed in ocular tissues, they have been implicated in the pathology of many ocular conditions such as corneal dysfunction, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. This paper aims to provide an overview of the most recent status/application of ROCK inhibitors in the field of eye disease.

  17. Laser-induced nuclear fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, Claude

    1977-01-01

    Research programs on laser-induced thermonuclear fusion in the United States, in Europe and in USSR are reviewed. The principle of the fusion reactions induced is explained, together with the theoretical effects of the following phenomena: power and type of laser beams, shape and size of the solid target, shock waves, and laser-hydrodynamics coupling problems [fr

  18. The unique sensitivity of the rabbit eye to X-ray-induced ocular inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bito, L.Z.; Klein, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation of the eye on ocular parameters known to be altered during the inflammatory process were studied on albino and pigmented rabbits, guinea pigs, owl monkeys, cats ducks and pigeons. Within 1.5-3.0 hr after exposure to 10 Gy (1000 rads), all irradiated eyes of either albino or pigmented rabbits showed a significant increase in intraocular pressure, iridial hyperemia, and development of flare and presence of cells in the anterior chamber. Four hours after exposure, the concentration of soluble proteins in the aqueous humor was increased, while that of ascorbic acid was decreased. In contrast, eyes of owl monkeys, cats guinea pigs, ducks and pigeons, exposed to the same or, in some cases, up to eight times higher doses of X-rays, showed no hypertension or development of other parameters of intraocular inflammation. These and previous findings suggest that rabbits, or possibly Lagomorphs in general, are unique among vertebrates in their sensitivity to the early intraocular inflammatory effects of X-rays. In addition, these results seriously question the use of this species as the primary, and frequently sole model for the study of ocular inflammation, its mediation and therapeutics. (author)

  19. Molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jianglin; Guo Ren; Liu Shikun; Chen Qingjie; Zuo Shanru; Yang Meng; Zuo Xiaocong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tacrolimus (FK506) is an immunosuppressive drug,which is widely used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs.However,chronic administration of FK506 leads to hypertension in solid organ transplantation patients,and its molecular mechanisms are much more complicated.In this review,we will discuss the above-mentioned molecular mechanisms of FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.Data sources The data analyzed in this review were mainly from relevant articles without restriction on the publication date reported in PubMed.The terms "FK506" or "tacrolimus" and "hypertension"were used for the literature search.Study selection Original articles with no limitation of research design and critical reviews containing data relevant to FK506-induced hypertension and its molecular mechanisms were retrieved,reviewed and analyzed.Results There are several molecular mechanisms attributed to FK506-induced hypertension in solid organ transplantation subjects.First,FK506 binds FK506 binding protein 12 and its related isoform 12.6 (FKBP12/12.6) and removes them from intracellular ryanodine receptors that induce a calcium ion leakage from the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum.The conventional protein kinase C beta II (cPKCβⅡ)-mediated phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase at Thr495,which reduces the production of NO,was activated by calcium ion leakage.Second,transforming growth factor receptor/SMAD2/3 signaling activation plays an important role in Treg/Th17 cell imbalance in T cells which toget converge to cause inflammation,endothelial dysfunction,and hypertension following tacrolimus treatment.Third,the activation of with-no-K(Lys) kinases/STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase/thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter (WNKs/SPAK/NCC) pathway has a central role in tacrolimus-induced hypertension.Finally,the enhanced activity of renal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system seems to play a crucial role in

  20. Basic Technology and Clinical Applications of the Updated Model of Laser Speckle Flowgraphy to Ocular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Sugiyama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG allows for quantitative estimation of blood flow in the optic nerve head (ONH, choroid and retina, utilizing the laser speckle phenomenon. The basic technology and clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI, the updated model of LSFG, are summarized in this review. For developing a commercial version of LSFG, the special area sensor was replaced by the ordinary charge-coupled device camera. In LSFG-NAVI, the mean blur rate (MBR has been introduced as a new parameter. Compared to the original LSFG model, LSFG-NAVI demonstrates a better spatial resolution of the blood flow map of human ocular fundus. The observation area is 24 times larger than the original system. The analysis software can separately calculate MBRs in the blood vessels and tissues (capillaries of an entire ONH and the measurements have good reproducibility. The absolute values of MBR in the ONH have been shown to linearly correlate with the capillary blood flow. The Analysis of MBR pulse waveform provides parameters including skew, blowout score, blowout time, rising and falling rates, flow acceleration index, acceleration time index, and resistivity index for comparing different eyes. Recently, there have been an increasing number of reports on the clinical applications of LSFG-NAVI to ocular diseases, including glaucoma, retinal and choroidal diseases.

  1. Sex differences in angiotensin II- induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Xue

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease have been described in humans and in animal models. In this paper we will review some of our studies which have as their emphasis the examination of the role of sex differences and sex steroids in modulating the central actions of angiotensin II (ANG II via interactions with free radicals and nitric oxide, generating pathways within brain circumventricular organs and in central sympathomodulatory systems. Our studies indicate that low-dose infusions of ANG II result in hypertension in wild-type male mice but not in intact wild-type females. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ANG II-induced hypertension in males is blocked by central infusions of the androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, and by central infusions of the superoxide dismutase mimetic, tempol. We have also found that, in comparison to females, males show greater levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in circumventricular organ neurons following long-term ANG II infusions. In female mice, ovariectomy, central blockade of estrogen receptors or total knockout of estrogen a receptors augments the pressor effects of ANG II. Finally, in females but not in males, central blockade of nitric oxide synthase increases the pressor effects of ANG II. Taken together, these results suggest that sex differences and estrogen and testosterone play important roles in the development of ANG II-induced hypertension.

  2. Frequency of maternal mortality and morbidity in pregnancy-induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, S.; Jabeen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is defines as hypertension in pregnancy, and is sustained blood pressure >140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic. Objective of this study was to see the maternal outcome in terms of morbidity and mortality in PIH. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in Obstetrics and Gynaecology Unit of Fauji Foundation Hospital, Rawalpindi from January to December 2010. Both booked and un-booked cases were selected after fulfilling inclusion criteria. A detailed history and clinical examination was recorded and relevant investigations were performed. Patients were monitored for rise in blood pressure, development of complications related to hypertensions in pregnancy as well as maternal and perinatal outcome. Results: During this period, 100 patients were admitted with pregnancy-induced hypertension. Majority were un-booked. Primigravida were 60 (60%), and were in age group 21-30 year, remaining were above 30 year. Four patients had placental abruption, 2 pulmonary oedema, 5 HELLP syndrome, 2 severe renal impairment, 20 elevated liver enzyme, 23 uncontrolled blood pressure, 20 server preeclampsia, 10 thrombocytopenia, 3 eclampsia, 10 had impaired coagulation profile, and 1 had maternal death. Conclusion: Pregnancy induced hypertension is a major cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. In Pakistan, its incidence and related mortality are high due to lack of adequate antenatal care. (author)

  3. Infrared laser-induced chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Mikio

    1978-01-01

    The experimental means which clearly distinguishes between infrared ray-induced reactions and thermal reactions has been furnished for the first time when an intense monochromatic light source has been obtained by the development of infrared laser. Consequently, infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have started to develop as one field of chemical reaction researches. Researches of laser-induced chemical reactions have become new means for the researches of chemical reactions since they were highlighted as a new promising technique for isotope separation. Specifically, since the success has been reported in 235 U separation using laser in 1974, comparison of this method with conventional separation techniques from the economic point of view has been conducted, and it was estimated by some people that the laser isotope separation is cheaper. This report briefly describes on the excitation of oscillation and reaction rate, and introduces the chemical reactions induced by CW laser and TEA CO 2 laser. Dependence of reaction yield on laser power, measurement of the absorbed quantity of infrared ray and excitation mechanism are explained. Next, isomerizing reactions are reported, and finally, isotope separation is explained. It was found that infrared laser-induced chemical reactions have the selectivity for isotopes. Since it is evident that there are many examples different from thermal and photo-chemical reactions, future collection of the data is expected. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. HIMALAIA (Hypertension Induction in the Management of AneurysmaL subArachnoid haemorrhage with secondary IschaemiA): a randomized single-blind controlled trial of induced hypertension vs. no induced hypertension in the treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathier, C S; van den Bergh, W M; Slooter, A J C

    2014-04-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One option to treat delayed cerebral ischemia is to use induced hypertension, but its efficacy on the eventual outcome has not been proven in a randomized clinical trial. This article describes the design of the HIMALAIA trial (Hypertension Induction in the Management of AneurysmaL subArachnoid haemorrhage with secondary IschaemiA), designed to assess the effectiveness of induced hypertension on neurological outcome in patients with DCI after SAH. To investigate whether induced hypertension improves the functional outcome in patients with delayed cerebral ischemia after SAH. The HIMALAIA trial is a multicenter, singe-blinded, randomized controlled trial in patients with DCI after a recent SAH. Eligible patients will be randomized to either induced hypertension (n = 120) or to no induced hypertension (n = 120). In selected centers, the efficacy of induced hypertension in augmenting cerebral blood flow will be measured by means of cerebral perfusion computerized tomography scanning. Follow-up assessments will be performed at 3 and 12 months after randomization by trial nurses who are blinded to the treatment allocation and management. We will include patients during five years. The primary outcome is the proportion of subarachnoid hemorrhage patients with delayed cerebral ischemia with poor outcome three-months after randomization, defined as a modified Rankin scale of more than 3. Secondary outcome measures are related to treatment failure, functional outcome, adverse events, and cerebral hemodynamics. The HIMALAIA trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under identifier NCT01613235. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  5. Efficacy and safety of prostaglandin analogues in patients with predominantly primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oghenowede Eyawo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Oghenowede Eyawo1, Jean Nachega2,3, Pierre Lefebvre4, David Meyer5, Beth Rachlis6, Chia-Wen Lee7, Steven Kelly7, Edward Mills81Faculty of Health Sciences, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada; 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 3Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA; 4Department of Ophthalmology, Moorfields Eye Hospital, London, United Kingdom; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; 6Department of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 7Outcome Research and Evidence Based Medicine, Pfizer Ltd UK. Tadworth, UK; 8Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, CanadaBackground: First-line therapy for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension generally involves prostaglandin analogue therapy. The relative efficacy of differing prostaglandin therapy is disputed.Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted of head-to-head randomized trials of prostaglandin therapies. We included randomized trials assessing head-to-head evaluations of prostaglandin analogues travoprost, latanoprost and bimatoprost in patients with predominantly primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Findings were interpreted in light of equivalence margins.Results: Our search identified 16 eligible trials, of which 15 were included in the meta-analysis. Trials were, in general, poorly reported. We pooled 9 trials assessing IOP-lowering effects of travoprost vs latanoprost (total n = 1098, weighted mean difference [WMD], –0.24 mmHg, 95% CI, –0.87 to 0.38, P = 0.45, I2 = 56%, 95% CI, 0 to 0.77, heterogeneity P = 0.01. Eight trials assessed travoprost vs bimatoprost (total n = 714, WMD, 0.88 mmHg, 95% CI, 0.13 to 1.63, P = 0.02, I2 = 56%, 95% CI, 0% to 78%, heterogeneity P = 0.02. And 8 trials assessed latanoprost vs bimatoprost (total n = 943, WMD, 0.73 mmHg, 95% CI, 0.10 to 1

  6. Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells From Hypertensive Patient-Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Advance Hypertension Pharmacogenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biel, Nikolett M; Santostefano, Katherine E; DiVita, Bayli B; El Rouby, Nihal; Carrasquilla, Santiago D; Simmons, Chelsey; Nakanishi, Mahito; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M; Johnson, Julie A; Terada, Naohiro

    2015-12-01

    Studies in hypertension (HTN) pharmacogenomics seek to identify genetic sources of variable antihypertensive drug response. Genetic association studies have detected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that link to drug responses; however, to understand mechanisms underlying how genetic traits alter drug responses, a biological interface is needed. Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a potential source for studying otherwise inaccessible tissues that may be important to antihypertensive drug response. The present study established multiple iPSC lines from an HTN pharmacogenomics cohort. We demonstrated that established HTN iPSCs can robustly and reproducibly differentiate into functional vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), a cell type most relevant to vasculature tone control. Moreover, a sensitive traction force microscopy assay demonstrated that iPSC-derived VSMCs show a quantitative contractile response on physiological stimulus of endothelin-1. Furthermore, the inflammatory chemokine tumor necrosis factor α induced a typical VSMC response in iPSC-derived VSMCs. These studies pave the way for a large research initiative to decode biological significance of identified SNPs in hypertension pharmacogenomics. Treatment of hypertension remains suboptimal, and a pharmacogenomics approach seeks to identify genetic biomarkers that could be used to guide treatment decisions; however, it is important to understand the biological underpinnings of genetic associations. Mouse models do not accurately recapitulate individual patient responses based on their genetics, and hypertension-relevant cells are difficult to obtain from patients. Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology provides a great interface to bring patient cells with their genomic data into the laboratory and to study hypertensive responses. As an initial step, the present study established an iPSC bank from patients with primary hypertension and demonstrated an effective

  7. Surveillance of Ocular Parameters and Visual Function in Bed Rest Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent visual changes in astronauts have raised concern about ocular health during long duration spaceflight. Seven cases have been documented in astronauts who spent 6 months aboard the International Space Station. These astronauts were male ranging in age from 45 to 55 years old. All astronauts exhibited pre- to post flight refractive changes. Decreased intraocular pressure (IOP) post flight was observed in 3 cases. Fundoscopic exams revealed post flight findings of choroidal folds in 4 cases, optic disc edema in 5 cases and the presence of cotton wool spots in 3 cases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) confirmed findings of choroidal folds and disc edema, and also documented retinal nerve fiber layer thickening (5 cases). Findings from MRI examinations showed posterior globe flattening (5 cases), optic nerve sheath distention (6 cases) and torturous optic nerves (2 cases). Of the 7 cases, intracranial pressure was measured on 4 astronauts. These 4 showed elevated ICP post-flight that remained elevated for as long as 19 months in one case. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that venous insufficiency or hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight are possible mechanisms for ocular changes seen in astronauts. Head-down tilt bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. This study is designed to provide ocular monitoring of bed rest subjects and determine whether clinically relevant changes are found. Ocular Changes

  8. IgG receptor FcγRIIB plays a key role in obesity-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S; Chambliss, Ken L; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W

    2015-02-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that FcγRIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that FcγRIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas FcγRIIB(+/+) mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, FcγRIIB(-/-) mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; FcγRIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet-fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an FcγRIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for FcγRIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting FcγRIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. IgG Receptor FcγRIIB Plays a Key Role in Obesity-Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Nathan C.; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Boggan, Brigid-Meghan D.; Tanigaki, Keiji; Yuhanna, Ivan S.; Chambliss, Ken L.; Mineo, Chieko; Shaul, Philip W.

    2015-01-01

    There is a well-recognized association between obesity, inflammation, and hypertension. Why obesity causes hypertension is poorly understood. We previously demonstrated using a C-reactive protein (CRP) transgenic mouse that CRP induces hypertension that is related to NO deficiency. Our prior work in cultured endothelial cells identified the Fcγ receptor IIB (FcγRIIB) as the receptor for CRP whereby it antagonizes endothelial NO synthase. Recognizing known associations between CRP and obesity and hypertension in humans, in the present study we tested the hypothesis that FcγRIIB plays a role in obesity-induced hypertension in mice. Using radiotelemetry, we first demonstrated that the hypertension observed in transgenic mouse-CRP is mediated by the receptor, indicating that FcγRIIB is capable of modifying blood pressure. We then discovered in a model of diet-induced obesity yielding equal adiposity in all study groups that whereas FcγRIIB+/+ mice developed obesity-induced hypertension, FcγRIIB−/− mice were fully protected. Levels of CRP, the related pentraxin serum amyloid P component which is the CRP-equivalent in mice, and total IgG were unaltered by diet-induced obesity; FcγRIIB expression in endothelium was also unchanged. However, whereas IgG isolated from chow-fed mice had no effect, IgG from high-fat diet–fed mice inhibited endothelial NO synthase in cultured endothelial cells, and this was an FcγRIIB-dependent process. Thus, we have identified a novel role for FcγRIIB in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced hypertension, independent of processes regulating adiposity, and it may entail an IgG-induced attenuation of endothelial NO synthase function. Approaches targeting FcγRIIB may potentially offer new means to treat hypertension in obese individuals. PMID:25368023

  10. Renal and endocrine changes in rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amstislavsky, Sergej; Welker, Pia; Frühauf, Jan-Henning

    2006-01-01

    Hypertensive inbred rats (ISIAH; inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension) present with baseline hypertension (>170 mmHg in adult rats), but attain substantially higher values upon mild emotional stress. We aimed to characterize key parameters related to hypertension in ISIAH. Kidneys, adre...

  11. Laser induced energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falcone, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    Two related methods of rapidly transferring stored energy from one excited chemical species to another are described. The first of these, called a laser induced collision, involves a reaction in which the energy balance is met by photons from an intense laser beam. A collision cross section of ca 10 - 17 cm 2 was induced in an experiment which demonstrated the predicted dependence of the cross section on wavelength and power density of the applied laser. A second type of laser induced energy transfer involves the inelastic scattering of laser radiation from energetically excited atoms, and subsequent absorption of the scattered light by a second species. The technique of producing the light, ''anti-Stokes Raman'' scattering of visible and infrared wavelength laser photons, is shown to be an efficient source of narrow bandwidth, high brightness, tunable radiation at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths by using it to excite a rare gas transition at 583.7 A. In addition, this light source was used to make the first measurement of the isotopic shift of the helium metastable level at 601 A. Applications in laser controlled chemistry and spectroscopy, and proposals for new types of lasers using these two energy transfer methods are discussed

  12. Preservative-free bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutz E Pillunat,1 Peter Eschstruth,2 Stefan Häsemeyer,3 Ulrich Thelen,4 Christian Foja,5 Richard Leaback,6 Stefan Pfennigsdorf7 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, 2Ophthalmology Practice, Kiel, 3Eye Center Kraichgau, Wiesloch, 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Münster, Münster, 5Ophthalmology Practice, Leipzig, Germany; 6Allergan Holdings Ltd., Marlow, UK; 7Ophthalmology Practice, Polch, Germany Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering medications for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension commonly contain preservatives that can cause ocular surface damage in many patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of, and compliance to, preservative-free (PF bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (IOP ≥18 mmHg in a clinical practice setting. Methods: This open-label study observed patients who were switched to PF bimatoprost 0.03% for medical reasons. IOP was measured at baseline and ~12 weeks later at the final visit, and the change in IOP was calculated. Tolerability and continuation of therapy were assessed at two follow-up visits. Results: A total of 1,830 patients were included in the study, and complete IOP data were available for 1,543 patients. Mean IOP was reduced by 23% from 21.64 mmHg to 16.59 mmHg (P<0.0001. In subgroup analyses, the mean IOP was significantly reduced compared with baseline, regardless of prior therapy, including those previously treated with PF monotherapy. A total of 85.7% of physicians reported the IOP-lowering efficacy of PF bimatoprost 0.03% to be as expected or better than expected. Adverse events (AEs were experienced by 5.7% of patients, and there were no serious AEs reported. The most common AEs were eye irritation (1.7% and hyperemia (1.4%. Physician-reported treatment compliance was reported as better than (48.7% or equal to (43.6% prior treatment in

  13. Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Ameliorate Cyclosporine A-Induced Hypertension in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Valorie L; Bounds, Kelsey R; Chatterjee, Piyali; Manandhar, Lochana; Pakanati, Abhinandan R; Hernandez, Marcos; Aziz, Bilal; Mitchell, Brett M

    2018-01-01

    The calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) suppresses the immune system but promotes hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and renal damage. CsA decreases regulatory T cells and this contributes to the development of hypertension. However, CsA's effects on another important regulatory immune cell subset, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), is unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting MDSCs would ameliorate the CsA-induced hypertension and vascular and renal injury and dysfunction and that CsA reduces MDSCs in mice. Daily interleukin-33 treatment, which increased MDSC levels, completely prevented CsA-induced hypertension and vascular and renal toxicity. Adoptive transfer of MDSCs from control mice into CsA-treated mice after hypertension was established dose-dependently reduced blood pressure and vascular and glomerular injury. CsA treatment of aortas and kidneys isolated from control mice for 24 hours decreased relaxation responses and increased inflammation, respectively, and these effects were prevented by the presence of MDSCs. MDSCs also prevented the CsA-induced increase in fibronectin in microvascular and glomerular endothelial cells. Last, CsA dose-dependently reduced the number of MDSCs by inhibiting calcineurin and preventing cell proliferation, as other direct calcineurin signaling pathway inhibitors had the same dose-dependent effect. These data suggest that augmenting MDSCs can reduce the cardiovascular and renal toxicity and hypertension caused by CsA. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Efficacy and safety of preservative-free latanoprost eyedrops, compared with BAK-preserved latanoprost in patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouland, Jean-François; Traverso, Carlo Enrico; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Fekih, Lamia El; Delval, Laurent; Renault, Didier; Baudouin, Christophe

    2013-02-01

    To compare efficacy (intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction) and safety of preservative-free latanoprost (T2345) to benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved latanoprost (BPL; Xalatan) in ocular hypertension (OHT) or primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. Prospective, international, multicentre, randomised, investigator-masked, parallel-group trial. After a wash-out period, POAG or OHT patients, previously managed by BPL monotherapy, randomly received T2345 or BPL (one drop into the affected eye(s)) once daily from D0 to D84. Change in IOP was measured at 09:00 (±1 h) from D0 to D84 in the worse eye. Mean IOP reduction (D0-D84) was -8.6±2.6 mm Hg (-36%) on T2345 and -9.0±2.4 mm Hg (-38%) on BPL, confirming non-inferiority of T2345 to BPL. Non-inferiority of T2345 was observed from D15. The most frequent ocular adverse event, drug intolerance, was reported in 1 (0.5%) patient on T2345 versus 4 (2.1%) patients on BPL. Moderate to severe conjunctival hyperaemia was less frequent on T2345 than on BPL at D42 (20.2% vs 30.6%; p=0.003) and D84 (21.4% vs 29.1%; p=0.02). Upon instillation, the global subjective ocular symptom score was significantly lower on T2345 than BPL on D42 (0.15 vs 0.41; p=0.001) and D84 (0.18 vs 0.46; p=0.001). Preservative-free latanoprost has the same efficacy as BPL, with improved local tolerance.

  15. Free radical scavenging reverses fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenner ZP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Zachary P Zenner, Kevin L Gordish, William H Beierwaltes Department of Internal Medicine, Hypertension and Vascular Research Division, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: We have previously reported that a moderate dietary supplementation of 20% fructose but not glucose leads to a salt-sensitive hypertension related to increased proximal sodium–hydrogen exchanger activity and increased renal sodium retention. We also found that while high salt increased renal nitric oxide formation, this was retarded in the presence of fructose intake. We hypothesized that at least part of the pathway leading to fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension could be due to fructose-induced formation of reactive oxygen species and inappropriate stimulation of renin secretion, all of which would contribute to an increase in blood pressure. We found that both 20% fructose intake and a high-salt diet stimulated 8-isoprostane excretion. The superoxide dismutase (SOD mimetic tempol significantly reduced this elevated excretion. Next, we placed rats on a high-salt diet (4% for 1 week in combination with normal rat chow or 20% fructose with or without chronic tempol administration. A fructose plus high-salt diet induced a rapid increase (15 mmHg in systolic blood pressure and reversed high salt suppression of plasma renin activity. Tempol treatment reversed the pressor response and restored high salt suppression of renin. We conclude that fructose-induced salt-sensitive hypertension is driven by increased renal reactive oxygen species formation associated with salt retention and an enhanced renin–angiotensin system. Keywords: reactive oxygen species, tempol, sodium, renin, oxidative stress

  16. [Ocular Surface Evaluation in Patients Treated with Prostaglandin Analogues Considering Preservative Agent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlčáková, E; Mlčák, P; Karhanová, M; Langová, K; Marešová, K

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ocular surface in patients treated with prostaglandin analogues considering contained preservative agent. 60 patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension treated with prostaglandin analogue monotherapy were enrolled in this observational study. 20 patients with glaucoma suspect or ocular hypertension without local or systemic glaucoma medication formed the control group. Demographic data and medical history were recorded for each participant. Patients filled in the Ocular surface disease index© (OSDI) questionnaire and underwent an ophthalmological examination including assessment of conjunctival hyperaemia according to Efron, tear film break up time (BUT) and fluorescein staining according to the Oxford grading scheme. Treated participants were divided into 3 groups according to the preservative contained in the currently used prostaglandin analogue: the preservative-free group (18 patients), the polyquaternium group (17 patients) and the benzalkonium chloride (BAK) group (25 patients). The control group had significantly lower fluorescein staining than the preservative-free group (p=0.001), the polyquaternium group (p=0.007) and the BAK group (p=0.002). The conjunctival hyperaemia was significantly lower in the preservative-free group compared to the polyquaternium group (p=0.011). There was no significant difference among the other groups. The difference neither in the OSDI score nor in the BUT was statistically important. This study confirmed that the ocular surface is worse in patients treated with prostaglandin analogue monotherapy than in people without glaucoma medication. A significant difference among treated patients depending on a preservative agent was not proved.Key words: benzalkonium chloride, glaucoma, ocular surface disease, preservatives, prostaglandin analogues.

  17. MATERNAL OUTCOME IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL IN A RURAL AREA IN TELANGANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Reddy Kothapally

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM To analyse the maternal outcome in pregnancy induced hypertension and improve the management strategies. INTRODUCTION Pregnancy induced hypertension is a medical disease peculiar to pregnancy, making pregnancy a high risk condition. Among medical disorders complicating pregnancy, it stands next to anaemia in prevalence. It is responsible for majority of the maternal morbidity and mortality. It also has an adverse perinatal outcome. Hence, early detection and timely intervention of women with pregnancy induced hypertension is important for good maternal and perinatal outcome. MATERIAL & METHODS The present Prospective Observational study was done from April 2015 to February 2016 in the department of obstetrics & gynaecology at Bhaskar medical college and general hospital, Yenkepally, Moinabad, Telangana. A total of 102 pregnant women with pregnancy induced hypertension were enrolled into the study. Demographic details like age, parity, previous obstetric history of pregnancy induced hypertension and diabetes, past history of polycystic ovarian disease, treatment for infertility, gestational age at which hypertension developed in the present pregnancy were noted. Relevant investigations were performed. Gestational age of delivery, mode of delivery and maternal complications were noted. RESULTS The incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension was 4% in the study population. About 59.8% developed pregnancy induced hypertension in the third trimester. Out of this, 64.7% cases were gestational hypertension and 35.3% cases were preeclampsia. Nearly half (41.7% of preeclampsia cases were severe preeclampsia. Postpartum haemorrhage is the commonest complication (13.7%, next being imminent eclampsia (7.8%, abruption (4.9%, eclampsia (3.9% and HELLP syndrome (0.98%. 80% of cases could be delivered beyond 37 weeks of gestational age. 71.57% of cases had lower segment caesarean section for indicated conditions. More than half of pregnancy induced

  18. Assessment of Nephroprotective Potential of Histochrome during Induced Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agafonova, I G; Bogdanovich, R N; Kolosova, N G

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance tomography was employed to verify endothelial dysfunction of renal arteries in Wistar and OXYS rats under conditions of induced arterial hypertension. Angiography revealed changes in the size and form of renal arteries of hypertensive animals. In hypertensive rats, histochrome exerted a benevolent therapeutic effect in renal arteries: it decreased BP, diminished thrombus formation in fi ne capillaries and arterioles, demonstrated the anticoagulant properties, partially improved endothelial dysfunction of small renal arteries, and up-regulated the glomerular filtration.

  19. A Novel Approach for Sub-Threshold Detection and Prevention of Laser Injury in Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-31

    which laser-induced changes in the autofluorescence features of retina were observed in vivo following laser treatment. 10 Use or disclosure of...wavelength scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) for multi spectral in vivo fluorescence imaging of animal retina following laser exposure. The imaging...system was optimized for retinal imaging in aged Brown Norway rats. In order to induce laser lesions in the retina in vivo, we integrated the surgical

  20. Impact of laser pulse duration on the reduction of intraocular pressure during selective laser trabeculoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunf Pukl, Spela; Drnovšek-Olup, Brigita

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), normal tension glaucoma (NTG) or ocular hypertension (OHT), when performed with laser pulse duration of 1 ns compared with standard 3-5 ns. Bilateral SLT with a 532 nm Q-switched neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser was conducted in 30 patients (60 eyes) with POAG (n = 5), NTG (n = 2) or OHT (n = 23). Pulse duration was 1 ns in the right eye (30 eyes; cases) and 3-5 ns in all left eyes (controls). Main outcome measures were IOP at 1 h, 1 day, 8 weeks and 6 months, and the rate of adverse ocular tissue reactions in all eyes. Mean 1 ns and 3-5 ns SLT IOPs were 24.1 and 24.3 mmHg, respectively, at baseline. No statistically significant difference in mean 1 ns and 3-5 ns SLT IOP was observed at 1 h (P = 0.761), 1 day (P = 0.758), 8 weeks (P = 0.352) and 6 months postoperatively (P = 0.879). No significant difference in postoperative anterior chamber inflammation was observed between the eyes (P = 0.529). Treatment with both laser pulse durations resulted in minor ultrastructural changes in the drainage angle. SLT performed with a 1 ns laser pulse duration does not appear to be inferior to SLT performed with the standard 3-5 ns duration at lowering IOP in treatment-naïve patients with POAG, NTG or OHT.

  1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in spontaneously hypertensive rats: a pathophysiological model for the combined effects of hypertension and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, A. J.; van der Wal, A. C.; Mathy, M. J.; Kam, K. L.; Hendriks, M. G.; Pfaffendorf, M.; van Zwieten, P. A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the combined effects of hypertension and streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in the rat. Accordingly, four groups of rats were studied: Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), diabetic WKY, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and diabetic SHR, respectively.

  2. Preference for a fixed combination of brinzolamide/timolol versus dorzolamide/timolol among patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanseau, Ana; Sampaolesi, Juan; Suzuki, Emilio Rintaro; Lopes, Joao Franca; Borel, Hector

    2013-01-01

    To assess ocular discomfort upon instillation and patient preference for brinzolamide/timolol relative to dorzolamide/timolol, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This was a multicenter, prospective, patient-masked, randomized, crossover study. On day 0, patients received one drop of brinzolamide/timolol in one eye and one drop of dorzolamide/timolol in the contralateral eye. On day 1, patients were randomly assigned to receive one drop of either brinzolamide/timolol or dorzolamide/timolol in both eyes; on day 2, patients received one drop of the alternate treatment in both eyes. Measures included a patient preference question on day 2 (primary) and mean ocular discomfort scale scores on days 1 and 2 (secondary). Safety assessments included adverse events, visual acuity, and slit-lamp examinations. Of 120 patients who enrolled, 115 completed the study. Of these, 112 patients instilled both medications and expressed a study medication preference on day 2. A significantly greater percentage preferred brinzolamide/timolol to dorzolamide/timolol (67.0% versus 30.4%; P day 2:1.9 [2.3] versus 3.7 [2.8], respectively [P = 0.0003]; both days combined: 2.1 [2.5] versus 3.5 [2.9], respectively [P = 0.00014]). On day 1, five patients receiving brinzolamide/timolol reported five nonserious adverse events (AEs): flu (n = 1), bitter taste (n = 2), and headache (n = 2). Four events, bitter taste (two events) and headache (two events), were considered related to brinzolamide/timolol. Events were mild in intensity, except bitter taste of moderate intensity reported by one patient. No AEs were reported at day 2. All AEs resolved without additional treatment. No clinically relevant changes from baseline were observed in best-corrected visual acuity or slit-lamp examinations of ocular signs. Patients had less discomfort with brinzolamide/timolol than with dorzolamide/timolol, and more expressed a preference for brinzolamide/timolol. Both treatments were

  3. Mechanisms of phytoestrogen biochanin A-induced vasorelaxation in renovascular hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Choi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: These results suggest that the enhanced relaxation caused by biochanin A in aortic rings from hypertensive rats is endothelium dependent. Vascular smooth muscle K+ channels may be involved in biochanin A-induced relaxation in aortae from hypertensive and normotensive rats. In addition, an endothelium-derived activation of voltage-dependent K+ channels contributes, at least in part, to the relaxant effect of biochanin A in renovascular hypertension.

  4. Laser-induced damage in optical materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ristau, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Dedicated to users and developers of high-powered systems, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials focuses on the research field of laser-induced damage and explores the significant and steady growth of applications for high-power lasers in the academic, industrial, and military arenas. Written by renowned experts in the field, this book concentrates on the major topics of laser-induced damage in optical materials and most specifically addresses research in laser damage that occurs in the bulk and on the surface or the coating of optical components. It considers key issues in the field of hi

  5. Preference for a fixed combination of brinzolamide/timolol versus dorzolamide/ timolol among patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanseau A

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ana Sanseau,1 Juan Sampaolesi,2 Emilio Rintaro Suzuki Jr,3 Joao Franca Lopes,4 Hector Borel51Instituto de la Visión, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; 2Consultorio Oftalmologico Sampaolesi, Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina; 3Oftalmoclinica Curitiba, Curitiba, Brazil; 4Hospital El Salvador, Providencia, Chile; 5Fundacion Oftalmologica Los Andes, Vitacura Santiago, ChileObjective: To assess ocular discomfort upon instillation and patient preference for brinzolamide/timolol relative to dorzolamide/timolol, in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, patient-masked, randomized, crossover study. On day 0, patients received one drop of brinzolamide/timolol in one eye and one drop of dorzolamide/timolol in the contralateral eye. On day 1, patients were randomly assigned to receive one drop of either brinzolamide/timolol or dorzolamide/timolol in both eyes; on day 2, patients received one drop of the alternate treatment in both eyes. Measures included a patient preference question on day 2 (primary and mean ocular discomfort scale scores on days 1 and 2 (secondary. Safety assessments included adverse events, visual acuity, and slit-lamp examinations.Results: Of 120 patients who enrolled, 115 completed the study. Of these, 112 patients instilled both medications and expressed a study medication preference on day 2. A significantly greater percentage preferred brinzolamide/timolol to dorzolamide/timolol (67.0% versus 30.4%; P < 0.001. The ocular discomfort (expressed as mean [standard deviation] with brinzolamide/timolol was significantly lower than with dorzolamide/timolol (day 2: 1.9 [2.3] versus 3.7 [2.8], respectively [P = 0.0003]; both days combined: 2.1 [2.5] versus 3.5 [2.9], respectively [P = 0.00014]. On day 1, five patients receiving brinzolamide/timolol reported five nonserious adverse events (AEs: flu (n = 1, bitter taste (n = 2, and headache (n = 2. Four events, bitter taste

  6. Upregulated copper transporters in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M Zimnicka

    Full Text Available Pulmonary vascular remodeling and increased arterial wall stiffness are two major causes for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary arterial pressure in patients and animals with pulmonary hypertension. Cellular copper (Cu plays an important role in angiogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling; increased Cu in vascular smooth muscle cells has been demonstrated to be associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension in animal experiments. In this study, we show that the Cu-uptake transporter 1, CTR1, and the Cu-efflux pump, ATP7A, were both upregulated in the lung tissues and pulmonary arteries of mice with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia also significantly increased expression and activity of lysyl oxidase (LOX, a Cu-dependent enzyme that causes crosslinks of collagen and elastin in the extracellular matrix. In vitro experiments show that exposure to hypoxia or treatment with cobalt (CoCl2 also increased protein expression of CTR1, ATP7A, and LOX in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC. In PASMC exposed to hypoxia or treated with CoCl2, we also confirmed that the Cu transport is increased using 64Cu uptake assays. Furthermore, hypoxia increased both cell migration and proliferation in a Cu-dependent manner. Downregulation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α with siRNA significantly attenuated hypoxia-mediated upregulation of CTR1 mRNA. In summary, the data from this study indicate that increased Cu transportation due to upregulated CTR1 and ATP7A in pulmonary arteries and PASMC contributes to the development of hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. The increased Cu uptake and elevated ATP7A also facilitate the increase in LOX activity and thus the increase in crosslink of extracellular matrix, and eventually leading to the increase in pulmonary arterial stiffness.

  7. Theissenolactone C Exhibited Ocular Protection of Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis by Attenuating Ocular Inflammatory Responses and Glial Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Li Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a natural component, theissenolactone C (LC53, on the ocular inflammation of experimental endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU and its related mechanisms in microglia. Evaluation of the severity of anterior uveitis indicated that LC53 treatment significantly decreased iridal hyperemia and restored the clinical scores. Additionally, the deficient retina functions of electroretinography were improved by LC53. LC53 significantly reduced levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, protein leakage and activation of matrix metalloproteinases in the anterior section during EIU. Moreover, LC53 treatment decreased the oxidative stress as well as neuroinflammatory reactivities of GFAP and Iba-1 in the posterior section. Furthermore, LC53 decreased the phosphorylation of p65, expression of HSP90, Bax, and cleaved-caspase-3 in EIU. According to the microglia studies, LC53 significantly abrogated the productions of TNF-α, PGE2, NO and ROS, as well as inducible NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in LPS-stimulated microglial BV2 cells. The microglial activation of IKKβ, p65 phosphorylation and nuclear phosphorylated p65 translocation were strongly attenuated by LC53. On the other hand, LC53 exhibited the inhibitory effects on JNK and ERK MAPKs activation. Our findings indicated that LC53 exerted the ocular-protective effect through its inhibition on neuroinflammation, glial activation, and apoptosis in EIU, suggesting a therapeutic potential with down-regulation of the NF-κB signaling for uveitis and retinal inflammatory diseases.

  8. Antihypertensive Effect of Radix Paeoniae Alba in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and Excessive Alcohol Intake and High Fat Diet Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Su-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Radix Paeoniae Alba (Baishao, RPA has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine formulation to treat hypertension by repression the hyperfunction of liver. However, whether the RPA itself has the antihypertensive effect or not is seldom studied. This study was to evaluate the protective effect of RPA on hypertensive rats. Alcohol in conjunction with a high fat diet- (ACHFD- induced hypertensive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR was constantly received either RPA extract (25 or 75 mg/kg or captopril (15 mg/kg all along the experiments. As a result, RPA extract (75 mg/kg could significantly reduce systolic blood pressure of both ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats and SHR after 9-week or 4-week treatment. In ACHFD-induced hypertensive rats, the blood pressure was significantly increased and the lipid profiles in serum including triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were significantly deteriorated. Also, hepatic damage was manifested by a significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT and aspartate transaminase (AST in serum. The RPA extract significantly reversed these parameters, which revealed that it could alleviate the liver damage of rats. In SHR, our result suggested that the antihypertensive active of RPA extract may be related to its effect on regulating serum nitric oxide (NO and endothelin (ET levels.

  9. Double pulse laser ablation and plasma: Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babushok, V.I.; DeLucia, F.C.; Gottfried, J.L.; Munson, C.A.; Miziolek, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    A review of recent results of the studies of double laser pulse plasma and ablation for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy applications is presented. The double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy configuration was suggested with the aim of overcoming the sensitivity shortcomings of the conventional single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. Several configurations have been suggested for the realization of the double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique: collinear, orthogonal pre-spark, orthogonal pre-heating and dual pulse crossed beam modes. In addition, combinations of laser pulses with different wavelengths, different energies and durations were studied, thus providing flexibility in the choice of wavelength, pulse width, energy and pulse sequence. The double pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy approach provides a significant enhancement in the intensity of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy emission lines up to two orders of magnitude greater than a conventional single pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. The double pulse technique leads to a better coupling of the laser beam with the plasma plume and target material, thus providing a more temporally effective energy delivery to the plasma and target. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum effect is obtained at some optimum separation delay time between pulses. The optimum value of the interpulse delay depends on several factors, such as the target material, the energy level of excited states responsible for the emission, and the type of enhancement process considered. Depending on the specified parameter, the enhancement effects were observed on different time scales ranging from the picosecond time level (e.g., ion yield, ablation mass) up to the hundred microsecond level (e.g., increased emission intensity for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy of submerged metal target in water). Several suggestions have been proposed to explain

  10. Ocular pulse amplitude after panretinal photocoagulation in normotensive eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Marija M; Karadzic, Jelena B; Kovacevic, Igor M; Marjanovic, Ivan S

    2017-06-26

    To assess the effect of panretinal laser photocoagulation on ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in normotensive eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Prospectively, we performed unilateral argon laser panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in 30 patients with diabetes mellitus type II and previously untreated bilateral proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Before and 7 and 30 days after the treatment, OPA was measured using dynamic contour tonometer. Compared with the untreated contralateral eyes, laser photocoagulation led to a reduction of OPA. Ocular pulse amplitude did not significantly differ in photocoagulated eyes 7 days after the treatment, but there was a significant difference in OPA 30 days after the treatment. The decrease in OPA values was 15% 7 days after PRP and 40% 30 days after PRP. Ocular pulse amplitude reduction after PRP indirectly informs us about choriocapillary closure, already reported in previous studies.

  11. Coal dust contiguity-induced changes in the concentration of TNF- and NF- B p65 on the ocular surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Z.Y.; Hong, J.; Liu, Z.Y.; Jin, X.D.; Gu, C.H. [China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2009-07-01

    To observe the influence of coal dust on ocular surface of coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity on expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 and dry eye occurrence. Expression TNF- and NF- Bp65 in ocular surface were determined. Results showed tear production, BUT and lysozyme decreased for coal miners and rabbits with coal dust contiguity. Coal dust exposure was linked to development of xerophthalmia, and induced a higher expression of NF- B p65 and TNF- perhaps as a mechanism to resist coal dust ocular surface injury.

  12. YAG laser peripheral iridotomy for the prevention of pigment dispersion glaucoma a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Andrew; Kotecha, Aachal; Bunce, Catey; Balidis, Miltos; Garway-Heath, David F; Miller, Michael H; Wormald, Richard

    2011-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) significantly reduces the incidence of conversion from pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) with ocular hypertension (OHT) to pigmentary glaucoma (PG). Prospective, randomized, controlled 3-year trial. One hundred sixteen eyes of 116 patients with PDS and OHT. Patients were assigned randomly either to Nd:YAG LPI or to a control group (no laser). The primary outcome measure was conversion to PG within 3 years, based on full-threshold visual field (VF) analysis using the Ocular Hypertension Treatment Study criteria. Secondary outcome measures were whether eyes required topical antiglaucoma medications during the study period and the time to conversion or medication. Fifty-seven patients were randomized to undergo laser treatment and 59 were randomized to no laser (controls). Age, gender, spherical equivalent refraction, and intraocular pressure at baseline were similar between groups. Outcome data were available for 105 (90%) of recruited subjects, 52 in the laser treatment group and 53 in the no laser treatment group. Patients were followed up for a median of 35.9 months (range, 10-36 months) in the laser arm and 35.9 months (range, 1-36 months) in the control arm. Eight eyes (15%) in the laser group and 3 eyes (6%) in the control group converted to glaucoma in the study period. The proportion of eyes started on medical treatment was similar in the 2 groups: 8 eyes (15%) in the laser group and 9 eyes (17%) in the control group. Survival analyses showed no evidence of any difference in time to VF progression or commencement of topical therapy between the 2 groups. Cataract extraction was performed on 1 patient in the laser group and in 1 patient in the control group during the study period (laser eye at 18 months; control eye at 34 months). This study suggests that there was no benefit of Nd:YAG LPI in preventing progression from PDS with OHT to PG within 3 years of

  13. Dietary determinants of pregnancy induced hypertension in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamzam Paknahad

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH is a pregnancy-specific condition that occurs after the 20th week of gestation. These physiologic changes can be aggravated by undernutrition. There are some evidence based on the importance of nutrient deficiency in developing this syndrome. Therefore, the aim of present study was to determine the nutritional risk factors for pregnancy induced hypertension in a group of pregnant women in Isfahan.
    • METHODS: In this case-control study, we recruited 46 Isfahanian pregnant women in two groups (with and without PIH. They were 19 to 45 year-old and they did not consume any antihypertensive or diuretic medications. Demographic questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire were filled in both groups.
    • RESULTS: There were no significant differences in energy and vitamin E and C intakes between the two groups. Zinc and calcium intakes were lower in women with PIH compared to those without PIH (P = 0.04 and P = 0.007, respectively. Riboflavin and protein intakes were lower in women with PIH compared to subjects without PIH (P = 0.03 and P = 0.01, respectively.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Lower intake of calcium, zinc, riboflavin and protein should be considered as possible risk factors for PIH. Adequate intake of dairy products which are good sources of mentioned nutrients are recommended to prevent PIH.
    • KEYWORDS: Pregnancy induced hypertension, diet, nutrient.

  14. Relationship between short-wavelength automatic perimetry and Heidelberg retina tomograph parameters in eyes with ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Pitsas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare and correlate optic nerve head parameters obtained byHeidelberg retina tomograph (HRT with short-wavelength automatic perimetry (SWAP indices in eyes with ocular hypertension (OHT.METHODS: One hundred and forty-six patients with OHT included in the present study. All subjects had reliable SWAP and HRT measurements performed within a 2wk period. The eyes were classified as normal/abnormal according to visual field criteria and Moorfields regression analysis (MRA. Correlations between visual field indices and HRT parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r.RESULTS:Twenty-nine eyes (19.9% had SWAP defects. Twenty-nine eyes (19.9% were classified as abnormal according to global MRA. Six eyes (4.1% had abnormal global MRA and SWAP defects. The k statistic is 0.116 (P=0.12 indicating a very poor agreement between the methods. No statistical significant correlation between HRT and SWAP parameters was detected.CONCLUSION:SWAP defects may coexist with abnormalities of optic disc detected by HRT in eyes with OHT. In most eyes, however, the two methods detect different glaucoma properties.

  15. Comparison of a travoprost BAK-free formulation preserved with polyquaternium-1 with BAK-preserved travoprost in ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Stefano; Paredes, Tania; Goldberg, Ivan; Coote, Michael; Wells, Anthony; Volksone, Lasma; Pillai, Manju R; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Denis, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate that the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of travoprost 0.004% preserved with polyquaternium-1 (travoprost benzalkonium chloride [BAK]-free) is non-inferior to that of travoprost 0.004% preserved with benzalkonium chloride (travoprost BAK) in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma. A total of 371 patients randomly received travoprost BAK-free (n=185) or travoprost BAK (n=186) dosed once daily in the evening for 3 months. Patients were evaluated at 9 am, 11 AM, and 4 PM at baseline, weeks 2 and 6, and month 3. Intraocular pressure was also evaluated 36 and 60 hours after the month 3 visit. Travoprost BAK-free is non-inferior to travoprost BAK. The 95% upper confidence limits for the difference in mean IOP at month 3 (primary efficacy) were 0.5 mmHg, 0.6 mmHg, and 0.5 mmHg, at 9 AM, 11 AM, and 4 PM, respectively. Mean IOP reductions from baseline ranged from 7.6 to 8.7 mmHg in the travoprost BAK-free group and from 7.7 to 9.2 mmHg in the travoprost BAK group. At 36 and 60 hours after the last dose, mean IOP remained 6.8 mmHg and 5.7 mmHg below baseline in the travoprost BAK-free group, vs 7.3 mmHg and 6.0 mmHg in the travoprost BAK group, respectively. The safety profile of travoprost BAK-free was similar to that of travoprost BAK. Travoprost BAK-free safely and effectively lowers IOP in eyes with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This BAK-free formulation has comparable safety, efficacy, and duration of IOP-lowering effect to travoprost preserved with BAK. Travoprost BAK-free is an effective option for IOP reduction while avoiding BAK exposure.

  16. Preliminary results following the use of a fixed combination of timolol–brimonidine in patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Papaconstantinou

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Dimitris Papaconstantinou1, Ilias Georgalas2, Nikolaos Kourtis1, Christos Pitsas1, Efthimios Karmiris1, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea1, Ioannis Ladas1, Gerasimos Georgopoulos11Department of Ophthalmology, “G Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, “G Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, NHS, Athens, Greece Purpose: The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy in intraocular pressure (IOP control and the tolerance of a topically administered fixed combination of timolol–brimonidine in 50 patients with ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: After determining a baseline IOP, the fixed combination timolol–brimonidine was used twice daily for two months, while IOP, ophthalmic signs, and/or symptoms were monitored.Results: The mean IOP value was decreased from 23.09 mm Hg (±1.98 SD to 17.46 mm Hg (±1.47 SD during the 1st month (paired Student’s t test = 9.88 και p < 0.001, and to 17.51 mm Hg (±1.43 SD in the 2nd month. Between the 1st and 2nd month, no statistical difference was observed (paired Student’s t test = 0.02 και p < 0.1. In 8% of the patients during the 1st month and 10% of patients in the 2nd month, some ophthalmic signs were observed, while only mild ophthalmic symptoms were reported in 6% and 8% of the patients, respectively.Conclusions: In conclusion, the fixed combination of timolol–brimonidine has a satisfactory IOP-lowering effect without any serious side effects due to the topical use. Keywords: fixed combination 0.2% brimonidine–0.5% timolol, ocular hypertension, primary open-angle glaucoma

  17. Femtosecond laser-induced herringbone patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Erik M.; Lam, Billy; Guo, Chunlei

    2018-06-01

    Femtosecond laser-induced herringbone patterns are formed on copper (Cu). These novel periodic structures are created following s-polarized, large incident angle, femtosecond laser pulses. Forming as slanted and axially symmetric laser-induced periodic surface structures along the side walls of ablated channels, the result is a series of v-shaped structures that resemble a herringbone pattern. Fluence mapping, incident angle studies, as well as polarization studies have been conducted and provide a clear understanding of this new structure.

  18. IMPACT OF MICROBIOTA ON RESISTANCE TO OCULAR PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA–INDUCED KERATITIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugadas, Abirami; Christiansen, Stig Hill; Sankaranarayanan, Saiprasad

    2016-01-01

    The existence of the ocular microbiota has been reported but functional analyses to evaluate its significance in regulating ocular immunity are currently lacking. We compared the relative contribution of eye and gut commensals in regulating the ocular susceptibility to Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... to be dependent on both eye and gut microbiota with the eye microbiota having a moderate, but significant impact on the resistance to infection. These events were IL-1ß–dependent as corneal IL-1ß levels were decreased in the infected GF and antibiotic-treated mice when compared to the SPF controls...... for microbiota in regulating susceptibility to ocular keratitis. We predict that these results will have significant implications for contact lens wearers, where alterations in the ocular commensal communities may render the ocular surface vulnerable to infections....

  19. Perinatal DDT Exposure Induces Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, Michele A; Sethi, Sunjay; Benard, Ludovic; Moshier, Erin; Haraldsson, Borje; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice, and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. However, the use of DDT to control vector-borne diseases continues in developing countries. Prenatal DDT exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure in humans. We hypothesized that perinatal DDT exposure causes hypertension in adult mice. DDT was administered to C57BL/6J dams from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5. Blood pressure (BP) and myocardial wall thickness were measured in male and female adult offspring. Adult mice were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, to evaluate sensitivity to amelioration of DDT-associated hypertension by ACE inhibition. We further assessed the influence of DDT exposure on the expression of mRNAs that regulate BP through renal ion transport. Adult mice perinatally exposed to DDT exhibited chronically increased systolic BP, increased myocardial wall thickness, and elevated expression of mRNAs of several renal ion transporters. Captopril completely reversed hypertension in mice perinatally exposed to DDT. These data demonstrate that perinatal exposure to DDT causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult offspring. A key mechanism underpinning this hypertension is an overactivated renin angiotensin system because ACE inhibition reverses the hypertension induced by perinatal DDT exposure. Citation: La Merrill M, Sethi S, Benard L, Moshier E, Haraldsson B, Buettner C. 2016. Perinatal DDT exposure induces hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1722-1727; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP164.

  20. [Randomized parallel group study of 0.0015% tafluprost ophthalmic solution in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (comparison with 0.005% latanoprost ophthalmic solution)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jian; Li, Xiaoxin; Sun, Xinghuai; He, Xiangge; Zhang, Hong

    2015-02-01

    To confirm the non-inferiority of the IOP-lowering effect of the 0.0015% Tafluprost ophthalmic solution to the 0.005% Latanoprost ophthalmic solution in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.Safety was also compared between two groups. This study was conducted from August 2008 to December 2009, at five clinical trial sites in China. Patients of this study population was diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in both eyes.Subjects were randomized into 0.0015% Tafluprost group or 0.005% Latanoprost group.Intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometer, slit-lamp microscopy, Gonioscopy, Fundascopy, Visual acuity test, Perimetry, Blood pressure and pulse rate, Subjective symptoms were compered between two groups at Week 0, Week 2 and Week 4.For main effectiveness evaluation index adopt the bad effect evaluation, safety evaluation index by Fisher's exact test probability method. The 246 subjects/246 eyes were randomized (Tafluprost group:122 subjects/122 eyes, Latanoprost group:124 subjects/ 124 eyes). Change in the IOP at 17:00 of Week 2 is (8.8 ± 3.8) mmHg and (8.9 ± 4.4) mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) in Tafluprost group and Latanoprost group. Percent change in the IOP at 17:00 of Week 2 is (33.2 ± 12.8)% and (34.4 ± 14.1)% in Tafluprost group and Latanoprost group. Change in the IOP at 17:00 at the end of treatment is (9.8 ± 4.0) mmHg and (9.2 ± 4.1) mmHg in Tafluprost group and Latanoprost group. Percent change in the IOP at 17:00 at the end of treatment is 37.2% ± 13.4% group and 35.7% ± 13.0% in Tafluprost and Latanoprost group.In addition, distribution of subjects with percentage decrease of IOP > 30% was 72.5% in Tafluprost group higher than 63.8% in Latanoprost group. The major adverse reactions were conjunctival hyperemia, eye irritation, eye pain and foreign body sensation. The incidence of adverse reactions is 31.7% in Tafluprost group and 20.8% in Latanoprost group. The inter

  1. Major inducing factors of hypertensive complications and the interventions required to reduce their prevalence: an epidemiological study of hypertension in a rural population in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Meng, Yong; Yang, Yongli; Liu, Yancai; Dong, Caiqin; Xiao, Jianming; Zhao, Ling; Li, Fang

    2011-05-11

    The complications of hypertension cause severe health problems in rural areas in China. We (i) screened the major factors inducing hypertensive complications and provided intervention measures; and (ii) verified the efficacy of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS; a medical insurance scheme for rural residents) for hypertension management. A survey was conducted in the villages of Yunnan (an underdeveloped province in southwest China). The NRCMS was initiated there in 2005. Data were collected through questionnaires, physical examination, electrocardiography, as well as blood and urine tests. To detect factors inducing hypertension complications, a generalized estimating equations model was developed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze influencing factors for hypertension control. Poor management of hypertension was observed in women. Being female, old, poorly educated, a smoker, ignorant of the dangerousness of hypertension, and having uncontrolled hypertension made patients more prone to hypertension complications. Combination therapy with ≥ 2 drugs helped control hypertension, but most rural patients disliked multidrug therapy because they considered it to be expensive and inconvenient. The NRCMS contributed little to reduce the prevalence of complications and improve control of hypertension. The present study suggested that the NRCMS needs to be reformed to concentrate on early intervention in hypertension and to concentrate on women. To increase hypertension control in rural areas in China, compound products containing effective and inexpensive drugs (and not multidrug therapy) are needed.

  2. Laser tissue welding in ophthalmic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Ratto, Fulvio; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    Laser welding of ocular tissues is an alternative technique or adjunct to conventional suturing in ophthalmic surgery. It is based on the photothermal interaction of laser light with the main components of the extracellular matrix of connective tissues. The advantages of the welding procedure with respect to standard suturing and stapling are reduced operation times, lesser inflammation, faster healing and increased ability to induce tissue regeneration. The procedure we set up is based on the use of an infrared diode laser in association with the topical application of the chromophore Indocyanine Green. Laser light may be delivered either continuously or in pulses, thus identifying two different techniques that have been applied clinically in various types of transplants of the cornea.

  3. Treatment Of Sunitinib-Induced Hypertension In Solid Tumors By Nitric Oxid Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís A. Leon

    2015-08-01

    Hypertension (HT is one of the most common adverse effects of angiogenesis inhibitors. Hypertension observed in clinical trials appears to correlate with the potency of VEGF kinase inhibitor against VEGFR-2: agents with higher potency are associated with a higher incidence of hypertension. Although the exact mechanism by TKIs induce hypertension has not yet been completely clarified, two key hypotheses have been postulated. First, some studies have pointed to a VEGF inhibitors-induced decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS and nitric oxide (NO production, that can result in vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. VEGF, mediated by PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathway, upregulates the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme leading to up-regulation of NO production. So inhibition of signaling through the VEGF pathway would lead to a decrease in NO production, resulting in an increase in vascular resistance and blood pressure. Secondly a decrease in the number of microvascular endothelial cells and subsequent depletion of normal microvessel density (rarefaction occurs upon VEGF signaling inhibition.

  4. Laser induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Ken; McCanny, Tom; Graham, Paul; Fang Xiao; Singhal, Ravi; Magill, Joe; Creswell, Alan; Sanderson, David; Allott, Ric; Neely, David; Norreys, Peter; Santala, Marko; Zepf, Matthew; Watts, Ian; Clark, Eugene; Krushelnick, Karl; Tatarakis, Michael; Dangor, Bucker; Machecek, Antonin; Wark, Justin

    1998-01-01

    Dramatic improvements in laser technology since 1984 have revolutionised high power laser technology. Application of chirped-pulse amplification techniques has resulted in laser intensities in excess of 10 19 W/cm 2 . In the mid to late eighties, C. K. Rhodes and K. Boyer discussed the possibility of shining laser light of this intensity onto solid surfaces and to cause nuclear transitions. In particular, irradiation of a uranium target could induce electro- and photofission in the focal region of the laser. In this paper it is shown that μCi of 62 Cu can be generated via the (γ,n) reaction by a laser with an intensity of about 10 19 Wcm -2

  5. Ocular blood flow decreases during passive heat stress in resting humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemura, Tsukasa; Miyaji, Akane; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-12-06

    Heat stress induces various physiological changes and so could influence ocular circulation. This study examined the effect of heat stress on ocular blood flow. Ocular blood flow, end-tidal carbon dioxide (P(ET)CO2) and blood pressure were measured for 12 healthy subjects wearing water-perfused tube-lined suits under two conditions of water circulation: (1) at 35 °C (normothermia) for 30 min and (2) at 50 °C for 90 min (passive heat stress). The blood-flow velocities in the superior temporal retinal arteriole (STRA), superior nasal retinal arteriole (SNRA), and the retinal and choroidal vessels (RCV) were measured using laser-speckle flowgraphy. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA was calculated from the integral of a cross-sectional map of blood velocity. PETCO2 was clamped at the normothermia level by adding 5% CO2 to the inspired gas. Passive heat stress had no effect on the subjects' blood pressures. The blood-flow velocity in the RCV was significantly lower after 30, 60 and 90 min of passive heat stress than the normothermic level, with a peak decrease of 18 ± 3% (mean ± SE) at 90 min. Blood flow in the STRA and SNRA decreased significantly after 90 min of passive heat stress conditions, with peak decreases of 14 ± 3% and 14 ± 4%, respectively. The findings of this study suggest that passive heat stress decreases ocular blood flow irrespective of the blood pressure or arterial partial pressure of CO2.

  6. [Challenge and treatment strategy for ocular surface damage in patients with long term use of antiglaucoma drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang-Ge

    2011-02-01

    Long term use of topical anti-glaucoma drugs has been shown to induce chronic conjunctivitis, superficial punctate keratitis (SPK) and dry eye symptom. Under these conditions, a loss of goblet cells in conjunctiva, epithelial squamous metaplasia and apoptosis were morphologically revealed. Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), a most frequently used preservative in eye drops, has been found to be an important factor causing ocular surface damage. Furthermore, a big challenge for ophthalmologists is that toxic damage of medication to ocular surface tissues is mild, poor specificity, and delayed manifestation in patients, especially when coexisting with other ocular surface diseases. Impairment of ocular surface tissues greatly impacts the life quality of patients and subsequently influences compliance with glaucoma therapy. This paper emphasizes to take measures to prevent ocular surface tissue damage resulted from chronic use of topical anti-glaucoma drugs and further discusses the treatment strategy. Effective and long-lasting action drugs should always be selected for glaucomatous patients in order to decrease the frequency of topical instillation or at a more expensive medication, a fixed combination formula can be considered for glaucoma therapy. An early surgery or laser treatment is also proposed for the patients who require an IOP reduction with an existing ocular surface impairment. Future investigation and development of new medications with long-term efficacy and appropriate BKC are suggested and preservative-free or drugs with new preservative materials recommended.

  7. Antidepressant medication and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Heijne, Loes F.; Zakiyah, Neily; Bos, Jens H.J.; Hak, Eelko; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increased activity of the sympatic nervous system could possibly cause pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH). Previous studies have suggested that antidepressants could contribute to this increased activity. Objectives: To examine whether the use of antidepressants during pregnancy

  8. Retinal changes in pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Pankaj Shah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to determine the prevalence of retinal changes in pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH and any association between the retinal changes and age, parity, blood pressure, proteinuria, and severity of the disease. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: All the patients admitted with a diagnosis of PIH were included in this study. Age, gravida, gestation period, blood pressure, and proteinuria were noted from the case records. Fundus examination was done with a direct ophthalmoscope. The findings were noted and were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: A total of 150 patients of PIH were examined. The mean age of patients was 25.1 years. The gestation period ranged from 27 weeks to 42 weeks; 76 (50.67% were the primi gravida. 92 (61.33% patients had gestational hypertension, 49 (32.67% patients had preeclampsia, and 9 (6% had eclampsia. Retinal changes (hypertensive retinopathy were noted in 18 (12% patients - Grade 1 in 12 (8% and Grade 2 in 6 (4%. Hemorrhages or exudates or retinal detachment were not seen in any patient. There was statistically significant positive association of retinal changes and blood pressure (P = 0.037, proteinuria (P = 0.0005, and severity of the PIH (P = 0.004. Conclusions: Retinal changes were seen in 12% of patients with PIH. Occurrence of hypertensive retinopathy in PIH cases has been decreased due to better antenatal care and early detection and treatment of PIH cases. There is a greater chance of developing retinopathy with increase in blood pressure, severity of PIH, and proteinuria in cases of PIH.

  9. Major inducing factors of hypertensive complications and the interventions required to reduce their prevalence: an epidemiological study of hypertension in a rural population in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jianming

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complications of hypertension cause severe health problems in rural areas in China. We (i screened the major factors inducing hypertensive complications and provided intervention measures; and (ii verified the efficacy of the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (NRCMS; a medical insurance scheme for rural residents for hypertension management. Methods A survey was conducted in the villages of Yunnan (an underdeveloped province in southwest China. The NRCMS was initiated there in 2005. Data were collected through questionnaires, physical examination, electrocardiography, as well as blood and urine tests. To detect factors inducing hypertension complications, a generalized estimating equations model was developed. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze influencing factors for hypertension control. Results Poor management of hypertension was observed in women. Being female, old, poorly educated, a smoker, ignorant of the dangerousness of hypertension, and having uncontrolled hypertension made patients more prone to hypertension complications. Combination therapy with ≥2 drugs helped control hypertension, but most rural patients disliked multidrug therapy because they considered it to be expensive and inconvenient. The NRCMS contributed little to reduce the prevalence of complications and improve control of hypertension. Conclusions The present study suggested that the NRCMS needs to be reformed to concentrate on early intervention in hypertension and to concentrate on women. To increase hypertension control in rural areas in China, compound products containing effective and inexpensive drugs (and not multidrug therapy are needed.

  10. Ocular involvement in paediatric haemolytic uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Veit; Menke, Marcel N; Landau, Klara; Laube, Guido F; Neuhaus, Thomas J

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency and severity of ocular involvement in paediatric patients with haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS). The study was designed as an institutional, retrospective, observational case series. Charts for all 87 paediatric patients with HUS treated at the University Children's Hospital Zurich between 1995 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients with ocular involvement were identified and clinical findings presented. Three of 69 examined patients with HUS showed ocular involvement. Ophthalmic findings in two children were consistent with bilateral Purtscher retinopathy, showing multiple haemorrhages, exudations and superficial retinal whitening. The third child presented with bilateral isolated central intraretinal haemorrhages as a milder form of ocular involvement. In one of the children with Purtscher retinopathy, laser photocoagulation was required for bilateral rubeosis irides and development of disc neovascularization. Longterm outcomes in the two severely affected children showed decreased visual acuity caused by partial atrophy of the optic nerves. In the milder case visual acuity was not impaired at any time. A minority of paediatric patients with HUS developed ocular involvement. Acute ocular findings varied in severity from isolated intraretinal haemorrhages to Purtscher-like retinopathy with retinal ischaemia. Longterm complications included the development of neovascularizations and consecutive optic nerve atrophy. Although ocular involvement in HUS seems to be rare, physicians should be aware of this complication because of its possible vision-endangering consequences. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  11. Clinical value of different detection methods in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.

  12. Effect of laser pulse energies in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetti, P.A.; Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Palleschi, V.; Pardini, L.; Salvetti, A.; Tognoni, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of laser pulse energy on double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal is studied. In particular, the energy of the first pulse has been changed, while the second pulse energy is held fixed. A systematic study of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal dependence on the interpulse delay is performed, and the results are compared with the ones obtained with a single laser pulse of energy corresponding to the sum of the two pulses. At the same time, the crater formed at the target surface is studied by video-confocal microscopy, and the variation in crater dimensions is correlated to the enhancement of the laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal. The results obtained are consistent with the interpretation of the double-pulse laser induced breakdown spectroscopy signal enhancement in terms of the changes in ambient gas pressure produced by the shock wave induced by the first laser pulse

  13. Modern Diagnostic Techniques for the Assessment of Ocular Blood Flow in Myopia: Current State of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grudzińska, Ewa; Modrzejewska, Monika

    2018-01-01

    Myopia is the most common refractive error and the subject of interest of various studies assessing ocular blood flow. Increasing refractive error and axial elongation of the eye result in the stretching and thinning of the scleral, choroid, and retinal tissues and the decrease in retinal vessel diameter, disturbing ocular blood flow. Local and systemic factors known to change ocular blood flow include glaucoma, medications and fluctuations in intraocular pressure, and metabolic parameters. Techniques and tools assessing ocular blood flow include, among others, laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), retinal function imager (RFI), laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA), pulsatile ocular blood flowmeter (POBF), fundus pulsation amplitude (FPA), colour Doppler imaging (CDI), and Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT). Many researchers consistently reported lower blood flow parameters in myopic eyes regardless of the used diagnostic method. It is unclear whether this is a primary change that causes secondary thinning of ocular tissues or quite the opposite; that is, the mechanical stretching of the eye wall reduces its thickness and causes a secondary lower demand of tissues for oxygen. This paper presents a review of studies assessing ocular blood flow in myopes.

  14. Ocular Effects of Sulfur Mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review current knowledge about ocular effects of sulfur mustard (SM and the associated histopathologic findings and clinical manifestationsMethods: Literature review of medical articles (human and animal studies was accomplished using PubMed, Scopus and ISI databases. A total of 274 relevant articles in English were retrieved and reviewed thoroughly.Results: Eyes are the most sensitive organs to local toxic effects of mustard gas. Ocular injuries are mediated through different toxic mechanisms including: biochemical damages, biomolecular and gene expression modification, induction of immunologic and inflammatory reactions, disturbing ultrastructural architecture of the cornea, and long-lasting corneal denervation. The resulting ocular injuries can roughly be categorized into acute or chronic complications. Most of the patients recover from acute injuries, but a minority of victims will suffer from chronic ocular complications. Mustard gas keratopathy (MGK is a devastating late complication of SM intoxication that proceeds from limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD.Conclusion: SM induces several different damaging changes in case of ocular exposure; hence leading to a broad spectrum of ocular manifestations in terms of severity, timing and form. Unfortunately, no effective strategy has been introduced yet to inhibit or restore these damaging changes.

  15. Functional approach to the assessment of ocular hazards of low-power lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raybourn, M.S.; Kong, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrophysiological bioassay system has been developed to provide safety-related information about the functional consequences of non-thermal laser irradiation of the vertebrate retina. This in vitro preparation allows precise dosimetry at the retinal surface, provides for an intra-retinal control, comparing lased vs non-lased tissue, and permits quantitative assessment of the biophysical mechanisms of laser-induced retinal dysfunction.

  16. Gallic acid attenuates calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II-induced apoptosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Piao, Zhe Hao; Liu, Chun Ping; Sun, Simei; Liu, Bin; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Ryu, Yuhee; Kee, Hae Jin; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2018-03-01

    Hypertension causes cardiac hypertrophy and leads to heart failure. Apoptotic cells are common in hypertensive hearts. Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) is associated with apoptosis. We recently demonstrated that gallic acid reduces nitric oxide synthase inhibition-induced hypertension. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid and has been shown to have beneficial effects, such as anti-cancer, anti-calcification and anti-oxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether gallic acid regulates cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in essential hypertension. Gallic acid significantly lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and H&E staining revealed that gallic acid reduced cardiac enlargement in SHRs. Gallic acid treatment decreased cardiac hypertrophy marker genes, including atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), in SHRs. The four isoforms, α, β, δ and γ, of CaMKII were increased in SHRs and were significantly reduced by gallic acid administration. Gallic acid reduced cleaved caspase-3 protein as well as bax, p53 and p300 mRNA levels in SHRs. CaMKII δ overexpression induced bax and p53 expression, which was attenuated by gallic acid treatment in H9c2 cells. Gallic acid treatment reduced DNA fragmentation and the TUNEL positive cells induced by angiotensin II. Taken together, gallic acid could be a novel therapeutic for the treatment of hypertension through suppression of CaMKII δ-induced apoptosis. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Refractive and ocular biometric profile of children with a history of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savleen; Sukhija, Jaspreet; Katoch, Deeksha; Sharma, Mansi; Samanta, Ramanuj; Dogra, Mangat R

    2017-09-01

    Indian children belong to a diverse socioeconomic strata with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) developing in mature, higher birth weight babies as well. The purpose of our study is to analyze the long-term status of refractive errors and its relationship with ocular biometry in children with ROP who were laser treated at a tertiary center in North India. Cross sectional study. Children (large refractive error predicts the future development of myopia in these children. Nearly 6% of patients with good structural outcome have unexplained subnormal vision. Our threshold for prescribing glasses in these children should be low.

  18. Green laser induced foveal cyst sustained in a recreational laser light show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Aydin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 9-year-old boy complained of visual loss in his right eye after watching green laser light show being hit by a ray of a laser at shopping center before five days ago. The laser had a maximum power rating of 30 mW (US Food and Drug Administration class IIIB. Best-corrected visual acuity in his right eye was 0.2 with Snellen at 5 days after the injury. Dilated fundoscopic examination demonstrated a macular hole appearance in the right eye. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT, Spectralis, Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany demonstrates a steep fovea contour, a thickening of the macular edges, intraretinal cysts, disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment layer and macular pseudohole formation. Central foveal thickness (515 µm was increased. Two months after the injury, the patient's visual acuity improved to 0.9 in the right eye without any ocular treatment. Spectral domain OCT revealed the closure of the macular hole with the resolution of the cystic spaces. At 6-months follow-up, visual function had fully recovered and macular assessment was normal.

  19. Filament-induced remote surface ablation for long range laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwetter, Ph.; Stelmaszczyk, K.; Woeste, L.; Ackermann, R.; Mejean, G.; Salmon, E.; Kasparian, J.; Yu, J.; Wolf, J.-P.

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate laser induced ablation and plasma line emission from a metallic target at distances up to 180 m from the laser, using filaments (self-guided propagation structures ∼ 100 μm in diameter and ∼ 5 x 10 13 W/cm 2 in intensity) appearing as femtosecond and terawatt laser pulses propagating in air. The remarkable property of filaments to propagate over a long distance independently of the diffraction limit opens the frontier to long range operation of the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique. We call this special configuration of remote laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy 'remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy'. Our results show main features of filament-induced ablation on the surface of a metallic sample and associated plasma emission. Our experimental data allow us to estimate requirements for the detection system needed for kilometer-range remote filament-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment

  20. Topical ocular delivery to laser-induced choroidal neovascularization by dual internalizing RGD and TAT peptide-modified nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chu YC

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Yongchao Chu,1,* Ning Chen,2,* Huajun Yu,2,* Hongjie Mu,1 Bin He,1 Hongchen Hua,1 Aiping Wang,1 Kaoxiang Sun1 1School of Pharmacy, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Drug Delivery System and Biotech Drugs in Universities of Shandong, Key Laboratory of Molecular Pharmacology and Drug Evaluation, Ministry of Education, Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Ophthalmology, The Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Yantai, Shandong, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A nanoparticle (NP was developed to target choroidal neovascularization (CNV via topical ocular administration. The NPs were prepared through conjugation of internalizing arginine-glycine-aspartic acid RGD (iRGD; Ac-CCRGDKGPDC and transactivated transcription (TAT (RKKRRQRRRC peptide to polymerized ethylene glycol and lactic-co-glycolic acid. The iRGD sequence can specifically bind with integrin αvβ3, while TAT facilitates penetration through the ocular barrier. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that up to 80% of iRGD and TAT were conjugated to poly(ethylene glycol–poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid. The resulting particle size was 67.0±1.7 nm, and the zeta potential of the particles was −6.63±0.43 mV. The corneal permeation of iRGD and TAT NPs increased by 5.50- and 4.56-fold compared to that of bare and iRGD-modified NPs, respectively. Cellular uptake showed that the red fluorescence intensity of iRGD and TAT NPs was highest among primary NPs and iRGD- or TAT-modified NPs. CNV was fully formed 14 days after photocoagulation in Brown Norway (BN rats as shown by optical coherence tomography and fundus fluorescein angiography analyses. Choroidal flat mounts in BN rats showed that the red fluorescence intensity of NPs followed the order of iRGD and TAT NPs > TAT-modified NPs > iRGD-modified NPs

  1. Ocular lesions and experimental choline deficiency Lesiones oculares y deficiencia experimental de colina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina P. Ossani

    2006-10-01

    mostraron lesiones oculares o renales. Las colino deficientes que mostraron lesiones renales, necrosis tubular o cortical, no siempre tuvieron cambios oculares. No se encontraron cambios oculares en la única rata deficiente en colina sin lesión renal. Los cambios oculares consistieron principalmente en hemorragia en ambas cámaras, cuerpo ciliar y vítreo. La correlación entre la lesión ocular y renal (r=0.72, p<0.0001, CI 95%: 0.48-0.86, lesión ocular y creatinina (r=0.86, p<0.0001, CI 95%: 0.72-0.93 y lesión ocular y urea (r=0.70, p<0.0001, CI 95%: 0.44-0.85 fue positiva. La deficiencia de colina induce lesiones oculares luego del desarrollo de la necrosis renal. La patología ocular podría ser debida a la inmadurez de los vasos oculares. El sistema hialoide, coroideo y retinal están involucrados.

  2. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  3. Radiation-induced renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staab, G.E.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.; Constable, W.C.

    1976-01-01

    Radiation is known to produce changes in the small vessels and interstitium of the kidneys resulting in hypertension. Two cases of renal artery stenosis and resultant hypertension secondary to abdominal irradiation are reported and the literature is reviewed

  4. Peripheral microcirculation during pregnancy and in women with pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, P; Jung, F; Mrowietz, C; Alt, T; Alt, S; Schmidt, W

    2001-01-01

    During pregnancy the cardiovascular system undergoes several changes so as to adapt the maternal organism to the strains of pregnancy. These adaptations can assume a pathological development in persons with a previous history of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand the absence of these adaptations may lead to a pathological course of pregnancy. Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) may be such a pathological development due to maladaptation. The causes are for the most part unknown. For some time it has been assumed that it is due to microcirculatory disorders. Using periungual capillary microscopy the present study prospectively investigated the changes in peripheral microcirculation during pregnancy focussing on pregnancy induced hypertension. Sixty-seven women with a normal course of pregnancy and 28 women with pregnancy induced hypertension were evaluated. Throughout the prospective study 3 examinations were performed during pregnancy and one during childbed. The women who developed a PIH were registered during the third trimester. Erythrocyte velocity at rest and vascular reagibility of capillaries following a 3 minute ischaemia were evaluated. In the course of pregnancy a significant increase of approximately 30% in erythrocyte velocity could be observed. Interpolation to obtain the best strait line result demonstrates that it is a continuous increase. Erythrocyte velocity returns to normal in the course of 14 weeks post partum. Due to a physiological vasodilatation during pregnancy, vascular reaction to ischaemic stress significantly decreases. During childbed these changes return to normal. Examinations on women with pregnancy induced hypertension not only showed a significant reduction of microcirculation under resting conditions but also a different pattern of reaction to ischaemic stress. Erythrocyte velocity under resting conditions lies 36% below normal values. Furthermore the distinctly shortened hyperaemic period indicates a hightened

  5. Tear clearance implications for ocular surface health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia Sade; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-03-01

    Tear clearance/turnover provides a global assessment of the function of the lacrimal functional unit and of tear exchange on the ocular surface. It is an indirect measure of dry eye induced inflammation on the ocular surface. It shows better correlation with the severity of ocular irritation symptoms and corneal epithelial disease in dry eye than the Schirmer 1 test. Delayed tear clearance may prove to be the best measure for identifying patients with tear film disorders who may respond to anti-inflammatory therapy.

  6. Adipokine CTRP6 improves PPARγ activation to alleviate angiotensin II-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, Liyi; Hu, Xiaojing; Zhang, Wentao; Bai, Tiao; Zhang, Linjing; Zeng, Hua; Guo, Ruirui; Zhang, Yanhai; Tian, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) is the most important component of angiotensin, which has been regarded as a major contributor to the incidence of hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction. The adipocytokine C1q/TNF-related protein 6 (CTRP6) was recently reported to have multiple protective effects on cardiac and cardiovascular function. However, the exact role of CTRP6 in the progression of AngII induced hypertension and vascular endothelial function remains unclear. Here, we showed that serum CTRP6 content was significantly downregulated in SHRs, accompanied by a marked increase in arterial systolic pressure and serum AngII, CRP and ET-1 content. Then, pcDNA3.1-mediated CTRP6 delivery or CTRP6 siRNA was injected into SHRs. CTRP6 overexpression caused a significant decrease in AngII expression and AngII-mediated hypertension and vascular endothelial inflammation. In contrast, CTRP6 knockdown had the opposite effect to CTRP6 overexpression. Moreover, we found that CTRP6 positively regulated the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway and the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a recently proven negative regulator of AngII, in the brain and vascular endothelium of SHRs. Finally, CTRP6 was overexpressed in endothelial cells, and caused a significant increase in PPARγ activation and suppression in AngII-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. The effect of that could be rescued by the ERK inhibitor PD98059. In contrast, silencing CTRP6 suppressed PPARγ activation and exacerbated AngII-mediated vascular endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. In conclusion, CTRP6 improves PPARγ activation and alleviates AngII-induced hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction. - Highlights: • Serum CTRP6 was significantly decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). • CTRP6 positively regulated the activation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. • CTRP6 negatively regulates PPARγ mediated Angiotensin II (Ang

  7. Risks induced by laser radiation; Risques induits par le rayonnement laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courant, D [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    2001-07-01

    The use of lasers is often dangerous because of the emitted power, the wave length, the conduction system(optical fiber, wave guide, mirrors) and the use conditions. The safety notion involves the precise knowledge of materials, the biological effects in function of laser emission parameters, the knowledge of protection standards, the observance of use rules and the personnel training. This chapter treats the risks induced by the beam. It gives the different biological effects induced by the laser beam, at the eye and skin levels that are at the origin of exposure limits and the lasers classification recommended by the protection standards. (N.C.)

  8. Hypertension induced by chemotherapeutic and immunosuppresive agents: a new challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi Aad, Simon; Pierce, Matthew; Barmaimon, Guido; Farhat, Fadi S; Benjo, Alexandre; Mouhayar, Elie

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common adverse effect of certain anti neoplastic therapy. The incidence and severity of hypertension are dependent mainly on the type and the dose of the drug. We reviewed the literature for studies that reported the effect of anti neoplastic agents on blood pressure in patients with malignancies. The medical databases of PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for articles published in English between 1955 and June 2012. The effects of specific agents on blood pressure were analyzed. Hypertension is a prevalent adverse effect of many of the new chemotherapy agents such as VEGF inhibitors. Approximately 30% of patients treated for cancer will have concomitant hypertension, and crucial chemotherapy can sometimes be stopped due to new onset or worsening severe hypertension. The importance of a timely diagnosis and optimal management of HTN in this group of patients is related to the facts that HTN is a well established risk factor for chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity and if left untreated, can alter cancer management and result in dose reductions or termination of anti-cancer treatments as well as life-threatening end organ damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Notice of retraction: Role of Cerebrospinal Fluid in Spaceflight-induced Ocular Changes and Visual Impairment in Astronauts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Noam; Bagci, Ahmet M; Oliu, Carlos J; Lee, Sang H; Lam, Byron L

    2017-10-16

    Notice of retraction: the article "Role of Cerebral Spinal Fluid in Space Flight Induced Ocular Changes and Visual Impairment in Astronauts" by Alperin et al This article has been retracted due to security concerns raised by NASA, the sponsoring agency. © RSNA, 2017.

  10. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  11. Effect of laser spot size on energy balance in laser induced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.C.; Sharma, S.; Bhawalkar, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the laser spot size on laser light absorption in laser induced plasmas from solid targets was studied. It was found that at a constant laser intensity on the target, reduction in the laser spot size enhances the net laser energy absorption. It was also observed that the laser light reflection from the target becomes more diffused when the focal spot size is reduced

  12. An observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in treatment-naïve patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: the CLEAR trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nixon DR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Donald R Nixon,1 Susan Simonyi,2 Meetu Bhogal,2 Christopher S Sigouin,3 Andrew C Crichton,4 Marino Discepola,5 Cindy ML Hutnik,6 David B Yan71Private Practice, Barrie, ON, 2Allergan Inc, Markham, ON, 3CLINWest Research, Burlington, ON, 4University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, 5McGill University, Montreal, QC, 6London Health Sciences Centre, London, ON, 7University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaBackground: This study was designed to evaluate the occurrence and severity of ocular hyperemia in subjects with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP due to primary open angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OHT following treatment with bimatoprost 0.01% in a real-world clinical setting.Methods: This was an open-label, observational study conducted at 67 centers in Canada. Subjects with elevated IOP due to POAG or OHT instilled bimatoprost 0.01% topically as monotherapy once daily. Ocular hyperemia was graded by the investigator at baseline and weeks 6 and 12 using a photographic five-point grading scale. Change in IOP from baseline was also evaluated at these time points. This analysis includes only the subgroup of 522 subjects who were naïve to IOP-lowering medication prior to the study.Results: After 12 weeks of treatment with bimatoprost 0.01%, hyperemia was graded as none-to-mild (grades 0, +0.5, or +1 for 93.3% of subjects and as moderate-to-severe (grades +2 or +3 for 6.7%. At weeks 6 and 12, most subjects (93.2% and 93.5% had no change in hyperemia grade from baseline. IOP was reduced by 7.4 mmHg (29.8% at week 6 and 7.7 mmHg (30.9% at week 12 from baseline.Conclusion: This real-world, observational study found that bimatoprost 0.01% instilled once daily reduced IOP by a mean of 30% from baseline without moderate or severe ocular hyperemia in 93% of treatment-naïve subjects with POAG or OHT.Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, hyperemia, bimatoprost

  13. Retinopatia hipertensiva: revisão Hypertensive retinopathy: review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélio Paulo Batista da Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo faz uma revisão do tema retinopatia hipertensiva. Para tanto propôs-se uma breve revisão dos dados históricos da retinopatia hipertensiva. Este estudo relata as alterações clássicas da retinopatia hipertensiva e suas classificações, bem como os achados mais recentes associados à hipertensão arterial sistêmica, os prováveis mecanismos fisiopatológicos e as alterações histológicas associadas à retinopatia hipertensiva. Abordamos, ainda, os diversos métodos utilizados para a investigação, suas vantagens e desvantagens; uma visão crítica da interpretação dos sinais do envolvimento do bulbo ocular pela hipertensão arterial sistêmica; ainda, baseado na diversidade das metodologias de investigação da retinopatia, comenta-se a repercussão desta, na prevalência da retinopatia hipertensiva e suas implicações, como órgão-alvo da hipertensão arterial sistêmica, em um contexto atualizado da síndrome metabólica e de outros fatores associados à fisiopatologia da HAS, como a leptina e a endotelina.The present study carries out a review of the theme hypertensive retinopathy. Thus it presents a brief review of the historical data on hypertensive retinopathy. The study reports the classical alterations of hypertensive retinopathy and its classifications, as well as the most recent findings associated with systemic arterial hypertension, the likely patho-physiological mechanisms, and the several methods used for investigation, their advantages and disadvantages; a critical view of the interpretation of signs of the ocular bulb involvement by systemic arterial hypertension; furthermore, based on the diversity of methodologies used in the investigation of retinopathy, comments are made on its reverberation, in the prevalence of hypertensive retinopathy and its implications, as a target organ of systemic arterial hypertension, in an updated context of the metabolic syndrome and of other elements associated with

  14. Effect of prophylactic topical hypotensive medications in reducing the incidence of postoperative ocular hypertension after phacoemulsification in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dees, D Dustin; Spahn, Kate J; Wagner, Lynsey Smith; Greller, Andrew; Paglia, Danielle; Armour, Micki D; Madsen, Richard

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether topical hypotensive medications prevent postoperative ocular hypertension (POH) after phacoemulsification. 52 client-owned dogs (88 eyes). Diabetic and nondiabetic dogs having undergone phacoemulsification were included in this retrospective study. The control group received no ocular hypotensive medications. The treatment groups received latanoprost, dorzolamide, or dorzolamide/timolol, beginning immediately after surgery, for 2-week duration. IOPs were obtained at initial examination followed by 4 h, 24 h, 7 days, and 14 days postoperatively. POH was defined as an IOP above 20 mmHg (POH20) or 25 mmHg (POH25). POH20 occurred in 33 of 87 eyes (37.93%), including 11 of 21 eyes (52.38%) in the control group, three of 23 eyes (13.04%) in the latanoprost group, eight of 15 eyes (53.33%) in the dorzolamide group, and 11 of 28 eyes (39.29%) in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Active treatment groups were compared to the control group, and the overall group effect was not significant (P = 0.11). POH25 occurred in 22 of 86 eyes (25.58%), including seven of 21 eyes (33.33%) in the control group, two of 23 eyes (8.70%) in the latanoprost group, five of 15 eyes (33.33%) in the dorzolamide group, and eight of 27 eyes (29.63%) in the dorzolamide/timolol group. Active treatment groups were compared to the control group, and the overall group effect was not significant (P = 0.31). Intraoperative use of intracameral tissue plasminogen activator significantly decreased the chances of POH25 (P = 0.0063). The latanoprost group had a substantially lower percentage of POH 20 and POH25 compared to the control and other active treatment groups, although statistical significance was not achieved. Intraoperative intracameral tissue plasminogen activator decreased the incidence of POH25. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  15. Central role of T helper 17 cells in chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maston, Levi D; Jones, David T; Giermakowska, Wieslawa; Howard, Tamara A; Cannon, Judy L; Wang, Wei; Wei, Yongyi; Xuan, Weimin; Resta, Thomas C; Gonzalez Bosc, Laura V

    2017-05-01

    Inflammation is a prominent pathological feature in pulmonary arterial hypertension, as demonstrated by pulmonary vascular infiltration of inflammatory cells, including T and B lymphocytes. However, the contribution of the adaptive immune system is not well characterized in pulmonary hypertension caused by chronic hypoxia. CD4 + T cells are required for initiating and maintaining inflammation, suggesting that these cells could play an important role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that CD4 + T cells, specifically the T helper 17 subset, contribute to chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. We compared indices of pulmonary hypertension resulting from chronic hypoxia (3 wk) in wild-type mice and recombination-activating gene 1 knockout mice (RAG1 -/- , lacking mature T and B cells). Separate sets of mice were adoptively transferred with CD4 + , CD8 + , or T helper 17 cells before normoxic or chronic hypoxic exposure to evaluate the involvement of specific T cell subsets. RAG1 -/- mice had diminished right ventricular systolic pressure and arterial remodeling compared with wild-type mice exposed to chronic hypoxia. Adoptive transfer of CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells restored the hypertensive phenotype in RAG1 -/- mice. Interestingly, RAG1 -/- mice receiving T helper 17 cells displayed evidence of pulmonary hypertension independent of chronic hypoxia. Supporting our hypothesis, depletion of CD4 + cells or treatment with SR1001, an inhibitor of T helper 17 cell development, prevented increased pressure and remodeling responses to chronic hypoxia. We conclude that T helper 17 cells play a key role in the development of chronic hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fabbri, F.; Fantoni, R.; Spizzichino, V.; Striber, J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to test the possibility of detecting and identifying asbestos in different samples in view of the perspective at field operation without sample preparation which is peculiar to this technique. Several like-resin materials were first investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, in order to find an asbestos container assuring safe laboratory operation during the material characterization aimed to identify indicators suitable for a quick identification on field. Successively, spectra of asbestos samples of both in serpentine and amphibole forms were measured and the variability in elemental composition was calculated from the emission spectra. Ratios of intensities of characteristic elements were tested as indicators for asbestos recognition. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy results were compared with those obtained by analyzing the same asbestos samples with a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a good correlation was found for Mg/Si and Fe/Si, thus showing the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for this category of materials. In particular, it was demonstrated that the method based on two indicators derived from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy intensity ratios allows to discriminate between asbestos and cements in single shot measurements suitable to field operation

  17. Non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography in the emergency department: how it can benefit neurologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Beau B.

    2016-01-01

    Examination of the ocular fundus is a critical aspect of the neurological examination. For example, in patients with headache the ocular fundus examination is needed to uncover “red flags” suggestive of secondary etiologies. However, ocular fundus examination is infrequently and poorly performed in clinical practice. Non-mydriatic ocular fundus photography provides an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy that has been studied as part of the Fundus photography vs. Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department (FOTO-ED) study. Herein, we review the results of the FOTO-ED study with a particular focus on the study's implications for the acute care of patients presenting with headache and focal neurologic deficits. In headache patients, we not only observed optic disc edema and optic disc pallor as would be expected, but also a large number of abnormalities associated with hypertension. Based upon subjects with focal neurological deficits, the FOTO-ED study suggests that the ocular fundus examination may assist with the triage of patients presenting with suspected transient ischemic attack. Continued advances in the ease and portability of non-mydriatic fundus photography will hopefully help to restore ocular fundus examination as a routinely performed component of all neurological examinations. PMID:26444394

  18. Tilting-induced decrease in systolic blood pressure in bedridden hypertensive elderly inpatients: effects of azelnidipine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shigeto; Takahashi, Takashi; Okaishi, Kohya; Nakahashi, Takeshi; Nomura, Kohji; Kanda, Tsugiyasu; Okuro, Masashi; Murai, Hiroshi; Nishino, Tomoichi; Matsumoto, Masayuki

    2006-12-01

    The object of this study was to examine blood pressure (BP) variability due to postural change in elderly hypertensive patients. The subjects studied were 154 elderly inpatients in a hospital for the elderly (48 male and 106 female; median age: 82 years), consisting of age- and sex-matched bedridden (n=39) and non-bedridden (n=39) normotensive controls and bedridden (n=38) and non-bedridden (n=38) hypertensive patients. BP and pulse rate (PR) were measured in the supine position, then again after a 2-min, 45 deg head-up tilt with the legs horizontal. The decrease in systolic BP (SBP) on tilting in the bedridden hypertensive group (median: -10 mmHg; range: -32 to 9 mmHg) was significantly (pbedridden hypertensive group. Our findings indicate that tilt-induced decrease in SBP is a rather common phenomenon in bedridden elderly hypertensive patients, and that treatment with azelnidipine attenuates tilt-induced decrease in SBP, probably through an improvement of baroreceptor sensitivity.

  19. Surgically induced astigmatism after phacoemulsification with and without correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion: randomized controlled study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ian

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To report the impact of posture-related ocular cyclotorsion on one surgeon\\'s surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) results and the variance in SIA. SETTING: Institute of Eye Surgery, Whitfield Clinic, Waterford, Ireland. METHODS: This prospective randomized controlled study included eyes that had phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Eyes were randomly assigned to have (intervention group) or not have (control group) correction for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the intervention group, the clear corneal incision was placed precisely at the 120-degree meridian with instruments designed to correct posture-related ocular cyclotorsion. In the control group, the surgeon endeavored to place the incision at the 120-degree meridian, but without markings. RESULTS: The intervention group comprised 41 eyes and the control group, 61 eyes. The mean absolute SIA was 0.74 diopters (D) in the intervention group and 0.78 D in the control group; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired 2-tailed Student t test). The variance in SIA was 0.29 D(2) and 0.31 D(2), respectively; the difference between groups was not statistically significant (P>.5, unpaired F test). CONCLUSIONS: Attempts to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion did not influence SIA or its variance in a single-surgeon series. These results should be interpreted with full appreciation of the limitations of currently available techniques to correct for posture-related ocular cyclotorsion in the clinical setting.

  20. Laser-induced stresses versus mechanical stress power measurements during laser ablation of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shannon, M.A.; Russo, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced stresses resulting from high-power laser-material interactions have been studied extensively. However, the rate of change in mechanical energy, or stress power, due to laser-induced stresses has only recently been investigated. An unanswered question for monitoring laser-material interactions in the far-field is whether stress power differs from stresses measured, particularly with respect to laser-energy coupling to a solid target. This letter shows experimental acoustic data which demonstrate that stress power measured in the far field of the target shows changes in laser-energy coupling, whereas the stresses measured do not. For the ambient medium above the target, stress power and stress together reflect changes in laser-energy coupling. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  1. Plasticity of the human otolith-ocular reflex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, C. 3rd; Smith, T. R.; Furman, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    The eye movement response to earth vertical axis rotation in the dark, a semicircular canal stimulus, can be altered by prior exposure to combined visual-vestibular stimuli. Such plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has not been described for earth horizontal axis rotation, a dynamic otolith stimulus. Twenty normal human subjects underwent one of two types of adaptation paradigms designed either to attenuate or enhance the gain of the semicircular canal-ocular reflex prior to undergoing otolith-ocular reflex testing with horizontal axis rotation. The adaptation paradigm paired a 0.2 Hz sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis with a 0.2 Hz optokinetic stripe pattern that was deliberately mismatched in peak velocity. Pre- and post-adaptation horizontal axis rotations were at 60 degrees/s in the dark and produced a modulation in the slow component velocity of nystagmus having a frequency of 0.17 Hz due to putative stimulation of the otolith organs. Results showed that the magnitude of this modulation component response was altered in a manner similar to the alteration in semicircular canal-ocular responses. These results suggest that physiologic alteration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex using deliberately mismatched visual and semicircular canal stimuli induces changes in both canal-ocular and otolith-ocular responses. We postulate, therefore, that central nervous system pathways responsible for controlling the gains of canal-ocular and otolith-ocular reflexes are shared.

  2. Nonmydriatic Ocular Fundus Photography in the Emergency Department: How It Can Benefit Neurologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Beau B

    2015-10-01

    Examination of the ocular fundus is a critical aspect of the neurologic examination. For example, in patients with headache the ocular fundus examination is needed to uncover "red flags" suggestive of secondary etiologies. However, ocular fundus examination is infrequently and poorly performed in clinical practice. Nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography provides an alternative to direct ophthalmoscopy that has been studied as part of the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department (FOTO-ED) Study. Herein, the results of the FOTO-ED study are reviewed with a particular focus on the study's implications for the acute care of patients presenting with headache and focal neurologic deficits. In headache patients, not only optic disc edema and optic disc pallor were observed as would be expected, but also a large number of abnormalities associated with hypertension. Based upon subjects with focal neurologic deficits, the FOTO-ED study suggests that the ocular fundus examination may assist with the triage of patients presenting with suspected transient ischemic attack. Continued advances in the ease and portability of nonmydriatic fundus photography will hopefully help to restore ocular fundus examination as a routinely performed component of all neurologic examinations. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Analysis of clinical features of ocular presentation in cranial venous sinus thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To recognize ocular presentations in cranial venous sinus thrombosis (CVST which were easy to be misdiagnosis. Design Retrospective study. Methods Review clinical informations including general informations, general performances, and ocular presentations of 118 inpatients with CVST in the general hospital of chinese people's liberation army during 2005-2009. Main Outcome Measures The ocular symptoms as the initial onset presentations or simultaneous phenomenon among different onset type patients were analyzed. Results Of all the CVST patients, 21.2% (25/118 presented with ocular symptom as the initial presentation, 30.5% (36/118 presented with ocular symptom as well as the other symptoms, and 48.3% (57/118 presented with non-ocular symptoms as the initial onset. The CVST patients were divided into 3 groups according to the onset type. There was no marked statistical significance among groups. The most common major complaints were blurring and degeneration of acute vision, accounting for 85.9% (61/71 of all abnormal ocular chief complaints. The most common objective sign in eyes was papilloedema, accounting for 48.3% (57/118 in this group of CVST patients. About 22.4% (13/58 showed acute vision deterioration at 1-year follow-up, due to optic atrophy. Conclusions As ophthalmologists, we should master the onset characteristics and clinical manifestations of CVST. Early diagnosis and treatment is very important for the prevention of vision deterioration, especially for patients with ocular syndrome as the initial onset syndrome. For isolated agnogenic intracranial hypertension, we should consider the possibility of CVST.

  4. Vitamin D in ocular and systemic health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solani D. Mathebula

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D is produced in skin exposed to sunlight UVB radiation and is then metabolised by the kidney into calciferol, which is an active form. The main function of vitamin D is to promote calcium and phosphorus absorption, and studies have shown that a lack of itplays an important role in ocular conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D may protect the diabetic retina; however, other vitamin D-associated conditions (diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases may result in secondary ocular manifestations and the potential forsight-threatening complications. The purpose of this review is to describe the current literature on the role of vitamin D in ocular and systemic wellness. However, more research is needed to determine if increasing levels of this vitamin can assist in preventing age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy. Since vitamin D is a circulating steroid hormone, its receptors are found in almost every cell in the human body, and this suggests that vitamin D might have a very broad role for overall health. However, there is still demand for further research to clarify the clinical use of vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of various chronic diseases.

  5. Faraday cup measurements of a laser-induced plasma for a laser-proton acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Hee; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Ki Tae

    2006-01-01

    Experiments for the generation of laser-induced protons were performed in collaboration with Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI). An intensity of 3 X 10 18 W/cm 2 was delivered to a 17-μm Al target, and the Faraday Cup signals of the charged particles generated by the laser-plasma interaction were measured. In this paper, we discuss the first experimental results of laser-induced proton generation using the APRI laser and report on the feasibility of current measurement for charged-particles when using a Faraday cup.

  6. Laser-induced nuclear physics and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, K.W.D.; Singhal, R.P.; McKenna, P.; Spencer, I.

    2002-01-01

    With a 1 ps pulse laser at 1 μm wavelength, He gas is ionised at about 3.10 14 W.cm -2 . As the intensity increases, the inert gases become multiple ionised and between 10 18 and 10 19 W.cm -2 photon induced nuclear reactions are energetically possible. Close to 10 21 W.cm -2 pion production can take place. At the very high intensities of 10 28 W.cm -2 , it can be shown that electron-positron pairs can be created from the vacuum. The authors review the applications of high intensity focused laser beams in particle acceleration, laser-induced fission and laser production of protons and neutrons. Exciting new phenomena are expected at intensities higher than 10 22 W.cm -2 , -) the oscillating electric field can affect directly the protons in exactly the same way as the electrons in the plasma, -) fusion reactions by direct laser acceleration of ions. (A.C.)

  7. Ocular complications of diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nihat Sayin; Necip Kara; Gokhan Pekel

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a important health problemthat induces ernestful complications and it causessignificant morbidity owing to specific microvascularcomplications such as, retinopathy, nephropathy andneuropathy, and macrovascular complications such as,ischaemic heart disease, and peripheral vasculopathy.It can affect children, young people and adults and isbecoming more common. Ocular complications associatedwith DM are progressive and rapidly becoming theworld's most significant cause of morbidity and arepreventable with early detection and timely treatment.This review provides an overview of five main ocularcomplications associated with DM, diabetic retinopathyand papillopathy, cataract, glaucoma, and ocular surfacediseases.

  8. Activation of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin Subtype 8 Attenuates Cold-Induced Hypertension Through Ameliorating Vascular Mitochondrial Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Shiqiang; Wang, Bin; Lin, Shaoyang; Zhang, Hexuan; Li, Yingsha; Wei, Xing; Cui, Yuanting; Wei, Xiao; Lu, Zongshi; Gao, Peng; Li, Li; Zhao, Zhigang; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2017-08-02

    Environmental cold-induced hypertension is common, but how to treat cold-induced hypertension remains an obstacle. Transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8) is a mild cold-sensing nonselective cation channel that is activated by menthol. Little is known about the effect of TRPM8 activation by menthol on mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis and the vascular function in cold-induced hypertension. Primary vascular smooth muscle cells from wild-type or Trpm8 -/- mice were cultured. In vitro, we confirmed that sarcoplasmic reticulum-resident TRPM8 participated in the regulation of cellular and mitochondrial Ca 2+ homeostasis in the vascular smooth muscle cells. TRPM8 activation by menthol antagonized angiotensin II induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and excess reactive oxygen species generation by preserving pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, which hindered reactive oxygen species-triggered Ca 2+ influx and the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway. In vivo, long-term noxious cold stimulation dramatically increased vasoconstriction and blood pressure. The activation of TRPM8 by dietary menthol inhibited vascular reactive oxygen species generation, vasoconstriction, and lowered blood pressure through attenuating excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species mediated the activation of RhoA/Rho kinase in a TRPM8-dependent manner. These effects of menthol were further validated in angiotensin II-induced hypertensive mice. Long-term dietary menthol treatment targeting and preserving mitochondrial function may represent a nonpharmaceutical measure for environmental noxious cold-induced hypertension. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  9. Antihypertensive effect of rhizome part of Acorus calamus on renal artery occlusion induced hypertension in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinal Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rhizomes part of Acorus calamus (AC having the calcium inhibitory effect and diuretic activity which may potentiate Na+ excretion in hypertension induced by occlusion of renal artery. Therefore this study was aimed to investigate the effect of AC on experimentally induced hypertension. Methods: Hypertension in rats was induced by clamping the left renal artery for 4h by arterial clamp (2K1C. At the end of experiment animal were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg. Carotid artery was cannulated which was connected to pressure transducer for estimation of blood pressure. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes (EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension, demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure when compared with 2K1C rats indicated blood pressure lowering activity. Plasma renin activity was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in EAAC treated rats compared to 2K1C rats. EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower mean blood urea nitrogen and creatinine when compared with 2K1C rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly (P < 0.001 decreased, where as nitric oxide level in tissue was significantly elevated in EAAC treated rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 increased in EAAC treated rats when compared to 2K1C rats. Conclusions: In conclusions, EAAC treatment attenuated renal artery occlusion induced hypertension via nitric oxide generation and decreases the plasma renin activity.

  10. Intra-ocular pressure-lowering effects of a Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil (K-115), over 24 hours in primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension: a randomized, open-label, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanihara, Hidenobu; Inoue, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Kuwayama, Yasuaki; Abe, Haruki; Suganami, Hideki; Araie, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the intra-ocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effects of a selective Rho kinase inhibitor, ripasudil (K-115), over 24 hr in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT). In this multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, 3-period, Latin-square crossover clinical study, 28 patients with POAG or OHT whose IOP level was 21 mmHg or higher were subdivided into three groups. Each patient was treated with placebo and ripasudil in concentrations of 0.2 and 0.4%, at 9:00 and 21:00 on day 1 through a total of 3 periods separated by washout periods. IOP was measured at 9:00, 10:00, 11:00, 13:00, 16:00, 19:00, 21:00, 22:00 and 23:00 on day 1, and 1:00, 4:00, 7:00 and 9:00 on day 2 in sitting position using Goldmann applanation tonometer. Main outcome measure was the IOP reduction of placebo and ripasudil from baseline. The mean IOP reduction was -5.2 mmHg for 0.2%, -6.4 mmHg for 0.4% and -2.0 mmHg for placebo at 2 hr after the first instillation. Also, the corresponding values were -6.8 mmHg for 0.2%, -7.3 mmHg for 0.4% and -4.1 mmHg for placebo at 2 hr after the second instillation. Statistically significant IOP reduction, compared with placebo, was found for both 0.2 and 0.4% from 1 through 7 hr after each instillation. In safety, conjunctival hyperaemia was observed in 22 patients (79%) for 0.2%, 27 patients (96%) for 0.4% and three patients (11%) for placebo. Ripasudil is a promising new topical medication to lower IOP for at least 7 hr after instillations in patients with POAG or OHT. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hypertension-Induced Cerebral Small Vessel Disease Leading to Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Dong, Yan-Hong; Lyu, Pei-Yuan; Chen, Wei-Hong; Li, Rui

    2018-03-05

    Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia are responsible for more than 80% of dementia cases. These two conditions share common risk factors including hypertension. Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) is strongly associated with both hypertension and cognitive impairment. In this review, we identify the pathophysiological changes in CSVD that are caused by hypertension and further explore the relationship between CSVD and cognitive impairment. We searched and scanned the PubMed database for recently published literatures up to December 2017. We used the keywords of "hypertension", "cerebral small vessel disease", "white matter lesions", "enlarged perivascular spaces", "lacunar infarcts", "cerebral microbleeds", and "cognitive impairment" in the database of PubMed. Articles were obtained and reviewed to analyze the hypertension-induced pathophysiological changes that occur in CSVD and the correlation between CSVD and cognitive impairment. In recent years, studies have demonstrated that hypertension-related changes (e.g., small vascular lesions, inflammatory reactions, hypoperfusion, oxidative stress, damage to autoregulatory processes and the blood-brain barrier, and cerebral amyloid angiopathy) can occur over time in cerebral small vessels, potentially leading to lower cognitive function when blood pressure (BP) control is poor or lacking. Both isolated and co-occurrent CSVD can lead to cognitive deterioration, and this effect may be attributable to a dysfunction in either the cholinergic system or the functionality of cortical and subcortical tracts. We explore the currently available evidence about the hypertensive vasculopathy and inflammatory changes that occur in CSVD. Both are vital prognostic indicators of the development of cognitive impairment. Future studies should be performed to validate the relationship between BP levels and CSVD progression and between the numbers, volumes, and anatomical locations of CSVD and cognitive impairment.

  12. Intracerebroventricular metformin attenuates salt-induced hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J S; Andersen, D; Muntzel, M S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of long-term continuous intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of metformin on blood pressure (BP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). To accelerate the development of hypertension, SHR were fed a 8% NaCl diet during the 3-week study period...... to hexamethonium was attenuated by all doses of metformin suggesting that chronic icv metformin decreased central sympathetic outflow. The highest doses of metformin (100 and 200 microg/day) also prevented development of hypertension, but these doses were highly neurotoxic as demonstrated by histologic evaluation...... doses of metformin attenuates hypertension and decreases the hypotensive responses to ganglionic blockade in SHR, suggesting a centrally elicited sympathoinhibitory action....

  13. Hydrogen sulfide ameliorated L-NAME-induced hypertensive heart disease by the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sheng; Teng, Xu; Xiao, Lin; Xue, Hongmei; Guo, Qi; Duan, Xiaocui; Chen, Yuhong; Wu, Yuming

    2017-12-01

    Reductions in hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) production have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension; however, no studies have examined the functional role of hydrogen sulfide in hypertensive heart disease. We hypothesized that the endogenous production of hydrogen sulfide would be reduced and exogenous hydrogen sulfide would ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in N ω -nitro- L-arginine methyl ester ( L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Therefore, this study investigated the cardioprotective effects of hydrogen sulfide on L-NAME-induced hypertensive heart disease and explored potential mechanisms. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: Control, Control + sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), L-NAME, L-NAME + NaHS, and L-NAME + NaHS + glibenclamide (Gli) groups. Systolic blood pressure was monitored each week. In Langendorff-isolated rat heart, cardiac function represented by ±LV dP/dt max and left ventricular developing pressure was recorded after five weeks of treatment. Hematoxylin and Eosin and Masson's trichrome staining and myocardium ultrastructure under transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate cardiac remodeling. The plasma nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide concentrations, as well as nitric oxide synthases and cystathionine-γ-lyase activity in left ventricle tissue were determined. The protein expression of p-Akt, Akt, p-eNOS, and eNOS in left ventricle tissue was analyzed using Western blot. After five weeks of L-NAME treatment, there was a time-dependent hypertension, cardiac remodeling, and dysfunction accompanied by a decrease in eNOS phosphorylation, nitric oxide synthase activity, and nitric oxide concentration. Meanwhile, cystathionine-γ-lyase activity and hydrogen sulfide concentration were also decreased. NaHS treatment significantly increased plasma hydrogen sulfide concentration and subsequently promoted the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway which inhibited the development of hypertension and attenuated cardiac remodeling and

  14. Laser induced damage threshold on metallic surfaces during laser cleaning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available laser paint removal. Laser induced damage on 316L stainless steel was studied, with the target subjected to single and multiple pulse irradiations using a Q-switched Nd:YAG, with fluences between 0.15 and 11.8 J/cm2. Several different damage morphologies...

  15. Relationship between ocular surface temperature and peripheral vasoconstriction in healthy subjects: A thermographic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Vannetti, Federica; Finocchio, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral vasoconstric......An impairment of ocular blood flow regulation is commonly considered one of the main pathogenetic mechanisms involved in the development of several eye diseases, like glaucoma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an alteration of ocular blood supply induced by peripheral...

  16. Prospective Observational Study of Ocular Health in ISS Crews - The Ocular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, C.; Barr, Y.; Platts, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Sargsyan, A.; Alexander, D.; Riascos, R.; Gibson, C.; Patel, N.

    2015-01-01

    The Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome is currently NASA's number one human space flight risk. The syndrome, which is related to microgravity exposure, manifests with changes in visual acuity (hyperopic shifts, scotomas), changes in eye structure (optic disc edema, choroidal folds, cotton wool spots, globe flattening, and dilated optic nerve sheaths), and in some cases with documented increased intracranial pressure (ICP) postflight. While the eye appears to be the main affected end organ of this syndrome, the ocular effects are thought to be related to underlying changes in the vascular system and the central nervous system. The leading hypotheses for the development of VIIP involve microgravity-induced head-ward fluid shifts along with a loss of gravity-assisted drainage of venous blood from the brain, leading to cephalic congestion, decreased CSF resorption and increased ICP. Since 70% of ISS crewmembers have manifested clinical signs or symptoms of the VIIP syndrome, it is assumed that the majority have some degree of ICP elevation in-flight compared to the ground. Prolonged elevations of ICP can cause long-term reduced visual acuity and loss of peripheral visual fields, and have been reported to cause mild cognitive impairment in the analog terrestrial population of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH). These potentially irreversible health consequences underscore the importance of identifying the factors that lead to this syndrome and mitigating them.

  17. Clinical significance of determination of the changes of plasma vasoactive substances ET, NO, CGRP levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Danhui

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET, CGRP and NO levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: Plasma levels of ET, CGRP (with RIA) and NO (with colorimetry) were measured in 36 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension 30 women with normal pregnancy and 32 controls. Results: Plasma levels of ET, CGRP and NO in normal pregnant women were not significantly different from those in controls (P>0.05) and plasma levels of ET, CGRP and NO in patients with mild pregnancy induced hypertension (n=12) were not significantly different flora those in normal pregnant women (P>0.05), However, plasma levels of ET in patients with moderate (n=14) and severe (n=10) pregnancy induced hypertension were significantly higher than those in normal pregant women, while levels of CGRP and NO were significantly lower (all P< 0.01). Conclusion: Detection of changes of plasma ET, CGRP and NO contents in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension provides a valuable laboratory basis for study of relationship between endothelial cell function and pathogenesis of hypertension. (authors)

  18. Resistance training controls arterial blood pressure in rats with L-NAME- induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ayslan Jorge Santos de; Santos, Anne Carolline Veríssimo dos; Souza, Karine dos Santos; Aires, Marlúcia Bastos; Santana-Filho, Valter Joviniano; Fioretto, Emerson Ticona; Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2013-04-01

    Arterial hypertension is a multifactorial chronic condition caused by either congenital or acquired factors. To evaluate the effects of Resistance Training (RT) on arterial pressure, and on vascular reactivity and morphology, of L-NAME-treated hypertensive rats. Male Wistar rats (200 - 250 g) were allocated into Sedentary Normotensive (SN), Sedentary Hypertensive (SH) and Trained Hypertensive (TH) groups. Hypertension was induced by adding L-NAME (40 mg/Kg) to the drinking water for four weeks. Arterial pressure was evaluated before and after RT. RT was performed using 50% of 1RM, 3 sets of 10 repetitions, 3 times per week for four weeks. Vascular reactivity was measured in rat mesenteric artery rings by concentration-response curves to sodium nitroprusside (SNP); phenylephrine (PHE) was also used for histological and stereological analysis. Resistance training inhibited the increase in mean and diastolic arterial pressures. Significant reduction was observed in Rmax (maximal response) and pD2 (potency) of PHE between SH and TH groups. Arteries demonstrated normal intima, media and adventitia layers in all groups. Stereological analysis demonstrated no significant difference in luminal, tunica media, and total areas of arteries in the SH and TH groups when compared to the SN group. Wall-to-lumen ratio of SH arteries was significantly different compared to SN arteries (parteries. RT was able to prevent an increase in blood pressure under the conditions in this study. This appears to involve a vasoconstrictor regulation mechanism and maintenance of luminal diameter in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats.

  19. Multicenter, Randomized, Controlled Study Comparing Tafluprost/Timolol Fixed Combination with Latanoprost/Timolol Fixed Combination in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Otsuka, Naomi; Hizaki, Hiroko; Hashimoto, Masayo; Kuwayama, Yasuaki

    2018-06-05

    This was the first exploratory randomized controlled study to compare the efficacy and safety of a preserved tafluprost/timolol fixed combination (TAF/TIM) with a preserved latanoprost/timolol fixed combination (LAT/TIM). This prospective, randomized, open-label study was conducted in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, including normal-tension glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Following a 4-week LAT/TIM run-in period, eligible patients entered a 12-week treatment period, during which they received either LAT/TIM or TAF/TIM. The efficacy endpoint was the change in intraocular pressure (IOP) from baseline to week 12 and the safety endpoints included the changes from baseline to week 12 in superficial punctate keratopathy (SPK) score, tear breakup time (TBUT), and hyperemia score, as well as adverse events (AEs). At week 6, ocular symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. In total, 131 patients provided informed consent. Of these, 115 completed the run-in period and were assigned to receive TAF/TIM (n = 60) or LAT/TIM (n = 55). At week 12, there were no significant differences between the TAF/TIM and LAT/TIM groups in the change from baseline in trough IOP and IOP at 4-6 h after instillation. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the change from baseline to week 12 in SPK score, TBUT, and hyperemia score. However, only in the TAF/TIM group, the total SPK score and the inferior cornea SPK score were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline. Eye irritation and eye pain were significantly decreased in the TAF/TIM group compared with the LAT/TIM group. Two treatment-related AEs were reported in the TAF/TIM group (3.3%) and none in the LAT/TIM group, while no serious AEs were reported in either group. TAF/TIM is as effective as LAT/TIM in terms of IOP-reducing effect, with fewer ocular symptoms. TAF/TIM was associated with a significant improvement in SPK scores. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry Identifier

  20. A Survey on Prevalence of Ocular Complications and It’s Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients of Diabetic Center of Nader Kazemi Clinic Shiraz- Iran 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SM Kashfi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With respect to an increase in diabetes prevalence, and the likelihood of ocular complications among them, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors and incidence of the ocular complications in patients of Nader Kazemi, Shiraz Diabetic center from 1998 to 2010.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study , subjects were selected based on a systematic random sampling to investigate the incidence of the ocular complications and the influence of factors such as age, sex, types of diabetes, job, education, blood triglyceride (TG and cholesterol level, Family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of participation in educational classes, methods of treatment, duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar were considered on them.Results: Ocular complications were found among 229 diabetic patients (32.6%. patients having type II diabetic have more ocular complications comparing with patients with type I diabetes (P<0. 005. Factors such as job (P=0. 022, history of participation in educational classes (P<0. 001, education (P<0. 001, family history of diabetes (P<0. 001, blood triglyceride (TG (P=0. 021, duration of diabetes(P<0. 001,age (P<0. 001, method of treatment(P<0. 001and fasting blood sugar (P<0. 001 had a significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication. However, other risk factors such as hypertension,gender and cholesterol levels were not statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication.Conclusion: Given the prevalence of ocular complications, educating diabetics’ patients can have a significant influence in reducing the occurrence of ocular complications.

  1. Evaluation of Agreement between HRT III and iVue OCT in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Perdicchi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the agreement between Moorfields Regression Analysis (MRA, Glaucoma Probability Score (GPS of Heidelberg retinal tomograph (HRT III, and peripapillary nerve fibers thickness by iVue Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT. Methods. 72 eyes with ocular hypertension or primary open angle glaucoma (POAG were included in the study: 54 eyes had normal visual fields (VF and 18 had VF damage. All subjects performed achromatic 30° VF by Octopus Program G1X dynamic strategy and were imaged with HRT III and iVue OCT. Sectorial and global MRA, GPS, and OCT parameters were used for the analysis. Kappa statistic was used to assess the agreement between methods. Results. A significant agreement between iVue OCT and GPS for the inferotemporal quadrant (κ: 0.555 was found in patients with abnormal VF. A good overall agreement between GPS and MRA was found in all the eyes tested (κ: 0.511. A good agreement between iVue OCT and MRA was shown in the superonasal (κ: 0.656 and nasal (κ: 0.627 quadrants followed by the superotemporal (κ: 0.602 and inferotemporal (κ: 0.586 sectors in all the studied eyes. Conclusion. The highest percentages of agreement were found per quadrant of the MRA and the iVue OCT confirming that in glaucoma damage starts from the temporal hemiretina.

  2. Contrast induced nephropathy in hypertensive patients after elective percutaneous coronary intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryfa Andra, Cut; Khairul, Andi; Aria Arina, Cut; Mukhtar, Zulfikri; Nyak Kaoy, Isfanuddin

    2018-03-01

    Contrast induced nephropathy (CIN) is the third lead cause of hospital acquired renal failure and was associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that hypertension is an independent risk factor for the development of CIN in patients undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The case-control method was used, 138 patients scheduled for elective PCI. We measured serum creatinine at baseline and after 24 hours of the procedure. CIN was defined as arising in serum creatinine of at least 44 μmol/l (0,5 mg/dl) or 25% rise from baseline. All patients received low osmolality nonionic contrast during PCI. Hypertension was defined as self-reported a history of treated or untreated diagnosed high blood pressure. One hundred thirty-eight patients (74,6%) were male, and 35 patients (25,4%) were female. Among the 138 patients, 86 (62,3%) were hypertensive patients whereas 52 (37,7%) were nonhypertensive patients. There was no difference in baseline serum creatinine levels and the amount of contrast media in patient with and without CIN. CIN developed in 42 patients, 39 patients (92,9%) were hypertensive compared to 3 patients (7,1%) without hypertension with p value < 0,05. (Odds ratio 16,8, 95% CI 4.542 - 62,412). This study showed that hypertension was a risk factor for the development of CIN

  3. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were ...

  4. STUDY ON PLATELET INDICES IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabi a Parveen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Pregnancy induced hypertension includes gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and eclampsia. In PIH, lower the platelet count, greater are maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Recent studies suggest that platele t parameters like platelet indices are most simple and cost effective method for prediction of PIH, way before the appearance of derangements in PT, APTT, TT values so we undertook this study with an aim to see an association between platelet indices and pregnancy induced hypertension. MATERIAL AND METHOD : This was prospective analytical case control study. Study included 125 cases, who were diagnosed as PIH with B.P. > 140/90 mmHg, detected after 20 weeks of pregnancy. Under all aseptic precautions samples were collected randomly in EDTA vials . Samples were analysed for platelet indices . RESULT : Maximum number of cases of Preeclampsia (88.57% & Eclampsia (87.5% were fo und in age group of 21 to 25 . Controls were of same age group i.e. 21 to 25 years. It was observed that platelet count showed gradual decrease in eclampsia (1.44580± 36,210 & pre - e clampsia patients (1.97850± 39,010 as compared to normotensive subjects (2.42620± 40,412. MPV showed gradual increase in eclampsia ( 10.49 ±1.12 & pre - eclampsia ( 9.14 ±0.612 patients as compared to normotensive subjects ( 8.422 ±0.743. PDW value also shows gradual increase in eclampsia ( 18.39 ±2.62 & pre - eclampsia ( 16.29 ±2.34 p atients as compared to normotensive subjects ( 12.09 ±2.53. CONCLUSION : Study showed that platelet indices were important, simple, effortless and cost effective investigations which can be used for early recognition of preventable eclampsia complications.

  5. Mean intraocular pressure in hypertensive adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irum, S.; Malik, A.M.; Saeed, M.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the mean Intraocular Pressure (IOP) in already diagnosed adult hypertensive patients with different grades of hypertension. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Lahore, from March 2012 to Aug 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 178 already diagnosed hypertensive patients were selected. A detailed history of ocular or systemic diseases was taken. Intraocular pressure was measured with help of Goldmann applanation tonometer. Three consecutive readings of IOP of each eye were taken at 30 minutes interval and mean calculated. Blood pressure was recorded in seated position from right upper arm, by mercury sphygmomanometer. Blood pressure measurements were determined by taking the mean value of three systolic and diastolic readings. Results: The results of intraocular pressure (IOP) between various grades of hypertension were determined. There was an increase in mean IOP with rise in blood pressure. The subjects with grade I hypertension showed a mean IOP of 13.95 ± 3.74 mmHg, while grade II and grade III hypertensive subjects had mean IOPs as 18.10 ± 3.32 and 20.21 ± 2.52 mmHg respectively. Conclusion: A higher value of mean IOP was found with increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. (author)

  6. Intracerebroventricular Infusion of the (Pro)renin Receptor Antagonist PRO20 Attenuates Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt–Induced Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N.; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J.; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C.; Feng, Yumei

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT1 receptor–dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  7. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Prostatic relaxation induced by agmatine is decreased in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Liang-Ming; Tsai, Tsung-Chin; Chung, Hsien-Hui; Tong, Yat-Ching; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2012-09-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Neurotransmitters are known to control prostate contractility. Agmatine is one of them and induces relaxation through imidazoline receptors. The paper shows that the action of agmatine is reduced in hypertensive rats, and that this change is related to the decrease of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the prostate. The findings can increase our understanding of the possible underlying mechanism for the development of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia. To compare agmatine-induced prostatic relaxation in hypertensive and control rats. To investigate the responsible mechanism(s) and the role of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel. Prostate strips were isolated from male spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats and normal Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats for measurement of isometric tension. The strips were precontracted with 1 µmol/L phenylephrine or 50 mmol/L KCl. Dose-dependent relaxation of the prostatic strips was studied by cumulative administration of agmatine, 1 to 100 µmol/L, into the organ bath. Effects of specific antagonists on agmatine-induced relaxation were studied. Western blotting analysis was used to measure the gene expression of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel in the rat prostate. Prostatic relaxation induced by agmatine was markedly reduced in SH rats compared with WKY rats. The relaxation caused by agmatine was abolished by BU224, a selective imidazoline I(2)-receptor antagonist, but was not modified by efaroxan at a dose sufficient to block imidazoline I(1)-receptors. The relaxation induced by diazoxide at a concentration sufficient to activate ATP-sensitive potassium channels was markedly reduced in the SH rat prostate. Expressions of ATP-sensitive potassium channel sulphonylurea receptor and inwardly rectifying potassium channel (Kir) 6.2 subunits were both decreased in the prostate of SH rats. The decrease of agmatine-induced prostatic relaxation in SH rats is related to the change in

  9. Oxidant and enzymatic antioxidant status (gene expression and activity) in the brain of chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Hossein; Khalaji-Pirbalouty, Valiallah; Nasiri, Leila; Mohebbi, Abdonnaser; Bahadoran, Shahab

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate oxidant and antioxidant status of the brain (hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain) in chickens with cold-induced pulmonary hypertension, the measurements of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, antioxidant capacity, enzymatic activity, and gene expression (for catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutases) were done. There were high lipid peroxidation/protein oxidation and low antioxidant capacity in the hindbrain of cold-induced pulmonary hypertensive chickens compared to control ( P pulmonary hypertension.

  10. Correlation of bevacizumab-induced hypertension and outcomes of metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jun; Ma, Hong; Huang, Fang; Zhu, Dichao; Bi, Jianping; Ke, Yang; Zhang, Tao

    2013-11-28

    With the wide application of targeted drug therapies, the relevance of prognostic and predictive markers in patient selection has become increasingly important. Bevacizumab is commonly used in combination with chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, there are currently no predictive or prognostic biomarkers for bevacizumab. Several clinical studies have evaluated bevacizumab-induced hypertension in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. This meta-analysis was performed to better determine the association of bevacizumab-induced hypertension with outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, and to assess whether bevacizumab-induced hypertension can be used as a prognostic factor in these patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on seven published studies to investigate the relationship between hypertension and outcome of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with bevacizumab. Our primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR). Hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS were extracted from each trial, and the log of the relative risk ratio (RR) was estimated for ORR. The occurrence of bevacizumab-induced hypertension in patients was highly associated with improvements in PFS (HR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.46-0.72; P hypertension. Bevacizumab-induced hypertension may represent a prognostic factor in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

  11. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.

    1996-01-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  12. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Masanori; Oda, Yasushi; Azuma, Kingo

    1996-05-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun.

  13. Ablative fractional laser enhances MAL-induced PpIX accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haak, C S; Christiansen, K; Erlendsson, Andrés M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pretreatment of skin with ablative fractional laser enhances accumulation of topical provided photosensitizer, but essential information is lacking on the interaction between laser channel densities and pharmacokinetics. Hence our objectives were to investigate how...... (range 46-133min) induced fluorescence levels similar to curettage and 180min incubation. Furthermore, MAL 80 and 160mg/g induced similar fluorescence intensities in skin exposed to laser densities of 1, 2 and 5% (p>0.0537, 30-180min). CONCLUSION: MAL-induced protoporphyrin accumulation is augmented...... protoporphyrin accumulation was affected by laser densities, incubation time and drug concentration. METHODS: We conducted the study on the back of healthy male volunteers (n=11). Test areas were pretreated with 2940nm ablative fractional Er:YAG laser, 11.2mJ per laser channel using densities of 1, 2, 5, 10...

  14. Role of the Gut Microbiome in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durgan, David J; Ganesh, Bhanu P; Cope, Julia L; Ajami, Nadim J; Phillips, Sharon C; Petrosino, Joseph F; Hollister, Emily B; Bryan, Robert M

    2016-02-01

    Individuals suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased risk for systemic hypertension. The importance of a healthy gut microbiota, and detriment of a dysbiotic microbiota, on host physiology is becoming increasingly evident. We tested the hypothesis that gut dysbiosis contributes to hypertension observed with OSA. OSA was modeled in rats by inflating a tracheal balloon during the sleep cycle (10-s inflations, 60 per hour). On normal chow diet, OSA had no effect on blood pressure; however, in rats fed a high-fat diet, blood pressure increased 24 and 29 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively (Phypertensive OSA rats on high-fat diet into OSA recipient rats on normal chow diet (shown to be normotensive) resulted in hypertension similar to that of the donor (increased 14 and 32 mm Hg after 7 and 14 days of OSA, respectively; Phypertension, and suggest that manipulation of the microbiota may be a viable treatment for OSA-induced, and possibly other forms of, hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia in Xeroderma Pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh R Nayak

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is a rare genetic disorder associated with multiple oculocutaneous and neurological manifestations. It occurs due to deficiency of the enzymes responsible for repairing ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA damage. Persistence of un-repaired DNA results in somatic mutations, leading to neoplasia of the skin and ocular surface. As this condition is rare, only isolated case reports of XP with ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN are found in literature.

  16. Emission Characteristics of Laser-Induced Plasma Using Collinear Long and Short Dual-Pulse Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Liu, Renwei; Ikutomo, Akihiro; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Chong, Daotong; Yan, Junjie; Liu, Jiping; Shiou, Fang-Jung

    2017-09-01

    Collinear long and short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) was employed to clarify the emission characteristics from laser-induced plasma. The plasma was sustained and became stable by the long pulse-width laser with the pulse width of 60 μs under free running (FR) conditions as an external energy source. Comparing the measurement results of stainless steel in air using single-pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and DP-LIBS, the emission intensity was markedly enhanced using DP-LIBS. The temperature of plasma induced by DP-LIBS was maintained at a higher temperature under different gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power conditions compared with those measured using short SP-LIBS. Moreover, the variation rates of plasma temperatures measured using DP-LIBS were also lower. The superior detection ability was verified by the measurement of aluminum sample in water. The spectra were clearly detected using DP-LIBS, whereas it cannot be identified using SP-LIBS of short and long pulse widths. The effects of gate delay time and short pulse-width laser power were also discussed. These results demonstrate the feasibility and enhanced detection ability of the proposed collinear long and short DP-LIBS method.

  17. [Effect of Dendrobium officinale granule on long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Gui-Yuan; Xia, Chao-Qun; Chen, Su-Hong; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiao-Pang; Li, Bo; Gao, Jian-Li

    2013-10-01

    To observe the effect of Dendrobium officinale granule (DOG) on symptoms, blood pressure and serum biochemical indexes of long-term-alcohol-induced hypertension rats. The alcohol-induced hypertension rat model was established by feeding alcohol drink to normal rats (the alcohol volume fraction increases from 5% to 22%). Since the 4th week, DOG was administered for 32 weeks, once everyday. During the experiment, body weight, kinematic parameters (locomotor activities, grip strength, duration of vertigo) and blood pressures (systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure) were detected regularly. On the 28th and 32nd weeks, blood samples were collected to determine serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), uric acid (UA), creatinine (Cr), cholesterol (CH) and triglycerides (TG). (1) Sign: The DOG-administered group showed reduction in the duration of vertigo and increase in appetite, body weight, locomotor activities and grip strength. (2) Blood pressure: The DOG-administered group showed significant decrease in blood pressure since the 8th week. (3) Biochemical indexes: The DOG-administered group showed notable decrease in serum ALT, AST, ALP, Cr, UA, TG level, but without significant change in TC level. The long-term administration of DOG can relieve alcohol-induced hypertension, while alleviating general signs, liver and kidney injuries and abnormal blood fat biochemical indexes.

  18. Glaukos iStent inject® Trabecular Micro-Bypass Implantation Associated with Cataract Surgery in Patients with Coexisting Cataract and Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: A Long-Term Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arriola-Villalobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of the iStent inject device (Glaukos Corporation, Laguna Hills, CA combined with phacoemulsification in patients with coexistent cataract and open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT. Methods. A prospective, uncontrolled, nonrandomized, interventional case series study was conducted in patients with both mild or moderate open-angle glaucoma or OHT and cataract. Patients underwent cataract surgery along with the implant of two iStent inject devices. Outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP, topical hypotensive medications required, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. Results. 20 patients were enrolled. Mean follow-up was 47.4±18.46 months. Mean baseline IOP was 19.95±3.71 mmHg with medication and 26±3.11 mmHg after washout. Mean end-follow-up IOP was 16.25±1.99 mmHg, representing an IOP decrease of 36.92%, 9.74±3.14 mmHg (P<0.001, from baseline washout IOP. The mean number of medications was significantly reduced from 1.3±0.66 to 0.75±0.79 (P=0.017. 45% of patients were medication-free by the end of follow-up. Mean log⁡MAR BCVA improved significantly from 0.42±0.16 to 0.18±0.16 (P<0.001. No complications of surgery were observed. Conclusion. The iStent inject device combined with cataract surgery served to significantly reduce both IOP and medication use in the long term in patients with coexistent open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (OHT and cataract.

  19. Reduction of quaternary ammonium-induced ocular surface toxicity by emulsions: an in vivo study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, H; Brignole-Baudouin, F; Rabinovich-Guilatt, L; Mao, Z; Riancho, L; Faure, M O; Warnet, J M; Lambert, G; Baudouin, C

    2008-01-31

    To evaluate and compare the toxicological profiles of two quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC), benzalkonium chloride (BAK), and cetalkonium chloride (CKC), in standard solution or cationic emulsion formulations in rabbit eyes using newly developed in vivo and ex vivo experimental approaches. Seventy eyes of 35 adult male New Zealand albino rabbits were used in this study. They were randomly divided into five groups: 50 microl of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), PBS containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Sol and CKC Sol, respectively), and emulsion containing 0.02% BAK or 0.002% CKC (BAK Em and CKC Em, respectively) were applied to rabbit eyes 15 times at 5-min intervals. The ocular surface changes induced by these eye drops were investigated using slit-lamp examination, flow cytometry (FCM), impression cytology (IC) on conjunctiva, and corneal in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Standard immunohistology in cryosections was also examined for cluster of differentiation (CD) 45+ infiltrating and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-nick end labeling (TUNEL)+ apoptotic cells. Clinical observations and IVCM showed that the highest toxicity was induced by BAK Sol, characterized by damaged corneal epithelium and a high level of inflammatory infiltration. BAK Em and CKC Sol presented moderate effects, and CKC Em showed the lowest toxicity with results similar to those of PBS. Conjunctival imprints analyzed by FCM showed a higher expression of RLA-DR and TNFR1 markers in BAK Sol-instilled eyes than in all other groups, especially at 4 h. Immunohistology was correlated with in vivo and ex vivo findings and confirmed this toxicity profile. A high level of infiltration of CD45+ inflammatory cells and TUNEL+ apoptotic cells was observed in limbus and conjunctiva, especially in QAC solution-receiving eyes compared to QAC emulsion-instilled eyes. The acute administration of 15 instillations at 5 min intervals was a rapid and efficient model to assess quaternary

  20. Time-Resolved Spectroscopy Diagnostic of Laser-Induced Optical Breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian G. Parigger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Transient laser plasma is generated in laser-induced optical breakdown (LIOB. Here we report experiments conducted with 10.6-micron CO2 laser radiation, and with 1.064-micron fundamental, 0.532-micron frequency-doubled, 0.355-micron frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser radiation. Characterization of laser induced plasma utilizes laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS techniques. Atomic hydrogen Balmer series emissions show electron number density of 1017 cm−3 measured approximately 10 μs and 1 μs after optical breakdown for CO2 and Nd:YAG laser radiation, respectively. Recorded molecular recombination emission spectra of CN and C2 Swan bands indicate an equilibrium temperature in excess of 7000 Kelvin, inferred for these diatomic molecules. Reported are also graphite ablation experiments where we use unfocused laser radiation that is favorable for observation of neutral C3 emission due to reduced C3 cation formation. Our analysis is based on computation of diatomic molecular spectra that includes accurate determination of rotational line strengths, or Hönl-London factors.

  1. Ocular hypertension after pediatric cataract surgery: baseline characteristics and first-year report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haotian Lin

    Full Text Available Monitoring intraocular pressure (IOP is essential for pediatric cataract treatment but always difficult due to lack of cooperation in young children. We present the baseline characteristics and the first-year results of a long-term prospective cohort study, which are aimed to determine the relationship of the incidence of ocular hypertension (OH in children after cataract surgery during the first-year period and the risk of developing late-onset glaucoma. Children were included with the following criteria: they were ≤10 years old and scheduled to undergo cataract surgery with/without intraocular lens implantation; they were compliant with our follow-up protocol, which included monitoring IOP using a Tono-Pen under sedation or anesthesia. Incidence of OH, peak OH value, OH onset time and OH duration within a 12-month period following surgery were measured. In brief, 206 patients (379 eyes were included and OH developed in 66 of 379 (17.4% eyes. The mean follow-up period was 14.0±3.2 months (median, 12 months; range, 10-16 months. Moreover, 33 of 196 (16.8% aphakic eyes and 33 of 183 (18.0% IOL eyes were diagnosed with OH. The peak OH onset times were at 1-week (34/66, 51.5% and 1-month (14/66, 21.2% appointments postsurgery. The peak IOP value in the OH eyes was 29.9±7.5 mmHg (median, 29 mmHg; range, 21-48 mmHg. The duration of OH was 30.9±31.2 days (median, 30 days; range, 3-150 days. OH recurred in 13 eyes with a history of OH diagnosed within 1 month postsurgery (13/54, 24.1%, which needed temporary or long term use of antiglaucoma medications. In conclusion, the incidence of OH in children after cataract surgery was 17.4% during the first-year period. Children who have suffered elevated IOP in the first year after cataract surgery should be followed closely to determine if there is an increased risk of developing late-onset glaucoma.

  2. Review of external ocular compression: clinical applications of the ocular pressure estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd. Washington, MO, USA; 2Washington University Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Ophthalmology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: The authors have previously validated an Ocular Pressure Estimator (OPE that can estimate the intraocular pressure (IOP during external ocular compression (EOC. The authors now apply the OPE in clinical states where EOC is clinically important. The original work is described for two periods of risk: during sleep and during the digital ocular massage (DOM maneuver used by surgeons after trabeculectomy to keep the operation functional. Other periods of risk for external ocular compression are then reviewed.Methods: The first protocol estimated the IOP in the dependent eye during simulated sleep. Subjects had their IOPs initially measured in an upright-seated position, immediately upon assuming a right eye dependent side sleeping position (with nothing contacting the eye, and then 5 minutes later while still in this position. While maintaining this position, the fluid filled bladder of the OPE was then placed between the subject’s closed eye and a pillow during simulated sleep. The IOP was continuously estimated in this position for 5 minutes. The subjects then had the IOP measured in both eyes in an upright-seated position. The second protocol determined if a larger vertical cup-to-disc ratio was more common on the side that patients reported they preferred to sleep on. The hypothesis was that chronic asymmetric, compression induced, elevations of IOP during sleep would be associated with otherwise unexplained asymmetry of the vertical cup-to-disc ratio. The third protocol assessed the IOP during DOM. The OPE was used to characterize the IOP produced during the DOM maneuver of five glaucoma surgeons. After this, 90 mmHg was chosen as a target pressure for DOM. The surgeons were then verbally coached

  3. Should intranasal corticosteroids be used for the treatment of ocular symptoms of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis? A review of their efficacy and safety profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightman, Sue; Scadding, Glenis K

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) presents as nasal symptoms, eye watering and additional signs of ocular allergy (e.g. itchy/burning eyes). Intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) are the most effective treatment for the nasal symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR; based on 4 meta-analyses) and are considered first-line therapy when nasal congestion forms a substantial component of the patient's rhinitis symptoms. Clinical trial evidence shows that INSs also provide some relief from ocular symptoms of SAR and seasonal ARC in adults. INSs probably alleviate eye watering, the main ocular symptom of SAR, by relieving nasal congestion. Other ocular symptoms also improve with INSs. The mechanism for this effect is unknown, but might relate to naso-ocular reflex reduction. There are limited data on ocular safety with INSs. However, the literature supports the use of INSs over several months as there appears to be no considerable increase in the risk of ocular hypertension or glaucoma. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Laser-induced incandescence applied to dusty plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, F.M.J.H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Kovacevic, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the laser heating of nanoparticles (diameters ≤1 μm) confined in a reactive plasma by short (150 ps) and intense (~63 mJ) UV (355 nm) laser pulses (laser-induced incandescence, LII). Important parameters such as the particle temperature and radius follow from analysis of the

  5. Railgun system using a laser-induced plasma armature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, M.; Oda, Y.; Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 3-3-1, Minatomirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama 220-84 (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Development of an electromagnetic railgun system that utilizes a laser-induced plasma armature formation has been conducted to investigate the application of the railgun system for high-speed pellet injection into fusion plasmas. Using the laser-induced plasma formation technique, the required breakdown voltage was reduced by one-tenth compared with that for the spark-discharged plasma. The railgun system successfully accelerated the laser-induced plasma armature by an electromagnetic force that accelerated the pellet. The highest velocity of the solid hydrogen pellets, obtained so far, was 2.6 km/sec using a 2m-long railgun. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Oxaliplatin-Related Ocular Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Mesquida

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with advanced colorectal cancer who was treated with oxaliplatin on a FOLFOX schedule. After 3 cycles of chemotherapy, she started to complain of visual loss, altered color vision and neurological symptoms. Due to the suspicion of ocular and neurological toxicity, antineoplastic treatment was stopped. Her visual field showed a concentric bilateral scotoma and the electrooculogram test revealed severe impairment of the retinal pigment epithelium. Visual acuity, color vision and visual field recovered completely 8 months later, although electrooculogram remained abnormal. Ocular toxicity has been reported as an infrequent adverse event of oxaliplatin. Findings in this case indicate toxicity of this chemotherapeutic agent on the retinal pigment epithelium, which has not been reported before. This damage could be permanent, and it thus differs from previously described oxaliplatin-induced ocular toxicities, which are usually transient and reversible. With increasing use of oxaliplatin as first-line treatment in advanced colorectal cancer, we have to be aware of this possible toxicity.

  7. Laser-induced grating in ZnO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Jesper N.

    1992-01-01

    A simple approach for the calculation of self-diffraction in a thin combined phase and amplitude grating is presented. The third order nonlinearity, the electron-hole recombination time, and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a ZnO crystal are measured by means of laser-induced self-diffracti......A simple approach for the calculation of self-diffraction in a thin combined phase and amplitude grating is presented. The third order nonlinearity, the electron-hole recombination time, and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient in a ZnO crystal are measured by means of laser-induced self...

  8. Ocular myasthenia gravis induced by human acetylcholine receptor ϵ subunit immunization in HLA DR3 transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaorong; Tuzun, Erdem; Saini, Shamsher S; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Aguilera-Aguirre, Leopoldo; Huda, Ruksana; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-12-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOM) are preferentially involved in myasthenia gravis (MG) and acetylcholine receptor (AChR) antibody positive MG patients may occasionally present with isolated ocular symptoms. Although experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) induced by whole AChR immunization closely mimics clinical and immunopathological aspects of MG, EOM are usually not affected. We have previously developed an EAMG model, which imitates EOM symptoms of MG by immunization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic mice with α or γ-subunits of human AChR (H-AChR). To investigate the significance of the ϵ-subunit in ocular MG, we immunized HLA-DR3 and HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice with recombinant H-AChR ϵ-subunit expressed in Escherichia coli. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice showed significantly higher clinical ocular and generalized MG severity scores and lower grip strength values than HLA-DQ8 mice. H-AChR ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 transgenic mice had higher serum anti-AChR antibody (IgG, IgG1, IgG2b, IgG2c and IgM) levels, neuromuscular junction IgG and complement deposit percentages than ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 transgenic mice. Control mice immunized with E. coli extract or complete Freund adjuvant (CFA) did not show clinical and immunopathological features of ocular and generalized EAMG. Lymph node cells of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DR3 mice showed significantly higher proliferative responses than those of ϵ-subunit-immunized HLA-DQ8 mice, crude E. coli extract-immunized and CFA-immunized transgenic mice. Our results indicate that the human AChR ϵ-subunit is capable of inducing myasthenic muscle weakness. Diversity of the autoimmune responses displayed by mice expressing different HLA class II molecules suggests that the interplay between HLA class II alleles and AChR subunits might have a profound impact on the clinical course of MG. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrasonographic Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter as a Surrogate Measure of Raised Intracranial Pressure in Severe Pregnancy-induced Hypertension Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shiv Kumar; Bhatia, Kiran

    2018-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that severe pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) can be disastrous at times as it can cause a lot of complications to both pregnant women and her baby. Hence, it is always desirable to know the extent of severity by a real-time and easily accessible modality like ultrasound. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in severe preeclampsia and eclampsia patients using ocular ultrasonography with optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement. This study design was a prospective and clinically controlled blinded observational study. After taking necessary permissions from the Institution Ethical Committee, 75 patients were enrolled for the study. However, finally, 25 patients in severe preeclampsia and 24 in eclampsia group were compared with 25 normal term antenatal women. Demographic profiles, hemodynamic parameters, laboratory markers for severity of PIH, and ultrasonographic OSND were measured. They were statistically analyzed and compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. Value of P surrogate marker for raised ICP in severe PIH patients. It is a rapid, bedside, noninvasive, and readily accessible tool and could be a part of a holistic approach for managing such patients.

  10. Lipocalin 2 Suppresses Ocular Inflammation by Inhibiting the Activation of NF-κβ Pathway in Endotoxin-Induced Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenyi Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Lipocalin 2 (LCN2, an important mediator of a variety of cellular processes, is involved in regulating the inflammatory response, but its roles in different inflammatory diseases are controversial. Because the role of LCN2 in ocular inflammation has been unclear until now, we explored the function of LCN2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced ocular inflammation in vivo and in vitro. Methods: Endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU was induced in male Sprague Dawley rats by the intravitreal injection of LPS. The expression and location of LCN2 in the retina were detected with western blotting and immunohistochemistry, respectively. We determined the clinical scores for anterior inflammation, quantified the infiltrated inflammatory cells, and measured the pro-inflammatory factors to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of LCN2 in EIU eyes. Cultured primary rat Müller cells were stimulated with LPS and the expression and secretion of LCN2 were measured with real-time PCR, western blotting, and an ELISA. After Müller cells were cotreated with LPS and LCN2 or PBS, the expression and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 were examined with realtime PCR, western blotting, and ELISAs. Western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to detect the phosphorylation and cellular distribution of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB subunit p65. Results: In EIU, the expression of LCN2 was significantly upregulated in the retina, especially in the outer nuclear layer (mainly composed of Müller cells. LPS stimulation of cultured Müller cells also markedly elevated LCN2 expression. Intravitreal injection of LCN2 significantly reduced the clinical scores, inflammatory infiltration, and protein leakage in EIU, which correlated with the reduced levels of proinflammatory factors in the aqueous humor and retina. LCN2 treatment also reduced the expression and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1 in LPS-stimulated Müller cells. LCN2 inhibited the inflammatory

  11. Experimental models of autoimmune inflammatory ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Gasparin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular inflammation is one of the leading causes of blindness and loss of vision. Human uveitis is a complex and heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by inflammation of intraocular tissues. The eye may be the only organ involved, or uveitis may be part of a systemic disease. A significant number of cases are of unknown etiology and are labeled idiopathic. Animal models have been developed to the study of the physiopathogenesis of autoimmune uveitis due to the difficulty in obtaining human eye inflamed tissues for experiments. Most of those models are induced by injection of specific photoreceptors proteins (e.g., S-antigen, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, rhodopsin, recoverin, phosducin. Non-retinal antigens, including melanin-associated proteins and myelin basic protein, are also good inducers of uveitis in animals. Understanding the basic mechanisms and pathogenesis of autoimmune ocular diseases are essential for the development of new treatment approaches and therapeutic agents. The present review describes the main experimental models of autoimmune ocular inflammatory diseases.

  12. Relationship between the Direction of Ophthalmic Artery Blood Flow and Ocular Microcirculation before and after Carotid Artery Stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Masashi; Hayashi, Morito; Yagi, Fumihiko; Sato, Kenichiro; Tomita, Goji; Iwabuchi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    When internal carotid artery stenosis is accompanied by ocular ischemic syndrome, intervention is recommended to prevent irreversible visual loss. In this study, we used laser speckle flowgraphy to measure the ocular microcirculation in the optic nerve head before and after carotid artery stenting (CAS) of 40 advanced internal carotid stenosis lesions from 37 patients. The aim was to investigate the relationship between ocular microcirculation and the direction of ophthalmic artery blood flow obtained by angiography. We found that there was a significant increase in blood flow after CAS ( P = 0.003). Peak systolic velocity as an indicator of the rate of stenosis was also significantly higher in the group with retrograde/undetected flow of the ophthalmic artery than in the group with antegrade flow ( P = 0.002). In all cases where retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery was observed before stenting, the flow changed to antegrade after stenting. Through the use of laser speckle flowgraphy, this study found that CAS can improve ocular microcirculation. Furthermore, while patients displaying retrograde flow of the ophthalmic artery before stenting have a poor prognosis, CAS corrected the flow to antegrade, suggesting that visual loss can be prevented by improving the ocular microcirculation.

  13. Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by pregnancy induced hypertension: A rare occurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar Anil Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the case of a young primigravida with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) presenting with seizure in the post-partum period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of isolated convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH). The absence of any other demonstrable vascular anomaly or coagulopathy on further investigation suggested PIH as the cause of cSAH.

  14. Subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by pregnancy induced hypertension: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar Anil Sohoni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the case of a young primigravida with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH presenting with seizure in the post-partum period. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of isolated convexal subarachnoid hemorrhage (cSAH. The absence of any other demonstrable vascular anomaly or coagulopathy on further investigation suggested PIH as the cause of cSAH.

  15. Factors Influencing the Placebo Effect in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension: An Analysis of Two Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taichi Kawamura

    Full Text Available To explore factors related to the placebo effect in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OH.This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with POAG and patients with OH who were treated with placebo. The patients' data were extracted from two randomized, double-masked, parallel, multicenter clinical trials (trial 1 and trial 2 in Japan. We explored the baseline factors that were associated with the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of placebo ophthalmic solution after 4 weeks of instillation treatment at two time points by using multivariable models. The time points were Hour 0 (between 08:30 and 10:30 before instillation and Hour 2 (within 1.5 to 2.5 h after instillation and by 12:30 at the baseline date and after 4 weeks. The changes in IOP from baseline to 4 weeks at the two time points were evaluated for the IOP-lowering effect induced by placebo instillation.Of the 330 patients included in the two trials, 89 patients were eligible for the analysis. The results of the multivariable analysis for Hour 0 indicated a high IOP at the baseline date (coefficient: 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.02 to 0.46, P = 0.03, and the magnitude of the IOP fluctuation at the baseline date (coefficient: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.90, P = 0.001 was associated with the IOP-lowering effect after 4 weeks. With respect to Hour 2, the trial type was associated with the IOP-lowering effect (coefficient: -1.15, 95% CI: -2.14 to -0.16, P = 0.02.A large fluctuation in IOP during the day is associated with the IOP-lowering effect induced by placebo in patients with POAG or OH. This finding would be helpful to researchers when designing studies related to glaucoma in the early stages of clinical development of drugs.

  16. Grade III or Grade IV Hypertensive Retinopathy with Severely Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D Henderson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertensive retinopathy describes a spectrum of retinal changes in patients with elevated blood pressure (BP. It is unknown why some patients are more likely to develop acute ocular end-organ damage than others with similar BP. We examined risk factors for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency in the emergency department (ED and compared healthcare utilization and mortality between patients with and without grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy.Methods: A preplanned subanalysis of patients who presented to a university hospital ED with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg and who enrolled in the Fundus Photography versus Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the ED study was performed. Bilateral nonmydriatic ocular fundus photographs, vital signs, and demographics were obtained at presentation. Past medical history, laboratory values, healthcare utilization, and mortality were ascertained from medical record review at least 8 months after initial ED visit.Results: Twenty-one patients with diastolic BP > 120 mmHg, 7 of whom (33% had grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy, were included. Patients with retinopathy were significantly younger than those without (median 33 vs 50 years, P = 0.02. Mean arterial pressure (165 vs 163 mmHg was essentially equal in the 2 groups. Patients with retinopathy had substantially increased but nonsignificant rates of ED revisit (57% vs 29%, P = 0.35 and hospital admission after ED discharge (43% vs 14%, P = 0.28. One of the patients with retinopathy died, but none without.Conclusion: Younger patients may be at higher risk for grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy among patients with hypertensive urgency. Chronic compensatory mechanisms may have not yet developed in these younger patients. Alternatively, older patients with retinopathy may be underrepresented secondary to increased mortality among these patients at a younger age (survivorship bias. Further research is needed to

  17. Laser-induced cracks in ice due to temperature gradient and thermal stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Yang, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Jing-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Yan; Zhang, Ling; Lin, Xue-Chun

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the experimental and theoretical investigations on the mechanism of laser-induce cracks in ice. The laser-induced thermal gradient would generate significant thermal stress and lead to the cracking without thermal melting in the ice. The crack density induced by a pulsed laser in the ice critically depends on the laser scanning speed and the size of the laser spot on the surface, which determines the laser power density on the surface. A maximum of 16 cracks within an area of 17 cm × 10 cm can be generated when the laser scanning speed is at 10 mm/s and the focal point of the laser is right on the surface of the ice with a laser intensity of ∼4.6 × 107 W/cm2. By comparing the infrared images of the ice generated at various experimental conditions, it was found that a larger temperature gradient would result in more laser-induced cracks, while there is no visible melting of the ice by the laser beam. The data confirm that the laser-induced thermal stress is the main cause of the cracks created in the ice.

  18. A Survey on Prevalence of Ocular Complications and It’s Risk Factors in Diabetic Patients Referred to Diabetic Center of Nader Kazemi Clinic Shiraz- Iran 1998-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali khani jeihooni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: With respect to increasing prevalence of diabetes, the chance for incidence of ocular complications among diabetics, this study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for the incidence of the ocular complications in the patients referred to the Nader Kazemi Shiraz Diabetic center from 1998 to 2010.Materials & Methods: In a cross sectional study , subjects were selected based on a systematic random sampling to investigate the incidence of the ocular complications and factors influencing like wise age, sex, type of diabet, job, education, blood triglyceride (TG and cholesterol level, Family history of diabetes, history of hypertension, history of participation in educational classes, method of treatment, duration of diabetes and fasting blood sugar were considered.Results: Ocular complications were found among 229 diabetic patients (32.6%. Ocular complications of type II diabetic patients than in patients with type I diabetes (P<0. 005. Factors such as job(P=0. 022, history of participation in educational classes(P<0. 001, education(P<0. 001, Family history of diabetes(P<0. 001, blood triglyceride (TG (P=0. 021, duration of diabetes(P<0. 001,age (P<0. 001, method of treatment(P<0. 001and fasting blood sugar (P<0. 001 had a significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication. But other risk factors such as hypertension, gender and cholesterol levels were not statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of ocular complication.Conclusion: Given the prevalence of ocular complications, continuing education on the disease of diabetes complications, it can have a role in reducing the occurrence of ocular complications.

  19. Choroidal osteoma secondary to ocular trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rua Martinez, Raul; Perez Garcia, Diley; Alemanny Rubio, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    The choroidal osteoma is a benign bony tumor described for the first time in 1978 by Gass and collaborators. It is generally unilateral, with juxtapapillary localization and more frequent in young adult females. It presents unknown etiology, but it is associated to different factors as inflammatory processes, congenital malformations, hormonal alterations and ocular traumas among others. The patient was a 54 year-old woman with a personal history of rheumatic fibromyalgia (osteoarthrosis and osteoporosis) and hypertension. Her ophthalmological antecedent showed myopia and arteriolosclerotic retinopathy. At the beginning of the year, she suffered a traffic accident and was injured in her limbs and periocular region. After this, she began feeling blurred vision of the right eye and she went to our service 6 months later. She was performed an ophthalmologic exam. It was found that the right eye had visual acuity of 0.4, and after correction it reached 1.0. Funduscopy revealed vascular thinness, incomplete posterior vitreous detachment, and a white-orange lesion of 3 papillary diameters that involved inferior temporary arcade with well-defined borders. An angiography was performed, which showed sustained hyperfluorescence and non neovascularization; and the optic coherence tomography revealed a halo of serous retinal detachment. Additionally, the ocular ultrasound yielded a high reflectivity echogenic image that involves choroids with posterior acoustic shadow. It is for this reason that we affirm the traumatic etiology of the lesion. This is a rare pathology that should be diagnosed by imaging techniques. Notably, it is secondary to an ocular trauma

  20. Heparanase-1 activities in the development of laser induced choroidal neovascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Ke Hou

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the role of heparanase-1 in laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV.METHODS:Experimental CNV was induced by krypton laser photocoagulation in 15 male Brown Norway rats. Fundus fluorescein angiography and histopathological examination were performed in observing the CNV development. The expression and distribution of heparanase-1 protein in the laser lesions were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis.RESULTS:The success rate of laser induced CNV was approximately 75% on 3-4 weeks after laser photocoagulation. The protein levels of heparanase-1 increased significantly in the retina-choroidal complex of CNV models when compared to normal rat eyes (P<0.01. Immunostaining confirmed strong heparanase-1 expressions in all laser lesions, and it displayed to be highest at the newly formed blood vessels within the fibrovascular complex in the subretinal space.CONCLUSION:Heparanase-1 is closely involved in the development of laser induced CNV.

  1. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallika O. U

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocular signs of hyperthyroidism were evaluated and followed up for an average period of 1 year. Detailed ocular examination included exophthalmometric measurements, ocular movements and Worth four-dot test. T3, T4, TSH, CT scan and antimicrosomal antibodies and antithyroglobulin antibodies were done along with routine investigations. Study Design- Prospective cohort study. RESULTS Statistical analysis did not reveal any correlation between the level of serum T3 and severity of ocular findings. Majority of the cases were euthyroid with moderate ocular myopathy having multiple muscle involvement. Inferior rectus was affected most. CONCLUSION The ocular signs of hyperthyroidism in the present study seem to be mild. The severe eye changes like corneal involvement and optic nerve changes were less common.

  2. Minimally invasive non-thermal laser technology using laser-induced optical breakdown for skin rejuvenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habbema, L.; Verhagen, R.; Van Hal, R.; Liu, Y.; Varghese, B.

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel, minimally invasive laser technology for skin rejuvenation by creating isolated microscopic lesions within tissue below the epidermis using laser induced optical breakdown. Using an in-house built prototype device, tightly focused near-infrared laser pulses are used to create

  3. Optimization of an Image-Guided Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Gong

    Full Text Available The mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV has been used in studies of the exudative form of age-related macular degeneration using both the conventional slit lamp and a new image-guided laser system. A standardized protocol is needed for consistent results using this model, which has been lacking. We optimized details of laser-induced CNV using the image-guided laser photocoagulation system. Four lesions with similar size were consistently applied per eye at approximately double the disc diameter away from the optic nerve, using different laser power levels, and mice of various ages and genders. After 7 days, the mice were sacrificed and retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera was flat-mounted, stained with Isolectin B4, and imaged. Quantification of the area of the laser-induced lesions was performed using an established and constant threshold. Exclusion criteria are described that were necessary for reliable data analysis of the laser-induced CNV lesions. The CNV lesion area was proportional to the laser power levels. Mice at 12-16 weeks of age developed more severe CNV than those at 6-8 weeks of age, and the gender difference was only significant in mice at 12-16 weeks of age, but not in those at 6-8 weeks of age. Dietary intake of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid reduced laser-induced CNV in mice. Taken together, laser-induced CNV lesions can be easily and consistently applied using the image-guided laser platform. Mice at 6-8 weeks of age are ideal for the laser-induced CNV model.

  4. Ocular Blood Flow and Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal tension glaucoma (NTG is known as a multifactorial optic neuropathy characterized by progressive retinal ganglion cell death and glaucomatous visual field loss, even though the intraocular pressure (IOP does not exceed the normal range. The pathophysiology of NTG remains largely undetermined. It is hypothesized that the abnormal ocular blood flow is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. A number of evidences suggested that the vascular factors played a significant role in the development of NTG. In recent years, the new imaging techniques, fluorescein angiography, color Doppler imaging (CDI, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, have been used to evaluate the ocular blood flow and blood vessels, and the impaired vascular autoregulation was found in patients with NTG. Previous studies showed that NTG was associated with a variety of systemic diseases, including migraine, Alzheimer’s disease, primary vascular dysregulation, and Flammer syndrome. The vascular factors were involved in these diseases. The mechanisms underlying the abnormal ocular blood flow in NTG are still not clear, but the risk factors for glaucomatous optic neuropathy likely included oxidative stress, vasospasm, and endothelial dysfunction.

  5. Infrared laser damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms using femtosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boretsky, Adam R.; Clary, Joseph E.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2018-02-01

    Ultrafast lasers have become a fixture in many biomedical, industrial, telecommunications, and defense applications in recent years. These sources are capable of generating extremely high peak power that can cause laser-induced tissue breakdown through the formation of a plasma upon exposure. Despite the increasing prevalence of such lasers, current safety standards (ANSI Z136.1-2014) do not include maximum permissible exposure (MPE) values for the cornea with pulse durations less than one nanosecond. This study was designed to measure damage thresholds in corneal tissue phantoms in the near-infrared and mid-infrared to identify the wavelength dependence of laser damage thresholds from 1200-2500 nm. A high-energy regenerative amplifier and optical parametric amplifier outputting 100 femtosecond pulses with pulse energies up to 2 mJ were used to perform exposures and determine damage thresholds in transparent collagen gel tissue phantoms. Three-dimensional imaging, primarily optical coherence tomography, was used to evaluate tissue phantoms following exposure to determine ablation characteristics at the surface and within the bulk material. The determination of laser damage thresholds in the near-IR and mid-IR for ultrafast lasers will help to guide safety standards and establish the appropriate MPE levels for exposure sensitive ocular tissue such as the cornea. These data will help promote the safe use of ultrafast lasers for a wide range of applications.

  6. Use of antidepressants during pregnancy and the risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loveren, Fianne MAM; Boekema, Monique; Hak, Eelko; Bos, Jens HJ; Aarnoudse, Jan G; Schuiling-Veninga, Catharina CM

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is possibly caused by an increased activity of the sympatic nervous system. Previous studies have suggested that inhibition of the re-uptake of serotonin and norepinephrine by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and tricyclic

  7. Surface modifications induced by pulsed-laser texturing—Influence of laser impact on the surface properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costil, S., E-mail: sophie.costil@utbm.fr [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Lamraoui, A.; Langlade, C. [IRTES-LERMPS, Université de Technologie de Belfort - Montbéliard, site de Sévenans, 90010 Belfort Cedex (France); Heintz, O.; Oltra, R. [ICB, Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    Laser cleaning technology provides a safe, environmentally friendly and very cost effective way to improve cleaning and surface preparation of metallic materials. Compared with efficient cleaning processes, it can avoid the disadvantages of ductile materials prepared by conventional technologies (cracks induced by sand-blasting for example) and treat only some selected areas (due to the optical fibers). By this way, laser technology could have several advantages and expand the range of thermal spraying. Moreover, new generations of lasers (fiber laser, disc laser) allow the development of new methods. Besides a significant bulk reduction, no maintenance, low operating cost, laser fibers can introduce alternative treatments. Combining a short-pulse laser with a scanner allows new applications in terms of surface preparation. By multiplying impacts using scanning laser, it is possible to shape the substrate surface to improve the coating adhesion as well as the mechanical behaviour. In addition, during the interactions of the laser beam with metallic surfaces, several modifications can be induced and particularly thermal effects. Indeed, under ambient conditions, a limited oxidation of the clean surface can occur. This phenomenon has been investigated in detail for silicon but few works have been reported concerning metallic materials. This paper aims at studying the surface modifications induced on aluminium alloy substrates after laser texturing. After morphological observations (SEM), a deeper surface analysis will be performed using XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measures and microhardness testing.

  8. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera; Jain, Anil K.; Inturi, Swetha; Ammar, David A.; Agarwal, Chapla; Tyagi, Puneet; Kompella, Uday B.; Enzenauer, Robert W.; Petrash, J. Mark; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  9. Silibinin, dexamethasone, and doxycycline as potential therapeutic agents for treating vesicant-inflicted ocular injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tewari-Singh, Neera, E-mail: Neera.Tewari-Singh@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Jain, Anil K., E-mail: Anil.Jain@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Inturi, Swetha, E-mail: Swetha.Inturi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Ammar, David A., E-mail: David.Ammar@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Chapla, E-mail: Chapla.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Tyagi, Puneet, E-mail: Puneet.Tyagi@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Kompella, Uday B., E-mail: Uday.Kompella@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Enzenauer, Robert W., E-mail: Robert.Enzenauer@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Petrash, J. Mark, E-mail: Mark.Petrash@ucdenver.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States); Agarwal, Rajesh, E-mail: Rajesh.Agarwal@ucdenver.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO 80045 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    There are no effective and approved therapies against devastating ocular injuries caused by vesicating chemical agents sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (NM). Herein, studies were carried out in rabbit corneal cultures to establish relevant ocular injury biomarkers with NM for screening potential efficacious agents in laboratory settings. NM (100 nmol) exposure of the corneas for 2 h (cultured for 24 h), showed increases in epithelial thickness, ulceration, apoptotic cell death, epithelial detachment microbullae formation, and the levels of VEGF, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Employing these biomarkers, efficacy studies were performed with agent treatments 2 h and every 4 h thereafter, for 24 h following NM exposure. Three agents were evaluated, including prescription drugs dexamethasone (0.1%; anti-inflammatory steroid) and doxycycline (100 nmol; antibiotic and MMP inhibitor) that have been studied earlier for treating vesicant-induced eye injuries. We also examined silibinin (100 μg), a non-toxic natural flavanone found to be effective in treating SM analog-induced skin injuries in our earlier studies. Treatments of doxycycline + dexamethasone, and silibinin were more effective than doxycycline or dexamethasone alone in reversing NM-induced epithelial thickening, microbullae formation, apoptotic cell death, and MMP-9 elevation. However, dexamethasone and silibinin alone were more effective in reversing NM-induced VEGF levels. Doxycycline, dexamethasone and silibinin were all effective in reversing NM-induced COX-2 levels. Apart from therapeutic efficacy of doxycycline and dexamethasone, these results show strong multifunctional efficacy of silibinin in reversing NM-induced ocular injuries, which could help develop effective and safe therapeutics against ocular injuries by vesicants. -- Highlights: ► Established injury biomarkers in rabbit corneal culture with nitrogen mustard (NM) ► This NM model is a cost effective

  10. Remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using nanosecond pulses from a mobile lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönlund, Rasmus; Lundqvist, Mats; Svanberg, Sune

    2006-08-01

    A mobile lidar system was used in remote imaging laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) experiments. Also, computer-controlled remote ablation of a chosen area was demonstrated, relevant to cleaning of cultural heritage items. Nanosecond frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser pulses at 355 nm were employed in experiments with a stand-off distance of 60 meters using pulse energies of up to 170 mJ. By coaxial transmission and common folding of the transmission and reception optical paths using a large computer-controlled mirror, full elemental imaging capability was achieved on composite targets. Different spectral identification algorithms were compared in producing thematic data based on plasma or fluorescence light.

  11. Notch1 Mediates Preconditioning Protection Induced by GPER in Normotensive and Hypertensive Female Rat Hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Rocca

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER is an estrogen receptor expressed in the cardiovascular system. G1, a selective GPER ligand, exerts cardiovascular effects through activation of the PI3K-Akt pathway and Notch signaling in normotensive animals. Here, we investigated whether the G1/GPER interaction is involved in the limitation of infarct size, and improvement of post-ischemic contractile function in female spontaneous hypertensive rat (SHR hearts. In this model, we also studied Notch signaling and key components of survival pathway, namely PI3K-Akt, nitric oxide synthase (NOS and mitochondrial K+-ATP (MitoKATP channels. Rat hearts isolated from female SHR underwent 30 min of global, normothermic ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. G1 (10 nM alone or specific inhibitors of GPER, PI3K/NOS and MitoKATP channels co-infused with G1, just before I/R, were studied. The involvement of Notch1 was studied by Western blotting. Infarct size and left ventricular pressure were measured. To confirm endothelial-independent G1-induced protection by Notch signaling, H9c2 cells were studied with specific inhibitor, N-[N-(3,5 difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT, 5 μM, of this signaling. Using DAPT, we confirmed the involvement of G1/Notch signaling in limiting infarct size in heart of normotensive animals. In the hypertensive model, G1-induced reduction in infarct size and improvement of cardiac function were prevented by the inhibition of GPER, PI3K/NOS, and MitoKATP channels. The involvement of Notch was confirmed by western blot in the hypertensive model and by the specific inhibitor in the normotensive model and cardiac cell line. Our results suggest that GPERs play a pivotal role in mediating preconditioning cardioprotection in normotensive and hypertensive conditions. The G1-induced protection involves Notch1 and is able to activate the survival pathway in the presence of comorbidity. Several pathological conditions

  12. Diesel exhaust induced pulmonary and cardiovascular impairment: The role of hypertension intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodavanti, Urmila P., E-mail: kodavanti.urmila@epa.gov [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Thomas, Ronald F.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Bass, Virginia; Krantz, Q. Todd; King, Charly [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Nyska, Abraham [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Richards, Judy E. [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Andrews, Debora [Research Core Unit, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Gilmour, M. Ian [Environmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL), Office of Research and Development (ORD), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency - EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) and associated gases is linked to cardiovascular impairments; however, the susceptibility of hypertensive individuals is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cardiopulmonary effects of gas-phase versus whole-DE and (2) to examine the contribution of systemic hypertension in pulmonary and cardiovascular effects. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce blood pressure (BP) or L-NAME to increase BP. Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were treated with hydralazine to reduce BP. Control and drug-pretreated rats were exposed to air, particle-filtered exhaust (gas), or whole DE (1500 μg/m{sup 3}), 4 h/day for 2 days or 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Acute and 4-week gas and DE exposures increased neutrophils and γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) activity in lavage fluid of WKY and SH rats. DE (4 weeks) caused pulmonary albumin leakage and inflammation in SH rats. Two-day DE increased serum fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP-3) in WKY. Marked increases occurred in aortic mRNA after 4-week DE in SH (eNOS, TF, tPA, TNF-α, MMP-2, RAGE, and HMGB-1). Hydralazine decreased BP in SH while L-NAME tended to increase BP in WKY; however, neither changed inflammation nor BALF γ-GT. DE-induced and baseline BALF albumin leakage was reduced by hydralazine in SH rats and increased by L-NAME in WKY rats. Hydralazine pretreatment reversed DE-induced TF, tPA, TNF-α, and MMP-2 expression but not eNOS, RAGE, and HMGB-1. ET-1 was decreased by HYD. In conclusion, antihypertensive drug treatment reduces gas and DE-induced pulmonary protein leakage and expression of vascular atherogenic markers. - Highlights: ► Acute diesel exhaust exposure induces pulmonary inflammation in healthy rats. ► In hypertensive rats diesel exhaust effects are seen only after long term exposure. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses lung protein leakage caused by diesel exhaust. ► Normalizing blood pressure reverses

  13. Robust optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of dielectric mirrors for high power lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorel, Marine; Lanternier, Thomas; Lavastre, Éric; Bonod, Nicolas; Bousquet, Bruno; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-30

    We report on a numerical optimization of the laser induced damage threshold of multi-dielectric high reflection mirrors in the sub-picosecond regime. We highlight the interplay between the electric field distribution, refractive index and intrinsic laser induced damage threshold of the materials on the overall laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the multilayer. We describe an optimization method of the multilayer that minimizes the field enhancement in high refractive index materials while preserving a near perfect reflectivity. This method yields a significant improvement of the damage resistance since a maximum increase of 40% can be achieved on the overall LIDT of the multilayer.

  14. Levels of interleukin-6 in tears before and after excimer laser treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Resan Mirko; Stanojević Ivan; Petković-Ćurčin Aleksandra; Pajić Bojan; Vojvodić Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim. Immune response and consequent inflammatory process which originate on ocular surface after a trauma are mediated by cytokines. Photoablation of corneal stroma performed by excimer laser causes surgically induced trauma. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is mostly known as a proinflammatory cytokine. However, it also has regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects. It is supposed that this cytokine is likely to play a significant role in the process of co...

  15. Selective laser trabeculoplasty compared with medical treatment for the initial management of open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efraín Pérez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available La trabeculoplastía láser selectiva es una alternativa terapéutica relativamente reciente para el manejo del glaucoma de ángulo abierto y la hipertensión ocular. Por otro lado, el tratamiento médico es de efectividad probada, e incluso ha mejorado en las últimas décadas con la introducción de los análogos de prostaglandinas. Buscamos la evidencia que compara ambos tratamientos utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos. Identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen cuatro estudios aleatorizados y un estudio no aleatorizado y realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Concluimos que la trabeculoplastía láser selectiva produce una reducción absoluta de presión intraocular de menor magnitud que el tratamiento médico. Sin embargo, no está claro si existen diferencias en la tasa de éxito del tratamiento o la necesidad de intervenciones antiglaucomatosas adicionales porque la certeza de la evidencia es muy baja.

  16. Ultrafast molecular imaging by laser-induced electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, M.; Nguyen-Dang, T. T.; Cornaggia, C.; Saugout, S.; Charron, E.; Keller, A.; Atabek, O.

    2011-01-01

    We address the feasibility of imaging geometric and orbital structures of a polyatomic molecule on an attosecond time scale using the laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) technique. We present numerical results for the highest molecular orbitals of the CO 2 molecule excited by a near-infrared few-cycle laser pulse. The molecular geometry (bond lengths) is determined within 3% of accuracy from a diffraction pattern which also reflects the nodal properties of the initial molecular orbital. Robustness of the structure determination is discussed with respect to vibrational and rotational motions with a complete interpretation of the laser-induced mechanisms.

  17. Laser-induced shockwave propagation from ablation in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Xianzhong; Mao Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Wen, S.-B.; Greif, Ralph; Russo, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The propagation of laser-induced shockwaves from ablation inside of cavities was determined from time-resolved shadowgraph images. The temperature and electron number density of the laser-induced plasma was determined from spectroscopic measurements. These properties were compared to those for laser ablation on the flat surface under the same energy and background gas condition. A theoretical model was proposed to determine the amount of energy and vaporized mass stored in the vapor plume based on these measurements

  18. Preferred retinal location induced by macular occlusion in a target recognition task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, James W.; Zwick, Harry; Molchany, Jerome W.

    1996-04-01

    Laser-induced central retinal damage not only may diminish visual function, but also may diminish afferent input that provides the ocular motor system with the feedback necessary to move the target to the fovea. Local visual field stabilizations have been used to demonstrate that central artificial occlusions in the normal retina suppress visual function. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of local field stabilizations on the ocular motor system in a contrast sensitivity task. Five subjects who tested normal in a standard clinical eye exam viewed landolt rings at varying visual angles under three artificial scotoma conditions and a no scotoma condition. The scotoma conditions were a 2 degree(s) and 5 degree(s) stabilized central scotoma and a 2 degree(s) stabilized scotoma positioned 1 degree(s) nasal to the fovea. A Dual Purkinje Eye-Tracker (SRI, version 5) was used to provide eye-position data and to stabilize the artificial scotoma on the retina. The data showed a consistent preference for placing the target in the superior retina under the 2 degree(s) and 5 degree(s) conditions with a strong positive correlation between visual angle and deflection of the eye position into the superior retina. These data suggest that loss of visual function from laser-induced foveal damage may be due in part to a disruption in the ocular motor system. Thus, even if some function remains in the damage site ophthalmoscopically, the ocular motor system may organize around a nonfoveal retinal location, behaviorally suppressing foveal input.

  19. Curcumin Protects against Cadmium-Induced Vascular Dysfunction, Hypertension and Tissue Cadmium Accumulation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upa Kukongviriyapan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Curcumin from turmeric is commonly used worldwide as a spice and has been demonstrated to possess various biological activities. This study investigated the protective effect of curcumin on a mouse model of cadmium (Cd—induced hypertension, vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress. Male ICR mice were exposed to Cd (100 mg/L in drinking water for eight weeks. Curcumin (50 or 100 mg/kg was intragastrically administered in mice every other day concurrently with Cd. Cd induced hypertension and impaired vascular responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Curcumin reduced the toxic effects of Cd and protected vascular dysfunction by increasing vascular responsiveness and normalizing the blood pressure levels. The vascular protective effect of curcumin in Cd exposed mice is associated with up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS protein, restoration of glutathione redox ratio and alleviation of oxidative stress as indicated by decreasing superoxide production in the aortic tissues and reducing plasma malondialdehyde, plasma protein carbonyls, and urinary nitrate/nitrite levels. Curcumin also decreased Cd accumulation in the blood and various organs of Cd-intoxicated mice. These findings suggest that curcumin, due to its antioxidant and chelating properties, is a promising protective agent against hypertension and vascular dysfunction induced by Cd.

  20. Recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy after peripheral retinal laser photocoagulation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeraro, Francesco; Russo, Andrea; Delcassi, Luisa; Costagliola, Ciro

    2013-01-01

    To report a case of recurrent central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) after performing peripheral laser photocoagulation for retinal degenerations. A 44-year-old woman with ocular history of CSC presented to the emergency room of our department complaining of heavy photopsia due to retinal tuft and lattice degenerations, and underwent laser photocoagulation to prevent retinal detachment. Two days after laser treatment, the visual acuity dropped, and optical coherence tomography scan showed the onset of CSC. The serous detachment completely resolved in 20 days with no therapy. A new CSC episode occurred in the same eye after another analogous laser treatment and, similarly, quickly resolved spontaneously. We reviewed the literature and discuss the possibility that laser-induced inflammation could rouse an inflammatory cascade mediated by proinflammatory cytokines and PAI-1, leading to the exacerbation of retinal serous detachment in susceptible patients.

  1. Ultrasound imaging of Nd:YAG laser-induced tissue coagulation in porcine livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, U; Wietzke-Braun, P; Brinck, U; Leonhardt, U; Ramadori, G

    2001-12-01

    Absorption of laser light energy induces denaturation of proteins and thermocoagulation of irradiated tissue. Recently, MRI-guided laser coagulation in combination with MR thermometry was reported as a treatment of liver tumours. In the present study ultrasonographic imaging was evaluated for its suitability in laser induced tissue thermocoagulation. Fresh porcine livers were used for ex vivo examinations. Placement of the laser catheter and tissue coagulation during laser light emission were online monitored by ultrasonography. Nd:YAG laser-induced tissue damage was evaluated by macroscopical and microscopical examinations of histological sections. During laser light emission a marked hyperdense signal enhancement was observed by ultrasonography which strongly correlated with the extent of macroscopic tissue damage. The size of laser-induced coagulation zone depended on both the power setting and total energy delivered. Carbonization of the tissue surrounding the laser tip is a limiting factor because of laser light absorption. However our data indicate that using appropriate laser energy and exposure time prevent carbonization although carbonization can not be visualized by ultrasonography. It is concluded from the present ex vivo studies that laser coagulation can be effectively performed under ultrasonographic guidance.

  2. Impact of environmental contamination on laser induced damage of silica optics in Laser MegaJoule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bien-Aime, K.

    2009-11-01

    Laser induced damage impact of molecular contamination on fused polished silica samples in a context of high power laser fusion facility, such as Laser MegaJoule (LMJ) has been studied. One of the possible causes of laser induced degradation of optical component is the adsorption of molecular or particular contamination on optical surfaces. In the peculiar case of LMJ, laser irradiation conditions are a fluence of 10 J/cm 2 , a wavelength of 351 nm, a pulse duration of 3 ns for a single shot/days frequency. Critical compounds have been identified thanks to environmental measurements, analysis of material outgassing, and identification of surface contamination in the critical environments. Experiments of controlled contamination involving these compounds have been conducted in order to understand and model mechanisms of laser damage. Various hypotheses are proposed to explain the damage mechanism. (author)

  3. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is Ocular Melanoma? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el melanoma ocular? Written By: Daniel Porter Reviewed By: Robert H Janigian Jr MD Sep. 01, 2017 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment. ...

  4. Endothelial Mineralocorticoid Receptor Mediates Parenchymal Arteriole and Posterior Cerebral Artery Remodeling During Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Otero, Janice M; Fisher, Courtney; Downs, Kelsey; Moss, M Elizabeth; Jaffe, Iris Z; Jackson, William F; Dorrance, Anne M

    2017-12-01

    The brain is highly susceptible to injury caused by hypertension because the increased blood pressure causes artery remodeling that can limit cerebral perfusion. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonism prevents hypertensive cerebral artery remodeling, but the vascular cell types involved have not been defined. In the periphery, the endothelial MR mediates hypertension-induced vascular injury, but cerebral and peripheral arteries are anatomically distinct; thus, these findings cannot be extrapolated to the brain. The parenchymal arterioles determine cerebrovascular resistance. Determining the effects of hypertension and MR signaling on these arterioles could lead to a better understanding of cerebral small vessel disease. We hypothesized that endothelial MR signaling mediates inward cerebral artery remodeling and reduced cerebral perfusion during angiotensin II (AngII) hypertension. The biomechanics of the parenchymal arterioles and posterior cerebral arteries were studied in male C57Bl/6 and endothelial cell-specific MR knockout mice and their appropriate controls using pressure myography. AngII increased plasma aldosterone and decreased cerebral perfusion in C57Bl/6 and MR-intact littermates. Endothelial cell MR deletion improved cerebral perfusion in AngII-treated mice. AngII hypertension resulted in inward hypotrophic remodeling; this was prevented by MR antagonism and endothelial MR deletion. Our studies suggest that endothelial cell MR mediates hypertensive remodeling in the cerebral microcirculation and large pial arteries. AngII-induced inward remodeling of cerebral arteries and arterioles was associated with a reduction in cerebral perfusion that could worsen the outcome of stroke or contribute to vascular dementia. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Moxonidine-induced central sympathoinhibition improves prognosis in rats with hypertensive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Nobuhiro; Hirooka, Yoshitaka; Ito, Koji; Matsukawa, Ryuichi; Shinohara, Keisuke; Kishi, Takuya; Yasukawa, Keiji; Utsumi, Hideo; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2013-11-01

    Enhanced central sympathetic outflow is an indicator of the prognosis of heart failure. Although the central sympatholytic drug moxonidine is an established therapeutic strategy for hypertension, its benefits for hypertensive heart failure are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of central sympathoinhibition by intracerebral infusion of moxonidine on survival in a rat model of hypertensive heart failure and the possible mechanisms involved. As a model of hypertensive heart failure, we fed Dahl salt-sensitive rats an 8% NaCl diet from 7 weeks of age. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of moxonidine (moxonidine-ICV-treated group [Mox-ICV]) or vehicle (vehicle-ICV-treated group [Veh-ICV]) was performed at 14-20 weeks of age, during the increased heart failure phase. Survival rates were examined, and sympathetic activity, left ventricular function and remodelling, and brain oxidative stress were measured. Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy were established by 13 weeks of age. At around 20 weeks of age, Veh-ICV rats exhibited overt heart failure concomitant with increased urinary norepinephrine (uNE) excretion as an index of sympathetic activity, dilated left ventricle, decreased percentage fractional shortening, and myocardial fibrosis. Survival rates at 21 weeks of age (n = 28) were only 23% in Veh-ICV rats, and 76% (n = 17) in Mox-ICV rats with concomitant decreases in uNE, myocardial fibrosis, collagen type I/III ratio, brain oxidative stress, and suppressed left ventricular dysfunction. Moxonidine-induced central sympathoinhibition attenuated brain oxidative stress, prevented cardiac dysfunction and remodelling, and improved the prognosis in rats with hypertensive heart failure. Central sympathoinhibition can be effective for the treatment of hypertensive heart failure.

  6. Biological effect of ultraviolet radiation on cattle: bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, K.E.; Pugh, G.W. Jr.; Hughes, D.E.; Booth, G.D.; Cheville, N.F.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma and ultraviolet radiation was studied. Experimental procedures were devised to irradiate cattle with predetermined quantities of ultraviolet beta. Irradiation induced a preneoplastic ocular growth in one of four irradiated cattle. An epizootiologic study indicates that since 1950 the occurrence of bovine ocular squamous cell carcinoma reported at slaughter has increased. This increase was real and not due to an increase in numbers of cattle

  7. A multicenter, retrospective chart review study comparing index therapy change rates in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Joel M; Kotak, Sameer; Mardekian, Jack; Bacharach, Jason; Edward, Deepak P; Rauchman, Steven; Brevetti, Teresa; Fox, Janet L; Lovelace, Cherie

    2011-06-13

    Because latanoprost and the original formulation of travoprost that included benzalkonium chloride (BAK) have been shown to be similar with regard to tolerability, we compared initial topical intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medication change rates in patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy. At 14 clinical practice sites, medical records were abstracted for patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and who were ≥40 years of age, had a baseline and at least one follow-up visit, and had no prior history of ocular prostaglandin use. Data regarding demographics, ocular/systemic medical histories, clinical variables, therapy initiations and reasons for changes, adverse events, and resource utilization were recorded from randomly chosen eligible charts. Primary outcomes were rates of and reasons for changing from the initial therapy within six months and across the full study period (1000 days). Data from 900 medical charts (latanoprost, 632; travoprost-Z, 268) were included. For both cohorts, average follow-up was >1 year. Cohorts were similar with regard to age (median ~67 years), gender distribution (>50% female), and diagnosis (~80% with open-angle glaucoma). Within six months, rates of index therapy change for latanoprost versus travoprost-Z were 21.2% (134/632) and 28.7% (77/268), respectively (p = 0.0148); across the full study period, rates were 34.5% (218/632) and 45.2% (121/268), respectively (p = 0.0026). Among those who changed their index therapy, insufficient IOP control was the most commonly reported reason followed by adverse events; hyperemia was the most commonly reported adverse event at index therapy change. In this "real world" study of changes in therapy in patients prescribed initial monotherapy with latanoprost with BAK or travoprost-Z with SofZia, medication changes were common in both treatment groups but statistically significantly more frequent with travoprost-Z.

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to slow and stop broadband laser pulses inside an atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion of Harris et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 552 (1993)], the key idea is to use matched Fourier components for the probe and coupling laser beams

  9. Sutureless closure of scleral wounds in animal models by the use of laser welded biocompatible patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Francesca; Matteini, Paolo; Menabuoni, Luca; Lenzetti, Ivo; Pini, Roberto

    2011-03-01

    The common procedures used to seal the scleral or conjunctival injuries are based on the traditional suturing techniques, that may induce foreign body reaction during the follow up, with subsequent inflammation and distress for the patient. In this work we present an experimental study on the laser welding of biocompatible patches onto ocular tissues, for the closure of surgical or trauma wounds. The study was performed ex vivo in animal models (porcine eyes). A penetrating perforation of the ocular tissue was performed with a surgical knife. The wound walls were approximated, and a biocompatible patch was put onto the outer surface of the tissue, in order to completely cover the wound as a plaster. The patches were prepared with a biocompatible and biodegradable polymer, showing high mechanical strength, good elasticity, high permeability for vapour and gases and rather low biodegradation. During preparation, Indocyanine Green (ICG) was included in the biopolymeric matrix, so that the films presented high absorption at 810 nm. Effective adhesion of the membranes to the ocular tissues was obtained by using diode laser light emitted from an 810 nm diode laser and delivered by means of a 300 μm core diameter optical fiber, to produce spots of local film/tissue adhesion, due to the photothermal effect at the interface. The result is an immediate closure of the wound, thus reducing post-operative complications due to inflammation.

  10. Laser induced fusion - theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawande, S.V.; Gunye, M.R.

    1979-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of thermonuclear fusion induced by laser are discussed. After outlining the basic features and the energetics of laser fusion in the chapter 1, various non-linear mechanisms responsible for an enhanced absorption of laser energy into the plasma and the stimulated scattering processes which hinder the absorption are discussed in the second chapter on laser plasma interactions. The third chapter on gas dynamics and the shock phenomena presents the mathematical formulation of the compression to high densities of the core of the pellet for its implosion. A hydrodynamic model developed to stimulate the evolution of laser heated symmetric plasma is outlined in the chapter four on numerichigly relativistic noninteracting particles, regular bouncing states may occur at high densities, or at high temperatures. The latter case is considered in details for the collapse phase of a hot universe; lepton pair creation may completely decelerate the collapse of a hot hadronic plasma, provided the observational parameters, the Hubble constant Hsub(deg), the matter parameter Ωsub(deg) and the deceleration parameter qsub(deg) satisfy certain constraint conditions

  11. Potential Limitations of E-mail and Text Messaging in Improving Adherence in Glaucoma and Ocular Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeedi, Osamah J; Luzuriaga, Christine; Ellish, Nancy; Robin, Alan

    2015-01-01

    To determine how receptive patients are to the use of e-mail and text message reminders for appointments and medications. We conducted a consecutive cross-sectional survey of eligible patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension at a private glaucoma subspecialty practice with 3 locations from February 2011 to January 2012. Main outcome measures were answers to survey questions regarding how receptive patients are to e-mail and text messaging reminders for appointments and medications. Of 989 patients, 404 (40.8%) patients reported that e-mail reminders would help remember appointments and 185 (18.7%) reported that they would help for medications. Among those with access to text messaging, 280 (68.9%) reported text messaging would help them remember appointments and 193 (47.5%) reported it would help with medications. Patients who reported e-mail would help them remember medications were more likely to live in an urban location [P=0.05, odds ratio (OR)=1.84], check the internet at least daily (P≤0.001, OR=1.04), check e-mail when not at home or the office (P=0.02, OR=1.62), and know how to open attachments (P=0.03, OR=1.87). Patients who reported that text messaging would help them remember their medications were more likely to be 40 or less (P≤0.001, OR=8.54) and African American (Ptext messaging reminders currently may have a limited utility in improving adherence in the general glaucoma population but may be useful in younger patients with glaucoma.

  12. Development of ocular hypertension secondary to tamponade with light versus heavy silicone oil: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Romano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponades used in the treatment of retinal detachment (RD have been associated with a difference ocular hypertension (OH rate. To clarify, if this complication was associated to use of standard SO (SSO versus heavy SO (HSO, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative study between two kind of SO (standard or light vs. heavy for the treatment of RD and macular hole, without restriction to study design. Materials and Methods: The methodological quality of two randomized clinical trials (RCTs were evaluated using the criteria given in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention, while three non-RCTs were assessed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklists. We calculated Mantel-Haenszel risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs. The primary outcome was the rate of patients with OH treated with SSO compared to HSO. Results: There were a higher number of rates of OH in HSO compared to SSO. This difference was statistically significant with the fixed effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.55; 95% CI, 1.06-2.28; P = 0.02 while there was not significative difference with the random effect model (Mantel-Haenszel RR; 1.51; 95% CI, 0.98-2.33; P = 0.06. Conclusion: We noted a trend that points out a higher OH rate in HSO group compared to SSO, but this finding, due to the small size and variable design of studies, needs to be confirmed in well-designed and large size RCTs.

  13. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  14. The influence of laser-particle interaction in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Helmut; Loper, Kristofer H.; Hahn, David W.; Niemax, Kay

    2011-02-01

    Particles produced by previous laser shots may have significant influence on the analytical signal in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma (LA-ICP) spectrometry if they remain close to the position of laser sampling. The effects of these particles on the laser-induced breakdown event are demonstrated in several ways. LIBS-experiments were conducted in an ablation cell at atmospheric conditions in argon or air applying a dual-pulse arrangement with orthogonal pre-pulse, i.e., plasma breakdown in a gas generated by a focussed laser beam parallel and close to the sample surface followed by a delayed crossing laser pulse in orthogonal direction which actually ablates material from the sample and produces the LIBS plasma. The optical emission of the LIBS plasma as well as the absorption of the pre-pulse laser was measured. In the presence of particles in the focus of the pre-pulse laser, the plasma breakdown is affected and more energy of the pre-pulse laser is absorbed than without particles. As a result, the analyte line emission from the LIBS plasma of the second laser is enhanced. It is assumed that the enhancement is not only due to an increase of mass ablated by the second laser but also to better atomization and excitation conditions favored by a reduced gas density in the pre-pulse plasma. Higher laser pulse frequencies increase the probability of particle-laser interaction and, therefore, reduce the shot-to-shot line intensity variation as compared to lower particle loadings in the cell. Additional experiments using an aerosol chamber were performed to further quantify the laser absorption by the plasma in dependence on time both with and without the presence of particles. The overall implication of laser-particle interactions for LIBS and LA-ICP-MS/OES are discussed.

  15. Apigenin ameliorates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and down-regulates cardiac hypoxia inducible factor-lα in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zeng-Yan; Gao, Tian; Huang, Yan; Xue, Jie; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2016-04-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid compound that can inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression in cultured tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy is always accompanied by abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism due to an increase of HIF-1α. However, whether or not apigenin may ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the effects of apigenin. Rats with cardiac hypertrophy induced by renovascular hypertension were treated with apigenin 50-100 mg kg(-1) (the doses can be achieved by pharmacological or dietary supplementation for an adult person) by gavage for 4 weeks. The results showed that after treatment with apigenin, the blood pressure, heart weight, heart weight index, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, serum angiotensin II, and serum and myocardial free fatty acids were reduced. It is important to note that apigenin decreased the expression level of myocardial HIF-1α protein. Moreover, apigenin simultaneously increased the expression levels of myocardial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-4 proteins and decreased the expression levels of myocardial PPARγ, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase genes (GPAT), and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 proteins. These findings demonstrated that apigenin could improve hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism in rats, and its mechanisms might be associated with the down-regulation of myocardial HIF-1α expression and, subsequently increasing the expressions of myocardial PPARα and its target genes CPT-1 and PDK-4, and decreasing the expressions of myocardial PPARγ and its target genes GPAT and GLUT-4.

  16. Ocular blood flow decreases during passive heat stress in resting humans

    OpenAIRE

    Ikemura, Tsukasa; Miyaji, Akane; Kashima, Hideaki; Yamaguchi, Yuji; Hayashi, Naoyuki

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat stress induces various physiological changes and so could influence ocular circulation. This study examined the effect of heat stress on ocular blood flow. Findings Ocular blood flow, end-tidal carbon dioxide (P ETCO2) and blood pressure were measured for 12 healthy subjects wearing water-perfused tube-lined suits under two conditions of water circulation: (1) at 35°C (normothermia) for 30 min and (2) at 50°C for 90 min (passive heat stress). The blood-flow velocities in the s...

  17. Visualization of cavitation bubbles induced by a laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testud-Giovanneschi, P.; Dufresne, D.; Inglesakis, G.

    1987-01-01

    The I.M.F.M. researchers working on Laser-Matter Interaction are studying the effects induced on matter by a pulsed radiation energy deposit. In this research, the emphasis is on the laser liquids interaction field and more particularly the cavitation induced by a laser pulse or ''optical-cavitation'' as termed by W. Lauterborn (1). For bubbles investigations, the visualizations form a basic diagnostic. This paper presents the experimental apparatus of formation of bubbles, the visualization apparatus and different typical examples of photographic recordings

  18. HIMALAIA (Hypertension Induction in the Management of AneurysmaL subArachnoid haemorrhage with secondary IschaemiA) : a randomized single- blind controlled trial of induced hypertension vs. no induced hypertension in the treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, C. S.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Slooter, A. J. C.

    RationaleDelayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One option to treat delayed cerebral ischemia is to use induced hypertension, but its efficacy on the eventual outcome has not been proven in a randomized clinical trial. This article

  19. HIMALAIA (Hypertension Induction in the Management of AneurysmaL subArachnoid haemorrhage with secondary IschaemiA): a randomized single-blind controlled trial of induced hypertension vs. no induced hypertension in the treatment of delayed cerebral ischemia after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gathier, C. S.; van den Bergh, W. M.; Slooter, A. J. C.; Algra, Ale; Beute, Gus N.; Coert, Bert A.; Dankbaar, Jan-Willem; Dippel, Diederik; Dirven, Clemens M. F.; Gathier, Celine S.; Horn, Janneke; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Kesecioglu, Jozef; van Kooten, Fop; van der Lugt, Aad; Muller, Marcella C. A.; Oldenbeuving, Annemarie W.; van der Pol, Bram; Regli, Luca; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Roks, Gerwin; van der Schaaf, Irene C.; Slooter, Arjen J. C.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Verweij, Bon H.

    2014-01-01

    Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a major complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). One option to treat delayed cerebral ischemia is to use induced hypertension, but its efficacy on the eventual outcome has not been proven in a randomized clinical trial. This article describes

  20. Self-Induced Faraday Instability Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, A. M.; Smirnov, S. V.; Staliunas, K.; Churkin, D. V.; Wabnitz, S.

    2018-05-01

    We predict the onset of self-induced parametric or Faraday instabilities in a laser, spontaneously caused by the presence of pump depletion, which leads to a periodic gain landscape for light propagating in the cavity. As a result of the instability, continuous wave oscillation becomes unstable even in the normal dispersion regime of the cavity, and a periodic train of pulses with ultrahigh repetition rate is generated. Application to the case of Raman fiber lasers is described, in good quantitative agreement between our conceptual analysis and numerical modeling.

  1. Intra-Ocular Pressure Measurement in a Patient with a Thin, Thick or Abnormal Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Colin I; Parker, Douglas G A; Goldberg, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate measurement of intra-ocular pressure is a fundamental component of the ocular examination. The most common method of measuring IOP is by Goldmann applanation tonometry, the accuracy of which is influenced by the thickness and biomechanical properties of the cornea. Algorithms devised to correct for corneal thickness to estimate IOP oversimplify the effects of corneal biomechanics. The viscous and elastic properties of the cornea influence IOP measurements in unpredictable ways, a finding borne out in studies of patients with inherently abnormal and surgically altered corneal biomechanics. Dynamic contour tonometry, rebound tonometry and the ocular response analyzer provide useful alternatives to GAT in patients with abnormal corneas, such as those who have undergone laser vision correction or keratoplasty. This article reviews the various methods of intra-ocular pressure measurement available to the clinician and the ways in which their utility is influenced by variations in corneal thickness and biomechanics.

  2. Para-hydrogen raman laser and its application to laser induced chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Hideo

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines the mechanism of the para-hydrogen Raman laser as a infrared light source, and its application to laser induced chemistry. The Stoke's wave number after a Raman shift is equal to the difference between the wave number of the CO 2 laser used for excitation and the rotation Raman wave number of the hydrogen molecule. A Raman laser can serve as an infrared source. CO 2 laser oscillation beam in the range of 9∼11 micrometers is selected and the frequency of infrared beam is varied by changing the wave number of the CO 2 laser beam. A problem with the Raman laser is that the Raman scatterring gain is small due to a large wavelength. In developing equipment, a special mechanism is required to solve this problem. A Raman laser comprises a CO 2 laser for excitation and multi-pulse Raman cells. The combination of a TEA oscillator and amplifiers gives CO 2 pulses with a peak power of about several tens of MW. Many heavy metal compounds including fluorides, carbonyl compounds and other organic compounds, absorb light with wavelengths in the same range as those of the Raman laser. Such compounds can be dissociated directly by applying Raman laser beams. The laser will be helpful for separation of isotopes, etc. (Nogami, K.)

  3. Contributions to process monitoring by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusak, David Alexander

    1998-12-01

    When a pulsed laser of sufficient energy and pulse duration is brought to a focus, multi-photon ionization creates free electrons in the focal volume. These electrons are accelerated in a process known as inverse Bremsstrahlung and cause collisional ionization of species in the focal volume. More charge carriers are produced and the process continues for the duration of the laser pulse. The manifestation of this process is a visible spark or plasma which typically lasts for tens of microseconds. This laser-induced plasma can serve as a source in an atomic emission experiment. Because the composition of the plasma is determined in large part by the environment in which it forms, elements in the laser target can be determined spectroscopically. The goal of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) experiment is to establish a relationship between the concentration of an element of interest in the target and the intensity of light emitted from the laser-induced plasma at a wavelength characteristic of that element. Because LIBS requires only optical access to the sample and can perform elemental determinations in solids, liquids, or gases with little sample preparation, there is interest in using it as an on-line technique for process monitoring in a number of industrial applications. However, before the technique becomes useful in industrial applications, many issues regarding instrumentation and data analysis need to be addressed in the lab. The first two chapters of this dissertation provide, respectively, the basics of the atomic emission experiment and a background of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. The next two chapters examine the effect of target water content on the laser-induced plasma and the use of LIBS for analysis of aqueous samples. Chapter 5 describes construction of a fiber optic LIBS probe and its use to study temporal electron number density evolution in plasmas formed on different metals. Chapter 6 is a study of excitation, vibrational

  4. Ultrasensitive detection of target analyte-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles using laser-induced nanoparticle Rayleigh scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Hui; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Detection of salt- and analyte-induced aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) mostly relies on costly and bulky analytical instruments. To response this drawback, a portable, miniaturized, sensitive, and cost-effective detection technique is urgently required for rapid field detection and monitoring of target analyte via the use of AuNP-based sensor. This study combined a miniaturized spectrometer with a 532-nm laser to develop a laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique, allowing the sensitive and selective detection of Rayleigh scattering from the aggregated AuNPs. Three AuNP-based sensing systems, including salt-, thiol- and metal ion-induced aggregation of the AuNPs, were performed to examine the sensitivity of laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique. Salt-, thiol-, and metal ion-promoted NP aggregation were exemplified by the use of aptamer-adsorbed, fluorosurfactant-stabilized, and gallic acid-capped AuNPs for probing K(+), S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase-induced hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine, and Pb(2+), in sequence. Compared to the reported methods for monitoring the aggregated AuNPs, the proposed system provided distinct advantages of sensitivity. Laser-induced Rayleigh scattering technique was improved to be convenient, cheap, and portable by replacing a diode laser and a miniaturized spectrometer with a laser pointer and a smart-phone. Using this smart-phone-based detection platform, we can determine whether or not the Pb(2+) concentration exceed the maximum allowable level of Pb(2+) in drinking water. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin eTain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX exposure and high-fat (HF intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In the melatonin-treatment groups (M, rats received 0.01% melatonin in drinking water during their entire pregnancy and lactation. Male offspring were assigned to five groups: control, DEX, HF, DEX+HF, and DEX+HF+M. Male offspring in the HF group were fed a HF diet from weaning to 4 months of age. Prenatal DEX and postnatal HF diet synergistically induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. Maternal melatonin treatment modified over 3000 renal transcripts in the developing offspring kidney. Our NGS data indicate that PPAR signaling and fatty acid metabolism are two significantly regulated pathways. In addition, maternal melatonin therapy elicits longstanding alterations on renal programming, including regulation of the melatonin signaling pathway and upregulation of Agtr1b and Mas1 expression in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS, to protect male offspring against programmed hypertension. Postnatal HF aggravates prenatal DEX induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring, which melatonin prevented. The protective effects of melatonin on programmed hypertension is associated with regulation of the RAS and melatonin receptors. The long-term effects of maternal melatonin therapy on renal transcriptome require further clarification.

  6. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS:: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS:: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION:: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  7. Overweight, adipocytokines and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5,868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...

  8. Miopatia ocular descendente Descending ocular myopathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantesThe case of a 23 years old female patient, with primary involvement of the extraocular and faringeal muscles without familiar history is reported. Electromyographic and muscular biopsy studies proved the myogenic nature of the process. A clinical comparison between the ocular myopathy and the descending ocular myopathy is made, the authors thinking that both of them would be variants of the same muscle disease.

  9. Assessment of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the hepatic vein for detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Keitaro; Hiramoto, Akira; Michishita, Asuka; Takagi, Satoshi; Hoshino, Yuki; Itami, Takaharu; Lim, Sue Yee; Osuga, Tatsuyuki; Nakamura, Sayuri; Ochiai, Kenji; Nakamura, Kensuke; Ohta, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of the hepatic vein for the detection of hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs. ANIMALS 6 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES A prospective study was conducted. A catheter was surgically placed in the portal vein of each dog. Hypertension was induced by intraportal injection of microspheres (10 to 15 mg/kg) at 5-day intervals via the catheter. Microsphere injections were continued until multiple acquired portosystemic shunts were created. Portal vein pressure (PVP) was measured through the catheter. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed before and after establishment of hypertension. Time-intensity curves were generated from the region of interest in the hepatic vein. Perfusion variables measured for statistical analysis were hepatic vein arrival time, time to peak, time to peak phase (TTPP), and washout ratio. The correlation between CEUS variables and PVP was assessed by use of simple regression analysis. RESULTS Time to peak and TTPP were significantly less after induction of portal hypertension. Simple regression analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between TTPP and PVP. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE CEUS was useful for detecting hemodynamic changes associated with experimentally induced portal hypertension in dogs, which was characterized by a rapid increase in the intensity of the hepatic vein. Furthermore, TTPP, a time-dependent variable, provided useful complementary information for predicting portal hypertension. IMPACT FOR HUMAN MEDICINE Because the method described here induced presinusoidal portal hypertension, these results can be applied to idiopathic portal hypertension in humans.

  10. Spectroscopy of beryllium-like nitrogen ions by laser-induced recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenberg, G.

    1996-04-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Rydberg spectroscopy of beryllium-like nitrogen (N 3+ ) by laser-induced recombination, transition enrgies, Rydberg level shift, configuration interaction, laser intensity effect, laser band width

  11. Femtosecond laser cutting of human corneas for the subbasal nerve plexus evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowtharapu, B S; Marfurt, C; Hovakimyan, M; Will, F; Richter, H; Wree, A; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of various morphological parameters of the corneal subbasal nerve plexus is a valuable method of documenting the structural and presumably functional integrity of the corneal innervation in health and disease. The aim of this work is to establish a rapid, reliable and reproducible method for visualization of the human corneal SBP using femtosecond laser cut corneal tissue sections. Trephined healthy corneal buttons were fixed and processed using TissueSurgeon-a femtosecond laser based microtome, to obtain thick tissue sections of the corneal epithelium and anterior stroma cut parallel to the ocular surface within approximately 15 min. A near infrared femtosecond laser was focused on to the cornea approximately 70-90 μm from the anterior surface to induce material separation using TissueSurgeon. The obtained corneal sections were stained following standard immunohistochemical procedures with anti-neuronal β-III tubulin antibody for visualization of the corneal nerves. Sections that contained the epithelium and approximately 20-30 μm of anterior stroma yielded excellent visualisation of the SBP with minimal optical interference from underlying stromal nerves. In conclusion, the results of this study have demonstrated that femtosecond laser cutting of the human cornea offers greater speed, ease and reliability than standard tissue preparation methods for obtaining high quality thick sections of the anterior cornea cut parallel to the ocular surface. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.

  12. Inhibition of Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinases Ameliorates Hypertension-Induced Renal Vascular Remodeling in Rat Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, on high blood pressure and related vascular changes. Blood pressure was recorded, thicknesses of renal small artery walls were measured and ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA in renal vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and endothelial cells were detected by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in normotensive wistar kyoto (WKY rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and PD98059-treated SHR. Compared with normo-tensive WKY rats, SHR developed hypertension at 8 weeks of age, thickened renal small artery wall and asymmetric arrangement of VSMCs at 16 and 24 weeks of age. Phospho-ERK1/2 immunoreactivity and erk2 mRNA expression levels were increased in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries in the SHR. Treating SHR with PD98059 reduced the spontaneous hypertension-induced vascular wall thickening. This effect was associated with suppressions of erk2 mRNA expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in VSMCs and endothelial cells of the renal small arteries. It is concluded that inhibition of ERK1/2 ameliorates hypertension induced vascular remodeling in renal small arteries.

  13. Laser-induced diffusion decomposition in Fe–V thin-film alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polushkin, N.I., E-mail: nipolushkin@fc.ul.pt [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Duarte, A.C.; Conde, O. [Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, E. [Associação Euratom/IST e Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Barradas, N.P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); García-García, A.; Kakazei, G.N.; Ventura, J.O.; Araujo, J.P. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Porto e IFIMUP, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal); Vilar, R. [Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Irradiation of an Fe–V alloy by femtosecond laser triggers diffusion decomposition. • The decomposition occurs with strongly enhanced (∼4 orders) atomic diffusivity. • This anomaly is associated with the metallic glassy state achievable under laser quenching. • The ultrafast diffusion decomposition is responsible for laser-induced ferromagnetism. - Abstract: We investigate the origin of ferromagnetism induced in thin-film (∼20 nm) Fe–V alloys by their irradiation with subpicosecond laser pulses. We find with Rutherford backscattering that the magnetic modifications follow a thermally stimulated process of diffusion decomposition, with formation of a-few-nm-thick Fe enriched layer inside the film. Surprisingly, similar transformations in the samples were also found after their long-time (∼10{sup 3} s) thermal annealing. However, the laser action provides much higher diffusion coefficients (∼4 orders of magnitude) than those obtained under standard heat treatments. We get a hint that this ultrafast diffusion decomposition occurs in the metallic glassy state achievable in laser-quenched samples. This vitrification is thought to be a prerequisite for the laser-induced onset of ferromagnetism that we observe.

  14. UV laser-induced cross-linking in peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Gabriella; Altucci, Carlo; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Gravagnuolo, Alfredo M.; Esposito, Rosario; Marino, Gennaro; Costello, Catherine E.; Velotta, Raffaele; Birolo, Leila

    2013-01-01

    RATIONALE The aim of this study was to demonstrate, and to characterize by high resolution mass spectrometry, that it is possible to preferentially induce covalent cross-links in peptides by using high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses. The cross-link is readily formed only when aromatic amino acids are present in the peptide sequence. METHODS Three peptides, xenopsin, angiotensin I, interleukin, individually or in combination, were exposed to high energy femtosecond UV laser pulses, either alone or in the presence of spin trapping molecules, the reaction products being characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS High resolution mass spectrometry and spin trapping strategies showed that cross-linking occurs readily, proceeds via a radical mechanism, and is the highly dominant reaction, proceeding without causing significant photo-damage in the investigated range of experimental parameters. CONCLUSIONS High energy femtosecond UV laser pulses can be used to induce covalent cross-links between aromatic amino acids in peptides, overcoming photo-oxidation processes, that predominate as the mean laser pulse intensity approaches illumination conditions achievable with conventional UV light sources. PMID:23754800

  15. Laser-induced damage study of polymer PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of bulk laser-induced damage measurements in polymer PMMA at 532 nm and 1064 nm for nanosecond laser pulses. The damage thresholds were measured for focused spot sizes ranging over two orders of magnitude. In this work, self-focusing effects were verified to be absent by measurements of breakdown thresholds using both linearly and circularly polarized light. At both 1064 nm and 532 nm, the dependence of the breakdown field, E B , on the spot size, ω, was empirically determined to be E B = C/√ω, where C depends on the wavelength. The extracted value for C(λ) at 1064 nm is larger by a factor of 5 than at 532 nm. Possible reasons for this strong dispersion and mechanism for laser-induced damage in polymer materials will be discussed

  16. Laser induced white lighting of tungsten filament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strek, W.; Tomala, R.; Lukaszewicz, M.

    2018-04-01

    The sustained bright white light emission of thin tungsten filament was induced under irradiation with focused beam of CW infrared laser diode. The broadband emission centered at 600 nm has demonstrated the threshold behavior on excitation power. Its intensity increased non-linearly with excitation power. The emission occurred only from the spot of focused beam of excitation laser diode. The white lighting was accompanied by efficient photocurrent flow and photoelectron emission which both increased non-linearly with laser irradiation power.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjo; Song, Min-ji; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Mina; Yang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Kim, Inkyeom

    2016-01-01

    CG200745 is a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), initially developed for treatment of various hematological and solid cancers. Because it is water-soluble, it can be administered orally. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats. For establishment of hypertension, 40 mg/kg of DOCA was subcutaneously injected four times weekly into Sprague-Dawley rats. All the rats...

  18. Laser Induced Selective Activation For Subsequent Autocatalytic Electroless Plating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang

    . The third hypothesis is that the activation and rinsing process can be described by diffusion. This hypothesis is proved using Fick’s diffusion laws combined with the short-time-plating experiment. The influence of laser parameters on the surface structure is investigated for Nd:YAG, UV, and fiber lasers......The subject of this PhD thesis is “Laser induced selective activation for subsequent autocatalytic electroless plating.” The objective of the project is to investigate the process chains for micro structuring of polymer surfaces for selective micro metallization. Laser induced selective activation...... (LISA) is introduced and studied as a new technique for producing 3D moulded interconnect devices (3D-MIDs). This technique enables the metallization of polymer surface modified by laser and subsequently activated by a PdCl2/SnCl2 system. Various technologies exist on an industrial level...

  19. Cilnidipine lowered psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure in a hypertensive man: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuji Sadatoshi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some hypertensive patients, psychological stress makes blood pressure difficult to control and causes physical symptoms such as headache or dizziness. We report the case of a hypertensive man whose psychological stress-induced increase in blood pressure was attenuated by cilnidipine. Case Presentation The patient (a 72-year-old man had hypertension and was on antihypertensive therapy. When mentally concentrating, he experienced occipital headaches and dizziness, and despite thorough testing, no abnormality was found. He was subsequently referred to our department. The mirror drawing test (MDT, a psychological stress test, increased blood pressure by about 40 mmHg, and the patient described occipital headache. Plasma noradrenaline level also increased from 212 to 548 pg/ml. We therefore switched the patient from nifedipine, an L-type calcium (Ca channel blocker, to cilnidipine, an L-type/N-type Ca channel blocker with suppressive effects on sympathetic activity. Cilnipidine attenuated MDT-induced an increase in blood pressure and plasma noradrenaline level and prevented the development of headache during testing. Conclusion These findings suggest that cilnidipine is a useful antihypertensive agent for hypertensive patients in whom psychological stress causes marked fluctuations in blood pressure.

  20. Ocular changes induced by drugs commonly used in dermatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Patryn, Eliza; Czajor, Karolina; Nita, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The use of many drugs in dermatologic diseases may cause ocular side effects. Some may regress after discontinuation of the therapy, but others persist or progress even after the cessation of treatment. This review presents four groups of commonly prescribed drugs-antimalarial medicines,

  1. 2-Methoxyestradiol Reduces Angiotensin II-Induced Hypertension and Renal Dysfunction in Ovariectomized Female and Intact Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingili, Ajeeth K; Davidge, Karen N; Thirunavukkarasu, Shyamala; Khan, Nayaab S; Katsurada, Akemi; Majid, Dewan S A; Gonzalez, Frank J; Navar, L Gabriel; Malik, Kafait U

    2017-06-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1 protects against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension and associated cardiovascular changes in female mice, most likely via production of 2-methoxyestradiol. This study was conducted to determine whether 2-methoxyestradiol ameliorates Ang II-induced hypertension, renal dysfunction, and end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1 -/- , ovariectomized female, and Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. Ang II or vehicle was infused for 2 weeks and administered concurrently with 2-methoxyestradiol. Mice were placed in metabolic cages on day 12 of Ang II infusion for urine collection for 24 hours. 2-Methoxyestradiol reduced Ang II-induced increases in systolic blood pressure, water consumption, urine output, and proteinuria in intact female Cyp1b1 -/- and ovariectomized mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol also reduced Ang II-induced increase in blood pressure, water intake, urine output, and proteinuria in Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. Treatment with 2-methoxyestradiol attenuated Ang II-induced end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1 -/- and ovariectomized Cyp1b1 +/+ and Cyp1b1 -/- female mice and Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. 2-Methoxyestradiol mitigated Ang II-induced increase in urinary excretion of angiotensinogen in intact Cyp1b1 -/- and ovariectomized Cyp1b1 +/+ and Cyp1b1 -/- female mice but not in Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice. The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 antagonist G-15 failed to alter Ang II-induced increases in blood pressure and renal function in Cyp1b1 +/+ female mice. These data suggest that 2-methoxyestradiol reduces Ang II-induced hypertension and associated end-organ damage in intact Cyp1b1 -/- , ovariectomized Cyp1b1 +/+ and Cyp1b1 -/- female mice, and Cyp1b1 +/+ male mice independent of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1. Therefore, 2-methoxyestradiol could serve as a therapeutic agent for treating hypertension and associated pathogenesis in postmenopausal females, and in males. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Infrared laser induced organic reactions. 2. Laser vs. thermal inducment of unimolecular and hydrogen bromide catalyzed bimolecular dehydration of alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danen, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that a mixture of reactant molecules can be induced by pulsed infrared laser radiation to react via a route which is totally different from the pathway resulting from heating the mixture at 300 0 C. The high-energy unimolecular elimination of H 2 O from ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol and HBr can be selectively induced with a pulsed CO 2 laser in preference to either a lower energy bimolecular HBr-catalyzed dehydration or the more facile dehydration of 2-propanol. Heating the mixture resulted in the almost exclusive reaction of 2-propanol to produce propylene. It was demonstrated that the bimolecular ethanol + HBr reaction cannot be effectively induced by the infrared laser radiation as evidenced by the detrimental effect on the yield of ethylene as the HBr pressure was increased. The selective, nonthermal inducement of H 2 O elimination from vibrationally excited ethanol in the presence of 2-propanol required relatively low reactant pressures. At higher pressures intermolecular V--V energy transfer allowed the thermally more facile dehydration from 2-propanol to become the predominant reaction channel

  3. Effect of carbon dioxide inhalation on pulmonary hypertension induced by increased blood flow and hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chun Chuang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available There is now increasing evidence from the experimental and clinical setting that therapeutic hypercapnia from intentionally inspired carbon dioxide (CO2 or lower tidal volume might be a beneficial adjunct to the strategies of mechanical ventilation in critical illness. Although previous reports indicate that CO2 exerts a beneficial effect in the lungs, the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia under various conditions remains to be clarified. The purpose of the present study is to characterize the pulmonary vascular response to CO2 under the different conditions of pulmonary hypertension secondary to increased pulmonary blood flow and secondary to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Isolated rat lung (n = 32 was used to study (1 the vasoactive action of 5% CO2 in either N2 (hypoxic-hypercapnia or air (normoxic-hypercapnia at different pulmonary arterial pressure levels induced by graded speed of perfusion flow and (2 the role of nitric oxide (NO in mediating the pulmonary vascular response to hypercapnia, hypoxia, and flow-associated pulmonary hypertension. The results indicated that inhaled CO2 reversed pulmonary hypertension induced by hypoxia but not by flow alteration. Endogenous NO attenuates hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction but does not augment the CO2-induced vasodilatation. Acute change in blood flow does not alter the endogenous NO production.

  4. Targeted activation of endothelin-1 exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satwiko, Muhammad Gahan; Ikeda, Koji; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Yagi, Keiko; Hocher, Berthold; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Emoto, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease that eventually results in right heart failure and death. Current pharmacologic therapies for PAH are limited, and there are no drugs that could completely cure PAH. Enhanced activity of endothelin system has been implicated in PAH severity and endothelin receptor antagonists have been used clinically to treat PAH. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the direct role of enhanced endothelin system activity in PAH. Here, we investigated the correlation between endothelin-1 (ET-1) and PAH using ET-1 transgenic (ETTG) mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia increased right ventricular pressure and pulmonary arterial wall thickness in ETTG mice compared to those in wild type mice. Of note, ETTG mice exhibited modest but significant increase in right ventricular pressure and vessel wall thickness relative to wild type mice even under normoxic conditions. To induce severe PAH, we administered SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, combined with exposure to chronic hypoxia. Treatment with SU5416 modestly aggravated hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary arterial vessel wall thickening in ETTG mice in association with increased interleukin-6 expression in blood vessels. However, there was no sign of obliterative endothelial cell proliferation and plexiform lesion formation in the lungs. These results demonstrated that enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in the development of PAH and provided rationale for the inhibition of endothelin system to treat PAH. - Highlights: • Role of endothelin-1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was investigated. • The endothelin-1 transgenic (ETTG) and wild type (WT) mice were analyzed. • ETTG mice spontaneously developed PAH under normoxia conditions. • SU5416 further aggravated PAH in ETTG mice. • Enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in

  5. Targeted activation of endothelin-1 exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satwiko, Muhammad Gahan [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Ikeda, Koji [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Nakayama, Kazuhiko [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Yagi, Keiko [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan); Hocher, Berthold [Institute for Nutritional Science, University of Potsdam, Potsdam (Germany); Hirata, Ken-ichi [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Emoto, Noriaki, E-mail: emoto@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Kobe (Japan)

    2015-09-25

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease that eventually results in right heart failure and death. Current pharmacologic therapies for PAH are limited, and there are no drugs that could completely cure PAH. Enhanced activity of endothelin system has been implicated in PAH severity and endothelin receptor antagonists have been used clinically to treat PAH. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the direct role of enhanced endothelin system activity in PAH. Here, we investigated the correlation between endothelin-1 (ET-1) and PAH using ET-1 transgenic (ETTG) mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia increased right ventricular pressure and pulmonary arterial wall thickness in ETTG mice compared to those in wild type mice. Of note, ETTG mice exhibited modest but significant increase in right ventricular pressure and vessel wall thickness relative to wild type mice even under normoxic conditions. To induce severe PAH, we administered SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, combined with exposure to chronic hypoxia. Treatment with SU5416 modestly aggravated hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary arterial vessel wall thickening in ETTG mice in association with increased interleukin-6 expression in blood vessels. However, there was no sign of obliterative endothelial cell proliferation and plexiform lesion formation in the lungs. These results demonstrated that enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in the development of PAH and provided rationale for the inhibition of endothelin system to treat PAH. - Highlights: • Role of endothelin-1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was investigated. • The endothelin-1 transgenic (ETTG) and wild type (WT) mice were analyzed. • ETTG mice spontaneously developed PAH under normoxia conditions. • SU5416 further aggravated PAH in ETTG mice. • Enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in

  6. Effect of the R dependence of laser-induced polarizability on molecular dynamic alignment in an intense femtosecond laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianxin; Cui Xiaomei; Huang Bomin; Wu Hongchun; Zhuo Shuangmu

    2006-01-01

    In the rotation equation of the angle θ between the molecular axis and the laser polarization direction, the dependence of laser-induced polarizability on the molecular internuclear distance R is considered. The effect of the R dependence of laser-induced polarizability on molecular dynamic alignment in an intense femtosecond laser field is investigated with 20 and 100 fs laser pulses for N 2 molecules and with 60 and 100 fs laser pulses for Br 2 molecules at intensities of 5x10 14 W cm -2 and 5x10 15 W cm -2 . This effect exists and only occurs during the dissociative process after the molecule is ionized. It enhances the degrees of molecular dynamic alignment and is more significant in reorienting the angular distributions of molecules towards the laser polarization direction in the conditions of high laser intensity and short pulse length. Compared with the N 2 molecule, the effect of the R dependence of laser-induced polarizability on molecular dynamic alignment for Br 2 is stronger. The reasons are presented and discussed

  7. Circulating IGF-1 deficiency exacerbates hypertension-induced microvascular rarefaction in the mouse hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex: implications for cerebromicrovascular and brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantini, Stefano; Tucsek, Zsuzsanna; Valcarcel-Ares, M Noa; Toth, Peter; Gautam, Tripti; Giles, Cory B; Ballabh, Praveen; Wei, Jeanne Y; Wren, Jonathan D; Ashpole, Nicole M; Sonntag, William E; Ungvari, Zoltan; Csiszar, Anna

    2016-08-01

    Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence indicate that both age and hypertension lead to significant functional and structural impairment of the cerebral microcirculation, predisposing to the development of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and Alzheimer's disease. Preclinical studies establish a causal link between cognitive decline and microvascular rarefaction in the hippocampus, an area of brain important for learning and memory. Age-related decline in circulating IGF-1 levels results in functional impairment of the cerebral microvessels; however, the mechanistic role of IGF-1 deficiency in impaired hippocampal microvascularization remains elusive. The present study was designed to characterize the additive/synergistic effects of IGF-1 deficiency and hypertension on microvascular density and expression of genes involved in angiogenesis and microvascular regression in the hippocampus. To achieve that goal, we induced hypertension in control and IGF-1 deficient mice (Igf1 f/f  + TBG-Cre-AAV8) by chronic infusion of angiotensin II. We found that circulating IGF-1 deficiency is associated with decreased microvascular density and exacerbates hypertension-induced microvascular rarefaction both in the hippocampus and the neocortex. The anti-angiogenic hippocampal gene expression signature observed in hypertensive IGF-1 deficient mice in the present study provides important clues for subsequent studies to elucidate mechanisms by which hypertension may contribute to the pathogenesis and clinical manifestation of VCI. In conclusion, adult-onset, isolated endocrine IGF-1 deficiency exerts deleterious effects on the cerebral microcirculation, leading to a significant decline in cortical and hippocampal capillarity and exacerbating hypertension-induced cerebromicrovascular rarefaction. The morphological impairment of the cerebral microvasculature induced by IGF-1 deficiency and hypertension reported here, in combination with neurovascular uncoupling, increased

  8. Interference of laser-induced resonances in the continuous structures of a helium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magunov, A I; Strakhova, S I

    2003-01-01

    Coherent effects in the interference of overlapping laser-induced resonances in helium atoms are considered. The simultaneous action of single-mode radiation of the 294-nm second harmonic of a cw dye laser and a 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser on helium atoms provides the overlap of two resonances induced by transitions from the 1s2s 1 S and 1s4s 1 S helium levels. The shape of the overlapping laser-induced resonances in the rotating-wave approximation is described by analytic expressions, which depend on the laser radiation intensities and the ratio of laser frequencies. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  9. Hypertension in postmenopausal women: how to approach hypertension in menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modena, Maria Grazia

    2014-09-01

    During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.

  10. Impact of mechanical stress induced in silica vacuum windows on laser-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingreau, Clémence; Lanternier, Thomas; Lamaignère, Laurent; Donval, Thierry; Courchinoux, Roger; Leymarie, Christophe; Néauport, Jérôme

    2018-04-15

    At the interface between vacuum and air, optical windows must keep their optical properties, despite being subjected to mechanical stress. In this Letter, we investigate the impact of such stress on the laser-induced damage of fused silica windows at the wavelength of 351 nm in the nanosecond regime. Different stress values, from 1 to 30 MPa, both tensile and compressive, were applied. No effect of the stress on the laser-induced damage was evidenced.

  11. Pregnancy-Induced Hypertensive Disorders before and after a National Economic Collapse: A Population Based Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Védís Helga Eiríksdóttir

    Full Text Available Data on the potential influence of macroeconomic recessions on maternal diseases during pregnancy are scarce. We aimed to assess potential change in prevalence of pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (preeclampsia and gestational hypertension during the first years of the major national economic recession in Iceland, which started abruptly in October 2008.Women whose pregnancies resulted in live singleton births in Iceland in 2005-2012 constituted the study population (N = 35,211. Data on pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders were obtained from the Icelandic Medical Birth Register and use of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy, including β-blockers and calcium channel blockers, from the Icelandic Medicines Register. With the pre-collapse period as reference, we used logistic regression analysis to assess change in pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders and use of antihypertensives during the first four years after the economic collapse, adjusting for demographic and pregnancy characteristics, taking aggregate economic indicators into account. Compared with the pre-collapse period, we observed an increased prevalence of gestational hypertension in the first year following the economic collapse (2.4% vs. 3.9%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.47; 95 percent confidence interval [95%CI] 1.13-1.91 but not in the subsequent years. The association disappeared completely when we adjusted for aggregate unemployment rate (aOR 1.04; 95% CI 0.74-1.47. Similarly, there was an increase in prescription fills of β-blockers in the first year following the collapse (1.9% vs.3.1%; aOR 1.43; 95% CI 1.07-1.90, which disappeared after adjusting for aggregate unemployment rate (aOR 1.05; 95% CI 0.72-1.54. No changes were observed for preeclampsia or use of calcium channel blockers between the pre- and post-collapse periods.Our data suggest a transient increased risk of gestational hypertension and use of β-blockers among pregnant women in Iceland in the

  12. Characterization of hard coatings produced by laser cladding using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varela, J.A.; Amado, J.M.; Tobar, M.J.; Mateo, M.P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G., E-mail: gines@udc.es

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Chemical mapping and profiling by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of coatings produced by laser cladding. • Production of laser clads using tungsten carbide (WC) and nickel based matrix (NiCrBSi) powders. • Calibration by LIBS of hardfacing alloys with different WC concentrations. - Abstract: Protective coatings with a high abrasive wear resistance can be obtained from powders by laser cladding technique, in order to extend the service life of some industrial components. In this work, laser clad layers of self-fluxing NiCrBSi alloy powder mixed with WC powder have been produced on stainless steel substrates of austenitic type (AISI 304) in a first step and then chemically characterized by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique. With the suitable laser processing parameters (mainly output power, beam scan speed and flow rate) and powders mixture proportions between WC ceramics and NiCrBSi alloys, dense pore free layers have been obtained on single tracks and on large areas with overlapped tracks. The results achieved by LIBS technique and applied for the first time to the analysis of laser clads provided the chemical composition of the tungsten carbides in metal alloy matrix. Different measurement modes (multiple point analyses, depth profiles and chemical maps) have been employed, demonstrating the usefulness of LIBS technique for the characterization of laser clads based on hardfacing alloys. The behavior of hardness can be explained by LIBS maps which evidenced the partial dilution of some WC spheres in the coating.

  13. Low sodium diet and pregnancy-induced hypertension: a multi-centre randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knuist, M.; Bonsel, G. J.; Zondervan, H. A.; Treffers, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    To examine the effectiveness of the standard policy in the Netherlands to prescribe a sodium restricted diet to prevent or to treat mild pregnancy-induced hypertension. Multi-centre randomised controlled trial between April 1992 and April 1994. Seven practices of independent midwives and one

  14. Macrophage populations and cardiac sympathetic denervation during L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, S R S; Machado, C R S; Pinto, A M T

    2006-01-01

    The rat model of hypertension induced by prolonged treatment with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) has been extensively used. However, the effects on cardiac autonomic innervation are unknown. Here, the cardiac sympathetic innervation is analyzed in parallel with myocardial lesions a...

  15. Remote triggering of high voltage systems by laser-induced plasmas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    West, NJ

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available -induced plasma was found to play a significant role in the breakdown process – best results being obtained when the laser was focused in the centre of the gap. Finally, the shape of the laser-induced arc is dependant on the applied electric field. When the field...

  16. GPER activation ameliorates aortic remodeling induced by salt-sensitive hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liu; Kashyap, Shreya; Murphy, Brennah; Hutson, Dillion D; Budish, Rebecca A; Trimmer, Emma H; Zimmerman, Margaret A; Trask, Aaron J; Miller, Kristin S; Chappell, Mark C; Lindsey, Sarah H

    2016-04-15

    The mRen2 female rat is an estrogen- and salt-sensitive model of hypertension that reflects the higher pressure and salt sensitivity associated with menopause. We previously showed that the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) mediates estrogenic effects in this model. The current study hypothesized that GPER protects against vascular injury during salt loading. Intact mRen2 female rats were fed a normal (NS; 0.5% Na(+)) or high-salt diet (HS; 4% Na(+)) for 10 wk, which significantly increased systolic blood pressure (149 ± 5 vs. 224 ± 8 mmHg;PTreatment with the selective GPER agonist G-1 for 2 wk did not alter salt-sensitive hypertension (216 ± 4 mmHg;P> 0.05) or ex vivo vascular responses to angiotensin II or phenylephrine (P> 0.05). However, G-1 significantly attenuated salt-induced aortic remodeling assessed by media-to-lumen ratio (NS: 0.43; HS+veh: 0.89; HS+G-1: 0.61;P< 0.05). Aortic thickening was not accompanied by changes in collagen, elastin, or medial proliferation. However, HS induced increases in medial layer glycosaminoglycans (0.07 vs. 0.42 mm(2);P< 0.001) and lipid peroxidation (0.11 vs. 0.51 mm(2);P< 0.01), both of which were reduced by G-1 (0.20 mm(2)and 0.23 mm(2); both P< 0.05). We conclude that GPER's beneficial actions in the aorta of salt-loaded mRen2 females occur independently of changes in blood pressure and vasoreactivity. GPER-induced attenuation of aortic remodeling was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and decreased accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Endogenous activation of GPER may protect females from salt- and pressure-induced vascular damage. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Regulatory T-Cell Augmentation or Interleukin-17 Inhibition Prevents Calcineurin Inhibitor-Induced Hypertension in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiasson, Valorie L; Pakanati, Abhinandan R; Hernandez, Marcos; Young, Kristina J; Bounds, Kelsey R; Mitchell, Brett M

    2017-07-01

    The immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors cyclosporine A and tacrolimus alter T-cell subsets and can cause hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and renal toxicity. We and others have reported that cyclosporine A and tacrolimus decrease anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and increase proinflammatory interleukin-17-producing T cells; therefore, we hypothesized that inhibition of these effects using noncellular therapies would prevent the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and renal glomerular injury induced by calcineurin inhibitor therapy. Daily treatment of mice with cyclosporine A or tacrolimus for 1 week significantly decreased CD4 + /FoxP3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen and lymph nodes, as well as induced hypertension, vascular injury and dysfunction, and glomerular mesangial expansion in mice. Daily cotreatment with all-trans retinoic acid reported to increase regulatory T cells and decrease interleukin-17-producing T cells, prevented all of the detrimental effects of cyclosporine A and tacrolimus. All-trans retinoic acid also increased regulatory T cells and prevented the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular injury in genetically modified mice that phenocopy calcineurin inhibitor-treated mice (FKBP12-Tie2 knockout). Treatment with an interleukin-17-neutralizing antibody also increased regulatory T-cell levels and prevented the hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, and glomerular injury in cyclosporine A-treated and tacrolimus-treated mice and FKBP12-Tie2 knockout mice, whereas an isotype control had no effect. Augmenting regulatory T cells and inhibiting interleukin-17 signaling using noncellular therapies prevents the cardiovascular and renal toxicity of calcineurin inhibitors in mice. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenou, M.; Sa'ar, A.; Kotler, Z.

    2015-01-01

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets

  19. Supersonic laser-induced jetting of aluminum micro-droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zenou, M. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Harvey M. Kruger Family Center for Nano-science and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Additive Manufacturing Lab, Orbotech Ltd., P.O. Box 215, 81101 Yavne (Israel); Sa' ar, A. [Racah Institute of Physics and the Harvey M. Kruger Family Center for Nano-science and Nanotechnology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Kotler, Z. [Additive Manufacturing Lab, Orbotech Ltd., P.O. Box 215, 81101 Yavne (Israel)

    2015-05-04

    The droplet velocity and the incubation time of pure aluminum micro-droplets, printed using the method of sub-nanosecond laser induced forward transfer, have been measured indicating the formation of supersonic laser-induced jetting. The incubation time and the droplet velocity were extracted by measuring a transient electrical signal associated with droplet landing on the surface of the acceptor substrate. This technique has been exploited for studying small volume droplets, in the range of 10–100 femto-litters for which supersonic velocities were measured. The results suggest elastic propagation of the droplets across the donor-to-acceptor gap, a nonlinear deposition dynamics on the surface of the acceptor and overall efficient energy transfer from the laser beam to the droplets.

  20. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Abdel-Rahman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive, using N(G-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME- induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO, and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  1. Antihypertensive Effects of Roselle-Olive Combination in L-NAME-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, Rehab F; Hessin, Alyaa F; Abdelbaset, Marwan; Ogaly, Hanan A; Abd-Elsalam, Reham M; Hassan, Salah M

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antihypertensive efficacy of a new combination therapy of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Olea europaea extracts (2 : 1; Roselle-Olive), using N(G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester- (L-NAME-) induced hypertensive model. Rats received L-NAME (50 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 weeks. Concurrent treatment with Roselle-Olive (500, 250, and 125 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks) resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, reversed the L-NAME-induced suppression in serum nitric oxide (NO), and improved liver and kidney markers, lipid profile, and oxidative status. Furthermore, Roselle-Olive significantly lowered the elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (ACE) and showed a marked genoprotective effect against oxidative DNA damage in hypertensive rats. Roselle-Olive ameliorated kidney and heart lesions and reduced aortic media thickness. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed an enhanced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene and protein expression in both heart and kidney of Roselle-Olive-treated rats. To conclude, our data revealed that Roselle-Olive is an effective combination in which H. sabdariffa and O. europaea synergistically act to control hypertension. These effects are likely to be mediated by antioxidant and genoprotective actions, ACE inhibition, and eNOS upregulation by Roselle-Olive constituents. These findings provide evidences that Roselle-Olive combination affords efficient antihypertensive effect with a broad end-organ protective influence.

  2. Laser resonant ionization spectroscopy and laser-induced resonant fluorescence spectra of samarium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Changtai

    1995-01-01

    We have measured new high-lying levels of Sm atom by two-colour resonant photoionisation spectroscopy; we have observed the isotope shifts of Sm atom by laser-induced resonant fluorescence spectroscopy; the lifetime of eight low-lying levels of Sm atom were measured by using pulsed laser-Boxcar technique in atomic beam.

  3. Q-switched Nd:YAG/V:YAG microchip 1338 nm laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Jan; Jelínková, Helena; Nejezchleb, Karel; Škoda, Václav

    2017-12-01

    Q-switched microchip laser emitting radiation at wavelength 1338nm was tested as a radiation source for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). This laser used sandwich crystal which combined in one piece the cooling part (undoped YAG crystal 4mm long), the active laser part (Nd:YAG crystal 12mm long), and the saturable absorber (V:YAG crystal 0.7mm long). The diameter of this crystal was 5 mm. The microchip resonator consisted of dielectric mirrors directly deposited on the monolith crystal surfaces. The pump mirror (HT @ 808 nm, HR @ 1.3 ¹m) was placed on the undoped YAG part. The output coupler (R = 90% @ 1338 nm) was placed on the V:YAG part. The fibre-coupled 808nm pumping laser diode was operating in pulsed regime (rep. rate 250 Hz, pulse width 300 ¹s, pulse energy 6 mJ). Using this pumping, stable and high reproducible Q-switched pulses were generated at wavelength 1338 nm. Pulse length was 6.2 ns (FWHM) and the mean output power was 33mW. The single pulse energy and peak power was 0.13mJ and 21kW, respectively. Laser was operating in fundamental TEM00 mode. The laser radiation was focused on a tested sample using single plano-convex lens (focal length 75 mm). The focal spot radius was 40 ¹m. The corresponding peak-power density was 0.83GW/cm2. The laser induced break-down was successfully reached and corresponding laser-induced plasma spectra were recorded for set of metallic elements (Cu, Ag, Au, In, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Cr) and alloys (Sn-Pb solder, duralumin, stainless-steel, brass). To record the spectra, StellarNet BLACK-Comet concave grating CCD-based spectrometer was used without any special collimation optics. Thanks to used laser wavelength far from the detector sensitivity, no special filtering was needed to overcome the CCD dazzling. The constructed laser could significantly improve repletion-rate of up-to-date LIBS devices.

  4. Decreased creatine kinase is linked to diastolic dysfunction in rats with right heart failure induced by pulmonary artery hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fowler, Ewan D.; Benoist, David; Drinkhill, Mark J.; Stones, Rachel; Helmes, Michiel; Wüst, Rob C. I.; Stienen, Ger J. M.; Steele, Derek S.; White, Ed

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate the role of creatine kinase in the contractile dysfunction of right ventricular failure caused by pulmonary artery hypertension. Pulmonary artery hypertension and right ventricular failure were induced in rats by monocrotaline and compared to saline-injected control

  5. Ocular complication with therapeutic irradiation of malignant tumor in the maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hisashi; Konno, Akiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the ocular complications of 33 cases who had undergone therapeutic irradiation for malignant tumor in the maxilla. Irradiation was performed with megavoltage x-ray of 6000 rads or more. Among the 18 patients with intraorbital infiltration of the tumor, 8 showed severe ocular lesion. In contrast, only 3 among the 15 patients without intraorbital infiltration showed severe lesions. Retinopathy was observed in 13 patients. Funduscopic findings and fluorescein angiograms were similar to those in diabetic retinopathy. One case of retinopathy with neovascular change was treated with panretinal argon laser photocoagulation; however, it was not successful. Most of the 7 glaucoma patients had neovascular glaucoma. They had the worst prognosis. (author)

  6. Comparison of diagnostic capability of macular ganglion cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer among primary open angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and normal population using Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography and determining their functional correlation in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabanita Barua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Analysis of diagnostic ability of macular ganglionic cell complex and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL in glaucoma. Aim: To correlate functional and structural parameters and comparing predictive value of each of the structural parameters using Fourier-domain (FD optical coherence tomography (OCT among primary open angle glaucoma (POAG and ocular hypertension (OHT versus normal population. Setting and Design: Single centric, cross-sectional study done in 234 eyes. Materials and Methods: Patients were enrolled in three groups: POAG, ocular hypertensive and normal (40 patients in each group. After comprehensive ophthalmological examination, patients underwent standard automated perimetry and FD-OCT scan in optic nerve head and ganglion cell mode. The relationship was assessed by correlating ganglion cell complex (GCC parameters with mean deviation. Results were compared with RNFL parameters. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed with SPSS, analysis of variance, t-test, Pearson′s coefficient, and receiver operating curve. Results: All parameters showed strong correlation with visual field (P 0.5 when compared with other parameters. None of the parameters showed significant diagnostic capability to detect OHT from normal population. In diagnosing early glaucoma from OHT and normal population, only inferior GCC had statistically significant AUC value (0.715. Conclusion: In this study, GCC and RNFL parameters showed equal predictive capability in perimetric versus normal group. In early stage, inferior GCC was the best parameter. In OHT population, single day cross-sectional imaging was not valuable.

  7. Impurity monitoring by laser-induced fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelbwachs, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy can provide a highly sensitive and selective means of detecting atomic and ionic impurities. Because the photodetector can be physically isolated from the laser-excited region, these techniques can be applied to monitoring in hostile environments. The basic concepts behind fluorescence detection are reviewed. Saturated optical excitation is shown to maximize impurity atom emission yield while mitigating effects of laser intensity fluctuations upon absolute density calibration. Monitoring in high- and low-pressure monitoring environments is compared. Methods to improve detection sensitivity by luminescence background suppression are presented

  8. Imaging femtosecond laser-induced electronic excitation in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Xianglei; Mao, Samuel S.; Russo, Richard E.

    2003-01-01

    While substantial progress has been achieved in understanding laser ablation on the nanosecond and picosecond time scales, it remains a considerable challenge to elucidate the underlying mechanisms during femtosecond laser material interactions. We present experimental observations of electronic excitation inside a wide band gap glass during single femtosecond laser pulse (100 fs, 800 nm) irradiation. Using a femtosecond time-resolved imaging technique, we measured the evolution of a laser-induced electronic plasma inside the glass and calculated the electron number density to be on the order of 10 19 cm -3

  9. Femtosecond versus nanosecond laser machining: comparison of induced stresses and structural changes in silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, M.S.; El-Ashry, M.A.; Dosser, L.R.; Hix, K.E.; Maguire, J.F.; Irwin, Bryan

    2005-01-01

    Laser micromachining has proven to be a very successful tool for precision machining and microfabrication with applications in microelectronics, MEMS, medical device, aerospace, biomedical, and defense applications. Femtosecond (FS) laser micromachining is usually thought to be of minimal heat-affected zone (HAZ) local to the micromachined feature. The assumption of reduced HAZ is attributed to the absence of direct coupling of the laser energy into the thermal modes of the material during irradiation. However, a substantial HAZ is thought to exist when machining with lasers having pulse durations in the nanosecond (NS) regime. In this paper, we compare the results of micromachining a single crystal silicon wafer using a 150-femtosecond and a 30-nanosecond lasers. Induced stress and amorphization of the silicon single crystal were monitored using micro-Raman spectroscopy as a function of the fluence and pulse duration of the incident laser. The onset of average induced stress occurs at lower fluence when machining with the femtosecond pulse laser. Induced stresses were found to maximize at fluence of 44 J cm -2 and 8 J cm -2 for nanosecond and femtosecond pulsed lasers, respectively. In both laser pulse regimes, a maximum induced stress is observed at which point the induced stress begins to decrease as the fluence is increased. The maximum induced stress was comparable at 2.0 GPa and 1.5 GPa for the two lasers. For the nanosecond pulse laser, the induced amorphization reached a plateau of approximately 20% for fluence exceeding 22 J cm -2 . For the femtosecond pulse laser, however, induced amorphization was approximately 17% independent of the laser fluence within the experimental range. These two values can be considered nominally the same within experimental error. For femtosecond laser machining, some effect of the laser polarization on the amount of induced stress and amorphization was also observed

  10. Absence of the inflammasome adaptor ASC reduces hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cero, Fadila Telarevic; Hillestad, Vigdis; Sjaastad, Ivar; Yndestad, Arne; Aukrust, Pål; Ranheim, Trine; Lunde, Ida Gjervold; Olsen, Maria Belland; Lien, Egil; Zhang, Lili; Haugstad, Solveig Bjærum; Løberg, Else Marit; Christensen, Geir; Larsen, Karl-Otto; Skjønsberg, Ole Henning

    2015-08-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is a serious condition that can lead to premature death. The mechanisms involved are incompletely understood although a role for the immune system has been suggested. Inflammasomes are part of the innate immune system and consist of the effector caspase-1 and a receptor, where nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) is the best characterized and interacts with the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC). To investigate whether ASC and NLRP3 inflammasome components are involved in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, we utilized mice deficient in ASC and NLRP3. Active caspase-1, IL-18, and IL-1β, which are regulated by inflammasomes, were measured in lung homogenates in wild-type (WT), ASC(-/-), and NLRP3(-/-) mice, and phenotypical changes related to pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular remodeling were characterized after hypoxic exposure. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) of ASC(-/-) mice was significantly lower than in WT exposed to hypoxia (40.8 ± 1.5 mmHg vs. 55.8 ± 2.4 mmHg, P right ventricular remodeling. RVSP of NLRP3(-/-) mice exposed to hypoxia was not significantly altered compared with WT hypoxia. Whereas hypoxia increased protein levels of caspase-1, IL-18, and IL-1β in WT and NLRP3(-/-) mice, this response was absent in ASC(-/-) mice. Moreover, ASC(-/-) mice displayed reduced muscularization and collagen deposition around arteries. In conclusion, hypoxia-induced elevated right ventricular pressure and remodeling were attenuated in mice lacking the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, suggesting that inflammasomes play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Depth-resolved sample composition analysis using laser-induced ablation-quadrupole mass spectrometry and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelmann, J.; Gierse, N.; Li, C.; Brezinsek, S.; Zlobinski, M.; Turan, B.; Haas, S.; Linsmeier, Ch.

    2018-06-01

    Monitoring a sample's material composition became more and more important over the last years for both - industrial process control as well as for post mortem analysis in research and industrial development. Although material composition identification as well as a comparison with standard samples works fine, there is a lack of diagnostics which can provide quantitative information with depth resolution without any standard samples. We present a novel method utilizing a residual gas analysis with quadrupole mass spectrometry after picosecond laser-induced ablation and release of volatile species. In the present experiment, well characterized multilayer thin film solar cells (μc-Si:H and a-Si:D as p-i-n-junctions on ZnO:Al electrodes) are used as a set of well characterized material samples to demonstrate the capabilities of the new method. The linearity of the spectrometer signal to gas pressure simplifies its calibration and reduces its uncertainties in comparison with other analysis techniques, although high vacuum conditions (10-6 hPa to 10-7 hPa) are required to reach high sensitivity better than the percent-range. Moreover, the laser-ablation based sample analysis requires no preparation of the sample and is flexible regarding ablation rates. The application of a picosecond laser pulse ensures that the thermal penetration depth of the laser is in the same order of magnitude as the ablation rate, which enables to achieve depth resolutions in the order of 100 nm and avoids matrix mixing effects at the edge of the laser-induced crater in the sample.

  12. Robust nanopatterning by laser-induced dewetting of metal nanofilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2006-01-01

    We have observed nanopattern formation with robust and controllable spatial ordering by laser-induced dewetting in nanoscopic metal films. Pattern evolution in Co film of thickness 1≤h≤8 nm on SiO 2 was achieved under multiple pulse irradiation using a 9 ns pulse laser. Dewetting leads to the formation of cellular patterns which evolve into polygons that eventually break up into nanoparticles with unimodal size distribution and short range ordering in nearest neighbour spacing R. Spatial ordering was attributed to a hydrodynamic thin film instability and resulted in a predictable variation of R and particle diameter D with h. The length scales R and D were found to be independent of the laser energy. These results suggest that spatially ordered metal nanoparticles can be robustly assembled by laser-induced dewetting

  13. Robust nanopatterning by laser-induced dewetting of metal nanofilms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favazza, Christopher [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Kalyanaraman, Ramki [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna [Center for Materials Innovation, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States)

    2006-08-28

    We have observed nanopattern formation with robust and controllable spatial ordering by laser-induced dewetting in nanoscopic metal films. Pattern evolution in Co film of thickness 1{<=}h{<=}8 nm on SiO{sub 2} was achieved under multiple pulse irradiation using a 9 ns pulse laser. Dewetting leads to the formation of cellular patterns which evolve into polygons that eventually break up into nanoparticles with unimodal size distribution and short range ordering in nearest neighbour spacing R. Spatial ordering was attributed to a hydrodynamic thin film instability and resulted in a predictable variation of R and particle diameter D with h. The length scales R and D were found to be independent of the laser energy. These results suggest that spatially ordered metal nanoparticles can be robustly assembled by laser-induced dewetting.

  14. Robust nanopatterning by laser-induced dewetting of metal nanofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, Christopher; Kalyanaraman, Ramki; Sureshkumar, Radhakrishna

    2006-08-28

    We have observed nanopattern formation with robust and controllable spatial ordering by laser-induced dewetting in nanoscopic metal films. Pattern evolution in Co film of thickness 1≤h≤8 nm on SiO(2) was achieved under multiple pulse irradiation using a 9 ns pulse laser. Dewetting leads to the formation of cellular patterns which evolve into polygons that eventually break up into nanoparticles with unimodal size distribution and short range ordering in nearest neighbour spacing R. Spatial ordering was attributed to a hydrodynamic thin film instability and resulted in a predictable variation of R and particle diameter D with h. The length scales R and D were found to be independent of the laser energy. These results suggest that spatially ordered metal nanoparticles can be robustly assembled by laser-induced dewetting.

  15. Impact of road traffic pollution on pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.

    2017-01-01

    addresses. Outcome and covariate data were derived from registries, hospital records, and questionnaires. RESULTS: A 10-µg/m increase in NO2 exposure during first trimester was associated with increased risk of preeclampsia (n=1,880, adjusted odds ratio = 1.07 [95% confidence interval = 1.01 to 1.......14]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (n=2,430, 1.07 [1.01 to 1.13]). A 10-dBhigher road traffic noise was also associated with increased risk of preeclampsia (1.10 [1.02 to 1.18]) and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders (1.08 [1.02 to 1.15]). For both exposures the associations were strongest...... for mild preeclampsia (n=1,393) and early-onset preeclampsia (n=671) while higher risk for severe preeclampsia(n=487) was not evident. In mutually adjusted models estimates for both exposures decreased and only the association between NO2 and mild preeclampsia remained. CONCLUSIONS: Road traffic may...

  16. Erratum to: Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Erratum to: Measurement of copper vapour laser-induced deformation of dielectric-coated mirror surface by. Michelson interferometer. A WAHID. ∗. , S KUNDU, J S B SINGH, A K SINGH, A KHATTAR,. S K MAURYA, J S DHUMAL and K DASGUPTA. Laser & Plasma Technology Division, Beam Technology Development ...

  17. Laser-Induced, Local Oxidation of Copper Nanoparticle Films During Raman Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hight Walker, Angela R.; Cheng, Guangjun; Calizo, Irene

    2011-03-01

    The optical properties of gold and silver nanoparticles and their films have been thoroughly investigated as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates and chemical reaction promoters. Similar to gold and silver nanoparticles, copper nanoparticles exhibit distinct plasmon absorptions in the visible region. The work on copper nanoparticles and their films is limited due to their oxidization in air. However, their high reactivity actually provides an opportunity to exploit the laser-induced thermal effect and chemical reactions of these nanoparticles. Here, we present our investigation of the local oxidation of a copper nanoparticle film induced by a visible laser source during Raman spectroscopic measurements. The copper nanoparticle film is prepared by drop-casting chemically synthesized copper colloid onto silicon oxide/silicon substrate. The local oxidation induced by visible lasers in Raman spectroscopy is monitored with the distinct scattering peaks for copper oxides. Optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the laser-induced morphological changes in the film. The results of this oxidation process with different excitation wavelengths and different laser powers will be presented.

  18. Cluster bomb ocular injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamade, Haya; Ghaddar, Ayman; Mokadem, Ahmad Samih; El Hajj Ali, Mohamad; Awwad, Shady

    2012-01-01

    To present the visual outcomes and ocular sequelae of victims of cluster bombs. This retrospective, multicenter case series of ocular injury due to cluster bombs was conducted for 3 years after the war in South Lebanon (July 2006). Data were gathered from the reports to the Information Management System for Mine Action. There were 308 victims of clusters bombs; 36 individuals were killed, of which 2 received ocular lacerations and; 272 individuals were injured with 18 receiving ocular injury. These 18 surviving individuals were assessed by the authors. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% (20/308) of cluster bomb victims. Trauma to multiple organs occurred in 12 of 18 cases (67%) with ocular injury. Ocular findings included corneal or scleral lacerations (16 eyes), corneal foreign bodies (9 eyes), corneal decompensation (2 eyes), ruptured cataract (6 eyes), and intravitreal foreign bodies (10 eyes). The corneas of one patient had extreme attenuation of the endothelium. Ocular injury occurred in 6.5% of cluster bomb victims and 67% of the patients with ocular injury sustained trauma to multiple organs. Visual morbidity in civilians is an additional reason for a global ban on the use of cluster bombs.

  19. [Study of enhancement effect of laser-induced crater on plasma radiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Guo, Qing-Lin; Su, Hong-Xin; Li, Guang

    2009-02-01

    Single pulses exported from high-energy neodymium glass laser were used to act on the same position of soil sample surface repeatedly, and the plasma emission spectra generated from sequential laser pulse action were collected by spectral recording system. The experimental results show that the laser-induced soil plasma radiation was enhanced continuously under the confinement effect of the crater walls, and the line intensities and signal-to-background ratios both had different improvements along with increasing the number of acting pulses. The photographs of the plasma image and crater appearance were taken to study the plasma shape, laser-induced crater appearance, and the mass of the ablated sample. The internal mechanism behind that laser-induced crater enhanced plasma radiation was researched. Under the sequential laser pulse action, the forming plasma as a result enlarges gradually first, leading to distortion at the trail of plasma plume, and then, its volume diminishes slowly. And also, the color of the plasma changes from buff to white gradually, which implies that the temperature increases constantly. The laser-induced crater had a regular shape, that is, the diameter increased from its bottom to top gradually, thus forming a taper. The mass of the laser-ablated substance descends along with increasing the amount of action pulse. Atomization degree of vaporized substance was improved in virtue of the crater confinement effect, Fresnel absorption produced from the crater walls reflection, and the inverse bremsstrahlung, and the plasma radiation intensity was enhanced as a result.

  20. Time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy for study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Deng, Leimin; Fan, Lisha; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yao; Shen, Xiaokang; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yongfeng

    2017-10-30

    Identification of chemical intermediates and study of chemical reaction pathways and mechanisms in laser-induced plasmas are important for laser-ablated applications. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), as a promising spectroscopic technique, is efficient for elemental analyses but can only provide limited information about chemical products in laser-induced plasmas. In this work, time-resolved resonance fluorescence spectroscopy was studied as a promising tool for the study of chemical reactions in laser-induced plasmas. Resonance fluorescence excitation of diatomic aluminum monoxide (AlO) and triatomic dialuminum monoxide (Al 2 O) was used to identify these chemical intermediates. Time-resolved fluorescence spectra of AlO and Al 2 O were used to observe the temporal evolution in laser-induced Al plasmas and to study their formation in the Al-O 2 chemistry in air.

  1. Laser-induced filaments in the mid-infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheltikov, A M

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared gives rise to unique regimes of nonlinear wave dynamics and reveals in many ways unusual nonlinear-optical properties of materials in this frequency range. The λ 2 scaling of the self-focusing threshold P cr , with radiation wavelength λ , allows the laser powers transmitted by single mid-IR filaments to be drastically increased without the loss of beam continuity and spatial coherence. When extended to the mid-infrared, laser filamentation enables new methods of pulse compression. Often working around the universal physical limitations, it helps generate few-cycle and subcycle field waveforms within an extraordinarily broad range of peak powers, from just a few up to hundreds of P cr . As a part of a bigger picture, laser-induced filamentation in the mid-infrared offers important physical insights into the general properties of the nonlinear-optical response of matter as a function of the wavelength. Unlike their near-infrared counterparts, which can be accurately described within the framework of perturbative nonlinear optics, mid-infrared filaments often entangle perturbative and nonperturbative nonlinear-optical effects, showing clear signatures of strong-field optical physics. With the role of nonperturbative nonlinear-optical phenomena growing, as a general tendency, with the field intensity and the driver wavelength, extension of laser filamentation to even longer driver wavelengths, toward the long-wavelength infrared, promises a hic sunt dracones land. (topical review)

  2. Heat pump processes induced by laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuny, M.; Henningsen, T.

    1980-01-01

    A carbon dioxide laser system was constructed for the demonstration of heat pump processes induced by laser radiation. The system consisted of a frequency doubling stage, a gas reaction cell with its vacuum and high purity gas supply system, and provisions to measure the temperature changes by pressure, or alternatively, by density changes. The theoretical considerations for the choice of designs and components are dicussed.

  3. CW-laser induced microchannels in dye-polymethacrylic acid films

    OpenAIRE

    M.A. Camacho-López

    2007-01-01

    In this work we report on the formation of microchannels on dye-polymethacrylic acid films using a cw-laser. A focalized beam of a He-Ne laser (632.8 nm emission line) was used to form microchannels on the films. It was found that there exists a laser power density threshold for a pit formation that depends on the dye concentration. The dimensions of the laser-induced channels are dependent on the laser power density. Microchannel formation in the transparent polymethacrylic acid films was no...

  4. Parent-offspring conflict and the persistence of pregnancy-induced hypertension in modern humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Hollegaard

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia is a major cause of perinatal mortality and disease affecting 5-10% of all pregnancies worldwide, but its etiology remains poorly understood despite considerable research effort. Parent-offspring conflict theory suggests that such hypertensive disorders of pregnancy may have evolved through the ability of fetal genes to increase maternal blood pressure as this enhances general nutrient supply. However, such mechanisms for inducing hypertension in pregnancy would need to incur sufficient offspring health benefits to compensate for the obvious risks for maternal and fetal health towards the end of pregnancy in order to explain why these disorders have not been removed by natural selection in our hunter-gatherer ancestors. We analyzed >750,000 live births in the Danish National Patient Registry and all registered medical diagnoses for up to 30 years after birth. We show that offspring exposed to pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH in trimester 1 had significantly reduced overall later-life disease risks, but increased risks when PIH exposure started or developed as preeclampsia in later trimesters. Similar patterns were found for first-year mortality. These results suggest that early PIH leading to improved postpartum survival and health represents a balanced compromise between the reproductive interests of parents and offspring, whereas later onset of PIH may reflect an unbalanced parent-offspring conflict at the detriment of maternal and offspring health.

  5. A nationwide survey of factors influencing adherence to ocular hypotensive eyedrops in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Toyoaki; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Maeda, Toshine; Takeda, Ryuji; Saito, Hitomi; Araie, Makoto

    2018-01-12

    Few reports have investigated the status of adherence in Japan on a large scale. We aimed to investigate the status of adherence to topical glaucoma treatment and its associated factors. A nationwide survey was conducted as a prospective fashion. Participants in this survey were subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma, normal-tension glaucoma, or ocular hypertension or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma who had been prescribed anti-glaucoma ophthalmic eyedrops and whose ophthalmologist considered prescribing any fixed combination of ocular hypotensive eyedrops for the first time between 2011 and 2012. Subjects and their attending ophthalmologists independently completed a questionnaire by utilizing a fixed combination of ocular hypotensive eyedrops. A total of 1358 ophthalmologists from 1071 medical institutions participated in this survey. We registered 4430 subjects (2049 males and 2381 females). In total, data from 3853 subjects (87.6%) were analyzed after inclusion of subjects based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Good adherence was defined as not forgetting instillation during the past week. Rates of good adherence reported by subjects and ophthalmologists were 72.4 and 78.5%, respectively (P < 0.0001). The consistency of adherence evaluation between subjects and ophthalmologists was moderate [kappa score 0.5025 (95% confidence interval 0.4740-0.5309)]. Significant factors associated with adherence were size of clinic, age, gender, number of types of ocular hypotensive eyedrops, ease of instillation, preferred number of eyedrops, preferred frequency of instillation of eyedrops, and knowledge of glaucoma. Adherence to ocular hypotensive eyedrops among Japanese subjects was relatively good. Concordance of adherence between subjects' reports and ophthalmologists' responses was moderate. Size of clinic, number of types of ocular hypotensive eyedrops, ease of instillation, preferred number of eyedrops, preferred frequency of instillation of eyedrops, and knowledge

  6. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walimbe, Tejaswini; Chelerkar, Vidya; Bhagat, Purvi; Joshi, Abhijeet; Raut, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), included as a preservative in many topical treatments for glaucoma, induces significant toxicity and alters tear breakup time (TBUT). BAK-containing latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin F2α, can cause ocular adverse events (AEs) associated with BAK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAK-free latanoprost. A prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 8-week study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking BAK-containing latanoprost for ≥12 months was performed. Patients were switched to BAK-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% administered once daily, and eyes were assessed after 28 and 56 days. Primary efficacy and safety variables were TBUT and treatment-emergent AEs, respectively. At day 56, 40 eyes were evaluable. Mean TBUT increased significantly from baseline (3.67±1.60 seconds) to 5.03±2.64 and 6.06±3.39 seconds after 28 and 56 days of treatment with BAK-free latanoprost (Preduction in conjunctival hyperemia and intraocular pressure was observed at both time points. No treatment-related serious AEs were evident and 12 (26.08%) treatment-emergent AEs occurred in seven patients, with eye pain and irritation being the most frequent. No clinically significant changes in vital signs or slit lamp examinations were observed. Results indicate that switching from BAK-containing latanoprost to BAK-free latanoprost resulted in significant improvements in TBUT, OSDI(©) score, and inferior corneal staining score, and measurable reductions in conjunctival hyperemia score. Furthermore, BAK-free latanoprost was well tolerated with only mild-to-moderate and self-limiting AEs. BAK-free latanoprost appears to be effective in protecting ocular surface integrity in glaucoma patients but further studies are needed to confirm this beneficial effect.

  7. Clinical Characteristics and Results of Laser Peripheral Iridotomy of Pigment Dispersion Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife Bayraktar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To report the clinical findings, characteristics and the results of peripheral laser iridotomy in pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS patients.Methods: Medical records of 30 patients who had been diagnosed with PDS were evaluated retrospectively at Glaucoma Department of Istanbul Faculty of Medicine at Istanbul University.Results: Sixty eyes of these 30 patients enrolled in the study. 18 of them (60% were male and 12 (40% were female with mean age of 42.4 ±12.3 years (range: 22 to 73 years. Forty-six eyes of the 23 patients had myopia, 12 eyes of 6 patients had hyperopia, 2 eyes of 1 patient had emmetropia. All patients except 2 eyes of the 1 patient had (96.6% Krukenberg spindles. Homogeneous trabecular meshwork(TM pigmentation was seen in all patients. Thirty-two eyes of 17 patients (53.3 % had iris transillumination defects. Neodymium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG peripheral laser iridotomy was performed in 44 eyes of 60 eyes (73.3%.Conclusion: The most common clinical findings in Turkish PDS patients were Krukenberg spindles and homogeneous TM pigmentation. If PDS hasn’t advanced in pigmentary ocular hypertension or pigmentary glaucoma, progression can be stabilized by laser iridotomy and medical treatment.

  8. Laser-Induced Formation and Disintegration of Gold Nanopeanuts and Nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jung Shin; Yoon, Jun Hee; Kim, Hyung Jun; Huh, Young Duk; Yoon, Sang Woon [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    We report the laser-induced formation of peanut-shaped gold nanoparticles (Au nanopeanuts) and gold nanowires (AuNWs), and their morphological properties. Pulsed laser irradiation of citrate-capped gold nanoparticles at 532 nm induces fragmentation, spherical growth, the formation of Au nanopeanuts, and the formation of AuNWs, sequentially. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images reveal that the Au nanopeanuts are formed by instantaneous fusion of spherical nanoparticles in random orientation by laser heating. Furthermore, Au nanopeanuts are bridged in a linear direction to form AuNWs by an amorphous accumulation of gold atoms in the junction. The laser-produced Au nanopeanuts and AuNWs slowly disintegrate, restoring the spherical shape of the original Au nanoparticles when the laser irradiation is stopped. The addition of citrate effectively prevents them from transforming back to the nanospheres.

  9. Blood-ocular and blood-brain barrier function in streptozocin-induced diabetes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeepea, O.; Karlsson, C.; Alm, A.

    1984-01-01

    Edetic acid labeled with chromium 51 was injected intravenously in normal rats and in rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes. One hour after the injection the animals were killed and the concentrations of edetic acid 51Cr in vitreous body, retina, and brain were determined. No significant difference was observed between the two groups for either tissue. In a second series, a mixture of tritiated 1-glucose and aminohippuric acid tagged with carbon 14 was injected instead of edetic acid. A substantial accumulation of aminohippuric acid 14C compared with tritiated 1-glucose was observed in the vitreous body and the brain of diabetic rats in comparison with the control group. It is concluded that untreated streptozocin-induced diabetes in rats for one to two weeks will not cause a generalized increase in the permeability of the blood-ocular or the blood-brain barriers, but organic acids may accumulate in the vitreous body as well as in the brain as a consequence of reduced outward transport through these barriers

  10. Association of angiotensin receptor 2 gene polymorphisms with pregnancy induced hypertension risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenyang; Peng, Weijun; Zhang, Heng; Yan, Weirong

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the association of polymorphisms and haplotypes of angiotensin receptor 2 (AT2R) gene with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) in Chinese Han women. A case-control study was designed with 446 cases (gestational hypertension, GH: 124; pre-eclampsia, PE + eclampsia, E: 322) and 650 controls. rs5193, rs1403543 and rs12710567 of AT2R gene were genotyped. A logistic regression approach was applied to estimate the relationship between the polymorphisms and haplotypes of AT2Rgene with PIH risk. No relationship between AT2R gene polymorphisms and PIH was detected. The haplotype analysis also showed a negative result. rs5193, rs1403543 and rs12710567 of AT2R gene might have no effect on PIH risk among Chinese Han women.

  11. Laser-induced ionization of Na vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, R.C.Y.; Judge, D.L.; Roussel, F.; Carre, B.; Breger, P.; Spiess, G.

    1982-01-01

    The production of Na 2 + ions by off-resonant laser excitation in the 5800-6200A region mainly results from two-photon absorption by the Na 2 molecule to highly excited gerade states followed by (a) direct ionization by absorbing a third photon or (b) coupling to the molecular Na 2 D 1 PIμ Rydberg state which is subsequently ionized by absorbing a third photon. This mechanism, i.e., a two-photon resonance three photon ionization process, explains a recent experimental observation of Roussel et al. It is suggested that the very same mechanism is also responsible for a similar observation reported by Polak-Dingels et al in their work using two crossed Na beams. In the latter two studies the laser-induced associative ionization processes were reported to be responsible for producing the Na 2 + ion. From the ratio of molecular to atomic concentration in the crossed beam experiment of Polak-Dingels et al we estimate that the cross section for producing Na 2 + through laser-induced associative ionization is at least four orders of magnitude smaller than ionization through the two-photon resonance three photon ionization process in Na 2 molecules

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with laser irradiation resonant with vibrational transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatrian, Ani; Dagdigian, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of polymers, both in bulk form and spin coated on Si wafers, with laser irradiation in the mid-infrared spectral region is presented. Of particular interest is whether the LIBS signals are enhanced when the laser wavelength is resonant with a fundamental vibrational transition of the polymer. Significant increases in the LIBS signals were observed for irradiation on hydride stretch fundamental transitions, and the magnitude of the enhancement showed a strong dependence on the mode excited. The role of the substrate was investigated by comparison of results for bulk and spin-coated samples. The polymers investigated were Nylon 12 and poly(vinyl alcohol-co-ethylene).

  13. Verification of a characterization method of the laser-induced selective activation based on industrial lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser-induced selective activation (LISA) for subsequent autocatalytic copper plating is performed by several types of industrial scale lasers, including a Nd:YAG laser, a UV laser, a fiber laser, a green laser, and a short pulsed laser. Based on analysis of all the laser......-machined surfaces, normalized bearing area curves and parameters are used to characterize the surface quantitatively. The range of normalized bearing area curve parameters for plate-able surface is suggested. PBT/PET with 40 % glass fiber was used as the substrate material. For all of the studied lasers......, the parameters were varied in a relatively large range, and matrixes of the laser-machined surface were obtained. The topography of those laser-machined surfaces was examined by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). For each sample examined by SEM, there was an identical workpiece plated by for 90 min...

  14. Ocular TRUST: nationwide antimicrobial susceptibility patterns in ocular isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbell, Penny A; Colby, Kathryn A; Deng, Sophie; McDonnell, Peter; Meisler, David M; Raizman, Michael B; Sheppard, John D; Sahm, Daniel F

    2008-06-01

    Ocular Tracking Resistance in U.S. Today (TRUST) annually evaluates in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae to ciprofloxacin, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penicillin, azithromycin, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and polymyxin B in national samples of ocular isolates. Laboratory investigation. Prospectively collected ocular isolates (197 S. aureus, 49 S. pneumoniae, and 32 H. influenzae) from 35 institutions and archived ocular isolates (760 S. pneumoniae and 356 H. influenzae) from 34 institutions were tested by an independent, central laboratory. Mean minimum inhibitory concentrations that would inhibit growth of 90% of the tested isolates (MIC(90)) were interpreted as susceptible, intermediate, or resistant according to standardized breakpoints for systemic treatment. S. aureus isolates were classified as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) or methicillin resistant (MRSA). MSSA or MRSA susceptibility patterns were virtually identical for the fluoroquinolones, that is, MSSA susceptibility was 79.9% to 81.1% and MRSA susceptibility was 15.2%. Trimethoprim was the only agent tested with high activity against MRSA. All S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; 89.8% were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. H. influenzae isolates were 100% susceptible to all tested agents but trimethoprim. Ocular TRUST 1 data were consistent with the eight-year longitudinal sample of archived ocular isolates. The fluoroquinolones were consistently active in MSSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae. After more than a decade of intensive ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin use as systemic therapy, 100% of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates were susceptible to gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin; nonsusceptibility to ciprofloxacin was less than 15%. High-level in vitro MRSA resistance suggests the need to consider alternative therapy to fluoroquinolones when MRSA is a

  15. OCULAR ASPECTS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO OCULAR MYOPATHY

    OpenAIRE

    Mallika O. U; Suma Job

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperthyroidism can result in ocular manifestations even before systemic signs and symptoms develop. It is seen more in females and severe forms are more common in males. Early detection of ocular involvement can prevent vision threatening complications and troublesome discomforts affecting quality of vision. This clinical study highlights the importance of detailed ocular examination in hyperthyroidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fifty consecutive patients with ocu...

  16. Long term safety and tolerability of Tafluprost 0.0015% vs Timolol 0.1% preservative-free in ocular hypertensive and in primary open-angle glaucoma patients: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolle, Teresa; Spinetta, Roberta; Nuzzi, Raffaele

    2017-08-03

    The effects of preservatives of antiglaucoma medications on corneal surface and tear function have been widely shown in literature; it's not the same as regards the active compounds themselves. The purpose of our study was to compare Ocular Surface Disease (OSD) signs and symptoms of Tafluprost 0.0015% versus preservative free (PF) Timolol 0.1% eyedrops in ocular hypertensive (OH) and in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. A cross-sectional study included patients in monotherapy for at least 36 months with Tafluprost 0.0015% (27) or PF Timolol 0.1% (24) and 20 healthy age and sex-matched volunteers. All subjects underwent clinical tests (Schirmer I and break-up time), in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and were surveyed using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and Glaucoma Symptoms Scale (GSS) questionnaires. The groups were compared with ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Bonferroni's adjustment of p-values. No significant differences were found in questionnaires scores, clinical tests, IVCM variables between therapy groups. Tafluprost 0.0015% group showed significantly higher OSDI score, basal epithelial cells density, stromal reflectivity, sub-basal nerves tortuosity (p = 0.0000, 0.037, 0.006, 0.0000) and less GSS score, number of sub-basal nerves (p = 0.0000, 0.037) than controls but similar clinical tests results (p > 0.05). PF Timolol group had significantly higher OSDI score, basal epithelial cells density, stromal reflectivity and sub-basal nerve tortuosity (p = 0.000, 0.014, 0.008, 0.002), less GSS score, BUT and number of sub-basal nerves (p = 0.0000, 0.026, 0.003) than controls. Compared to PF Timolol 0.1%, Tafluprost 0.0015% showed similar safety with regards to tear function and corneal status and a similar tolerability profile. Both therapy groups show some alterations in corneal microstructure but no side effects on tear function except for an increased tear instability in PF Timolol 0.1% group

  17. Comparison of Ocular Outcomes in Two 14-Day Bed Rest Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Taibbi, G.; Vizzeri, G.

    2011-01-01

    Reports of astronauts visual changes raised concern about ocular health during long-duration spaceflight. Some of these findings included hyperopic shifts, choroidal folds, optic disc edema, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickening, and cotton wool spots. While the etiology remains unknown, hypotheses speculate that hypertension in the brain caused by cephalad fluid shifts during spaceflight is a possible mechanism for these ocular changes. Head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest is a spaceflight analog that induces cephalad fluid shifts. In addition, previous studies of the HDT position demonstrated body fluid shifts associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). For these reasons, vision monitoring of HDT bed rest subjects was implemented for NASA bed rest studies. Subjects selected for these studies were healthy adults (14 males and 5 females). Average age was 37.5 plus or minus 9.1 years, weight was 77.4 plus or minus 11.3 Kg, and height was 173.4 plus or minus 7.2 14 cm. Controlled conditions followed for all NASA bed rest studies were implemented. These conditions included factors such as eating a standardized diet, maintaining a strict sleep wake cycle, and remaining in bed for 24 hours each day. In one study, subjects maintained a horizontal (0 degree) position while in bed and were exercised six days per week with an integrated resistance and aerobic training (iRAT) program. In the other study, subjects were placed at 6 degrees HDT while in bed and did not engage in exercise. All subjects underwent pre- and post bed rest vision testing. While the battery of vision tests for each study was not identical, measures common to both studies will be presented. These measures included IOP and measures that provided an indication of optic disc swelling as derived from optical coherence tomography (OCT) testing: average retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness (millimeters), disc area (square millimeters), rim area (square millimters), and average cup to disc (C

  18. A multicenter, retrospective chart review study comparing index therapy change rates in open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Deepak P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because latanoprost and the original formulation of travoprost that included benzalkonium chloride (BAK have been shown to be similar with regard to tolerability, we compared initial topical intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering medication change rates in patients newly treated with latanoprost or travoprost-Z monotherapy. Methods At 14 clinical practice sites, medical records were abstracted for patients with a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension and who were ≥40 years of age, had a baseline and at least one follow-up visit, and had no prior history of ocular prostaglandin use. Data regarding demographics, ocular/systemic medical histories, clinical variables, therapy initiations and reasons for changes, adverse events, and resource utilization were recorded from randomly chosen eligible charts. Primary outcomes were rates of and reasons for changing from the initial therapy within six months and across the full study period (1000 days. Results Data from 900 medical charts (latanoprost, 632; travoprost-Z, 268 were included. For both cohorts, average follow-up was >1 year. Cohorts were similar with regard to age (median ~67 years, gender distribution (>50% female, and diagnosis (~80% with open-angle glaucoma. Within six months, rates of index therapy change for latanoprost versus travoprost-Z were 21.2% (134/632 and 28.7% (77/268, respectively (p = 0.0148; across the full study period, rates were 34.5% (218/632 and 45.2% (121/268, respectively (p = 0.0026. Among those who changed their index therapy, insufficient IOP control was the most commonly reported reason followed by adverse events; hyperemia was the most commonly reported adverse event at index therapy change. Conclusions In this "real world" study of changes in therapy in patients prescribed initial monotherapy with latanoprost with BAK or travoprost-Z with SofZia, medication changes were common in both treatment groups but statistically

  19. Pinocembrin ex vivo preconditioning improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Lamiaa A; Rizk, Sherine M; El-Maraghy, Shohda A

    2017-08-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is still not curable and the available current therapies can only alleviate symptoms without hindering the progression of disease. The present study was directed to investigate the possible modulatory effect of pinocembrin on endothelial progenitor cells transplanted in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of monocrotaline (60mg/kg). Endothelial progenitor cells were in vitro preconditioned with pinocembrin (25mg/L) for 30min before being i.v. injected into rats 2weeks after monocrotaline administration. Four weeks after monocrotaline administration, blood pressure, electrocardiography and right ventricular systolic pressure were recorded. Rats were sacrificed and serum was separated for determination of endothelin-1 and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels. Right ventricles and lungs were isolated for estimation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta contents as well as caspase-3 activity. Moreover, protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase in addition to myocardial connexin-43 was assessed. Finally, histological analysis of pulmonary arteries, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and right ventricular hypertrophy was performed and cryosections were done for estimation of cell homing. Preconditioning with pinocembrin provided a significant improvement in endothelial progenitor cells' effect towards reducing monocrotaline-induced elevation of inflammatory, fibrogenic and apoptotic markers. Furthermore, preconditioned cells induced a significant amelioration of endothelial markers and cell homing and prevented monocrotaline-induced changes in right ventricular function and histological analysis compared with native cells alone. In conclusion, pinocembrin significantly improves the therapeutic efficacy of endothelial progenitor cells in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats

  20. EG-VEGF Maintenance Over Early Gestation to Develop a Pregnancy-Induced Hypertensive Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Déborah; Sergent, Frédéric; Abi Nahed, Roland; Brouillet, Sophie; Benharouga, Mohamed; Alfaidy, Nadia

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, multiple animal models have been developed to mimic hallmarks of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) diseases, which include gestational hypertension, preeclampsia (PE), or eclampsia. Converging in vitro, ex vivo, and clinical studies from our group strongly suggested the potential involvement of the new angiogenic factor EG-VEGF (endocrine gland-derived-VEGF) in the development of PIH. Here, we described the protocol that served to demonstrate that maintenance of EG-VEGF production over 11.5 days post coitus (dpc) in the gravid mice caused the development of PIH. The developed model exhibited most hallmarks of preeclampsia.

  1. Angle observation of laser peripheral iridoplasty for the treatment of acute angle-closure glaucoma which could not be controlled by drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Han

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of laser peripheral iridoplasty(LPIPto treat acute angle-closure glaucoma(AACGwhich could not controlled by drugs and with persistent ocular hypertension. METHODS: Totally 67 patients(69 eyeswith AACG were performed LPIP when intraocular pressure(IOPwas still over 30mmHg after the medicine therapy for 3-6 hours. Visual acuity and intraocular pressure were under detection before laser treatment and 30 minutes, 60 minutes and 2 hours after laser treatment. We measured the anterior chamber depth, width of angle, iris thickness with ultrasound biomicroscope(UBM. Dynamic gonioscopy was used to evaluate the degree of peripheral anterior synechia(PAS.RESULTS: Angle open distance(AODafter iridoplasty was increased(PPF=151.79, PCONCLUSION: LPIP can deepen peripheral anterior chamber, increase the angle access and lower the IOP immediately. It is an important ongoing adjuvant treatment, which can reduce the patients suffering by lowering the IOP quickly, reduce the damage of visual function caused by long-term high intraocular pressure, avoid side effect of the drugs, and can improve the prognosis.

  2. Area and depth of surfactant-induced corneal injury predicts extent of subsequent ocular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, J V; Petroll, W M; Bean, J; Parker, R D; Carr, G J; Cavanagh, H D; Maurer, J K

    1998-12-01

    To correlate area and depth of initial corneal injury induced by surfactants of differing type and irritant properties with corneal responses and outcome in the same animals over time by using in vivo confocal microscopy (CM). Six groups of six adult rabbits were treated with anionic, cationic, and nonionic surfactants that caused different levels of ocular irritation. Test materials included slight irritants: 5% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), polyoxyethylene glycol monoalkyl ether (POE), and 5% 3-isotridecyloxypropyl-bis(polyoxyethylene) ammonium chloride (ITDOP); mild irritants: 5% 3-decyloxypropyl-bis(polyoxyethylene) amine (DOP) and sodium linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS); and a moderate irritant: a proprietary detergent (DTRGT). Ten microliters surfactant were directly applied to the cornea of one eye of each rabbit. Ten untreated rabbits served as control subjects. Area and depth of initial injury was determined by using in vivo CM to measure epithelial thickness, epithelial cell size, corneal thickness, and depth of stromal injury in four corneal regions at 3 hours and at day 1. Area and depth of corneal responses to injury were evaluated at various times from days 3 through 35 by macroscopic grading and quantitative confocal microscopy through-focusing (CMTF). In vivo CM revealed corneal injury with slight irritants to be restricted to the epithelium, whereas the mild and moderate irritants caused complete epithelial cell loss with increasing anterior stromal damage: DOP < LAS < DTRGT. With the slight ocular irritants there was little or no change in corneal thickness or the CMTF intensity profiles. Three hours after treatment, mild and moderate ocular irritants caused a significant increase in corneal thickness, which peaked at day 1 with DOP (483.3+/-80.1 microm) and LAS (572.3+/-60.0 microm) and day 3 with DTRGT (601.4+/-68.7 microm); returning to normal (similar to control values) by day 7 with DOP and day 35 with LAS and DTRGT. The CMTF intensity

  3. Sensitive elemental detection using microwave-assisted laser-induced breakdown imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Adeel; Sun, Zhiwei; Wall, Matthew; Alwahabi, Zeyad T.

    2017-10-01

    This study reports a sensitive spectroscopic method for quantitative elemental detection by manipulating the temporal and spatial parameters of laser-induced plasma. The method was tested for indium detection in solid samples, in which laser ablation was used to generate a tiny plasma. The lifetime of the laser-induced plasma can be extended to hundreds of microseconds using microwave injection to remobilize the electrons. In this novel method, temporal integrated signal of indium emission was significantly enhanced. Meanwhile, the projected detectable area of the excited indium atoms was also significantly improved using an interference-, instead of diffraction-, based technique, achieved by directly imaging microwave-enhanced plasma through a novel narrow-bandpass filter, exactly centered at the indium emission line. Quantitative laser-induce breakdown spectroscopy was also recorded simultaneously with the new imaging method. The intensities recorded from both methods exhibit very good mutual linear relationship. The detection intensity was improved to 14-folds because of the combined improvements in the plasma lifetime and the area of detection.

  4. A class I (Senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVB-induced ocular effects, including cataract, in the rabbit in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Leverenz, Victor R; Dang, Loan

    2011-06-01

    UVB radiation from sunlight is known to be a risk factor for human cataract. The purpose in this study was to investigate the ability of a class I UV-blocking soft contact lens to protect against UVB-induced effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit in vivo. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to UVB light for 30 minutes (270-360 nm, peak at 310 nm, 1.7 mW/cm(2) on the cornea). Eyes were irradiated in the presence of either a UV-blocking senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-blocking lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Effects on the cornea and lens were evaluated at various times after exposure. Eyes irradiated with no contact lens protection showed corneal epithelial cell loss plus lens epithelial cell swelling, vacuole formation, and DNA single-strand breaks, as well as lens anterior subcapsular opacification. The senofilcon A lens protected nearly completely against the UVB-induced effects, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The results indicate that use of a senofilcon A contact lens is beneficial in protecting ocular tissues of the rabbit against the harmful effects of UVB light, including photokeratitis and cataract.

  5. Influence of external magnetic field on laser-induced gold nanoparticles fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkov, A. A.; Rakov, I. I.; Simakin, A. V.; Kuzmin, P. G.; Shafeev, G. A.; Mikhailova, G. N.; Antonova, L. Kh.; Troitskii, A. V.; Kuzmin, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    Laser-assisted fragmentation is an efficient method of the nanoparticles size and morphology control. However, its exact mechanisms are still under consideration. One of the remaining problems is the plasma formation, inevitably occurring upon the high intensity laser irradiation. In this Letter, the role of the laser-induced plasma is studied via introduction of high-intensity external magnetic field (up to 7.5 T). Its presence is found to cause the plasma emission to start earlier regarding to a laser pulse, also increasing the plume luminosity. Under these conditions, the acceleration of nanoparticles fragmentation down to a few nanometers is observed. Laser-induced plasma interaction with magnetic field and consequent energy transfer from plasma to nanoparticles are discussed.

  6. Effects of ionizing radiation on laser-induced damage in SiO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soileau, M J; Mansour, N; Canto, E; Griscom, D L

    1988-05-01

    The effects of radiation damage on bulk laser-induced damage in SiO/sub 2/ were investigated. Samples studied included Spectrasil A, B, and WF (water free). Measurements of laser-induced breakdown were conducted with 532 and 1064 nm laser pulses of approximately 20 ns duration. Reductions of up to 40% in the laser-induced breakdown threshold were observed at 532 nm for samples exposed to 10/sup 8/ rad of ..gamma..-radiation. The decrease in breakdown threshold for irradiated SiO/sub 2/ samples at 532 nm was found to be proportional to the linear absorption of the specimen at 266 nm. These results are in good agreement with a proposed model which suggests that two-photon absorption initiated avalanche process is responsible for laser-induced breakdown for these materials.

  7. Flexible temperature and flow sensor from laser-induced graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Marengo, Marco

    2017-12-25

    Herein we present a flexible temperature sensor and a flow speed sensor based on laser-induced graphene. The main benefits arise from peculiar electrical, thermal and mechanical performances of the material thus obtained, along with a cheap and simple fabrication process. The temperature sensor is a negative temperature coefficient thermistor with non-linear response typical of semi-metals. The thermistor shows a 4% decrease of the resistance in a temperature range of 20–60 °C. The flow sensor exploits the piezoresistive properties of laser-induced graphene and can be used both in gaseous and liquid media thanks to a protective polydimethylsiloxane coating. Main characteristics are ultra-fast response and versatility in design offered by the laser technology.

  8. Effect of raised serum uric acid level on perinatal and maternal outcome in cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumrun Nassa Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find out the effects of raised serum uric acid level on perinatal and maternal outcome in cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension. One hundred pregnant women with gestational period beyond 28 weeks with pregnancy-induced hypertension-preeclampsia and eclampsia were included in this study and divided into two groups. Group A (n=65 patients with a serum uric acid level >6 mg/dL was compared to Group B (n=35 patients with a uric acid level <6 gm/dL. It revealed that high uric acid level in patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension was a risk factor for several maternal complications like postpartum hemorrhage (Group A, 17.4%; Group B, 22.6%, postpartum eclampsia (Group A, 10.1%; Group B, 9.7%, abruptio placentae (Group A, 8.7%; Group B, 6.4%, HELLP syndrome (Group A, 2.9%; Group B, 0% and pulmonary edema (Group A, 4.3%; Group B, 0%. In case of perinatal outcome, the birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, intrauterine death, stillbirth and neonatal death rate were worse in Group A 1.9 kg, 66.7, 19, 7 and 8% in comparison to Group B, where those were 2.1, 13, 6, 2, and 2% respectively. In conclusion, high uric acid in blood in patient with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is a risk factor for several maternal complications.

  9. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq

    2013-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO 2 : N 2 : He), O 2 , N 2 , and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis

  10. Laser-induced photochemical enrichment of boron isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, S.M.; Ritter, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A boron trichloride starting material containing both boron-10 isotopes and boron-11 isotopes is selectively enriched in one or the other of these isotopes by a laser-induced photochemical method involving the reaction of laser-excited boron trichloride with either H 2 S or D 2 S. The method is carried out by subjecting a low pressure gaseous mixture of boron trichloride starting material and the sulfide to infrared radiation from a carbon dioxide TE laser. The wave length of the radiation is selected so as to selectively excite one or the other of boron-10 BCl 3 molecules or boron-11 BCl 3 molecules, thereby making them preferentially more reactive with the sulfide. The laser-induced reaction produces both a boron-containing solid phase reaction product and a gaseous phase containing mostly unreacted BCl 3 and small amounts of sulfhydroboranes. Pure boron trichloride selectively enriched in one of the isotopes is recovered as the primary product of the method from the gaseous phase by a multi-step recovery procedure. Pure boron trichloride enriched in the other isotope is recovered as a secondary product of the method by the subsequent chlorination of the solid phase reaction product followed by separation of BCl 3 from the mixture of gaseous products resulting from the chlorination

  11. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy of tantalum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sidra; Bashir, Shazia; Hayat, Asma; Khaleeq-ur-Rahman, M.; Faizan–ul-Haq [Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, GC University, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2013-07-15

    Laser Induced Breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) of Tantalum (Ta) plasma has been investigated. For this purpose Q-switched Nd: YAG laser pulses (λ∼ 1064 nm, τ∼ 10 ns) of maximum pulse energy of 100 mJ have been employed as an ablation source. Ta targets were exposed under the ambient environment of various gases of Ar, mixture (CO{sub 2}: N{sub 2}: He), O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and He under various filling pressure. The emission spectrum of Ta is observed by using LIBS spectrometer. The emission intensity, excitation temperature, and electron number density of Ta plasma have been evaluated as a function of pressure for various gases. Our experimental results reveal that the optical emission intensity, the electron temperature and density are strongly dependent upon the nature and pressure of ambient environment. The SEM analysis of the ablated Ta target has also been carried out to explore the effect of ambient environment on the laser induced grown structures. The growth of grain like structures in case of molecular gases and cone-formation in case of inert gases is observed. The evaluated plasma parameters by LIBS analysis such as electron temperature and the electron density are well correlated with the surface modification of laser irradiated Ta revealed by SEM analysis.

  12. Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Carotid Body Chemosensory Potentiation and Hypertension Are Critically Dependent on Peroxynitrite Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban A. Moya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in the development of carotid body (CB chemosensory potentiation and systemic hypertension induced by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, the main feature of obstructive sleep apnea. We tested whether peroxynitrite (ONOO−, a highly reactive nitrogen species, is involved in the enhanced CB oxygen chemosensitivity and the hypertension during CIH. Accordingly, we studied effects of Ebselen, an ONOO− scavenger, on 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity (3-NT-ir in the CB, the CB chemosensory discharge, and arterial blood pressure (BP in rats exposed to CIH. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH (5% O2, 12 times/h, 8 h/day for 7 days. Ebselen (10 mg/kg/day was administrated using osmotic minipumps and BP measured with radiotelemetry. Compared to the sham animals, CIH-treated rats showed increased 3-NT-ir within the CB, enhanced CB chemosensory responses to hypoxia, increased BP response to acute hypoxia, and hypertension. Rats treated with Ebselen and exposed to CIH displayed a significant reduction in 3-NT-ir levels (60.8 ± 14.9 versus 22.9 ± 4.2 a.u., reduced CB chemosensory response to 5% O2 (266.5 ± 13.4 versus 168.6 ± 16.8 Hz, and decreased mean BP (116.9 ± 13.2 versus 82.1 ± 5.1 mmHg. Our results suggest that CIH-induced CB chemosensory potentiation and hypertension are critically dependent on ONOO− formation.

  13. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution on ocular surface in patients with glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walimbe T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tejaswini Walimbe,1 Vidya Chelerkar,2 Purvi Bhagat,3 Abhijeet Joshi,4 Atul Raut4 1Walimbe Eye Clinic, 2PBMA’s H.V. Desai Eye Hospital, Pune, 3Glaucoma Clinic, M and J Western Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Civil Hospital, Ahmedabad, 4Clinical Research Department, Sun Pharma Advanced Research Company Ltd., Mumbai, India Introduction: Benzalkonium chloride (BAK, included as a preservative in many topical treatments for glaucoma, induces significant toxicity and alters tear breakup time (TBUT. BAK-containing latanoprost, an ester prodrug of prostaglandin F2a, can cause ocular adverse events (AEs associated with BAK. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of BAK-free latanoprost. Patients and methods: A prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, 8-week study in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension taking BAK-containing latanoprost for ≥12 months was performed. Patients were switched to BAK-free latanoprost ophthalmic solution 0.005% administered once daily, and eyes were assessed after 28 and 56 days. Primary efficacy and safety variables were TBUT and treatment-emergent AEs, respectively. Results: At day 56, 40 eyes were evaluable. Mean TBUT increased significantly from baseline (3.67±1.60 seconds to 5.03±2.64 and 6.06±3.39 seconds after 28 and 56 days of treatment with BAK-free latanoprost (P<0.0001. Ocular Surface Disease Index© (OSDI© score also decreased significantly to 12.06±13.40 and 7.06±10.75 at 28 and 56 days, respectively, versus baseline (18.09±18.61, P<0.0001. In addition, inferior corneal staining score decreased significantly to 0.53 from baseline (0.85, P=0.0033. A reduction in conjunctival hyperemia and intraocular pressure was observed at both time points. No treatment-related serious AEs were evident and 12 (26.08% treatment-emergent AEs occurred in seven patients, with eye pain and irritation being the most frequent. No clinically significant changes

  14. HNF4alpha dysfunction as a molecular rational for cyclosporine induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehof, Monika; Borlak, Jürgen

    2011-01-27

    Induction of tolerance against grafted organs is achieved by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine, a prominent member of the calcineurin inhibitors. Unfortunately, its lifetime use is associated with hypertension and nephrotoxicity. Several mechanism for cyclosporine induced hypertension have been proposed, i.e. activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endothelin-mediated systemic vasoconstriction, impaired vasodilatation secondary to reduction in prostaglandin and nitric oxide, altered cytosolic calcium translocation, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In this regard the molecular basis for undue RAS activation and an increased signaling of the vasoactive oligopeptide angiotensin II (AngII) remain elusive. Notably, angiotensinogen (AGT) is the precursor of AngII and transcriptional regulation of AGT is controlled by the hepatic nuclear factor HNF4alpha. To better understand the molecular events associated with cyclosporine induced hypertension, we investigated the effect of cyclosporine on HNF4alpha expression and activity and searched for novel HNF4alpha target genes among members of the RAS cascade. Using bioinformatic algorithm and EMSA bandshift assays we identified angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1), angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE), and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as genes targeted by HNF4alpha. Notably, cyclosporine represses HNF4alpha gene and protein expression and its DNA-binding activity at consensus sequences to AGT, AGTR1, ACE, and ACE2. Consequently, the gene expression of AGT, AGTR1, and ACE2 was significantly reduced as evidenced by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. While RAS is composed of a sophisticated interplay between multiple factors we propose a decrease of ACE2 to enforce AngII signaling via AGTR1 to ultimately result in vasoconstriction and hypertension. Taken collectively we demonstrate cyclosporine to repress HNF4alpha activity through calcineurin inhibitor mediated inhibition of nuclear

  15. HNF4alpha dysfunction as a molecular rational for cyclosporine induced hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Niehof

    Full Text Available Induction of tolerance against grafted organs is achieved by the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporine, a prominent member of the calcineurin inhibitors. Unfortunately, its lifetime use is associated with hypertension and nephrotoxicity. Several mechanism for cyclosporine induced hypertension have been proposed, i.e. activation of the sympathetic nervous system, endothelin-mediated systemic vasoconstriction, impaired vasodilatation secondary to reduction in prostaglandin and nitric oxide, altered cytosolic calcium translocation, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS. In this regard the molecular basis for undue RAS activation and an increased signaling of the vasoactive oligopeptide angiotensin II (AngII remain elusive. Notably, angiotensinogen (AGT is the precursor of AngII and transcriptional regulation of AGT is controlled by the hepatic nuclear factor HNF4alpha. To better understand the molecular events associated with cyclosporine induced hypertension, we investigated the effect of cyclosporine on HNF4alpha expression and activity and searched for novel HNF4alpha target genes among members of the RAS cascade. Using bioinformatic algorithm and EMSA bandshift assays we identified angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AGTR1, angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE, and angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 as genes targeted by HNF4alpha. Notably, cyclosporine represses HNF4alpha gene and protein expression and its DNA-binding activity at consensus sequences to AGT, AGTR1, ACE, and ACE2. Consequently, the gene expression of AGT, AGTR1, and ACE2 was significantly reduced as evidenced by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. While RAS is composed of a sophisticated interplay between multiple factors we propose a decrease of ACE2 to enforce AngII signaling via AGTR1 to ultimately result in vasoconstriction and hypertension. Taken collectively we demonstrate cyclosporine to repress HNF4alpha activity through calcineurin inhibitor mediated inhibition

  16. Susceptibility to cartap-induced lethal effect and diaphragmatic injury via ocular exposure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jiunn-Wang; Pang, Victor Fei; Jeng, Chian-Ren; Chang, Shao-Kuang; Hwang, Jenn-Sheng; Wang, Shun-Cheng

    2003-11-05

    Cartap is extensively used to control agricultural pests. Pertinent literatures have indicated that it causes no eye irritation [D.E. Ray, Insecticides derived from plants and other organisms, in: W.J. Hayes, E.R. Laws (Eds.), Handbook of Insecticide Toxicology, Classes of Insecticides, vol. 2, Academic Press, New York, 1991, p. 611; C. Tomlin, Cartap, in: C. Tomlin (Ed.), The Insecticide Manual, 12th ed., British Crop Protection Council, Surrey, UK, 2000, p. 144]; however, the instillation of a little cartap through the eye has caused death in rabbits. The aim of this study was to determine the ocular toxicity of cartap in New Zealand White rabbits. Cartap was directly instilled into the low conjunctival sac of eyes, at doses of 0, 5, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 mg/kg body weight. The changes in the enzymes and isoenzymes of creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), as well as pathological changes in the muscles of the heart, thigh and diaphragm were determined in the cartap-treated rabbits. Moreover, the neuromuscular effect of cartap was examined using the isolated rabbit phrenic-nerve diaphragm model. The results indicated that rabbits developed severe signs and they died within 20 min of ocular instillation. The ocular LD50 of cartap was 8.1 mg/kg body weight. Treatment with cartap increased the activities of CK and LD enzymes and their isoenzymes, CK-1, CK-2, and CK-3 in serum, and CK-3 and LD-5 in the diaphragm. Microscopically, hypercontraction bands and the rupture of myofibers of the diaphragm were observed in dead rabbits. Cartap did not affect nerve-evoked twitch but induced irreversible contracture and twitch depression on the isolated rabbit's diaphragm. These results indicate that the rabbit is susceptible to cartap toxicity; the effect of cartap caused contracture and damage to the diaphragm might play a pivotal role in respiratory paralysis and death of rabbits during intoxication.

  17. X-linked ocular albinism in Blacks. Ocular albinism cum pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, F E; Green, W R; Fleischman, J A; Hambrick, G W

    1978-07-01

    X-linked ocular albinism can be an unsuspected cause of congenital nystagmus in blacks. In this study, eight of ten black ocular albinos from two kindreds had nonalbinotic, moderately pigmented fundi and no transillumination of the iris. We refer to this paradoxical condition as "ocular albinism cum pigmento." The only constant ophthalmoscopic feature was a foveal hypoplasia. Biopsy of clinically normal skin to demonstrate giant pigment granules is the most accurate means of diagnosis.

  18. Laser induced magnetization switching in a TbFeCo ferrimagnetic thin film: discerning the impact of dipolar fields, laser heating and laser helicity by XPEEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierster, L.; Ünal, A.A.; Pape, L.; Radu, F.; Kronast, F.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate laser induced magnetic switching in a ferrimagnetic thin film of Tb_2_2Fe_6_9Co_9 by PEEM. Using a small laser beam with a spot size of 3–5 µm in diameter in combination with high resolution magnetic soft X-ray microscopy we are able to discriminate between different effects that govern the microscopic switching process, namely the influence of the laser heating, of the helicity dependent momentum transfer, and of the dipolar coupling. Applying a sequence of femtosecond laser pulses to a previously saturated TbFeCo film leads to the formation of ring shaped magnetic structures in which all three effects can be observed. Laser helicity assisted switching is only observed in a narrow region within the Gaussian profile of the laser spot. Whereas in the center of the laser spot we find clear evidence for thermal demagnetization and in the outermost areas magnetic switching is determined by dipolar coupling with the surrounding film. Our findings demonstrate that by reducing the laser spot size the influence of dipolar coupling on laser induced switching is becoming increasingly important. - Highlights: • With a new PEEM sample holder a laser spot size of 3–5 µm in diameter is reached. • Spatial resolved imaging of laser induced magnetization reversal. • A single femtosecond laser pulse leads to a multi-domain state in TbFeCo. • A pulse sequence results in a ring-shaped magnetic pattern caused by dipolar fields. • Laser helicity dependent effects appear only in a narrow fluence region.

  19. Ocular complications after external-beam irradiation - a literature overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziolkowska, E.; Zarzycka, M.; Wisniewski, T.; Meller, A.

    2009-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the treatment methods applied to patients suffering from head and neck cancer. The efficiency of this method is comparable to surgery, yet it allows one to save the organ and avoid its permanent deformation. In the case of radiation not only the tumour is influenced but the surrounding, normal structures as well. Radiation causes deformation of normal structures as early or side effects. The aim of this study is to present plausible ocular complications after external beam irradiation of head and neck cancer, such as radiation- induced cataract, radiation retinopathy, dry-eye syndrome or radiation neuropathy. By the use of basic principles of radiotherapy planning we can avoid or minimize possible ocular complications occurring after irradiation. The treatment of ocular complications is difficult and very often does not give the expected outcome. Therefore, in such cases in order to restore vision surgery is required. This study shows that radiotherapy can be helpful but can increase the risk of occurrence of some ocular complications. (authors)

  20. A comparative study of the laser induce breakdown spectroscopy in single- and double-pulse laser geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Duixiong; Su Maogen; Dong Chenzhong; Wen Guanhong; Cao Xiangnian

    2013-01-01

    A time resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique (LIBS) was used for the investigation of emission signal enhancement on double-pulse LIBS. Two Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers at 1064 nm wavelength have been employed to generate laser-induced plasma on aluminium-based alloys. The plasma emission signals were recorded by spectrometer with ICCD detector. Spectral response calibration was performed by using deuterium and tungsten halogen lamps. Time evolution of the plasma temperature and electron density was investigated in SP and DP experiments. Based on the investigation of plasma parameters, the enhancements of emission line intensities were investigated, and the mechanisms of it were discussed. (author)

  1. Laser-induced fluorescence detection strategies for sodium atoms and compounds in high-pressure combustors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Karen J. R.; Wise, Michael L.; Smith, Gregory P.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of laser-induced fluorescence schemes were examined experimentally in atmospheric pressure flames to determine their use for sodium atom and salt detection in high-pressure, optically thick environments. Collisional energy transfer plays a large role in fluorescence detection. Optimum sensitivity, at the parts in 10 exp 9 level for a single laser pulse, was obtained with the excitation of the 4p-3s transition at 330 nm and the detection of the 3d-3p fluorescence at 818 nm. Fluorescence loss processes, such as ionization and amplified spontaneous emission, were examined. A new laser-induced atomization/laser-induced fluorescence detection technique was demonstrated for NaOH and NaCl. A 248-nm excimer laser photodissociates the salt molecules present in the seeded flames prior to atom detection by laser-induced fluorescence.

  2. Correlation between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Intra Ocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatamizadeh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Glaucoma is one of the most common causes of blindness. It is estimated that more than 60 million people suffer from this disease of all over the world. In other hand helicobacter pylori is a gram negative bacillus that is reported in some extra-gastrointestinal system diseases recently. This study is designed to determine the association between helicobacter pylori infection and intra-ocular pressure. Methods: This was an analytical cross-sectional study that was conducted on 74 persons who were randomly selected after referring to endoscopy ward of Shohadaye Kargar hospital of Yazd in 2009. Data was analyzed by Mann-Whitney U and fisher exact tests using SPSS software (ver16. Results: Mean of intra-ocular pressure in positive helicobacter pylori group was more than negative helicobacter pylori group but there was no significant relationship (P value > 0.05, also there was no significant relationship between helicobacter pylori infection and diabetes, hypertension, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism (P value > 0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, more detailed studies with larger sample size are required for more reliable decisions also considering the confounder variables can help us to determine the common risk factors of these two outcomes.

  3. BAY 41-2272 Treatment Improves Acetylcholine-Induced Aortic Relaxation in L-NAME Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawez, Shahid; Ahanger, Azad Ahmad; Singh, Thakur Uttam; Mishra, Santosh Kumar; Sarkar, Souvendra Nath; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-12-01

    Hypertension, an emerging problem of recent era, and many pathophysiological factors are participating to produce the disease. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important constituent to ameliorate hypertensive condition. Inhibition of endogenous NO synthase by L-N G -Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) was responsible for generating hypertension in rats. BAY 41-2272 (5-cyclopropyl-2-[1-(2-fluoro-benzyl)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-3-yl]-pyrimidin-4-ylamine), a soluble guanylyl cyclase activator, restricts rise of blood pressure and shows cardioprotective activity. The aim of the present study was to analyze effect of short-term BAY 41-2272 treatment on blood pressure and vascular function. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups such as control (group-A), hypertensive (group-B), and BAY 41-2272-treated hypertensive (group-C) rats. Normal saline was administered intramuscularly to control rats for last 3 days (days 40, 41, and 42) of total 42 days treatment, whereas rats of group-B and group-C were treated with L-NAME hydrochloride in drinking water at 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 42 days. Also, normal saline and BAY 41-2272 were administered for last 3 days at two different dosages at 1 and 3 mg/kg body weight/day intramuscularly to group-B and group-C rats, respectively. Administration of BAY 41-2272 for 3 days was not sufficient enough to decrease mean arterial pressure of hypertensive rats significantly. BAY at both the treatment dosages significantly ameliorate acetylcholine-induced maximal aortic relaxation compared with BAY-untreated hypertensive rats. Findings of the present study indicate that even shorter period of BAY 41-2272 treatment (3 days) improves vascular relaxation.

  4. The Relationship Between Ocular Itch, Ocular Pain, and Dry Eye Symptoms (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Small, Leslie; Feuer, William; Levitt, Roy C; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate associations between sensations of ocular itch and dry eye (DE) symptoms, including ocular pain, and DE signs. A cross-sectional study of 324 patients seen in the Miami Veterans Affairs eye clinic was performed. The evaluation consisted of questionnaires regarding ocular itch, DE symptoms, descriptors of neuropathic-like ocular pain (NOP), and evoked pain sensitivity testing on the forehead and forearm, followed by a comprehensive ocular surface examination including corneal mechanical sensitivity testing. Analyses were performed to examine for differences between those with and without subjective complaints of ocular itch. The mean age was 62 years with 92% being male. Symptoms of DE and NOP were more frequent in patients with moderate-severe ocular itch compared to those with no or mild ocular itch symptoms. With the exception of ocular surface inflammation (abnormal matrix metalloproteinase 9 testing) which was less common in those with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms, DE signs were not related to ocular itch. Individuals with moderate-severe ocular itch also demonstrated greater sensitivity to evoked pain on the forearm and had higher non-ocular pain, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorders scores, compared to those with no or mild itch symptoms. Subjects with moderate-severe ocular itch symptoms have more severe symptoms of DE, NOP, non-ocular pain and demonstrate abnormal somatosensory testing in the form of increased sensitivity to evoked pain at a site remote from the eye, consistent with generalized hypersensitivity.

  5. Characterization of laser-induced ignition of biogas-air mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsich, Christian; Lackner, Maximilian; Winter, Franz; Kopecek, Herbert; Wintner, Ernst

    2004-01-01

    Fuel-rich to fuel-lean biogas-air mixtures were ignited by a Nd:YAG laser at initial pressures of up to 3 MPa and compared to the ignition of methane-air mixtures. The investigations were performed in a constant volume vessel heatable up to 473 K. An InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb quantum well ridge diode laser operating at 2.55 μm was used to track the generation of water in the vicinity of the laser spark in a semi-quantitative manner. Additionally, the flame emissions during the ignition process were recorded and a gas inhomogeneity index was deduced. Laser-induced ignition and its accompanying effects could be characterized on a time scale spanning four orders of magnitude. The presence of CO 2 in the biogas reduces the burning velocity. The flame emissions result in a much higher intensity for methane than it was the case during biogas ignition. This knowledge concludes that engines fuelled with biogas ultimately affect the performance of the process in a different way than with methane. Methane-air mixtures can be utilized in internal combustion engines with a higher air-fuel ratio than biogas. Comparing failed laser-induced ignition of methane-air and biogas-air mixtures similar results were obtained. The three parameters water absorbance, flame emission and the gas inhomogeneity index constitute a suitable tool for judging the quality of laser-induced ignition of hydrocarbon-air mixtures at elevated pressures and temperatures as encountered in internal combustion engines

  6. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Attenuated Maternal High-Fructose Combined with Post-Weaning High-Salt Diets-Induced Hypertension in Adult Male Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Lin Tain

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of food high in fructose and salt is associated with the epidemic of hypertension. Hypertension can originate from early life. Melatonin, a pleiotropic hormone, regulates blood pressure. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy can prevent maternal high-fructose combined with post-weaning high-salt diet-induced programmed hypertension in adult offspring. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received either a normal diet (ND or a 60% fructose diet (HF during pregnancy and the lactation period. Male offspring were on either the ND or a high-salt diet (HS, 1% NaCl from weaning to 12 weeks of age and were assigned to five groups (n = 8/group: ND/ND, HF/ND, ND/HS, HF/HS, and HF/HS+melatonin. Melatonin (0.01% in drinking water was administered during pregnancy and lactation. We observed that maternal HF combined with post-weaning HS diets induced hypertension in male adult offspring, which was attenuated by maternal melatonin therapy. The beneficial effects of maternal melatonin therapy on HF/HS-induced hypertension related to regulating several nutrient-sensing signals, including Sirt1, Sirt4, Prkaa2, Prkab2, Pparg, and Ppargc1a. Additionally, melatonin increased protein levels of mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR, decreased plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine levels, and increased the l-arginine-to-ADMA ratio. The reprogramming effects by which maternal melatonin therapy protects against hypertension of developmental origin awaits further elucidation.

  7. Ocular Sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasadhika, Sirichai; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is one of the leading causes of inflammatory eye disease. Ocular sarcoidosis can involve any part of the eye and its adnexal tissues, and may cause uveitis, episcleritis/scleritis, eyelid abnormalities, conjunctival granuloma, optic neuropathy, lacrimal gland enlargement and orbital inflammation. Glaucoma and cataract can be complications from inflammation itself or adverse effects from therapy. Ophthalmic manifestations can be isolated, or associated with other organ involvement. Patients with ocular sarcoidosis can present with a wide range of clinical presentations and severity. Multi-disciplinary approaches are required to achieve the best treatment outcomes for both ocular and systemic manifestations. PMID:26593141

  8. New Paradigms for the Study of Ocular Alphaherpesvirus Infections: Insights into the Use of Non-Traditional Host Model Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Pennington

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ocular herpesviruses, most notably human alphaherpesvirus 1 (HSV-1, canid alphaherpesvirus 1 (CHV-1 and felid alphaherpesvirus 1 (FHV-1, infect and cause severe disease that may lead to blindness. CHV-1 and FHV-1 have a pathogenesis and induce clinical disease in their hosts that is similar to HSV-1 ocular infections in humans, suggesting that infection of dogs and cats with CHV-1 and FHV-1, respectively, can be used as a comparative natural host model of herpesvirus-induced ocular disease. In this review, we discuss both strengths and limitations of the various available model systems to study ocular herpesvirus infection, with a focus on the use of these non-traditional virus-natural host models. Recent work has demonstrated the robustness and reproducibility of experimental ocular herpesvirus infections in dogs and cats, and, therefore, these non-traditional models can provide additional insights into the pathogenesis of ocular herpesvirus infections.

  9. Visualization of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachs, Oliver; Schumacher, Silvia; Hovakimyan, Marine; Fromm, Michael; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Lubatschowski, Holger; Guthoff, Rudolf

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate a new method for visualizing femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue. Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V., Hannover, Germany. Lenses removed from porcine eyes were modified ex vivo by femtosecond laser pulses (wavelength 1040 nm, pulse duration 306 femtoseconds, pulse energy 1.0 to 2.5 microJ, repetition rate 100 kHz) to create defined planes at which lens fibers separate. The femtosecond laser pulses were delivered by a 3-dimension (3-D) scanning unit and transmitted by focusing optics (numerical aperture 0.18) into the lens tissue. Lens fiber orientation and femtosecond laser-induced microincisions were examined using a confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) based on a Rostock Cornea Module attached to a Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II. Optical sections were analyzed in 3-D using Amira software (version 4.1.1). Normal lens fibers showed a parallel pattern with diameters between 3 microm and 9 microm, depending on scanning location. Microincision visualization showed different cutting effects depending on pulse energy of the femtosecond laser. The effects ranged from altered tissue-scattering properties with all fibers intact to definite fiber separation by a wide gap. Pulse energies that were too high or overlapped too tightly produced an incomplete cutting plane due to extensive microbubble generation. The 3-D CLSM method permitted visualization and analysis of femtosecond laser pulse-induced microincisions inside crystalline lens tissue. Thus, 3-D CLSM may help optimize femtosecond laser-based procedures in the treatment of presbyopia.

  10. Refractive and ocular biometric profile of children with a history of laser treatment for retinopathy of prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Savleen; Sukhija, Jaspreet; Katoch, Deeksha; Sharma, Mansi; Samanta, Ramanuj; Dogra, Mangat R

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Indian children belong to a diverse socioeconomic strata with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) developing in mature, higher birth weight babies as well. The purpose of our study is to analyze the long-term status of refractive errors and its relationship with ocular biometry in children with ROP who were laser treated at a tertiary center in North India. Methods: Cross sectional study. Children (biometric status. Results: Thirty-six children presenting to us at the mean age of 7.37 ± 3.07 years (6–15 years) were included. Mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −4.05 D ± 5.10. 75% were myopic, with high astigmatism in 31%. Higher lens thickness (P = 0.03) and higher SE (P = 0.002) at 1 year postnatal age were predictors of larger SE. 79.4% achieved a favorable functional outcome (visual acuity ≥20/40). 5.88% achieved unsatisfactory outcome (<20/200) despite having a favorable structural outcome. Conclusion: There are a substantial number of children who develop myopia and high astigmatism while undergoing laser treatment for ROP. We found myopia in our cohort to be lenticular and greater axial length contributing to the development of high myopia. An initial large refractive error predicts the future development of myopia in these children. Nearly 6% of patients with good structural outcome have unexplained subnormal vision. Our threshold for prescribing glasses in these children should be low. PMID:28905827

  11. Towards friction control using laser-induced periodic surface structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichstädt, J.; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Huis in 't Veld, Bert; Schmidt, M.; Zaeh, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the study of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) and the description of their tribological properties in order to facilitate the knowledge for contact mechanical applications. To obtain laser parameters for LIPSS formation, we propose to execute two

  12. Laser-induced photo-thermal strain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Changhoon; Ahn, Joongho; Jeon, Seungwan; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Vulnerable plaque is the one of the leading causes of cardiovascular disease occurrence. However, conventional intravascular imaging techniques suffer from difficulty in finding vulnerable plaque due to limitation such as lack of physiological information, imaging depth, and depth sensitivity. Therefore, new techniques are needed to help determine the vulnerability of plaque, Thermal strain imaging (TSI) is an imaging technique based on ultrasound (US) wave propagation speed that varies with temperature of medium. During temperature increase, strain occurs in the medium and its variation tendency is depending on the type of tissue, which makes it possible to use for tissue differentiation. Here, we demonstrate laser-induced photo-thermal strain imaging (pTSI) to differentiate tissue using an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheter and a 1210-nm continuous-wave laser for heating lipids intensively. During heating, consecutive US images were obtained from a custom-made phantom made of porcine fat and gelatin. A cross correlation-based speckle-tracking algorithm was then applied to calculate the strain of US images. In the strain images, the positive strain produced in lipids (porcine fat) was clearly differentiated from water-bearing tissue (gelatin). This result shows that laser-induced pTSI could be a new method to distinguish lipids in the plaque and can help to differentiate vulnerability of plaque.

  13. Low-intensity infrared laser effects on zymosan-induced articular inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januária dos Anjos, Lúcia Mara; da Fonseca, Adenilson d. S.; Gameiro, Jacy; de Paoli, Flávia

    2015-03-01

    Low-level therapy laser is a phototherapy treatment that involves the application of low power light in the red or infrared wavelengths in various diseases such as arthritis. In this work, we investigated whether low-intensity infrared laser therapy could cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosaninduced articular inflammatory process. Inflammatory process was induced in C57BL/6 mouse by intra-articular injection of zymosan into rear tibio-tarsal joints. Thirty animals were divided in five groups: (I) control, (II) laser, (III) zymosan-induced, (IV) zymosan-induced + laser and (V). Laser exposure was performed after zymosan administration with low-intensity infrared laser (830 nm), power 10 mW, fluence 3.0 J/cm2 at continuous mode emission, in five doses. Twenty-four hours after last irradiation, the animals were sacrificed and the right joints fixed and demineralized. Morphological analysis was observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain, pro-apoptotic (caspase-6) was analyzed by immunocytochemistry and DNA fragmentation was performed by TUNEL assay in articular cartilage cells. Inflammatory process was observed in connective tissue near to articular cartilage, in IV and V groups, indicating zymosan effect. This process was decreased in both groups after laser treatment and dexamethasone. Although groups III and IV presented higher caspase-6 and DNA fragmentation percentages, statistical differences were not observed when compared to groups I and II. Our results suggest that therapies based on low-intensity infrared lasers could reduce inflammatory process and could not cause death by caspase-6 apoptosis or DNA damage pathways in cartilage cells after zymosan-induced articular inflammatory process.

  14. Laser induced forward transfer of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, E.C.P.; Walter, A.; Leeuw, D.M. de; Asadi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Transfer of graphene and other two-dimensional materials is still a technical challenge. The 2D-materials are typically patterned after transfer, which leads to a major loss of material. Here, we present laser induced forward transfer of chemical vapor deposition grown graphene layers with

  15. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.P.

    1995-07-01

    Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) is based on the absorption of a short pulse of tuned laser light by a group of atoms and the observation of the resulting fluorescence radiation from the excited state. Because the excitation is resonant it is very efficient, and the fluorescence can be many times brighter than the normal spontaneous emission, so low number densities of the selected atoms can be detected and measured. Good spatial resolution can be achieved by using a narrow laser beam. If the laser is sufficiently monochromatic, and it can be tuned over the absorption line profile of the selected atoms, information can also be obtained about the velocities of the atoms from the Doppler effect which can broaden and shift the line. In this report two topics are examined in detail. The first is the effect of high laser irradiance, which can cause 'power broadening' of the apparent absorption line profile. The second is the effect of the high magnetic field in FTU. Detailed calculations are given for LIFS of neutral iron and molybdenum atoms, including the Zeeman effect, and the implementation of LIFS for these atoms on FTU is discussed

  16. Nonequilibrium photochemical reactions induced by lasers. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinfeld, J.I.

    1978-04-01

    Research has progressed in six principal subject areas of interest to DOE advanced (laser) isotope separation efforts. These are (1) Infrared double resonance spectroscopy of molecules excited by multiple infrared photon absorption, particularly SF 6 and vinyl chloride. (2) Infrared multiphoton excitation of metastable triplet-state molecules, e.g., biacetyl. (3) An Information Theory analysis of multiphoton excitation and collisional deactivation has been carried out. (4) The mechanism of infrared energy deposition and multiphoton-induced reactions in chlorinated ethylene derivatives; and RRKM (statistical) model accounts for all observed behavior of the system, and a deuterium-specific reaction pathway has been identified. (5) Diffusion-enhanced laser isotope separation in N 16 O/N 18 O. (6) A technical evaluation of laser-induced chemistry and isotope separation

  17. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C, 1983963113 Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemehrezaei@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 15875-4416 Shariati, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  18. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor

  19. LASER INDUCED SELECTIVE ACTIVATION UTILIZING AUTO-CATALYTIC ELECTROLESS PLATING ON POLYMER SURFACE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Nielsen, Jakob Skov; Tang, Peter Torben

    2009-01-01

    . Characterization of the deposited copper layer was used to select and improve laser parameters. Several types of polymers with different melting points were used as substrate. Using the above mentioned laser treatment, standard grades of thermoplastic materials such as ABS, SAN, PE, PC and others have been......This paper presents a new method for selective micro metallization of polymers induced by laser. An Nd: YAG laser was employed to draw patterns on polymer surfaces using a special set-up. After subsequent activation and auto-catalytic electroless plating, copper only deposited on the laser tracks....... Induced by the laser, porous and rough structures are formed on the surface, which favours the palladium attachment during the activation step prior to the metallization. Laser focus detection, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and other instruments were used to analyze the topography of the laser track...

  20. DNA damages induced by Ar F laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapel, C.; Rose, S.; Chevrier, L.; Cordier, E.; Courant, D. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Radiobiologie et de Radiopathologie

    2006-07-01

    The photo ablation process used in corneal refractive surgery by the Argon Fluoride (Ar F) laser emitting in ultraviolet C at 193 nm, exposes viable cells round the irradiated zone to sub ablative doses (< 400 joules.m -2). Despite that DNA absorption is higher at 193 nm than 254 nm, cytotoxicity of 193 nm laser radiation is lower than radiation emitted by 254 nm UV-C lamps. In situ, DNA could be protected of laser radiation by cellular components. Consequently, some authors consider that this radiation does not induce genotoxic effect whereas others suspect it to be mutagenic. These lasers are used for fifteen years but many questions remain concerning the long term effects on adjacent cells to irradiated area. The purpose of this study is to describe the effect of 193 nm laser radiation on DNA of stromal keratocytes which are responsible of the corneal structure. The 193 nm laser irradiation induces directly DNA breakage in keratocytes as it has been shown by the comet assay under alkaline conditions. Two hours post irradiation, damages caused by the highest exposure (150 J.m-2) are not repaired as it has been measured with the Olive Tail Moment (product of tail length and tail DNA content). They give partly evidence of induction of an apoptotic process in cells where DNA could be too damaged. In order to characterize specifically double strand breaks, a comparative analysis by immunofluorescence of the H2 Ax histone phosphorylation (H2 Ax) has been performed on irradiated keratocytes and unirradiated keratocytes. Results show a dose dependent increase of the number of H2 Ax positive cells. Consequences of unrepaired DNA lesions could be observed by the generation of micronuclei in cells. Results show again an increase of micronuclei in laser irradiated cells. Chromosomal aberrations have been pointed out by cytogenetic methods 30 mn after irradiation. These aberrations are dose dependent (from 10 to 150 J.m-2). The number of breakage decreases in the long run

  1. Experimental tests of induced spatial incoherence using short laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Grun, J.; Herbst, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a laser beam smoothing technique called induced spatial incoherence (ISI), which can produce the highly uniform focal profiles required for direct-drive laser fusion. Uniform well-controlled focal profiles are required to obtain the highly symmetric pellet implosions needed for high-energy gain. In recent experiments, the authors' tested the effects of ISI on high-power laser-target interaction. With short laser wavelength, the coupling physics dramatically improved over that obtained with an ordinary laser beam

  2. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry in the diagnostics of alopecia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skomorokha, Diana P.; Pigoreva, Yulia N.; Salmin, Vladimir V.

    2016-04-01

    Development of optical biopsy methods has a great interest for medical diagnostics. In clinical and experimental studies it is very important to analyze blood circulation quickly and accurately, thereby laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is widely used. UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (UV LIFS) is express highly sensitive and widely-spread method with no destructive impact, high excitation selectivity and the possibility to use in highly scattering media. The goal of this work was to assess a correlation of UV laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry parameters, and a possibility to identify or to differentiate various types of pathological changes in tissues according to their autofluorescence spectra. Three groups of patients with diffuse (symptomatic) alopecia, androgenic alopecia, and focal alopecia have been tested. Each groups consisted of not less than 20 persons. The measurements have been done in the parietal and occipital regions of the sculls. We used the original automated spectrofluorimeter to record autofluorescence spectra, and standard laser Doppler flowmeter BLF-21 (Transonic Systems, Inc., USA) to analyze the basal levels of blood circulation. Our results show that UV LIFS accurately distinguishes the zones with different types of alopecia. We found high correlation of the basal levels of blood circulation and the integrated intensity of autofluorescence in the affected tissue.

  3. Evaluation of therapeutically induced hypertension in patients with delayed cerebral vasospasm by xenon-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touho, Hajime; Karasawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Hideyuki; Shishido, Hisashi; Yamada, Keisuke; Shibamoto, Keiji [Osaka Neurological Inst., Toyonaka (Japan)

    1992-08-01

    Serial cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement were made with stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography in 20 patients with angiographically confirmed reputerd intracranial aneurysms, before and during induced hypertension with continuous infusion of dopamine. All patients showed angiogaphic vasospasm during their course. Twelve patients without symptomatic vasospasm (Group 1) had the lowest hemispheric CBF on the craniotomy side of 31.6[+-]6.8 ml/100 gm/min on days 4-9 (control value, 40.1[+-]2.0 ml/100 gm/min), while the other eight patients with symptomatic vasopsasm (Group 2) had the lowest hemispheric CBF on the craniotomy side of 25.0[+-]7.6 ml/100 gm/min on days 10-14. The critical hemispheric CBF inducing neurological deficits was about 20 ml/ 100 gm/min in Group 2. Dysautoregulation was usually present in Groups 1 and 2, but therapeutically induced hypertension could reverse the delayed neurological deficits, it begun early at the stage of delayed vasospasm. (author).

  4. Fatal postoperative systemic pulmonary hypertension in benfluorex-induced valvular heart disease surgery: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baufreton, Christophe; Bruneval, Patrick; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Fouquet, Olivier; Giraud, Raphael; Banfi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Drug-induced valvular heart disease (DI-VHD) remains an under-recognized entity. This report describes a heart valve replacement which was complicated by intractable systemic pulmonary arterial hypertension in a 61-year-old female with severe restrictive mitral and aortic disease. The diagnosis of valvular disease was preceded by a history of unexplained respiratory distress. The patient had been exposed to benfluorex for 6.5 years. The diagnostic procedure documented specific drug-induced valvular fibrosis. Surgical mitral and aortic valve replacement was performed. Heart valve replacement was postoperatively complicated by unanticipated disproportionate pulmonary hypertension. This issue was fatal despite intensive care including prolonged extracorporeal life support. Benfluorex is a fenfluramine derivative which has been marketed between 1976 and 2009. Although norfenfluramine is the common active and toxic metabolite of all fenfluramine derivatives, the valvular and pulmonary arterial toxicity of benfluorex was much less known than that of fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine. The vast majority of benfluorex-induced valvular heart disease remains misdiagnosed as hypothetical rheumatic fever due to similarities between both etiologies. Better recognition of DI-VHD is likely to improve patient outcome.

  5. Liquorice: a root cause of secondary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Varma, Ravi; Ross, Calum N.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a patient presenting with hypertension and hypokalaemia who was ultimately diagnosed with liquorice- induced pseudohyperaldosteronism. This rare cause of secondary hypertension illustrates the importance of a methodical approach to the assessment of hypertension.

  6. Magnesium supplement in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A clinicopathological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Junge, Jette; Frølich, A

    1990-01-01

    as a double-blind randomized controlled study in which 11 women were allocated to magnesium and 7 to placebo treatment. The treatment comprised a 48-hour intravenous magnesium/placebo infusion followed by daily oral magnesium/placebo intake until one day after delivery. Magnesium supplement increased birth....... There was no significant difference when the magnesium group, the placebo group and the control group were compared separately. The present study suggests that magnesium supplement has a beneficial effect on fetal growth in pregnancy-induced hypertension. With regard to the light and electron microscopic changes we were...... unable to demonstrate any significant difference between the magnesium, placebo and control groups....

  7. Development of a compact vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser end-pumped actively Q-switched laser for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Rongzhang; Nelsen, Bryan; Chen, Kevin, E-mail: pec9@pitt.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 (United States); Liu, Lei; Huang, Xi; Lu, Yongfeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    This paper reports the development of a compact and portable actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and its applications in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The laser was end-pumped by a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL). The cavity lases at a wavelength of 1064 nm and produced pulses of 16 ns with a maximum pulse energy of 12.9 mJ. The laser exhibits a reliable performance in terms of pulse-to-pulse stability and timing jitter. The LIBS experiments were carried out using this laser on NIST standard alloy samples. Shot-to-shot LIBS signal stability, crater profile, time evolution of emission spectra, plasma electron density and temperature, and limits of detection were studied and reported in this paper. The test results demonstrate that the VCSEL-pumped solid-state laser is an effective and compact laser tool for laser remote sensing applications.

  8. Optofluidic lens actuated by laser-induced solutocapillary forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyuk, A. Yu.; Ivanova, N. A.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate an adaptive liquid lens controlled by laser-induced solutocapillary forces. The liquid droplet serving as a lens is formed in a thin layer of binary liquid mixture by surface tension driven flows caused by the thermal action of laser irradiation. The shape of droplet, its aperture and the focal length are reversibly changed without hysteresis by varying the intensity of the laser beam. The focal length variation range of the droplet-lens lies in between infinity (a flat layer) to 15 mm (a curved interface). The droplet-lens is capable to adjust the in-plane lateral position in response to a displacement of the laser beam. The proposed laser controlled droplet-lens will enable to develop smart liquid optical devices, which can imitate the accommodation reflex and pupillary light reflex of the eye.

  9. Miopatia ocular descendente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. G. de Freitas

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam caso de paciente jovem, do sexo feminino, com afecção muscular primária ocular e faríngea sem caráter familial. Foram feitos estudos eletromiográficos e histopatológicos musculares que confirmam o caráter miogênico do processo. É feita comparação entre a miopatia ocular e a miopatia ocular descendente, acreditando os autores que seriam variantes

  10. Laser-induced multiphoton transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenholm, S.

    1978-06-01

    Laser induced multiphoton processes are reviewed. The effects of strong fields on atoms are discussed. The perturbation treatment is presented and also its generalization to treat intermediate resonances. The influence of atomic coherence is discussed heuristically and the relation between quantal and classical descriptions of the field is elucidated by reference to the dressed atom description. Atomic ionization experiments are reviewed and the present understanding of multiphoton dissociation of molecules is explained. Finally some prospects for the future are discussed. (author)

  11. Arbutus unedo prevents cardiovascular and morphological alterations in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats Part I: cardiovascular and renal hemodynamic effects of Arbutus unedo in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afkir, Saida; Nguelefack, Telesphore Benoit; Aziz, Mohamed; Zoheir, Johar; Cuisinaud, Guy; Bnouham, Mohamed; Mekhfi, Hassane; Legssyer, Abdelkhaleq; Lahlou, Saad; Ziyyat, Abderrahim

    2008-03-05

    Hypertension induced by nitric oxide synthase inhibition is associated with functional abnormalities of the heart and kidney. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chronic treatment with Arbutus unedo leaf (AuL) or root (AuR) aqueous extracts can prevent these alterations. Six groups of rats were used: control group received tap water; N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl-ester (L-NAME) group treated with L-NAME at 40 mg/kg/day; AuL and AuR groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and Au leaves or roots extract at the same concentration 250 mg/kg/day; l-arginine and enalapril groups received simultaneously L-NAME (40 mg/kg/day) and l-arginine at 50mg/kg/day or enalapril at 15 mg/kg/day. Treatment of rats during 4 weeks with L-NAME caused an increase of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) accompanied by a ventricular hypertrophy, an impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, an increase of the cardiac baroreflex sensitivity and a decrease of water, sodium and potassium excretion. The co-administration of AuL or AuR extracts with L-NAME reduces the development of increased SBP, ameliorates the vascular reactivity as well as the baroreflex sensitivity and normalizes the renal function. AuR reduces the ventricular hypertrophy but AuL do not. Enalapril associated with L-NAME reverses the majority of alterations induced by L-NAME while l-arginine only lightly ameliorates the vascular reactivity. These results show that chronic treatment with Arbutus extract regress the development of hypertension and ameliorate cardiovascular and renal functions in NO deficient hypertension.

  12. [Analysis of disability due to ocular complications of diabetes in Tashkent over a ten-year period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhamalova, Sh A; Iskandarova, Sh T; Nabiev, A M

    2016-01-01

    to study peculiarities of primary and recurrent disability due to ocular complications of diabetes in Tashkent over the years 2003-2012 and to assess the impact of risk factors on the effectiveness of laser photocoagulation of the retina. A total of 347 disability examination reports of diabetic patients with ocular complications were copied and 48 case histories of patients with type II diabetes who underwent laser photocoagulation of the retina - retrospectively analyzed. Stabilization of visual function was used as the effectiveness criterion. The rate of new cases of disability over the studied decade averaged 0.55 per 100,000 population per year, while that of recurrent disability was 1.8 times higher - 0.97. The overall rate of disability was not high - 1.53; at that, severe disability (i.e. grade I and II) prevailed. Both recurrent and primary disability groups were made up by middle-aged patients and those in their retirement age; however, in the recurrent disability group the number of young disabled people was 4.5 times higher than in the primary disability group. Studies of the effectiveness of laser photocoagulation of the retina in relation to the compensation of diabetes and blood pressure level showed that unstable general condition was associated with not only significant deterioration of visual function, but also complications, including severe. The rate of disability due to ocular complications of diabetes is generally not high, however, grades I and II disabilities that require greater social support has been found to prevail in both groups. Most of disabled people are middle-aged (working-age population), which also causes economic damage. In cases of decompensated diabetes and unstable blood pressure, the effectiveness of laser photocoagulation of the retina is reduced.

  13. ANALYSIS OF EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND HEALTH-ECONOMIC INDICATORS IN CASE OF CHILDREN OCULAR TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu STUPARIU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of epidemiological and health-economic indicators on ocular trauma involving children is important for developing targeted managerial, medical and educational strategies of health care providers and patients in order to reduce incidence and severity of pediatric ocular trauma. We analysed data collected from 29 children with ocular trauma from Emergency Hospital of Sibiu, between 2008-2016. For this children with closed globe injury it took an average of 7 days of hospitalization (IQR: (5; 9.5, with a cost per day of hospitalization on average of 127 RON (IQR: (103; 136, respectively a total hospitalization cost on average 856 RON (IQR: (529; 998, with no significant gender or area differences. It took a slightly larger number of hospitalization days in the following situations: (1 in the case of mixed trauma compared to lamellar lacerations or contusions; (2 if the affected area was zone III compared to the other two areas (zone I and zone II; (3 where the visual acuity at admission was less than 1/6(0.16 compared to cases with visual acuity greater than 1/6(0.16; (4 in patients with hypertension at admission compared to those with normal tension or hypotension.

  14. Lack of bcr and abr promotes hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Yu

    Full Text Available Bcr and Abr are GTPase activating proteins that specifically downregulate activity of the small GTPase Rac in restricted cell types in vivo. Rac1 is expressed in smooth muscle cells, a critical cell type involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension. The molecular mechanisms that underlie hypoxia-associated pulmonary hypertension are not well-defined.Bcr and abr null mutant mice were compared to wild type controls for the development of pulmonary hypertension after exposure to hypoxia. Also, pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from those mice were cultured in hypoxia and examined for proliferation, p38 activation and IL-6 production. Mice lacking Bcr or Abr exposed to hypoxia developed increased right ventricular pressure, hypertrophy and pulmonary vascular remodeling. Perivascular leukocyte infiltration in the lungs was increased, and under hypoxia bcr-/- and abr-/- macrophages generated more reactive oxygen species. Consistent with a contribution of inflammation and oxidative stress in pulmonary hypertension-associated vascular damage, Bcr and Abr-deficient animals showed elevated endothelial leakage after hypoxia exposure. Hypoxia-treated pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells from Bcr- or Abr-deficient mice also proliferated faster than those of wild type mice. Moreover, activated Rac1, phosphorylated p38 and interleukin 6 were increased in these cells in the absence of Bcr or Abr. Inhibition of Rac1 activation with Z62954982, a novel Rac inhibitor, decreased proliferation, p38 phosphorylation and IL-6 levels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells exposed to hypoxia.Bcr and Abr play a critical role in down-regulating hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension by deactivating Rac1 and, through this, reducing both oxidative stress generated by leukocytes as well as p38 phosphorylation, IL-6 production and proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells.

  15. Hypertension in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.

  16. Systematic analysis of ocular trauma by a new proposed ocular trauma classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhartendu Shukla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current classification of ocular trauma does not incorporate adnexal trauma, injuries that are attributable to a nonmechanical cause and destructive globe injuries. This study proposes a new classification system of ocular trauma which is broader-based to allow for the classification of a wider range of ocular injuries not covered by the current classification. Methods: A clinic-based cross-sectional study to validate the proposed classification. We analyzed 535 cases of ocular injury from January 1, 2012 to February 28, 2012 over a 4-year period in an eye hospital in central India using our proposed classification system and compared it with conventional classification. Results: The new classification system allowed for classification of all 535 cases of ocular injury. The conventional classification was only able to classify 364 of the 535 trauma cases. Injuries involving the adnexa, nonmechanical injuries and destructive globe injuries could not be classified by the conventional classification, thus missing about 33% of cases. Conclusions: Our classification system shows an improvement over existing ocular trauma classification as it allows for the classification of all type of ocular injuries and will allow for better and specific prognostication. This system has the potential to aid communication between physicians and result in better patient care. It can also provide a more authentic, wide spectrum of ocular injuries in correlation with etiology. By including adnexal injuries and nonmechanical injuries, we have been able to classify all 535 cases of trauma. Otherwise, about 30% of cases would have been excluded from the study.

  17. Laser-filamentation-induced condensation and snow formation in a cloud chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jingjing; Liu, Jiansheng; Wang, Cheng; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Wentao; Ge, Xiaochun; Li, Chuang; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-04-01

    Using 1 kHz, 9 mJ femtosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate laser-filamentation-induced spectacular snow formation in a cloud chamber. An intense updraft of warm moist air is generated owing to the continuous heating by the high-repetition filamentation. As it encounters the cold air above, water condensation and large-sized particles spread unevenly across the whole cloud chamber via convection and cyclone like action on a macroscopic scale. This indicates that high-repetition filamentation plays a significant role in macroscopic laser-induced water condensation and snow formation.

  18. Laser-Induced Fluorescence diagnostic of barium ion plasmas in the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moses; Gilson, Erik P.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip C.; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward A.

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. To investigate the ion plasma microstate in PTSX, including the ion density profile and the ion velocity distribution function, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed as a nondestructive diagnostic. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. A feasibility study of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic using barium ions is presented with the characterization of a tunable dye laser. The installation of the barium ion source and the development of the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system are also discussed

  19. Depressor effect of the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper Linn. in high-salt induced hypertensive mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarajan, Sankar; Yahiro, Eiji; Uehara, Yoshinari; Kuroda, Rieko; Hirano, Yoshio; Nagata, Kaori; Miura, Shinichiro; Saku, Keijiro; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-06-01

    A novel chymase inhibitor has been reported to have depressor effect in salt-induced hypertension. Therefore, we examined the hypothesis that chymase inhibitory dried young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper (PPH) or young leaves extract of Polygonum hydropiper (PHE) could reduce salt-induced hypertension. In this study, 8-wk old wild-type mice were allocated into three experiments and experiment I included groups, I- normal water drinking, II- high salt (2% NaCl) water (HSW) drinking, and III- HSW plus PPH (500 mg kg -1 , orally) for 12-wk. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at baseline and weekly up to wk-12. In experiment II, mice were given HSW for 12-wk followed by 8-wk treatment with PPH plus HSW (62.5, 125, 250 and 500 mg kg -1 for groups I, II, III and IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly until wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Experiment III comprised of four groups of mice for 12-wk HSW and 8-wk treatment with PHE plus HSW (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg kg -1 for groups I-IV, respectively). BP and HR were measured at baseline and monthly up to wk-12, following weekly for 8-wk. Significant reduction in BP and HR were observed in mice treated with PPH (500 mg kg -1 ) compared to HSW control. PPH reduced BP and HR dose dependently in hypertensive mice and the higher dose showed maximum reduction. PHE at its maximum dose (20 mg kg -1 ) significantly suppressed BP and HR. Over all, we found that the young leaves of Polygonum hydropiper suppressed salt-induced hypertension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Non-destructive visualization of linear explosive-induced Pyroshock using phase arrayed laser-induced shock in a space launcher composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jae Kyeong; Lee, Jung Ryul

    2015-01-01

    Separation mechanism of Space launch vehicles are used in various separation systems and pyrotechnic devices. The operation of these pyrotechnic devices generates Pyroshock that can cause failures in electronic components. The prediction of high frequency structural response, especially the shock response spectrum (SRS), is important. This paper presents a non-destructive visualization and simulation of linear explosive-induced Pyroshock using phase arrayed Laser-induced shock. The proposed method includes a laser shock test based on laser beam and filtering zone conditioning to predict the SRS of Pyroshock. A ballistic test based on linear explosive and non-contact Laser Doppler Vibrometers and a nondestructive Laser shock measurement using laser excitation and several PZT sensors, are performed using a carbon composite sandwich panel. The similarity of the SRS of the conditioned laser shock to that of the real explosive Pyroshock is evaluated with the Mean Acceleration Difference. The average of MADs over the two training points was 33.64%. And, MAD at verification point was improved to 31.99%. After that, experimentally found optimal conditions are applied to any arbitrary points in laser scanning area. Finally, it is shown that linear explosive-induced real Pyroshock wave propagation can be visualized with high similarity based on the proposed laser technology. (paper)

  1. Bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free ophthalmic solution versus bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution (Ganfort) for glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a 12-week randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ivan; Gil Pina, Rafael; Lanzagorta-Aresti, Aitor; Schiffman, Rhett M; Liu, Charlie; Bejanian, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Aim To compare the efficacy and safety of single-dose bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% preservative-free (PF) ophthalmic solution with bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% ophthalmic solution in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods In this multicentre, randomised, parallel-group study, patients were randomised to bimatoprost/timolol PF or bimatoprost/timolol once daily in the morning for 12 weeks. Primary efficacy endpoints, reflecting differing regional regulatory requirements, included change from baseline in worse eye intraocular pressure (IOP) in the per-protocol population at week 12, and the average eye IOP at weeks 2, 6 and 12 in the intent-to-treat population. Results 561 patients were randomised (278 to bimatoprost/timolol PF; 283 to bimatoprost/timolol); 96.3% completed the study. Both treatment groups showed statistically and clinically significant mean decreases from baseline in worse eye IOP and in average eye IOP at all follow-up time points (p<0.001). Bimatoprost/timolol PF met all pre-established criteria for non-inferiority and equivalence to bimatoprost/timolol. Ocular adverse events were similar between treatment groups, with conjunctival hyperaemia being the most frequent. Most were mild or moderate in severity. Conclusions Bimatoprost/timolol PF demonstrated non-inferiority and equivalence in IOP lowering compared with bimatoprost/timolol, with no significant differences in safety and tolerability. Trial registration number NCT01177098. PMID:24667994

  2. EVALUATION OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS TREATMENT ON KIDNEY FUNCTION AND LIPID PEROXIDATION STATUS IN HYPERTENSIVE RATS INDUCED WITH L-NAME

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MATTA, T.F.

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension, the disease known as the s ilent killer , is a common problem facing peoples today with million new cases being diagnosed each year. Although a great amount of money is spent annually for the treatment and detection of this disease and its complications, current conventional treatment have done little to reduce the number of patients with hypertension. Research has found a variety of alternative therapies to be successful in reducing high blood pressure including diet, exercise, stress management, supplements and herbs.In this study, the changes in some selected biochemical blood variables, which are thought to represent risk factors coincident with hypertension and kidney function, were compared between a group of normotensive male albino rats and other group suffered from hypertension induced artificially by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Also, this study investigated the effects of daily administration of some antioxidants nutrients for two weeks namely carnitine, coenzyme Q 1 0 , garlic oil and their mixture on the same variables in order to show to what extent these nutrients are valid to control the levels of these variables without any deleterious effects after treatment. Fifty mg of coenzyme Q 10 and 50 mg of carnitine were daily injected intraperitoneally for two weeks in two groups of hypertensive rats while 200 mg/kg b.wt was given to another group of hypertensive rats by oral intubation. A combination of all the above mentioned nutrients was given to the fourth group. Another hypertensive group was left without any treatment and served as a recovery group. Fasting blood samples were drawn and kidney tissues were taken at the terminal of treatments.The obtained results revealed that induced hypertension caused significant (P<0.05) increase of thiobarbeturic acid reactive substances (TBARs), malondialdehyde (MAD), parathormone (PTH), renin, blood urea, creatinine, phosphorus, sodium and potassium while glutathione (GSH), calcium

  3. Real-time control of ultrafast laser micromachining by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Tao; Li Jinggao; Longtin, Jon P.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrafast laser micromachining provides many advantages for precision micromachining. One challenging problem, however, particularly for multilayer and heterogeneous materials, is how to prevent a given material from being ablated, as ultrafast laser micromachining is generally material insensitive. We present a real-time feedback control system for an ultrafast laser micromachining system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The characteristics of ultrafast LIBS are reviewed and discussed so as to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Comparison methods to identify the material emission patterns are developed, and several of the resulting algorithms were implemented into a real-time computer control system. LIBS-controlled micromachining is demonstrated for the fabrication of microheater structures on thermal sprayed materials. Compared with a strictly passive machining process without any such feedback control, the LIBS-based system provides several advantages including less damage to the substrate layer, reduced machining time, and more-uniform machining features

  4. Postural Effect on Renal Function In Cases of Pregnancy-Induced Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    丸山, 晋司; Maruyama, Shinji

    1989-01-01

    Postual effect on renal function was analysed on the cases of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) (n=11) compared with cases of normotensive pregnancies (n=12) and non-pregnant women (n=9). In non-pregnant women, GFR, RBF and RPF showed no changes in relation to the changing posture (supine and left lateral). In normal pregnant women and cases of PIH, GFR, RBF and RPF significantly increased on changing their posture from supine to left lateral at third trimester. Especially, patients with P...

  5. Laser-Induced Damage with Femtosecond Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafka, Kyle R. P.

    The strong electric fields of focused femtosecond laser pulses lead to non-equilibrium dynamics in materials, which, beyond a threshold intensity, causes laser-induced damage (LID). Such a strongly non-linear and non-perturbative process renders important LID observables like fluence and intensity thresholds and damage morphology (crater) extremely difficult to predict quantitatively. However, femtosecond LID carries a high degree of precision, which has been exploited in various micro/nano-machining and surface engineering applications, such as human eye surgery and super-hydrophobic surfaces. This dissertation presents an array of experimental studies which have measured the damage behavior of various materials under femtosecond irradiation. Precision experiments were performed to produce extreme spatio-temporal confinement of the femtosecond laser-solid damage interaction on monocrystalline Cu, which made possible the first successful direct-benchmarking of LID simulation with realistic damage craters. A technique was developed to produce laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) in a single pulse (typically a multi-pulse phenomenon), and was used to perform a pump-probe study which revealed asynchronous LIPSS formation on copper. Combined with 1-D calculations, this new experimental result suggests more drastic electron heating than expected. Few-cycle pulses were used to study the LID performance and morphology of commercial ultra-broadband optics, which had not been systematically studied before. With extensive surface analysis, various morphologies were observed, including LIPSS, swelling (blisters), simple craters, and even ring-shaped structures, which varied depending on the coating design, number of pulses, and air/vacuum test environment. Mechanisms leading to these morphologies are discussed, many of which are ultrafast in nature. The applied damage behavior of multi-layer dielectric mirrors was measured and compared between long pulse (150 ps

  6. Biological effects of laser-induced stress waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doukas, A.; Lee, S.; McAuliffe, D.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced stress waves can be generated by one of the following mechanisms: Optical breakdown, ablation or rapid heating of an absorbing medium. These three modes of laser interaction with matter allow the investigation of cellular and tissue responses to stress waves with different characteristics and under different conditions. The most widely studied phenomena are those of the collateral damage seen in photodisruption in the eye and in 193 run ablation of cornea and skin. On the other hand, the therapeutic application of laser-induced stress waves has been limited to the disruption of noncellular material such as renal stones, atheromatous plaque and vitreous strands. The effects of stress waves to cells and tissues can be quite disparate. Stress waves can fracture tissue, damage cells, and increase the permeability of the plasma membrane. The viability of cell cultures exposed to stress waves increases with the peak stress and the number of pulses applied. The rise time of the stress wave also influences the degree of cell injury. In fact, cell viability, as measured by thymidine incorporation, correlates better with the stress gradient than peak stress. Recent studies have also established that stress waves induce a transient increase of the permeability of the plasma membrane in vitro. In addition, if the stress gradient is below the damage threshhold, the cells remain viable. Thus, stress waves can be useful as a means of drug delivery, increasing the intracellular drug concentration and allowing the use of drugs which are impermeable to the cell membrane. The present studies show that it is important to create controllable stress waves. The wavelength tunability and the micropulse structure of the free electron laser is ideal for generating stress waves with independently adjustable parameters, such as rise time, duration and peak stress

  7. Ocular Straylight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigrid Mueller-Schotte OD, MSc

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular straylight can cause decreased visual functioning, and it may cause diminished vision-related quality of life (VRQOL. This cross-sectional population-based study investigates the association between straylight and VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. Multivariable linear regression analyses were used to assess the association between straylight modeled continuously and cutoff at the recommended fitness-to-drive value, straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s, and VRQOL. The study showed that participants with normal straylight values, straylight ≤ 1.4 log(s, rated their VRQOL slightly better than those with high straylight values (straylight ≥ 1.4 log(s. Furthermore, multivariable regression analysis revealed a borderline statistical significant association ( p = .06 between intra-ocular straylight and self-reported VRQOL in middle-aged and elderly individuals. The association between straylight and self-reported VRQOL was not influenced by the status of the intra-ocular lens (natural vs. artificial intra-ocular lens after cataract extraction or the number of (instrumental activities of daily living that were reported as difficult for the elderly individuals.

  8. Chemical consequences of laser-induced breakdown in molecular gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babánková, Dagmar; Civiš, Svatopluk; Juha, Libor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2-3 (2006), s. 75-88 ISSN 0079-6727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1278; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk LC528; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser spark * laser-induced dielectric breakdown * laser-plasma chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.500, year: 2006

  9. Ocular biometric characteristics of cataract patients in western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qing; Huang, Yongzhi; Luo, Qu; Fan, Wei

    2018-04-17

    We aimed to measure ocular biometric characteristics in older cataract patients from western China. Ocular biometry records were retrospectively analyzed for 6933 patients with cataracts (6933 eyes) at least 50 years old who were treated at West China Hospital of Sichuan University. Partial coherence laser interferometry gave the following population averages: axial length (AL), 24.32 ± 2.42 mm; anterior chamber depth (ACD), 3.08 ± 0.47 mm; keratometric power (K), 44.23 ± 1.66 diopters; and corneal astigmatism (CA), 1.00 ± 0.92 diopters. The percentage of individuals with AL > 26.5 mm was 13.66%, while the percentage with CA > 1.0 diopters was 35.54%. Mean AL and ACD showed a trend of decrease with increasing age (P biometric characteristics as other populations. The high prevalence of severe axial myopia warrants further investigation.

  10. Maternal Melatonin Therapy Rescues Prenatal Dexamethasone and Postnatal High-Fat Diet Induced Programmed Hypertension in Male Rat Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Tain, You-Lin; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Yu, Hong-Ren; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lin, Yu-Ju; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Li-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal dexamethasone (DEX) exposure and high-fat (HF) intake are linked to hypertension. We examined whether maternal melatonin therapy prevents programmed hypertension synergistically induced by prenatal DEX plus postnatal HF in adult offspring. We also examined whether DEX and melatonin causes renal programming using next-generation RNA sequencing (NGS) technology. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received intraperitoneal dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle from gestational day 16 to 22. In ...

  11. Mineralocorticoid hypertension and hypokalaemia induced by posaconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Charlotte; Taylor, David; Ghataore, Lea; Taylor, Norman; Whitelaw, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    We describe severe hypokalaemia and hypertension due to a mineralocorticoid effect in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome taking posaconazole as antifungal prophylaxis. Two distinct mechanisms due to posaconazole are identified: inhibition of 11β hydroxylase leading to the accumulation of the mineralocorticoid hormone 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) and secondly, inhibition of 11β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11βHSD2), as demonstrated by an elevated serum cortisol-to-cortisone ratio. The effects were ameliorated by spironolactone. We also suggest that posaconazole may cause cortisol insufficiency. Patients taking posaconazole should therefore be monitored for hypokalaemia, hypertension and symptoms of hypocortisolaemia, at the onset of treatment and on a monthly basis. Treatment with mineralocorticoid antagonists (spironolactone or eplerenone), supplementation of glucocorticoids (e.g. hydrocortisone) or dose reduction or cessation of posaconazole should all be considered as management strategies. Combined hypertension and hypokalaemia are suggestive of mineralocorticoid excess; further investigation is appropriate.If serum aldosterone is suppressed, then further investigation to assess for an alternative mineralocorticoid is appropriate, potentially using urine steroid profiling and/or serum steroid panelling.Posaconazole can cause both hypokalaemia and hypertension, and we propose that this is due to two mechanisms - both 11β hydroxylase inhibition and 11β HSD2 inhibition.Posaconazole treatment may lead to cortisol insufficiency, which may require treatment; however, in this clinical case, the effect was mild.First-line treatment of this presentation would likely be use of a mineralocorticoid antagonist.Patients taking posaconazole should be monitored for hypertension and hypokalaemia on initiation and monthly thereafter.

  12. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists protect the kidney against the nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine-A in normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caires, A; Fernandes, G S; Leme, A M; Castino, B; Pessoa, E A; Fernandes, S M; Fonseca, C D; Vattimo, M F; Schor, N; Borges, F T

    2017-12-11

    Cyclosporin-A (CsA) is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS) and macitentan (MAC) antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR) were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg) for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg) or MAC (25 mg/kg) by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP), RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR), and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.

  13. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonists protect the kidney against the nephrotoxicity induced by cyclosporine-A in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caires

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin-A (CsA is an immunosuppressant associated with acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. Nephrotoxicity associated with CsA involves the increase in afferent and efferent arteriole resistance, decreased renal blood flow (RBF and glomerular filtration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Endothelin-1 (ET-1 receptor blockade with bosentan (BOS and macitentan (MAC antagonists on altered renal function induced by CsA in normotensive and hypertensive animals. Wistar and genetically hypertensive rats (SHR were separated into control group, CsA group that received intraperitoneal injections of CsA (40 mg/kg for 15 days, CsA+BOS and CsA+MAC that received CsA and BOS (5 mg/kg or MAC (25 mg/kg by gavage for 15 days. Plasma creatinine and urea, mean arterial pressure (MAP, RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR, and immunohistochemistry for ET-1 in the kidney cortex were measured. CsA decreased renal function, as shown by increased creatinine and urea. There was a decrease in RBF and an increase in MAP and RVR in normotensive and hypertensive animals. These effects were partially reversed by ET-1 antagonists, especially in SHR where increased ET-1 production was observed in the kidney. Most MAC effects were similar to BOS, but BOS seemed to be better at reversing cyclosporine-induced changes in renal function in hypertensive animals. The results of this work suggested the direct participation of ET-1 in renal hemodynamics changes induced by cyclosporin in normotensive and hypertensive rats. The antagonists of ET-1 MAC and BOS reversed part of these effects.

  14. Neuroprotective Treatment of Laser-Induced Retinal Injuries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosner, Mordechai

    2001-01-01

    .... It is not possible to prevent all these injuries and there is no treatment. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of dextromethorphan, memantine and brimonidine in our rat model of laser- induced retinal-lesions Methods...

  15. Laser-induced pressure-wave and barocaloric effect during flash diffusivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D.; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton

    2017-01-01

    We report laser-induced pressure-wave and barocaloric effect captured by an infrared detector during thermal diffusivity measurements. Very fast (< 1 ms) and negative transients during laser flash measurements were captured by the infrared detector on thin, high thermal conductivity samples. Standard thermal diffusivity analysis only focuses the longer time scale thermal transient measured from the back surface due to thermal conduction. These negative spikes are filtered out and ignored as noise or anomaly from instrument. This study confirmed that the initial negative signal was indeed a temperature drop induced by the laser pulse. The laser pulse induced instantaneous volume expansion and the associated cooling in the specimen can be explained by the barocaloric effect. The initial cooling (< 100 microsecond) is also known as thermoelastic effect in which a negative temperature change is generated when the material is elastically deformed by volume expansion. A subsequent temperature oscillation in the sample was observed and only lasted about one millisecond. The pressure-wave induced thermal signal was systematically studied and analyzed. In conclusion, the underlying physics of photon-mechanical-thermal energy conversions and the potential of using this signal to study barocaloric effects in solids are discussed.

  16. Ocular Stem Cell Research from Basic Science to Clinical Application: A Report from Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Ouyang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells hold promise for treating a wide variety of diseases, including degenerative disorders of the eye. The eye is an ideal organ for stem cell therapy because of its relative immunological privilege, surgical accessibility, and its being a self-contained system. The eye also has many potential target diseases amenable to stem cell-based treatment, such as corneal limbal stem cell deficiency, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD, and retinitis pigmentosa (RP. Among them, AMD and glaucoma are the two most common diseases, affecting over 200 million people worldwide. Recent results on the clinical trial of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs in treating dry AMD and Stargardt’s disease in the US, Japan, England, and China have generated great excitement and hope. This marks the beginning of the ocular stem cell therapy era. The recent Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center Ocular Stem Cell Symposium discussed the potential applications of various stem cell types in stem cell-based therapies, drug discoveries and tissue engineering for treating ocular diseases.

  17. Doping of silicon by laser-induced diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretorius, R.; Allie, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    This report gives information on the doping of silicon by laser-induced diffusion, modelling and heat-flow calculation, doping from evaporated layers and silicon self-diffusion during pulsed laser irradiation. In order to tailor dopant profiles accurately a knowledge of the heat flow and the melt depths attained as a function of laser energy and material type is crucial. The heat flow calculations described can be used in conjuntion with most diffusion equations in order to predict the redistribution of the deposited dopant which occurs as a result of liquid phase diffusion during the melting period. Doping of Si was carried out by evaporating this films of Sb, In and Bi 10 to 300 A thick, onto the substrates. During pulsed laser irradiation the dopant film and underlying silicon substrate is melted and the dopant incorporated into the crystal lattice during recrystallization. Radioactive 31 Si(T1/2=2,62h) was used as a tracer to measure the self-diffusion of silicon in silicon during pulsed laser (pulsewidth = 30ns, wavelength = 694nm) irradiation

  18. Laser induced fluorescence of trapped molecular ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, J.S.

    1980-10-01

    Laser induced fluoresence (LIF) spectra (laser excitation spectra) are conceptually among the most simple spectra to obtain. One need only confine a gaseous sample in a suitable container, direct a laser along one axis of the container, and monitor the sample's fluorescence at a right angle to the laser beam. As the laser wavelength is changed, the changes in fluorescence intensity map the absorption spectrum of the sample. (More precisely, only absorption to states which have a significant radiative decay component are monitored.) For ion spectroscopy, one could benefit in many ways by such an experiment. Most optical ion spectra have been observed by emission techniques, and, aside from the problems of spectral analysis, discharge emission methods often produce the spectra of many species, some of which may be unknown or uncertain. Implicit in the description of LIF given above is certainty as to the chemical identity of the carrier of the spectrum. This article describes a method by which the simplifying aspects of LIF can be extended to molecular ions

  19. Laser-induced agglomeration of gold nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serkov, A.A.; Shcherbina, M.E. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Kuzmin, P.G., E-mail: qzzzma@gmail.com [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kirichenko, N.A. [Wave Research Center of A.M. Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38, Vavilov Street, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); The Federal State Educational Institution of Higher Professional Education, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed laser irradiation of dense gold nanoparticles colloidal solution can result in their agglomeration. • Gas bubbles in-phase pulsation induced by laser radiation accounts for nanoparticles agglomeration. • Time evolution of the size distribution function proceeds in activation mode. • The electrostatic-like model of nanoparticles agglomeration is in good correspondence with the experimental data. - Abstract: Dynamics of gold nanoparticles (NPs) ensemble in dense aqueous solution under exposure to picosecond laser radiation is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Properties of NPs are examined by means of transmission electron microscopy, optical spectroscopy, and size-measuring disk centrifuge. Theoretical investigation of NPs ensemble behavior is based on the analytical model taking into account collisions and agglomeration of particles. It is shown that in case of dense NPs colloidal solutions (above 10{sup 14} particles per milliliter) the process of laser fragmentation typical for nanosecond laser exposure turns into laser-induced agglomeration which leads to formation of the particles with larger sizes. It is shown that there is a critical concentration of NPs: at higher concentrations agglomeration rate increases tremendously. The results of mathematical simulation are in compliance with experimental data.

  20. Analysis of moving surface structures at a laser-induced boiling front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matti, R.S., E-mail: ramiz.matti@ltu.se [Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, S-971 87 Luleå (Sweden); University of Mosul, College of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mosul (Iraq); Kaplan, A.F.H. [Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, S-971 87 Luleå (Sweden)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • For laser-induced boiling, molten metal surfaces show a moving wave pattern. • Categorization of seven kinds of shapes enabled systematic pattern analysis. • Bright shapes changed or disappeared, giving evidence for pulsating waves. • Interpretation on the topology and on the basic laser–melt interaction was made. - Abstract: Recently ultra-high speed imaging enabled to observe moving wave patterns on metal melts that experience laser-induced boiling. In laser materials processing a vertical laser-induced boiling front governs processes like keyhole laser welding, laser remote fusion cutting, laser drilling or laser ablation. The observed waves originate from temperature variations that are closely related to the melt topology. For improved understanding of the essential front mechanisms and of the front topology, for the first time a deeper systematic analysis of the wave patterns was carried out. Seven geometrical shapes of bright or dark domains were distinguished and categorized, in particular bright peaks of three kinds and dark valleys, often inclined. Two categories describe special flow patterns at the top and bottom of the front. Dynamic and statistical analysis has revealed that the shapes often combine or separate from one category to another when streaming down the front. The brightness of wave peaks typically fluctuates during 20–50 μs. This variety of thermal wave observations is interpreted with respect to the accompanying surface topology of the melt and in turn for governing local mechanisms like absorption, shadowing, boiling, ablation pressure and melt acceleration. The findings can be of importance for understanding the key process mechanisms and for optimizing laser materials processing.

  1. Analysis of moving surface structures at a laser-induced boiling front

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matti, R.S.; Kaplan, A.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • For laser-induced boiling, molten metal surfaces show a moving wave pattern. • Categorization of seven kinds of shapes enabled systematic pattern analysis. • Bright shapes changed or disappeared, giving evidence for pulsating waves. • Interpretation on the topology and on the basic laser–melt interaction was made. - Abstract: Recently ultra-high speed imaging enabled to observe moving wave patterns on metal melts that experience laser-induced boiling. In laser materials processing a vertical laser-induced boiling front governs processes like keyhole laser welding, laser remote fusion cutting, laser drilling or laser ablation. The observed waves originate from temperature variations that are closely related to the melt topology. For improved understanding of the essential front mechanisms and of the front topology, for the first time a deeper systematic analysis of the wave patterns was carried out. Seven geometrical shapes of bright or dark domains were distinguished and categorized, in particular bright peaks of three kinds and dark valleys, often inclined. Two categories describe special flow patterns at the top and bottom of the front. Dynamic and statistical analysis has revealed that the shapes often combine or separate from one category to another when streaming down the front. The brightness of wave peaks typically fluctuates during 20–50 μs. This variety of thermal wave observations is interpreted with respect to the accompanying surface topology of the melt and in turn for governing local mechanisms like absorption, shadowing, boiling, ablation pressure and melt acceleration. The findings can be of importance for understanding the key process mechanisms and for optimizing laser materials processing

  2. Femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent solid materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, D.Z.; Sharafudeen, K.N.; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2016-01-01

    solved, especially concerning the interaction of strong, ultra-short electromagnetic pulses with matter, and also because potential advanced technologies will emerge due to the impressive capability of the intense femtosecond laser to create new material structures and hence functionalities. When......The interaction of intense femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials is a topic that has caused great interest of scientists over the past two decades. It will continue to be a fascinating field in the coming years. This is because many challenging fundamental problems have not been......–matter interaction, and fabricate various integrated micro-devices. In recent years we have witnessed exciting development in understanding and applying femtosecond laser induced phenomena in transparent materials. The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with transparent materials relies on non...

  3. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Refractive Surgery Procedures What Is Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)? LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Leer en Español: LASIK—Cirugía ocular con láser ... loss of close-up focusing power. How the LASIK procedure works LASIK is performed while the patient ...

  4. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong; Yan, Biao; Jiang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  5. Lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, regulates retinal endothelial cell function: Implication for treating ocular neovascular disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Ling-Feng; Yao, Jin; Wang, Xiao-Qun; Shan, Kun; Yang, Hong [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Yan, Biao, E-mail: yanbiao1982@hotmail.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Jiang, Qin, E-mail: jiangqin710@126.com [Eye Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); The Fourth School of Clinical Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China)

    2015-10-02

    Ocular angiogenesis is an important pathologic character of several ocular diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of ocular angiogenesis has great therapeutic value for treating these dieses. Here we show that lenalidomide, an anti-tumor drug, has great anti-angiogenic potential in ocular diseases. Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in normal and pathological condition, and inhibits VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation in vitro. Moreover, lenalidomide inhibits ocular angiogenesis in vivo through the reduction of angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression. Collectively, lenalidomide is a promising drug for treating ocular angiogenesis through its anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory property. - Highlights: • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell viability in vitro. • Lenalidomide inhibits retinal endothelial cell migration and tube formation. • Lenalidomide inhibits pathological ocular angiogenesis in vivo. • Lenalidomide inhibits angiogenesis- and inflammation-related protein expression.

  6. Correlation between grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shunchun; Dong, Meirong; Lu, Jidong; Li, Jun; Dong, Xuan

    2013-12-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) which is used traditionally as a spectrochemical analytical technique was employed to analyze the grade of pearlite spheroidization. Three 12Cr1MoV steel specimens with different grades of pearlite spheroidization were ablated to produce plasma by pulse laser at 266 nm. In order to determine the optimal temporal condition and plasma parameters for correlating the grade of pearlite spheroidization and laser induced spectra, a set of spectra at different delays were analyzed by the principal component analysis method. Then, the relationship between plasma temperature, intensity ratios of ionic to atomic lines and grade of pearlite spheroidization was studied. The analysis results show that the laser induced spectra of different grades of pearlite spheroidization can be readily identifiable by principal component analysis in the range of 271.941-289.672 nm with 1000 ns delay time. It is also found that a good agreement exists between the Fe ionic to atomic line ratios and the tensile strength, whereas there is no obvious difference in the plasma temperature. Therefore, LIBS may be applied not only as a spectrochemical analytical technique but also as a new way to estimate the grade of pearlite spheroidization.

  7. Finesse of transparent tissue cutting by ultrafast lasers at various wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Schuele, Georg; Palanker, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Transparent ocular tissues, such as the cornea and crystalline lens, can be ablated or dissected using short-pulse lasers. In refractive and cataract surgeries, the cornea, lens, and lens capsule can be cut by producing dielectric breakdown in the focus of a near-infrared (IR) femtosecond laser, which results in explosive vaporization of the interstitial water, causing mechanical rupture of the surrounding tissue. Here, we compare the texture of edges of lens capsule cut by femtosecond lasers with IR and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and explore differences in interactions of these lasers with biological molecules. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that a 400-nm laser is capable of producing very smooth cut edges compared to 800 or 1030 nm at a similar focusing angle. Using gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, we observe laser-induced nonlinear breakdown of proteins and polypeptides by 400-nm femtosecond pulses above and below the dielectric breakdown threshold. On the other hand, 800-nm femtosecond lasers do not produce significant dissociation even above the threshold of dielectric breakdown. However, despite this additional interaction of UV femtosecond laser with proteins, we determine that efficient cutting requires plasma-mediated bubble formation and that remarkably smooth edges are the result of reduced thresholds and smaller focal volume.

  8. Experimental TIPS with spiral Z-stents in swine with and without induced portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Saxon, Richard R.; Nishimine, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Norifumi; Uchida, Barry T.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the suitability of spiral Z-stents for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and the influence of portal hypertension on shunt patency in young swine. Methods. TIPS were established using spiral Z-stents in 14 domestic swine. In 7 animals, the portal venous pressure was normal; in the other 7, acute portal hypertension was induced by embolization of portal vein branches. Follow-up portal venography and histologic evaluations were done from 1 hr to 12 weeks after TIPS. Results. Follow-up transhepatic portal venograms showed progressive narrowing of the shunt, most priminent in the midportion of the tract. Ingrowth of liver parenchyma between the stent wires found after 3 weeks led to progressive shunt narrowing and shunt occlusion by 12 weeks. A pseudointima grew rapidly inside the stent, peaked in thickness around 4 weeks, and decreased later. Acutely created portal hypertension rapidly returned to normal and there was no difference in TIPS patency between the two groups of animals. Conclusion. Although the spiral Z-stent can be used as a device for creation of TIPS in patients with cirrhotic livers, it is associated with extensive liver ingrowth in swine that leads to rapid shunt occlusion. Portal hypertension was only transient in this model

  9. Boron- and iron-bearing molecules in laser-induced plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaft, M.; Nagli, L.; Eliezer, N.; Groisman, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Boron combines with alkali-earth elements, such as Ca, Mg, and Sr and with oxygen to form molecules in LIP of boron-bearing minerals with strong and characteristic band emission. It may be supposed that those bands are of CaBO{sub 2}, MgBO{sub 2} and SrBO{sub 2} type. Besides, emission of BO, BO{sub 2} and FeO is also detected. - Highlights: • We studied laser-induced breakdown spectra of B with Ca, Mg and Sr in air. • Emission of polyatomic molecules was found. • Molecules of FeO were found in laser-induced plasma in air.

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of Ocular Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, Igor V.; Sharifzadeh, Mohsen; Gellermann, Warner

    The optically transparent nature of the human eye has motivated numerous Raman studies aimed at the non-invasive optical probing of ocular tissue components critical to healthy vision. Investigations include the qualitative and quantitative detection of tissue-specific molecular constituents, compositional changes occurring with development of ocular pathology, and the detection and tracking of ocular drugs and nutritional supplements. Motivated by a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cataract formation in the aging human lens, a great deal of work has centered on the Raman detection of proteins and water content in the lens. Several protein groups and the hydroxyl response are readily detectable. Changes of protein compositions can be studied in excised noncataractous tissue versus aged tissue preparations as well as in tissue samples with artificially induced cataracts. Most of these studies are carried out in vitro using suitable animal models and conventional Raman techniques. Tissue water content plays an important role in optimum light transmission of the outermost transparent ocular structure, the cornea. Using confocal Raman spectroscopy techniques, it has been possible to non-invasively measure the water to protein ratio as a measure of hydration status and to track drug-induced changes of the hydration levels in the rabbit cornea at various depths. The aqueous humor, normally supplying nutrients to cornea and lens, has an advantageous anterior location for Raman studies. Increasing efforts are pursued to non-invasively detect the presence of glucose and therapeutic concentrations of antibiotic drugs in this medium. In retinal tissue, Raman spectroscopy proves to be an important tool for research into the causes of macular degeneration, the leading cause of irreversible vision disorders and blindness in the elderly. It has been possible to detect the spectral features of advanced glycation and advanced lipooxydation end products in

  11. Development of Laser-Induced Fluorescence Diagnostic for the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Moses; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Majeski, Richard; Startsev, Edward

    2005-01-01

    The Paul Trap Simulator Experiment (PTSX) is a cylindrical Paul trap whose purpose is to simulate the nonlinear dynamics of intense charged particle beam propagation in alternating-gradient magnetic transport systems. For the in-situ measurement of the transverse ion density profile in the PTSX device, which is essential for the study of beam mismatch and halo particle production, a laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic system is being developed. Instead of cesium, which has been used in the initial phase of the PTSX experiment, barium has been selected as the preferred ion for the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. The installation of the barium ion source and the characterization of the tunable dye laser system are discussed. The design of the collection optics with an intensified CCD camera system is also discussed. Finally, initial test results using the laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic will be presented.

  12. Rats with steroid-induced polycystic ovaries develop hypertension and increased sympathetic nervous system activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploj Karolina

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a complex endocrine and metabolic disorder associated with ovulatory dysfunction, abdominal obesity, hyperandrogenism, hypertension, and insulin resistance. Methods Our objectives in this study were (1 to estimate sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM activity by measuring mean systolic blood pressure (MSAP in rats with estradiol valerate (EV-induced PCO; (2 to estimate alpha1a and alpha2a adrenoceptor expression in a brain area thought to mediate central effects on MSAP regulation and in the adrenal medulla; (3 to assess hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis regulation by measuring adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH and corticosterone (CORT levels in response to novel-environment stress; and (4 to measure abdominal obesity, sex steroids, and insulin sensitivity. Results The PCO rats had significantly higher MSAP than controls, higher levels of alpha1a adrenoceptor mRNA in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN, and lower levels of alpha2a adrenoceptor mRNA in the PVN and adrenal medulla. After exposure to stress, PCO rats had higher ACTH and CORT levels. Plasma testosterone concentrations were lower in PCO rats, and no differences in insulin sensitivity or in the weight of intraabdominal fat depots were found. Conclusion Thus, rats with EV-induced PCO develop hypertension and increased sympathetic and HPA-axis activity without reduced insulin sensitivity, obesity, or hyperandrogenism. These findings may have implications for mechanisms underlying hypertension in PCOS.

  13. Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. August 2012 physics pp. 299–310. Calibration-free laser-induced ... for quantitative analysis of materials, illustrated by CF-LIBS applied to a ..... The authors are thankful to BRNS, DAE, Govt. of India for the financial support provided.

  14. Laser-induced stabilisation of the tympanic membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schacht, Sophie A. L.; Stahn, Patricia; Hinsberger, Marius; Hoetzer, Benjamin; Schick, Bernhard; Wenzel, Gentiana I.

    2017-07-01

    Repeated pathologies of the tympanic membrane (TM) decrease its tension inducing conductive hearing loss and adhesive processes up to cholesteatoma. Our results regarding the development of a laser based noninvasive procedure to strengthen the structure of the TM are herein presented.

  15. Comparison of topically applied flurbiprofen or bromfenac ophthalmic solution on post-operative ocular hypertension in canine patients following cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jennifer; English, Robert; Nadelstein, Brad; Weigt, Anne; Berdoulay, Andrew; Binder, Dan; Ngan, Esther

    2017-03-01

    To compare the prevalence and kinetics of ocular hypertension after routine cataract extraction when using a predominately COX-2 inhibitor (bromfenac) versus a predominately COX-1 inhibitor (flurbiprofen) in combination with a topical corticosteroid. Patients undergoing unilateral or bilateral cataract surgery were randomly assigned to receive flurbiprofen or bromfenac at the day of surgery and continued for 6 weeks postoperatively, along with topical neo poly dexamethasone. No systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications were administered before or after surgery. Intraocular pressure was monitored pre and postoperatively. When an IOP of >25 mmHg was detected, therapeutic intervention was performed. Eyes in both treatment groups showed a similar IOP profile with the highest mean IOP occurring two hours postsurgery and slowly declining during the next 6 weeks. However, eyes receiving bromfenac had a higher mean IOP at 2 h post-op (22.1 mmHg) than eyes receiving flurbiprofen (18.8 mmHg) and a slower decrease in IOP in the weeks after surgery. Over the course of the study, a higher percentage of eyes receiving bromfenac had therapy discontinued over concerns of elevated IOP compared to eyes receiving flurbiprofen (bromfenac 23.1% and flurbiprofen 9.8%). On average, the risk of having elevated intraocular pressure with bromfenac is 1.04 times higher than with flurbiprofen. Elevated postoperative IOP was observed in both treatment groups; however, bromfenac-treated eyes were more likely to require intervention for elevated IOP. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  16. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  17. [Hypertensive disorders during pregnancy: Cardiovascular long-term outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Alvarez, B; Martell-Claros, N; Abad-Cardiel, M; García-Donaire, J A

    Pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) induces maternal and fetal damage, but it can also be the beginning of future metabolic and vascular disorders. The relative risk of chronic hypertension after PIH is between 2.3 and 11, and the likelihood of subsequent development of type 2 diabetes is multiplied by 1.8. Women with prior preeclampsia/eclampsia have a twofold risk of stroke and a higher frequency of arrhythmias and hospitalization due to heart failure. Furthermore, a tenfold greater risk for long-term chronic kidney disease is observed as well. The relative risk of cardiovascular death is 2.1 times higher compared to the group without pregnancy-induced hypertension problems, although the risk is between 4 and 7 times higher in preterm birth associated with gestational hypertension or pre-existing hypertension The postpartum period is a great opportunity to intervene on lifestyle, obesity, make an early diagnosis of chronic hypertension and DM and provide the necessary treatments to prevent cardiovascular complications in women. Copyright © 2016 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary hypertension: role of alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Günther, Sven; Quarck, Rozenn; Chaumais, Marie-Camille; Dorfmüller, Peter; Antigny, Fabrice; Dumas, Sébastien J; Raymond, Nicolas; Lau, Edmund; Savale, Laurent; Jaïs, Xavier; Sitbon, Olivier; Simonneau, Gérald; Stenmark, Kurt; Cohen-Kaminsky, Sylvia; Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Perros, Frédéric

    2015-02-01

    Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary hypertension (PH) characterized by progressive obstruction of small pulmonary veins and a dismal prognosis. Limited case series have reported a possible association between different chemotherapeutic agents and PVOD. We evaluated the relationship between chemotherapeutic agents and PVOD. Cases of chemotherapy-induced PVOD from the French PH network and literature were reviewed. Consequences of chemotherapy exposure on the pulmonary vasculature and hemodynamics were investigated in three different animal models (mouse, rat, and rabbit). Thirty-seven cases of chemotherapy-associated PVOD were identified in the French PH network and systematic literature analysis. Exposure to alkylating agents was observed in 83.8% of cases, mostly represented by cyclophosphamide (43.2%). In three different animal models, cyclophosphamide was able to induce PH on the basis of hemodynamic, morphological, and biological parameters. In these models, histopathological assessment confirmed significant pulmonary venous involvement highly suggestive of PVOD. Together, clinical data and animal models demonstrated a plausible cause-effect relationship between alkylating agents and PVOD. Clinicians should be aware of this uncommon, but severe, pulmonary vascular complication of alkylating agents. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Drug-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension: a recent outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald Simonneau

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH is a rare disorder characterised by progressive obliteration of the pulmonary microvasculature resulting in elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and premature death. According to the current classification PAH can be associated with exposure to certain drugs or toxins, particularly to appetite suppressant intake drugs, such as aminorex, fenfluramine derivatives and benfluorex. These drugs have been confirmed to be risk factors for PAH and were withdrawn from the market. The supposed mechanism is an increase in serotonin levels, which was demonstrated to act as a growth factor for the pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Amphetamines, phentermine and mazindol were less frequently used, but are considered possible risk factors, for PAH. Dasatinib, dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor, used in the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukaemia was associated with cases of severe PAH, potentially in part reversible after dasatinib withdrawal. Recently, several studies have raised the issue of potential endothelial dysfunction that could be induced by interferon, and a few cases of PAH have been reported with interferon therapy. PAH remains a rare complication of these drugs, suggesting possible individual susceptibility, and further studies are needed to identify patients at risk of drug-induced PAH.

  20. Radiation-induced ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in patients with pituitary tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaphiades, Michael S; Spencer, Sharon A; Riley, Kristen; Francis, Courtney; Deitz, Luke; Kline, Lanning B

    2011-09-01

    Radiation therapy is often used in the treatment of pituitary tumor. Diplopia due to radiation damage to the ocular motor cranial nerves has been infrequently reported as a complication in this clinical setting. Retrospective case series of 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) with pituitary adenoma, all of whom developed diplopia following transsphenoidal resection of pituitary adenoma with subsequent radiation therapy. None had evidence of tumor involvement of the cavernous sinus. Five patients developed sixth nerve palsies, 3 unilateral and 2 bilateral, and in 1 patient, a sixth nerve palsy was preceded by a fourth cranial nerve palsy. One patient developed third nerve palsy. Five of the 6 patients had a growth hormone-secreting pituitary tumor with acromegaly. Following transsphenoidal surgery in all 6 patients (2 had 2 surgeries), 4 had 2 radiation treatments consisting of either radiosurgery (2 patients) or external beam radiation followed by radiosurgery (2 patients). Patients with pituitary tumors treated multiple times with various forms of radiation therapy are at risk to sustain ocular motor cranial nerve injury. The prevalence of acromegalic patients in this study reflects an aggressive attempt to salvage patients with recalcitrant growth hormone elevation and may place the patient at a greater risk for ocular motor cranial nerve damage.